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Sample records for borneo

  1. Taxonomic revision of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuu-Kuang, Soh

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-six species of Cinnamomum are recognised in Borneo. Seventeen species are endemic to Borneo. Fifteen species names are newly reduced to synonymy. The species nomenclature, description, distribution, ecology, vernacular names and uses are given.

  2. DINAMIKA BAHASA IBANIK PURBA DI PULAU BORNEO

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nur Latif, Dr., M.Hum.

    2014-01-01

    Kepulauan Borneo sememangnya kaya dengan kepelbagaian khazanah bahasa-bahasa Austronesia seperti kelompok bahasa Melayik, Ibanik, Bidayuhik, Kayanik, Rejang-Baram, Tamanik, Dusunik dan sebagainya (Rahim 2008: 15). Bahasa Ibanik merupakan antara sekian banyak cabang bahasa Austronesia di Borneo Barat dan bahasa ini tersebar dari hujung barat Sarawak disebelah utaranya hinggalah ke daerah utara di Kalimantan Barat, iaitu kira-kira 500 kilometer ke selatan dari Khatulistiwa. Dibahagian timur, ...

  3. The provenance of Borneo's enigmatic alluvial diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lloyd; Graham, Ian; Tanner, Dominique; Hall, Robert; Armstrong, Richard; Yaxley, Greg; Barron, Larry; Spencer, Lee; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2016-04-01

    Gem-quality diamonds occur in several alluvial deposits across central and southern Borneo. Borneo has been a known source of diamonds for centuries, but the location of their primary igneous source remains enigmatic. Numerous geological models have been proposed to explain the distribution of Borneo's diamonds. To assess these models, we used a variety of techniques to examine heavy minerals from Kalimantan's Cempaka paleoalluvial diamond deposit. This involved collecting U-Pb isotopic data, fission track and trace element geochemistry of zircon as well as major element geochemical data of spinels and morphological descriptions of zircon and diamond. Our results indicate that the Cempaka diamonds were likely derived from at least two sources, one which was relatively local and/or involved little reworking, and the other more distal recording several periods of reworking. The distal diamond source is interpreted to be diamond-bearing pipes that intruded the basement of a block that: (1) rifted from northwest Australia (East Java or SW Borneo) and the diamonds were recycled into its sedimentary cover, or: (2) were emplaced elsewhere (e.g. NW Australia) and transported to a block (e.g. East Java or SW Borneo). Both of these scenarios require the diamonds to be transported with the block when it rifted from NW Australia in the Late Jurassic. The 'local' diamonds could be associated with ophiolitic rocks that are exposed in the nearby Meratus Mountains, or could be diamondiferous diatremes associated with eroded Miocene high-K alkaline intrusions north of the Barito Basin. If this were the case, these intrusions would indicate that the lithosphere beneath SW Borneo is thick (~150 km or greater).

  4. En ny religion i Borneos regnskov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothstein, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    En feltarbejdsbaseret undersøgelse af religiøse forandringer blandt Borneos jægere og samlere, som påvirkes voldsomt og ødelæggende af hhv. tømmerdrift og kristen mission. Som reaktion på disse påvirkninger, udvikles nye religiøse forestillinger og ritualer....

  5. Borneo vortex and mesoscale convective rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, S.; Koh, T.-Y.; Teo, C.-K.

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated how the Borneo vortex develops over the equatorial South China Sea under cold surge conditions in December during the Asian winter monsoon. Composite analysis using reanalysis and satellite data sets has revealed that absolute vorticity and water vapour are transported by strong cold surges from upstream of the South China Sea to around the Equator. Rainfall is correspondingly enhanced over the equatorial South China Sea. A semi-idealized experiment reproduced the Borneo vortex over the equatorial South China Sea during a "perpetual" cold surge. The Borneo vortex is manifested as a meso-α cyclone with a comma-shaped rainband in the northeast sector of the cyclone. Vorticity budget analysis showed that the growth/maintenance of the meso-α cyclone was achieved mainly by the vortex stretching. This vortex stretching is due to the upward motion forced by the latent heat release around the cyclone centre. The comma-shaped rainband consists of clusters of meso-β-scale rainfall cells. The intense rainfall in the comma head (comma tail) is generated by the confluence of the warmer and wetter cyclonic easterly flow (cyclonic southeasterly flow) and the cooler and drier northeasterly surge in the northwestern (northeastern) sector of the cyclone. Intense upward motion and heavy rainfall resulted due to the low-level convergence and the favourable thermodynamic profile at the confluence zone. In particular, the convergence in the northwestern sector is responsible for maintenance of the meso-α cyclone system. At both meso-α and meso-β scales, the convergence is ultimately caused by the deviatoric strain in the confluence wind pattern but is significantly self-enhanced by the nonlinear dynamics.

  6. Two new species of Morinda (Rubiaceae) from Sumatra and Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suratman,

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Morinda from Sumatra and Borneo, M. lanuginosa and M. wongiana, are described and illustrated. The morphological comparison of the new taxa with similar species in the genus is also discussed.

  7. Forest fruit production is higher on Sumatra than on Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands.

  8. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

  9. A second species of Biplanispira from the Eocene of Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1938-01-01

    In 1928, when studying the genus Pellatispira 1), I found some sections of the foraminifer described below in a limestone from S.E. Borneo (no. 1446 B. 414). The foraminifer resembles Pellatispira in many respects, but the distal part of the test shows a different structure, consisting of a double a

  10. Cyclommatus squamosus, a new species of Lucanid from Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1892-01-01

    Years ago I received from his Excellency, the Ex-Governor General of Dutch India J. W. van Lansbercre, a lot of beetles from Sintang (Borneo), containing a. o. a male Cyclommatus of minor development, which I believed to belong to an uudescribed species. I abstained, however, from describing it for

  11. Four new species of the Melolonthid genus Apogonia from Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1905-01-01

    Closely allied to and strongly resembling A. abdominalis Rits., from Central Borneo (Notes Leyd. Mus. vol. XVIII, p. 26), but somewhat smaller, the punctuation somewhat stronger, the front margin of the clypeus slightly emarginate, the sides of the prothorax more narrowly edged, the pygidium provide

  12. Conservation of the Proboscis Monkey and the Orangutan in Borneo: Comparative Issues and Economic Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Clement A. Tisdell; Swarna Nantha, Hemanath

    2007-01-01

    Concentrating on their presence in Borneo, the ecology and conservation of two large Southeast Asian primates, the orangutan Pongo pymaeus and the proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus are reviewed. The former species occurs only in Borneo and Sumatra and the latter only in Borneo. The comparative threats facing these two endangered primates and their approximate numbers in the wild are put into perspective. The long-term survival of both species is adversely affected by the degradation and conve...

  13. Borneo vortex and meso-scale convective rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koseki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how the Borneo vortex develops over the equatorial South China Sea under cold surge conditions in December during the Asian winter monsoon. Composite analysis using reanalysis and satellite datasets has revealed that absolute vorticity and water vapour are transported by strong cold surges from upstream of the South China Sea to around the equator. Rainfall is correspondingly enhanced over the equatorial South China Sea. A semi-idealized experiment reproduced the Borneo vortex over the equatorial South China Sea during a "perpetual" cold surge. The Borneo vortex is manifested as a meso-α cyclone with a comma-shaped rainband in the northeast sector of the cyclone. Vorticity budget analysis showed that the growth of the meso-α cyclone was achieved mainly by vortex stretching. The comma-shaped rainband consists of clusters of meso-β scale rainfall patches. The warm and wet cyclonic southeasterly flow meets with the cold and dry northeasterly surge forming a confluence front in the northeastern sector of the cyclone. Intense upward motion and heavy rainfall result both due to the low-level convergence and the favourable thermodynamic profile at the confluence front. At both meso-α and meso-β scales, the convergence is ultimately caused by the deviatoric strain in the confluence wind pattern but is much enhanced by nonlinear self-enhancement dynamics.

  14. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L A Gaveau

    Full Text Available The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2 of Borneo's area (737,188 km2 was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2% in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%. We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km-2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km-2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8% of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo.

  15. Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

  16. Borneo Vortex and Meso-scale Convective Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, T. Y.; Koseki, S.; Teo, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated how the Borneo vortex develops over the equatorial South China Sea under cold surge conditions in December during the Asian winter monsoon. Composite analysis using reanalysis and satellite datasets has revealed that absolute vorticity and water vapour are transported by strong cold surges from upstream of the South China Sea to around the equator. Rainfall is correspondingly enhanced over the equatorial South China Sea. A semi-idealized experiment reproduced the Borneo vortex over the equatorial South China Sea during a perpetual cold surge. The Borneo vortex is manifested as a meso-alpha cyclone with a comma-shaped rainband in the northeast sector of the cyclone. Vorticity budget analysis showed that the growth/maintenance of the meso-alpha cyclone was achieved mainly by the vortex stretching. This vortex stretching is due to the upward motion forced by the latent heat release around the cyclone centre. The comma-shaped rainband consists of clusters of meso-beta scale rainfall cells. The intense rainfall in the comma-head (comma-tail) is generated by the confluence of the warmer and wetter cyclonic easterly flow (cyclonic southeasterly flow) and the cooler and drier northeasterly surge in the northwestern (northeastern) sector of the cyclone. Intense upward motion and heavy rainfall resulted due to the low-level convergence and the favourable thermodynamic profile at the confluence zone. In particular, the convergence in the northwestern sector is responsible for maintenance of the meso-alpha cyclone system. At both meso-alpha and meso-beta scales, the convergence is ultimately caused by the deviatoric strain in the confluence wind pattern but is significantly self-enhanced by the nonlinear dynamics. Reference: Koseki, S., T.-Y. Koh and C.-K. Teo (2014), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 4539-4562, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4539-2014, 2014.

  17. Review: Davidson, Jamie S.: From Rebellion to Riots: Collective Violence on Indonesian Borneo (2008 Buchbesprechung: Davidson, Jamie S.: From Rebellion to Riots: Collective Violence on Indonesian Borneo (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Chmielewska

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Davidson, Jamie S. (2008, From Rebellion to Riots: Collective Violence on Indonesian Borneo Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 13-978-0-299-22580-3, 312 pages Besprechung der Monographie: Davidson, Jamie S. (2008, From Rebellion to Riots: Collective Violence on Indonesian Borneo Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 13-978-0-299-22580-3, 312 Seiten

  18. Charles Bonnet syndrome in a Borneo Iban tribesman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, R; Yasin, Y

    2009-01-01

    A 31-year-old man Charles Bonnet syndrome is a condition usually seen in the visually-impaired elderly, causing complex visual hallucinations in the absence of any delirium, dementia or psychiatric illness. We report an elderly man, with blindness in one eye and a cataract in the other, from the Iban tribe, which is indigenous to the island of Borneo. He presented with a three-week history of vivid hallucinations of burglars intruding on his living quarters in the longhouse where he lived.

  19. People's perceptions about the importance of forests on Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available We ascertained villagers' perceptions about the importance of forests for their livelihoods and health through 1,837 reliably answered interviews of mostly male respondents from 185 villages in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo. Variation in these perceptions related to several environmental and social variables, as shown in classification and regression analyses. Overall patterns indicated that forest use and cultural values are highest among people on Borneo who live close to remaining forest, and especially among older Christian residents. Support for forest clearing depended strongly on the scale at which deforestation occurs. Deforestation for small-scale agriculture was generally considered to be positive because it directly benefits people's welfare. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm or acacia plantations, on the other hand, appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have overall negative impacts on them, but with people in some areas considering the benefits to outweigh the costs. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Our study is unique in its geographic and trans-national scale. Our findings enable the development of maps of forest use and perceptions that could inform land use planning at a range of scales. Incorporating perspectives such as these could significantly reduce conflict over forest resources and ultimately result in more equitable development processes.

  20. Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P; Pierron, Denis; Purnomo, Gludhug A; Adelaar, Alexander; Kivisild, Toomas; Letellier, Thierry; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Malagasy genetic diversity results from an exceptional protoglobalization process that took place over a thousand years ago across the Indian Ocean. Previous efforts to locate the Asian origin of Malagasy highlighted Borneo broadly as a potential source, but so far no firm source populations were identified. Here, we have generated genome-wide data from two Southeast Borneo populations, the Banjar and the Ngaju, together with published data from populations across the Indian Ocean region. We find strong support for an origin of the Asian ancestry of Malagasy among the Banjar. This group emerged from the long-standing presence of a Malay Empire trading post in Southeast Borneo, which favored admixture between the Malay and an autochthonous Borneo group, the Ma'anyan. Reconciling genetic, historical, and linguistic data, we show that the Banjar, in Malay-led voyages, were the most probable Asian source among the analyzed groups in the founding of the Malagasy gene pool. PMID:27381999

  1. Ancestors in Borneo Societies. Death, Transformation and Social Immortality, Pascal Couderc & Kenneth Sillander, ed.

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    Antonio Guerreiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume Ancestors in Borneo Societies, edited by P. Couderc and K. Sillander assembles a series of ethnographically grounded studies. This book, stemming for a panel organized at the 8th Borneo Research Council Biennal Conference in Kuching, Sarawak (July 2006, adresses important questions relating to the ancestor cult and generally the conceptualization of ancestry on the island. As the subtitle to the book indicates (Death, Transformation and Social Immortality, the contributions explo...

  2. Ancestors in Borneo Societies. Death, Transformation and Social Immortality, Pascal Couderc & Kenneth Sillander, ed.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Guerreiro

    2013-01-01

    The volume Ancestors in Borneo Societies, edited by P. Couderc and K. Sillander assembles a series of ethnographically grounded studies. This book, stemming for a panel organized at the 8th Borneo Research Council Biennal Conference in Kuching, Sarawak (July 2006), adresses important questions relating to the ancestor cult and generally the conceptualization of ancestry on the island. As the subtitle to the book indicates (Death, Transformation and Social Immortality), the contributions explo...

  3. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  4. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen, M. M.; Felecia, C.; Reagan, E. L.; Kasing, A.; Lesley, M.; Toh, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture's surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n = 20), while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n = 90). The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n = 94) which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading.

  5. Studying Linguistic and Cultural Contact in Borneo: Prospects and Challenges

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    Antonia Soriente

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the variegated landscape of languages and cultures of Borneo, the study of languages is a powerful tool to shed light on the intricate history of relations that has long been obscured by the polarization between ‘Dayak’ and ‘Malay’. This article looks at some of the features of Lebu’ Kulit Kenyah, Penan Benalui, Punan Tubu’ and Ma’ Pnaan (Punan Malinau/Segah languages to clarify the linguistic and cultural affiliations among groups that were otherwise lumped together in vague classifications. It demonstrates what is to follow: according to a number of phonological, morphological and lexical evidence, and other historical evidence, Lebu’ Kulit has to be listed among the Kayanic languages. Penan Benalui, like the other Penan languages, is not a Kenyah language, whereas Punan Tubu’, despite the alleged cultural and social similarity with other Punan groups, cannot be classified within the Penan branch nor with other Punan languages. Ma’ Pnaan or Punan Malinau/Segah is not a Punan language and is linguistically classified within the Kayanic branch of the Kayan-Kenyah subgroup.

  6. Alternative futures for Borneo show the value of integrating economic and conservation targets across borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runting, Rebecca K; Meijaard, Erik; Abram, Nicola K; Wells, Jessie A; Gaveau, David L A; Ancrenaz, Marc; Posssingham, Hugh P; Wich, Serge A; Ardiansyah, Fitrian; Gumal, Melvin T; Ambu, Laurentius N; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2015-01-01

    Balancing economic development with international commitments to protect biodiversity is a global challenge. Achieving this balance requires an understanding of the possible consequences of alternative future scenarios for a range of stakeholders. We employ an integrated economic and environmental planning approach to evaluate four alternative futures for the mega-diverse island of Borneo. We show what could be achieved if the three national jurisdictions of Borneo coordinate efforts to achieve their public policy targets and allow a partial reallocation of planned land uses. We reveal the potential for Borneo to simultaneously retain ∼50% of its land as forests, protect adequate habitat for the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis), and achieve an opportunity cost saving of over US$43 billion. Such coordination would depend on enhanced information sharing and reforms to land-use planning, which could be supported by the increasingly international nature of economies and conservation efforts. PMID:25871635

  7. Seasonal Forecasting of Fires across Southern Borneo, 1997-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, Allan; Field, Robert; Kaiser, Johannes; Langner, Andreas; Moore, Jonathan; Pappenberger, Florian; Siegert, Florian; Weber, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    several studies using historical data have established negative relationships between fires and antecedent rainfall, and/or positive relationships between fires and deforestation in regions affected by El Nino, comparatively little work has attempted to predict fires and emissions in such regions. Ensemble seasonal climate forecasts issued with several months lead-time have been applied to support risk assessment systems in many fields, notably agricultural production and natural disaster management of flooding, heat waves, drought and fire. The USA, for example, has a long-standing seasonal fire danger prediction system. Fire danger monitoring systems have been operating in Indonesia for over a decade, but, as of yet, no fire danger prediction systems exist. Given the effort required to mobilise suppression and prevention measures in Indonesia, one could argue that high fire danger periods must be anticipated months in advance for mitigation and response measures to be effective. To address this need, the goal of our work was to examine the utility of seasonal rainfall forecasts in predicting severe fires in Indonesia more than one month in advance, using southern Borneo (comprising the bulk of Kalimantan) as a case study. Here we present the results of comparing seasonal forecasts of monthly rainfall from ECMWF's System 4 against i) observed rainfall (GPCP), and ii) burnt area and deforestation (MODIS, AVHRR and Landsat) across southern Borneo for the period 1997-2010. Our results demonstrate the utility of using ECMWF's seasonal climate forecasts for predicting fire activity in the region. Potential applications include improved fire mitigation and responsiveness, and improved risk assessments of biodiversity and carbon losses through fire. These are important considerations for forest protection programmes (e.g. REDD+), forest carbon markets and forest (re)insurance enterprises.

  8. Water Isotope Variability Across Individual Precipitation Events in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, C.; Moerman, J. W.; Cobb, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rainwater (measured as δ18O and δD) provides vital information about current hydrological dynamics, and forms the basis for many paleoclimate reconstructions of hydroclimate variability. However, many factors - both local and remote - govern water isotope fractionation, complicating the interpretation of water isotope records. While Raleigh distillation serves as a key first-order driver of the well-noted "amount effect", post-condensation evaporative processes are an important influence on intra-event isotope variations (e.g. Moerman, et al. 2013). To further resolve the processes driving this variability, rainwater isotopes from Gunung Mulu National Park in northern Borneo (4°N, 115 °E) were analyzed at one-minute intervals across nine rain events in 2012. To assess the influence of large-scale, remote fractionation processes versus those that act locally, our intra-event time series was compared to daily-resolved isotope records over the same time interval. We quantify a large range of water isotopic compositions over the sampling period (-13.1‰ to 0.2‰ in δ18O and -88.3‰ to -1.2‰ in δD). There is appreciable evidence for evaporative enrichment at our site, with δ18O vs. δD slopes significantly less than eight - the slope of the Global Meteoric Water Line. Large differences in the shape of the intra-event profile, ranging from monotonically increasing to "V-shaped" (e.g. Celle-Jeanton, et al. 2004) to monotonically decreasing isotopic values indicate that different precipitation regimes have a profound impact on water isotope evolution through a precipitation event. As such, we use a suite of meteorological data including in-situ observations, satellite imagery, model reanalysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and NOAA HYSPLIT water vapor back-trajectories to provide an interpretive framework for the observed intra-event isotopic variability. Our study

  9. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works

  10. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-05-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been

  11. On the clavarioid Ramaria stricta (Fr.) Quél. in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corner, E.J.H.

    1976-01-01

    I recorded this species from Mt Kinabalu, North Borneo, in typical form and as var. concolor (Corner, 1970: 259). One copious collection of var. stricta, namely RSNB 5742, I distributed to several herbaria. The fruit-bodies in this case had grown in large numbers, in places almost caespitose, along

  12. The Banana Tree at the Gate: A History of Marginal Peoples and Global Markets in Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Review of The Banana Tree at the Gate: A History of Marginal Peoples and Global Markets in Borneo. Michael R. Dove. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011. Xix, 332 pp. Illus. Bibliography, indexes. ISBN 978‐0‐300‐15321‐7 (hardcover). $55.00.

  13. On probably young miocene fossils from the coal concession Batoe Panggal, near Tenggarong (Samarinda), Eastern Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1950-01-01

    In the collections of the Leyden Geological Museum is a set of fossiliferous clay-stones which was long ago collected by the mining engineer Hulshoff-Pol in the coal quarries of Batoe Panggal 1), Eastern Borneo. He presented the collection in 1902 to Dr M. Schmidt, who at that time was making geolog

  14. Systematic and Faunistic remarks on Birds from Borneo and Java, with new records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper I have collected notes on a number of birds from Java and Borneo, which have accumulated over the past seven years as a by-product of other studies rather than as a result of directed research in our collections. Ardea cinerea altirostris subspecies nova Diagnosis. — Similar in plumage

  15. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development. PMID:27605501

  16. A global model study of the impact of land-use change in Borneo on atmospheric composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Warwick

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a high resolution version of the Cambridge p-TOMCAT chemical transport model is used, along with measurement data from the 2008 NERC-funded Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3 project, to examine the potential impact of the expansion of oil palm in Borneo on atmospheric composition. Several model emission scenarios are run for the OP3 measurement period, incorporating emissions from both global datasets and local flux measurements. Using the OP3 observed isoprene fluxes and OH recycling chemistry in p-TOMCAT substantially improves the comparison between modelled and observed isoprene and OH concentrations relative to using MEGAN isoprene emissions without OH recycling. However, a similar improvement was also achieved without using HOx recycling, by fixing boundary layer isoprene concentrations over Borneo to follow the OP3 observations. An extreme hypothetical future scenario, in which all of Borneo is converted to oil palm plantation, assessed the sensitivity of the model to changes in isoprene and NOx emissions associated with land-use change. This scenario suggested a 70% upper limit on surface ozone increases resulting from land-use change on Borneo, excluding the impact of future changes in emissions elsewhere. Although the largest changes in this scenario occurred directly over Borneo, the model also calculated notable regional changes of O3, OH and other species downwind of Borneo and in the free troposphere.

  17. A note on the occurrence of a crayback stalagmite at Niah Caves, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crayback stalagmites have mainly been reported from New South Wales, Australia. Here we document a small crayback in the entrance of Painted Cave (Kain Hitam, part of the Niah Caves complex in Sarawak, Borneo. Measuring some 65 cm in length and 18 cm in height, this deposit is elongate in the direction of the dominant wind and thus oriented towards the natural tunnel entrance. It shows the classic humpbacked long profile, made up of small transverse segments or plates, in this case the tail extending towards the entrance. The dark blue-green colour down the centre suggests that cyanobacterial growth follows the track of the wind-deflected roof drip. The dry silty cave sediment provides material for accretion onto the biological mat. This is the only example known from Borneo and one of the very few known from outside of Australia.

  18. Borneo: a quantitative analysis of botanical richness, endemicity and floristic regions based on herbarium records

    OpenAIRE

    Raes, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Based on the digitized herbarium records housed at the National Herbarium of the Netherlands I developed high spatial resolution patterns of Borneo's botanical richness, endemicity, and the floristic regions. The patterns are derived from species distribution models which predict a species occurrence based on the identified relationships between species recorded presences and the ecological circumstances at those localities. A new statistical method was developed to test the species distribut...

  19. Baseline coral disease surveys within three marine parks in Sabah, Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jennifer; Sweet, Michael J.; Wood, Elizabeth; Bythell, John

    2015-01-01

    Two of the most significant threats to coral reefs worldwide are bleaching and disease. However, there has been a scarcity of research on coral disease in South-East Asia, despite the high biodiversity and the strong dependence of local communities on the reefs in the region. This study provides baseline data on coral disease frequencies within three national parks in Sabah, Borneo, which exhibit different levels of human impacts and management histories. High mean coral cover (55%) and varia...

  20. Two new subspecies of Lasianthus inodorus (Rubiaceae) from Kinabalu, Borneo, and their biogeographical implication

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hua

    2001-01-01

    Two populations from Mount Kinabalu, Borneo, are recognised as two new subspecies of Lasianthus inodorus Blume (Rubiaceae), which occurs in montane habitats in mainland Southeast Asia, Sumatra and Java. The species and its subspecies are considered to compose a particular taxonomic group in the genus. Ecology and biogeography of the species group are discussed with the historical explanation of the tectonic history of Cenozoic Southeast Asia. The example strongly supports the concept of flori...

  1. Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins in Borneo: A Review of Current Knowledge with Emphasis on Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Gianna; Zulkifli Poh, Anna Norliza; Peter, Cindy; Porter, Lindsay; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are documented from various locations along Borneo's coast, including three sites in Sarawak, Malaysia, three sites in Sabah, Malaysia, three locations in Kalimantan, Indonesia and the limited coastal waters of the Sultanate of Brunei. Observations in all these areas indicate a similar external morphology, which seems to fall somewhere between that documented for Chinese populations known as S. chinensis, and that of Sousa sahulensis in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Sightings occur in shallow nearshore waters, often near estuaries and river mouths, and associations with Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) are frequently documented. Population estimates exist for only two locations and sightings information throughout Borneo indicates that frequency of occurrence is rare and group size is usually small. Threats from fisheries by-catch and coastal development are present in many locations and there are concerns over the ability of these small and fragmented populations to survive. The conservation and taxonomic status of humpback dolphins in Borneo remain unclear, and there are intriguing questions as to where these populations fit in our evolving understanding of the taxonomy of the genus.

  2. Contribution of the Heart of Borneo (HoB initiative towards botanical exploration in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Sabran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Heart of   Borneo (HoB declaration is a conservation agreement initiated by WWF and signed by three countries, i.e., Brunei       Darussalam, Indonesia and Malaysia in Bali, Indonesia on 12th February 2007 to protect more than 23 million hectares of forested region on Borneo Island. These forested areas could be well protected when conservation management plan is in place. One of the crucial activities to facilitate the planning and formulation of conservation plan is to conduct  scientific expeditions that include botanical exploration. The primary objective of the expedition is to identify the key conservation targets within the forest reserves. For the past five years, several expeditions have been conducted by the Sabah Forestry Department under the auspices of the HoB project to explore various forest reserves with conservation issues within the Heart of Borneo area. This paper will present the findings which include plant richness, endemism and plant conservation status in each forest reserves that has been explored. 

  3. Two new species of Bungona Harker, 1957 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Borneo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marle, Pierre; Salles, Frederico F; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Bungona, belonging to the subgenera Chopralla Waltz & McCafferty, 1987 and Centroptella Braasch & Soldán, 1980, are described based on larvae from Kalimantan (Borneo, Indonesia). Bungona (Centroptella) papilionodes n. sp. is the third species described for the subgenus. It can be distinguished from Bungona (Centroptella) longisetosa (Braasch & Soldán, 1980) and Bungona (Centroptella) soldani (Müller-Liebenau, 1983) by the length of the maxillary palp, the presence or absence of an additional small denticle on the lateral margin of the distal incisor, and the spination of the paraproct. This new report of the subgenus greatly increases its geographic range of distribution, as it was known only from Sri-Lanka and China. Bungona (Chopralla) bintang n. sp. is the seventh species described for the subgenus Chopralla and the second described from Borneo. It differs from others species of the subgenus and especially from Bungona (Chopralla) pusilla (Müller-Liebenau, 1984) (Borneo) by the combination of lacking hindwing pads, the particular spination of distal margins of tergites, and the shape of the maxillary palp. The two new species fit into the recently revised concepts of Chopralla and Centroptella and confirm the characters used to support these taxa as valid subgenera. PMID:27394336

  4. Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yunwei; LING Zheng; CHEN Changlin

    2015-01-01

    Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated by using satellite data, climatological temperature and salinity fields and reanalysis data. The upwelling forms in Decem-ber, matures in January, starts to decay in February and almost disappears in March. Both Ekman trans-port induced by the alongshore winter monsoon and Ekman pumping due to orographic wind stress curl are favorable for the upwelling. Transport estimates demonstrate that the month-to-month variability of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping are both consistent with that of winter coastal upwelling, but Ek-man transport is two times larger than Ekman pumping in January and February. Under the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the upwelling shows remarkable interannual variability: during winter of El Niño (La Niña) years, an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) wind anomaly is established in the SCS, which behaves a northeasterly (southwesterly) anomaly and a positive (negative) wind stress curl anomaly off the north-west Borneo coast, enhancing (reducing) the upwelling and causing anomalous surface cooling (warming) and higher (lower) chlorophyll concentration. The sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) associated with ENSO off the northwest Borneo coast has an opposite phase to that off southeast Vietnam, resulting in a SSTA seesaw pattern in the southern SCS in winter.

  5. Active tectonic deformation along rejuvenated faults in tropical Borneo: Inferences obtained from tectono-geomorphic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Manoj Joseph; Menier, David; Siddiqui, Numair; Kumar, Shashi Gaurav; Authemayou, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The island of Borneo is enveloped by tropical rainforests and hostile terrain characterized by high denudation rates. Owing to such conditions, studies pertaining to neotectonics and consequent geomorphic expressions with regard to surface processes and landscape evolution are inadequately constrained. Here we demonstrate the first systematic tectono-geomorphic evaluation of north Borneo through quantitative and qualitative morphotectonic analysis at sub-catchment scale, for two large drainage basins located in Sarawak: the Rajang and Baram basins. The extraction of morphometric parameters utilizing digital elevation models arranged within a GIS environment focuses on hypsometric curve analysis, distribution of hypsometric integrals through spatial autocorrelation statistics, relative uplift values, the asymmetry factor and the normalized channel steepness index. Hypsometric analysis suggests a young topography adjusting to changes in tectonic boundary conditions. Autocorrelation statistics show clusters of high values of hypsometric integrals as prominent hotspots that are associated with less eroded, young topography situated in the fold and thrust belts of the Interior Highlands of Borneo. High channel steepness and gradients (> 200 m0.9) are observed in zones corresponding to the hotspots. Relative uplift values reveal the presence of tectonically uplifted blocks together with relatively subsided or lesser uplifted zones along known faults. Sub-catchments of both basins display asymmetry indicating tectonic tilting. Stream longitudinal profiles demonstrate the presence of anomalies in the form of knickzones without apparent lithological controls along their channel reaches. Surfaces represented by cold spots of low HI values and low channel gradients observed in the high elevation headwaters of both basins are linked to isolated erosional planation surfaces that could be remnants of piracy processes. The implication of our results is that Borneo experiences

  6. A note on the occurrence of a crayback stalagmite at Niah Caves, Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg Joyce; McFarlane Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    Crayback stalagmites have mainly been reported from New South Wales, Australia. Here we document a small crayback in the entrance of Painted Cave (Kain Hitam), part of the Niah Caves complex in Sarawak, Borneo. Measuring some 65 cm in length and 18 cm in height, this deposit is elongate in the direction of the dominant wind and thus oriented towards the natural tunnel entrance. It shows the classic humpbacked long profile, made up of small transverse segments or plates, in this case the tail ...

  7. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak. PMID:23665723

  8. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.

  9. Evading Colonial Authority. Rebels and Outlaws in the Borderlands of Dutch West Borneo 1850s–1920s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    inhabiting these edges of states further seem especially resistant towards officialdom through their engagement in law bending practices and a heightened sense of autonomy. This paper examines these dynamics as they unravel on the island of Borneo during the Dutch colonial administration in the mid...... nineteenth century and thus aims to contribute to the growing historiography of Southeast Asian borderlands and the more localized dynamics of state formation. By contrasting local Iban narratives with colonial records in the border regency of Boven-Kapoeas in Dutch West Borneo I show how renowned rebel...

  10. Diversity of Begonia (Begoniaceae in Borneo – how many species are there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 126 species are currently named and described from Borneo (Brunei - 16 species, Kalimantan – 5 species, Sabah – 41 species and Sarawak – 72 species. However, based on our survey of the Begonia collection in the Sarawak Herbarium, the un-named taxa (about 110 species significantly outnumber the 72-named species. The situation is probably the same for Sabah, so with many more new species than the 41 named ones at a conservative estimate the Sabah Begonia flora can be expected to exceed 100 species. For Kalimantan (5 named species, the total number of un-named species is likely to be even higher considering that Kalimantan occupies a  larger land area, its begonia-rich mountains and limestone areas are hardly collected, and the Begonia flora has hardly been studied at all. We can therefore expect the Begonia flora of Borneo to exceed 600 species. In view of the high level of narrow endemism (80% of species are known from a single locality, expeditions to unexplored areas are  necessary to document, in particular, areas that are experiencing irreversible land-use change. Alpha-taxonomy on a large scale is needed to tackle the backlog of literally hundreds of new undescribed species. 

  11. Extreme differences in forest degradation in Borneo: comparing practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Bryan

    Full Text Available The Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak are global hotspots of forest loss and degradation due to timber and oil palm industries; however, the rates and patterns of change have remained poorly measured by conventional field or satellite approaches. Using 30 m resolution optical imagery acquired since 1990, forest cover and logging roads were mapped throughout Malaysian Borneo and Brunei using the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System. We uncovered ∼364,000 km of roads constructed through the forests of this region. We estimated that in 2009 there were at most 45,400 km(2 of intact forest ecosystems in Malaysian Borneo and Brunei. Critically, we found that nearly 80% of the land surface of Sabah and Sarawak was impacted by previously undocumented, high-impact logging or clearing operations from 1990 to 2009. This contrasted strongly with neighbouring Brunei, where 54% of the land area remained covered by unlogged forest. Overall, only 8% and 3% of land area in Sabah and Sarawak, respectively, was covered by intact forests under designated protected areas. Our assessment shows that very few forest ecosystems remain intact in Sabah or Sarawak, but that Brunei, by largely excluding industrial logging from its borders, has been comparatively successful in protecting its forests.

  12. Do Anthropogenic Dark Earths Occur in the Interior of Borneo? Some Initial Observations from East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meine van Noordwijk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic soils of the Amazon Basin (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata reveal that pre-Colombian peoples made lasting improvements in the agricultural potential of nutrient-poor soils. Some have argued that applying similar techniques could improve agriculture over much of the humid tropics, enhancing local livelihoods and food security, while also sequestering large quantities of carbon to mitigate climate change. Here, we present preliminary evidence for Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADEs in tropical Asia. Our surveys in East Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo identified several sites where soils possess an anthropogenic development and context similar in several respects to the Amazon’s ADEs. Similarities include riverside locations, presence of useful fruit trees, spatial extent as well as soil characteristics such as dark color, high carbon content (in some cases, high phosphorus levels, and improved apparent fertility in comparison to neighboring soils. Local people value these soils for cultivation but are unaware of their origins. We discuss these soils in the context of local history and land-use and identify numerous unknowns. Incomplete biomass burning appears key to these modified soils. More study is required to clarify soil transformations in Borneo and to determine under what circumstances such soil improvements might remain ongoing.

  13. The Paleo-Orientations of Northwestern Borneo and Adjacent South China Sea Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Tjia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i2.136Limited paleomagnetic data from West Kalimantan and southwestern Sarawak appear to indicate counter-clockwise (CCW rotation of over 50 degrees during Cenozoic. On the other hand, similar studies from Sabah show conflicting results in terms of paleo-positions. This CCW information and other plate tectonic considerations have formed the base of Southeast Asia’s plate reconstructions that have seen print in a number of updated versions. The existing publications on extensive field and exploration data, including geological stress fields from wellbore breakouts, on northwestern Borneo and basins of South China Sea have not been taken into account. The latter wealth of information already established that the region under discussion consists of a mosaic-like assemblage of diverse tectono-stratigraphic terranes, each with separate tectonic development. Stress fields changed in different ways in the different terranes indicating definitively that regional, progressive CCW rotation of Borneo is not possible.

  14. A study of the impact of land-use change in Borneo on atmospheric composition using a global model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Warwick

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we use a high resolution version of the Cambridge p-TOMCAT model, along with data collected during the 2008 NERC-funded Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3 project, to examine the potential impact of the expansion of oil palm in Borneo on air quality and atmospheric composition. Several model emission scenarios are run for the OP3 measurement period, incorporating emissions from both global datasets and local flux measurements. Isoprene fluxes observed at a forest site during OP3 were considerably less than fluxes calculated using the MEGAN model. Incorporating the observed isoprene fluxes into p-TOMCAT substantially improved the comparison between modelled and observed isoprene surface mixing ratios and OH concentrations relative to using the MEGAN emissions. If both observed isoprene fluxes and HOx recycling chemistry were included, the ability of the model to capture diurnal variations in isoprene and OH was further improved. However, a similar improvement was also achieved using a~standard chemical mechanism without HOx recycling, by fixing boundary layer isoprene concentrations over Borneo to follow the OP3 observations. Further model simulations, considering an extreme scenario with all of Borneo converted to oil palm plantation, were run to determine the maximum atmospheric impact of land use change in Borneo. In these simulations, the level of nitrogen oxides was found to be critical. If only isoprene emissions from oil palm are considered, then large scale conversion to oil palm produced a decrease in monthly mean surface ozone of up to ~20%. However, if related changes in NOx emissions from fertilisation, industrial processing and transport are also included then ozone increases of up to ~70% were calculated. Although the largest changes occurred locally, the model also calculated significant regional changes of O3, OH and other species downwind of Borneo and in the free troposphere.

  15. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified – one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS. Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.. As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l. and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l., consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three. This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is

  16. Primary seed shadow generated by gibbons in the rain forests of Barito Ulu, central Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, K R

    2000-09-01

    Gibbons are one of the main frugivores in the forests of Southeast Asia, and consequently have long been considered to be good seed dispersers. This is the first study in which the primary seed shadow they create by their ranging and foraging activities is evaluated in detail. I studied two gibbon groups over 12 months in lowland dipterocarp forest in central Borneo. The gibbons dispersed up to 81% of the species they consumed and destroyed the seeds of only 12%. Fruit with elongated seeds (up to 20 mm wide) were more likely to be dispersed than round seeds. Considering that the survival rate of seeds in the forest to one year was 8%, the gibbons effectively dispersed 13 seedlings ha(-1) group(-1) year(-1). Their effect on germination was very variable, although most species did eventually germinate. Most seeds were deposited along their major ranging routes and close to or under feeding trees. PMID:10993135

  17. Preliminary Cluster Analysis For Several Representatives Of Genus Kerivoula (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Abdullah, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to use cluster analysis on morphometric parameters within the genus Kerivoula to produce a dendrogram and to determine the suitability of this method to describe the relationship among species within this genus. A total of 15 adult male individuals from genus Kerivoula taken from sampling trips around Borneo and specimens kept at the zoological museum of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak were examined. A total of 27 characters using dental, skull and external body measurements were recorded. Clustering analysis illustrated the grouping and morphometric relationships between the species of this genus. It has clearly separated each species from each other despite the overlapping of measurements of some species within the genus. Cluster analysis provides an alternative approach to make a preliminary identification of a species.

  18. Morphological and phylogenetic investigations for several cryptic ant-plants found in Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) from Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Sarath, Emma; Okada, Hiroshi; Ezaki, Kazune; Darnaedi, Dedy; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Soejima, Akiko

    2016-07-01

    A tropical small tree, Callicarpa saccata, is known to have a symbiotic relationship with ants. It has sac-like structures at the base of the leaves that are inhabited by ants. No other species has been determined to be a myrmecophyte among the ca. 140 species of this genus. However, our recent field investigation discovered that two other species on Borneo (C. barbata and C. teneriflora) have hollow stems, which seem to be inhabited by ants. We observed the morphological features of these species in relation to their usage by ants, and became convinced that they are mymecophytic species. The molecular phylogenetic analyses using ITS and chloroplast regions suggest that C. saccata and C. teneriflora are closely related, but the differences in the myrmecophytic features of these species should be noted. PMID:27059754

  19. Seeking knowledge, discovering learning: uncovering the impetus for baccalaureate nursing studies in Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Melanie; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2009-06-01

    Changes to the nursing profession over recent decades have provoked an increasing migration of nursing education into the tertiary sector. For nurses who live and work in developing nations, such as Malaysia, opportunities for further study might be limited, particularly for those located in more remote regions. This paper reports on a research study of registered nurses who undertook baccalaureate degree studies in off-campus mode in Malaysian Borneo. A grounded theory methodology was employed in this research, which is part of a larger study into the nature and outcomes of change experienced as a result of postregistration degree studies. This paper explores the reasons why nurses in this location enrolled in one such course and the extent to which completion of their studies addressed their motivational goals. The findings indicate that the experience of learning and acquisition of knowledge was well beyond what was expected, resulting in a sense of achievement that was similarly unanticipated. PMID:19531074

  20. Assessment of atmospheric impacts of biomass open burning in Kalimantan, Borneo during 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mastura

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning from the combustion of agricultural wastes and forest materials is one of the major sources of air pollution. The objective of the study is to investigate the major contribution of the biomass open burning events in the island of Borneo, Indonesia to the degradation of air quality in equatorial Southeast Asia. A total of 10173 active fire counts were detected by the MODIS Aqua satellite during August 2004, and consequently, elevated the PM10 concentration levels at six air quality stations in the state of Sarawak, in east Malaysia, which is located in northwestern Borneo. The PM10 concentrations measured on a daily basis were above the 50 μg m-3 criteria as stipulated by the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for most of the month, and exceeded the 24-h Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines of 150 μg m-3 on three separate periods from the 13th to the 30th August 2004. The average correlation between the ground level PM10 concentrations and the satellite derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.3 at several ground level air quality stations, implied the moderate relationship between the aerosols over the depth of the entire column of atmosphere and the ground level suspended particulate matter. Multiple regression for meteorological parameters such as rainfall, windspeed, visibility, mean temperature, relative humidity at two stations in Sarawak and active fire counts that were located near the centre of fire activities were only able to explain for 61% of the total variation in the AOD. The trajectory analysis of the low level mesoscale meteorological conditions simulated by the TAPM model illustrated the influence of the sea and land breezes within the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer, embedded within the prevailing monsoonal southwesterlies, in circulating the aged and new air particles within Sarawak.

  1. A screening study of leaf terpene emissions of 43 rainforest species in Danum Valley Conservation Area (Borneo) and their relationships with chemical and morphological leaf traits

    OpenAIRE

    Llusia, Joan; Sardans, Jordi; Niinemets, Ülo; Owen, Susan M.; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a screening study of leaf terpene emissions for 43 rainforest woody species of Borneo. To the best of our knowledge, this study reports for first time the terpene emission capacity of 43 species belonging to 22 genera of rainforest woody plant species. We have used a general lineal model with phylogenetic control by the phylogenetic distance matrix when necessary. The proportion of the species that emitted terpenes in this set of Borneo woody species was 95% and the species ...

  2. Semiterrestrial crabs of the genus Geosesarma De Man, 1892 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae) from western Borneo, Indonesia, with descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peter K L

    2015-11-24

    The poorly known semiterrestrial sesarmid crab, Geosesarma amphinome (De Man, 1899), from Kalimantan Barat in western Borneo, is redescribed and figured. Three other species from areas surrounding the town of Pontianak, are here described as new. Geosesarma ambawang sp. nov., G. pontianak sp. nov., and G. pylaemenes sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners on Borneo and adjacent areas by their colours in life, form of the carapaces and ambulatory legs, and the structures of the male abdomens and first gonopods.

  3. Clustering and genetic differentiation of the normocyte binding protein (nbpxa) of Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysia Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Md Atique; Fong, Mun Yik; Lau, Yee Ling; Yusof, Ruhani

    2016-01-01

    Background The zoonotic malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has become an emerging threat to South East Asian countries particular in Malaysia. A recent study from Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) discovered two distinct normocyte binding protein xa (Pknbpxa) types of P. knowlesi. In the present study, the Pknbpxa of clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) were investigated for the presence of Pknbpxa types and natural selection force acting on the gene. Method Bloo...

  4. Conservation of charismatic endangered species in Wehea Forest, Borneo: Interplay of ecological and social factors in a community-based conservation project

    OpenAIRE

    Loken, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Borneo is blessed with incredible biodiversity, including some of the most charismatic endangered species on the planet. Yet despite being recognized as a biodiversity hotspot, Borneo’s forests, and the biodiversity contained therein, are being lost faster than anywhere else on the planet, with the main threats from habitat loss and hunting. Given the perceived failure of protected areas on Borneo to conserve biodiversity, some NGOs are implementing community-based conservation (CBC) and beli...

  5. Depreissia decipiens, an enigmatic canopy spider from Borneo revisited (Araneae, Salticidae), with remarks on the distribution and diversity of canopy spiders in Sabah, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeleman-Reinhold, Christa L; Miller, Jeremy; Floren, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Depreissia is a little known genus comprising two hymenopteran-mimicking species, one found in Central Africa and one in the north of Borneo. The male of Depreissia decipiens is redescribed, the female is described for the first time. The carapace is elongated, dorsally flattened and rhombus-shaped, the rear of the thorax laterally depressed and transformed, with a pair of deep pits; the pedicel is almost as long as the abdomen. The male palp is unusual, characterized by the transverse deeply split membranous tegulum separating a ventral part which bears a sclerotized tegular apophysis and a large dagger-like retrodirected median apophysis. The female epigyne consists of one pair of large adjacent spermathecae and very long copulatory ducts arising posteriorly and rising laterally alongside the spermathecae continuing in several vertical and horizontal coils over the anterior surface. Relationships within the Salticidae are discussed and an affinity with the Cocalodinae is suggested. Arguments are provided for a hypothesis that Depreissia decipiens is not ant-mimicking as was previously believed, but is a mimic of polistinine wasps. The species was found in the canopy in the Kinabalu area only, in primary and old secondary rainforest at 200-700 m.a.s.l. Overlap of canopy-dwelling spider species with those in the understorey are discussed and examples of species richness and endemism in the canopy are highlighted. Canopy fogging is a very efficient method of collecting for most arthropods. The canopy fauna adds an extra dimension to the known biodiversity of the tropical rainforest. In southeast Asia, canopy research has been neglected, inhibiting evaluation of comparative results of this canopy project with that from other regions. More use of fogging as a collecting method would greatly improve insight into the actual species richness and species distribution in general.

  6. Red hot chili pepper. A new Calluella stoliczka, 1872 (Lissamphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indraneil; Min, Pui Yong; Hsu, Wayne W; Hertwig, Stefan T; Haas, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A new brightly-coloured (olive and red) species of microhylid frog of the genus Calluella Stoliczka 1872 is described from the upper elevations of Gunung Penrissen and the Matang Range, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Calluella capsa, new species, is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL up to 36.0 mm; dorsum weakly granular; a faint dermal fold across forehead; toe tips obtuse; webbing on toes basal; lateral fringes on toes present; outer metatarsal tubercle present; and dorsum greyish-olive, with red spots; half of venter bright red, the rest with large white and dark areas. The new species is the eighth species of Calluella to be described, and the fourth known from Borneo. A preliminary phylogeny of Calluella and its relatives is presented, and the new taxon compared with congeners from Malaysia and other parts of south-east Asia.  PMID:24872245

  7. Rural Tourism at its Peak: Socio-Cultural Impacts towards Host Communities of Kinabalu Park, Sabah (Malaysian-Borneo)

    OpenAIRE

    Tangit Tania Maria; Md Hasim Ahmad Khairuman; Adanan Akmal

    2014-01-01

    The Kinabalu Park in Sabah (Malaysian-Borneo) represents multiple tourism opportunities for its stakeholders, host communities and tourists. Being the first World Heritage Site in Malaysia endorsed by UNESCO since 2000, this nature-based tourism destination is a popular tourism destination in Malaysia, as well as in the Asia region. The designated study area includes villages nearby Kinabalu Park. Through the popularity of the park and various other attractions within the area, tourism activi...

  8. Screening study of leaf terpene concentration of 75 Borneo rainforest plant species: relationships with leaf elemental concentrations and morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Sardans; Joan Llusia; Owen, Susan M.; Ülo Niinemets; Josep Peñuelas

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes confer advantage in plant protection against abiotic stresses such as heat and drought and biotic stresses such as herbivore and pathogen attack. We conducted a screening of leaf mono- and sesquiterpene concentrations in 75 common woody plant species in the rainforest of Danum Valley ( Borneo). Terpene compounds were found in 73 out of the 75 analysed species. Similar or lower proportions have been reported in other parts of the world. To our knowledge, this study reports for the fir...

  9. Stream ecosystem integrity is impaired by logging and shifting agriculture in a global megadiversity center (Sarawak, Borneo)

    OpenAIRE

    Jinggut, T.; Yule, C.M.; Boyero, Luz

    2012-01-01

    In common with most of Borneo, the Bakun region of Sarawak is currently subject to heavy deforestation mainly due to logging and, to a lesser extent, traditional slash-and-burn farming practices. This has the potential to affect stream ecosystems, which are integrators of environmental change in the surrounding terrestrial landscape. This study evaluated the effects of both types of deforestation by using functional and structural indicators (leaf litter decomposition rates and associated det...

  10. Theloderma licin McLeod and Ahmad, 2007 (Lissamphibia:Anura:Rhacophoridae), a New Frog Record for Borneo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Indraneil DAS; Jongkar GRINANG; Yong Min PUI

    2013-01-01

    A new record of the rhacophorid frog, Theloderma licin is reported from Gunung Serambu, in the Bau region of western Sarawak, East Malaysia, which comprises the ifrst published record of the species from the Sundaic island of Borneo. The species was previously known from the Malay Peninsula (southern Peninsular Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia). Species of Theloderma are widespread in mainland and insular Southeast Asia, their arboreal habits perhaps contributing to our perception of rarity.

  11. Extreme nickel hyperaccumulation in the vascular tracts of the tree Phyllanthus balgooyi from Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Barnabas, Alban; van der Ent, Antony

    2016-03-01

    Phyllanthus balgooyi (Phyllanthaceae), one of > 20 nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator plant species known in Sabah (Malaysia) on the island of Borneo, is remarkable because it contains > 16 wt% Ni in its phloem sap, the second highest concentration of Ni in any living material in the world (after Pycnandra acuminata (Sapotaceae) from New Caledonia with 25 wt% Ni in latex). This study focused on the tissue-level distribution of Ni and other elements in the leaves, petioles and stem of P. balgooyi using nuclear microprobe imaging (micro-PIXE). The results show that in the stems and petioles of P. balgooyi Ni concentrations were very high in the phloem, while in the leaves there was significant enrichment of this element in the major vascular bundles. In the leaves, cobalt (Co) was codistributed with Ni, while the distribution of manganese (Mn) was different. The highest enrichment of calcium (Ca) in the stems was in the periderm, the epidermis and subepidermis of the petiole, and in the palisade mesophyll of the leaf. Preferential accumulation of Ni in the vascular tracts suggests that Ni is present in a metabolically active form. The elemental distribution of P. balgooyi differs from those of many other Ni hyperaccumulator plant species from around the world where Ni is preferentially accumulated in leaf epidermal cells.

  12. Fire in the Vegetation and Peatlands of Borneo, 1997-2007: Patterns, Drivers and Emissions from Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, Allan; Weber, Ulrich; Langner, Andreas; Siegert, Florian; Heil, Angelika

    2010-05-01

    The peatland forests of equatorial SE Asia cover over 20 Mha with most located in Indonesia. Indonesian peatlands are globally one of the largest near-surface reserves of terrestrial organic carbon, with peat deposits of up to 20m thick and an estimated carbon storage of 55-61 Gt. The destructive fires in Indonesia during the exceptionally strong drought of late 1997 and early 1998 mark some of the largest peak emissions events in recorded history of global fires. Past studies estimate that about 1Gt of carbon was released to the atmosphere from the Indonesian fires in 1997- equivalent to 14% of the average global annual fossil fuel emissions released during the 1990s. Previous studies have established a non-linear negative correlation between fires and antecedent rainfall in Borneo, with ENSO-driven droughts being identified as the main cause of below-average rainfall events over the past decade or so. However, while these studies suggest that this non-linear relationship is mediated by ignitions associated with land use and land cover change (LULCC), they have not demonstrated it. A clear link between fires and logging in Borneo has been reported, but this work was restricted to eastern Kalimantan and the period 1997-98. The relationship between fires, emissions, rainfall and LULCC across the island of Borneo therefore remains to be examined using available fine resolution data over a multi-year period. Using rainfall data, up-to-date peat maps and state-of-the art satellite sensor data to determine burnt area and deforestation patterns over the decade 1997-2007, we show at a pixel working resolution of 0.25 degrees the following: Burning across Borneo predominated in southern Kalimantan. Fire activity is negatively and non-linearly correlated to rainfall mainly in pixels that have undergone a significant reduction in forest cover, and that the bigger the reduction, the stronger the correlation. Such pixels occur overwhelmingly in southern Kalimantan. These

  13. Development of jacket platform tsunami risk rating system in waters offshore North Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. E.; Liew, M. S.; Mardi, N. H.; Na, K. L.; Toloue, Iraj; Wong, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3M w seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US 25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  14. The Rungus Longhouse of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo – A Dying Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahauddin Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rungus tribal group can be found in the northeast corner of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, farming the land mostly on agricultural products in small scale plantations. Their longhouses, facing extinction, are dual-purpose dwellings, constructed entirely of traditional materials utilising small split timbers lashed with rattan for the frame, palm fronds for the thatched roof, split bamboo for the floor and tree bark of hewn wood for the compartment walls. Each family has its own separate quarters off a common hall for socialising and community work. Village life is usually communal and the village is the major political unit based on the cultural traditions. Strongly related to the spirit of the place, the ‘rice spirit’, in particular, figures prominently in the Rungus people’s beliefs and practices in controlling the spirits and the people’s daily life. Unfortunately, all of these unique beliefs seem to have disappeared through time, thus requiring proper documentation of the longhouses. The objectives gear towards analysing the architectural values and investigating cultural understanding associated with the longhouses. Most importantly, the issue of how the Rungus people relate to the environment is studied through the tangible and intangible cultural aspects of the people. The research utilises the observation technique, interviews with the residents, visual data collection and measured drawings of five longhouses as the processes to document data. The paper instigates an investigation into the conformity of the Rungus people of their place in the environment to perpetuate their lifestyle in a land that is surrounded by nature.

  15. Hot Spot Induced Cenozoic Volcanism in the Upper Rajang Valley, Sarawak - Is Borneo Rifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, N.

    2010-12-01

    The Upper Rajang Valley covers a large area in the northern interior of the island of Borneo, in the Malaysian state of Sarawak . It is underlain by the Cretaceous to Late Eocene deep to shallow marine sediments of the Rajang Group. Within this area are several Cenozoic volcanic edifices, which to date have been sparsely studied. Two distinct episodes of volcanism are recognized - the first, dated early Eocene, consists of K-rich basalts, and is represented by the Bukit Mersing volcanics, which were erupted conformably onto deep water turbidites of the Rajang Group. The second, far more extensive, is dated Pliocene to Quaternary, and is bimodal, consisting mainly of early dacite and rhyodacite tuffs, with a smaller amount of later basalt, forming several volcanic plateaus and massifs (Hose Mountains, Usun Apau, Linau-Balui, Nieuwenhuis Mountains and others). They lie unconformably over pre-Miocene sediments, the Linau-Balui basalts having been erupted onto Quaternary river terraces. Mantle-normalized REE and incompatible trace element spider plots reveal that the Bukit Mersing basalts have geochemical affinity with Oceanic Island Basalts (OIB) and rift basalts, being enriched in LREEs and Most Incompatible Elements, and no Eu anomaly. Preliminary trace element data for several basalt samples from Usun Apau also show Oceanic Island/Rift affinity. Bimodal volcanism is most often associated with rift environments. Efforts are being made to radiometrically date the volcanics, in part to determine the possibility of future eruptions. The Upper Rajang Valley is remote, covered in tropical rainforest and is very sparsely populated. At this time, there is no information concerning signs of imminent volcanism, such as hot springs and microseismicity.

  16. Persistent Effects of Oil Palm Plantation Agriculture on Freshwater Stream Function in Indonesian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L.; Ratnasari, D.

    2012-12-01

    Conversion of forests to agricultural land uses alters freshwater stream ecosystems by changing flows of physical, chemical, and biological stream inputs. In contrast with annual agricultural crops, oil palm agribusiness may have distinctive effects on stream function because these plantations replace existing land cover with 1,000-20,000 ha tree-like monocultures that have 20-30 year rotation cycles. From 2008 to 2012 in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), we measured water temperature, metabolism, and sediment and nutrient loads in four streams draining watersheds dominated (> ~70%) by intact and logged forests, agroforests and agricultural fallows, and young ( 10 y) oil palm plantations. We find that mean daily stream temperature was elevated 12% at the mature and 8% at the young oil palm site compared to the forest stream (25.5 ± 0.3°C). No clear relationship emerged between land cover type and ecosystem respiration (ER, g O2 m-2 d-1) or gross primary production (GPP, g O2 m-2 d-1). Yet GPP:ER ratios were 600% and 650% greater at young and mature oil palm watersheds, respectively, than the forested watershed (0.020 ± 0.005). Sediment loads (t d-1) across measured water yields (m d-1) were higher in the young oil palm stream compared to all other streams. Total phosphorous, total dissolved phosphorous, and total nitrogen loads for measured water yields were elevated in the agroforest and young oil palm sites compared to the forest site. Our results indicate that oil palm plantation land use alters tropical stream temperature, metabolism, nutrient loads, and sediment loads; moreover, these conditions appear to persist for ≥ 15 years. We discuss the implications of these findings for local human communities and ecosystems.

  17. Rising floodwaters: mapping impacts and perceptions of flooding in Indonesian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jessie A.; Wilson, Kerrie A.; Abram, Nicola K.; Nunn, Malcolm; Gaveau, David L. A.; Runting, Rebecca K.; Tarniati, Nina; Mengersen, Kerrie L.; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-06-01

    The roles of forest and wetland ecosystems in regulating flooding have drawn increasing attention in the contexts of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. However, data on floods are scarce in many of the countries where people are most exposed and vulnerable to their impacts. Here, our separate analyses of village interview surveys (364 villages) and news archives (16 sources) show that floods have major impacts on lives and livelihoods in Indonesian Borneo, and flooding risks are associated with features of the local climate and landscape, particularly land uses that have seen rapid expansions over the past 30 years. In contrast with government assessments, we find that flooding is far more widespread, and that frequent, local, events can have large cumulative impacts. Over three years, local news agencies reported floods that affected 868 settlements, 966 times (including 89 in urban areas), inundated at least 197 000 houses, and displaced more than 776 000 people, possibly as many as 1.5 million (i.e. 5%-10% of the total population). Spatial analyses based on surveys in 364 villages show that flood frequency is associated with land use in catchment areas, including forest cover and condition, and the area of wetlands, mines (open-cut coal or gold mines), and oil palm. The probability that floods have become more frequent over the past 30 years was higher for villages closer to mines, and in watersheds with more extensive oil palm, but lower in watersheds with greater cover of selectively-logged or intact forests. We demonstrate that in data-poor regions, multiple sources of information can be integrated to gain insights into the hydrological services provided by forest and wetland ecosystems, and motivate more comprehensive assessment of flooding risks and options for ecosystem-based adaptation.

  18. Development of Jacket Platform Tsunami Risk Rating System in Waters Offshore North Borneo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Lee; MS Liew; NH Mardi; KL Na; Iraj Toloue; SK Wong

    2016-01-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3Mw seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US$25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  19. Rising floodwaters: mapping impacts and perceptions of flooding in Indonesian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jessie A.; Wilson, Kerrie A.; Abram, Nicola K.; Nunn, Malcolm; Gaveau, David L. A.; Runting, Rebecca K.; Tarniati, Nina; Mengersen, Kerrie L.; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-06-01

    The roles of forest and wetland ecosystems in regulating flooding have drawn increasing attention in the contexts of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. However, data on floods are scarce in many of the countries where people are most exposed and vulnerable to their impacts. Here, our separate analyses of village interview surveys (364 villages) and news archives (16 sources) show that floods have major impacts on lives and livelihoods in Indonesian Borneo, and flooding risks are associated with features of the local climate and landscape, particularly land uses that have seen rapid expansions over the past 30 years. In contrast with government assessments, we find that flooding is far more widespread, and that frequent, local, events can have large cumulative impacts. Over three years, local news agencies reported floods that affected 868 settlements, 966 times (including 89 in urban areas), inundated at least 197 000 houses, and displaced more than 776 000 people, possibly as many as 1.5 million (i.e. 5%–10% of the total population). Spatial analyses based on surveys in 364 villages show that flood frequency is associated with land use in catchment areas, including forest cover and condition, and the area of wetlands, mines (open-cut coal or gold mines), and oil palm. The probability that floods have become more frequent over the past 30 years was higher for villages closer to mines, and in watersheds with more extensive oil palm, but lower in watersheds with greater cover of selectively-logged or intact forests. We demonstrate that in data-poor regions, multiple sources of information can be integrated to gain insights into the hydrological services provided by forest and wetland ecosystems, and motivate more comprehensive assessment of flooding risks and options for ecosystem-based adaptation.

  20. Coral Reefs at the Northernmost Tip of Borneo: An Assessment of Scleractinian Species Richness Patterns and Benthic Reef Assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Zarinah Waheed; Harald G J van Mil; Muhammad Ali Syed Hussein; Robecca Jumin; Bobita Golam Ahad; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2015-01-01

    The coral reefs at the northernmost tip of Sabah, Borneo will be established under a marine protected area: the Tun Mustapha Park (TMP) by the end of 2015. This area is a passage where the Sulu Sea meets the South China Sea and it is situated at the border of the area of maximum marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle. The TMP includes fringing and patch reefs established on a relatively shallow sea floor. Surveys were carried out to examine features of the coral reefs in terms of scleractini...

  1. Along-strike Deformation in Quaternary Valleys of Tropical NW Borneo: Implications for Active Tectonics, Seismicity and Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, B.; Mathew, M. J.; Menier, D.; Pubellier, M. F.; Sapin, F.; Siddiqui, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the wee hours of 5th June, 2015, NW Borneo was jolted by a 6.0 magnitude earthquake, caused by fault movement at a shallow depth of 10 km. The quake that originated from near the foot of the picturesque Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, was felt as far as 350 km away from the epicentre and has produced more than 90 aftershocks to date; ranging in magnitudes from 1.6 to 5.2. Although the geologically complex NW Borneo has experienced more than 60 mainshocks and numerous aftershocks since 1970 to present; research pertaining to active tectonics, morphotectonics analysis and subsequent geomorphic response to resulting transient dynamic topography remains inadequate.Here, we show evidences of active tectonics in tropical Sabah, NW Borneo, using morphometric indices, geomorphic indicators and report our results of morphotectonic analysis and consequent feedback of landscape and topography. Results from stream length gradient index, normalized channel steepness index and spatial distribution of hypsometric integral showed evidences of fault rejuvenation during Quaternary and recent periods. River longitudinal profiles showed the presence of several knickpoints indicating fault reactivations as the study area lacks lithological contrasts and similar climatic conditions along the channel reach. Field survey revealed the presence of highly elevated Quaternary fluvial terraces illustrating recent and important tectonic uplift rates in the trend of the exhumation rates calculated on Mt. Kinabalu by means of thermochronology. The uplifted terraces show a positive correlation with geomorphic analysis along the main valleys and other areas of active tectonics. Our analysis show the competition between important uplifts related to the dynamics of the NW Borneo Wedge and active normal faulting. These faults are in trend to the major earthquakes that occurred recently in this area, which have a normal faulting mechanism. The cause of the mechanism for recent tectonism and/or decoupling

  2. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  3. Aircraft-borne DOAS limb observations of iodine monoxide around Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großmann, Katja; Hossaini, Ryan; Mantle, Hannah; Chipperfield, Martyn; Wittrock, Folkard; Peters, Enno; Lampel, Johannes; Walker, Hannah; Heard, Dwayne; Krystofiak, Gisèle; Catoire, Valéry; Dorf, Marcel; Werner, Bodo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Iodine monoxide (IO) has a major impact on the photochemistry of the troposphere. It can for example catalytically destroy ozone, influence the atmospheric oxidation capacity by changing the partitioning of the HOx and NOx species, or contribute to the formation of ultrafine particles. Information regarding the vertical distribution of IO is still sparse since only few vertical profiles of IO exist for the troposphere. Spectroscopic measurements were carried out from aboard the research aircraft DLR-Falcon during the SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign at Malaysian Borneo in November and December 2011 to study the abundance and transport of trace gases in the lower atmosphere. Sixteen research flights were performed covering legs near the surface in the marine boundary layer (MBL) as well as in the free troposphere (FT) up to an altitude of 13 km. The spectroscopic measurements were evaluated using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique in limb geometry, which supports observations of UV/visible absorbing trace gases, such as O4, BrO, IO, NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, HONO and H2O, and altitude information was gained via the O4 scaling technique and/or full inversion. The inferred vertical profiles of IO showed mixing ratios of 0.5-1.5 ppt in the MBL, which decreased to 0.1-0.3 ppt in the FT. Occasionally, the IO observed in the FT of the marine environment coincided with elevated amounts of CO, but no IO was observed over land, neither in the boundary layer, nor in the FT. This behavior strongly indicated that the major sources for IO were organic and inorganic precursor molecules emitted from the ocean, which during daytime rapidly formed a sizable amount of IO in the MBL that was occasionally transported into the FT where efficient loss processes for IO must exist. The inferred vertical profiles of IO are compared to simulations using the global 3-D chemistry transport model TOMCAT including recent fluxes

  4. High incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer: similarity for 60% of mitochondrial DNA signatures between the Bidayuhs of Borneo and the Bai-yue of Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Wee; Tam Cam Ha; Susan Loong; Chao-Nan Qian

    2012-01-01

    Populations in Southern China (Bai-yue) and Borneo (Bidayuh) with high incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) share similar mitochondrial DNA signatures,supporting the hypothesis that these two populations may share the same genetic predisposition for NPC,which may have first appeared in a common ancestral reference population before the sea levels rose after the last ice age.

  5. On one new genus and three new species of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae and Grapsidae) from Lanjak-Entimau, Sarawak, East Malaysia, Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The freshwater crabs obtained from the Lanjak-Entimau area in Sarawak, East Malaysia, Borneo, are reported upon. One new genus (Ibanum) and two new species of Potamidae (Ibanum aethes and Isolapotamon stuebingi) and a new species of Grapsidae (Geosesarma katibas) are described. The identity of Potam

  6. Mesoscale model simulation of low level equatorial winds over Borneo during the haze episode of September 1997

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mastura Mahmud

    2009-08-01

    The large-scale vegetation fires instigated by the local farmers during the dry period of the major El Ni˜no event in 1997 can be considered as one of the worst environmental disasters that have occurred in southeast Asia in recent history. This study investigated the local meteorology characteristics of an equatorial environment within a domain that includes the northwestern part of Borneo from the 17 to 27 September 1997 during the height of the haze episode by utilizing a limited area three-dimensional meteorological and dispersion model, The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). Daily land and sea breeze conditions near the northwestern coast of Borneo in the state ofSarawak, Malaysia were predicted with moderate success by the index of agreement of less than one between the observed and simulated values for wind speed and a slight overprediction of 2.3 of the skill indicator that evaluates the standard deviation to the observed values. The innermost domain of study comprises an area of 24,193 km2, from approximately 109°E to 111°E, and from 1°N to 2.3°N, which includes a part of the South China Sea. Tracer analysis of air particles that were sourced in the state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo verified the existence of the landward and shoreward movements of the air during the simulation of the low level wind field. Polluted air particles were transported seawards during night-time, and landwards during daytime, highlighting the recirculation features of aged and newer air particles during the length of eleven days throughout the model simulation. Near calm conditions at low levels were simulated by the trajectory analysis from midnight to mid-day on the 22 of September 1997. Low-level turbulence within the planetary boundary layer in terms of the total kinetic energy was weak, congruent with the weak strength of low level winds that reduced the ability of the air to transport the pollutants. Statistical evaluation showed that parameters such as the systematic

  7. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001–2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zender

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Land clearing for crops and plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR since 2001. Our modeling studies show this smoke increases atmospheric heating, and reduces regional SST and dry-season precipitation, causing a potential feedback that increases drought-stress and air quality problems during El Niño years. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001–2009. Most smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3–4 m s−1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 ± 1.4 (mean ± std. error km, 708 ± 13 m, and 27 ± 0.75% of the plume length, respectively. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes, possibly due to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 ± 15 km2 varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15–25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere albedo peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The initially oblong plumes become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in plume geometry. We provide

  8. Mesoscale model simulation of low level equatorial winds over Borneo during the haze episode of September 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mastura

    2009-08-01

    The large-scale vegetation fires instigated by the local farmers during the dry period of the major El Niño event in 1997 can be considered as one of the worst environmental disasters that have occurred in southeast Asia in recent history. This study investigated the local meteorology characteristics of an equatorial environment within a domain that includes the northwestern part of Borneo from the 17 to 27 September 1997 during the height of the haze episode by utilizing a limited area three-dimensional meteorological and dispersion model, The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). Daily land and sea breeze conditions near the northwestern coast of Borneo in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia were predicted with moderate success by the index of agreement of less than one between the observed and simulated values for wind speed and a slight overprediction of 2.3 of the skill indicator that evaluates the standard deviation to the observed values. The innermost domain of study comprises an area of 24,193 km2, from approximately 109°E to 111°E, and from 1°N to 2.3°N, which includes a part of the South China Sea. Tracer analysis of air particles that were sourced in the state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo verified the existence of the landward and shoreward movements of the air during the simulation of the low level wind field. Polluted air particles were transported seawards during night-time, and landwards during daytime, highlighting the recirculation features of aged and newer air particles during the length of eleven days throughout the model simulation. Near calm conditions at low levels were simulated by the trajectory analysis from midnight to mid-day on the 22 of September 1997. Low-level turbulence within the planetary boundary layer in terms of the total kinetic energy was weak, congruent with the weak strength of low level winds that reduced the ability of the air to transport the pollutants. Statistical evaluation showed that parameters such as the systematic

  9. The dynamics of fire regimes in tropical peatlands in Central Kalimantan, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscilo, Agata; Page, Susan; Tansey, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    As a carbon-rich ecosystem, tropical peatland contributes significantly to terrestrial carbon storage and stability of the global carbon cycle. Vast areas of tropical peatland in SE Asia are degraded by the increasingly intensive scale of human activities, illustrated by high rates of deforestation, poor land-use management, selective illegal logging, and frequently repeated fires. Analysis of time-series satellite images performed in this study confirmed that fire regimes have dramatically changed in tropical peatlands over the last three decades (1973-2005). The study was conducted in the southern part of Central Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). We found that there was an evident increase in fire frequency and a decline in the fire return interval after implementation of the Mega Rice Project (1997-2005). Up until 1997, fires had affected a relatively small area, in total 23% of the study area, and were largely related to land clearance. This situation changed significantly during the last decade (1997-2005), when the widespread, intensive fires of 1997 affected a much larger area. Five years later, in 2002, extensive fires returned, affecting again 22% of the study area. Then, in 2004 and 2005, a further large area of peatland was on fire. Fire frequency analysis showed that during the period 1997-2005, around 45% of the study area was subject to multiple fires, with 37% burnt twice and 8% burnt three or more times. Near-annual occurrence of fire events reduces the rate and nature of vegetation regrowth. Hence, we observed a shift in the fire fuel type and amount over the period of investigation. After 1997, the fire fuel shifted from mainly peat swamp forest biomass towards non-woody biomass, dominated by regenerating vegetation, mainly ferns and a few trees. This secondary vegetation has been shown to be fire prone, although fire propagation is slower than in forest and restricted by both low fuel quality and load. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction

  10. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001–2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zender

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Land clearing for crops, plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR since 2001. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of distinct fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001–2009. The local MISR overpass at 10:30 a.m. misses the afternoon peak of Borneo fire emissions, and may preferentially sample longer plumes from persistent fires burning overnight. Typically the smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3–4 m s−1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 km, 708 m, and 27% of the plume length, respectively. 50% of these plumes have length between 24 and 50 km, height between 523 and 993 m and width between 18% and 30% of plume length. Length and cross-plume width are lognormally distributed, while height follows a normal distribution. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are on average nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes. This could be due to sampling or to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 km2, with 25th and 75th percentiles at 99 km2 and 304 km2, respectively varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15–25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere reflectance peak about halfway down-plume, at

  11. Update: outbreak of acute febrile illness among athletes participating in Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000--Borneo, Malaysia, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-19

    During September 7-11, 2000, CDC was notified by the Idaho Department of Health, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, and the GeoSentinel Global Surveillance Network of at least 20 cases of acute febrile illness in three countries; all ill patients had participated in the Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000 multisport expedition race in Borneo, Malaysia, during August 21-September 3, 2000. Participants included athletes from 29 U.S. states and 26 countries. This report updates the ongoing investigation of this outbreak through December 2, which suggests that Leptospira were the cause of illness and that water from the Segama River was the primary source of infection. Participants in adventure sports and exotic tourism should be aware of potential exposure to unusual and emerging infectious agents. PMID:11215718

  12. The Relative Influences of ENSO Conventional, ENSO Modoki and Indian Ocean Dipole on Mindanao and Northeastern Borneo Precipitation Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.; Behera, S. K.; Waseda, T.; Tangang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Since the discovery of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and El Nino Modoki (EM), many had thought that all of these 3 climate phenomena are influencing the precipitation in Mindanao and Northeastern Borneo. However, no study was done to identify the real impact of these three climate phenomena on the precipitation of this area. Based on the situation above, this study intends to investigate the influence of ENSO, IOD and EM to Mindanao and Northeastern Borneo precipitation. Besides that, we are investigating factor other than those dominant climate phenomena that affect the precipitation in the study region. For this study, we used APHRODITE (observation precipitation data) as our primary precipitation data. For analysis, we used 850hPa wind data (JRA-55), 200hPa stream function data (JRA-55) and sea surface temperature data (SST; HadISST) from 1961 to 2007. Correlation, partial correlation and composite analyses are used as the method for this study. We discovered that ENSO during December-February (DJF), March-May and September-November (SON) influence the precipitation in the study region. Further analysis indicated that EM during DJF and SON influences precipitation of those regions. The results show that the ENSO and the EM influence the precipitation of this region through Walker circulation and associated teleconnections. However, IOD influence is not significant in any season. It is also discovered that the precipitation in the region is greatly affected by the local winds northeast of Mindanao during DJF. Those are the regional monsoon winds for the Asian Winter Monsoon. In addition, the winter monsoon rainfall is influenced by the winds that are in turn associated with the variations in Aleutian Low and Siberian High. Further analysis will be done to understand the links among them (SST, regional monsoon winds and 200hPa streamfunction) and consequently the mid-latitude teleconnections that affect the regional monsoon winds.

  13. Drainage basin and topographic analysis of a tropical landscape: Insights into surface and tectonic processes in northern Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Manoj Joseph; Menier, David; Siddiqui, Numair; Ramkumar, Mu.; Santosh, M.; Kumar, Shashi; Hassaan, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the recent landscape development of Borneo through geomorphic analysis of two large drainage basins (Rajang and Baram basins). The extraction of morphometric parameters utilizing digital terrain data in a GIS environment, focusing on hydrography (stream length-gradient index, ratio of valley floor width to valley height, and transverse topographic symmetry factor) and topography (local relief and relief anomaly), was carried out in order to elucidate processes governing drainage and landscape evolution. Anomalously high and low values of stream length-gradient indices of main tributary streams associated with faults and multiple knick-points along the channel profiles are linked to deformation events. The development of deeply incised V-shaped valleys show enhanced incision capability of streams in response to steepening of hillslope gradients following tectonic inputs. Deflection of streams and probable dynamic reorganization of the drainage system through stream capture processes as feedbacks to tectonic uplift and orographic effect are observed. Local relief and relief anomaly maps highlight the presence of preserved elevation-accordant relict portions of landscapes characterized by low amplitude relief, nested between ridgelines in regions of complex folding. Our results reveal dynamic geomorphic adjustment of the landscape due to perturbations in tectonic and climatic boundary conditions. The implication is that the landscape of north Borneo experienced a tectonic phase of rapid uplift after 5 Ma and undergoes active folding of the Rajang Group thrust belts in the present-day. Active shortening combined with high rates of denudation in Sarawak, demonstrates transience emphasized by the drainage system attempting to adjust to tectonic and climatic forcing.

  14. Integration of carbon conservation into sustainable forest management using high resolution satellite imagery: A case study in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Andreas; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Ong, Robert C.; Titin, Jupiri; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2012-08-01

    Conservation of tropical forests is of outstanding importance for mitigation of climate change effects and preserving biodiversity. In Borneo most of the forests are classified as permanent forest estates and are selectively logged using conventional logging techniques causing high damage to the forest ecosystems. Incorporation of sustainable forest management into climate change mitigation measures such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) can help to avert further forest degradation by synergizing sustainable timber production with the conservation of biodiversity. In order to evaluate the efficiency of such initiatives, monitoring methods for forest degradation and above-ground biomass in tropical forests are urgently needed. In this study we developed an index using Landsat satellite data to describe the crown cover condition of lowland mixed dipterocarp forests. We showed that this index combined with field data can be used to estimate above-ground biomass using a regression model in two permanent forest estates in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Tangkulap represented a conventionally logged forest estate while Deramakot has been managed in accordance with sustainable forestry principles. The results revealed that conventional logging techniques used in Tangkulap during 1991 and 2000 decreased the above-ground biomass by an annual amount of average -6.0 t C/ha (-5.2 to -7.0 t C/ha, 95% confidential interval) whereas the biomass in Deramakot increased by 6.1 t C/ha per year (5.3-7.2 t C/ha, 95% confidential interval) between 2000 and 2007 while under sustainable forest management. This indicates that sustainable forest management with reduced-impact logging helps to protect above-ground biomass. In absolute terms, a conservative amount of 10.5 t C/ha per year, as documented using the methodology developed in this study, can be attributed to the different management systems, which will be of interest when implementing REDD+ that

  15. Change in the Terrestrial Invertebrate Community Structure in Relation to Large Fires at the Kutai National Park, East Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    YAJIMA, Takaaki; ヤジマ, タカアキ; 矢島, 孝昭

    1988-01-01

    1. To know the change and recovery of terrestrial invertebrate community in the tropical rain forest after large fires, the research was done at the Kutai National Park in East Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia, in July to August 1986. 2. After consideration of the influence of large fires and the human impact on nature, eleven stations were selected from the unburnt natural forests, unburnt secondary forest, burnt natural forest, burnt secondary forest, and open fileds of Melastoma shr...

  16. Fire, drought and El Niño relationships on Borneo (Southeast Asia) in the pre-MODIS era (1980–2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Wooster, M.J.; Perry, G.L.W.; A. Zoumas

    2012-01-01

    Borneo (Indonesia) is Earth's third largest island, and the location of both extensive areas of rainforest and tropical peatlands. It is the site of both regular (seasonal) biomass burning associated with deforestation, land cover change and agricultural production preparations, and occasional, but much more severe, extreme fire episodes releasing enormous volumes of carbon from burning vegetation and peat. These extreme fire episodes are believed to result from anthropogeni...

  17. Nitrous oxide and methane in two tropical estuaries in a peat-dominated region of northwestern Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Denise; Bange, Hermann W.; Warneke, Thorsten; Rixen, Tim; Müller, Moritz; Mujahid, Aazani; Notholt, Justus

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries are sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. However, our present knowledge of N2O and CH4 emissions from estuaries in the tropics is very limited because data are scarce. In this study, we present first measurements of dissolved N2O and CH4 from two estuaries in a peat-dominated region of northwestern Borneo. Two campaigns (during the dry season in June 2013 and during the wet season in March 2014) were conducted in the estuaries of the Lupar and Saribas rivers. Median N2O concentrations ranged between 7.2 and 12.3 nmol L-1 and were higher in the marine end-member (13.0 ± 7.0 nmol L-1). CH4 concentrations were low in the coastal ocean (3.6 ± 0.2 nmol L-1) and higher in the estuaries (medians between 10.6 and 64.0 nmol L-1). The respiration of abundant organic matter and presumably anthropogenic input caused slight eutrophication, which did not lead to hypoxia or enhanced N2O concentrations, however. Generally, N2O concentrations were not related to dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Thus, the use of an emission factor for the calculation of N2O emissions from the inorganic nitrogen load leads to an overestimation of the flux from the Lupar and Saribas estuaries. N2O was negatively correlated with salinity during the dry season, which suggests a riverine source. In contrast, N2O concentrations during the wet season were not correlated with salinity but locally enhanced within the estuaries, implying that there were additional estuarine sources during the wet (i.e., monsoon) season. Estuarine CH4 distributions were not driven by freshwater input but rather by tidal variations. Both N2O and CH4 concentrations were more variable during the wet season. We infer that the wet season dominates the variability of the N2O and CH4 concentrations and subsequent emissions from tropical estuaries. Thus, we speculate that any changes in the Southeast Asian monsoon system will lead to changes in the N2O and CH4 emissions from these

  18. Recent Shift of Deforestation to High Elevation Areas from 2001 to 2013 in Borneo Detected by MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, S.; Suzuki, R.

    2015-12-01

    The biomass of tropical forests sequestrates tons of carbon and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle regulating the climate. Also its high biodiversity ecosystems bring us many valuable resources and cultural and educational ecosystem services. However, large areas of the tropical forest are deforested and converted to oil palm or acacia plantation for the economic benefit of the local society mainly in Southeast Asia. Monitoring of the tropical forest from satellites provides us the information about the deforestation for decadal time period over extensive areas and enables us to discuss it from a scientific point of view. The purpose of this study is to reveal the interannual change and recent trend of deforestation in relation to the land elevation for decadal time period over Borneo by using data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We acquired the atmospherically corrected and cloud free Terra-MODIS and Aqua-MODIS daily data products (MOD09GA and MYD09GA; collection 5) from 2001 to 2013 for Borneo. We extracted the pixel values in the 500m surface reflectance bands 1 (red) and 4 (green) products and calculated the green-red vegetation index (GRVI), (band 4 - band 1) / (band 4 + band 1), at a daily time step. GRVI shows a positive value for the land prevailed by green vegetation, while it shows a negative value for the land prevailed by no-green components such as bare land. As for the elevation data, ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) which has 33.3m spatial resolution was employed. The original resolution was resampled to the grid system of MODIS data (i.e. 500m resolution). Pixels which had a negative GRVI ratio more than 80 % (termed as "no green pixel") in each year were regarded as the land characterized by no vegetation, and mapped the distribution for each year. Throughout the 13 years, no green pixels mainly found over the coastal low land below 20m of the elevation and the area was almost constant (around

  19. Screening Study of Leaf Terpene Concentration of 75 Borneo Rainforest Plant Species: Relationships with Leaf Elemental Concentrations and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sardans

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terpenes confer advantage in plant protection against abiotic stresses such as heat and drought and biotic stresses such as herbivore and pathogen attack. We conducted a screening of leaf mono- and sesquiterpene concentrations in 75 common woody plant species in the rainforest of Danum Valley ( Borneo. Terpene compounds were found in 73 out of the 75 analysed species. Similar or lower proportions have been reported in other parts of the world. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time the foliar concentration of mono- and/or sesquiterpene for 71 species and 39 genera not previously analyzed. Altogether 80 terpene compounds were determined across the species, and out of these only linalool oxide and (E- g -bisabolene had phylogenetic signal. A significant negative relationship between leaf monoterpene concentration and leaf length was observed, but leaf mono- and sesquitepene concentration were not related to any other leaf morphological trait nor to leaf elemental composition. Functions such as temperature protection, radiation protection or signaling and communication could underlie the high frequency of terpene-containing species of this tropical ecosystem which has multiple and very diverse interactions among multiple species .

  20. Rural Tourism at its Peak: Socio-Cultural Impacts towards Host Communities of Kinabalu Park, Sabah (Malaysian-Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangit Tania Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kinabalu Park in Sabah (Malaysian-Borneo represents multiple tourism opportunities for its stakeholders, host communities and tourists. Being the first World Heritage Site in Malaysia endorsed by UNESCO since 2000, this nature-based tourism destination is a popular tourism destination in Malaysia, as well as in the Asia region. The designated study area includes villages nearby Kinabalu Park. Through the popularity of the park and various other attractions within the area, tourism activities contributes to socio-cultural impacts towards its host communities. The perceptions and attitudes of the locals towards tourism are identified and evaluated. By having the input of host communities as part of conserving tourism whilst meeting certain principles of sustainable tourism, the paper aims to attain interesting findings about the perceptions of the host communities towards socio-cultural impacts of tourism on their community. The paper further aims to recommend for the continuous improvement of sustainable tourism development at Kinabalu Park and its surroundings.

  1. Stream ecosystem integrity is impaired by logging and shifting agriculture in a global megadiversity center (Sarawak, Borneo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinggut, Tajang; Yule, Catherine M; Boyero, Luz

    2012-10-15

    In common with most of Borneo, the Bakun region of Sarawak is currently subject to heavy deforestation mainly due to logging and, to a lesser extent, traditional slash-and-burn farming practices. This has the potential to affect stream ecosystems, which are integrators of environmental change in the surrounding terrestrial landscape. This study evaluated the effects of both types of deforestation by using functional and structural indicators (leaf litter decomposition rates and associated detritivores or 'shredders', respectively) to compare a fundamental ecosystem process, leaf litter decomposition, within logged, farmed and pristine streams. Slash-and-burn agricultural practices increased the overall rate of decomposition despite a decrease in shredder species richness (but not shredder abundance) due to increased microbial decomposition. In contrast, decomposition by microbes and invertebrates was slowed down in the logged streams, where shredders were less abundant and less species rich. This study suggests that shredder communities are less affected by traditional agricultural farming practices, while modern mechanized deforestation has an adverse effect on both shredder communities and leaf breakdown. PMID:22922133

  2. Flowering mechanisms, pollination strategies and floral scent analyses of syntopically co-flowering Homalomena spp. (Araceae) on Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Y C; Gibernau, M; Maia, A C D; Wong, S Y

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the flowering mechanisms and pollination strategies of seven species of the highly diverse genus Homalomena (Araceae) were investigated in native populations of West Sarawak, Borneo. The floral scent compositions were also recorded for six of these species. The selected taxa belong to three out of four complexes of the section Cyrtocladon (Hanneae, Giamensis and Borneensis). The species belonging to the Hanneae complex exhibited longer anthesis (53-62 h) than those of the Giamensis and Borneensis complexes (ca. 30 h). Species belonging to the Hanneae complex underwent two floral scent emission events in consecutive days, during the pistillate and staminate phases of anthesis. In species belonging to the Giamensis and Borneensis complexes, floral scent emission was only evident to the human nose during the pistillate phase. A total of 33 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in floral scent analyses of species belonging to the Hanneae complex, whereas 26 VOCs were found in samples of those belonging to the Giamensis complex. The floral scent blends contained uncommon compounds in high concentration, which could ensure pollinator discrimination. Our observations indicate that scarab beetles (Parastasia gestroi and P. nigripennis; Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) are the pollinators of the investigated species of Homalomena, with Chaloenus schawalleri (Chrysomelidae, Galeuricinae) acting as a secondary pollinator. The pollinators utilise the inflorescence for food, mating opportunities and safe mating arena as rewards. Flower-breeding flies (Colocasiomyia nigricauda and C. aff. heterodonta; Diptera, Drosophilidae) and terrestrial hydrophilid beetles (Cycreon sp.; Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) were also frequently recovered from inflorescences belonging to all studied species (except H. velutipedunculata), but they probably do not act as efficient pollinators. Future studies should investigate the post-mating isolating barriers among syntopically co

  3. Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid viscosity to high prey diversity in a Nepenthes carnivorous plant from Borneo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bruno Di Giusto; Vladimir Grosbois; Elodie Fargeas; David J Marshall; Laurence Gaume

    2008-03-01

    Mechanisms that improve prey richness in carnivorous plants may involve three crucial phases of trapping: attraction, capture and retention. Nepenthes rafflesiana var. typica is an insectivorous pitcher plant that is widespread in northern Borneo. It exhibits ontogenetic pitcher dimorphism with the upper pitchers trapping more flying prey than the lower pitchers. While this difference in prey composition has been ascribed to differences in attraction, the contribution of capture and retention has been overlooked. This study focused on distinguishing between the prey trapping mechanisms, and assessing their relative contribution to prey diversity. Arthropod richness and diversity of both visitors and prey in the two types of pitchers were analysed to quantify the relative contribution of attraction to prey trapping. Rate of insect visits to the different pitcher parts and the presence or absence of a sweet fragrance was recorded to clarify the origin and mechanism of attraction. The mechanism of retention was studied by insect bioassays and measurements of fluid viscosity. Nepenthes rafflesiana was found to trap a broader prey spectrum than that previously described for any Nepenthes species, with the upper pitchers attracting and trapping a greater quantity and diversity of prey items than the lower pitchers. Capture efficiency was low compared with attraction or retention efficiency. Fragrance of the peristome, or nectar rim, accounted mainly for the observed non-specific, better prey attraction by the upper pitchers, while the retentive properties of the viscous fluid in these upper pitchers arguably explains the species richness of their flying prey. The pitchers of N. rafflesiana are therefore more than simple pitfall traps and the digestive fluid plays an important yet unsuspected role in the ecological success of the species.

  4. Rapid replacement of riparian rainforest habitat and the impacts on the meandering dynamics of the Kinabatangan River, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Alexander J.; Constantine, José A.

    2014-05-01

    Meandering rivers are defined by their nature to migrate, remobilising floodplain sediment and constructing new surfaces for riparian vegetation to colonise. The presence of riparian vegetation has long been known to limit the ability of rivers to erode riverbanks, but it has remained unclear the principal means by which vegetation provides this function. As a result, most models that predict meandering behaviour do not fully incorporate vegetation, thereby limiting their utility where forest is rapidly replaced. The problem is particularly acute along the Kinabatangan River of Sabah in Malaysian Borneo, where oil palm plantations are replacing one of the oldest riparian rainforests on the planet. The area of Sabah has seen rapid and extensive land use change in the last 40 years, as virgin rainforest has been systematically cleared for logging, and to make way for oil palm plantations. In the 18 years from 1990 to 2008, Sabah lost half of its intact rainforest, which equates to more than 1.85 million hectares. Using Landsat imagery dating back to 1973, we report here the impacts of this rapid land-use change on rates of meander migration on a 280-km reach of the Kinabatangan River. The river planform has been remarkably stable throughout the time period of study, but individual meanders show a rapid response to large discharge events, migrating over an order of magnitude faster than nearby reaches. Rapidly migrating meanders generally occur along portions of floodplain that have been artificially cleared of riparian vegetation, potentially resulting in significant increases in sediment load and within-channel bar development. A field campaign is planned to investigate the mechanisms by which riparian vegetation effect meander migration in these tropical regions.

  5. Coral Reefs at the Northernmost Tip of Borneo: An Assessment of Scleractinian Species Richness Patterns and Benthic Reef Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarinah Waheed

    Full Text Available The coral reefs at the northernmost tip of Sabah, Borneo will be established under a marine protected area: the Tun Mustapha Park (TMP by the end of 2015. This area is a passage where the Sulu Sea meets the South China Sea and it is situated at the border of the area of maximum marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle. The TMP includes fringing and patch reefs established on a relatively shallow sea floor. Surveys were carried out to examine features of the coral reefs in terms of scleractinian species richness, and benthic reef assemblages following the Reef Check substrate categories, with emphasis on hard coral cover. Variation in scleractinian diversity was based on the species composition of coral families Fungiidae (n = 39, Agariciidae (n = 30 and Euphylliidae (n = 15. The number of coral species was highest at reefs with a larger depth gradient i.e. at the periphery of the study area and in the deep South Banggi Channel. Average live hard coral cover across the sites was 49%. Only 7% of the examined reefs had > 75% hard coral cover, while the majority of the reef sites were rated fair (51% and good (38%. Sites with low coral cover and high rubble fragments are evidence of blast fishing, although the observed damage appeared old. Depth was a dominant factor in influencing the coral species composition and benthic reef communities in the TMP. Besides filling in the information gaps regarding species richness and benthic cover for reef areas that were previously without any data, the results of this study together with information that is already available on the coral reefs of TMP will be used to make informed decisions on zoning plans for conservation priorities in the proposed park.

  6. Land cover distribution in the peatlands of Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 with changes since 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Miettinen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Insular Southeast Asian peatlands have experienced rapid land cover changes over the past decades inducing a variety of environmental effects ranging from regional consequences on peatland ecology, biodiversity and hydrology to globally significant carbon emissions. In this paper we present the land cover and industrial plantation distribution in the peatlands of Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 and analyse their changes since 1990. We create the 2015 maps by visual interpretation of 30 m resolution Landsat data and combine them with fully comparable and completed land cover maps of 1990 and 2007 (Miettinen and Liew, 2010. Our results reveal continued peatland deforestation and conversion into managed land cover types. In 2015, 29% (4.6 Mha of the peatlands in the study area remain covered by peat swamp forest (vs. 41% or 6.4 Mha in 2007 and 76% or 11.9 Mha in 1990. Managed land cover types (industrial plantations and small-holder dominated areas cover 50% (7.8 Mha of all peatlands (vs. 33% 5.2 Mha in 2007 and 11% 1.7 Mha in 1990. Industrial plantations have nearly doubled their extent since 2007 (2.3 Mha; 15% and cover 4.3 Mha (27% of peatlands in 2015. The majority of these are oil palm plantations (73%; 3.1 Mha while nearly all of the rest (26%; 1.1 Mha are pulp wood plantations. We hope that the maps presented in this paper will enable improved evaluation of the magnitude of various regional to global level environmental effects of peatland conversion and that they will help decision makers to define sustainable peatland management policies for insular Southeast Asian peatlands.

  7. Learning from Traditional Knowledge of Non-timber Forest Products: Penan Benalui and the Autecology of Aquilaria in Indonesian Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Donovan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, promoted to make conservation and development more relevant and socially acceptable, is shown to have an important role in identifying critical research needs in tropical ecology. Botanists, foresters, and phytochemists, among others, from many countries have sought for decades to understand the process of resin formation in the genus Aquilaria, a tropical forest tree of South and Southeast Asia. Not every tree develops the resin and, despite extensive scientific research, this process remains poorly understood. Attempts at cultivating the valuable aromatic resin, gaharu, have been uneven at best. Thus, gaharu remains largely a natural forest product, increasingly under threat as the trees are overexploited and forest is cleared. In this paper, we compare scientific knowledge and traditional knowledge of the Penan Benalui and other forest product collectors of Indonesian Borneo. Although limited management of wildlings failed to bring the resin-producing species under cultivation, we found that the Penan recognize the complex ecology of resin formation involving two, or maybe three, living organisms—the tree, one or more fungi, and possibly an insect intermediary. Developing a sustainable production system for this resource will require a clear understanding of how these various natural elements function, separately and synergistically. Traditional knowledge can help fill gaps in our information base and identify promising areas for future research. Both correspondence and gaps in knowledge support the call for a greater role for ethnobiological research and interdisciplinary cooperation, especially between ethnobiologists and foresters, in developing sustainable management systems for this traditional resource and its natural habitat.

  8. Behind an ambitious megaproject in Asia: The history and implications of the Bakun hydroelectric dam in Borneo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a case-study, inductive, narrative approach, this article explores the history, drivers, benefits, and barriers to the Bakun Hydroelectric Project in East Malaysia. Situated on the island of Borneo, Bakun Dam is a 204 m high concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. Bakun Dam and its affiliated infrastructure could be the single largest and most expensive energy project ever undertaken in Southeast Asia. Based on data collected through site visits, original field research in Sarawak, and more than 80 research interviews, the article begins by teasing out the complex history and drivers behind the Bakun project before identifying a set of potential social, political, and economic benefits the project could deliver. It then delves into six sets of barriers in the technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental realms. We find that Bakun illustrates how centralized energy megaprojects, while ostensibly championed for reasons of economies of scale and the ability to bring about transformational change in the shortest period of time, often fail to address broader development goals such as fighting energy poverty and improving the livelihoods of the local communities they are supposed to serve. - Highlights: → Bakun Dam is concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. → The project faces technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental barriers. → We conclude the project will fail to fight energy poverty or improve the livelihoods of local populations.

  9. Sustained turbidity currents and their interaction with debrite-related topography; Labuan Island, offshore NW Borneo, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Johnson, Howard D.

    2009-07-01

    The Temburong Fm (Early Miocene), Labuan Island, offshore NW Borneo, was deposited in a lower-slope to proximal basin-floor setting, and provides an opportunity to study the deposits of sustained turbidity currents and their interaction with debrite-related topography. Two main gravity-flow facies are identified; (i) slump-derived debris-flow deposits (debrites) — characterised by ungraded silty mudstones in beds 1.5 to > 60 m thick which are rich in large (> 5 m) lithic clasts; and (ii) turbidity current deposits (turbidites) — characterised by medium-grained sandstone in beds up to 2 m thick, which contain structureless (T a) intervals alternating with planar-parallel (T b) and current-ripple (T c) laminated intervals. Laterally discontinuous, cobble-mantled scours are also locally developed within turbidite beds. Based on these characteristics, these sandstones are interpreted to have been deposited by sustained turbidity currents. The cobble-mantled scours indicate either periods of intense turbidity current waxing or individual flow events. The sustained turbidity currents are interpreted to have been derived from retrogressive collapse of sand-rich mouth bars (breaching) or directly from river effluent (hyperpycnal flow). Analysis of the stratal architecture of the two facies indicates that routing of the turbidity currents was influenced by topographic relief developed at the top of the underlying debrite. In addition, turbidite beds are locally eroded at the base of an overlying debrite, possibly due to clast-related substrate 'ploughing' during the latter flow event. This study highlights the difficulty in constraining the origin of sustained turbidity currents in ancient sedimentary sequences. In addition, this study documents the importance large debrites may have in generating topography on submarine slopes and influencing routing of subsequent turbidity currents and the geometry of their associated deposits.

  10. Effects of land use on surface–atmosphere exchanges of trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing fluxes over oil palm plantations and a rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, David; Nemitz, Eiko; Misztal, Pawel; Di Marco, Chiara; Skiba, Ute; Ryder, James; Helfter, Carole; Cape, J. Neil; Owen, Sue; Dorsey, James; Gallagher, Martin W.; Coyle, Mhairi; Phillips, Gavin; Davison, Brian; Langford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports measurements of land–atmosphere fluxes of sensible and latent heat, momentum, CO2, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NO, NO2, N2O and O3 over a 30 m high rainforest canopy and a 12 m high oil palm plantation in the same region of Sabah in Borneo between April and July 2008. The daytime maximum CO2 flux to the two canopies differs by approximately a factor of 2, 1200 mg C m−2 h−1 for the oil palm and 700 mg C m−2 h−1 for the rainforest, with the oil palm plantation showing ...

  11. Hydrogeomorphological and water quality impacts of oil palm conversion and logging in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo: a multi-catchment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Nainar, Anand; Bidin, Kawi; Higton, Sam; Annammala, Kogilavani; Blake, William; Luke, Sarah; Murphy, Laura; Perryman, Emily; Wall, Katy; Hanapi, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    The last three decades have seen a combination of logging and land-use change across most of the rainforest tropics. This has involved conversion to oil palm across large parts of SE Asia. Although much is now known about the hydrological and sediment transport impacts of logging, relatively little is known about how impacts of oil palm conversion compare with those of logging. Furthermore little is known about the impacts of both on river morphology and water quality. This paper reports some findings of the first phase of a ten-year large-scale manipulative multi-catchment experiment (part of the SAFE - Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems - Project), based in the upper part of the Brantian Catchment in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo; the project is designed to assess the degree to which adverse impacts of oil palm conversion (on erosion, downstream channel change, water quality and river ecology) might be reduced by retaining buffer zones of riparian forest of varying width from zero to 120 metres. Ten 2 km2 catchments of contrasting land use history have been instrumented since 2011 to record discharge, turbidity, conductivity and water temperature at 5-minute intervals. These comprise 6 repeat-logged catchments being subjected in 2015-16 to conversion to oil palm with varying riparian forest widths; a repeat-logged 'control' catchment; an old regrowth catchment; an oil palm catchment; and a primary forest catchment. In addition, (1) monthly water samples from the catchments have been analysed for nitrates and phosphates, (2) channel cross-sectional change along each stream has been monitored at six-monthly intervals and (3) supplementary surveys have been made of downstream bankfull channel cross-sectional size and water chemistry at a wider range of catchment sites, and (4) sediment cores have been taken and contemporary deposition monitored at a hierarchical network of sites in the large Brantian catchment for geochemical analysis and dating to establish the

  12. Developmental changes in the facial morphology of the Borneo orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus): possible signals in visual communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, Noko; Malim, Titol Peter; Kohshima, Shiro

    2005-04-01

    Orangutans display remarkable developmental changes and sexual differences in facial morphology, such as the flanges or cheek-pads that develop only on the face of dominant adult males. These changes suggest that facial morphology is an important factor in visual communication. However, developmental changes in facial morphology have not been examined in detail. We studied developmental changes in the facial morphology of the Borneo orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) by observing 79 individuals of various ages living in the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC) in Malaysia and in Japanese zoos. We also analyzed photographs of one captive male that were taken over a period of more than 16 years. There were clear morphological changes that occurred with growth, and we identified previously unreported sexual and developmental differences in facial morphology. Light-colored skin around the eyes and mouth is most prominent in animals younger than 3 years, and rapidly decreases in area through the age of approximately 7 years. At the same time, the scattered, erect hairs on the head (infant hair) become thick, dense hairs lying on the head (adult hair) in both sexes. The results suggest that these features are infant signals, and that adult signals may include darkened face color, adult hair, whiskers, and a beard, which begin to develop after the age of approximately 7 years in both sexes. In females, the eyelids remain white even after 10 years, and turn black at around the age of 20; in males, the eyelids turn black before the age of 10. The whiskers and beards of adults are thicker in males than in females, and are fully developed before the age of 10 in males, while they begin to develop in females only after approximately 20 years. White eyelids and undeveloped whiskers and beards may be visual signals that are indicative of young adult females. Our results also show that the facial morphology of the unflanged male is similar to that of the adult female, although

  13. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of fluid inclusions in speleothems using laser absorption spectroscopy: Application to stalagmites from Borneo and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Fleitmann, Dominik; Nele Meckler, Anna; Leuenberger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Speleothems are recognised as key continental archives for paleoclimate reconstructions. They contain fluid inclusions representing past drip water trapped in the calcite structure. Speleothem can be precisely dated and therefore the oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes of fluid inclusions constitute powerful proxies for paleotemperature or to investigate changes in the moisture source over several interglacial-glacial cycles. To liberate fluid inclusion water and to analyse its isotopic composition, a new online extraction method developed at Bern is used. The principle can be summarised as follows: Prior to crushing, the sample is placed into a copper tube, fixed to the line previously heated to 140° C and flushed with a nitrogen and standard water mixture. Thereafter, the speleothem sample is crushed using a simple hydraulic crushing device and the released water from fluid inclusions is transferred by the nitrogen-standard water mixture flow to a Picarro L1102-i isotopic liquid water and water vapor analyser. The measuring principle is based on wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) technology that allows us to simultaneously monitor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Reproducibility of standard water measurements is typically better than 1.5 o for δD and 0.4 o for δ18O. With this method, we successfully analysed δD and δ18O isotopic composition of a stalagmite from Northern Borneo (tropical West Pacific) covering almost two glacial-interglacial cycles from MIS 12 to early MIS 9 (460-330 ka) as well as recent samples from Switzerland and Borneo. These results are used in combination with calcite δ18O to reconstruct paleotemperature. Currently, we are measuring a stalagmite from Milandre cave (Jura, Switzerland) covering the Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas cold phase and the Holocene.

  14. Assessment of Above-Ground Biomass of Borneo Forests through a New Data-Fusion Approach Combining Two Pan-Tropical Biomass Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Langner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how two existing pan-tropical above-ground biomass (AGB maps (Saatchi 2011, Baccini 2012 can be combined to derive forest ecosystem specific carbon estimates. Several data-fusion models which combine these AGB maps according to their local correlations with independent datasets such as the spectral bands of SPOT VEGETATION imagery are analyzed. Indeed these spectral bands convey information about vegetation type and structure which can be related to biomass values. Our study area is the island of Borneo. The data-fusion models are evaluated against a reference AGB map available for two forest concessions in Sabah. The highest accuracy was achieved by a model which combines the AGB maps according to the mean of the local correlation coefficients calculated over different kernel sizes. Combining the resulting AGB map with a new Borneo land cover map (whose overall accuracy has been estimated at 86.5% leads to average AGB estimates of 279.8 t/ha and 233.1 t/ha for forests and degraded forests respectively. Lowland dipterocarp and mangrove forests have the highest and lowest AGB values (305.8 t/ha and 136.5 t/ha respectively. The AGB of all natural forests amounts to 10.8 Gt mainly stemming from lowland dipterocarp (66.4%, upper dipterocarp (10.9% and peat swamp forests (10.2%. Degraded forests account for another 2.1 Gt of AGB. One main advantage of our approach is that, once the best fitting data-fusion model is selected, no further AGB reference dataset is required for implementing the data-fusion process. Furthermore, the local harmonization of AGB datasets leads to more spatially precise maps. This approach can easily be extended to other areas in Southeast Asia which are dominated by lowland dipterocarp forest, and can be repeated when newer or more accurate AGB maps become available.

  15. Aircraft-borne DOAS limb observations of UV/visible absorbing trace gas species over Borneo: Implications for the photochemistry of iodine, volatile organic oxide degradation, and lightning-produced radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Großmann, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Tropical deep convection is one of the major mechanisms for transporting trace gases from the lower to the upper troposphere and tropical tropopause layer (TTL). From there, they further ascend to the lowermost stratosphere by diabatic heating. Within this thesis, airborne spectroscopic measurements were carried out during the SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign at Malaysian Borneo in November and December 2011 in order to study the abundance an...

  16. Natural peat degradation of equatorial peatlands in inland Borneo as a threshold-response to enhanced Late Holocene El Niño activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommain, R.; Frolking, S. E.; Glaser, P. H.; Joosten, H.; Kurnianto, S.; Neuzil, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical peatlands of Southeast Asia are generally ombrogenous, dome-shaped landforms on interfluves that exist under constantly high temperatures. Their carbon balance is consequently highly sensitive to changes in moisture supply and severe moisture deficits may lead to catastrophic shifts in the carbon pools of these peatlands. During the Late Holocene, non-linear-threshold responses seem to have occurred in inland peatlands of southern Borneo where numerous truncated peat profiles were found. These truncated profiles show high carbon accumulation rates of ~60 g m-2 yr-1 for the Early to Mid Holocene and near surface ages of between 7000 and 4000 yr BP. We propose that lowered sea-levels and reduced June to November precipitation after 4000 yr BP lowered the potential water table mound of interfluvial peat domes, making them extremely sensitive to droughts. An abrupt increase in frequency and intensity of El Niño events after 2000 yr BP ultimately switched the peat domes into carbon dioxide releasing ecosystems that have progressively lost surface peat ever since. We examined this highly responsive behavior from both a paleoecological and a modelling perspective. To improve the near surface age estimates new AMS-14C dates were added to two of the profiles. The influence of lowered sea-levels and precipitation recharge on the elevation of the water-table mounds of the interfluvial peat domes was simulated with the Dupuit equation for groundwater table topography. The influence of changes in moisture supply and lowered base-level on annual peat growth was explored with the Holocene Peat Model (HPM). The HPM model results show that, with an imposed gradual drying that increased decomposition rates, the contemporary peat depth is less than at 4000 yr BP (annual net C release) and apparent accumulation rates dropped from ~0.5 mm yr-1 to ~0.1 mm yr-1. Assuming peat loss started 2000 yr BP, annual carbon release from degrading peat domes is between ~60 to ~110 g C m-2

  17. Revision of the genus Devadatta Kirby, 1890 in Borneo based on molecular and morphological methods, with descriptions of four new species (Odonata: Zygoptera: Devadattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A; Hämäläinen, Matti; Stokvis, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    Species of Devadatta from Borneo are studied using both morphological and molecular methods. As well as D. podolestoides Laidlaw, four new species are recognised from the island: D. aran spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Pulong Tau National Park, Miri division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. clavicauda spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Bukit Mina, Bukit Mina Wildlife Corridor, Sarawak Planted Forest Project, Bintulu division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. somoh spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from the Sungai Kahei area, Ulu Balui, Kapit division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH) and D. tanduk spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Poring Hot Springs, Kinabalu National Park, West Coast division, Sabah, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH). The Philippine taxon D. basilanensis Laidlaw is considered a good species rather than a subspecies of D. podolestoides. The Bornean species plus D. basilanensis are provisionally considered to form a species group, the podolestoides-group, within Devadatta. The species of the podolestoides-group are so similar in morphology and colouration that they are close to truly cryptic species. Two species appear to exhibit character displacement where their ranges overlap with other Devadatta species. A molecular analysis using four markers (COI, 16S, ITS and 28S) is presented. This analysis includes specimens of all species from the podolestoides-group and two Devadatta species from mainland Asia. PMID:26624409

  18. Karakteristik Genetik dan Fenotip Ayam Nunukan di Pulau Tarakan, Kalimantan Timur (THE PHENOTHYPIC AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTIC OF NUNUKAN CHICKEN OF TARAKAN ISLAND, EAST BORNEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alwi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is local chicken of Tarakan and Nunukan in East Borneo Province. It is a germplasmof East Kalimantan which have special characteristics. Due to its characteristic, the chicken extremelyneed to be conserved and develop. This study was conducted to find out more reliable data on thecharacteristics of nunukan chicken in Tarakan Island. It was done by directly observed and measuredfenotype traits of nunukan chicken. Sample used was mature chicken, with the total tnumber 211 birds.Fenotype qualitative traits of nunukan chicken was florid brown of feather basic colour, columbian offeather colour theme, golden of feather flickering, and solid of feather pattern. The other special traits islittle growth (even not growth of wings and tail feather, and on immature chicken (age of 0-5 monthcommonly primary feather not growth. There was 13 fenotype quantitative traits on male, and two onfemale chicken was different between location (sub district on 20 traits. The number of nunukan chickenat Tarakan Island was about 940 birds, and 36,17% was mature chicken. The effective population totalwas 299 birds, highest effective population was in West Tarakan (162 birds and lowest was in MidleTarakan (46 birds. The average of inbreeding increased 0.177%, highest was in Midle Tarakan (1,08%and lowest was in West Tarakan (0,31. The population of nunukan chicken in Tarakan Island was specificof the fenotype characteristic.

  19. Heart of borneo as a ′Jalan Tikus′: Exploring the links Between indigenous rights, extractive and exploitative industries, and conservation at the World Conservation Congress 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitchner Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Fourth World Conservation Congress in Barcelona in October 2008, a number of motions were passed that emphasised human and indigenous rights and the role of the private sector, particularly extractive and exploitative industries, in conservation. These issues are highly relevant to the ongoing World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-led Heart of Borneo (HoB conservation initiative, which is situated in an area with overlapping political jurisdictions and an array of possible futures, which could include new or expanded protected areas, community-managed conservation programmes, or oil palm plantations potentially covering millions of hectares. The HoB initiative is ambiguous in the sense that its borders are not fixed, its land and resource management strategies are not clearly defined, its projects are not predetermined, and its policies regarding who benefits from it are not obvious. HoB is also ambitious, and its actors must negotiate a number of different types of scales: geographic, political, economic, institutional, and ecological. These factors offer both opportunities and weaknesses both for conservation and for local and indigenous communities living within the HoB area. Using HoB as an example, I show how small NGOs, national branches of multinational NGOs like WWF, and local and indigenous communities must walk a ′jalan tikus′ to accomplish conservation and indigenous rights goals. I also offer suggestions on how the motions passed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN membership can be incorporated into HoB planning on the ground.

  20. Investment in seed physical defence is associated with species' light requirement for regeneration and seed persistence: evidence from Macaranga species in Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimonrat Tiansawat

    Full Text Available The seed stage is often critical in determining the regeneration success of plants. Seeds must survive an array of seed predators and pathogens and germinate under conditions favourable for seedling establishment. To maximise recruitment success plants protect seeds using a diverse set of chemical and physical defences. However, the relationship between these defence classes, and their association with other life history traits, is not well understood. Data on seed coat thickness and fracture resistance, and the abundance and diversity of potential defensive compounds were collected for 10 tree species of Macaranga from Borneo. The data were used to test whether there is a trade-off in physical versus chemical defence investment, and to determine how investment varies with seed mass, and light requirement for regeneration. Across species there was no correlation between seed coat thickness and abundance of potential defensive compounds, indicating the absence of a direct trade-off between defence classes. While chemical defences were not correlated to other traits, physical defences were positively correlated with light requirement for regeneration. For a subset of five Macaranga species we evaluated the relative investment in chemical and physical defence to seed persistence in the soil, measured as the time to half initial seed viability (seed half-life. Half-life was negatively related to the ratio of potential defensive compound abundance to seed coat thickness, suggesting that species with long persistence invested in physical defence more than stored chemical defences. These results indicate that investment in seed defences are associated with species' light requirements for regeneration, rather than scaling positively with seed mass. Furthermore, chemical defences, although highly variable among species, do not appear to be critical to long term persistence of Macaranga seeds, and may be important in defending seeds from natural enemies

  1. Paleontology to policy: the Quaternary history of Southeast Asian tapirs (Tapiridae) in relation to large mammal species turnover, with a proposal for conservation of Malayan tapir by reintroduction to Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    of Cranbrook, Earl; Piper, Philip J

    2013-03-01

    The Southeast Asian zoogeographical region is divided into Indochinese, Sundaic and Philippine subregions. Two clades of tapirs, Tapirus spp., have been recognized in Quaternary Southeast Asia. A review of sites at which they occurred shows that representatives of both clades, one of which was the ancestral Malayan tapir Tapirus indicus, co-existed with a diversity of other Pleistocene mammal megafauna. The process of replacement of archaic large mammals was progressive and prolonged through the Quaternary. Zooarcheological investigation has extended knowledge of the former occurrence and distribution of tapirs and other large mammals of the region, with discoveries beyond the outer limits of their previously known ranges. These large mammals were subjected to paleoenvironmental changes as a consequence of the Quaternary cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Archeological evidence suggests that hunting pressure has intensified the effects of altered environments, leading ultimately to the local disappearance of the Malayan tapir in most of Southeast Asia, including Borneo. The survival of the Malayan tapir through the Quaternary until the present shows that the species is both resilient to environmental change and flexible in its ecological re'uirements and, given proper protection, could continue to inhabit tropical Southeast Asia. To assist the species conservation, reintroduction is proposed from the remaining range of Malayan tapir in the wild, to suitable sites of past occurrence in Borneo, where these ancient survivors of the Quaternary megafauna can be accommodated and safeguarded alongside other forms of land usage. PMID:23586564

  2. Erosion on tropical rain-forest terrain: a re-evaluation in the light of long-term monitoring, aerial photographic evidence and sediment fingerprinting in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Clarke, Michelle; Sayer, Aimee; Ghazali, Rosmadi; Annammala, Kogila; Chappell, Nick; Douglas, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Rain-forest vegetation is generally considered to be highly protective against erosion, but with disturbance via logging leading to major, but relatively short-lived increases in erosion for a 2-year period until rapid revegetation of slopes has occurred. This paper questions and re-assesses these views using a combination of long-term monitoring, GIS-assisted aerial photograph analysis and multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting in primary rainforest and adjacent terrain that was selectively logged either in 1988-89 or in 1992-93 within the Segama catchment in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. In primary forest areas, repeat measurements using the erosion bridge technique over the 20-year period 1990-2010 demonstrate how slopewash rates are significant, but concentrated in extreme events and increasing sharply with slope angle. Continuous monitoring of suspended sediment, coupled with repeat erosion bridge measurement, however, demonstrate that pipe erosion is at least as important even on moderate terrain and landsliding is an important process on steep terrain. In the selectively logged Baru catchment, a combination of long-term monitoring of suspended sediment and repeat measurements at an erosion bridge network has demonstrated that the erosional impact of logging is longer-term than formerly thought, with a major secondary peak in erosion 5-10 years after logging due to road-linked landslides and the decay of logs in debris dams; analysis of current bed-sediment and floodplain cores using a multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting approach demonstrates that sources of sediment are still different to those in primary forest over 20 years after logging ceased. Sediment fingerprinting at the large catchment scale (focussing on the analysis of lateral bench and floodplain sediment cores compared with upstream tributary sediment inputs), together with GIS-assisted analysis of aerial photographic evidence of spatial differences in landslide occurrence, demonstrates the key

  3. Investigating how fundamental parameters of XRF sample preparation and analysis affect the observed elemental concentration: an experiment using fluvial sediment from Sabah, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higton, Sam; Walsh, Rory

    2015-04-01

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is an important technique for measuring the concentrations of geochemical elements and inorganic contaminants adsorbed to sediments as an input to sediment tracing methods used to evaluate sediment transport dynamics in river catchments. In addition to traditional laboratory-based XRF instruments, the advent of increasingly advanced portable handheld XRF devices now mean that samples of fluvial sediment can be analysed in the field or in the laboratory following appropriate sample preparation procedures. There are limitations and sources of error associated with XRF sample preparation and analysis, however. It is therefore important to understand how fundamental parameters involved in sample preparation and analysis, such as sample compression and measurement exposure duration, affect observed variability in measurement results. Such considerations become important if the resulting measurement variability is high relative to the natural variability in element concentrations at a sample site. This paper deployed a simple experimental design to assess the impacts of varying a number of sample preparation and XRF analysis parameters on recorded measurements of elemental concentrations of the fine fraction (XRF elemental analyser. Helium purging was used on both machines to enable measurement of lighter geochemical elements. Sediment sub-samples were taken from a larger homogenised sample from a sediment core taken from an in-channel lateral bench deposit of the Brantian river in Sabah, Borneo; the core site is being used for research into multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting as part of the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project. Some fundamental sample preparation procedures consistent with US EPA Method 6200 were applied to all sediment samples in order to explore key variables of interest. All sediment samples were air-dried to constant weight and sample quantity was sufficient to satisfy the assumption of 'infinite thickness

  4. On the roles of the northeast cold surge, the Borneo vortex, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, and the Indian Ocean Dipole during the extreme 2006/2007 flood in southern Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangang, Fredolin T.; Juneng, Liew; Salimun, Ester; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Seng, Yap Kok; Reason, C. J. C.; Behera, S. K.; Yasunari, T.

    2008-05-01

    The mid-December 2006 to late January 2007 flood in southern Peninsular Malaysia was the worst flood in a century and was caused by three extreme precipitation episodes. These extreme precipitation events were mainly associated with strong northeasterly winds over the South China Sea. In all cases, the northeasterlies penetrated anomalously far south and followed almost a straight trajectory. The elevated terrain over Sumatra and southern Peninsular Malaysia caused low-level convergence. The strong easterly winds near Java associated with the Rossby wave-type response to Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) inhibited the counter-clockwise turning of the northeasterlies and the formation of the Borneo vortex, which, in turn, enhanced the low-level convergence over the region. The abrupt termination of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in December 2006 played a secondary role as warmer equatorial Indian Ocean helped in the MJO formation.

  5. Les rites de la mort à Bornéo : séparation ou renaissance ? Actualité de Robert Hertz Death Rites in Borneo: Separation or Rebirth? Robert Hertz’ Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Couderc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La publication récente par le Borneo Research Council d’un ouvrage collectif sur la mort fournit l’occasion de réévaluer l’apport de Robert Hertz à la compréhension des rites funéraires à Bornéo. Si la traduction en anglais, dans les années 1960, de l’essai de Hertz sur la représentation collective de la mort avait consacré, grâce notamment aux travaux de Peter Metcalf sur les Berawan, la puissance du modèle analytique hertzien, ce nouvel ouvrage semble signaler que le moment de la célébration finale est venu, où les héritiers se libèrent de l’emprise spirituelle du défunt. Tout en conservant une grande part de sa valeur comme théorie du deuil, le paradigme transitionnel ou « réactif » de Hertz révèle ses limites, mises ici en lumière par des données ethnographiques encore peu connues ou inédites, qui démontrent, par exemple, l’existence d’une circulation des composantes de la personne par delà l’opposition entre la vie et la mort, ou encore l’influence directe des secondes funérailles sur la renaissance des défunts. Cet article aborde le dépassement du modèle hertzien en retournant à la lettre de l’essai, dont il met en relief l’intelligence ethnographique et la finesse théorique.The recent publication by the Borneo Research Council of a collection of essays on death provides an opportunity to reassess the heritage of Robert Hertz, whose theory of the double obsequies relies heavily on the ethnography of the Ngaju and other Borneo peoples. The translation of Hertz’s essay on the collective representation of death in the 1960s, prompting in particular Peter Metcalf’s work on the Berawan, has consecrated the explanatory power of Hertz’s model. With this new book, however, time seems to have come for the final celebration that marks the heirs’ liberation from the deceased’s spiritual influence. While still largely valid as a general theory of mourning, Hertz’s paradigm of

  6. Chromoblastomycosis in Sarawak, East malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Felix Boon Bin

    2010-02-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of 11 new patients with a histological diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis at Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia, between 1996 and 2008. The majority (81.8%) were males, and the median age at presentation was 40 years. Over half the patients were farmers. All the patients had irregular verrucous lesions, mostly on the lower limbs (90.9%), and had initially been misdiagnosed. The mean duration of the lesions was 13.8 years. Oral terbinafine and itraconazole were administered to all the patients; clinical cure was seen in 54.5%, and partial response in 18.2%. Concomitant electrocautery and cryotherapy were only effective for small lesions. PMID:19766279

  7. Methodological issues and preliminary results from a combined sediment fingerprinting and radioisotope dating approach to explore changes in sediment sources with land-use change in the Brantian Catchment, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Higton, Sam; Marshall, Jake; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Nainar, Anand

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports some methodological issues and early results of a project investigating the erosional impacts of land use changes (multiple selective logging and progressive, partial conversion to oil palm) over the last 25-40 years in the 600km2 Brantian river catchment in Sabah, Borneo. A combined sediment fingerprinting and radioisotope dating approach is being applied to sediment cores taken in stream hierarchical fashion across the intermediate catchment scale. Changes in sediment sources and sedimentation rates over time can be captured by changes in the relative importance of geochemical elements with depth in downstream sediment cores, which in turn can be linked to parallel changes in upstream cores by the application of unmixing models and statistical techniques. Radioisotope analysis of the sediment cores allows these changes to be dated and sedimentation rates to be estimated. Work in the neighbouring Segama catchment had successfully demonstrated the potential of such an approach in a rainforest environment (Walsh et al. 2011). The paper first describes steps taken to address methodological issues. The approach relies on taking continuous sediment cores which have aggraded progressively over time and remain relatively undisturbed and uncontaminated. This issue has been tackled (1) through careful core sampling site selection with a focus on lateral bench sites and (2) deployment of techniques such as repeat-measurement erosion bridge transects to assess the contemporary nature of sedimentation to validate (or reject) candidate sites. The issue of sediment storage and uncertainties over lag times has been minimised by focussing on sets of above- and below-confluence sites in the intermediate zone of the catchment, thus minimising sediment transit times between upstream contributing and downstream destination core sites. This focus on the intermediate zone was also driven by difficulties in finding suitable core sites in the mountainous headwaters

  8. Plant diversity after rain-forest fires in Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, Karl August Otto

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades El-Niño-induced fires have caused widespread destruction of forests in East Kalimantan. The 1997-98 fires were the most extensive yet. The post-fire situation was studied in detail by field assessments and high-resolution SAR-images. My results show that rain forests are better able to conserve their high plant diversity than has been assumed because of the network of unburnt remnant forest, large remnant trees, and abundant tree regeneration. These elements were prese...

  9. DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BORNEO CANARIUM ODONTOPHYLLUM (DABAI FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality and shelf-life of an underutilized fruits are compromised by the conventional method of drying. We therefore proposed using hot-air chamber to develop the drying curves of Canarium odontophyllum (dabai fruit. Present study provides evidence of the best mathematical model to demonstrate the drying characteristics of this indigenous fruit and thus, may generate or add to the existing database. The drying experiments were performed at three different relative humidity of 10, 20 and 30% and a constant air velocity of 1 m sec-1. Drying kinetics of C. odontophyllum fruit were investigated and obtained. A non-linear regression procedure was used to fit three different one-term exponential models of thin layer drying models. The models were compared with experimental data of C. odontophyllum fruit drying at air temperature of 55°C. The fit quality of the models was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. The highest value of R2 obtained was 0.9348, the lowest MBE value was 0.0018 and the value for RMSE was 0.0420. Page model is the best mathematical model to describe the drying behavior of C. odontophyllum fruit.

  10. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  11. Reconciling forest conservation and logging in Indonesian Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L A Gaveau

    Full Text Available Combining protected areas with natural forest timber concessions may sustain larger forest landscapes than is possible via protected areas alone. However, the role of timber concessions in maintaining natural forest remains poorly characterized. An estimated 57% (303,525 km² of Kalimantan's land area (532,100 km² was covered by natural forest in 2000. About 14,212 km² (4.7% had been cleared by 2010. Forests in oil palm concessions had been reduced by 5,600 km² (14.1%, while the figures for timber concessions are 1,336 km² (1.5%, and for protected forests are 1,122 km² (1.2%. These deforestation rates explain little about the relative performance of the different land use categories under equivalent conversion risks due to the confounding effects of location. An estimated 25% of lands allocated for timber harvesting in 2000 had their status changed to industrial plantation concessions in 2010. Based on a sample of 3,391 forest plots (1×1 km; 100 ha, and matching statistical analyses, 2000-2010 deforestation was on average 17.6 ha lower (95% C.I.: -22.3 ha- -12.9 ha in timber concession plots than in oil palm concession plots. When location effects were accounted for, deforestation rates in timber concessions and protected areas were not significantly different (Mean difference: 0.35 ha; 95% C.I.: -0.002 ha-0.7 ha. Natural forest timber concessions in Kalimantan had similar ability as protected areas to maintain forest cover during 2000-2010, provided the former were not reclassified to industrial plantation concessions. Our study indicates the desirability of the Government of Indonesia designating its natural forest timber concessions as protected areas under the IUCN Protected Area Category VI to protect them from reclassification.

  12. Cavernicolous And Terrestrial Decapod Crustacea From Northern Sarawak, Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    During the 1977-1978 Royal Geographical Society Mulu (Sarawak) Expedition a number of Decapod Crustacea was obtained. Some were collected by Mr. Philip Chapman in the course of studies of the invertebrates of the limestone caves in the Gunong Mulu National Park, 4th Division of Sarawak, and the Niah

  13. Improving the age control of eastern Borneo's Miocene sedimentary record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, N.T.

    2016-01-01

    The Indonesia Archipelago is a complex region that both harbors the today’s most biodiverse marine environments and plays an important role in climate and ocean regulation. Additionally, the area contains a large human population and noteworthy fossil fuel industries. However, there is a dearth of k

  14. On a new species of Buprestide, Catoxantha purpurascens, from Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1879-01-01

    This beautiful species, for which I propose the name of Catoxantha purpurascens, belongs to Lacordaire’s Section A ¹) which contains at present as far as I know seven species, viz. bicolor Fabr., nigricornis H. Deyr. and Mouhotii E. Saund. (species with a swollen yellowish patch near each posterior

  15. Plant diversity after rain-forest fires in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, Karl August Otto

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades El-Niño-induced fires have caused widespread destruction of forests in East Kalimantan. The 1997-98 fires were the most extensive yet. The post-fire situation was studied in detail by field assessments and high-resolution SAR-images. My results show that rain forests are bett

  16. U-series Dating of Stalagmites from Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, J. F.; Partin, J.; Cobb, K.; Clark, B.

    2006-12-01

    In a series of field campaigns dating back to the fall of 2003 we have collected over 60 stalagmites from the Gunung Buda cave system in Sarawak, Malaysia (4°N, 115°E). At least twenty of these samples have excellent calcite preservation and span an age range from modern to over 500,000 years old. The bulk of the collection is of early glacial to Holocene age and can provide multiple overlapping records of climate variability from the Western Pacific Warm Pool. However, generating absolute U-series ages from this collection is challenging. The host rock is a Miocene aged limestone that is covered by rainforest with virtually no topsoil development. This setting leaves the typical stalagmite sample with a low uranium concentration (100s of ppb), a low initial δ234U (-650‰ to -100‰), and a relatively high detrital Th concentration (10s to 100s of pmol/g). We have generated age models in these difficult circumstances by making over 150 MC-ICP-MS measurements of the 238U-234U-230Th-232Th disequilibrium system. Ages are limited by our correction for initial 230Th. This is a common problem in U-series dating of stalagmites that we have addressed by generating a "histogram" of initial 230/232 values. With 14 isochrons from four separate stalagmites spanning the glacial maximum through the Holocene we can conservatively constrain the initial 230/232 atom ratio to be 60±10x10-6. There are small differences in the weighted mean of this value between stalagmites, but no systematic differences with time within a stalagmite. The very low δ234U values are intriguing and must represent the effects of recent weathering of the host limestone. These low and variable δ234U ratios also make it imperative to calculate the initial 230/232 ratios with full three-dimensional isochrons, extrapolating to zero U-238 on a "Rosholt Diagram" does not produce a consistent answer between the samples. Overall we can produce 2 sigma age errors that are better than 1% for the combined analytical and initial 230Th uncertainties.

  17. Do Anthropogenic Dark Earths Occur in the Interior of Borneo? Some Initial Observations from East Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    D. Sheil; Basuki, I.; German, L.; Kuyper, T. W.; Limberg, G.; Puri, R. K.; Sellato, B.; Noordwijk, van, M.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic soils of the Amazon Basin (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata) reveal that pre-Colombian peoples made lasting improvements in the agricultural potential of nutrient-poor soils. Some have argued that applying similar techniques could improve agriculture over much of the humid tropics, enhancing local livelihoods and food security, while also sequestering large quantities of carbon to mitigate climate change. Here, we present preliminary evidence for Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADEs) in tro...

  18. Do Anthropogenic Dark Earths Occur in the Interior of Borneo? Some Initial Observations from East Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Meine van Noordwijk; Eva Wollenberg; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Godwin Limberg; Bernard Sellato; Puri, Rajindra K.; Imam Basuki; Laura German; Douglas Sheil

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic soils of the Amazon Basin (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata) reveal that pre-Colombian peoples made lasting improvements in the agricultural potential of nutrient-poor soils. Some have argued that applying similar techniques could improve agriculture over much of the humid tropics, enhancing local livelihoods and food security, while also sequestering large quantities of carbon to mitigate climate change. Here, we present preliminary evidence f...

  19. Intestinal parasites of endangered orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Central and East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labes, E M; Hegglin, D; Grimm, F; Nurcahyo, W; Harrison, M E; Bastian, M L; Deplazes, P

    2010-01-01

    Faecal samples from 163 captive and semi-captive individuals, 61 samples from wild individuals and 38 samples from captive groups of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Kalimantan, Indonesia, were collected during one rainy season (November 2005-May 2006) and screened for intestinal parasites using sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-concentration (SAFC), sedimentation, flotation, McMaster- and Baermann techniques. We aimed to identify factors influencing infection risk for specific intestinal parasites in wild orangutans and individuals living in captivity. Various genera of Protozoa (including Entamoeba, Endolimax, Iodamoeba, Balantidium, Giardia and Blastocystis), nematodes (such as Strongyloides, Trichuris, Ascaris, Enterobius, Trichostrongylus and hookworms) and one trematode (a dicrocoeliid) were identified. For the first time, the cestode Hymenolepis was detected in orangutans. Highest prevalences were found for Strongyloides (individuals 37%; groups 58%), hookworms (41%; 58%), Balantidium (40%; 61%), Entamoeba coli (29%; 53%) and a trichostrongylid (13%; 32%). In re-introduction centres, infants were at higher risk of infection with Strongyloides than adults. Infection risk for hookworms was significantly higher in wild males compared with females. In groups, the centres themselves had a significant influence on the infection risk for Balantidium. Ranging patterns of wild orangutans, overcrowding in captivity and a shift of age composition in favour of immatures seemed to be the most likely factors leading to these results. PMID:19765342

  20. Biomass burning drives atmospheric nutrient redistribution within forested peatlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; Curran, Lisa M.; Pittman, Alice M.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Steele, Bethel G.; Ratnasari, Dessy; Mujiman; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2016-08-01

    Biomass burning plays a critical role not only in atmospheric emissions, but also in the deposition and redistribution of biologically important nutrients within tropical landscapes. We quantified the influence of fire on biogeochemical fluxes of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) in a 12 ha forested peatland in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Total (inorganic + organic) N, {{{{NO}}}3}- -N, {{{{NH}}}4}+ -N, total P, {{{{PO}}}4}3- -P, and {{{{SO}}}4}2- -S fluxes were measured in throughfall and bulk rainfall weekly from July 2013 to September 2014. To identify fire events, we used concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) and MODIS Active Fire Product counts within 20 and 100 km radius buffers surrounding the site. Dominant sources of throughfall nutrient deposition were explored using cluster and back-trajectory analysis. Our findings show that this Bornean peatland receives some of the highest P (7.9 kg {{{{PO}}}4}3- -P ha-1yr-1) and S (42 kg {{{{SO}}}4}2- -S ha-1yr-1) deposition reported globally, and that N deposition (8.7 kg inorganic N ha-1yr-1) exceeds critical load limits suggested for tropical forests. Six major dry periods and associated fire events occurred during the study. Seventy-eight percent of fires within 20 km and 40% within 100 km of the site were detected within oil palm plantation leases (industrial agriculture) on peatlands. These fires had a disproportionate impact on below-canopy nutrient fluxes. Post-fire throughfall events contributed >30% of the total inorganic N ({{{{NO}}}3}- -N + {{{{NH}}}4}+ -N) and {{{{PO}}}4}3- -P flux to peatland soils during the study period. Our results indicate that biomass burning associated with agricultural peat fires is a major source of N, P, and S in throughfall and could rival industrial pollution as an input to these systems during major fire years. Given the sheer magnitude of fluxes reported here, fire-related redistribution of nutrients may have significant fertilizing or acidifying effects on a diversity of nutrient-limited ecosystems.

  1. Molluscan fauna of the lower Gelingseh Beds s. str., Sangkulirang area, Kalimantan Timur (East Borneo)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation is given of the results of an investigation of all the molluscs collected by L.M.R. Rutten some seventy years ago, at five localities in the type area of the Gelingseh Beds s. str., Late Miocene. Thirteen new species are described, viz, Smaragdia gelingsehensis, Rissoina maduparensis,

  2. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  3. Do Anthropogenic Dark Earths Occur in the Interior of Borneo? Some Initial Observations from East Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheil, D.; Basuki, I.; German, L.; Kuyper, T.W.; Limberg, G.; Puri, R.K.; Sellato, B.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic soils of the Amazon Basin (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata) reveal that pre-Colombian peoples made lasting improvements in the agricultural potential of nutrient-poor soils. Some have argued that applying similar techniques could improve agriculture over much of the humid tropics, enhancing

  4. Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Transforming Landscape in Northern Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Labrière

    Full Text Available Because industrial agriculture keeps expanding in Southeast Asia at the expense of natural forests and traditional swidden systems, comparing biodiversity and ecosystem services in the traditional forest-swidden agriculture system vs. monocultures is needed to guide decision making on land-use planning. Focusing on tree diversity, soil erosion control, and climate change mitigation through carbon storage, we surveyed vegetation and monitored soil loss in various land-use areas in a northern Bornean agricultural landscape shaped by swidden agriculture, rubber tapping, and logging, where various levels and types of disturbance have created a fine mosaic of vegetation from food crop fields to natural forest. Tree species diversity and ecosystem service production were highest in natural forests. Logged-over forests produced services similar to those of natural forests. Land uses related to the swidden agriculture system largely outperformed oil palm or rubber monocultures in terms of tree species diversity and service production. Natural and logged-over forests should be maintained or managed as integral parts of the swidden system, and landscape multifunctionality should be sustained. Because natural forests host a unique diversity of trees and produce high levels of ecosystem services, targeting carbon stock protection, e.g. through financial mechanisms such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+, will synergistically provide benefits for biodiversity and a wide range of other services. However, the way such mechanisms could benefit communities must be carefully evaluated to counter the high opportunity cost of conversion to monocultures that might generate greater income, but would be detrimental to the production of multiple ecosystem services.

  5. Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Transforming Landscape in Northern Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Labrière; Yves Laumonier; Bruno Locatelli; Ghislain Vieilledent; Marion Comptour

    2015-01-01

    Because industrial agriculture keeps expanding in Southeast Asia at the expense of natural forests and traditional swidden systems, comparing biodiversity and ecosystem services in the traditional forest-swidden agriculture system vs. monocultures is needed to guide decision making on land-use planning. Focusing on tree diversity, soil erosion control, and climate change mitigation through carbon storage, we surveyed vegetation and monitored soil loss in various land-use areas in a northern B...

  6. Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Transforming Landscape in Northern Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrière, Nicolas; Laumonier, Yves; Locatelli, Bruno; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Comptour, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Because industrial agriculture keeps expanding in Southeast Asia at the expense of natural forests and traditional swidden systems, comparing biodiversity and ecosystem services in the traditional forest-swidden agriculture system vs. monocultures is needed to guide decision making on land-use planning. Focusing on tree diversity, soil erosion control, and climate change mitigation through carbon storage, we surveyed vegetation and monitored soil loss in various land-use areas in a northern Bornean agricultural landscape shaped by swidden agriculture, rubber tapping, and logging, where various levels and types of disturbance have created a fine mosaic of vegetation from food crop fields to natural forest. Tree species diversity and ecosystem service production were highest in natural forests. Logged-over forests produced services similar to those of natural forests. Land uses related to the swidden agriculture system largely outperformed oil palm or rubber monocultures in terms of tree species diversity and service production. Natural and logged-over forests should be maintained or managed as integral parts of the swidden system, and landscape multifunctionality should be sustained. Because natural forests host a unique diversity of trees and produce high levels of ecosystem services, targeting carbon stock protection, e.g. through financial mechanisms such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), will synergistically provide benefits for biodiversity and a wide range of other services. However, the way such mechanisms could benefit communities must be carefully evaluated to counter the high opportunity cost of conversion to monocultures that might generate greater income, but would be detrimental to the production of multiple ecosystem services. PMID:26466120

  7. Recent trends in the intrinsic water-use efficiency of ringless rainforest trees in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loader, N J; Walsh, R P D; Robertson, I; Bidin, K; Ong, R C; Reynolds, G; McCarroll, D; Gagen, M; Young, G H F

    2011-11-27

    Stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C) series were developed from analysis of sequential radial wood increments from AD 1850 to AD 2009 for four mature primary rainforest trees from the Danum and Imbak areas of Sabah, Malaysia. The aseasonal equatorial climate meant that conventional dendrochronology was not possible as the tree species investigated do not exhibit clear annual rings or dateable growth bands. Chronology was established using radiocarbon dating to model age-growth relationships and date the carbon isotopic series from which the intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE) was calculated. The two Eusideroxylon zwageri trees from Imbak yielded ages of their pith/central wood (±1 sigma) of 670 ± 40 and 759 ± 40 years old; the less dense Shorea johorensis and Shorea superba trees at Danum yielded ages of 240 ± 40 and 330 ± 40 years, respectively. All trees studied exhibit an increase in the IWUE since AD 1960. This reflects, in part, a response of the forest to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Unlike studies of some northern European trees, no clear plateau in this response was observed. A change in the IWUE implies an associated modification of the local carbon and/or hydrological cycles. To resolve these uncertainties, a shift in emphasis away from high-resolution studies towards long, well-replicated time series is proposed to develop the environmental data essential for model evaluation. Identification of old (greater than 700 years) ringless trees demonstrates their potential in assessing the impacts of climatic and atmospheric change. It also shows the scientific and applied value of a conservation policy that ensures the survival of primary forest containing particularly old trees (as in Imbak Canyon and Danum).

  8. Tree sap flow and stand transpiration of two Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Malmer, A.

    2000-09-01

    Water use of Acacia mangium trees grown in plantations was measured by a heat balance method in two stands that largely differed in tree density. Tree sap flow was closely coupled to climatic drivers and responded with minimal time delay. Using no time shift, sap flow rate could be tightly fitted to a simple equation that combined a parabolic response to radiation and an inverse linear response to air humidity. On the contrary, the analysis of canopy conductance showed no meaningful response to either individual or combined microclimatic variables. No indication of water deficit was observed, though the measurement period was during the dry period of the year. The measurements indicate a minimal diurnal use of water stored in plant tissues. The difference in tree water use from the two studied stands was effectively scaled by tree sapwood area. Canopy transpiration of the densest stand reached in average 3.9 mm d -1 compared with 2.7 mm d -1 for the stand representing the average conditions in the catchment.

  9. The Importance of Maintaining a Proper Database on Forest Restoration Program for Orangutans in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The lowland forest of Sabah is the most important habitat for orangutans and pygmy elephants. This is shown in the WWF-Malaysia’s elephant tracking programme in which satellite-based Global Position System (GPS collar devices are used to monitor their movement and the range of their habitats, as well as an aerial survey on orangutan’s nest is performed to determine the spatial distribution pattern. We observed the activities of both species and we found that these species stay inside lowland forests with on flat ground or with gentle slopes, below 500 m elevation, which is mostly covered by natural forest. The density of orangutan’s population was estimated to be higher in a certain location in natural lowland forests where the soils are more fertile. A suitable long term habitat for both species is located in the lowland dipterocarp forests. However, most of the pristine habitats in the lowland area have been converted into other land use activities such as a large scale plantation. This is due to the fact that most of the lowland forests are facing a continuous degradation process that will decrease its commercial value when it comes to generating revenue to the state government. As a result, the efforts to restore the forest are very vital. Approach: This study described the technical and biological aspects in the forest restoration planning, prioritizing, implementation and monitoring process, integrated with the data on habitat utilization by orangutan in lowland degraded dipterocarp forest. Key habitats for orangutans were identified, forest condition were mapped and field works were carried out using a plot sampling technique to identify the diversity and density of the forest (current and potential, in order to support the forest restoration planning. A proper database on forest restoration and tree maintenance planning had been developed to enable the monitoring process. Results: This study outlined some of the findings that include the main challenges that were faced in the forest restoration programme in North Ulu Segama (NUS, which could be used as lessons and guideline in the future. Conclusion: A long term monitoring programme is important in order to have a successful forest restoration programme as well as to have the opportunity to study the impact of this restoration on the behavior of orangutan as a result of their adaptation to the new forest structure.

  10. Neues über das Tertiär von Java und die mesozoischen Schichten von West-Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1888-01-01

    Die Monographie, welche unter dem Titel Die Fossilien von Java herausgegeben wird ¹), ist so weit fortgeschritten, dass sich aus den in ihr beschriebenen Gastropoden bereits eine Anzahl von Schlussfolgerungen ableiten lässt, welche für die in Bearbeitung begriffene, geologische Karte von Java von Be

  11. Functional structure of ant and termite assemblages in old growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Sarah H.; Fayle, Tom M.; Eggleton, Paul; Turner, Edgar C.; Davies, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version has been published by Springer in Biodiversity and Conservation. It can be found here: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10531-014-0750-2.

  12. The impact of selective-logging and forest clearance for oil palm on fungal communities in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Lee, Junghoon; Edwards, David P; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads) observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest. PMID:25405609

  13. The impact of selective-logging and forest clearance for oil palm on fungal communities in Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorsaf Kerfahi

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest.

  14. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  15. Learning from Traditional Knowledge of Non-timber Forest Products: Penan Benalui and the Autecology of Aquilaria in Indonesian Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, D. G.; Puri, R. K.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional knowledge, promoted to make conservation and development more relevant and socially acceptable, is shown to have an important role in identifying critical research needs in tropical ecology. Botanists, foresters, and phytochemists, among others, from many countries have sought for decades to understand the process of resin formation in the genus Aquilaria, a tropical forest tree of South and Southeast Asia. Not every tree develops the resin and, despite extensive scientific resear...

  16. Reproductive resource partitioning in two sympatric Goniothalamus species (Annonaceae) from Borneo: floral biology, pollinator trapping and plant breeding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jenny Y. Y.; Pang, Chun-Chiu; Ramsden, Lawrence; Saunders, Richard M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The floral phenology, pollination ecology and breeding systems of two sympatric early-divergent angiosperms, Goniothalamus tapisoides and G. suaveolens (Annonaceae) are compared. The flowers are protogynous and morphologically similar, with anthesis over 23–25 h. Both species are predominantly xenogamous and pollinated by small beetles: G. tapisoides mainly by Curculionidae and G. suaveolens mainly by Nitidulidae. Coevolution and reproductive resource partitioning, reducing interspecific pollen transfer, is achieved by temporal isolation, due to contrasting floral phenologies; and ethological isolation, due to contrasting floral scents that contain attractants specific to the two beetle families. Analysis of floral scents revealed three volatiles (3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 2-phenylethanol) that are known to be nitidulid attractants in the floral scent of G. suaveolens, but absent from that of G. tapisoides. An effective pollinator trapping mechanism is demonstrated for both species, representing the first such report for the family. Trapping is achieved by the compression of the outer petals against the apertures between the inner petals. This trapping mechanism is likely to be a key evolutionary innovation for Goniothalamus, increasing pollination efficiency by increasing pollen loading on beetles during the staminate phase, promoting effective interfloral pollinator movements, and increasing seed-set by enabling rapid turn-over of flowers. PMID:27767040

  17. Bird community changes in response to single and repeated fires in a lowland tropical rainforest of eastern Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Balen, van S.

    2006-01-01

    Our current understanding of bird community responses to tropical forest fires is limited and strongly geographically biased towards South America. Here we used the circular plot method to carry out complete bird inventories in undisturbed, once burned (1998) and twice burned forests (1983 and 1998)

  18. Terrestrial LiDAR-based automated counting of swiftlet nests in the caves of Gomantong, Sabah, Borneo.

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Donald A.; Warren Roberts; Manfred Buchroithner; Guy Van Rentergem; Joyce Lundberg; Stefan Hautz

    2015-01-01

    High resolution terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) within the Simud Hitam cave, Gomantong, has proven successful at discriminating the nests of black-nest swiftlets from roosting bats in high, inaccessible locations. TLS data was imported into ArcGIS software, allowing for semi-automated counting of nests. Spatial analysis of nest locations has established a maximum packing density of 268 nests/m2 in optimum locations, which correspond to roof slopes of >20 degrees. Rhinolophid bats roost adjac...

  19. The mid-domain effect matters: simulation analyses of range-size distribution data from Mount Kinabalu, Borneo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grytnes, John-Arvid; Beaman, John H.; Romdal, Tom Skovlund;

    2008-01-01

    Aim In simulation exercises, mid-domain peaks in species richness arise as a result of the random placement of modelled species ranges within simulated geometric constraints. This has been called the mid-domain effect (MDE). Where close correspondence is found between such simulations and empirical...... data, it is not possible to reject the hypothesis that empirical species richness patterns result from the MDE rather than being the outcome (wholly or largely) of other factors. To separate the influence of the MDE from other factors we therefore need to evaluate variables other than species richness....... The distribution of range sizes gives different predictions between models including the MDE or not. Here, we produce predictions for species richness and distribution of range sizes from one model without the MDE and from two MDE models: a classical MDE model encompassing only species with their...

  20. Review of the odd chrysidid genus Loboscelidia Westwood, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae, Loboscelidiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Kimsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chrysidid genus Loboscelidia is reviewed and 11 new species are described, including L. cinnamonea (Borneo, L. fulgens (Viet Nam, L. fulva (Thailand, L. incompleta (India, L. kafae (Borneo, L. laminata (Viet Nam, L. meifungae (Borneo, L. nasiformis (Thailand, L. nitidula (Thailand, L. pecki (Viet Nam, and L. sisik (Borneo. A key to males of the species of Loboscelidia is given.

  1. Investment in seed physical defence is associated with species' light requirement for regeneration and seed persistence: evidence from Macaranga species in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life stage from seed dispersal to seedling emergence is often critical in determining the regeneration success of plants. During this period seeds must survive an array of seed predators and pathogens and germinate under conditions favorable for seedling establishment. To maximise recruitment s...

  2. Habitat-use and conservation of two elusive ground birds (Carpococcyx radiatus and Polyplectron schleiermacheri) in Sungai Wain protection forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Fredriksson; V. Nijman

    2004-01-01

    We studied the distribution and habitat-use of two endemic ground birds, the Borneon groundcuckoo Carpococcyx radiatus and the Bornean peacockpheasant Polyplectron schleiermacheri in the Sungai Wain protection Forest, East Kalimantan. Both species are highly elusive and neither has been subject to a

  3. Description of two final stadium platystictid larvae from Borneo, including that of Drepanosticta ?attala Lieftinck, identified using DNA barcoding (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Albert G; Dow, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The final stadium larva of Drepanosticta ?attala Lieftinck, is described and illustrated based on a single male specimen collected at Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, Brunei. The larva was identified by matching the mitochondrial marker COI with that of known adult specimens. The larva presented a good match with both D. attala and D. barbatula Lieftinck in this gene, but as adults of only the former species had been collected at the locality, it is presumed more likely to be that species. Another, unidentified platystictid larva, Platystictidae A, collected at the same general locality is also described. The two larvae show significant differences from each other and from D. sundana Krüger, the only other Oriental region member of the family for which larval morphology is known. The three species are also compared with the larvae of the Neotropical genus Palaemnema, which they closely resemble, despite being currently placed in different subfamilies. Based on this known material, Oriental and Neotropical forms differ significantly in details of mandibular morphology, especially the armature of the molar field. PMID:26250164

  4. Influence of watershed-climate interactions on stream temperature, sediment yield, and metabolism along a land use intensity gradient in Indonesian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; Ratnasari, Dessy; Ruspita; Lisnawati, Neli; Purwanto, Yadi; Brauman, Kate A.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2014-06-01

    Oil palm plantation expansion into tropical forests may alter physical and biogeochemical inputs to streams, thereby changing hydrological function. In West Kalimantan, Indonesia, we assessed streams draining watersheds characterized by five land uses: intact forest, logged forest, mixed agroforest, and young (10 years) oil palm plantation. We quantified suspended sediments, stream temperature, and metabolism using high-frequency submersible sonde measurements during month-long intervals between 2009 and 2012. Streams draining oil palm plantations had markedly higher sediment concentrations and yields, and stream temperatures, compared to other streams. Mean sediment concentrations were fourfold to 550-fold greater in young oil palm than in all other streams and remained elevated even under base flow conditions. After controlling for precipitation, the mature oil palm stream exhibited significantly greater sediment yield than other streams. Young and mature oil palm streams were 3.9°C and 3.0°C warmer than the intact forest stream (25°C). Across all streams, base flow periods were significantly warmer than times of stormflow, and these differences were especially large in oil palm catchments. Ecosystem respiration rates were also influenced by low precipitation. During an El Niño-Southern Oscillation-associated drought, the mature oil palm stream consumed a maximum 21 g O2 m-2 d-1 in ecosystem respiration, in contrast with 2.8 ± 3.1 g O2 m-2 d-1 during nondrought sampling. Given that 23% of Kalimantan's land area is occupied by watersheds similar to those studied here, our findings inform potential hydrologic outcomes of regional periodic drought coupled with continued oil palm plantation expansion.

  5. Biodiversity of leaf-litter ants in fragmented tropical rainforests of Borneo: the value of publically and privately managed forest fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Tawatao, N; Lucey, JM; Senior, M; Benedick, S; Vun Khen, C; Hill, JK; Hamer, KC

    2014-01-01

    In view of the rapid rate of expansion of agriculture in tropical regions, attention has focused on the potential for privately-managed rainforest patches within agricultural land to contribute to biodiversity conservation. However, these sites generally differ in their history of forest disturbance and management compared with other forest fragments, and more information is required on the biodiversity value of these privately-managed sites, particularly in oil-palm dominated landscapes of S...

  6. Investment in Seed Physical Defence Is Associated with Species' Light Requirement for Regeneration and Seed Persistence: Evidence from Macaranga Species in Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Pimonrat Tiansawat; Davis, Adam S.; Berhow, Mark A.; Paul-Camilo Zalamea; Dalling, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The seed stage is often critical in determining the regeneration success of plants. Seeds must survive an array of seed predators and pathogens and germinate under conditions favourable for seedling establishment. To maximise recruitment success plants protect seeds using a diverse set of chemical and physical defences. However, the relationship between these defence classes, and their association with other life history traits, is not well understood. Data on seed coat thickness and fracture...

  7. Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in Meretrix meretrix Roding, Water and Sediments from Estuaries in Sabah, North Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd. Harun; Sidi, Jovita; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in tissues of Meretrix meretrix Roding (M. meretrix R.), water and sediments from two estuaries were determined. One estuary is located in an urban area of Kota Kinabalu (Likas estuary) and the other in a rural district of Kota Belud (Kota Belud estuary), where both are in Sabah, North of…

  8. A taxonomic study on the genus Ettchellsia Cameron, with descriptions of three new species (Hymenoptera, Megalyridae, Dinapsini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiharu Mita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Ettchellsia Cameron, namely, E. ignita sp. n. from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo, E. nigripes sp. n. from Sulawesi and E. reidi sp. n. from Borneo are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Ettchellsia is provided based on females.

  9. Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. from Sabah (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A; Afendy, Aqilah; Rahman, Homathevi

    2016-01-01

    Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. (holotype male, from Borneo, Sabah, West Coast division, Crocker Range National Park, Inobong, Kimamabang waterfall stream system, 21 ix 2012, deposited in RMNH) is described from Kinabalu National Park and Crocker Range National Park in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It is distinguished from all other species of Telosticta by the form of the male anal appendages. PMID:27394744

  10. On a collection of Mammals from Billiton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1890-01-01

    Up to this day I knew only a single Mammal, Sciurus prevostii, from Billiton, a small island, situated between Borneo and Banka. As the islands between Sumatra and Borneo bear a peculiar scientific interest with regard to the distribution of the animals and to the hypothesis concerning the relation

  11. Philippine and North Bornean Languages: Issues in Description, Subgrouping, and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Jason William

    2013-01-01

    The Philippines, northern Sulawesi, and northern Borneo are home to two or three hundred languages that can be described as Philippine-type. In spite of nearly five hundred years of language documentation in the Philippines, and at least a century of work in Borneo and Sulawesi, the majority of these languages remain grossly underdocumented, and…

  12. The Caddisfly Triaenodes pellectus Ulmer (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae: Triaenodini) taken in Sabah, East Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Andersen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Triaenodes pellectus Ulmer is recorded from Sabah on the Island of Borneo, constituting the southernmost record of this widespread species. A checklist of the Triaenodes species from the southeast Asian islands and New Guinea is given.

  13. Four new species of Adicella MacLachlan (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae: Triaenodini) from Sabah, East Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Andersen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Four new species of Adicella MacLachlan, 1877, A. anakpanah spec, nov., A. bavanga spec, nov., A. danumensis spec, nov., and A. gada spec, nov., from Sabah (Borneo), East Malaysia, are described and figured.

  14. Indonesian Islands as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Indonesian Islands (partial cloud cover): Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, Sumbawa, as photographed from the Gemini 11 spacecraft during its 26th revolution of the earth, at an altitude of 570 nautical miles.

  15. Exploration of Basel Mission Company shipwreck remains at St George's Reef off Goa, west coast of India: Impact of the Basel Mission Co. on society and culture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    for house construction. 'Basel Mission Tile Works 1865' is impressed on bricks, roof and floor tiles. Study shows that the company was active in manufacturing terracotta and exported it to Africa, Australia, Borneo, Sumatra, and other countries. It has been...

  16. Note sur un Lepidocyclina nouveau de Bornéo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlumberger, C.

    1899-01-01

    Les travaux des géologues hollandais et de quelques savants anglais nous ont déjà fait connaître un bon nombre de foraminifères fossiles de Java et de Borneo, mais il reste encore à glaner après eux. Je viens de trouver dans une roche calcaire de Borneo que Mons. MARTIN, professeur à Leiden, a bien

  17. Some introductory notes on the development and characteristics of Sabah Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Hoogervorst

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary description of the Malay variety used as a lingua franca in the Malaysian state of Sabah at the northernmost top of Borneo. The paper discusses a number of common linguistic features that distinguish Sabah Malay from other Malay varieties and analyses these features from a historical linguistic perspective. While it is argued that Sabah Malay has a close historical relation with other Malay dialects spoken in Borneo, especially Brunei Malay, the vernacular is also influenced phonologically and lexically by Sabah’s indigenous and immigrant speech communities. Words and sentences recorded or elicited during fieldwork in various parts of Sabah illustrate these points.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic activity of the medicinal plants among Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2014-01-01

    Sabah is one of the 13 states within the Federation of Malaysia and is located in the northernmost part of Borneo. It is the second largest state in Malaysia with a landmass of approximately 7.4 million hectares. The total forested area is 4.7 million hectares. Sabah, being part of Borneo, is rich in plant biodiversity. There is also an abundance of medicinal plants and other plants for everyday use. There is a great awarness regarding association between low density lipoprotein reduction and...

  19. Negotiating development narratives within large-scale oil palm projects on village lands in Sarawak, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Egay, Kelvin;

    2016-01-01

    The Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo is one of the global hotspots of deforestation and forest degradation. The planting of oil palm has played a key role in the transformation of land use in the state. While much of the expansion in Sarawak so far has taken place in state forests...

  20. Florae Malesianae Precursores XL. Notes on Malesian and some extra-Malesian Cyperaceae IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, J.H.

    1966-01-01

    BORNEO. Sarawak: Ulu Tubau, Bintulu, skeletal sandy clay soil on steep hillside by sandstone rocks, Nyabau formation, mixed Dipterocarp forest, c. 350 m., Ashton S 18439 (L); base of Bt Naoung, Ulu Muput Kanan, Anap, sandstone rocks in shade, Biban formation, common, 600 m., Oct. II, 1963. Ashton S

  1. Case report of a new pathogenic variant of Aspergillus fumigates isolated from Hipposideros cervinus (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.J. Seelan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of new Aspergillus fumigatus variant (UNIMAS F009 was reported from the ears of bats at Kubah National Park, Borneo, Malaysia. Morphological characterization of this isolate showed some differences in terms of their growth rate, colony color, size of conidia and pigmentation on different media.

  2. A taxonomic revision of the Malesian genus Trigonopleura Hook.f. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van Peter C.; Bulalacao, Lolita J.; Ôn, van Tran

    1995-01-01

    Trigonopleura, a genus from W Malesia, has three species, the widespread T. malayana (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi) and the two endemic species T. dubia (Philippines) and T. macrocarpa (Sarawak, Kuching). The species differ slightly from each other in leaf size, colour, and margin, flo

  3. Follow the drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch-Roy, O. [Dando Drilling International (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The paper discusses modern drilling techniques with which Dando Drilling has been involved. It describes equipment supplied to opencast coal operations in Kalimantan, Borneo. These include polycrystalline diamond drill bits, flushing media, rig drilling controls and other specialised equipment. 3 photos.

  4. The Umbelliferae of the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, P.

    1936-01-01

    Besides the Umbelliferae of the Netherlands Indies proper, also those of the Malay Peninsula and the non-Dutch parts of Borneo and New Guinea have been taken up in this revision. The materials examined belong to the following Herbaria: (B) = the Herbarium of the Botanic Garden, Buitenzorg. (BD) = th

  5. The genus Alangium in the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloembergen, S.

    1935-01-01

    The present revision comprises, besides the Alangia of the Netherlands Indies proper, also those of the Malay Peninsula, North Borneo, and Eastern New Guinea. The materials examined were kindly put at the author’s disposal by the Directions of the following herbaria: B = the Herbarium of the Botanic

  6. Remarks on Chalcites malayanus (Raffles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1938-01-01

    Till now it was assumed that the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes are inhabited by the typical race of Chalcites malayanus. At Prof. Stresemann's request I compared the beautiful series collected by Heinrich in Celebes with the material in the Leiden Museum and it proved that the

  7. The Influence of AQ on the Academic Achievement among Malaysian Polytechnic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matore, Mohd Effendi Ewan Mohd; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Razak, Nordin Abd

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of Adversity Quotient (AQ) on the academic achievement among Malaysian polytechnic students. A total of 1,845 students from five polytechnics in Malaysia participated in this study and these polytechnic was selected from five different zones, namely Nouthern, Southern, Eastern, Western and Borneo. The…

  8. Of jars and gongs : Two keys to Ot Danum Dayak cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbey, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the traditional ritual art of Ot Danum Dayak subsistence farmers from a stretch of tropical rainforest in the hearth of Borneo. Together with the Ngaju, their neighbours to the south, they glories in one of the most elaborate secondary mortuary rites in the world. Much of their

  9. On Gymnura candida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1881-01-01

    It is a fact long since known to Naturalists, that there are among the Gymnura rafflesii-specimens many albinos, but a few weeks ago visiting several Musea of Natural History, I was greatly surprised to find that all these albino-specimens were from Borneo, and that none of the collections I examine

  10. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.;

    2011-01-01

    ‘Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  11. Revision of Cyrtandra section Dissimiles (Gesneriaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramley, G.L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Section Dissimiles C.B. Clarke is reviewed. Eleven species are known, one of which is newly described here (C. fulvisericea), and one species is reduced to synonymy (C. producta = C. trisepala). The section is centred on Borneo, with two outlying species in Sumatra and one in Peninsular Malaysia. Se

  12. Educational Discourses and Literacy in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the last century, the small Malay Islamic Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam, on the northern coast of Borneo, has moved away from an oral tradition, to a print culture and towards mass literacy. Discovery of oil in the early part of the 20th century transformed the economic situation in the country, and led to major changes and developments in…

  13. Contributions to a review of the Dendrelaphis pictus complex (Serpentes: Colubridae) - 1. Description of a sympatric species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Rooijen; G. Vogel

    2008-01-01

    A new species of the colubrid genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger, 1890 is described. Dendrelaphis haasi sp. nov. ranges from the Malaysian Peninsula to Sumatra, Java and Borneo. Within this range it also inhabits the islands of Pulau Tioman, Nias, Billiton and the Mentawei Archipelago. D. haasi is similar

  14. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...

  15. The genus Rubus (Rosaceae) in Malesia. 3. The subgenus Micranthobatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.

    1987-01-01

    Subgenus Micranthobatus is separated again from subg. Lampobatus sensu Focke (1911). The c.12 species have a scattered area of distribution, suggesting an old Gondwanan history. In Malesia five species are endemic in New Guinea (incl. New Britain), one is distributed in Borneo, the Philippines and C

  16. On Moniligaster coeruleus Horst (Moniligaster viridis Beddard)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1896-01-01

    In my description of this large earthworm from Borneo ¹) I made already the suggestion, that the species probably did not belong to the genus Moniligaster, but I preferred to range it provisionally in this genus till we were better informed about the characters of several Moniligaster- species, only

  17. 78 FR 55649 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Southern White Rhino (Ceratotherium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... are losing capital and have begun to perceive it as possibly too risky of a venture to continue... FR 8491-8498]. The Indian rhino was also later listed as endangered under the Endangered Species... selected national parks throughout Indonesia, Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo. Some of them include...

  18. Expeditions and other fieldwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2002-01-01

    Borneo — Sabah — WWF Malaysia has obtained funding from the ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation (ARCBC) to conduct botanical studies at Ulu Padas, in the extreme southwest of Sabah. A first expedition was carried out in April 2002 to the Maligan Virgin Jungle Reserve with a total are

  19. A new section in Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) and a new species from Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheek, M.; Jebb, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nepenthes section Tentaculatae of Borneo and Sulawesi is described and delimited, with a key to the nine species, including N. maryae of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, which is here assessed as Vulnerable under criterion D2 using the 2001 IUCN standard. It is hypothesised that this species might trap

  20. The genus Kradibia Saunders and an addition to Ceratosolen Mayr (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    Revision of Kradibia Saunders, with descriptions of new species hilli (type ♀, Uganda, host Ficus urceolaris auctt. = F. stortophylla Warb.) and setigera (type ♀, Borneo, host F. leptogramma Corner), and redescriptions of K. brownii Ashmead (Philippines, host F. ulmifolia Lam.) and K. cowani Saunder

  1. On two Mammals from the Calamianes-islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1895-01-01

    The study of the geographical distribution of the Mammals over the islands of the Malayan Archipelago teaches us the fact that only a very small number of species is common to Sumatra and Borneo and at the same time to Java. The most interesting species among them is without question Mydaus meliceps

  2. A grammar of Mualang : an Ibanic language of Western Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjia, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation deals with Mualang, an Ibanic (Malayic-Dayak) language spoken in the interior of western Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia. Given the relatively large number of speakers (approximately 40,000 people), and due to its fairly isolated geography and some well-maintained socio-cultural tra

  3. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodies

  4. ボルネオ・ロングハウス観光における文化の仲介者

    OpenAIRE

    服部, 泰||ハットリ, トオル||Hattori, Toru

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the tour guide as a cultural mediator is important for the tourist formation of images about a tourist object, by focusing on Longhouse-Tourism, an experience on the lives of the Iban tribe in Borneo, Malaysia. One of the motivations of tourists is a “quest for an authentic experience

  5. Survey on birds of prey and owls Falconiformes and Strigiformes) on Java sea islands: correction and additions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Nijman

    2005-01-01

    ): In Southeast Asia the short-eared owl Asio flammeus is a northern migrant and is normally not recorded south of Singapore and, rarely, northern Borneo. The occurrence of short-eared owl in the Kangean archipelago, Java Sea, has been noted in several publications, including a recent one in this jo

  6. Short-term impact of disturbance on genetic diversity and structure of indonesian populations of the butterfly Drupadia theda in East Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.Y. Fauvelot; D.F.R. Cleary; S.B.J. Menken

    2006-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the short-term impact of disturbance on genetic diversity and structure of the tropical butterfly Drupadia theda Felder (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Populations were sampled from five landscapes in East Kalimantan (Borneo, Indonesia) which were differentially disturbed by sele

  7. Leidlikud lahendused : uus elamuehitus Amsterdamis = Enforcing Ingenuity New Housing in Amsterdam / Hans Ibelings ; hollandi keelest tõlk. eesti keelde Katrin Laiapea ja inglise keelde Robyn de Jong-Dalziel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ibelings, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Amsterdami kahe elamurajooni planeeringust. Borneo-Sporenburgi (1994-2001) planeeringu tegi Adriaan Geuze ja tema büroo West 8. Kolm hiigelelamut projekteerisid Koen van Velsen, Frits van Dongen ja Kees Christiaanse. Valmimisjärgus IJburgi planeeringu autorid Felix Claus, Frits van Dongen ja Ton Schaap. 13 ill

  8. What a botanist can contribute to conservation in Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1977-01-01

    Reviewing the conservation situation in Indonesia, we see that concern for animals outweighs that for plants. Sumatra with its richer fauna of large mammals, is better cared for than Borneo with its richer flora*. Too often in the reports, a forest is called a forest, to the neglect of the amazing d

  9. Child Care Services in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheng, Liew Sau

    2007-01-01

    Malaysia is a multi-ethnic, multi-racial, and multi-religious country with a population of more than 25 million people who live in the Peninsular and the States of Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo Island. It is a harmonious and peaceful nation comprised of Malays, who are the ethnic majority, followed by Chinese, Indians, Ibans, Kadazandusuns, and…

  10. A new name for the foraminiferal genus Heterospira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1937-01-01

    A short time ago I described a new foraminiferal genus from the Tertiary of Borneo 1). I gave this genus the name of Heterospira. Mr. P. H. Oehser of Washington drew my attention to the fact that E. Koken as early as 1896²) had used the name Heterospira for a genus of triassic gastropoda from Hallst

  11. Revision of Lecananthus (Rubiaceae-Schradereae)

    OpenAIRE

    Puff, C.; Buchner, R.; Greimler, J.

    1998-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of Lecananthus Jack, a genus of three species occurring in Sumatra, the Peninsular Malaysia, and Borneo, is presented. A new species, L. peduncularis Puff, endemic to Sarawak, is described, and a new combination, L. pentander (Merr.) Puff (syn. Lucinaea pentandra Merr.), is published.

  12. The mushroom coral fauna (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) of Brunei Darussalam (South China Sea) and its relation to the Coral Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Lane, D.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Brunei Darussalam is situated on the northwest coast of Borneo, just outside the westernmost boundary of the area presently recognised as the centre of maximum marine biodiversity, the so-called Coral Triangle. This diversity is particularly quantified with regard to numbers of reef coral species. M

  13. P-SAR: An Advanced Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar for Forestry Applications. Preliminary Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueras i Ventura, J.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study of the design of a small, low cost, Pband airborne, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is presented. The design was requested by the Wageningen University and the Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOS) to carry out forest biomass monitoring in Indonesia. The requirem

  14. Design of a Small, Low Cost, P-Band Airborne Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueras i Ventura, J.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary study of the design of a small, low cost, P-band airborne, polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar desired by the Wageningen University and the Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOS) to carry out forest biomass monitoring in Indonesia is presented. The requirements of the application

  15. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities and bacterioplankton in Indonesian Marine lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, D.F.R.; Becking, L.E.; Polonia, A.; Freitas, B.M.; Gomes, N.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we compared communities of bacteria in two jellyfish species (the ‘golden’ jellyfish Mastigias cf. papua and the box jellyfish Tripedalia cf. cystophora) and water in three marine lakes located in the Berau region of northeastern Borneo, Indonesia. Jellyfish-associated bacteria

  16. Assessment Profile of Malaysia: High-Stakes External Examinations Dominate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Saw Lan

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is a federation of 13 states located in South-east Asia. The country consists of two geographical regions; Peninsular Malaysia (also known as West Malaysia) and Malaysian Borneo (also known as East Malaysia) separated by the South China Sea. The educational administration in Malaysia is highly centralised with four hierarchical levels;…

  17. The composition and variability of atmospheric aerosol over Southeast Asia during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Trivitayanurak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a nested version of the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model to better understand the composition and variation of aerosol over Borneo and the broader Southeast Asian region in conjunction with aircraft and satellite observations. Our focus on Southeast Asia reflects the importance of this region as a source of reactive organic gases and aerosols from natural forests, biomass burning, and food and fuel crops. We particularly focus on July 2008 when the UK BAe-146 research aircraft was deployed over northern Malaysian Borneo as part of the ACES/OP3 measurement campaign. During July 2008 we find using the model that Borneo (defined as Borneo Island and the surrounding Indonesian islands was a net exporter of primary organic aerosol (42 kT and black carbon aerosol (11 kT. We find only 13% of volatile organic compound oxidation products partition to secondary organic aerosol (SOA, with Borneo being a net exporter of SOA (15 kT. SOA represents approximately 19% of the total organic aerosol over the region. Sulphate is mainly from aqueous-phase oxidation (68%, with smaller contributions from gas-phase oxidation (15% and advection into the regions (14%. We find that there is a large source of sea salt, as expected, but this largely deposits within the region; we find that dust aerosol plays only a relatively small role in the aerosol burden. In contrast to coincident surface measurements over Northern Borneo that find a pristine environment with evidence for substantial biogenic SOA formation we find that the free troposphere is influenced by biomass burning aerosol transported from the northwest of the Island and further afield. We find several transport events during July 2008 over Borneo associated with elevated aerosol concentrations, none of which coincide with the aircraft flights. We use MODIS aerosol optical depths (AOD data and the model to put the July campaign into a longer temporal perspective. We find that Borneo is where

  18. The composition and variability of atmospheric aerosol over Southeast Asia during 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivitayanurak, W.; Palmer, P. I.; Barkley, M. P.; Robinson, N. H.; Coe, H.; Oram, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    We use a nested version of the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model to better understand the composition and variation of aerosol over Borneo and the broader Southeast Asian region in conjunction with aircraft and satellite observations. Our focus on Southeast Asia reflects the importance of this region as a source of reactive organic gases and aerosols from natural forests, biomass burning, and food and fuel crops. We particularly focus on July 2008 when the UK BAe-146 research aircraft was deployed over northern Malaysian Borneo as part of the ACES/OP3 measurement campaign. During July 2008 we find using the model that Borneo (defined as Borneo Island and the surrounding Indonesian islands) was a net exporter of primary organic aerosol (42 kT) and black carbon aerosol (11 kT). We find only 13% of volatile organic compound oxidation products partition to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), with Borneo being a net exporter of SOA (15 kT). SOA represents approximately 19% of the total organic aerosol over the region. Sulphate is mainly from aqueous-phase oxidation (68%), with smaller contributions from gas-phase oxidation (15%) and advection into the regions (14%). We find that there is a large source of sea salt, as expected, but this largely deposits within the region; we find that dust aerosol plays only a relatively small role in the aerosol burden. In contrast to coincident surface measurements over Northern Borneo that find a pristine environment with evidence for substantial biogenic SOA formation we find that the free troposphere is influenced by biomass burning aerosol transported from the northwest of the Island and further afield. We find several transport events during July 2008 over Borneo associated with elevated aerosol concentrations, none of which coincide with the aircraft flights. We use MODIS aerosol optical depths (AOD) data and the model to put the July campaign into a longer temporal perspective. We find that Borneo is where the model

  19. Phylogeographic Evidence for 2 Genetically Distinct Zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi Parasites, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ruhani; Ahmed, Md Atique; Jelip, Jenarun; Ngian, Hie Ung; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Hussin, Hani Mat; Fong, Mun Yik; Mahmud, Rohela; Sitam, Frankie Anak Thomas; Japning, J. Rovie-Ryan; Snounou, Georges; Escalante, Ananias A.

    2016-01-01

    Infections of humans with the zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi occur throughout Southeast Asia, although most cases have occurred in Malaysia, where P. knowlesi is now the dominant malaria species. This apparently skewed distribution prompted an investigation of the phylogeography of this parasite in 2 geographically separated regions of Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. We investigated samples collected from humans and macaques in these regions. Haplotype network analyses of sequences from 2 P. knowlesi genes, type A small subunit ribosomal 18S RNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, showed 2 genetically distinct divergent clusters, 1 from each of the 2 regions of Malaysia. We propose that these parasites represent 2 distinct P. knowlesi types that independently became zoonotic. These types would have evolved after the sea-level rise at the end of the last ice age, which separated Malaysian Borneo from Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:27433965

  20. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  1. Forest contraction in north equatorial Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Christopher M; Bird, Michael I; Bull, Ian D; Creed, Frances; Bryant, Charlotte; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Paz, Victor

    2010-08-31

    Today, insular Southeast Asia is important for both its remarkably rich biodiversity and globally significant roles in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Despite the fundamental importance of environmental history for diversity and conservation, there is little primary evidence concerning the nature of vegetation in north equatorial Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period (LGP). As a result, even the general distribution of vegetation during the Last Glacial Maximum is debated. Here we show, using the stable carbon isotope composition of ancient cave guano profiles, that there was a substantial forest contraction during the LGP on both peninsular Malaysia and Palawan, while rainforest was maintained in northern Borneo. These results directly support rainforest "refugia" hypotheses and provide evidence that environmental barriers likely reduced genetic mixing between Borneo and Sumatra flora and fauna. Moreover, it sheds light on possible early human dispersal events.

  2. Nepenthes diversity in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve - West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nepenthes is one of carnivorous plants which very popular as ornamental plant. Most of them grow in mountain forest habitat above 1.000 m a.s.l. Sumatra has the richest Nepenthes flora after Borneo, with 29 species. The observation was done in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve - West Sumatra. According to this inventory in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, there are 6 species can be found in this area, which 5 species are endemic to Sumatra, that are N. pectinata, N. inermis, N. bongso, N. spathulata and N. talangensis. N. gracilis is widespread in Sumatra, Borneo and Celebes, whereas the other species N. talangensis is only found in Mount Talang. Threat to those species are, habitat destruction, over exploitation and volcano eruption.

  3. Phylogeographic Evidence for 2 Genetically Distinct Zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi Parasites, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ruhani; Ahmed, Md Atique; Jelip, Jenarun; Ngian, Hie Ung; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Hussin, Hani Mat; Fong, Mun Yik; Mahmud, Rohela; Sitam, Frankie Anak Thomas; Japning, J Rovie-Ryan; Snounou, Georges; Escalante, Ananias A; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-08-01

    Infections of humans with the zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi occur throughout Southeast Asia, although most cases have occurred in Malaysia, where P. knowlesi is now the dominant malaria species. This apparently skewed distribution prompted an investigation of the phylogeography of this parasite in 2 geographically separated regions of Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. We investigated samples collected from humans and macaques in these regions. Haplotype network analyses of sequences from 2 P. knowlesi genes, type A small subunit ribosomal 18S RNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, showed 2 genetically distinct divergent clusters, 1 from each of the 2 regions of Malaysia. We propose that these parasites represent 2 distinct P. knowlesi types that independently became zoonotic. These types would have evolved after the sea-level rise at the end of the last ice age, which separated Malaysian Borneo from Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:27433965

  4. Students Awareness towards Traditional Cultural Dances in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad R. Albattat; Irna Darini Amir; Nur Shuhada Nik Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia has many ethnic groups, and each ethnic group has own custom and tradition that most Malaysians are not aware, especially traditional dances. Among the Malaysian states, Sabah and Sarawak, situated in the Borneo Island have the most diverse ethnic groups in Sarawak. It has more than 30 ethnic groups. Each of the ethnic groups has its own language, cultures and lifestyle. In this regards, this research focuses on the main ethnic groups of Sarawak which are Orang Ulu, Malays, Melanau, ...

  5. Behavioral Studies Peptic Ulcer Patients Self-Medication by Visiting Pharmacy in Pontianak

    OpenAIRE

    Eka K. Untari; Siti N. Nurbaeti; Esy Nansy

    2013-01-01

    Self-medication practices is now considered as a component of self-care. Gastric ulcer is one of minor symptom that can be treated by self-medication. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, behavior, and appropriateness of self-medication practice for gastric ulcer or its related symptom amongst population. The population of this study attended community pharmacies in Pontianak of West Borneo province. This study was a cross sectional survey involving 98 adults who did se...

  6. Plasmodium knowlesi transmission: integrating quantitative approaches from epidemiology and ecology to understand malaria as a zoonosis

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, PM; Fornace, KM; Parmiter, M; Cox, J; Drakeley, CJ; Ferguson, HM; Kao, RR

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The public health threat posed by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi appears to be growing: it is increasingly reported across South East Asia, and is the leading cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Plasmodium knowlesi threatens progress towards malaria elimination as aspects of its transmission, such as spillover from wildlife reservoirs and reliance on outdoor-biting vectors, may limit the effectiveness of conventional methods of malaria control. The development of new quantitative appr...

  7. PERBANDINGAN TANAH TOP SOIL DENGAN KOMPOS PRODUKSI DEPO KSM LESTARI SEBAGAI MEDIA TANAM PADA TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica Juncea)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonius I

    2011-01-01

    Antonius. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tarakan Borneo 2010. The Comparative effect of Compost Top Soil Depot with KSM Sustainable production as planting media on mustard plants (Brassica Juncea). (Guidance by Nur Indah Mansyur and Willem). Compost is an organic fertilizer That is the result of the disintegration or decay of organic materials, Such as plants, animals or other organic waste. Compost is Used as fertilizer is organic fertilizer Also Called Because it comes from orga...

  8. Kennis is macht: de veelzijdige expedities van botanicus Pieter Willem Korthals (1807–1892)

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Manse

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is power: the versatile expeditions of botanist Pieter Willem Korthals (1807–1892)The National Herbarium in Leiden houses a fascinating archive about one of the few botanists of the Committee for Natural History of the Netherlands Indies, Pieter Willem Korthals (1807–1892). The notebooks and reports of his travels in Java, Sumatra and Borneo reveal the hybrid position of Korthals in the colonial world of the Dutch East Indies. Korthals was an experienced botanist who employed method...

  9. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Redactie KITLV

    2002-01-01

    -Martin Baier, Han Knapen, Forests of fortune?; The environmental history of Southeast Borneo, 1600-1880. Leiden: The KITLV Press, 2001, xiv + 487 pp. [Verhandelingen 189] -Jean-Pascal Bassino, Per Ronnas ,Entrepreneurship in Vietnam; Transformations and dynamics. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (NIAS) and Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2001, xii + 354 pp., Bhargavi Ramamurty (eds) -Adriaan Bedner, Renske Biezeveld, Between individualism and mutual help; Social...

  10. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    OpenAIRE

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sen...

  11. Economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    The state of Sarawak is situated on Borneo Island in East Malaysia. It is the largest state in Malaysia covering an area of approximately 124 thousand square kilometres. Sarawak’s population is approximately 2.07 million people, which makes it the fourth most populous state in the country. There are several distinguished characteristics of the economic development process in Sarawak which highlight the contrast in economic development in Sarawak and the rest of Malaysia. On the whole, the Mal...

  12. The mushroom coral fauna (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) of Brunei Darussalam (South China Sea) and its relation to the Coral Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Lane, D.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Brunei Darussalam is situated on the northwest coast of Borneo, just outside the westernmost boundary of the area presently recognised as the centre of maximum marine biodiversity, the so-called Coral Triangle. This diversity is particularly quantified with regard to numbers of reef coral species. Most coral reefs of Brunei are offshore, submerged patch reefs, which makes them hard to discern from the water surface. Few coral studies have been carried out here, although recently an extensive ...

  13. Wind and insect pollination (ambophily) of Mallotus spp. (Euphorbiaceae) in tropical and temperate forests

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Eri; Sakai, Shoko

    2013-01-01

    Relatively few flowering plants show ambophily (pollination by both wind and insects), and whether and when ambophily is advantageous has not been studied well. In the present study, we report ambophily in two dioecious pioneer tree species, Mallotus japonicus Müll.Arg. in a temperate forest of Japan, and Mallotus wrayi King ex Hook.f. in a tropical forest of Borneo, and discuss the conditions that contribute to the maintenance of ambophily. Both species are pollinated by wind because they se...

  14. Description of the final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936 (Odonata, Libellulidae), using rearing and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Philip O M; Butler, Stephen G; Dow, Rory A

    2016-01-01

    The final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from three male and six female larvae collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with an early instar larva, which was matched to the adult O. borneense by DNA barcoding, and the known larvae of other species of this genus that occur in the region. PMID:27394221

  15. Discursive barriers and cross-scale forest governance in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Caleb T. Gallemore; Rut Dini. Prasti H.; Moira Moeliono

    2014-01-01

    Students of social-ecological systems have emphasized the need for effective cross-scale governance. We theorized that discursive barriers, particularly between technical and traditional practices, can act as a barrier to cross-scale collaboration. We analyzed the effects of discursive divides on collaboration on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) policy development in Central Kalimantan, an Indonesian province on the island of Borneo selected in 2010 to p...

  16. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn Pan; Herman C. Kemp; David Stuart-Fox; Colin Nicholas; Cornelia M.J. van der Sluys; Paul van Beckum; Remco Raben; Helena A. van Bemmel; John N. MIKSIC; David T. Hill; H.M.J. Maier; John Guy; Ruth Barnes; Rens Heringa; Gavin W. Jones

    2000-01-01

    - Matthew Amster, Jérôme Rousseau, Kayan religion; Ritual life and religious reform in Central Borneo. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1998, 352 pp. [VKI 180.] - Atsushi Ota, Johan Talens, Een feodale samenleving in koloniaal vaarwater; Staatsvorming, koloniale expansie en economische onderontwikkeling in Banten, West-Java, 1600-1750. Hilversum: Verloren, 1999, 253 pp. - Wanda Avé, Johannes Salilah, Traditional medicine among the Ngaju Dayak in Central Kalimantan; The 1935 writings of a former Ngaju Day...

  17. Tropical forest wood production: a cross-continental comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Banin, Lindsay; Lewis, Simon L; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Baker, Timothy R.; Quesada, Carlos A.; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Burslem, David F. R. P.; Nilus, Reuben; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Keeling, Helen C.; Tan, Sylvester; Davies, Stuart J; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Lloyd, Jon

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forest above-ground wood production (AGWP) varies substantially along environmental gradients. Some evidence suggests that AGWP may vary between regions and specifically that Asian forests have particularly high AGWP. However, comparisons across biogeographic regions using standardized methods are lacking, limiting our assessment of pan-tropical variation in AGWP and potential causes. 2. We sampled AGWP in NW Amazon (17 long-term forest plots) and N Borneo (11 plots), both with...

  18. MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN MEMBACA SISWA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA GAMBAR KELAS ISD FRATER DON BOSCO TARAKAN

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliana Kaha

    2011-01-01

    Yuliana Kaha, 2011, Meningkatkan Kemampun Membaca Siswa Dengan Menggunakan Media Gambar Kelas 1 SD Frater Don Bosco Tarakan Tahun Pembelajaran 2010/ 2011. Skripsi Jurusan Pendidikan Guru Sekolah Dasar Universitas Borneo Tarakan, Pembimbing: (1) Sungkono,S.Pd,MA(2) Drs. Herdiansyah, M.Si. Skripsi ini berjudul Meningkatkan Kemampuan Membaca Siswa Dengan Menggunakan Media Gambar Kelas I SD Frater Don Bosco Tarakan Tahun pembelajaran 2010/ 2011. Skripsi ini merupakan hasil karya akademis untuk Me...

  19. MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA PADA PEMBELAJARAN IPA MENGGUNAKAN METODE EKSPERIMEN DI KELAS IV B SD FRATER DON BOSCO TARAKAN

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Gaudentia Radjo

    2011-01-01

    KATARINA GAUDENTIA RADJO. 2011. Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Siswa pada Pembelajaran IPA Menggunakan Metode Eksperimen di Kelas IV B SD Frater Don Bocso Tarakan. Skripsi. Program Studi Pendidikan Guru Sekolah Dasar Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Borneo Tarakan. Dimbing oleh: Herdiansya dan Arief Ertha Kusuma. Penelitian ini memakai model Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK) yang dilaksanakan oleh guru untuk memecahkan masalah-masalah pembelajaran yang dihadapi oleh guru dan untuk...

  20. KESALAHAN PENGGUNAAN PUNGTUASI DALAM SURAT DINAS DI SD FRATER DON BOSCO TARAKAN

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanis Tandi

    2011-01-01

    YOHANIS TANDI , 2011. Kesalahan Penggunaan Pungtuasi dalam Surat Dinas di SD Frater Don Bosko Tarakan. Skipsi Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa, Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah FKIP Universitas Borneo Tarakan, pembimbing: (1) Zulkifli, M.Pd. (II) Drs. Petrus Tenabean. Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini, yaitu penggunaan pungtuasi dalam surat dinas di SD Frater Don Bosko tarakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pemakaian pungtuasi di dalam surat dinas di SD Frarter Don Bosko Taraka...

  1. Job Stress with Supervisor’s Social Support as a Determinant of Work Intrusion on Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Azman Ismail; Fara Farihana Suhaimi; Rizal Abu Bakar; Syed Shah Alam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study is to examine the influence of supervisor’s social support in the correlation between job stress and work intrusion on family conflict.Design/methodology/approach: A survey method was employed to gather survey questionnaires from academic staff in a Malaysian government university in Borneo. Findings: The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed three major findings: first, supervisor’s social support does act as an important moderating variable in t...

  2. AKLIMATISASI ANGGREK HITAM (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl.) HASIL PERBANYAKAN IN VITRO PADA MEDIA BERBEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Kade Ayu Purnama Adi; Ida Ayu Astarini; Ni Putu Adriani Astiti

    2014-01-01

    Black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl.) is an orchid endemic to the island ofBorneo. However, its existence is increasingly threatened with extinction. Conventionalpropagation efforts require a long time. Therefore in vitro propagation was performed. Thepurpose of this study was to determine the growth response of black orchids on the media anddifferent planting techniques. Black orchid plantlets that have been sub-cultured wasacclimatized in four different media types ie moss, fern, wood c...

  3. Distinctive Tropical Forest Variants Have Unique Soil Microbial Communities, But Not Always Low Microbial Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Binu M.; Song, Woojin; Slik, J.W.F.; Sukri, Rahayu S.; Jaafar, Salwana; Dong, Ke; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, Northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland h...

  4. A review of Elocomosta Hansen with a description of a new species with reduced eyes from China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Renchao; Jia, Fenglong; Fikáček, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Elocomosta Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), Elocomosta lilizheni sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is compared in detail with the only other known species of the genus, Elocomosta nigra Hansen, 1989 from Borneo, and the genus is diagnosed from the remaining coelostomatine genera. The new species is unusual among Hydrophilidae by having extremely reduced eyes. PMID:27551232

  5. Development of Solar Energy in Sabah Malaysia: The Case of Trudgill’s Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Jamalludin Sulaiman; Azlinda Azman; Behnaz Saboori

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy in Malaysia was first introduced as one of the five fuels in electricity generation through the Fifth Fuel Policy in 2001. However, the current real harnessing of available solar sources is still below its actual potential. This study examined the non-technical barriers towards solar energy implementation in Sabah located on the Borneo Island on eastern part of Malaysia. Following the theoretical framework, the proposed non-technical barriers are agreement, knowledge, technologic...

  6. SHAPING NEOLIBERAL PERSONS AT A GAP YEAR ORGANISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Rachel Jane

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is an organisational ethnography that seeks to make an original contribution to anthropological knowledge through an iterative interrogation of neoliberalism and personhood.Endeavour (a pseudonym) is a gap year organisation based in the UK that runs trips abroad to Central America, India and Borneo for young people. A gap year is any period of between three months to two years outside formal education or employment, but often refers to a year-off preceding university. Endeavour is...

  7. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS DIPLODISCUS* Turcz. (TILIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Seven species of the genus Diplodiscus are described, of which three(D. microlepis, D. parviflorus and D. decumbens are new to science, and one (D. hookerianus was formerly described as Pentace (for the description of D. decumbens cf. p. 264.2. The area of distribution of the genus covers the Malay Peninsula,Borneo and the Philippines.3. The affinities of the genus are discussed.4. A key to the species is presented.

  8. Characterisation of Asian Snakehead Murrel Channa striata (Channidae) in Malaysia: An Insight into Molecular Data and Morphological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Li Min Song; Kaviarasu Munian; Zulkafli Abd Rashid; Subha Bhassu

    2013-01-01

    Conservation is imperative for the Asian snakeheads Channa striata, as the species has been overfished due to its high market demand. Using maternal markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI)), we discovered that evolutionary forces that drove population divergence did not show any match between the genetic and morphological divergence pattern. However, there is evidence of incomplete divergence patterns between the Borneo population and the populations from Peninsular M...

  9. Four New Species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae) from the Central Mountains of Mindanao, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gronemeyer; Fulgent Coritico; Andreas Wistuba; David Marwinski; Tobias Gieray; Marius Micheler; François Sockhom Mey; Victor Amoroso

    2014-01-01

    Together with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia), the Philippines are the main center of diversity for carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus, Nepenthes L. Nepenthes are the largest of all carnivorous plants, and the species with the biggest pitchers are capable of trapping and digesting small amphibians and even mammals. The central cordillera of Mindanao Island in the south of the Philippines is mostly covered with old, primary forest and is the largest rem...

  10. MORFOLOGI BAHASA IBANIK

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nur Latif, Dr., M.Hum.

    2014-01-01

    Bahasa Ibanik merupakan antara sekian banyak cabang bahasa Austronesia di Borneo Barat dan bahasa ini tersebar dari hujung barat Sarawak disebelah utaranya hinggalah ke daerah utara di Kalimantan Barat, iaitu kira-kira 500 kilometer ke selatan dari Khatulistiwa. Dibahagian timur, varian ini bersempadan dengan sungai Sekadau (lihat Wurm dan Hattori (1983). Dengan persebaran yang luas, iaitu merangkumi Kalimantan Barat (Indonesia) dan bahagian barat Sarawak (Malaysia), bahasa Ibanik mempunyai...

  11. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    OpenAIRE

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodiesel and the associated GHG emissions are also studied. This study follows the methodology suggested by the Dutch Commission on Sustainable Biomass (Cramer Commission). The results demonstrate that l...

  12. An ancient origin for the enigmatic flat-headed frogs (Bombinatoridae: Barbourula from the islands of Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Blackburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complex history of Southeast Asian islands has long been of interest to biogeographers. Dispersal and vicariance events in the Pleistocene have received the most attention, though recent studies suggest a potentially more ancient history to components of the terrestrial fauna. Among this fauna is the enigmatic archaeobatrachian frog genus Barbourula, which only occurs on the islands of Borneo and Palawan. We utilize this lineage to gain unique insight into the temporal history of lineage diversification in Southeast Asian islands. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data, multiple fossil calibration points, and likelihood and Bayesian methods, we estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times for Barbourula. We determine the sensitivity of focal divergence times to specific calibration points by jackknife approach in which each calibration point is excluded from analysis. We find that relevant divergence time estimates are robust to the exclusion of specific calibration points. Barbourula is recovered as a monophyletic lineage nested within a monophyletic Costata. Barbourula diverged from its sister taxon Bombina in the Paleogene and the two species of Barbourula diverged in the Late Miocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The divergences within Barbourula and between it and Bombina are surprisingly old and represent the oldest estimates for a cladogenetic event resulting in living taxa endemic to Southeast Asian islands. Moreover, these divergence time estimates are consistent with a new biogeographic scenario: the Palawan Ark Hypothesis. We suggest that components of Palawan's terrestrial fauna might have "rafted" on emergent portions of the North Palawan Block during its migration from the Asian mainland to its present-day position near Borneo. Further, dispersal from Palawan to Borneo (rather than Borneo to Palawan may explain the current day disjunct distribution of this ancient

  13. Tracking Orangutans from the Sky

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Ancrenaz; Olivier Gimenez; Laurentius Ambu; Karine Ancrenaz; Patrick Andau; Benoît Goossens; John Payne; Azri Sawang; Augustine Tuuga; Isabelle Lackman-Ancrenaz

    2004-01-01

    Great apes are threatened with extinction, but precise information about the distribution and size of most populations is currently lacking. We conducted orangutan nest counts in the Malaysian state of Sabah (North Borneo), using a combination of ground and helicopter surveys, and provided a way to estimate the current distribution and size of the populations living throughout the entire state. We show that the number of nests detected during aerial surveys is directly related to the estimate...

  14. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Sutherland; Audrey Kahin; Joke van Reenen; Douglas Kammen; Moor, J.A.; Foster, Robert J.; Toon van Meijl; David Smyth; Henk Maier; W. Mahdi; Gunter Senft; Catharina van Klinken; Mark R. Woodward; Nico Kaptein; Laurence Husson

    2000-01-01

    - Tim Behrend, Nancy K. Florida, Javanese literature in Surakarta manuscripts; Volume 2; Manuscripts of the Mangkunagaran palace. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 2000, 575 pp. - Harold Brookfield, Judith M. Heimann, The most offending soul alive; Tom Harrisson and his remarkable life. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1998, 468 pp. - Harold Brookfield, Victor T. King, Rural development and social science research; Case studies from Borneo. Phillips, Maine: Bo...

  15. Man-Made Wildlife Tourism Destination: The Visitors Perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park, Sabah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd Sun Fatt; Johnny Cindy; Bakansing Shirley M.

    2014-01-01

    Sabah is blessed with natural forest habitats and rich with floras and faunas. Amongst its’ attraction is wildlife endemism. Lok Kawi Wildlife Park was established to provide an alternative wildlife tourism destination with its inhabitants from the wildlife species of Borneo. Since its opening in 2007, multitudes of tourists have visited the park. However, there has been no study to identify the visitor’s perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park as man-made wildlife tourism destination. The stud...

  16. Taxonomic studies of Cheiropleuria (Dipteridaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Masahiro; Yatabe, Yoko; Sahashi, Norio; Murakami, Noriaki

    2001-01-01

    Morphological and molecular studies are made on the fern genus Cheiropleuria, which was treated in the past as monotypic. We describe C. parva, a new species from Borneo, and separate C. integrifolia, distributed in Japan and Taiwan and probably in China too, from Southeast Asian C. bicuspis. The three species differ from each other in the size, shape and texture of lamina, divergence angles between lobes, frequency of bilobed leaves, and spore size and morphology. Cheiropleuria parva is dist...

  17. Pathways through the Plantation: Oil Palm Smallholders and Livelihood Strategies in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Cramb, Rob A.; Sujang, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    The dominant view among policy-makers in Sarawak, a resource frontier state in Malaysian Borneo, is that the only viable way to involve smallholders in the oil palm boom that has transformed the agricultural economy of that island is to consolidate them into larger production entities with externally provided management and finance. However, despite lack of government support, the area of smallholder oil palm has increased dramatically in the past decade in those regions with access to roads ...

  18. Designing Digital Solutions for Preserving Penan Sign Language: A Reflective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Zaman; Yeo, Alvin W.; Geran Jengan

    2016-01-01

    Oroo’ is a language of nomadic Penans in the rainforests of Borneo and the only way of asynchronous communication between nomadic groups in the forest journey. Like many other indigenous languages, the Oroo’ language is also facing imminent extinction. In this paper, we present the research process and reflections of a multidisciplinary community-based research project on digitalizing and preserving the Oroo’ sign language. As a methodology for project activities, we are employing Participato...

  19. Potensi Sektor Perekonomian di Kabupaten Malinau Provinsi Kalimantan Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dio Caisar Darma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study uses LQ Analysis Tool, DLQ, Shift Share, and Overlay during 5 yeares (2009 – 2013. As for the operating variable in this study is the GDP at Constant Prices, Economic Growth, Growth Sector, in the economy of Malinau Regency and the North of Borneo Province. Based on the results of the analysis are sector LQ base (seed in Malinau Regency is agriculture, electricity, gas and water, building and construction sector, the hotel and restaurant trade, and services sectors. DLQ analysis results show that, of the nine in the field of business, only the mining and quarrying sector that has a great chance to be developed in the future. Then, with a Shift Share Analysis results it is known that there is a change in the sectoral aggregate workmanship compared to the changes in the same sector in the economy with the Malinau Regency Regional Share (Rj of -557,195.12 million rupiah. Shift Differential category (Dj are seven sector experienced more rapid economic growth in Malinau Regency than North of Borneo Province or Pj <0. From category Proportional Shift (Pj are eight sectors experiencing economic growth more quickly in Malinau Regency than North of Borneo Province or Pj> 0. The other side, from the results of the Analysis of Overlay, there are six sector, which has a value notation is quite positive and dominant namely: agriculture, electricity, gas and water, building and construction sector, trade, hotels and restaurants, as well as services sector dominates with results notation (+ - +.

  20. Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Michael I.; Taylor, David; Hunt, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Consideration of a range of evidence from geomorphology, palynology, biogeography and vegetation/climate modelling suggests that a north-south 'savanna corridor' did exist through the continent of Sundaland (modern insular Indonesia and Malaysia) through the Last Glacial Period (LGP) at times of lowered sea-level, as originally proposed by Heaney [1991. Climatic Change 19, 53-61]. A minimal interpretation of the size of this corridor requires a narrow but continuous zone of open 'savanna' vegetation 50-150 km wide, running along the sand-covered divide between the modern South China and Java Seas. This area formed a land bridge between the Malaysian Peninsula and the major islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo. The savanna corridor connected similar open vegetation types north and south of the equator, and served as a barrier to the dispersal of rainforest-dependent species between Sumatra and Borneo. A maximal interpretation of the available evidence is compatible with the existence of a broad savanna corridor, with forest restricted to refugia primarily in Sumatra, Borneo and the continental shelf beneath the modern South China Sea. This savanna corridor may have provided a convenient route for the rapid early dispersal of modern humans through the region and on into Australasia.

  1. A high-resolution speleothem record of western equatorial Pacific rainfall: Implications for Holocene ENSO evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sang; Hoffmann, Sharon S.; Lund, David C.; Cobb, Kim M.; Emile-Geay, Julien; Adkins, Jess F.

    2016-05-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the primary driver of interannual climate variability in the tropics and subtropics. Despite substantial progress in understanding ocean-atmosphere feedbacks that drive ENSO today, relatively little is known about its behavior on centennial and longer timescales. Paleoclimate records from lakes, corals, molluscs and deep-sea sediments generally suggest that ENSO variability was weaker during the mid-Holocene (4-6 kyr BP) than the late Holocene (0-4 kyr BP). However, discrepancies amongst the records preclude a clear timeline of Holocene ENSO evolution and therefore the attribution of ENSO variability to specific climate forcing mechanisms. Here we present δ18 O results from a U-Th dated speleothem in Malaysian Borneo sampled at sub-annual resolution. The δ18 O of Borneo rainfall is a robust proxy of regional convective intensity and precipitation amount, both of which are directly influenced by ENSO activity. Our estimates of stalagmite δ18 O variance at ENSO periods (2-7 yr) show a significant reduction in interannual variability during the mid-Holocene (3240-3380 and 5160-5230 yr BP) relative to both the late Holocene (2390-2590 yr BP) and early Holocene (6590-6730 yr BP). The Borneo results are therefore inconsistent with lacustrine records of ENSO from the eastern equatorial Pacific that show little or no ENSO variance during the early Holocene. Instead, our results support coral, mollusc and foraminiferal records from the central and eastern equatorial Pacific that show a mid-Holocene minimum in ENSO variance. Reduced mid-Holocene interannual δ18 O variability in Borneo coincides with an overall minimum in mean δ18 O from 3.5 to 5.5 kyr BP. Persistent warm pool convection would tend to enhance the Walker circulation during the mid-Holocene, which likely contributed to reduced ENSO variance during this period. This finding implies that both convective intensity and interannual variability in Borneo are driven by

  2. The palaeogeography of Sundaland and Wallacea since the Late Jurassic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hall

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The continental core of Southeast (SE Asia, Sundaland, was assembled from Gondwana fragments by the Early Mesozoic. Continental blocks rifted from Australia in the Jurassic [South West (SW Borneo, East Java-West Sulawesi-Sumba], and the Woyla intraoceanic arc of Sumatra, were added to Sundaland in the Cretaceous. These fragments probably included emergent areas and could have carried a terrestrial flora and fauna. Sarawak, the offshore Luconia-Dangerous Grounds areas, and Palawan include Asian continental material. These probably represent a wide accretionary zone at the Asia-Pacific boundary, which was an active continental margin until the mid Cretaceous. Subduction ceased around Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous, and from about 80 Ma most of Sundaland was emergent, physically connected to Asia, but separated by deep oceans from India and Australia. India moved rapidly north during the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic but there is no evidence that it made contact with SE Asia prior to collision with Asia. One or more arc-India collisions during the Eocene may have preceded India-Asia collision. The arcs could have provided dispersal pathways from India into SE Asia before final suturing of the two continents. During the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic there was no significant subduction beneath Sumatra, Java and Borneo. At about 45 Ma Australia began to move north, subduction resumed and there was widespread rifting within Sundaland. During the Paleogene east and north Borneo were largely submerged, the Makassar Straits became a wide marine barrier within Sundaland, and West Sulawesi was separated from Sundaland but included land. By the Early Miocene the proto-South China Sea had been eliminated by subduction leading to emergence of land in central Borneo, Sabah and Palawan. Australia-SE Asia collision began, eliminating the former deep ocean separating the two continents, and forming the region now known as Wallacea. The microplate or

  3. REVIEW: The Diversity of Indigenous Honey Bee Species of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOESILAWATI HADISOESILO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that Indonesia has the most diverse honey bee species in the world. At least five out of nine species of honey bees are native to Indonesia namely Apis andreniformis, A. dorsata, A. cerana, A. koschevnikovi, and A. nigrocincta. One species, A. florea, although it was claimed to be a species native to Indonesia, it is still debatable whether it is really found in Indonesia or not. The new species, A. nuluensis, which is found in Sabah, Borneo is likely to be found in Kalimantan but it has not confirmed yet. This paper discusses briefly the differences among those native honey bees.

  4. Review of the Oriental lantern-fly genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, with a new species from Sumatra (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Constant

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Datua brevirostris Lallemand, 1959 is transferred to the genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011 in the Aphaeninae and the new combination Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959 comb. nov. is proposed. Egregia marpessa Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, the type-species of the genus Egregia, is synonymized with Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959. A second species, Egregia laprincesse sp. nov. is described from Sumatra, extending the distribution of the genus hitherto recorded only from Borneo. Distribution maps and an identification key are provided. The male genitalia of E. brevirostris are illustrated and described. The genus Datua Schmidt, 1911 now contains a single species, D. bisinuata Schmidt, 1911.

  5. 马来西亚发展香草种植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010年2月20日,马来西亚沙捞越香草种植公司Borneo Rainforest Vanilla总经理法兰西加纳博士透露,全球每年对香草产品需求量超过2万t,马来西亚看准市场需求,开始投入香草种植发展,并预计在10a内成为全球第3大香草生产国。

  6. Four new species of Arenga (Palmae from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanis Palar Mogea

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available MOGEA, JOHANIS P. 2004. Four new species of Arenga (Palmae from Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (2: 181 – 189. ― Arenga distincta from Borneo and A. longipes, A. plicata, and A. talamauensis from Sumatra are described and illustrated for the first time. The descriptions are followed by  information regarding the habitat and  geographical distribution, and notes on morphological similarities with other, presumably related species.  Leaves of A. longipes and A.  talamauensis are paripinnate while the other two species are imparipinnate.  

  7. They Lie, We Lie: Gettingon With Anthropology, Peter Metcalf

    OpenAIRE

    Winzeler, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The title of this elegantly written book about Peter Metcalf’s fieldwork among the longhouse-dwelling Berawan of northern central Borneo has a double meaning. In literal terms, the phrase “They lie, we lie” is a translation of a formulaic opening used by a Berawan elder to begin her narration of a sacred epic. The author regards the statement as profound and, therefore, offers no exact interpretation of its meaning except to say that it is definitely not intended to imply that the narrator is...

  8. New ceramic data from East Kalimantan : the cord-marked and red-slipped sherds of Liang Abu's layer 2 and Kalimantan's potter chronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological research in the Liang Abu rock shelter (East Kalimantan) led to the discovery and analysis of a pottery assemblage including red-slipped, cord-marked and incised pottery sherds, radiocarbon dated to 1672 ± 21 BP and 1524 ± 22 BP. In order to discuss our findings we undertake a reappraisal of the pottery material and associated radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites on Borneo Island, which provide us with an appropriate framework for a comparative analysis. This allows us to to include the inland region of Kalimantan in the technological network of Neolithic Island South East Asia. (author)

  9. Hoya isabelchanae Rodda & Simonsson, a new, showy species of Hoya R.Br. (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) with pomegranate red flowers from Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Michele; Juhonewe, Nadhanielle Simonsson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hoya R.Br. from Sulawesi (Indonesia), Hoya isabelchanae Rodda & Simonsson, is described and illustrated. It is one of the largest flowered species in Hoya section Acanthostemma (Blume) Kloppenb. Its flowers are of comparable size to those of Hoya benchaii Gavrus et al., Hoya kloppenburgii T.Green, Hoya rundumensis (T.Green) Rodda & Simonsson and Hoya sigillatis T.Green ssp. sigillatis, all from Borneo. Among Sulawesi species it is compared with the vegetatively similar Hoya brevialata Kleijn & van Donkelaar and Hoya pallilimba Kleijn & van Donkelaar. PMID:27698573

  10. Too Green to be True. IOI Corporation in Ketapang District, West Kalimantan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, I. [Aidenvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    This report reveals that the Malaysian showcase company IOI Group does not live up to its environmental promises in newly established plantations in the Ketapang district - the Indonesian part of Borneo. Glossy CSR policies, engagement in multi-stakeholder initiatives and the possession of certificates from the Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil do not offer proof of IOI Group's 'green' credentials. Instead, Europe's increasing demand for palm oil in food and biofuels is leading to deforestation, breaches of environmental law and land conflicts in Asia (authors abstract)

  11. Review of the effusus group of the Lanternfly genus Pyrops Spinola, 1839, with one new species and notes on trophobiosis (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Constant

    2015-01-01

    The species group effusus of the genus Pyrops Spinola, 1839 is reviewed and the nomenclatural history of the genus Pyrops is briefly summarized. One new species from eastern Borneo, Pyrops synavei sp. nov., is described. P. gunjii (Satô & Nagai, 1994) stat. nov. is proposed as a valid species instead of a subspecies of P. whiteheadi (Distant, 1889). P. maquilinganus (Baker, 1925) is removed from the effusus group and placed back into the candelaria group. P. cyanirostris (Guérin-Méneville...

  12. Variance in spermatozoa number among Apis dorsata drones and among Apis mellifera drones

    OpenAIRE

    Koeniger, Gudrun; KOENIGER, Nikolaus; TINGEK, Salim; Phiancharoen, Mananya

    2005-01-01

    International audience Published estimates of the mean spermatozoa numbers for Apis dorsata drones vary from 1.2 × 106 and 2.4 × 106; the number of spermatozoa per individual drone vary from 0.22 × 106 to 2.65 × 106. Counts presented here revealed 1.19 × 106 + 0.25 × 106 spermatozoa in drones sampled near a colony and 1.59 × 106 + 0.18 × 106 in drones sampled at a drone congregation area (DCA) in Sabah, Borneo. The difference between the two sites is significant. Further, the degree of var...

  13. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported.

  14. Going the whole orang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wyhe, John; Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This article surveys the European discovery and early ideas about orangutans followed by the contrasting experiences with these animals of the co-founders of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. The first non-human great ape that both of them interacted...... with was the orangutan. They were both profoundly influenced by what they saw, but the contexts of their observations could hardly be more different. Darwin met orangutans in the Zoological Gardens in London while Wallace saw them in the wild in Borneo. In different ways these observations helped shape their views...

  15. Discovering Phonemes of Bidayuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jecky Misieng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are generally three views of the notion of a phoneme. The structuralist view of the phoneme focuses on this language phenomenon as a phonetic reality. In discovering phonemes of a language, phonologists who hold this view will look for minimal contrasting pairs as a way to determine contrasting sounds of that language. They will also look for allophones or two sounds of the same phoneme which may appear in complementary distribution. This paper will discuss the possible application of the structuralist approach to analyzing the phonemes of a dialect of Bidayuh, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages spoken in the northern region of Borneo.

  16. 国境の海、係争の島 : ダイビングの楽園・シパダン島(北ボルネオ)をめぐる近代の軋轢

    OpenAIRE

    清水, 展

    2005-01-01

    Sipadan is a small island, approximately 0.03 sq.km, located about l4 nautical miles off Tanjung Tutop on the south-eastern coast of Sabah, Malaysia. It is a deep-water oceanic island separated by a trench from the Borneo continental shelf, and is surrounded by a coral reef. That is why the island attracts divers from all over the world, and is known as "one of the top ten diving spots." Divers can enjoy watching turtles and big open-water fish as well as colourful coral fish. On April 23, Ea...

  17. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-01-01

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of...

  18. サバ州キナバタンガン川流域におけるエコツーリズムの背景と実態 : 持続可能な自然保護・地域社会・観光の融合への模索 (研究ノート)

    OpenAIRE

    海津, ゆりえ

    2012-01-01

    This research note aims to review of the background of Borneo study-eco tour by World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) since late 1990s at Kinabatangan river basin, Saba, Malaysia. Kinabatangan basin area is the place where is developed since 18th century by Asian countries, such as China and Japan. Most of wild forest are cut down and transferred into plantation under the development and it causes reduce of number of wild mammals such as Oran-Utang, Pigmy Elephant and other monkeys. WWF focused on ...

  19. New Replacement Name for Rana paradoxa Mocquard, 1890 with Designations of Lectotypes for Rana paradoxa and Rana conspicil-lata Günther, 1872:Both Synonymized with Limnonectes kuhlii (Tschudi, 1838) (Dicroglossidae:Dicroglossinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masafumi MATSUI; Alain DUBOIS; Annemarie OHLER

    2013-01-01

    Fanged frogs, now called Limnonectes kuhlii, from Borneo are remotely related to true Javanese L. kuhlii. For future taxonomy of Bornean fanged frogs, we ifx the nomenclatural status of two existing names, Rana conspicillata Günther, 1872 and Rana paradoxa Mocquard, 1890. Morphological comparison of the type-series revealed heterospeciifc relationships of the two species. For R. conspicillata, we designate BMNH 1947.2.29.20 as the lectotype, and for R. para-doxa, we also designate MNHN 1889.222 as the lectotype and propose a replacement name Limnonectes mocquardi, in order to stabilize their nomenclature.

  20. Progress in Malesian botany

    OpenAIRE

    NN,

    1986-01-01

    Check Lists of Indonesian Trees under editorship of Dr. T.C. WHITMORE (OXF) and Dr. I.G.M. TANTRA (Forest Dept., Bali). In April 1986 the list for Sumatra was ready to be printed. The lists for Celebes and Nusa Tenggara were in the typing stage. Manuscripts for the Moluccas, Borneo and New Guinea are virtually complete. The project has prematurely ended, however, due to a drop of 40% in the Indonesian development budget. It is to be hoped that this is temporarily so and that the pieces can be...

  1. Dopady pěstování palmy olejné na ostrově Kalimantan v Indonésii

    OpenAIRE

    Hruška, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this bachelor thesis is the evaluation of the impacts of the development of oil palm planting in Indonesia on the environment and social community of the local population in the selected region Kalimantan on the island Borneo. In next step the thesis focuses on the possibilities of using palm oil, the economic causes of the oil-palm planting and political background of the issue. The work also deals the possibilities of solving the assessment of the sustainability of planting ...

  2. Moving in a hierarchized landscape Changing border regimes in Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Lumenta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transnational mobility is a common feature among borderland communities. Central Borneo has been a relatively fluid and open riverine-based socio-cultural and economic space since the arrival of colonial states, without much interference from the establishment of international boundaries on local cross-border mobility practices. This applies to the Kenyah, a cluster of related ethnic groups occupying the Apokayan plateau in East Kalimantan (Indonesia, who are historically an integral part of the socio-cultural and economic fabric throughout the major riverine systems of Sarawak (Malaysia. Despite the relative absence of states, Central Borneo has not escaped the onslaught of social differentiation embedded in nation-state identities. The penetration of Sarawak’s logging industry has brought the terrestrial re-ordering of the Bornean landscape away from the relative egalitarian social order of river basins into hierarchical social relations embedded in capitalistic modes of production. This has brought about the construction of the Kenyah’s visibility as an “Indonesian underclass“ inside Sarawak.

  3. MODIS data used to study 2002 fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Douglas O.

    Smoke and haze blanketed western Indonesia during August and September 2002, signaling the arrival of another El Niño event in Southeast Asia. Although not as severe as the 1997-1998 El Niño event, the 2002 El Niño produced drought conditions in western Indonesia that favored extensive biomass burning in lowland areas of Borneo, Sumatra, and Sulawesi, three of the largest islands that form part of the vast Indonesian archipelago. Data derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on board the NASA Terra satellite showed that most of the burning during 2002 occurred in central and western Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), where forests are being cleared to make way for industrial oil palm and pulp plantations.Comparison of fire data from several different satellite sensors also reveals that fires detected in Kalimantan during 1997 appeared more numerous (Figure 1) and burned over a longer period (Figure 2) than fires that burned in late 2002 (see discussion below). This result is consistent with recent El Niño observations that characterize the current event as moderate relative to the 1997-1998 event (see http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ products/analysis_monitoring/enso_advisory/).

  4. Potensi Sektor Perekonomian di Kabupaten Malinau Provinsi Kalimantan Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dio Caisar Darma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study uses LQ Analysis Tool, DLQ, Shift Share, and Overlay during 5 yeares (2009 – 2013. As for the operating variable in this study is the GDP at Constant Prices, Economic Growth, Growth Sector, in the economy of Malinau Regency and the North of Borneo Province. Based on the results of the analysis are sector LQ base (seed in Malinau Regency is agriculture, electricity, gas and water, building and construction sector, the hotel and restaurant trade, and services sectors. DLQ analysis results show that, of the nine in the field of business, only the mining and quarrying sector that has a great chance to be developed in the future. Then, with a Shift Share Analysis results it is known that there is a change in the sectoral aggregate workmanship compared to the changes in the same sector in the economy with the Malinau Regency Regional Share (Rj of -557,195.12 million rupiah. Shift Differential category (Dj are seven sector experienced more rapid economic growth in Malinau Regency than North of Borneo Province or Pj 0. The other side, from the results of the Analysis of Overlay, there are six sector, which has a value notation is quite positive and dominant namely: agriculture, electricity, gas and water, building and construction sector, trade, hotels and restaurants, as well as services sector dominates with results notation (+ - +.

  5. Diagnosing the Growth of Equatorial Typhoon Vamei (2001 from an Energy Standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Rong Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly, on 27 December 2001, a storm named Typhoon Vamei formed near in Singaporean waters. An examination on the SSM/I-derived rainfall rates and air-sea parameters showed that significant higher latent heat release and air-sea energy flux during convective rainfall activities played a key role in the _ growth. A quantitative analysis revealed that the energy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and the latent heat release during the rainfall activities both increased significantly during the initial growth stage. However, the values rapidly decreased just before the storm reached typhoon strength. Separately, in contrast to a case that occurred in 1999, the total thermal energy calculated from Typhoon _ formation was two times higher. Thus, despite a very weak Coriolis force in the equatorial belt, the special terrain of Borneo Island and narrow channel in the equatorial South China Sea caused a Borneo vortex via northeasterly cold surges, together with the accumulated energy was sufficiently strong enough to induce the formation of Typhoon Vamei.

  6. Phylogeographic pattern of the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland: ancient river connectivity, geographical and anthropogenic signatures [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min Pau; Jamsari, Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin; Siti Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2012-01-01

    A phylogeographic study of an economically important freshwater fish, the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland was carried out using data from mtDNA ND5 gene target to elucidate genetic patterning. Templates obtained from a total of 280 individuals representing 24 sampling sites revealed 27 putative haplotypes. Three distinct genetic lineages were apparent; 1)northwest Peninsular Malaysia, 2)southern Peninsular, east Peninsular, Sumatra and SW (western Sarawak) and 3) central west Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo (except SW). Genetic structuring between lineages showed a significant signature of natural geographical barriers that have been acting as effective dividers between these populations. However, genetic propinquity between the SW and southern Peninsular and east Peninsular Malaysia populations was taken as evidence of ancient river connectivity between these regions during the Pleistocene epoch. Alternatively, close genetic relationship between central west Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo populations implied anthropogenic activities. Further, haplotype sharing between the east Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra populations revealed extraordinary migration ability of C. striata (>500 km) through ancient connectivity. These results provide interesting insights into the historical and contemporary landscape arrangement in shaping genetic patterns of freshwater species in Sundaland.

  7. Phylogeographic pattern of the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland: ancient river connectivity, geographical and anthropogenic signatures [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pau Tan

    Full Text Available A phylogeographic study of an economically important freshwater fish, the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland was carried out using data from mtDNA ND5 gene target to elucidate genetic patterning. Templates obtained from a total of 280 individuals representing 24 sampling sites revealed 27 putative haplotypes. Three distinct genetic lineages were apparent; 1northwest Peninsular Malaysia, 2southern Peninsular, east Peninsular, Sumatra and SW (western Sarawak and 3 central west Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo (except SW. Genetic structuring between lineages showed a significant signature of natural geographical barriers that have been acting as effective dividers between these populations. However, genetic propinquity between the SW and southern Peninsular and east Peninsular Malaysia populations was taken as evidence of ancient river connectivity between these regions during the Pleistocene epoch. Alternatively, close genetic relationship between central west Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo populations implied anthropogenic activities. Further, haplotype sharing between the east Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra populations revealed extraordinary migration ability of C. striata (>500 km through ancient connectivity. These results provide interesting insights into the historical and contemporary landscape arrangement in shaping genetic patterns of freshwater species in Sundaland.

  8. Genetic Signature of Anthropogenic Population Collapse in Orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  9. Genetic signature of anthropogenic population collapse in orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Goossens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  10. Co-occurrence patterns of Bornean vertebrates suggest competitive exclusion is strongest among distantly related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Struebig, Matthew J; Meijaard, Erik; van Balen, S; Husson, Simon; Marshall, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the importance of deterministic processes in structuring ecological communities is a central focus of community ecology. Typically, community ecologists study a single taxonomic group, which precludes detection of potentially important biotic interactions between distantly related species, and inherently assumes competition is strongest between closely related species. We examined distribution patterns of vertebrate species across the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia to assess the extent to which inter-specific competition may have shaped ecological communities on the island and whether the intensity of inter-specific competition in present-day communities varies as a function of evolutionary relatedness. We investigated the relative extent of competition within and between species of primates, birds, bats and squirrels using species presence-absence and attribute data compiled for 21 forested sites across Borneo. We calculated for each species pair the checkerboard unit value (CU), a statistic that is often interpreted as indicating the importance of interspecific competition. The percentage of species pairs with significant CUs was lowest in within-taxon comparisons. Moreover, for invertebrate-eating species the percentage of significantly checkerboarded species pairs was highest in comparisons between primates and other taxa, particularly birds and squirrels. Our results are consistent with the interpretation that competitive interactions between distantly related species may have shaped the distribution of species and thus the composition of Bornean vertebrate communities. This research highlights the importance of taking into account the broad mammalian and avian communities in which species occur for understanding the factors that structure biodiversity. PMID:23736548

  11. Drought-mortality relationships for tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; van der Heijden, Geertje; Lewis, Simon L; López-González, Gabriela; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lloyd, Jon; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Almeida, Samuel; Dávila, Esteban Alvarez; Amaral, Iêda; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; da Costa, Lola; Feldpausch, Ted R; Fisher, Joshua B; Fyllas, Nikolaos M; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Jiménez, Eliana; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Lovett, Jon C; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Patiño, Sandra; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Cruz, Antonio Peña; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J W Ferry; Sonké, Bonaventure; Thomas, Anne Sota; Stropp, Juliana; Taplin, James R D; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Vilanova, Emilio

    2010-08-01

    *The rich ecology of tropical forests is intimately tied to their moisture status. Multi-site syntheses can provide a macro-scale view of these linkages and their susceptibility to changing climates. Here, we report pan-tropical and regional-scale analyses of tree vulnerability to drought. *We assembled available data on tropical forest tree stem mortality before, during, and after recent drought events, from 119 monitoring plots in 10 countries concentrated in Amazonia and Borneo. *In most sites, larger trees are disproportionately at risk. At least within Amazonia, low wood density trees are also at greater risk of drought-associated mortality, independent of size. For comparable drought intensities, trees in Borneo are more vulnerable than trees in the Amazon. There is some evidence for lagged impacts of drought, with mortality rates remaining elevated 2 yr after the meteorological event is over. *These findings indicate that repeated droughts would shift the functional composition of tropical forests toward smaller, denser-wooded trees. At very high drought intensities, the linear relationship between tree mortality and moisture stress apparently breaks down, suggesting the existence of moisture stress thresholds beyond which some tropical forests would suffer catastrophic tree mortality. PMID:20659252

  12. Phylogeographic pattern of the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland: ancient river connectivity, geographical and anthropogenic signatures [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min Pau; Jamsari, Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin; Siti Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2012-01-01

    A phylogeographic study of an economically important freshwater fish, the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland was carried out using data from mtDNA ND5 gene target to elucidate genetic patterning. Templates obtained from a total of 280 individuals representing 24 sampling sites revealed 27 putative haplotypes. Three distinct genetic lineages were apparent; 1)northwest Peninsular Malaysia, 2)southern Peninsular, east Peninsular, Sumatra and SW (western Sarawak) and 3) central west Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo (except SW). Genetic structuring between lineages showed a significant signature of natural geographical barriers that have been acting as effective dividers between these populations. However, genetic propinquity between the SW and southern Peninsular and east Peninsular Malaysia populations was taken as evidence of ancient river connectivity between these regions during the Pleistocene epoch. Alternatively, close genetic relationship between central west Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo populations implied anthropogenic activities. Further, haplotype sharing between the east Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra populations revealed extraordinary migration ability of C. striata (>500 km) through ancient connectivity. These results provide interesting insights into the historical and contemporary landscape arrangement in shaping genetic patterns of freshwater species in Sundaland. PMID:23284881

  13. Phylogeographic Pattern of the Striped Snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland: Ancient River Connectivity, Geographical and Anthropogenic Singnatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min Pau; Jamsari, Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin; Siti Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2012-01-01

    A phylogeographic study of an economically important freshwater fish, the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland was carried out using data from mtDNA ND5 gene target to elucidate genetic patterning. Templates obtained from a total of 280 individuals representing 24 sampling sites revealed 27 putative haplotypes. Three distinct genetic lineages were apparent; 1)northwest Peninsular Malaysia, 2)southern Peninsular, east Peninsular, Sumatra and SW (western Sarawak) and 3) central west Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo (except SW). Genetic structuring between lineages showed a significant signature of natural geographical barriers that have been acting as effective dividers between these populations. However, genetic propinquity between the SW and southern Peninsular and east Peninsular Malaysia populations was taken as evidence of ancient river connectivity between these regions during the Pleistocene epoch. Alternatively, close genetic relationship between central west Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo populations implied anthropogenic activities. Further, haplotype sharing between the east Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra populations revealed extraordinary migration ability of C. striata (>500 km) through ancient connectivity. These results provide interesting insights into the historical and contemporary landscape arrangement in shaping genetic patterns of freshwater species in Sundaland. PMID:23284881

  14. Land Use Change Around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. J.; Defries, R.; Curran, L.; Liu, J.; Reid, R.; Turner, B.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of land use change outside of reserves on biodiversity within reserves is not well studied. This paper draws on research from Yellowstone, East Africa, Yucatan, Borneo, and Wolong, China to examine land use effects on nature reserves. Objectives are: quantify rates of change in land use around reserves; examine consequences for biodiversity within the context of specific ecological mechanisms; and draw implications for regional management. Within each of the study regions, semi-natural habitats around nature reserves have been converted to agricultural, rural residential, or urban land uses. Rates vary from 0.2-0.4 %/yr in Yucatan, to 9.5 %/yr in Borneo. Such land use changes may be important because nature reserves are often parts of larger ecosystems that are defined by flows in energy, materials, and organisms. Land use outside of reserves may disrupt these flows and alter biodiversity within reserves. Ecological mechanisms that connect biodiversity to these land use changes include habitat size, ecological flows, crucial habitats, and edge effects. For example, the effective size of the East African study area has been reduced by 45% by human activities. Based on the species area relationship, this reduction in habitat area will lead to a loss of 14% of bird and mammal species. A major conclusion is that the viability of nature reserves can best be ensured by managing them in the context of the surrounding region. Knowledge of the ecological mechanisms by which land use influences nature reserves provides design criteria for this regional management.

  15. Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancrenaz, Marc; Gimenez, Olivier; Ambu, Laurentius; Ancrenaz, Karine; Andau, Patrick; Goossens, Benoît; Payne, John; Sawang, Azri; Tuuga, Augustine; Lackman-Ancrenaz, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Great apes are threatened with extinction, but precise information about the distribution and size of most populations is currently lacking. We conducted orangutan nest counts in the Malaysian state of Sabah (North Borneo), using a combination of ground and helicopter surveys, and provided a way to estimate the current distribution and size of the populations living throughout the entire state. We show that the number of nests detected during aerial surveys is directly related to the estimated true animal density and that a helicopter is an efficient tool to provide robust estimates of orangutan numbers. Our results reveal that with a total estimated population size of about 11,000 individuals, Sabah is one of the main strongholds for orangutans in North Borneo. More than 60% of orangutans living in the state occur outside protected areas, in production forests that have been through several rounds of logging extraction and are still exploited for timber. The role of exploited forests clearly merits further investigation for orangutan conservation in Sabah. PMID:15630475

  16. Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ancrenaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Great apes are threatened with extinction, but precise information about the distribution and size of most populations is currently lacking. We conducted orangutan nest counts in the Malaysian state of Sabah (North Borneo, using a combination of ground and helicopter surveys, and provided a way to estimate the current distribution and size of the populations living throughout the entire state. We show that the number of nests detected during aerial surveys is directly related to the estimated true animal density and that a helicopter is an efficient tool to provide robust estimates of orangutan numbers. Our results reveal that with a total estimated population size of about 11,000 individuals, Sabah is one of the main strongholds for orangutans in North Borneo. More than 60% of orangutans living in the state occur outside protected areas, in production forests that have been through several rounds of logging extraction and are still exploited for timber. The role of exploited forests clearly merits further investigation for orangutan conservation in Sabah.

  17. Rapid transport of East Asian pollution to the deep tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Ashfold

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions from East Asia have increased over recent decades, and under the prevailing westerly winds, these increases have led to changes in atmospheric composition as far afield as North America. Here we show that, during Northern Hemisphere (NH winter, pollution originating in East Asia also directly affects atmospheric composition in the deep tropics. We present observations of marked intra-seasonal variability in the anthropogenic tracer perchloroethene (C2Cl4 collected at two locations in Borneo during the NH winter of 2008/09. We use the NAME trajectory model to show that the observed enhancements in C2Cl4 mixing ratio are caused by rapid meridional transport, in the form of "cold surges", from the relatively polluted East Asian land mass. In these events air masses can move across > 30° of latitude in 4 days. We then present data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate reanalysis which suggests that air masses high in C2Cl4 may also contain levels of the pollutants carbon monoxide and ozone that are approximately double the typical "background" levels in Borneo. Convection in Southeast Asia can be enhanced by cold surges, and further trajectory calculations indicate that the polluted air masses can subsequently be lifted to the tropical upper troposphere. This suggests a potentially important connection between mid-latitude pollution sources and the very low stratosphere.

  18. First Record of the Gekkonid Genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 from Gunung Mulu National Park, Northern Sarawak, East Malaysia may Represent an Undescribed Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    André KOCH; Sebastian SCHULZ

    2014-01-01

    We provide conifrmed photographic evidence for the previously overlooked occurrence of the polyphyletic Asian gecko genus Cnemaspis from Gunung Mulu National Park, the world-renowned UNESCO natural heritage site in northern Sarawak, East Malaysia. This new record from Sarawak province represents a remarkable range extension for Cnemaspis cf. kendallii by 550 km to the northeast and denotes the most northern occurrence of the genus in Borneo. Our new ifnding makes it very likely that these gekkonid lizards also inhabit appropriate limestone karst habitats in adjacent Sabah, Brunei, and Kalimantan. Given the visible differences in the Mulu specimen compared to those from the remaining distribution range on Borneo and the Malaysian Peninsula together with the fact that numerous Cnemaspis species are restricted to small areas, it seems plausible that another undescribed, rather cryptic and possibly locally endemic Bornean species is involved. Lastly, the new record contributes to the importance of the Mulu National Park as a major conservation area in East Malaysia of international concerns.

  19. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in urban and tropical rainforest locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gabey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available UV-LIF measurements were performed on ambient aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS3. These sites are taken to represent environments with minor and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA influences respectively, and the urban dataset describes the fluorescent background aerosol against which PBA must be identified by researchers using LIF. The ensemble aerosol at both sites was characterised over 2–3 weeks by measuring the fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter (DP of single particles sized 0.8 ≤ DP ≤ 20 μm. Filter samples were also collected for a subset of the Manchester campaign and analysed using energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, which revealed mostly non-PBA at D ≤ 1 μm.

    The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: the emission following a 280 nm excitation is recorded at 310–400 nm (channel F1 and 400–600 nm (F2, and fluorescence excited at 350 nm is detected at 400–600 nm (F3. In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was present at 0.8–1.2 μm, with a secondary fluorescent mode at 2–4 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 0.8–1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3–4 μm. Agreement between fluorescent number concentrations in each channel differed at the two sites, with F1 and F3 reporting similar concentrations in Borneo but F3 outnumbering F1 by a factor of 2–3 across the size spectrum in Manchester.

    The fluorescence intensity in each channel generally rose with DP at both sites with the exception of F1 intensity in Manchester, which peaked at DP = 4 μm, causing a divergence between F1 and F3 intensity at larger DP. This divergence and the differing

  20. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen

    2013-03-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRFchem) is used to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent during September-October 2006. In this period, dry conditions associated with the moderate El Niño event caused the largest regional biomass burning outbreak since 1997. Smoke emission in WRFchem is specified according to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images and measured mass concentration of surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm). The interplay of sea/land breezes, typhoons and storms over the subtropical western Pacific Ocean, trade winds, and topographic effects, can be clearly seen in the model simulation. The most severe smoke events in 1-5 October 2006 are found to be associated with the meteorological responses to the typhoon Xangsane (#18) over the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, which moved smoke from Sumatra eastward in the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa), forming smoke layers mixed with and above the boundary layer clouds over Borneo. In contrast, the second largest week-long smoke transport event of 15-18 October 2006 was associated with the seasonal monsoonal transition period, during which smoke plumes were wide spread over the 5°S-5°N zone as a result of (a) the near surface divergence coupled with the 700 hPa bifurcation of wind (flowing both to the west and to the east), and (b) the near-surface southeasterly and easterly winds along the equator transporting smoke from Borneo to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Analysis of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) shows that smoke particles in October 2006 were primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface. Smoke particles contributed roughly half

  1. Profiler-sonobuoy measurements in the South China Sea basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, W.J.; Kumar, N.; Houtz, R.E.

    1979-07-10

    Analyses of single-channel seismic reflection profiles, and wide-angle reflection and refraction data from sonobuoys, indicate that the deep part of the South China Sea basin is typically oceanic in structure, except that layer 2 is about 1 km thicker than usual and layer 3 is only about half the usual thickness. The top of layer 2 has a rough upper surface and becomes deeper in the northern part of the basin, where it is overlain by sediments of velocity 1.7--3.8 km/s up to 3 km thick. A 6-km-thick sequence of sediments fills a basement depression just north of the outer subsurface (peripheral) ridge of the Sunda shelf. Thick sediments were measured at the outer parts of the Sunda shelf, Palawan shelf, Northeast Borneo shelf, and in the Taiwan straits south of the Penghu-Peikang basement high. The Manila trench is divided into two sections, a sediment-filled trench between southernmost Taiwan and Stewart bank off central northern Luzon and a topographic trench between Stewart bank southward into the Mindoro straits. Burial of part of the trench by sediments that thicken to the north and the thick sediment cover of the northern South China Sea basin indicate provenance from the north. The northern margin of the South China Sea basin is predominantly a zone of tension the southern margin is predominantly a zone of compression, the western margin may be a zone of shear, and the eastern margin is a subduction zone. It seems probable that the southern margin of the basin, called the Reed bank crustal block, was formerly attached to mainland Asia. Sometime during the Paleogene the Reed bank crustal block broke away from the continent, and new sea floor was created between the southeastward migrating block and the Asian mainland. Old ocean crust in front of the advancing block was subducted along the northwestern sides of Borneo and Palawan. Subduction ceased in the early Miocene with the collision of the crustal block and the Borneo-Palawan isthmian ridge.

  2. Late Jurassic-Cenozoic reconstructions of the Indonesian region and the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The heterogeneous Sundaland region was assembled by closure of Tethyan oceans and addition of continental fragments. Its Mesozoic and Cenozoic history is illustrated by a new plate tectonic reconstruction. A continental block (Luconia-Dangerous Grounds) rifted from east Asia was added to eastern Sundaland north of Borneo in the Cretaceous. Continental blocks that originated in western Australia from the Late Jurassic are now in Borneo, Java and Sulawesi. West Burma was not rifted from western Australia in the Jurassic. The Banda (SW Borneo) and Argo (East Java-West Sulawesi) blocks separated from western Australia and collided with the SE Asian margin between 110 and 90 Ma, and at 90 Ma the Woyla intra-oceanic arc collided with the Sumatra margin. Subduction beneath Sundaland terminated at this time. A marked change in deep mantle structure at about 110°E reflects different subduction histories north of India and Australia since 90 Ma. India and Australia were separated by a transform boundary that was leaky from 90 to 75 Ma and slightly convergent from 75 to 55 Ma. From 80 Ma, India moved rapidly north with north-directed subduction within Tethys and at the Asian margin. It collided with an intra-oceanic arc at about 55 Ma, west of Sumatra, and continued north to collide with Asia in the Eocene. Between 90 and 45 Ma Australia remained close to Antarctica and there was no significant subduction beneath Sumatra and Java. During this interval Sundaland was largely surrounded by inactive margins with some strike-slip deformation and extension, except for subduction beneath Sumba-West Sulawesi between 63 and 50 Ma. At 45 Ma Australia began to move north; subduction resumed beneath Indonesia and has continued to the present. There was never an active or recently active ridge subducted in the Late Cretaceous or Cenozoic beneath Sumatra and Java. The slab subducted between Sumatra and east Indonesia in the Cenozoic was Cretaceous or older, except at the very western end

  3. In situ measurements of IO and reactive iodine aboard the RV Sonne during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Dwayne; Walker, Hannah; Ingham, Trevor; Huang, Ru-Jin; Wittrock, Folker

    2013-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are emitted from the oceans by marine species such as macroalgae and phytoplankton and contribute to halogen loading in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project combined ship-borne, aircraft-based and ground-based measurements in and over the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea, and around the coast of Malaysian Borneo. In this paper we present measurements of IO radicals in coastal and open ocean regions made onboard the German research vessel RV Sonne in November 2011 between Singapore and Manila, via the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo (South China Sea) and the Sulu Sea. In situ measurements of IO were made on 12 days by the University of Leeds laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrument, with a detection limit of 0.3 pptv for a 30 minute averaging period. The cruise average IO concentration was found to be 1.2 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 2.4 pptv in the middle of the Sulu Sea, an area known for high biological activity. Only a weak diurnal profile was observed, with IO detected above the detection limit on 10 out of the 11 nights when the LIF instrument was operational. Measurements of IO at night in the open ocean have not previously been reported and indicate the presence of gas phase or heterogeneous mechanisms that recycle iodine species without requiring light. There was reasonable agreement for IO concentrations measured by the University of Leeds LIF and the University of Bremen MAX-DOAS instruments, for which a comparison will be presented. I2, ICl and HOI were measured by the University of Mainz using a coupled diffusion denuder system followed by analysis using gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectroscopy, with a detection of 0.17 pptv for 30 mins (I2). The cruise average I2 concentration was found to be 2.0 pptv, with a maximum concentration observed during one night of 12.7 pptv on the northern coast

  4. Nuclear Malaysia in the news 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear was a term that always misunderstood by public as a terrifying term. Nuclear activities around Malaysia were disseminated in newspaper and Malaysian Nuclear Agency as a responsible agency were collecting that news and compiled them. The purpose for this compilation were to make the public aware the benefits of nuclear energy and all the activities regarding nuclear surround them. All the news about nuclear technology were collected using various type of newspaper published in Malaysia such as Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, Daily Express, News Straits Time, The Star, Borneo Post and others. This news was compiled according to their main topics such as energy, nuclear in agriculture, education and others. Each year one edition of this report will publish and disseminate it to the other libraries, government agencies, school and others to make the public aware the existence of nuclear activities around their countries.

  5. Otolith growth of Springer's demoiselle, Chrysiptera springeri (Pomacentridae, Allen & Lubbock), on a protected and non-protected coral reef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Retzel, A.; Hansen, A.D.; Grønkjær, P.

    2007-01-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs is important for their function as shelter and feeding habitats for coral reef fishes, but physical disturbance by human activities often reduce complexity of the reefs by selectively destroying fragile and more complex coral species. The damselfish Springer......'s demoiselle Chrysiptera springeri primarily utilize complex coral heads for shelter and are hence vulnerable to human disturbance. In order to evaluate the potential effect of habitat degradation on juvenile fish growth, coral reef cover, fish age at settling and otolith growth, juvenile Springer's demoiselle...... was investigated on a protected and non-protected coral reef in Darvel Bay, Borneo. The protected reef had higher coverage of complex branching corals and exhibited a more complex 3-dimensional structure than the non-protected reef. Springer's demoiselle settled at the same age on non-protected and protected reefs...

  6. New lucinid bivalves from shallow and deeper water of the Indian and West Pacific Oceans (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four new species and a new genus of lucinid bivalves are described from shallow and deeper waters in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans. The new genus Scabrilucina (subfamily Lucininae includes the little-known S. victorialis (Melvill, 1899 from the Arabian Sea and S. vitrea (Deshayes, 1844 from the Andaman Sea as well as a new species S. melvilli from the Torres Strait off northeastern Australia. Ferrocina brunei new species (Lucininae was recovered from 60 m near oil drilling activities off Borneo; its anatomy confirmed the presence of symbiotic bacteria. Two unusual deeper water species of Leucosphaerinae are described, both species included in on-going molecular analyses; Gonimyrtea ferruginea from 400–650 m in the southwest Pacific and Myrtina reflexa from 200–825 m off Zanzibar and Madagascar.

  7. AVHRR for monitoring global tropical deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malingreau, J. P.; Laporte, N.; Tucker, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data have been used to assess the dynamics of forest trnsformations in three parts of the tropical belt. A large portion of the Amazon Basin has been systematically covered by Local Area Coverage (LAC) data in the 1985-1987 period. The analysis of the vegetation index and thermal data led to the identification and measurement of large areas of active deforestation. The Kalimantan/Borneo forest fires were monitored and their impact was evaluated using the Global Area Coverage (GAC) 4 km resolution data. Finally, High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data have provided preliminary information on current activities taking place at the boundary between the savanna and the forest in the Southern part of West Africa. The AVHRR approach is found to be a highly valuable means for carrying out deforestation assessments in regional and global perspectives.

  8. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS SCHOUTENIA* Korth. (Tiliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROEKMOWATI ROEKMOWATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus consists of 8 species in Siam, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,Borneo, Java, and the Lesser Sunda Islands. It is here divided into 2 subgenera,the monotypic Schoutevia with S. cvata Korth. and Chartacalyx with S. accres-cens (Mast. Curtis as type species. Chartacalyx is divided into 2 sections, Char-tacalyx and A disci flora with S. kuiistleri King as type spscies.Three species, S. curtisii, corneri, and kostermansii are considered new.S. hypoleuca Pierre is reduced to synonymy of S. ovata Korth. S. peregrines Craib is reduced to a subspecies of S. glomerata King. The varieties of S. accrescens (Mast. Curtis are deleted. The species is dividedinto 3 subspecies: accrescens, stellata, and borneensis. A forma lepidota is reeog-nized for subspecies accrescens.. S. buurmanii K. et V. and S. kunstleri King- are considered to be differentspecies.

  9. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos. PMID:27164153

  10. Four New Species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae from the Central Mountains of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines are the main center of diversity for carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus, Nepenthes L. Nepenthes are the largest of all carnivorous plants, and the species with the biggest pitchers are capable of trapping and digesting small amphibians and even mammals. The central cordillera of Mindanao Island in the south of the Philippines is mostly covered with old, primary forest and is the largest remaining cohesive, untouched area of wilderness in the Philippines. In a recent field exploration of two areas of the central cordillera, namely Mount Sumagaya and a section of the Pantaron range, four new taxa of Nepenthes were discovered. These four remarkable new species, N. pantaronensis, N. cornuta, N. talaandig and N. amabilis, are described, illustrated and assessed.

  11. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.. Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  12. Results of field testing the cement evaluation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, C.A.; Finlayson, C.G.; Van der Kolk, C.

    1984-01-01

    The Cement Evaluation Tool (CET) developed by Schlumberger employs a pulse-echo technique using eight sonic transducers to investigate the casing cement bond. The tool has been widely field tested in a clastic environment in Brunei (N.W. Borneo), across both oil and gas bearing reservoirs. Numerous comparisons of the CET with conventional CBL/VDL logs have been made. Across oil and water bearing intervals the CET is shown to compare favourably with the CBL/VDL and yields significant additional information on channeling, cement distribution, and the success of casing centralization. In addition, the accuracy of the acoustic calipers have proved sufficient to be used in assisting drilling and completion operations. The response of the tool to a microannulus has also been demonstrated by multiple runs under varying wellbore pressures.

  13. Glacial-interglacial organic carbon record from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia: Implications for regional changes in continental vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, K.; Thunell, R.; Goni, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies convincingly show that climate in the Western Pacific Warm Pool and other equatorial/tropical regions was significantly colder (by ???3-4??C) during glacial periods, prompting a reexamination of the late Pleistocene paleoenvironments of these regions. This study examines changes in continental vegetation during the last two deglaciations (Terminations I and II) using a sediment core (MD9821-62) recovered from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia. Evidence based on the lignin phenol ratios suggests that vegetation on Borneo and other surrounding islands did not significantly change from tropical rainforest during the last two glacial periods relative to subsequent interglacial periods. This supports the hypothesis that the winter monsoon increased in strength during glacial periods, allowing Indonesia to maintain high rainfall despite the cooler conditions. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wildlife Conservation in Bornean Timber Concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Stanley

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extensive review of the literature, and broad consultation with experts, we have assessed the sensitivity of Bornean vertebrates to the direct and indirect effects of timber harvest. Well-implemented selective logging has a relatively limited direct impact on wildlife populations: few species appear quite sensitive, some benefit, some decline. However, current management practices in Indonesian Borneo generally cause a decline in wildlife populations. Guidelines for sustainable forest management are primarily focused on trees, with few specific recommendations on how to sustainably manage wildlife populations in timber concessions. Based on our findings, we provide extensive wildlife management guidelines, pointing out the importance of maintaining understory vegetation and large trees for fruit, seed, dead wood, and tree hollow production, limiting canopy gaps, and reducing hunting and wildlife trade in concessions. In addition, we provide specific management advice on high priority species of Bornean vertebrates.

  15. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is a country of 330,000 square kilometers and a population of 11.9 million. The country is divided into two parts 640 kilometers apart. West Malaysia consists of the Malay Peninsula, and East Malaysia of the provinces of Sarawak and Sabah, formerly North Borneo. The country is the world's leading producer of tin and rubber. Geologic descriptions in detail are difficult to find although maps are available. Uranium exploration, chiefly by the Malaysian Geological Survey, has been carried out without discovery of commercial quantities. Based on possible recovery of uranium from deeply weathered granites on the Malay Peninsula, and possible discoveries in East Malaysia, a uranium potential of 1,000 to 10,000 tonnes U (category 2) is assigned. (author)

  16. Characterisation of Asian Snakehead Murrel Channa striata (Channidae in Malaysia: An Insight into Molecular Data and Morphological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation is imperative for the Asian snakeheads Channa striata, as the species has been overfished due to its high market demand. Using maternal markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI, we discovered that evolutionary forces that drove population divergence did not show any match between the genetic and morphological divergence pattern. However, there is evidence of incomplete divergence patterns between the Borneo population and the populations from Peninsular Malaysia. This supports the claim of historical coalescence of C. striata during Pleistocene glaciations. Ecological heterogeneity caused high phenotypic variance and was not correlated with genetic variance among the populations. Spatial conservation assessments are required to manage different stock units. Results on DNA barcoding show no evidence of cryptic species in C. striata in Malaysia. The newly obtained sequences add to the database of freshwater fish DNA barcodes and in future will provide information relevant to identification of species.

  17. Characterisation of Asian snakehead murrel Channa striata (Channidae) in Malaysia: an insight into molecular data and morphological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li Min; Munian, Kaviarasu; Abd Rashid, Zulkafli; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Conservation is imperative for the Asian snakeheads Channa striata, as the species has been overfished due to its high market demand. Using maternal markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI)), we discovered that evolutionary forces that drove population divergence did not show any match between the genetic and morphological divergence pattern. However, there is evidence of incomplete divergence patterns between the Borneo population and the populations from Peninsular Malaysia. This supports the claim of historical coalescence of C. striata during Pleistocene glaciations. Ecological heterogeneity caused high phenotypic variance and was not correlated with genetic variance among the populations. Spatial conservation assessments are required to manage different stock units. Results on DNA barcoding show no evidence of cryptic species in C. striata in Malaysia. The newly obtained sequences add to the database of freshwater fish DNA barcodes and in future will provide information relevant to identification of species.

  18. Nuclear Malaysia in the news 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear was a term that always misunderstood by public as a terrifying term. Nuclear activities around Malaysia were disseminated in newspaper and Malaysian Nuclear Agency as a responsible agency were collecting that news and compiled them. The purpose for this compilation were to make the public aware the benefits of nuclear energy and all the activities regarding nuclear surround them. All the news about nuclear technology were collected using various type of newspaper published in Malaysia such as Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, Daily Express, News Straits Time, The Star, Borneo Post and others. This news was compiled according to their main topics such as energy, nuclear in agriculture, education and others. Each year one edition of this report will publish and disseminate it to the other libraries, government agencies, school and others to make the public aware the existence of nuclear activities around their countries.

  19. Description of the final stadium larvae of Onychargia atrocyana Selys, 1865 from Sarawak, identified using DNA barcoding (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae), with an overview of larval characters in the Platycnemididae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Albert G; Dow, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The final stadium larva of Onychargia atrocyana Selys, 1865, is described and illustrated based on two female specimens collected at Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia. The larvae were identified by matching the mitochondrial marker COI with that of known adult specimens from Gunung Mulu, Bintulu and Kuching in Sarawak and from Pahang state in West Malaysia. The specimens presented close matches with all adults in this gene. As O. atrocyana is a taxonomically isolated species with no close congeners in Borneo the determination is beyond doubt. O. atrocyana is the only member of the Onychargiinae for which the larva is known. It is compared with the known larvae of other platycnemidid subfamilies, and the possible significance of larval morphology in higher classification of the group is discussed. PMID:26624673

  20. Present-day regional climate simulation over Malaysia and western Maritime Continent region using PRECIS forced with ERA40 reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Meng Sei; Tangang, Fredolin T.; Juneng, Liew

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of the regional climate model, PRECIS, in reproducing the historical seasonal mean climatology over the Malaysian region. The performance of the model in simulating the seasonal climate pattern of the temperature, precipitation and large-scale circulation was reasonably good. The biases of temperature are less than 2 °C in general, while the seasonal cycles match the observed pattern despite some differences in certain regions. However, the biases for precipitation were greater, particularly over the mountainous areas. These biases could be associated with the deficiencies of the model physics, related to the misrepresentation of the land-surface interaction and convective scheme. Furthermore, the model fails to simulate the mean sea-level pressure over the interior part of Borneo with a significant low-pressure centre. A higher magnitude of the moisture convergence and divergence simulated by the model also contributed to the biases of precipitation over Malaysia.

  1. Characterizing the genetic diversity of the monkey malaria parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Patrick L; Luo, Zunping; Divis, Paul C S; Friedrich, Volney K; Conway, David J; Singh, Balbir; Barnwell, John W; Carlton, Jane M; Sullivan, Steven A

    2016-06-01

    Plasmodium cynomolgi is a malaria parasite that typically infects Asian macaque monkeys, and humans on rare occasions. P. cynomolgi serves as a model system for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, with which it shares such important biological characteristics as formation of a dormant liver stage and a preference to invade reticulocytes. While genomes of three P. cynomolgi strains have been sequenced, genetic diversity of P. cynomolgi has not been widely investigated. To address this we developed the first panel of P. cynomolgi microsatellite markers to genotype eleven P. cynomolgi laboratory strains and 18 field isolates from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We found diverse genotypes among most of the laboratory strains, though two nominally different strains were found to be genetically identical. We also investigated sequence polymorphism in two erythrocyte invasion gene families, the reticulocyte binding protein and Duffy binding protein genes, in these strains. We also observed copy number variation in rbp genes. PMID:26980604

  2. Evidence for a fall raptor migration pathway across the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Kepler, A.K.; Kepler, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    While conducting seabird surveys along the cruise track of the Soviet oceanographic Research Vessel Akademlk Korolev in the South China Sea in late October, 1988, we encountered about 150 land birds, including about 40 raptors. Most of the raptors were small accipiters, but we also recorded small numbers of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) and Oriental Scops Owls (Otus sunia). We saw most of the raptors during a 3-day period in a restricted area ca 350 km southeast of the southern tip of the Indo-China Peninsula. The observations suggest that a significant raptor migration corridor exists between Viet Nam and Borneo. The behavior and body condition of the diurnal raptors suggest that they were in good health and were making extensive use of the ship for perching, roosting, and hunting.

  3. Nuclear Malaysia in the news 2013: Making headlines in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear was a term that always misunderstands by public as a terrifying term. The nuclear activities around Malaysia was disseminated in newspaper and Malaysian Nuclear Agency as a responsible agency for nuclear for peace were collecting that news and compiled them to make the public aware the benefits of nuclear energy to develop our country. All the news about nuclear were collected using various type of newspaper published in Malaysia such as Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, Daily Express, News Straits Time, The Star, Borneo Post and others. This news was compiled according to their main topics such as energy, nuclear in agriculture, education and others. Each year one edition of this report will publish and disseminate it to the other libraries, government agencies, school and others to make the public aware the existence of nuclear activities around their countries.

  4. Lability of soil organic carbon in tropical soils with different clay minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Thilde Bech; Elberling, Bo; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and turnover is influenced by interactions between organic matter and the mineral soil fraction. However, the influence of clay content and type on SOC turnover rates remains unclear, particularly in tropical soils under natural vegetation. We examined the lability....... Basal soil respiration rates were determined from bulk soils and soil fractions. Substrate induced respiration rates were determined from soil fractions. SOC lability was significantly influenced by clay mineralogy, but not by clay content when compared across contrasting clay minerals. The lability...... of SOC in tropical soils with contrasting clay mineralogy (kaolinite, smectite, allophane and Al-rich chlorite). Soil was sampled from A horizons at six sites in humid tropical areas of Ghana, Malaysian Borneo and the Solomon Islands and separated into fractions above and below 250 µm by wet sieving...

  5. Retaining Access to Key Tourist Assets for Local Residents: A Case of Mount Kinabalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidder Christy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development can occur to the detriment of real or perceived access to major tourist destinations by local residents. They can find access changed due to privatization of assets or imposition of restrictions on the permissible uses. Drawing upon this subset of tourism impact on the host community, this study analyzes the access by local residents to Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Specifically, it examines the retention of access to the mountain for local Sabahans. Interviews with park management were conducted and questionnaires were distributed to local residents. The results show that the number of Sabahan climbers has always been significantly lower than other Malaysian and foreign climbers, despite the introduction of the Sabahan rate. Additionally, the actual number of Sabahan climbers is lower than the allocated quota potential. The paper proposes several recommendations that the park management can consider to ensure local Sabahans will have a fair and equal access to Mount Kinabalu.

  6. TECHNICAL NOTE: First evidence of a structured and dynamic spatial pattern of rainfall within a small humid tropical catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidin, K.; Chappell, N. A.

    In a study of the spatial variability of rainfall across a network of 46 raingauges in a 4 km2 rainforest catchment in the interior of northeastern Borneo, seasonal rainfall totals were correlated with raingauge separation distance, aspect and relief. A very high degree of spatial variability in seasonal totals across a very small area was found, even in comparison with other regions experiencing convective rainfall. Moreover, it shows systematic, stochastic structure in rainfall is present over scales of 10s to 100s metres; these patterns change from the southwest monsoon (May-October) to the northeast monsoon (November-April). Local associations with aspect and relief are present but the seasonal changes in rainfall pattern over the whole 4 km2 catchment must relate to more complex local topographic effects on the regional windfield.

  7. Tectonic History and Mantle Structure of the Sundaland and Indonesian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.; Spakman, W.

    2012-12-01

    The heterogeneous Sundaland region was assembled by closure of Tethyan oceans and addition of continental fragments. Its Mesozoic and Cenozoic history is partly recorded in the mantle, and mantle structure from tomographic imaging can be interpreted using new plate tectonic reconstructions. Continental fragments of east Asian origin, ophiolites and deformed sediments were accreted to eastern Sundaland north of Borneo in the Cretaceous, and a wide zone from Sarawak northwards to South China probably represents subduction at the Pacific margin until about 90 Ma. Eastward rollback at this margin may have contributed to Cretaceous extension and thermal events in Indochina but it is difficult to identify a record of this subduction in the mantle. Continental blocks rifted from western Australia in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous are in Borneo, Java and Sulawesi. West Burma was not one of them; it was already part of SE Asia by the Triassic. The Banda (SW Borneo) block was added to Sundaland at c.110 Ma, and at c.90 Ma the Woyla intra-oceanic arc and Argo (East Java-West Sulawesi) block collided with the Sundaland margin causing subduction to cease. A marked change in deep mantle structure at about 110°E reflects the different subduction histories north of India and Australia since 90 Ma. India and Australia were separated by a transform boundary that was leaky from 90 to 75 Ma and slightly convergent from 75 to 55 Ma. West of this I-A transform, ENE-striking high-velocity anomalies in the lower mantle are interpreted to mark subduction zones active as India moved rapidly north from 80 Ma, with north-directed subduction of Tethys, associated with collision of India with an intra-oceanic arc at c.55 Ma, west of Sumatra, before collision with Asia in the Eocene. In contrast, east of the I-A transform little or none of the Mesozoic history can be identified in the mantle. Between 90 and 45 Ma Australia separated very slowly from Antarctica and there was no significant

  8. Characterisation of Asian snakehead murrel Channa striata (Channidae) in Malaysia: an insight into molecular data and morphological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li Min; Munian, Kaviarasu; Abd Rashid, Zulkafli; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Conservation is imperative for the Asian snakeheads Channa striata, as the species has been overfished due to its high market demand. Using maternal markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI)), we discovered that evolutionary forces that drove population divergence did not show any match between the genetic and morphological divergence pattern. However, there is evidence of incomplete divergence patterns between the Borneo population and the populations from Peninsular Malaysia. This supports the claim of historical coalescence of C. striata during Pleistocene glaciations. Ecological heterogeneity caused high phenotypic variance and was not correlated with genetic variance among the populations. Spatial conservation assessments are required to manage different stock units. Results on DNA barcoding show no evidence of cryptic species in C. striata in Malaysia. The newly obtained sequences add to the database of freshwater fish DNA barcodes and in future will provide information relevant to identification of species. PMID:24396312

  9. Four New Species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae) from the Central Mountains of Mindanao, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Coritico, Fulgent; Wistuba, Andreas; Marwinski, David; Gieray, Tobias; Micheler, Marius; Mey, François Sockhom; Amoroso, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Together with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia), the Philippines are the main center of diversity for carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus, Nepenthes L. Nepenthes are the largest of all carnivorous plants, and the species with the biggest pitchers are capable of trapping and digesting small amphibians and even mammals. The central cordillera of Mindanao Island in the south of the Philippines is mostly covered with old, primary forest and is the largest remaining cohesive, untouched area of wilderness in the Philippines. In a recent field exploration of two areas of the central cordillera, namely Mount Sumagaya and a section of the Pantaron range, four new taxa of Nepenthes were discovered. These four remarkable new species, N. pantaronensis, N. cornuta, N. talaandig and N. amabilis, are described, illustrated and assessed. PMID:27135505

  10. Stingless bees use terpenes as olfactory cues to find resin sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, S D; Zeilhofer, S; Blüthgen, N; Schmitt, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Insects largely rely on olfactory cues when seeking and judging information on nests, partners, or resources. Bees are known to use volatile compounds-besides visual cues-to find flowers suitable for pollen and nectar collection. Tropical stingless bees additionally collect large amounts of plant resins for nest construction, nest maintenance, nest defense, and to derive chemical constituents for their cuticular profiles. We here demonstrate that stingless bees of Borneo also use olfactory cues to find tree resins. They rely on volatile mono- and sesquiterpenes to locate or recognize known resin sources. Moreover, by modifying resin extracts, we found that stingless bees do not use the entire resin bouquet but relative proportions of several terpenes. In doing so, the bees are able to learn specific tree resin profiles and distinguish between tree species and partly even tree individuals.

  11. Nuclear Malaysia in The News 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear was a term that always misunderstands by public as a terrifying term. The nuclear activities around Malaysia was disseminated in newspaper and Malaysian Nuclear Agency as a responsible agency for nuclear for peace were collecting that news and compiled them to make the public aware the benefits of nuclear energy to develop our country. All the news about nuclear were collected using various type of newspaper published in Malaysia such as Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, Daily Express, News Straits Time, The Star, Borneo Post and others. This news was compiled according to their main topics such as energy, nuclear in agriculture, education and others. Each year one edition of this report will publish and disseminate it to the other libraries, government agencies, school and others to make the public aware the existence of nuclear activities around their countries.

  12. Nuclear Malaysia in the news 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear was a term that always misunderstood by public as a terrifying term. Nuclear activities around Malaysia were disseminated in newspaper and Malaysian Nuclear Agency as a responsible agency were collecting that news and compiled them. The purpose for this compilation were to make the public aware the benefits of nuclear energy and all the activities regarding nuclear surround them. All the news about nuclear technology were collected using various type of newspaper published in Malaysia such as Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, Daily Express, News Straits Time, The Star, Borneo Post and others. This news was compiled according to their main topics such as energy, nuclear in agriculture, education and others. Each year one edition of this report will publish and disseminate it to the other libraries, government agencies, school and others to make the public aware the existence of nuclear activities around their countries.

  13. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Bernet Kempers

    1978-10-01

    Full Text Available - B.J. Boland, G.F. Pijper, Studiën over de geschiedenis van de Islam in Indonesia, 1900-1950. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1977. 160 pp., 10 ill. - H.J.M. Claessen, Francis Edgar Williams, “The Vailala Madness” and other essays. Edited and with an introduction by Erik Schwimmer. London: C. Hurst and Company. 1976. 432 pp. Maps, bibliography, index. - J.E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, A.J. Bernet Kempers, Ageless Borobudur - Buddhist mystery in stone - Decay and restoration - Mendut and Pawon - Folklife in ancient Java. Katwijk aan Zee, Servire, 1976. 288 pp., 225 illustrations. - A. de Ruijter, G.N. Appell, The societies of Borneo. Explorations in the theory of cognatic social structure. A special publication of the American Anthropological Association, number 6, Washington, 1976. 160 pp.

  14. Interactive Land-Use Planning in Indonesian Rain-Forest Landscapes: Reconnecting Plans to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Moeliono

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia's 1999–2004 decentralization reforms created opportunities for land-use planning that reflected local conditions and local people's needs. We report on seven years of work in the District of Malinau in Indonesian Borneo that attempted to reconnect government land-use plans to local people's values, priorities, and practices. Four principles are proposed to support more interactive planning between government and local land users: Support local groups to make their local knowledge, experience, and aspirations more visible in formal land-use planning and decision making; create channels of communication, feedback, and transparency to support the adaptive capacities and accountability of district leadership and institutions; use system frameworks to understand the drivers of change and resulting scenarios and trade-offs; and link analysis and intervention across multiple levels, from the local land user to the district and national levels. We describe the application of these principles in Malinau and the resulting challenges.

  15. The Role of Organizational Humanistic Social Support in Decreasing the Interference of Work Problems on Employees’ Family Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increased interest in humanistic touch in global organizational support, the nature of helping processes rendered by supervisor and coworkers is still vague. The study was performed to examine the relationship between organizational humanistic social support and work interference with family conflict using 100 usable questionnaires gathered from academic staff in a Malaysian public institution of higher learning in Borneo. The findings of SmartPLS path model indicated that humanistic touch in term of supervisory support significantly correlated with work interference with family conflict. Similarly, humanistic touch of coworker support significantly correlated with work interference with family conflict. This result shows that the readiness of supervisors and coworkers to amply offer material and moral support in performing task have reduced the intrusion of work problems in employees’ family affairs and enriched their skills to decrease family conflicts. In addition, discussion, implications and conclusion are elaborated.

  16. Thumb-pads up-a new species of thick-thumbed bat from Sumatra (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Glischropus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Gábor; Görföl, Tamás; Wiantoro, Sigit; Kingston, Tigga; Bates, Paul J J; Huang, Joe Chun-Chia

    2015-01-01

    To date, three species of the genus Glischropus are recognized from the Indomalayan zoogeographic region-G. bucephalus from the Indochinese subregion, G. tylopus from the Sundaic subregion (Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Moluccas) and G. javanus, restricted to Java. The investigation of the holotype and three topotype specimens of G. batjanus supported the view that the name was previously correctly regarded as the junior subjective synonym of G. tylopus. During review of material recently collected in southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, one specimen of a yet undescribed species of Thick-thumbed bat was identified. G. aquilus n. sp. markedly differs from its congeners by its dark brown pelage, nearly black ear and tragus, and in skull proportions. The phylogenetic analysis based on cytb sequences also supports the specific distinctness of G. aquilus n. sp. Its discovery brings the count to 88 species of bats known from Sumatra. PMID:26249952

  17. Chemistry and mineralogy of garnet pyroxenites from Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B.A.

    1974-01-01

    Garnet pyroxenites and corundum-garnet amphibolites from the Dent peninsula of eastern Sabah (North Borneo) occur as blocks in a slump breccia deposit of late Miocene age. The earliest formed minerals include pyrope-almandine garnet, tschermakitic augite, pargasite, and rutile. Cumulate textures are present in two of the six specimens studied. The earlier fabric has been extensively brecciated and partly replaced by plagioclase, ilmenite, and a fibrous amphibole. The bulk composition and mineralogy of these rocks are similar to those of garnet pyroxenite lenses within ultramafic rocks. Estimated temperature and pressure for the origin of the Sabah garnet pyroxenites is 850??150?? C and 19??4 kbar. ?? 1974 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Nuclear Malaysia in the news 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear was a term that always misunderstood by public as a terrifying term. Nuclear activities around Malaysia were disseminated in newspaper and Malaysian Nuclear Agency as a responsible agency were collecting that news and compiled them. The purpose for this compilation were to make the public aware the benefits of nuclear energy and all the activities regarding nuclear surround them. All the news about nuclear technology were collected using various type of newspaper published in Malaysia such as Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, Daily Express, News Straits Time, The Star, Borneo Post and others. This news was compiled according to their main topics such as energy, nuclear in agriculture, education and others. Each year one edition of this report will publish and disseminate it to the other libraries, government agencies, school and others to make the public aware the existence of nuclear activities around their countries.

  19. Heavy metals in emergent trees and pioneers from tropical forest with special reference to forest fires and local pollution sources in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breulman, G; Markert, B; Weckert, V; Herpin, U; Yoneda, R; Ogino, K

    2002-02-21

    Leaf samples of tropical trees, i.e. Dryobalanops lanceolata (Kapur paji), Dipterocarpaceae and Macaranga spp. (Mahang), Euphorbiaceae were analyzed for 21 chemical elements. The pioneer Macaranga spp. exhibited higher concentrations for the majority of elements compared to the emergent species of Dryobalanops lanceolata, which was attributed to the higher physiological activity of the fast growing pioneer species compared to emergent trees. Lead showed rather high concentrations in several samples from the Bakam re-forestation site. This is suggested to be caused by emissions through brick manufacturing and related activities in the vicinity. A comparison of Dryobalanops lanceolata samples collected in 1993, 1995 and 1997 in the Lambir Hills National Park revealed that certain heavy metals, i.e. Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Ti showed higher values in 1997 compared to the previous years, which could indicate an atmospheric input from the haze caused by the extensive forest fires raging in Borneo and other parts of Southeast Asia.

  20. Designing Digital Solutions for Preserving Penan Sign Language: A Reflective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oroo’ is a language of nomadic Penans in the rainforests of Borneo and the only way of asynchronous communication between nomadic groups in the forest journey. Like many other indigenous languages, the Oroo’ language is also facing imminent extinction. In this paper, we present the research process and reflections of a multidisciplinary community-based research project on digitalizing and preserving the Oroo’ sign language. As a methodology for project activities, we are employing Participatory Action Research in Software Development Methodology Augmentation (PRISMA. Preliminary results show a general interest in digital contents and a positive impact of the project activities. In this paper, we present scenario of a research project that is retooled to fit the need of communities, informing language revitalization efforts and assisting with the evolution of community-based research design.

  1. The Composition of Organic Aerosols in Southeast Asia During The 2006 Haze Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, H.; Zielinska, B.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    The regional smoke haze in Southeast Asia is a recurring air pollution problem. Uncontrolled forest fires from land-clearing activities in Sumatra and Borneo, and to a lesser extent Malaysia, have occurred almost every dry season since the late 1990s. The smoke haze that took place in October 2006 shrouded an estimated 215,000 square miles of land on Indonesia's islands of Sumatra and Borneo, and persisted for several weeks. Satellite pictures showed numerous hotspots in both Sumatra and Kalimantan. The prevailing, South-Southwesterly, winds blew smoke from land and forest fires in central and south Sumatra to Singapore, affecting the regional air quality significantly and reducing atmospheric visibility. During this haze episode, we carried out an intensive field study in Singapore to characterize the composition of organic aerosols, which usually account for a large fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM). A total of 17 PM samples were collected while the hazy atmospheric conditions persisted in Singapore, and subjected to accelerated solvent extraction with dichloromethane and acetone. The extracted compounds were grouped into three major fractions (n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polar organic compounds). More than 180 particulate-bound organic compounds were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In order to investigate the origin of organic species, the carbon preference indexes as well as diagnostic ratios were used. The compositional differences of organic aerosols between the haze- and non- haze periods will be presented. The atmospheric implications of the composition of organic aerosols of biomass burning origin will be discussed. Keywords: smoke haze, organic aerosols, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polar organic compounds

  2. Through the eyes of children: perceptions of environmental change in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Wells, Jessie A; Abram, Nicola K; Gaveau, David; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10-15 years) from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated "shifting environmental baselines" do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children through artistic

  3. Tides and Their Dynamics over the Sunda Shelf of the Southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, See Hai; Abu Samah, Azizan; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performed on the inner domain. The model is forced at the sea surface by climatological monthly mean wind stress, freshwater (evaporation minus precipitation), and heat fluxes. Momentum and tracers (such as temperature and salinity) are prescribed in addition to the tidal heights and currents extracted from the Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution (TPXO7.2) at the open boundaries. The results are validated against observed tidal amplitudes and phases at 19 locations. Results show that the mean average power energy spectrum (in unit m2/s/cph) for diurnal tides at the southern end of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is approximately 43% greater than that in the East Malaysia region located in northern Borneo. In contrast, for the region of northern Borneo the semidiurnal power energy spectrum is approximately 25% greater than that in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This implies that diurnal tides are dominant along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia while both diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominate almost equally in coastal East Malaysia. Furthermore, the diurnal tidal energy flux is found to be 60% greater than that of the semidiurnal tides in the southern South China Sea. Based on these model analyses, the significant tidal mixing frontal areas are located primarily off Sarawak coast as indicated by high chlorophyll-a concentrations in the area. PMID:27622552

  4. Quantity and configuration of available elephant habitat and related conservation concerns in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain of Sabah, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G Estes

    Full Text Available The approximately 300 (298, 95% CI: 152-581 elephants in the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo are a priority sub-population for Borneo's total elephant population (2,040, 95% CI: 1,184-3,652. Habitat loss and human-elephant conflict are recognized as the major threats to Bornean elephant survival. In the Kinabatangan region, human settlements and agricultural development for oil palm drive an intense fragmentation process. Electric fences guard against elephant crop raiding but also remove access to suitable habitat patches. We conducted expert opinion-based least-cost analyses, to model the quantity and configuration of available suitable elephant habitat in the Lower Kinabatangan, and called this the Elephant Habitat Linkage. At 184 km(2, our estimate of available habitat is 54% smaller than the estimate used in the State's Elephant Action Plan for the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (400 km(2. During high flood levels, available habitat is reduced to only 61 km(2. As a consequence, short-term elephant densities are likely to surge during floods to 4.83 km(-2 (95% CI: 2.46-9.41, among the highest estimated for forest-dwelling elephants in Asia or Africa. During severe floods, the configuration of remaining elephant habitat and the surge in elephant density may put two villages at elevated risk of human-elephant conflict. Lower Kinabatangan elephants are vulnerable to the natural disturbance regime of the river due to their limited dispersal options. Twenty bottlenecks less than one km wide throughout the Elephant Habitat Linkage, have the potential to further reduce access to suitable habitat. Rebuilding landscape connectivity to isolated habitat patches and to the North Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (less than 35 km inland are conservation priorities that would increase the quantity of available habitat, and may work as a mechanism to allow population release, lower elephant density, reduce

  5. Antihyperlipidemic activity of the medicinal plants among Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sabah is one of the 13 states within the Federation of Malaysia and is located in the northernmost part of Borneo. It is the second largest state in Malaysia with a landmass of approximately 7.4 million hectares. The total forested area is 4.7 million hectares. Sabah, being part of Borneo, is rich in plant biodiversity. There is also an abundance of medicinal plants and other plants for everyday use. There is a great awarness regarding association between low density lipoprotein reduction and decreased cardiovascular disease mortality. The antihyperlipidaemic activity of herbs plays an important role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, which is the top disease that causes mortality all over the world. Lipid-lowering activity of medicinal plant for phytomedicine research and drug development for such a disease are now focused all over the world. A plant-based diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and legumes and low in saturated fat is an effective prescription for anyone with more severe atherosclerosis. Howerver, there are few herbs available that provide some protection for persons with the above disease. The antihyperlipidaemia property in plant plays a vital role to reduce atherosclerosis. Thus, there is an increasing search for the lipid lowering agents from natural origin. In this review an attempt has been made to give an overview of the antihyperlipidemic activity in traditional medicinal plants found widely in Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia. The antihyperlipidemic activity of the traditional medicinal plants in these communities is more helpful for the development of new drugs used in the protection against dyslipidemia or atherosclerosis.

  6. Antihyperlipidemic activity of the medicinal plants among Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2014-01-01

    Sabah is one of the 13 states within the Federation of Malaysia and is located in the northernmost part of Borneo. It is the second largest state in Malaysia with a landmass of approximately 7.4 million hectares. The total forested area is 4.7 million hectares. Sabah, being part of Borneo, is rich in plant biodiversity. There is also an abundance of medicinal plants and other plants for everyday use. There is a great awarness regarding association between low density lipoprotein reduction and decreased cardiovascular disease mortality. The antihyperlipidaemic activity of herbs plays an important role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, which is the top disease that causes mortality all over the world. Lipid-lowering activity of medicinal plant for phytomedicine research and drug development for such a disease are now focused all over the world. A plant-based diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and legumes and low in saturated fat is an effective prescription for anyone with more severe atherosclerosis. Howerver, there are few herbs available that provide some protection for persons with the above disease. The antihyperlipidaemia property in plant plays a vital role to reduce atherosclerosis. Thus, there is an increasing search for the lipid lowering agents from natural origin. In this review an attempt has been made to give an overview of the antihyperlipidemic activity in traditional medicinal plants found widely in Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia. The antihyperlipidemic activity of the traditional medicinal plants in these communities is more helpful for the development of new drugs used in the protection against dyslipidemia or atherosclerosis.

  7. Laboratory markers of disease severity in Plasmodium knowlesi infection: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willmann Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium knowlesi malaria causes severe disease in up to 10% of cases in Malaysian Borneo and has a mortality rate of 1 - 2%. However, laboratory markers with the ability to identify patients at risk of developing complications have not yet been assessed as they have for other species of Plasmodium. Methods A case control study was undertaken in two hospitals in Sarikei and Sibu, Malaysian Borneo. One hundred and ten patients with uncomplicated (n = 93 and severe (n = 17 P. knowlesi malaria were studied. Standardized pigment-containing neutrophil (PCN count, parasite density and platelet counts were determined and analysed by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results The PCN count was strongly associated with risk of disease severity. Patients with high parasite density (≥ 35,000/μl or with thrombocytopaenia (≤ 45,000/μl were also more likely to develop complications (odds ratio (OR = 9.93 and OR = 5.27, respectively. The PCN count yielded the highest area under the ROC curve (AUC estimate among all markers of severity (AUC = 0.8561, 95% confidence interval: 0.7328, 0.9794. However, the difference between all parameter AUC estimates was not statistically significant (Wald test, p = 0.73. Conclusion Counting PCN is labour-intensive and not superior in predicting severity over parasitaemia and platelet counts. Parasite and platelet counts are simpler tests with an acceptable degree of precision. Any adult patient diagnosed with P. knowlesi malaria and having a parasite count ≥35,000/μl or ≥1% or a platelet count ≤45,000/μl can be regarded at risk of developing complications and should be managed according to current WHO guidelines for the treatment of severe malaria.

  8. Genetic differentiation in two widespread, open-forest bird species of Southeast Asia (Copsychus saularis andMegalaima haemacephala):Insights from ecological niche modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haw Chuan LIM; Fasheng ZOU; Frederick H SHELDON

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling has emerged as an useful tool in the investigation of the phylogeographic histories of spe-cies or communities in a region. The high biodiversity (oftentimes cryptic), and complex geography and geological history of Southeast Asia particularly call for multipronged approaches in phylogeographic investigations. Past studies have focused on taxa that are associated with lowland rainforests, which is the dominant natural vegetation type. Here, we combine published phylo-genetic data, ecological niche modeling and paleo-climate models to reveal potential drivers of divergence in two open-forest bird species, the oriental magpie-robinCopsychus saularis and Coppersmith barbetMegalaima haemacephala. In spite of broad overlap in current distributions, there are subtle differences in their climatic niches, which result in different responses to past climatic changes. ForC. saularis, both Last Glacial Maximum climate models indicated that the entire Sundaland was climati-cally suitable, while phylogenetic analyses found divergent eastern and western Sundaland lineages. We thus postulate that this genetic divergence was a result of past separations of coastal habitats into eastern and western portions due to the emergence of Sunda shelf as sea-level fell. The current separation of morphological subspecies in Borneo is maintained by low climatic suita-bility (high annual rainfall) in certain regions. The extirpation ofM. haemacephala from Borneo and southern Malay Peninsula might have been driven by unsuitable conditions (high temperature seasonality) in central Sundaland and/or the lack of open woodlands. Our study shows that ecological niche modeling adds a powerful dimension to our attempt to understand lineage evolution in space [Current Zoology 61 (5): 922–934, 2015].

  9. South to south learning in great ape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld-de Lange, Nicolien; Meijaard, Erik; Löhr, Ansje

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that killing of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in South-East Asia is a major threat to the species, few researchers and non-governmental conservationists have addressed it in management and research, and there is virtually no implementation of anti-killing strategies. In large parts of the Congo Basin, Central Africa, instead, illegal killing of great apes is acknowledged to be their largest threat, and many conservation strategies have been used to reduce killing pressure. However, since these strategies have not been subject to systematic and comprehensive review, it remains unclear which of them have been successful and why. Knowledge of the success, failure, and practices of common conservation strategies to manage great ape killing is critical to ensure adaptive conservation management in the Congo Basin. Understanding the Congo context also facilitates simultaneously highlighting great ape killing in Borneo and suggesting solutions to manage orangutan killing. Here, we compile and analyze the available literature on great ape conservation strategies for reducing killing rates in the Congo Basin. Through a systematic literature review of 198 publications, we find that the most widely employed conservation strategies in the Congo Basin are legislation and law enforcement, protected area management, community-based conservation, alternatives to bushmeat consumption and trade, ecotourism, education, and capacity building. Despite lack of rigorous post-intervention evaluation of conservation impact, we derive several recommendations for addressing the orangutan killing issue in Borneo. A critical lesson, widely applicable to developing countries for conservationists and not limited to Congo Basin realities, is the need for rigorous post-intervention evaluations compared to pre-intervention baselines and over appropriate time frames. Am. J. Primatol. 78:669-678, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26828200

  10. South to south learning in great ape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld-de Lange, Nicolien; Meijaard, Erik; Löhr, Ansje

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that killing of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in South-East Asia is a major threat to the species, few researchers and non-governmental conservationists have addressed it in management and research, and there is virtually no implementation of anti-killing strategies. In large parts of the Congo Basin, Central Africa, instead, illegal killing of great apes is acknowledged to be their largest threat, and many conservation strategies have been used to reduce killing pressure. However, since these strategies have not been subject to systematic and comprehensive review, it remains unclear which of them have been successful and why. Knowledge of the success, failure, and practices of common conservation strategies to manage great ape killing is critical to ensure adaptive conservation management in the Congo Basin. Understanding the Congo context also facilitates simultaneously highlighting great ape killing in Borneo and suggesting solutions to manage orangutan killing. Here, we compile and analyze the available literature on great ape conservation strategies for reducing killing rates in the Congo Basin. Through a systematic literature review of 198 publications, we find that the most widely employed conservation strategies in the Congo Basin are legislation and law enforcement, protected area management, community-based conservation, alternatives to bushmeat consumption and trade, ecotourism, education, and capacity building. Despite lack of rigorous post-intervention evaluation of conservation impact, we derive several recommendations for addressing the orangutan killing issue in Borneo. A critical lesson, widely applicable to developing countries for conservationists and not limited to Congo Basin realities, is the need for rigorous post-intervention evaluations compared to pre-intervention baselines and over appropriate time frames. Am. J. Primatol. 78:669-678, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Repeated landmass reformation limits diversification in the widespread littoral zone mosquito Anopheles sundaicus sensu lato in the Indo-Oriental Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Post, Rory J; Bangs, Michael J; Htun, Pe Than; Hlaing, Thaung; Seng, Chang Moh; Baimai, Visut; Ding, Trung Ho; Sochantha, Tho; Walton, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Southeast Asia harbours abundant biodiversity, hypothesized to have been generated by Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic and environmental change. Vicariance between the island of Borneo, the remaining Indonesian archipelago and mainland Southeast Asia caused by elevated sea levels during interglacial periods has been proposed to lead to diversification in the littoral zone mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Rodenwaldt) sensu lato. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we inferred the population history and assessed gene flow of A. sundaicus s.l. sampled from 18 populations across its pan-Asian species range, using sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and the mannose phosphate isomerase (Mpi) gene. A hypothesis of ecological speciation for A. sundaicus involving divergent adaptation to brackish and freshwater larval habitats was also previously proposed, based on a deficiency of heterozygotes for Mpi allozyme alleles in sympatry. This hypothesis was not supported by Mpi sequence data, which exhibited no fixed differences between brackish and freshwater larval habitats. Mpi and CO1 supported the presence of up to eight genetically distinct population groupings. Counter to the hypothesis of three allopatric species, divergence was often no greater between Borneo, Sumatra/Java and the Southeast Asian mainland than it was between genetic groupings within these landmasses. An isolation-with-migration (IM) model indicates recurrent gene flow between the current major landmasses. Such gene flow would have been possible during glacial periods when the current landmasses merged, presenting opportunities for dispersal along expanding and contracting coastlines. Consequently, Pleistocene climatic variation has proved a homogenizing, rather than diversifying, force for A. sundaicus diversity. PMID:24750501

  12. Tides and Their Dynamics over the Sunda Shelf of the Southern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Abu Samah, Azizan; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performed on the inner domain. The model is forced at the sea surface by climatological monthly mean wind stress, freshwater (evaporation minus precipitation), and heat fluxes. Momentum and tracers (such as temperature and salinity) are prescribed in addition to the tidal heights and currents extracted from the Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution (TPXO7.2) at the open boundaries. The results are validated against observed tidal amplitudes and phases at 19 locations. Results show that the mean average power energy spectrum (in unit m2/s/cph) for diurnal tides at the southern end of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is approximately 43% greater than that in the East Malaysia region located in northern Borneo. In contrast, for the region of northern Borneo the semidiurnal power energy spectrum is approximately 25% greater than that in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This implies that diurnal tides are dominant along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia while both diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominate almost equally in coastal East Malaysia. Furthermore, the diurnal tidal energy flux is found to be 60% greater than that of the semidiurnal tides in the southern South China Sea. Based on these model analyses, the significant tidal mixing frontal areas are located primarily off Sarawak coast as indicated by high chlorophyll-a concentrations in the area. PMID:27622552

  13. Indonesia's great frontier and migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    The population of Indonesia is 175 million, of which 65% live in Java. Java has only 7% of the land area, causing a population density of 2,000/square mile. This has lead the government to introduce a policy of transmigration which encourages people to move from Java to the larger outer islands. In the last 35 years 4.3 million people have moved from Java to Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, and Irian Jaya. The total area of Indonesia stretches over 3,200 miles and has 16,000 islands of which 1,000 are inhabited. It has vast resources of oil, lumber, rubber, tin, palm oil, copra, coffee, tea, pepper, cloves, nutmeg, and quinine. Indonesia is also rich in minerals, including coal, bauxite, iron ore, and gold. Even with a national family planning program, population growth has reached 2.1% a year. 3 other islands that people are induced to move from are Madura, Bali, and Lombok, although their population densities are less then Java. The small islands near Singapore are being developed and Batam will be a free port to compete with Hong Kong. The most intense migration has been to Kalimantan (Borneo) which has 4 provinces. The migration policy began in 1905 and by 1930 100,000 people, had moved to other islands; 600,000 people were relocated to plantations in Java for labor needs. In 1979-84, a more ambitious program costing 2.3 billion moved 1.5 million people. In the most recent 1984-89 plan, a goal of 3.1 million were to be relocated but due to budgetary restrictions only 150,000 families have moved. The main social issue addresses the domination of other people by Javanese, not only in numbers but cultural differences. Some observers say the real reason for migration is political in ensuring the boundaries and geographic integrity of Indonesia. PMID:12316071

  14. Antihyperlipidemic activity of the medicinal plants among Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah,Malaysia:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled; Mohamed; Mohamed; Koriem

    2014-01-01

    Sabah is one of the 13 states within the Federation of Malaysia and is located in the northernmost part of Borneo.It is the second largest state in Malaysia with a landmass of approximately 7.4million hectares.The total forested area is 4.7 million hectares.Sabah,being part of Borneo,is rich in plant biodiversity.There is also an abundance of medicinal plants and other plants for everyday use.There is a great awarness regarding association between low density lipoprotein reduction and decreased cardiovascular disease mortality.The antihyperlipidaemic activity of herbs plays an important role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases,which is the top disease that causes mortality all over the world.Lipid-lowering activity of medicinal plant for phytomedicine research and drug development for such a disease are now focused all over the world.A plant-based diet rich in fruit,vegetables,and legumes and low in saturated fat is an effective prescription for anyone with more severe atherosclerosis.Howerver,there are few herbs available that provide some protection for persons with the above disease.The antihyperlipidaemia property in plant plays a vital role to reduce atherosclerosis.Thus,there is an increasing search for the lipid lowering agents from natural origin.In this review an attempt has been made to give an overview of the antihyperlipidemic activity in traditional medicinal plants found widely in Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah,Malaysia.The antihyperlipidemic activity of the traditional medicinal plants in these communities is more helpful for the development of new drugs used in the protection against dyslipidemia or atherosclerosis.

  15. Identification of traditional medicinal plant extracts with novel anti-influenza activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivya Rajasekaran

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination

  16. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-03-22

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ≈140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ≈4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ≈660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ≈20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ≈12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia. PMID:21383161

  17. The Structure Difference in the Southern Margin of the Dangerous Grounds: Implications for the Final Evolution of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, P.; Shen, C.; Zhao, Z.; Xie, X.; Mei, L.; Gong, J.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    We interpret two multi-channel seismic reflection profiles, more than 900 km across the entire Dangerous Grounds, locating in east and west of the southern margin of the South China Sea respectively. Eight Cenozoic sequence boundaries are determined as well as three tectono-stratigraphic units. Detailed analysis of extensional features and unconformities revealed the tectonic in the east and west. Early extension (syn-rifting sequence) occurred in the two profiles during continental rifting, which lasted from Palaeocene to Early Oligocene, and resulted in formation of half-grabens and rotated fault-blocks. Late extension (drift-rifting sequence) has the significant difference in the both profiles. The eastern Dangerous Grounds entered rifting-depression stage and some compressional deformation occurred in the Reed Bank basin at about the beginning of Early Miocene, probably resulting from the collision of the Dangerous Grounds and the Sabah-Cagayan Arc. The western Dangerous Grounds was still in rifting until the end of Early Miocene, forming the MMU or DRU which is strongly erosional and represents a major break in sedimentation and/or erosion in partial area. Denudation fold and inverted fault can be distinguished blow the MMU, indicating the cessation of the South China Sea accompanied the NW compression, while the boundary corresponding the MMU is nearly a plano-conformity in the east. The thermal sag (post-rifting sequence) is characterized by non-faulted draping strata in the whole area. The different structure in east and west may be related to the final evolution of the SCS. When the proto-SCS closed in a scissor fashion plus the clockwise rotation of Borneo, the initial collision (c.20Ma) appeared in east part building the NW foreland basin system from Palawan Trough to Reed Bank in a short-live process, while the west part was drifting southwards until c.15Ma to form the even more remarkable foreland system from Borneo Trough to deep-water Sarawak.

  18. Deepwater fold and thrust belt classification, tectonics, structure and hydrocarbon prospectivity: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C. K.; King, R.; Hillis, R.; Tingay, M.; Backe, G.

    2011-01-01

    Deepwater fold and thrust belts (DWFTBs) are classified into near-field stress-driven Type 1 systems confined to the sedimentary section, and Type 2 systems deformed by either far-field stresses alone, or mixed near- and far-field stresses. DWFTBs can occur at all stages of the Wilson cycle up to early stage continent continent collision. Type 1 systems have either weak shale or salt detachments, they occur predominantly on passive margins but can also be found in convergent-related areas such as the Mediterranean and N. Borneo. Examples include the Niger and Nile deltas, the west coast of Africa, and the Gulf of Mexico. Type 2 systems are subdivided on a tectonic setting basis into continent convergence zones and active margin DWFTBs. Continent convergence zones cover DWFTBs developed during continent-arc or continent-continent collision, and those in a deepwater intracontinental setting (e.g. W. Sulawesi, Makassar Straits). Active margins include accretionary prisms and transform margins. The greatest variability in DWFTB structural style occurs between salt and shale detachments, and not between tectonic settings. Changes in fold amplitude and wavelength appear to be more related to thickness of the sedimentary section than to DWFTB type. In comparison with shale, salt detachment DWFTBS display a lower critical wedge taper, more detachment folds, long and episodic duration of deformation and more variation in vergence. Structures unique to salt include canopies and nappes. Accretionary prisms also standout from other DWFTBs due to their relatively long, continuous duration, rapid offshore propagation of the thrust front, and large amount of shortening. In terms of petroleum systems, many similar issues affect all DWFTBs, these include: the oceanward decrease in heat flow, offshore increase in age of mature source rock, and causes of trap failure (e.g. leaky oblique and frontal thrust faults, breach of top seal by fluid pipes). One major difference between Type 1

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Pan

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available - Matthew Amster, Jérôme Rousseau, Kayan religion; Ritual life and religious reform in Central Borneo. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1998, 352 pp. [VKI 180.] - Atsushi Ota, Johan Talens, Een feodale samenleving in koloniaal vaarwater; Staatsvorming, koloniale expansie en economische onderontwikkeling in Banten, West-Java, 1600-1750. Hilversum: Verloren, 1999, 253 pp. - Wanda Avé, Johannes Salilah, Traditional medicine among the Ngaju Dayak in Central Kalimantan; The 1935 writings of a former Ngaju Dayak Priest, edited and translated by A.H. Klokke. Phillips, Maine: Borneo Research Council, 1998, xxi + 314 pp. [Borneo Research Council Monograph 3.] - Peter Boomgaard, Sandra Pannell, Old world places, new world problems; Exploring issues of resource management in eastern Indonesia. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, 1998, xiv + 387 pp., Franz von Benda-Beckmann (eds. - H.J.M. Claessen, Geoffrey M. White, Chiefs today; Traditional Pacific leadership and the postcolonial state. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1997, xiv + 343 pp., Lamont Lindstrom (eds. - H.J.M. Claessen, Judith Huntsman, Tokelau; A historical ethnography. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1996, xii + 355 pp., Antony Hooper (eds. - Hans Gooszen, Gavin W. Jones, Indonesia assessment; Population and human resources. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, 1997, 73 pp., Terence Hull (eds. - Rens Heringa, John Guy, Woven cargoes; Indian textiles in the East. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998, 192 pp., with 241 illustrations (145 in colour. - Rens Heringa, Ruth Barnes, Indian block-printed textiles in Egypt; The Newberry collection in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. Volume 1 (text: xiv + 138 pp., with 32 b/w illustrations and 43 colour plates; Volume 2 (catalogue: 379 pp., with 1226 b/w illustrations. - H.M.J. Maier, David T. Hill, Beyond the

  20. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the role of monsoonal flows, the Madden–Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the 7 SouthEast Asian Studies program (7SEAS, a two-week, late September~2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan Archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a~receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a~narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO La Nina year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO and its associated tropical cyclone (TC activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012. Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol lifecycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN −3, non-sea salt PM2.5=1μg m−3. However, elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm−3 and non-sea salt PM2.510–25

  1. Eusideroxylon zwageri (Ulin as Key Species in Two Zones of Sangkima Rain Forest, Kutai National Park, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan N. Azizah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study trees’ diversity quality in primary and intensively used forest of Sangkima area in Kutai National Park (TNK, East Kalimantan (Borneo. Field observation was carried out by vegetation analysis using 17 sampling plots of 25x25 m2. Community structure of each forest was determined by calculating trees' density, basal area, frequency, important value and stratification of species. While trees diversity was estimated by taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and rate of endemism. Both forests were compared by Morisita community similarity index. Data were tabulated by Microsoft Excel 2007 and statistically analyzed by PCA method and supported by hierarchical cluster analysis in SPSS 15.00 for windows. The result showed that diversity quality in primary and intensively used forest of Sangkima TNK was high, indicated by similar stratification. The forests were composed by A stratum trees of > 30 m high to ground co ver plants, but they were domi nated by B stratum trees of 20-30m high. Primary forest’s formation was Eusideroxylon zwageri-Mixed Dipterocarpaceae, while intensively used forest’s formation was E. zwageri. Taxa richness of both forests was not different significantly. In the primary forest was found 34 species, 25 families and 16 orders, while intensively used forest was found 36 species, 20 families and 13 orders. Diversity Index of primary forest (H=4.57 was slightly higher than secondary forest (H=4.28. Rate of endemism of both forests reached 100%. Eusideroxylon zwageri and Cananga odorata were co-dominant in the Borneo rain forest. Tree of E. zwageri showed a bigges t trunk and largest canopy. Cananga odorata showed a high density in both zones. Luxurious jungle performed A to E strata, but B stratum was dominant. Based on those five characters, trees’ diversity quality in Sangkima was still high. Bi plot analysis showed that trees’ community structure of both forests composed by

  2. Some additions and corrections to the Coleoptera fauna of the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two endomychid species described from El Hierro (Canary Islands are removed from the Canarian fauna: Dapsa hierrensis Franz, 1976 is a synonym of Archipines intricata (Gorham, 1889, nov. syn., and the single specimen (holotype was probably collected in Central America. Dapsa curta Franz, 1976 is also poorly described and based on a single female. Without a male it is not possible to assess with full confidence if it belongs to the African genus Danae or more probably to the Oriental genus Tragoscelis, and to which species. It is for sure not a Dapsa and its Canarian origin relates probably to another labeling error of the author, who also collected in Borneo, where this latter genus is present with 5 species. Consequently, Dapsa curta Franz, 1996 is proposed as nomen dubium. Furthermore, three genera are recorded for the Canaries for the first time: Silpha puncticollis Lucas, 1854 (Silphidae, the coffee bean borer Araecerus fasciculatus (DeGeer, 1775, and Bruchela rufipes (Olivier, 1790 both Anthribidae. Only the latter species can be considered as native; the other two are introduced recently and the Coffee bean weevil could become a pest.Dos especies de endomíquidos descritos de El Hierro (islas Canarias se eliminan de la fauna canaria: Dapsa hierrensis Franz, 1976 es una sinonimia posterior de Archipines intricata (Gorham, 1889, nov. syn., y el único ejemplar conocido (holotipo fue colectado probablemente en América Central. La descripción de Dapsa curta Franz, 1976 es muy pobre y se basa en una única hembra. Sin conocer el macho es imposible determinar con garantías si se trata del género Danae o, lo más probable, del género oriental Tragoscelis, o a cuál de sus especies pertenece, si no es nueva. Es seguro que no se trata de una Dapsa y el presunto origen canario radica seguramente en otro error de etiquetado del autor, que también colectó en Borneo, donde se conocen cinco especies de Tragoscelis. En consecuencia, se propone

  3. Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Andrew J.; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M.; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C.; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J. W.; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    Background The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for

  4. Glacial termination hydroclimate in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Wang, X.; Chiang, H. W.; Bijaksana, S.; Jiang, X.; Imran, A. M.; Wicaksono, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Hydroclimatic change in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), the largest center of atmospheric deep convection on Earth, can have a profound influence on the global moisture and energy budgets. Although it has been extensively studied, the history of IPWP hydroclimate remains elusive, partially due to the scarcity of well-resolved hydroclimiate records from the region. Here we report a U/Th dated, high-resolution, calcite d18O record on IPWP hydroclimatic change, spanning the last glacial termination (termination-I or T-I) and the interval of time from the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 to MIS11 (termination-V or T-V). The record was obtained using speleothems collected from Southwest Sulawesi (S5o1', E119o44'), Indonesia. During T-I, the Sulawesi speleothem δ18O shows a few millennial-scale events, possibly a drier climate during the Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), but a relatively wet climate during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Bolling-Allerod (B-A). The pattern resembles those registered in the speleothem records from eastern China and Borneo. However, the Sulawesi d18O varies from ~ -5.8‰ to ~ -7.3‰ during the last termination, which is much smaller than the magnitudes shown in China and Borneo cave samples (~ 4‰). On the other hand, the Sulawesi cave record is anti-correlated with the Flores speleothem record in terms of their millennial-scale events. Yet, the two Indonesian records share a similar, small d18O variation (~1.5‰). Such observations therefore suggest that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) probably became narrower when responding to the northern high-latitude climatic forcing during the T-I, and it centered zonally between the two Indonesian locations. Interestingly, Sulawesi speleothem d18O has a larger magnitude of shift during T-V, from ~ -5.7‰ in MIS12 to ~ -8.7‰ at the peak of MIS11. Given that Sulawesi cave d18O is not sensitive to sea level change and orbital forcing, we suspect that a much lower

  5. Non-refractory PM1 in SE Asia: Chemically speciated aerosol fluxes and concentrations above contrasting land-uses in SE Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gavin; Farmer, Delphine; di Marco, Chiara; Misztal, Pawel; Sueper, Donna; Kimmel, Joel; Jimenez, Jose; Fowler, David; Nemitz, Eiko

    2010-05-01

    New measurements of VOC emissions (measured with leaf cuvettes, and ecosystem fluxes obtained from eddy covariance measurements) suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest, in Borneo. These larger sources of isoprene measured over oil palm, allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions, contrasts with the composition of the atmosphere in the semi-remote tropical forest environment. The difference in the atmospheric composition above different land-uses has the potential to lead to contrasting chemistry and physics controlling the formation and processing of particulate matter. Thus land use changes, driven by the economics of biofuels, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions, chemical processing and composition of organic aerosol over both (semi-)natural and anthropogenic land uses in the tropical environment. Ecosystem flux measurements of chemically-speciated non-refractory PM1 were made over two contrasting land uses in the Malaysian state of Sabah, on the island of Borneo during 2008. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed at the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) site at a tropical rain forest location as well as the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as a collaboration between three UK NERC funded projects (OP3, APPRAISE/ACES and DIASPORA). Recent technical developments using ToF detectors allow us to record 10 Hz full mass spectra at both high resolution (HR) and unit-mass resolution (UMR), suitable for the calculation of local eddy-covariance fluxes. The measurements provide information on the deposition rate of anthropogenic aerosol components (e.g. sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and hydrocarbon-like aerosol) to tropical forest and oil palm. At the same time, any biogenic secondary organic

  6. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

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    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  7. Hydroclimatic variations in the Makassar Strait over the past 5000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, C.; Mohtadi, M.; Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Hebbeln, D.; Mulitza, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is the only low-latitude connection between two oceans and an important part of the global conveyor belt influencing global climate. About 80% of the ITF flows through the Makassar Strait between the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi and can be modified by the complex climate system over the Maritime continent characterized by interacting climate phenomena like e.g. El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Australasian monsoon system. To assess changes in the hydroclimate of the Makassar Strait in relation to dominant climatic forcing over the past 5,000 years, sediment core SO 217-18517 (1°32.198' S 117°33.756' E, 698 m water depth) collected off the Mahakam Delta, eastern Borneo, was studied. We use shell Mg/Ca ratio in planktic foraminifera to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST), sedimentation rates and Ti/Ca ratios to reconstruct changes in terrigenous runoff, and seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) as a measure of past changes in sea surface salinity. Zr/Rb ratios are interpreted to indicate changes in grain size distribution. SST shows small-scale variations around 28.5°C during the mid Holocene, a decreasing trend between 3,000 and 1,700 years BP, and thereafter minor variations around 27.5°C. Sedimentation rates were higher between 3,400 and 1,000 years BP. Runoff increased during the past 5,000 years while our data indicate no change in sea surface salinity from mid to late Holocene. Grain size decreased until 1,700 years BP, and remained stable thereafter towards the present. The partly inconsistent timing and pattern of our data indicate the different degree to which our proxies are influenced by different forcings. We will explore the complex connection between local insolation and climate phenomena such as ENSO, dynamic and thermodynamic changes in ITCZ and monsoonal rainfall, their possible relation to high-latitude forcing including an (inter)hemispheric insolation gradient.

  8. Wihdah al-Wujud Puisi Ahmad Aran

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    Khairul Fuad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIslamic mysticism had influence in West Borneo through the thought of Muhammad KhatibalSambasiy, an inisiator ofQadiriahNaqsabandiahSufi Path (tarikat. One field that has strong tasawuf influence is literature as exemplified by the works of AhmadAran, a literature writer of West Borneo, , especially his poetry. His works are compiled inan antology entitled Jepin Kapuas RinduPuisi Kumpulan Puisi Kalimantan Barat. Except Aran’s poetry, poetries from other writers were also found on the anthology published by KomiteSastraDewanKesenian Kalimantan Barat (DKKB at 2000. WahdatulWujud a discourse of Islamic mysticism was  used by Ahmad Aran in his poetry. Through hermeneutic approach, especially exoteric exegete (tafsir, this study concludes that wahdatulwujud was actualized by Ahmad Aran indeed in his poetry Keywords: wihdatulwujud, poetry, and Ahmad Aran.AbstrakTasawuf memiliki pengaruh di Kalimantan Barat melalui pemikiran Ahmad Khatib alSambasiy, penggagas Tarikat QadiriahNaqsabandiah (TQN;  dan aspek yang paling mudah dipengaruhi adalah sastra. Selain Odhy’s, puisi-puisi Ahmad Aran juga dipengaruhi oleh tasawuf yang berkembang di wilayah tersebut. Karya puisinya Aran terdapat di dalam antologi Jepin Kapuas Rindu Puisi Kumpulan Puisi Kalimantan Barat. Selain karya Ahmad Aran, puisi-puisi sastrawan Kalimantan Barat lainnya juga dimuat di dalam antologi yang dipublikasikan oleh Komite Sastra Dewan Kesenian Kalimantan Barat (DKKB pada tahun 2000., puisi-puisi lain juga terdapat di dalam antologi itu yang dipublikasikan oleh Komite Sastra Dewan Kesenian Kalimantan Barat (DKKB pada 2000 ini. Wihdah al-Wujud merupakan wacana tasawuf yang digunakan oleh Ahmad Aran dalam puisinya. Oleh karena itu, konsep ini menjadi rumusan masalah dan teknik untuk menganalisis puisinya. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan hermeneutik, khususnya tafsir (exoteric exegete akhirnya ditemukan bahwa wihdah al-Wujud sebagai pengaruh tasawuf, memang

  9. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?

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    M. G. Tosca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During El Niño years, fires in tropical forests and peatlands in equatorial Asia create large regional smoke clouds. We characterized the sensitivity of these clouds to regional drought, and we investigated their effects on climate by using an atmospheric general circulation model. Satellite observations during 2000–2006 indicated that El Niño-induced regional drought led to increases in fire emissions and, consequently, increases in aerosol optical depths over Sumatra, Borneo and the surrounding ocean. Next, we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM to investigate how climate responded to this forcing. We conducted two 30 year simulations in which monthly fire emissions were prescribed for either a high (El Niño, 1997 or low (La Niña, 2000 fire year using a satellite-derived time series of fire emissions. Our simulations included the direct and semi-direct effects of aerosols on the radiation budget within the model. We assessed the radiative and climate effects of anthropogenic fire by analyzing the differences between the high and low fire simulations. Fire aerosols reduced net shortwave radiation at the surface during August–October by 19.1±12.9 W m−2 (10% in a region that encompassed most of Sumatra and Borneo (90° E–120° E, 5° S–5° N. The reductions in net shortwave radiation cooled sea surface temperatures (SSTs and land surface temperatures by 0.5±0.3 and 0.4±0.2 °C during these months. Tropospheric heating from black carbon (BC absorption averaged 20.5±9.3 W m−2 and was balanced by a reduction in latent heating. The combination of decreased SSTs and increased atmospheric heating reduced regional precipitation by 0.9±0.6 mm d−1 (10%. The vulnerability of ecosystems to fire was enhanced because the decreases in precipitation exceeded those for evapotranspiration. Together, the satellite and modeling results imply a possible positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic burning

  10. Spatio-temporal characteristics of PM10 concentration across Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneng, Liew; Latif, Mohd Talib; Tangang, Fredolin T.; Mansor, Haslina

    The recurrence of forest fires in Southeast Asia and associated biomass burning, has contributed markedly to the problem of trans-boundary haze and the long-range movement of pollutants in the region. Air pollutants, specifically particulate matter in the atmosphere, have received extensive attention, mainly because of their adverse effect on people's health. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of the PM10 concentration across Malaysia was analyzed by means of the rotated principal component analysis. The results suggest that the variability of the PM10 concentration can be decomposed into four dominant modes, each characterizing different spatial and temporal variations. The first mode characterizes the southwest coastal region of the Malaysian Peninsular with the PM10 showing a peak concentration during the summer monsoon i.e. when the winds are predominantly southerlies or southwesterlies, and a minimal concentration during the winter monsoon. The second mode features the region of western Borneo with the PM10 exhibiting a concentration surge in August-September, which is likely to be the result of the northward shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the subsequent rapid arrival of the rainy season. The third mode delineates the northern region of the Malaysian Peninsular with strong bimodality in the PM10 concentration. Seasonally, this component exhibits two concentration maxima during the late winter and summer monsoons, as well as two minima during the inter-monsoon periods. The fourth dominant mode characterizes the northern Borneo region which exhibits weaker seasonality of the PM10 concentration. Generally, the seasonal fluctuation of the PM10 concentration is largely associated with the seasonal variation of rainfall in the country. However, in addition to this, the PM10 concentration also fluctuates markedly in two timescale bands i.e. 10-20 days quasi-biweekly (QBW) and 30-60 days lower frequency (LF) band of the intra

  11. Evidence for a significant proportion of Secondary Organic Aerosol from isoprene above a maritime tropical forest

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    N. H. Robinson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC, but the processes governing secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from isoprene oxidation are only beginning to become understood and selective quantification of the atmospheric particulate burden remains difficult. Organic aerosol above a tropical rainforest located in Danum Valley, Borneo, Malaysia, a high isoprene emission region, was studied during Summer 2008 using Aerosol Mass Spectrometry and offline detailed characterisation using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography. Observations indicate that a substantial fraction (up to 15% by mass of atmospheric sub-micron organic aerosol was observed as methylfuran (MF after thermal desorption. This observation was associated with the simultaneous measurements of established gas-phase isoprene oxidation products methylvinylketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR. Observations of MF were also made during experimental chamber oxidation of isoprene. Positive matrix factorisation of the AMS organic mass spectral time series produced a robust factor which accounts for an average of 23% (0.18 μg m−3, reaching as much as 53% (0.50 μg m−3 of the total oraganic loading, identified by (and highly correlated with a strong MF signal. Assuming that this factor is generally representative of isoprene SOA, isoprene derived aerosol plays a significant role in the region. Comparisons with measurements from other studies suggest this type of isoprene SOA plays a role in other isoprene dominated environments, albeit with varying significance.

  12. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2016-01-12

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation.

  13. BANJARESE GREETINGS SYSTEM IN DISTRICT KAPUAS OF CENTRAL KALIMANTAN

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    Indra Perdana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the study of the use of greeting in Banjarese which stay in Kapuas District of Central Borneo.This Research focused to describe the greeting word used by the people, particularly the greeting word in Banjarese used by the first generetion in Kapuas. The research method used is descriptive qualitative. Data collection by observation with a look at, involved notes. Sources of research data used is the preference of all speech that is displayed by 1 Aged over 30 years, 2 Native language studied. 3 Knowing its own culture, 4 The Banjarese are the first generation derived from Banjarmasin, 5 The Banjarese who had lived in Kapuas. Based on this research shows 1 Greetings kinship to greet our parents (father + mother → (+ Uma Abah; Greetings kinship parents to greet our father and mother (grandfather + grandmother → (kai + nini; Greetings kinship to greet parents our grandparents are corrected; Greetings kinship to greet both parents protested was waring; Greetings kinship to say hello (brother + sister → (kaka + ading. Greetings kinship to say hello if our children have children (grandchildren → (grandchildren; Greetings kinship to say hello if we have children and grandchildren is a great-grandfather. And 2 The system of daily greeting, to call people who may be called ikam lifetime, lives. I use the word, unda to appoint themselves. As for honor or call older used the word pian, and said ulun to appoint its own self.

  14. DNA Barcoding Reveals High Cryptic Diversity of the Freshwater Halfbeak Genus Hemirhamphodon from Sundaland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Abidin, Muchlisin; Pulungan, Chaidir Parlindungan

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was utilized to assess the species diversity of the freshwater halfbeak genus Hemirhamphodon. A total of 201 individuals from 46 locations in Peninsular Malaysia, north Borneo (Sarawak) and Sumatra were successfully amplified for 616 base pairs of the COI gene revealing 231 variable and 213 parsimony informative sites. COI gene trees showed that most recognized species form monophyletic clades with high bootstrap support. Pairwise within species comparisons exhibited a wide range of intraspecific diversity from 0.0% to 14.8%, suggesting presence of cryptic diversity. This finding was further supported by barcode gap analysis, ABGD and the constructed COI gene trees. In particular, H. pogonognathus from Kelantan (northeast Peninsular Malaysia) diverged from the other H. pogonognathus groups with distances ranging from 7.8 to 11.8%, exceeding the nearest neighbor taxon. High intraspecific diversity was also observed in H. byssus and H. kuekanthali, but of a lower magnitude. This study also provides insights into endemism and phylogeographic structuring, and limited support for the Paleo-drainage divergence hypothesis as a driver of speciation in the genus Hemirhamphodon. PMID:27657915

  15. IMPAK - 1/2003 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IMPAK is quarterly bulletin of the Department of Environment, Malaysia. In this issue, IMPAK's provide the details on Sub Regional Fire Fighting Arrangements (SRFAs) Fire and Haze Disaster Table Top Exercise, which was held on 29-30 July 2003 in Jakarta Indonesia. Four feature articles were reported in this issue - (I) Haze: What You Should Know What You Should Do, (II) Indoor Air Quality and the Environment explained the relation between indoor airs qualities is affected by outdoors environment, (III) Peatland: Use and Conservation - is an extensive research on maintaining peatland due to its importance in our ecosystem. To increase readers' knowledge on peatland, the fourth article is Peat Fire Outbreaks, more information to combating fire in peatland. In the ASEAN News section, three activities joined by DOE; ASEAN agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution (ASEAN Haze Agreement), the 13th Joint Meeting of the ASEAN Working Groups on Sub Regional Fire Fighting Arrangements (SRFAs) for Sumatera and Borneo, Jambi, Indonesia and Summary of the Asean Environment Ministers' Forum on Land and Forest Fire Hazards

  16. It's not just conflict that motivates killing of orangutans.

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    Jacqueline T Davis

    Full Text Available We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI. These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.

  17. The Lived Experiences of Mentoring Nurses in Malaysia

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    Noraini Binti Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a nursing mentor is not an entirely new concept in nursing. However, it is a new phenomenon in the nursing profession in Malaysia. The nursing administration and the senior nurses in Malaysia have claimed that they have started a mentorship program by having senior nurses shadow new graduate nurses for the past two to three years ago. With no study found in Malaysia investigating the lived experiences of mentors mentoring new registered nurses, it led the researcher to develop this research that explores the real life experiences of these senior Malaysian nurses who mentor neophyte nurses.Objectives: This research explores and describes the lived experiences of nurses mentoring neophyte or new registered nurses at one of the major hospital in the Malaysia Borneo and how such experiences influence their daily routine as a nurse and also as a mentor. The research will also attaches meaning to these experiences and identifies both positive and negative experiences as a mentor to neophyte.Methods: The experiences of nurses mentoring the neophyte in the clinical area were captured using a qualitative approach to research and further viewed through methods informed by phenomenology, which used interpretive and descriptive semi-structured interviews. Hermeneutic interpretive phenomenology was used in the focus to analyze interview transcript into textual expression of the mentors. Three main themes emerge from this study are being unprepared and challenged, perceptions of mentees, mentor hope and desire.Key words: nursing mentor, phenomenon, neophyte, Malaysia.

  18. Human amplification of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesia since 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; van der Werf, G. R.; Shen, S. S.

    2009-05-01

    Much of the interannual variability in global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations has been attributed to variability of emissions from biomass burning. Under drought conditions, agricultural burning in Indonesia escapes control, and is a disproportionate contributor to these emissions, as seen in the 1997/98 haze disaster. Yet our understanding of the frequency, severity and underlying causes of severe biomass burning in Indonesia is limited because of the absence of satellite data that are useful for fire monitoring before the mid- 1990s. Here we present a continuous monthly record of severe burning events from 1960 to 2006 using the visibility reported at airports in the region. We find that these fires cause what are possibly the world's worst air quality conditions and that they occur only during years when precipitation falls below a well defined threshold. Historically, large fire events have occurred in Sumatra at least since the 1960s. By contrast, the first large fires are recorded in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) in the 1980s, despite earlier severe droughts. We attribute this difference to different patterns of changes in land use and population density. Fires in Indonesia have often been linked with El Niño, but we find that the Indian Ocean Dipole pattern is as important a contributing factor.

  19. Ants use odour cues to exploit fig-fig wasp interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Bertrand; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Fig wasps may constitute a relatively abundant food source for ants associated with the fig-fig wasp nursery pollination mutualism. We found previously that a Mediterranean ant species detects fig wasps by chemical signals. In this paper we want to test the generality of this finding by studying two tropical ants, Oecophylla smaragdina and Crematogaster sp., preying on fig wasps on the dioecious Ficus fistulosa in Brunei (Borneo). Behavioural tests in a Y-tube olfactometer showed that these two ants were attracted both to odours emitted by receptive figs and to those emitted by fig wasps (male and female of the pollinator, and a non-pollinating fig wasp) used here as a kairomone. Naïve workers were not attracted to fig wasps, suggesting that olfactory learning may play a role in prey detection. We also found that O. smaragdina was much more likely to be present on figs of male trees (where fig wasps are more abundant), and that the abundance of this ant species varied strongly with developmental phase of figs on individual trees. Moreover, its aggressiveness was also strongly influenced by the nature of the object presented in our behavioural tests, the site of the test and the developmental phase of the fig tested. Investigation on the chemical and behavioural ecology of the different interacting species provides important insights into the intricate relationships supported by the fig-fig wasp mutualism.

  20. REVIEW ESSAY: COMPARATIVE BORDERLANDS ACROSS DISCIPLINES AND ACROSS SOUTHEAST ASIA

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    William B Noseworthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Early in the colonial period, many studies examining upland Southeast Asia focused on ethnography and ecology as a means for the colonial state to better understand the region's geography. This process resulted in the construction of physical, social, and intellectual boundaries that sought to maintain control of the colonial enterprise. The natural borderlands of the region defied such easy definition – the highlands, the plains at the edges of deltas, and heavily forested regions – became a fascination of colonial study. In the climate of pending Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN integration, which promises to begin the process of loosening restrictions for border crossing between Southeast Asian states by area residents, the study of borderlands has risen again. Because many of these border areas have pockets of highlands culture, continued study of the uplands is particularly relevant to deepening an understanding of the region. This review of several books on the Southeast Asian uplands explores historical and cultural strategies of individuals, particularly in Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, the Dayak community on the island of Borneo, and the Cham community in Vietnam and Cambodia, as well as some of the challenges that they face regarding 'the borderlands'. Putting these studies in conversation can help develop an interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in Anthropology, Political Science, Linguistics, Ethnomusicology, and History, allowing for a more integrated international perspective.

  1. Strongyloides spp Distribution on Orangutans in Tanjung Putting National Park, Care Center in Pangkalanbun, and Sebangau National Park

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    Wisnu Nurcahyo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides spp is a parasitic nematode in livestock, primate and human which is  considered asa danger zoonotic disease. Therefore, study about parasite distribution is very important in order to find outgenetic diversity among orangutan in quarantine, zoo and nature, as an effort to explore infection patternand life cycle of Strongyloides spp on orangutan. Amount of 326 orangutan feces were taken from threedifferent habitat of orangutan in Central Borneo, Tanjung Puting National Park, Orangutan Care Centerand Sebangau National Park. Samples which were collected from Tanjung Puting, Care Center and Sebangauwere 75, 80 and 171 respectively. Those samples were transported to the Parasitology laboratory in Facultyof Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta for examination and detection.  Prevalence ofstrongyloides in Tanjung Putting, Sebangau and Orangutan Care Center were 24%, 14,6% and 13,3%respectively. Among positive samples of Strongyloides, 62,5% were from male orangutans, while 37,5% werefrom female orangutans. Strongyloides in pre adult and baby orangutan were 91,6% and 4,2% respectively.Meanwhile, Strongyloides in adult orangutan were very rare. Orangutan habitat in Sebangau National Parkis an ideal habitat for orangutan, supported by the watery condition of peat land, so that Strongyloides re-infection become difficult. Some factors may have important role in Strongyloidoses, such as behavior,physical condition, nutrition, age, body weight, sex, immunity and social status of orangutan.

  2. Molecular phylogeny reveals high diversity, geographic structure and limited ranges in neotenic net-winged beetles platerodrilus (coleoptera: lycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Michal; Palata, Vaclav; Bray, Timothy C; Bocak, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    The neotenic Platerodrilus net-winged beetles have strongly modified development where females do not pupate and retain larval morphology when sexually mature. As a result, dispersal propensity of females is extremely low and the lineage can be used for reconstruction of ancient dispersal and vicariance patterns and identification of centres of diversity. We identified three deep lineages in Platerodrilus occurring predominantly in (1) Borneo and the Philippines, (2) continental Asia, and (3) Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and Java. We document limited ranges of all species of Platerodrilus and complete species level turnover between the Sunda Islands and even between individual mountain regions in Sumatra. Few dispersal events were recovered among the major geographical regions despite long evolutionary history of occurrence; all of them were dated at the early phase of Platerodrilus diversification up to the end of Miocene and no exchange of island faunas was identified during the Pliocene and Pleistocene despite the frequently exposed Sunda Shelf as sea levels fluctuated with each glacial cycle. We observed high diversity in the regions with persisting humid tropical forests during cool periods. The origins of multiple species were inferred in Sumatra soon after the island emerged and the mountain range uplifted 15 million years ago with the speciation rate lower since then. We suppose that the extremely low dispersal propensity makes Platerodrilus a valuable indicator of uninterrupted persistence of rainforests over a long time span. Additionally, if the diversity of these neotenic lineages is to be protected, a high dense system of protected areas would be necessary.

  3. Kennis is macht: de veelzijdige expedities van botanicus Pieter Willem Korthals (1807–1892

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Manse

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is power: the versatile expeditions of botanist Pieter Willem Korthals (1807–1892The National Herbarium in Leiden houses a fascinating archive about one of the few botanists of the Committee for Natural History of the Netherlands Indies, Pieter Willem Korthals (1807–1892. The notebooks and reports of his travels in Java, Sumatra and Borneo reveal the hybrid position of Korthals in the colonial world of the Dutch East Indies. Korthals was an experienced botanist who employed methods such as measuring, taking notes and sensual observation at various locales in the Malay Archipelago. His multi-faceted fieldwork tied into the colonial administration’s desire to acquire valuable information about the islands’ human and natural resources. In particular, after the introduction in 1830 of the Cultivation System in Java, the colonial authorities in Batavia were eager to learn more about the system’s efficiency in more remote areas. By drawing upon rich archival sources, this brief essay uses Korthals’ case to shed fresh light on the production of botanical and other knowledge in the for- mer Dutch colony in the East Indies.

  4. The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu M; Edwards, David P; Mendes, Lucas William; Kim, Mincheol; Dong, Ke; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes. PMID:26994316

  5. Pemodelan Lokasi-Alokasi Terminal Bahan Baku untuk Meminimasi Total Biaya Rantai Pasok pada Industri Produk Jadi Rotan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniaristanto .

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Surakarta and its surroundings (Solo Raya, there exists more than 400 Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs that produce finished products of rattan. Due to the high procurement cost as total operational cost of raw rattan distribution network from the sources, e.g. Borneo and Celebes to the rattan industries, the competitiveness of their products is lower than products from other countries. Therefore, to overcome the problem, those costs should be reduced for example by aggregating the demand of rattan industries. This police needs to be supported by the warehouse for storing and distributing raw rattan. Hence, this research aims to develop a facility location-allocation model so that total supply chain costs, including raw rattan procurement costs as well as facilities opening and closing costs can be minimized. The location-allocation model will be presented in a mixed integer non-linear programming model and solved using MS-Excel Solver. The results are number and location of the warehouse along with the raw rattan allocation in the warehouse to ensure raw rattan supply for rattan industries.

  6. First fossil record of Ischaliidae Blair, 1920 (Coleoptera) from Eocene Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Vitalii I; Telnov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Ischalia Pascoe, 1860, the monotypic genus of Ischaliidae, was placed as a subfamily among Pyrochroidae or Anthicidae by earlier authors. Nikitsky (1992) raised the status of Ischaliidae to the family rank. This position has been largely accepted and consequently followed by recent authors dealing with Ischalia, as well as in our paper. Ischaliidae is known from the Palaearctic (the Himalayas, East Asia: easternmost Russia, Japan, E China), South East Asia (southwards to Java, Borneo and the Philippines), and the Nearctic region (southern Canada, U.S.A.). No recent European representatives of Ischalia are known. At present, this genus is composed of 43 species worldwide (Gusakov & Telnov 2007; Saitô 2011; Young 2011; Young 2014; Saitô & Young 2015) placed in three subgenera (Young 2011): Ischalia s. str.-37 species, Eupleurida LeConte, 1862-5 species, Nitidischalia Young, 2011-1 species. Ischaliidae is most diverse in tropical rainforests, but many species are also known from subtropical to temperate zones. Adults and larvae of two Nearctic Ischalia feed on fungal mycelium growing on decaying wood of coniferous and broad-leaved trees (e.g. Pinus ponderosa, Lithocarpus densiflora) (Young 1985). Mimicry has been described among Bornean Ischaliidae, Tenebrionidae and Chrysomelidae (Telnov 2005) and also among Ischaliidae, Omalisidae, Lycidae and Endomychidae (Kazantsev & Young 2010). PMID:27394890

  7. Anthropogenic and Climatic Influence on Vegetation Fires in Peatland of Insular Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, S.; Miettinen, J.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is traditionally used as a tool in land clearing by farmers and shifting cultivators in Southeast Asia. However, the small scale clearing of land is increasingly being replaced by modern large-scale conversion of forests into plantations/agricultural land, usually also by fires. Fires get out of control in periods of extreme drought, especially during the El Nino periods, resulting in severe episodes of transboundary air pollution in the form of smoke haze. We use the MODIS active fires product (hotspots) to establish correlations between the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation fires with climatic variables, land cover change and soil type (peat or non-peat) in the western part of Insular Southeast Asia for a decade from 2001 to 2010. Fire occurrence exhibits a negative correlation with rainfall, and is more severe overall during the El-Nino periods. However, not all regions are equally affected by El-Nino. In Southern Sumatra and Southern Borneo the correlation with El-Nino is high. However, fires in some regions such as the peatland in Riau, Jambi and Sarawak do not appear to be influenced by El-Nino. These regions are also experiencing rapid conversion of forest to large scale plantations.

  8. Behavioral Studies Peptic Ulcer Patients Self-Medication by Visiting Pharmacy in Pontianak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka K. Untari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication practices is now considered as a component of self-care. Gastric ulcer is one of minor symptom that can be treated by self-medication. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, behavior, and appropriateness of self-medication practice for gastric ulcer or its related symptom amongst population. The population of this study attended community pharmacies in Pontianak of West Borneo province. This study was a cross sectional survey involving 98 adults who did self-medication on peptic ulcer or its related symptom. This study was conducted in 2010. The result of showed that 67.3% of gastric ulcer self-medication practice was appropriate; 66.3% subject used antacida class to treat the symptom; 6.1% participant however, still used antibiotic; and only 27% subject satisfied with the information given during self-medication process. Although self-medication practice for gastric ulcer was often done, some practice might be harmful. Thus, there is a need to educate the community to ensure its safe practices.

  9. Alteration mineral mapping using ETM+ and hyperion remote sensing data at Bau Gold Field, Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area under investigation is the Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It has tropical climate with limited bedrock exposures. Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits. Geological analyses coupled with remote sensing data were used to detect hydrothermally altered rocks associated with gold mineralization. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+) and Hyperion data were used to carry out mineral mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Directed Principal Components Analysis (DPCA) transformation of four appropriate ETM+ band ratios were applied to produce DPC images, allowing the removal of the effects of vegetation from ETM+ data and the detection of separate mineral images at a regional scale. Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) was used to produce image maps of hydroxyl-bearing minerals using Hyperion data at a district scale. Results derived from the visible and near infrared and shortwave infrared bands of Hyperion represented iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals rich zones associated with the known gold prospects in the Bau district. The results show that the known gold prospects and potentially interesting areas are recognizable by the methods used, despite limited bedrock exposure in this region and the constraints imposed by the tropical environment. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide an opportunity for detecting potentially interesting areas of gold mineralization using the ETM+ and Hyperion data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions

  10. The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu M; Edwards, David P; Mendes, Lucas William; Kim, Mincheol; Dong, Ke; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes.

  11. Public Service Integrity Perception: Case Study In Kutai Kartanegara Regency, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Mutiarin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed to measure the integrity of public service at Kutai Kartanegara Regency, East Borneo Province, Indonesia. The public service integrity can be seen from many perspective such as how the citizens satisfied with the public services provided by the government, how the public perception on combating corruption, and how success the government providing minimum service standard to the public at large. This three forms of public service integrity was the main focuses of this research in Kutai Kartanegara regency. The phenomenon of public service in Kutai Kartanegara Regency shown out of the tracks and missing to convey the importance of public service values, characterized by uncertainty of charges, time, and procedures. The research used the quantitative methods by scoring 3 indexes, which are the Citizen Satisfaction Index, Corruption Perception Index, and Minimum Service Standard Index. This research used Non-probability Sampling method, also Judgment Sampling procedure, in the development and compilation of the citizens satisfaction index. There were 57 local government agencies that served as the samples. The results of this research were the public service integrity perceptions in Kutai Kartanegara regency was need to be improved on the quantity and quality of public service delivery, commitment and efforts to create a clean government, transparency and accountability especially on e-procurement and to implement minimum service standards in every government offices.

  12. Macrogeographical variability in the great call of Hylobates agilis: assessing the applicability of vocal analysis in studies of fine-scale taxonomy of gibbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R; Pedersen, Adam Frederik Sander; Wang, Christian William;

    2010-01-01

    Vocal characteristics have been used extensively to distinguish different taxonomic units of gibbons (family Hylobatidae). The agile gibbon (Hylobates agilis) has a disjunct distribution range in the Southeast Asian archipelago (remnants of the former Sunda landmass), and populations on different...... islands are currently recognized as distinct subspecies or even species. We recorded great calls from female agile gibbons from two populations on Sumatra and two populations on Borneo and examined the vocal variability on four levels: within-individuals, between-individuals, between......-populations and between-islands. The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of geographical isolation on variability in song pattern and to test whether proposed island-specific song characteristics exist, reflecting evolutionary divergence between Sumatran and Bornean agile gibbons. One hundred great calls were...... and Bornean agile gibbons have evolved different vocal characteristics, refuting a distinction between them based on vocal characteristics. A high level of plasticity was found in great calls from the same individual, and generally the inferred pattern of variability suggested that ecological or social...

  13. Geographical variation in the clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, reveals two species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Andrew C; Beaumont, Mark A; Richardson, Douglas

    2006-12-01

    The clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, is an endangered semiarboreal felid with a wide distribution in tropical forests of southern and southeast Asia, including the islands of Sumatra and Borneo in the Indonesian archipelago. In common with many larger animal species, it displays morphological variation within its wide geographical range and is currently regarded as comprising of up to four subspecies. It is widely recognized that taxonomic designation has a major impact on conservation planning and action. Given that the last taxonomic revision was made over 50 years ago, a more detailed examination of geographical variation is needed. We describe here the results of a morphometric analysis of the pelages of 57 clouded leopards sampled throughout the species' range. We conclude that there are two distinct morphological groups, which differ primarily in the size of their cloud markings. These results are supported by a recent genetic analysis. On that basis, we give diagnoses for the distinction of two species, one in mainland Asia (N. nebulosa) and the other in Indonesia (N. diardi). The implications for conservation that arise from this new taxonomic arrangement are discussed. PMID:17141621

  14. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-01

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet lands are cleared for oil palm, generating 26% of net carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  15. The diversity and abundance of ground herbs in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest and heath forest in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hazlina Zaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants are important components of total plant species richness in tropical forests. Ground herb diversity and abundance were studied in a lowland Mixed Dipterocarp forest (Andulau and a heath forest (Bukit Sawat in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo. At each site, all ground herbs in twenty randomly selected 10 × 10 m subplots within a one hectare permanent plot were censused and identified. The study recorded a total of 20 families and 32 genera of ground herbs, with the family Zingiberaceae as the most abundant at both sites. Thirteen genera were recorded only at Andulau and 7 genera were exclusive to Bukit Sawat, with twelve genera common to both sites. Ground herb species richness appear higher at Andulau than Bukit Sawat (37 vs. 29, but this difference was not statistically significant at the subplot level. However, ground herb abundance and density were significantly higher at Bukit Sawat than Andulau (n =  846 vs. 385; 4230 vs. 1925 individuals ha-1. The more open canopy at Bukit Sawat may provide higher light availability here than at Andulau, which is characterised by a closed canopy. We suggest that light availability is the most important environmental factor influencing ground herb density and abundance at these sites. 

  16. Genetic polymorphism in domain I of the apical membrane antigen-1 among Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mun Yik; Wong, Shen Siang; Silva, Jeremy Ryan De; Lau, Yee Ling

    2015-12-01

    The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is now recognized as a species that can cause human malaria. The first report of large scale human knowlesi malaria was in 2004 in Malaysia Borneo. Since then, hundreds of human knowlesi malaria cases have been reported in Southeast Asia. The present study investigates the genetic polymorphism of P. knowlesi DI domain of the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1), a protein considered as a promising vaccine candidate for malaria. The DI domain of AMA-1 gene of P. knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia was amplified by PCR, cloned into Escherichia coli, then sequenced and analysed. Ninety-seven DI domain sequences were obtained. Comparison at the nucleotide level against P. knowlesi strain H as reference sequence showed 21 synonymous and 25 nonsynonymous mutations. Nonetheless, nucleotide sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity of the DI domain, and it was under purifying (negative) selection. At the amino acid level, 26 different haplotypes were identified and 2 were predominant haplotypes (H1, H2) with high frequencies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 26 haplotypes could be clustered into 2 distinct groups (I and II). Members of the groups were basically derived from haplotypes H1 and H2, respectively.

  17. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  18. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a~tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt, respectively, and with an average monoterpene to isoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlight hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission occurred into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  19. Seasonal and Spatial Dynamics of the Primary Vector of Plasmodium knowlesi within a Major Transmission Focus in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng L Wong

    Full Text Available The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is emerging as a public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysian Borneo where it now accounts for the greatest burden of malaria cases and deaths. Control is hindered by limited understanding of the ecology of potential vector species.We conducted a one year longitudinal study of P. knowlesi vectors in three sites within an endemic area of Sabah, Malaysia. All mosquitoes were captured using human landing catch. Anopheles mosquitoes were dissected to determine, oocyst, sporozoites and parous rate. Anopheles balabacensis is confirmed as the primary vector of. P. knowlesi (using nested PCR in Sabah for the first time. Vector densities were significantly higher and more seasonally variable in the village than forest or small scale farming site. However An. balabacensis survival and P. knowlesi infection rates were highest in forest and small scale farm sites. Anopheles balabacensis mostly bites humans outdoors in the early evening between 1800 to 2000 hrs.This study indicates transmission is unlikely to be prevented by bednets. This combined with its high vectorial capacity poses a threat to malaria elimination programmes within the region.

  20. Competition can lead to unexpected patterns in tropical ant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Blüthgen, Nico; Fayle, Tom M.; Foster, William A.; Menzel, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Ecological communities are structured by competitive, predatory, mutualistic and parasitic interactions combined with chance events. Separating deterministic from stochastic processes is possible, but finding statistical evidence for specific biological interactions is challenging. We attempt to solve this problem for ant communities nesting in epiphytic bird's nest ferns (Asplenium nidus) in Borneo's lowland rainforest. By recording the frequencies with which each and every single ant species occurred together, we were able to test statistically for patterns associated with interspecific competition. We found evidence for competition, but the resulting co-occurrence pattern was the opposite of what we expected. Rather than detecting species segregation-the classical hallmark of competition-we found species aggregation. Moreover, our approach of testing individual pairwise interactions mostly revealed spatially positive rather than negative associations. Significant negative interactions were only detected among large ants, and among species of the subfamily Ponerinae. Remarkably, the results from this study, and from a corroborating analysis of ant communities known to be structured by competition, suggest that competition within the ants leads to species aggregation rather than segregation. We believe this unexpected result is linked with the displacement of species following asymmetric competition. We conclude that analysing co-occurrence frequencies across complete species assemblages, separately for each species, and for each unique pairwise combination of species, represents a subtle yet powerful way of detecting structure and compartmentalisation in ecological communities.

  1. Redescriptions and new records of species of Otobothrium Linton, 1890 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Redescriptions are provided for five incompletely described species of Otobothrium Linton, 1890: Otobothrium alexanderi Palm, 2004 from two species of carcharhinid sharks, Carcharhinus cautus (Whitley) and C. melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard) at three localities off northern Australia; O. australe Palm, 2004 based on material collected from the type-host and type-locality and from six additional myliobatid and carcharhinid host species off Western Australia, the Northern Territory and northern Queensland; O. insigne Linton, 1905 from Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson) and Sphyrna tudes (Valenciennes) in the Atlantic Ocean off Senegal and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; O. mugilis Hiscock, 1954, previously known only from larval stages, based on adults from five sphyrnid and carcharhinid definitive host species off northern Australia and Malaysian Borneo; and O. penetrans Linton, 1907 from material collected from two species of hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae) in the Red Sea off Jordan and the Indian Ocean off Western Australia. Additional host and locality records are added for the type-species, O. crenacolle Linton, 1890 and for O. carcharidis (Shipley & Hornell, 1906). Two descriptions are provided for Otobothrium spp. treated here as Otobothrium sp. 1 from C. melanopterus off northern Australia and Otobothrium sp. 2 from Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. PMID:23263940

  2. Discursive barriers and cross-scale forest governance in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb T. Gallemore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Students of social-ecological systems have emphasized the need for effective cross-scale governance. We theorized that discursive barriers, particularly between technical and traditional practices, can act as a barrier to cross-scale collaboration. We analyzed the effects of discursive divides on collaboration on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ policy development in Central Kalimantan, an Indonesian province on the island of Borneo selected in 2010 to pilot subnational REDD+ policy. We argue that the complexities of bridging local land management practices and technical approaches to greenhouse gas emissions reduction and carbon offsetting create barriers to cross-scale collaboration. We tested these hypotheses using an exponential random graph model of collaboration among 36 organizations active in REDD+ policy in the province. We found that discursive divides were associated with a decreased probability of collaboration between organizations and that organizations headquartered outside the province were less likely to collaborate with organizations headquartered in the province. We conclude that bridging discursive communities presents a chicken-and-egg problem for cross-scale governance of social-ecological systems. In precisely the situations where it is most important, when bridging transnational standards with local knowledge and land management practices, it is the most difficult.

  3. Man-Made Wildlife Tourism Destination: The Visitors Perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Sun Fatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabah is blessed with natural forest habitats and rich with floras and faunas. Amongst its’ attraction is wildlife endemism. Lok Kawi Wildlife Park was established to provide an alternative wildlife tourism destination with its inhabitants from the wildlife species of Borneo. Since its opening in 2007, multitudes of tourists have visited the park. However, there has been no study to identify the visitor’s perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park as man-made wildlife tourism destination. The study aims to assist the park’s management for the betterment of the park’s facilities and future development. A convenience sampling and a designed questionnaire was applied in this study, distributed after the visitors visited the park. The results showed that majority of the visitors were Malaysian and only a quarter were foreign visitors. Majority indicated that visiting the park is for recreational outing (holiday and only a few indicated that is an educational visit. Majority of the respondents knew the meaning of wildlife tourism and visiting the park’s is part of wildlife tourism. Most of the respondents came to know about the park’s existence through the local media and mostly agreed that the park indeed provide an authentic learning experience about wildlife, whilst creating wildlife conservation awareness.

  4. Students Awareness towards Traditional Cultural Dances in Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Ahmad R. Albattat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has many ethnic groups, and each ethnic group has own custom and tradition that most Malaysians are not aware, especially traditional dances. Among the Malaysian states, Sabah and Sarawak, situated in the Borneo Island have the most diverse ethnic groups in Sarawak. It has more than 30 ethnic groups. Each of the ethnic groups has its own language, cultures and lifestyle. In this regards, this research focuses on the main ethnic groups of Sarawak which are Orang Ulu, Malays, Melanau, Bidayuh, Chinese and Ibans. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of awareness among the Management and Science University (MSU students regarding their level of awareness and knowledge about traditional dances of Sarawak. The data were gathered by distributing questionnaires among MSU students. The data were then analysed using SPSS system version 18.0. Results concluded that, most of MSU students have limited knowledge about Sarawak traditional dances. Interests, internet, performing arts clubs and family background are the independent variable factors to learn and gain knowledge about Sarawak traditional dances. The level of awareness among MSU students towards Sarawak traditional dances can be enhanced through events and special occasions to increase level of awareness towards Sarawak cultures. The government plays a major role in introducing Sarawak cultures to the whole of Malaysia. Future studies could focus on factors that influence the level of awareness towards Sarawak traditional dances, and the contribution of Sarawak’s traditional dances to Malaysia’s cultural and heritage tourism.

  5. Selective logging in tropical forests decreases the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks to the loss of host tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Senior, Rebecca A; Rogers, Andrew; Nurdin, Deddy; Benedick, Suzan; Laurance, William F; Santamaria, Luis; Edwards, David P

    2016-03-16

    Selective logging is one of the major drivers of tropical forest degradation, causing important shifts in species composition. Whether such changes modify interactions between species and the networks in which they are embedded remain fundamental questions to assess the 'health' and ecosystem functionality of logged forests. We focus on interactions between lianas and their tree hosts within primary and selectively logged forests in the biodiversity hotspot of Malaysian Borneo. We found that lianas were more abundant, had higher species richness, and different species compositions in logged than in primary forests. Logged forests showed heavier liana loads disparately affecting slow-growing tree species, which could exacerbate the loss of timber value and carbon storage already associated with logging. Moreover, simulation scenarios of host tree local species loss indicated that logging might decrease the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks if heavily infested trees (i.e. the most connected ones) were more likely to disappear. This effect is partially mitigated in the short term by the colonization of host trees by a greater diversity of liana species within logged forests, yet this might not compensate for the loss of preferred tree hosts in the long term. As a consequence, species interaction networks may show a lagged response to disturbance, which may trigger sudden collapses in species richness and ecosystem function in response to additional disturbances, representing a new type of 'extinction debt'.

  6. AKLIMATISASI ANGGREK HITAM (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. HASIL PERBANYAKAN IN VITRO PADA MEDIA BERBEDA

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    Ni Kade Ayu Purnama Adi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. is an orchid endemic to the island ofBorneo. However, its existence is increasingly threatened with extinction. Conventionalpropagation efforts require a long time. Therefore in vitro propagation was performed. Thepurpose of this study was to determine the growth response of black orchids on the media anddifferent planting techniques. Black orchid plantlets that have been sub-cultured wasacclimatized in four different media types ie moss, fern, wood charcoal, wood charcoal andcoconut fiber mixture and different planting techniques namely compot (community pot andthe individual, were allowed to grow for three months. Randomized block design (RBD wasutilised, obtained 8 combination treatments, with 7 replicates. The results showed blackorchid has a good growth response in the media moss, ferns, and a mixture of wood charcoaland coconut fiber, while the wood charcoal media showed unfavorable results. Differentplanting techniques showed no significant results. Percentage of high life shown in mixedmedia wood charcoal and coconut fiber and compot techniques.Keyword : Black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl., acclimatization, media

  7. A Greenhouse Gas Balance of Electricity Production from Co-firing Palm Oil Products from Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Netherlands imports significant quantities of biomass for energy production, among which palm oil has been used increasingly for co-firing in existing gas-fired power plants for renewable electricity production. Imported biomass, however, can not simply be considered a sustainable energy source. The production and removal of biomass in other places in the world result in ecological, land-use and socio-economic impacts and in GHG emissions (e.g. for transportation). As a result of the sustainability discussions, the Cramer Commission in the Netherlands has formulated (draft) criteria and indicators for sustainable biomass production. This study develops a detailed methodology for determining the GHG balance of co-firing palm oil products in the Netherlands based on the Cramer Commission methodology. The methodology is applied to a specific bio-electricity chain: the production of palm oil and a palm oil derivative, palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), in Northeast Borneo in Malaysia, their transport to the Netherlands and co-firing with natural gas for electricity production at the Essent Claus power plant

  8. Local Sabahans’ Satisfaction with Level of Access to Mount Kinabalu

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    Bidder Christy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the local Sabahans’ satisfaction with the level of access to Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Specifically, it examines the number of complaints by local Sabahans regarding access and their perception of changes in accessibility to the mountain. Interviews with Sabah Parks and Sutera Sanctuary Lodges were conducted and questionnaires were distributed to local residents to collect data. The results show that there were intense complaints regarding the climbing cost and extensive waiting time to secure a confirmed booking at the outset of price increases. However, the researchers could not locate any recently published complaints. Respondents who have previously climbed Mount Kinabalu perceive the mountain to be less accessible for local Sabahans now due to a less affordable cost and a longer waiting time. Those who have not climbed Mount Kinabalu also think the climbing cost has become less affordable for local Sabahans, but they do not perceive that to be causing the mountain less accessible for local Sabahans.

  9. The settlement of Madagascar: what dialects and languages can tell

    CERN Document Server

    Serva, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    The dialects of Madagascar belong to the Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family and it is widely accepted that the Island was colonized by Indonesian sailors after a maritime trek which probably took place around 650 CE. The language most closely related to Malagasy dialects is Maanyan but also Malay is strongly related especially for what concerns navigation terms. Since the Maanyan Dayaks live along the Barito river in Kalimantan (Borneo) and they do not possess the necessary skill for long maritime navigation, probably they were brought as subordinates by Malay sailors. In a recent paper we compared 23 different Malagasy dialects in order to determine the time and the landing area of the first colonization. In this research we use new data and new methods to confirm that the landing took place on the south-east coast of the Island. Furthermore, we are able to state here that it is unlikely that there were multiple settlements and, therefore, colonization consisted in a single founding event. ...

  10. Scent marking in Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi): novel observations close a key gap in understanding felid communication behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L.; Wittmer, Heiko U.; Setiawan, Endro; Jaffe, Sarah; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication is integral to the behavioural ecology of solitary carnivores, but observing and quantifying their communication behaviours in natural environments is difficult. Our systematic literature review found that basic information on scent marking is completely lacking for 23% of all felid species, and information on 21% of other felid species comes solely from one study of captive animals. Here we present results of the first systematic investigation of the scent marking behaviours of Sunda clouded leopards in the wild. Our observations using motion-triggered video cameras in Indonesian Borneo are novel for clouded leopards, and contrary to previous descriptions of their behaviour. We found that clouded leopards displayed 10 distinct communication behaviours, with olfaction, scraping, and cheek rubbing the most frequently recorded. We also showed that males make repeated visits to areas they previously used for marking and that multiple males advertise and receive information at the same sites, potentially enhancing our ability to document and monitor clouded leopard populations. The behaviours we recorded are remarkably similar to those described in other solitary felids, despite tremendous variation in the environments they inhabit, and close a key gap in understanding and interpreting communication behaviours of clouded leopards and other solitary felids. PMID:27739507

  11. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2016-01-12

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation. PMID:26712025

  12. Geologic and geomorphic controls of coal development in some Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Previous investigations have not well defined the controls on the development of minable coals in fluvial environments. This study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding of these controls, particularly in of the lower Tertiary coal-bearing deposits of the Raton and Powder River basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. In this region, large amounts of coals accumulated in swamps formed in the flow-through fluvial systems that infilled these intermontane basins. Extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonism partly controlled the stratigraphic and facies distributions of minable coal deposits. The regional accumulation of coals was favored by the rapid basin subsidence coupled with minimal uplift of the source area. During these events, coals developed in swamps associated with anastomosed and meandering fluvial systems and alluvial fans. The extensive and high rate of sediment input from these fluvial systems promoted the formation of ombrotrophic, raised swamps, which produced low ash and anomalously thick coals. The petrology and palynology of these coals, and the paleobotany of the associated sediments, suggest that ombrotrophic, raised swamps were common in the Powder River Basin, where the climate during the early Tertiary was paratropical. The paleoecology of these swamps is identical to that of the modern ombrotrophic, raised swamps of the Baram and Mahakam Rivers of Borneo. ?? 1993.

  13. The 14C natural isotope as a tool for monitoring of groundwater exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C natural isotope has been used to monitored exploitation effects within a 10 year interval between 1995 to 2005 in Bontang groundwater basing east Borneo- Indonesia. Exploitation of the groundwater of Bontang basin has occurred since 1981 and at the present the groundwater abstraction for Bontang basin is about 59,000 m3/day to fulfill the necessity of liquid natural gas and fertilizer industries from more than 20 wells. Isotope investigation of the groundwater Bontang basin have been done through water sources sampling like rivers, cold spring deep wells sea water and rain water in 1995 and 2005. The 18O and D isotope data show that deep groundwater originates from local rain water that infiltrates through the slope of mount Lobang Batik. Along the hilly slope zone, it is layered by the sedimentary Kampung Baru Formation. There is no indication that the Mahakam river water infiltrates and sea water intrusion to the deep groundwater. The 14C of isotope data from deep wells show that the average age of 4 wells with distance 2-3 km located from the outcrop of Kampung Baru in 1995 is about 2300 a. There is a decrease of groundwater age since exploitation to around 500 a. Decreasing of groundwater age is possible due to mixing with recent recharge through the Kampung Baru formation. (author)

  14. First molecular data and the phylogenetic position of the millipede-like centipede Edentistoma octosulcatum Tomosvary, 1882 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae.

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    Varpu Vahtera

    Full Text Available Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882, is a rare, superficially millipede-like centipede known only from Borneo and the Philippines. It is unique within the order Scolopendromorpha for its slow gait, robust tergites, and highly modified gizzard and mandible morphology. Not much is known about the biology of the species but it has been speculated to be arboreal with a possibly vegetarian diet. Until now its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Otostigminae has been based only on morphological characters, being variably ranked as a monotypic tribe (Arrhabdotini or classified with the Southeast Asian genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934. The first molecular data for E. octosulcatum sourced from a newly collected specimen from Sarawak were analysed with and without morphology. Parsimony analysis of 122 morphological characters together with two nuclear and two mitochondrial loci resolves Edentistoma as sister group to three Indo-Australian species of Rhysida, this clade in turn grouping with Ethmostigmus, whereas maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data on their own ally Edentistoma with species of Otostigmus. A position of Edentistoma within Otostigmini (rather than being its sister group as predicted by the Arrhabdotini hypothesis is consistently retrieved under different analytical conditions, but support values within the subfamily remain low for most nodes. The species exhibits strong pushing behaviour, suggestive of burrowing habits. Evidence against a suggested vegetarian diet is provided by observation of E. octosulcatum feeding on millipedes in the genus Trachelomegalus.

  15. Bornean orangutan geophagy: analysis of ingested and control soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, William C; Hancock, Ronald G V; Aufreiter, Susan; Milner, Michael W; Voros, Joan

    2016-02-01

    Geophagy among orangutans is the most poorly documented in contrast to the knowledge of soil-eating practices of other great ape species. Observations of soil consumption by orangutans in the Sungai Wain Forest Preserve (Wanariset) of Borneo are presented, along with physico-mineral-chemical analyses of the ingested soil in an effort to understand what might stimulate the activity. The consumed soils are: light colored, not excessively weathered by normal standards, higher in the clay size fraction relative to controls, and are comprised of a mix of clay minerals without any specificity of 1:1, 2:1 and/or 2:1:1 (Si:Al) species. The geophagic soils contain chlorides below detection limits, effectively eliminating salt as a stimulus. Soil chemical and geochemical analyses confirm that orangutans prefer soils with pH levels near or above 4.0, while controls are consistently lower (pH = 3.5-4.0), a considerable difference in acidity for at least four out of six soils consumed. Geochemical analysis shows Al, Fe and K are high in the consumed vs control samples; higher Al follows from higher clay percentages in the consumed earth. Iron and K may play physiological roles, but Fe is mostly in the ferrous form (Fe(+2)) and may not be readily taken up by the animals. The preferential choice of consumed samples, with pH above 4.0 and higher clay contents, may promote a more beneficial intestinal environment. PMID:25600229

  16. Beyond Moa's Ark and Wallace's Line: extralimital distribution of new species of Austronothrus (Acari, Oribatida, Crotoniidae) and the endemicity of the New Zealand oribatid mite fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Matthew J; Cameron, Stephen L

    2014-03-21

    The genus Austronothrus was previously known from three species recorded only from New Zealand. Austronothrus kinabalu sp. nov. is described from Sabah, Borneo and A. rostralis sp. nov. from Norfolk Island, south-west Pacific. A key to Austronothrus is included. These new species extend the distribution of Austronothrus beyond New Zealand and confirms that the subfamily Crotoniinae is not confined to former Gondwanan landmasses. The distribution pattern of Austronothrus spp., combining Oriental and Gondwanan localities, is indicative of a curved, linear track; consistent with the accretion of island arcs and volcanic terranes around the plate margins of the Pacific Ocean, with older taxa persisting on younger island though localised dispersal within island arc metapopulations. Phylogenetic analysis and an area cladogram are consistent with a broad ancestral distribution of Austronothrus in the Oriental region and on Gondwanan terranes, with subsequent divergence and distribution southward from the Sunda region to New Zealand. This pattern is more complex than might be expected if the New Zealand oribatid fauna was derived from dispersal following re-emergence of land after inundation during the Oligocene (25 mya), as well as if the fauna emanated from endemic, relictual taxa following separation of New Zealand from Gondwana during the Cretaceous (80 mya).

  17. Analisis Energi dan Sebaran Suhu pada Gasifier Unggun Tetap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Sirodz Gaos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance test of Imbert Downdraft Gesifier by using cyclone as an auxiliary for tar filtering has been conducted with three kinds of feeding chips, i. e; borneo wood, tamarind wood and leucena wood. The research has been developed to support as an energy source for combined heat power generation. Gesifier will be coupled to diesel generating set and waste heat from the exhaust gas will be used as energy source for an adsorption type refrigeration system. The test had produced the best combustible gas with the chemical composition CO = 55,59 %, CH4 = 0,14 %, C2H6 = 0,3 % and C3H8= 0, 08 %. The maximum temperature 1142 oC has been found in oxidation zone based on the leucena wood test, meanwhile the calculation result of energy availability for the combustible gas was 60,39 kW and specific energy availability was 0,082 kg/kWh. The test result of temperature distribution along the reactor compare to numerical solution of mathemathicai modelling has got the similar curve.

  18. Deep genetic structure and ecological divergence in a widespread human commensal toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Guinevere O U; Stuart, Bryan L; Iskandar, Djoko T; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) is a human commensal species that occupies a wide variety of habitats across tropical Southeast Asia. We test the hypothesis that genetic variation in D. melanostictus is weakly associated with geography owing to natural and human-mediated dispersal facilitated by its commensal nature. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence variation, and predictive species distribution modelling, unexpectedly recovered three distinct evolutionary lineages that differ genetically and ecologically, corresponding to the Asian mainland, coastal Myanmar and the Sundaic islands. The persistence of these three divergent lineages, despite ample opportunities for recent human-mediated and geological dispersal, suggests that D. melanostictus actually consists of multiple species, each having narrower geographical ranges and ecological niches, and higher conservation value, than is currently recognized. These findings also have implications for the invasion potential of this human commensal elsewhere, such as in its recently introduced ranges on the islands of Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram and Madagascar. PMID:26763213

  19. Sea level rise along Malaysian coasts due to the climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Quang-Hung; Tkalich, Pavel; Tay, Tzewei

    2015-04-01

    Malaysia consists of two major parts, a mainland on the Peninsular Malaysia and the East Malaysia on the Borneo Island. Their surrounding waters connect the Andaman Sea located northeast of the Indian Ocean to the Celebes Sea in the western tropical Pacific Ocean through the southern East Sea of Vietnam/South China Sea. As a result, inter-annual sea level in the Malaysian waters is governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. We estimated sea level rise (SLR) rate in the domain using tide gauge records often being gappy. To reconstruct the missing data, two methods are used: (i) correlating sea level with climate indices El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and (ii) filling the gap using records of neighboring tide gauges. Latest vertical land movements have been acquired to derive geocentric SLR rates. Around the Peninsular Malaysia, geocentric SLR rates in waters of Malacca Strait and eastern Peninsular Malaysia during 1986-2011 are found to be 3.9±3.3 mm/year and 4.2 ± 2.5 mm/year, respectively; while in the East Malaysia waters the rate during 1988-2011 is 6.3 ± 4.0 mm/year. These rates are arguably higher than global tendency for the same periods. For the overlapping period 1993-2011, the rates are consistent with those obtained using satellite altimetry.

  20. Genetic differentiation of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations in China, Nepal and south-east Asia: inferences on the region of domestication of the swamp buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Vankan, D; Zhang, Y; Barker, J S F

    2011-08-01

    Data from three published studies of genetic variation at 18 microsatellite loci in water buffalo populations in China (18 swamp type, two river type), Nepal (one wild, one domestic river, one hybrid) and south-east Asia (eight swamp, three river) were combined so as to gain a broader understanding of genetic relationships among the populations and their demographic history. Mean numbers of alleles and expected heterozygosities were significantly different among populations. Estimates of θ (a measure of population differentiation) were significant among the swamp populations for all loci and among the river populations for most loci. Differentiation among the Chinese swamp populations (which was due primarily to just one population) was much less than among the south-east Asian. The Nepal wild animals, phenotypically swamp type but genetically like river type, are significantly different from all the domestic river populations and presumably represent the ancestral Bubalus arnee (possibly with some river-type introgression). Relationships among the swamp populations (D(A) genetic distances, principal component analysis and structure analyses) show the south-east Asian populations separated into two groups by the Chinese populations. Given these relationships and the patterns of genetic variability, we postulate that the swamp buffalo was domesticated in the region of the far south of China, northern Thailand and Indochina. Following domestication, it spread south through peninsular Malaysia to Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi, and north through China, and then to Taiwan, the Philippines and Borneo. PMID:21749419

  1. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves. PMID:17708206

  2. Observed regional distribution of sulfur dioxide in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased use of coal for energy in Asia has led to increased SO2 emissions. SO2 concentrations have been measured for one year at forty-five locations throughout Asia using passive samplers. Duplicate samples were exposed at each site for one month intervals. The sites were selected to provide background information on the distribution of SO2 over wide geographical regions, with emphasis on the regional characteristics around areas estimated to be sensitive to sulfur deposition. The annual mean values ranged from less than 0.3 μg/m3 at Tana Rata, located at 1545 m on the Malaysia Peninsula, Lawa Mandau (Borneo), Malaysia, and Dhankuta, Nepal, to values greater than 20 μg/m3 at Luchongguan (Guiyang) China, Babar Mahal, Nepal, and Hanoi, Vietnam. In general high concentrations were measured throughout China, with the highest concentrations in the heavy industrial areas in Guiyang. The concentrations in east Asia around the Korea peninsula were ∼ 5 μg/m3. The concentrations in the southeast Asia tropics were low, with no station in Malaysia and Indonesia having average concentrations exceeding 1.7 μg/m3. The observed SO2 concentrations were found to display a distinct seasonal cycle which is strongly influenced by the seasonality of winds and precipitation patterns. 3 refs., 3 figs

  3. The oil and gas market in Brunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunei, a small oil-rich Sultanate on the northwest coast of Borneo, is the third largest oil producer in South East Asia, and the fourth largest producer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the world, with a current production of 225,000 barrels per day of oil and 1 billion cubic feet of gas per day. In 2001, the government of Brunei plans to make major investments into the downstream oil and gas sector, with the opening of deep water blocks for oil and gas exploration. This move presents potential opportunities for Canadian companies in new sales of oil and gas production equipment and machinery. It also presents opportunities in the field of exploration. Currently, the key players in Brunei's oil and gas industry are the United Kingdom, the United States, the Netherlands and Germany. In terms of market access, any foreign partners wishing to work with the Brunei Shell Petroleum (BSP) Co. should work through local partners. Major developments currently underway include the Ampa-Fairley Rationalisation Project which is intended to extend the service life of 30-year-old offshore oil facilities for another 30 to 40 years, and the Brunei LNG Plan to expand an existing LNG facility. Another development is the September 2000 announcement of a 20 year plan to construct a 10,000 km natural gas pipeline and associated electricity grid to link the 10 ASEAN nations which include Brunei. refs

  4. Bats Are Acoustically Attracted to Mutualistic Carnivorous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöner, Michael G; Schöner, Caroline R; Simon, Ralph; Grafe, T Ulmar; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Ji, Liaw Lin; Kerth, Gerald

    2015-07-20

    Mutualisms between plants and animals shape the world's ecosystems. In such interactions, achieving contact with the partner species is imperative. Plants regularly advertise themselves with signals that specifically appeal to the partner's perceptual preferences. For example, many plants have acquired traits such as brightly colored, fragrant flowers that attract pollinators with visual, olfactory, or--in the case of a few bat-pollinated flowers--even acoustic stimuli in the form of echo-reflecting structures. However, acoustic attraction in plants is rare compared to other advertisements and has never been found outside the pollination context and only in the Neotropics. We hypothesized that this phenomenon is more widespread and more diverse as plant-bat interactions also occur in the Paleotropics. In Borneo, mutualistic bats fertilize a carnivorous pitcher plant while roosting in its pitchers. The pitcher's orifice features a prolonged concave structure, which we predicted to distinctively reflect the bats' echolocation calls for a wide range of angles. This structure should facilitate the location and identification of pitchers even within highly cluttered surroundings. Pitchers lacking this structure should be less attractive for the bats. Ensonifications of the pitchers around their orifice revealed that this structure indeed acts as a multidirectional ultrasound reflector. In behavioral experiments where bats were confronted with differently modified pitchers, the reflector's presence clearly facilitated the finding and identification of pitchers. These results suggest that plants have convergently acquired reflectors in the Paleotropics and the Neotropics to acoustically attract bats, albeit for completely different ecological reasons. PMID:26166777

  5. COMPOSICIÓN DE LOS ACEITES ESENCIALES DE LIPPIA JUNELIANA, LIPPIA INTEGRIFOLIA Y LIPPIA TURBINATA DE LA PROVINCIA DE SAN LUIS (ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Duschatzky

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los aceites esenciales extraídos de las partes aéreas de Lippia Juneliana (Mold. Tronc. (n.v.salvialoraj, L. integrifolia (Gris. Hier. (n.v. incayuyoj' L. turbinata Gris. (n.v. poleo de la provincia de San Luis (Argentina. Se identificaron los componentes mayoritarios por índices de retención, índices de Kovats, por CG y CG/E.M. Los componentes mayoritarios encontrados son: óxido de piperitenona 36,5%, limoneno 23,1%, alcanfor 7,9%, espatulenol 6,5% en L.juneliana; |3-cariofileno 18,4%, a-humuleno 9,7 %, limoneno 8,2 %, espatulenol 6,6 %, borneo! 5,7 % enL. integrifolia; y limoneno 43,3%, óxido de piperitenona 24,8 %, 1,8-cineol 14,7 %, en L.tiirbinara.( porcentaje relativo expresado con base en las áreas de pico

  6. The dispersal of Homo sapiens across southern Asia: how early, how often, how complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennell, Robin; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2012-07-01

    The timing and the paths of colonization of southern Asia by Homo sapiens are poorly known, though many population geneticists, paleoanthropologists, and archaeologists have contended that this process began with dispersal from East Africa, and occurred between 60,000 and 40,000 years ago. However, the evidence for this scenario is very weak, particularly the lack of human skeletal evidence between the Levant and Borneo before 40 ka, and other explanations are possible. Here we argue that environmental and archaeological information is increasingly indicating the likelihood that H. sapiens exited Africa much earlier than commonly thought, and may have colonized much of southern Asia well before 60,000 years ago. Additionally, we cannot exclude the possibility that several dispersal events occurred, from both North and East Africa, nor the likelihood that early populations of H. sapiens in southern Asia interbred with indigenous populations of Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo erectus. The population history of southern Asia during the Upper Pleistocene is likely far more complex than currently envisaged.

  7. Oxidation of a new Biogenic VOC: Chamber Studies of the Atmospheric Chemistry of Methyl Chavicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, William; Alam, Mohammed; Adbul Raheem, Modinah; Rickard, Andrew; Hamilton, Jacqui; Pereira, Kelly; Camredon, Marie; Munoz, Amalia; Vazquez, Monica; Vera, Teresa; Rodenas, Mila

    2013-04-01

    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) leads to formation of ozone and SOA, with consequences for air quality, health, crop yields, atmospheric chemistry and radiative transfer. Recent observations have identified Methyl Chavicol ("MC": Estragole; 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene, C10H12O) as a major BVOC above pine forests in the USA, and oil palm plantations in Malaysian Borneo. Palm oil cultivation, and hence MC emissions, may be expected to increase with societal food and bio fuel demand. We present the results of a series of simulation chamber experiments to assess the atmospheric fate of MC. Experiments were performed in the EUPHORE facility, monitoring stable product species, radical intermediates, and aerosol production and composition. We determine rate constants for reaction of MC with OH and O3, and ozonolysis radical yields. Stable product measurements (FTIR, PTRMS, GC-SPME) are used to determine the yields of stable products formed from OH- and O3- initiated oxidation, and to develop an understanding of the initial stages of the MC degradation chemistry. A surrogate mechanism approach is used to simulate MC degradation within the MCM, evaluated in terms of ozone production measured in the chamber experiments, and applied to quantify the role of MC in the real atmosphere.

  8. Findings of the SHIVA field campaign in the South China Sea in Nov.-Dec. 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Marine emissions of so-called halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are known to considerably contribute to the ozone destroying halogen loading of the stratosphere. In this context, most crucial are VSLS emissions in regions of large vertical transport, i.e. the tropics and in particular in the warm pool of the Western Pacific during the rainy seasons (November to March). In order to study the biogenic emissions of halogenated VSLS, their atmospheric transport and transformation, the internationally coordinated field expedition SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was performed within the margins of the South China Sea in November and December 2011. Partners from 19 institutions from 9 countries participated in the campaign. Funding came from the EU's 7th framework programme and additionally from a larger number of national funding agencies. The activities included investigations in the laboratory and on the ground, during local ship cruises, the research vessel SONNE, deployments of the DLR (Germany's national research center for aeronautics and space) Falcon aircraft around Borneo, simultaneous satellite observations, the meteorological forecasting and analysis, and numerical modeling of atmospheric transport and photochemistry. The present talk provides an overview on the performed research activities, reports on joint studies, and some core research results obtained to date.

  9. Selective logging in tropical forests decreases the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks to the loss of host tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Senior, Rebecca A; Rogers, Andrew; Nurdin, Deddy; Benedick, Suzan; Laurance, William F; Santamaria, Luis; Edwards, David P

    2016-03-16

    Selective logging is one of the major drivers of tropical forest degradation, causing important shifts in species composition. Whether such changes modify interactions between species and the networks in which they are embedded remain fundamental questions to assess the 'health' and ecosystem functionality of logged forests. We focus on interactions between lianas and their tree hosts within primary and selectively logged forests in the biodiversity hotspot of Malaysian Borneo. We found that lianas were more abundant, had higher species richness, and different species compositions in logged than in primary forests. Logged forests showed heavier liana loads disparately affecting slow-growing tree species, which could exacerbate the loss of timber value and carbon storage already associated with logging. Moreover, simulation scenarios of host tree local species loss indicated that logging might decrease the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks if heavily infested trees (i.e. the most connected ones) were more likely to disappear. This effect is partially mitigated in the short term by the colonization of host trees by a greater diversity of liana species within logged forests, yet this might not compensate for the loss of preferred tree hosts in the long term. As a consequence, species interaction networks may show a lagged response to disturbance, which may trigger sudden collapses in species richness and ecosystem function in response to additional disturbances, representing a new type of 'extinction debt'. PMID:26936241

  10. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  11. Microbial methane and ethane from gas hydrate nodules of the Makassar Strait, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassen, R. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Geochemical and Environmental Research Group; Curiale, J.A. [Chevron, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Intact, white nodules of gas hydrate were recovered in piston cores ({approx}0-6.4 m sediment depth) from the deep water region of the Makassar Strait, between the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi, offshore Indonesia. Consistent with structure I gas hydrate, the dominant hydrocarbon is methane ({approx}99.96%). The hydrate-bound methane is relatively depleted in {sup 13}C (mean {delta}{sup 13}C = -70.6per thousand; mean {delta}D = -189.9per thousand). Microbial ethane, also present in the hydrate, is more highly depleted in {sup 13}C (mean = -52.6per thousand) than nearly all previously discovered gas hydrates, and is accompanied by trace volumes of microbial ethylene and propylene. Detrital higher-plant material is the likely sedimentary carbon source. The source of microbial methane and ethane appears to be in situ reduction of CO{sub 2} by extremophile bacteria adapted to high pressure. The hydrate occurs several hundred meters above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Nodular hydrate is associated with seafloor authigenic carbonate rock and chemosynthetic clams characteristic of deep cold vent sites. (author)

  12. EXPLORING L1 INTERFERENCE IN THE WRITINGS OF KADAZANDUSUN ESL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelster Sherralyn Jeoffrey Pudin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For many ethnic KadazanDusuns from Sabah, North Borneo, English is a third language after their mother tongue and Malay. The burden of having to contend with an additional language frequently leads to errors, particularly those caused by interference from the first language (L1. This study set out to identify the types and frequency of English language errors and their correlations in the writing of KadazanDusun ESL students at Universiti Malaysia Sabah. A further aim of the study was to establish which of these errors could be attributed to L1 interference. A total of 54 students with lower Malaysian University Entrance Test (MUET band scores were asked to complete a questionnaire and write a short essay on a designated topic. The language errors were categorized and analysed via statistical analysis. Errors considered to be related to L1 interference were then identified after consultation with an experienced KadazanDusun language lecturer. The most common errors were those involving singular /plural nouns and unusual sentence structures. The results show that approximately 25% of the errors were attributable to L1 interference, i.e. mode (normal/involuntary, voice (actor (-ing form /undergoer (-ed form, overuse of article, linker (when linker is used, no article is needed, auxiliary verb and direct translation. The findings of this study give ESL practitioners a better insight into student errors and should lead to improved writing performance in the classroom.

  13. Geographic variation in tool use on Neesia fruits in orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schaik, C P; Knott, C D

    2001-04-01

    Geographic variation in the presence of skilled behavior may reflect geographic variation in genetic predispositions or ecological conditions (accompanied by reliable expression during development), or it may reflect the vagaries of invention and the appropriate social conditions for persistence. In this study, we compare the feeding techniques and tool-using skills used by orangutans to extract the nutritious seeds from Neesia fruits between Suaq Balimbing on Sumatra and Gunung Palung on Borneo, and map the distribution of Neesia tool use in Sumatran swamps. We show that neither genetics nor ecology is sufficient to explain the distribution of this tool use, confirming earlier findings on chimpanzees. We conclude that the ability to learn to use tools determines the geographic distribution. It is impossible to distinguish between the history of invention and the conditions for social transmission as the causal factors, but the high density and the social tolerance at Suaq Balimbing create propitious conditions for the maintenance of the skill as a tradition once it has been invented. High orangutan densities in the other Sumatran coastal swamps with Neesia tool use support the conclusion that suitable transmission conditions are the critical factor to explain the geographic distribution of skills such as feeding tool use. PMID:11275962

  14. Population genetics of the black scar oyster, Crassostrea iredalei: repercussion of anthropogenic interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Abidin, Danial Hariz; Mustaffa, Suzana; Rahim, Masazurah A; Nair, Devakie M; Naim, Darlina Md; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was utilized to assess the population genetics of the commercially important black scar oyster, Crassostrea iredalei among 11 populations throughout the west and east coasts Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo). Overall, populations of C. iredalei demonstrated low nucleotide diversity π (0.000-0.004) and low-to-high haplotype diversity h (0.000-0.795) levels. Genetic structuring was detected between the Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah populations as revealed by the FST analysis. However, the COI gene analyses showed minimal and non-significant (p > 0.05) population differentiation within the east and west coasts Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah regions. This was attributed to both high larval dispersal along the east and west coasts and human-driven spat translocation between the two coastlines due to C. iredalei cultivation practices. Phylogeographic relationships inferences were also conducted to further support these hypotheses. The neutrality and mismatch distribution analyses suggested that C. iredalei had experienced a/several bottleneck event(s), followed by population expansion. The molecular information obtained from this study could be incorporated in a pragmatic aquaculture management strategy of wild broodstock and the hatchery lines of C. iredalei in Malaysia.

  15. Primary production in the Sulu Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ian S F Jones

    2002-09-01

    The Sulu Sea, located between Borneo and the Philippines, is separated from the surrounding ocean by two chains of islands. There are no passages below 500m depth and the basin, which at the deepest is 5,000 m, is filled with warm low oxygen water. The near surface chlorophyll concentration has been examined with the aid of ocean colour sensors on board satellites. Direct comparisons between a field observation of chlorophyll and its remotely sensed values from OCTS (Ocean Colour Temperature Scanner) are found to be in satisfactory agreement. An 8-month time series of chlorophyll near the centre of the Sulu Sea has been used to show that the chlorophyll level is significantly higher than the level in the adjacent South China Sea. This was most pronounced at the period of change between the monsoons. The greater primary productivity may provide the explanation for the higher deposition rate of carbon in the Sulu Sea. Although the Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea, the central area can still be classified as a desert. Estimates of the new primary production in the central Sulu Sea seem to be just su#cient to support the current fishery.

  16. Creative Conservation Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jason

    2015-04-01

    I am a fellow with the International League of Conservation photographers (iLCP) and have been focused on photographing conservation dynamics at the intersection of social and environmental issues for a decade. Subjects have included traditional concerns such as deforestation, water conservation, endangered species, and fisheries. However, I rarely make photographs of the traditional nature, wildlife, landscapes, or environmental atrocities that most people think of when they think about environmentalism. Instead, I photograph people and how they live on the planet, as I believe passionately that without also considering social and cultural concerns, we will not be able to effectively and sustainably do conservation work or achieve positive environmental change. My presentation will share recent photography projects on forest conservation in Indonesian Borneo and fisheries management in Central America where I used a 'stakeholder profile-based' process to broadly survey the complexity of the issues while also making personal connections for these projects' diverse audiences. Through these case studies I will explore the opportunities and challenges of combining the authenticity, accuracy, and scientific validity of journalistic and documentary work with the emotional impact of the conventions of art and storytelling.

  17. A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae, from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor-Seng Liew

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database. We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P.mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.

  18. New leaf- and litter-dwelling species of the genus Pholcus from Southeast Asia (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Huber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe eight new species of the genus Pholcus, and document their microhabitats. Four species are assigned to the previously described Pholcus ethagala group: P. tanahrata Huber sp. nov., P. uludong Huber sp. nov., and P. bukittimah Huber sp. nov. from the Malay Peninsula, and P. barisan Huber sp. nov. from Sumatra. These species are all litter-dwellers that build domed sheet webs on the undersides of large dead leaves on the ground. The other four species are assigned to newly created species groups: the P. tambunan group with two species from northern Borneo: P. tambunan Huber sp. nov. and P. bario Huber sp. nov.; and the P. domingo group with two species from the Philippines, Mindanao: P. domingo Huber sp. nov. and P. matutum Huber sp. nov. These latter four species are leaf-dwellers that build barely visible silk platforms tightly attached to the undersides of live leaves. The main rationale for this paper is to provide part of the taxonomic and natural history background for upcoming phylogenetic and evolutionary (microhabitat shifts analyses.

  19. Potential natural sensitizers extracted from the skin of Canarium odontophyllum fruits for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Andery; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Tan, Ai Ling; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Chandrakanthi, R. L. N.; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; Ming, Lim Chee; Senadeera, G. K. R.; Ekanayake, Piyasiri

    2015-03-01

    Possibility of use of dye extract from skin samples of a seasonal, indigenous fruit from Borneo, namely Canarium odontophyllum, in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are explored. Three main groups of flavonoid pigments are detected and these pigments exhibit different UV-vis absorption properties, and hence showing different light harvesting capabilities. When applied in DSSCs. The detected pigment constituents of the extract consist of aurone (maritimein), anthocyanidin (pelargonidin) and anthocyanidin (cyanidin derivatives). When tested in DSSC, the highest conversion efficiency of 1.43% is exhibited by cyanidin derivatives, and this is followed by conversion efficiencies of 0.51% and 0.79% for aurone and pelargonidin, respectively. It is shown that individual pigments, like cyanidin derivatives and pelargonidin, exhibit higher power conversion efficiency when compared to that of C.odontophyllum skin pigment mixture (with a conversion efficiency of only 0.68%). The results indicate a possibility of masking effects of the pigments when used as a mixture. The acidification of C.odontophyllum skin pigments with concentrated hydrochloric acid improves the conversion efficiency of the mixture from 0.68% to 0.99%. The discussion in this paper will draw data and observations from the variation in absorption and adsorption properties, the HOMO-LUMO levels, the energy band gaps and the functional group compositions of the detected flavonoids.

  20. Paleomagnetic constraints on the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonics of southeastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, José; Courtillot, Vincent; Besse, Jean

    1983-04-01

    Many features of the Cenozoic tectonic history of central and southeastern Asia can be understood as direct consequences of the thrust and penetration of India into Asia. Recent indentation experiments with plasticine (Tapponnier et al. [7]) have extended this idea and have led to the prediction of a pattern of large rotations and displacements of continental blocks that can be tested by paleomagnetism. The available Cretaceous and Cenozoic paleomagnetic data from this part of the world have been reviewed and a new APWP for Eurasia has been constructed for reference. The negligible rotation of South China and large clockwise rotation of Indochina are consistent with the model, i.e., with an history of large-scale left-lateral strike-slip motion along the Altyn Tagh and Red River faults. Data from Malaya and Borneo can be reconciled with the model, although in a less straightforward fashion. The large counter clockwise rotation of South Tibet implies that it rotated in sympathy with India during the collision and suggests that future indentation experiments should include this feature. Finally a middle Cretaceous reconstruction of the south margin of Asia is proposed. One interesting result is the restored continuity of geological features in Tibet and Indochina, with active subduction of oceanic (Indian plate) crust taking place to the south at subtropical latitudes.

  1. Kajian Bentuk dan Makna Simbolik Figurin Gerabah Majapahit (Periode Hayam Wuruk 1350-1389 M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Susannawaty

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The earthware figurines of Majapahit  were clay-based artworks from the Majapahit Kingdom (1350-1389 AD of Trowulan at Mojokerto, East Java. The name “majapahit” itself refers to the known great kingdom that unite “nusantara” (covering Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, Celebes, up North to the Southern of Phillipine. Having exposed to the varieties and high-quality of earthware figurines of Majapahit from the Trowulan site, the study looks into their symbolic shapes and meanings which was known to be heavily influenced by Hinduism. To address this issue, the study applied qualitative-descriptive method by means of visual analysis. Study on clay-objects’ shapes was carried out to explore the associated meanings of 4 (four figurine groups: (1 male figurines, (2 female figurines, (3 child figurines, and (4 deformed-face figurines. Results indicate that shapes of the object cater their symbols and associated meanings to the way religion and/or beliefs were held. Figure of gods, kings, and the nobles were made to manifest values (truth, heroism, devotion,and loyalty. Yet, although Hinduism was the most associated values to appear on the objects, Budhism were also identified.This shows that earthware figurines of Majapahit were product of acculturation where different values are met, explored, and exposed to appease the spirits (dharma through ritual and performance. 

  2. Can a global model chemical mechanism reproduce NO, NO2, and O3 measurements above a tropical rainforest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Hewitt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-platform field campaign, OP3, was conducted in the state of Sabah in Malaysian Borneo between April and July of 2008. Among the suite of observations recorded, the campaign included measurements of NOx and O3–crucial outputs of any model chemistry mechanism. We describe the measurements of these species made from both the ground site and aircraft. We examine the output from the global model p-TOMCAT at two resolutions for this location during the April campaign period. The models exhibit reasonable ability in capturing the NOx diurnal cycle, but ozone is overestimated. We use a box model containing the same chemical mechanism to explore the weaknesses in the global model and the ability of the simplified global model chemical mechanism to capture the chemistry at the rainforest site. We achieve a good fit to the data for all three species (NO, NO2, and O3, though the model is much more sensitive to changes in the treatment of physical processes than to changes in the chemical mechanism. Indeed, without some parameterization of the nighttime boundary layer-free troposphere mixing, a time dependent box model will not reproduce the observations. The final simulation uses this mixing parameterization for NO and NO2 but not O3, as determined by the vertical structure of each species, and matches the measurements well.

  3. [Is the fight against dengue complicated with the emergence of a new viral serotype?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Nereida; Quiroz, Yasmir

    2014-09-01

    Dengue is a viral acute febrile illness, currently considered one of the most important arbovirosis worldwide in terms of morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Various theories have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of severe forms of dengue, involving among other factors, features related to the virus, such as the presence of more virulent strains and/or strains with increased replicative capacity. A crucial point at this time is the discovery of a new viral type, dengue 5, from nonhuman primates in Malaysia-Borneo, which could result in greater difficulties for control and vaccine production (currently in efficacy tests). Once the circulation of this viral type has been demonstrated in the human population, the high risk of infection will have extreme or controversial public health implications. Therefore, a worldwide program to combat dengue should include an urgent need to implement continuous vector elimination, community education and prevention and control of the disease. Only then, we will be aiming to reduce the morbidity and transmission risk of dengue, while new technological and effective alternatives come about.

  4. Measurements of trace gases above the tropical forests....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Monks, P. S.

    2009-04-01

    Measurements of trace gases above the tropical forests; A comparison between ozone levels in the forest and the oil palm plantation areas using the BAe -146 aircraft. The atmospheric composition of Sabah region (Borneo) was sampled using the FAAM BAE-146 instrumented aircraft during July 2008 as part of the OP3 (Oxidant particle photochemical processes above a South East Asia tropical rain forest) project. Tropical forests play an important role in the carbon and energy balance of the Earth (which determine global climate) and are themselves vulnerable to climate change. The tropical biosphere is one of the main sources of reactive trace gas emissions into the global atmosphere, and understanding the role of ozone in these areas is of major importance given the rapid changes in land-use in the tropics. This poster presents preliminary ozone concentrations results collected using the FAAM BAE 146 instrumented aircraft over some of Malaysia most extended oil palm plantations; comparing these with the results recorded when flying over forest areas. Oil palm is becoming one of the most widespread tropical crops; in Malaysia 13% of the land area (4.3Mha) is now oil palm plantations (MPOCP, 2008) compared with 1% in 1974 (FAO, 2005). This poster is expected to show very significant ozone concentrations over the two different landscapes. The set-up of the instruments, the specific sampling sites, as well as the land cover areas will be described.

  5. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities and bacterioplankton in Indonesian Marine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel F R; Becking, Leontine E; Polónia, Ana R M; Freitas, Rossana M; Gomes, Newton C M

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we compared communities of bacteria in two jellyfish species (the 'golden' jellyfish Mastigias cf.papua and the box jellyfish Tripedalia cf.cystophora) and water in three marine lakes located in the Berau region of northeastern Borneo, Indonesia. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities were compositionally distinct and less diverse than bacterioplankton communities. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Synechococcophycidae and Flavobacteriia were the most abundant classes in water. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities were dominated by OTUs assigned to the Gammaproteobacteria (family Endozoicimonaceae), Mollicutes, Spirochaetes and Alphaproteobacteria (orders Kiloniellales and Rhodobacterales). Mollicutes were mainly restricted to Mastigias whereas Spirochaetes and the order Kiloniellales were most abundant in Tripedalia hosts. The most abundant OTU overall in jellyfish hosts was assigned to the family Endozoicimonaceae and was highly similar to organisms in Genbank obtained from various hosts including an octocoral, bivalve and fish species. Other abundant OTUs included an OTU assigned to the order Entomoplasmatales and mainly found in Mastigias hosts and OTUs assigned to the Spirochaetes and order Kiloniellales and mainly found in Tripedalia hosts. The low sequence similarity of the Entomoplasmatales OTU to sequences in Genbank suggests that it may be a novel lineage inhabiting Mastigias and possibly restricted to marine lakes. PMID:27004797

  6. Ancestry of the Iban is predominantly Southeast Asian: genetic evidence from autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatum S Simonson

    Full Text Available Humans reached present-day Island Southeast Asia (ISEA in one of the first major human migrations out of Africa. Population movements in the millennia following this initial settlement are thought to have greatly influenced the genetic makeup of current inhabitants, yet the extent attributed to different events is not clear. Recent studies suggest that south-to-north gene flow largely influenced present-day patterns of genetic variation in Southeast Asian populations and that late Pleistocene and early Holocene migrations from Southeast Asia are responsible for a substantial proportion of ISEA ancestry. Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests that the ancestors of present-day inhabitants came mainly from north-to-south migrations from Taiwan and throughout ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago. We report a large-scale genetic analysis of human variation in the Iban population from the Malaysian state of Sarawak in northwestern Borneo, located in the center of ISEA. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers analyzed here suggest that the Iban exhibit greatest genetic similarity to Indonesian and mainland Southeast Asian populations. The most common non-recombining Y (NRY and mitochondrial (mt DNA haplogroups present in the Iban are associated with populations of Southeast Asia. We conclude that migrations from Southeast Asia made a large contribution to Iban ancestry, although evidence of potential gene flow from Taiwan is also seen in uniparentally inherited marker data.

  7. Ancestry of the Iban is predominantly Southeast Asian: genetic evidence from autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Tatum S; Xing, Jinchuan; Barrett, Robert; Jerah, Edward; Loa, Peter; Zhang, Yuhua; Watkins, W Scott; Witherspoon, David J; Huff, Chad D; Woodward, Scott; Mowry, Bryan; Jorde, Lynn B

    2011-01-01

    Humans reached present-day Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) in one of the first major human migrations out of Africa. Population movements in the millennia following this initial settlement are thought to have greatly influenced the genetic makeup of current inhabitants, yet the extent attributed to different events is not clear. Recent studies suggest that south-to-north gene flow largely influenced present-day patterns of genetic variation in Southeast Asian populations and that late Pleistocene and early Holocene migrations from Southeast Asia are responsible for a substantial proportion of ISEA ancestry. Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests that the ancestors of present-day inhabitants came mainly from north-to-south migrations from Taiwan and throughout ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago. We report a large-scale genetic analysis of human variation in the Iban population from the Malaysian state of Sarawak in northwestern Borneo, located in the center of ISEA. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers analyzed here suggest that the Iban exhibit greatest genetic similarity to Indonesian and mainland Southeast Asian populations. The most common non-recombining Y (NRY) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups present in the Iban are associated with populations of Southeast Asia. We conclude that migrations from Southeast Asia made a large contribution to Iban ancestry, although evidence of potential gene flow from Taiwan is also seen in uniparentally inherited marker data. PMID:21305013

  8. Quantifying killing of orangutans and human-orangutan conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. No data existed prior to the present study to substantiate these threats. We investigated the rates, spatial distribution and causes of conflict and hunting through an interview-based survey in the orangutan's range in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Between April 2008 and September 2009, we interviewed 6983 respondents in 687 villages to obtain socio-economic information, assess knowledge of local wildlife in general and orangutan encounters specifically, and to query respondents about their knowledge on orangutan conflicts and killing, and relevant laws. This survey revealed estimated killing rates of between 750 and 1800 animals killed in the last year, and between 1950 and 3100 animals killed per year on average within the lifetime of the survey respondents. These killing rates are higher than previously thought and are high enough to pose a serious threat to the continued existence of orangutans in Kalimantan. Importantly, the study contributes to our understanding of the spatial variation in threats, and the underlying causes of those threats, which can be used to facilitate the development of targeted conservation management.

  9. On the type species of the genus Aetius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896: The first description of male with notes on cymbial notch and mating plug (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhin, Puthoor Pattammal; Nafin, Karunnappilli Shamsudheen; Simmons, Zoë; Sudhikumar, Ambalaparambil Vasu

    2016-08-23

    The rare ant mimicking sac spider genus Aetius was erected by O. Pickard-Cambridge in 1896 based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s) collected from Sri Lanka. The type species of the genus, A. decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896, has been redescribed twice based on the holotype (Majumder & Tikader 1991; Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). Reimoser (1934) recorded the genus for the first time from India, who collected a male specimen from Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu State of southern India. This specimen was identified as A. decollatus, but it was never formally described and was later recognised to be a penultimate male (Dankittipakul & Singtripop 2013). Deeleman-Reinhold (2001) described the second representative of the genus, A. nocturnus, based on a single female specimen from Borneo, 105 years after the establishment of the genus. Dankittipakul & Singtripop (2013) described the male of A. nocturnus, thereby revealing the male genitalia of the genus, but the type species was still known only from the female sex.

  10. KAPASITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN INHIBITOR ALFA GLUKOSIDASE EKSTRAK UMBI BAWANG DAYAK [Antioxidant and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Properties of Bawang Dayak Bulb Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Early Febrinda*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bawang dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia is an indigenous plant in Borneo traditionally used by Dayak tribes to treat any kind of degenerative deseases including diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this research was to measure antioxidant and antidiabetic capacities of water and ethanolic extracts of bawang dayak bulb. Parameters evaluated in this research were phytochemical screening, total phenolics, flavonoid content, DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, and alpha glucosidase inhibiting (AGI activity. The result showed that the total phenolics and flavonoid content in bawang dayak ethanolic extract (217.71 mg GAE/g and 65.35 mg QE/g were higher than that of the water extract (139.93 mg GAE/g and 16.95 mg QE/g. The ethanolic extract also had higher antioxidant and AGI activities (IC50 112 and 241 ppm than that of the water extract (IC50 526 and 505 ppm. In addition, the IC50 values for AGI in bawang dayak ethanolic extract was lower than acarbose which is known as a commercial antidiabetic agent.

  11. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sitor Situmorang, Toba na Sae; Sejarah lembaga sosial politik abad XIII-XX (Johann Angerler Raul Pertierra, Science, technology, and everyday culture in the Philippines (Greg Bankoff Françoise Gérard and François Ruf (eds, Agriculture in crisis; People, commodities and natural resources in Indonesia, 1996-2000 (Peter Boomgaard Kennet Sillander, Acting authoritatively; How authority is expressed through social action among the Bentian of Indonesian Borneo (Aurora Donzelli Kathleen M. Nadeau, Liberation theology in the Philippines; Faith in a revolution (Gareth Fisher Roy Ellen, On the edge of the Banda Zone; Past and present in the social organization of a Moluccan trading network (Gregory Forth Roy Ellen, On the edge of the Banda Zone; Past and present in the social organization of a Moluccan trading network (J.M. Gullick I.H.N. Evans, Bornean diaries, 1938-1942 (Fiona Harris S. Margana, Kraton Surakarta dan Yogyakarta 1769-1874 (Mason C. Hoadley Henry Frei, Guns of February; Ordinary Japanese soldiers’ views of the Malayan campaign and the fall of Singapore 1941-42 (Russell Jones Gerrit Knaap and Heather Sutherland, Monsoon traders; Ships, skippers and commodities in eighteenth-century Makassar (J. Thomas Lindblad David W. Fraser and Barbara G. Fraser, Mantles of merit; Chin textiles from Myanmar, India and Bangladesh (Sandra A. Niessen Kees Snoek, E. du Perron; Het leven van een smalle mens (Frank Okker Arthur J. Dommen, The Indochinese experience of the French and the Americans; Nationalism and communism in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam (Vatthana Pholsena J.H.M.C. Boelaars and A.C. Blom, Mono Koame; ‘Wij denken ook’ (Anton Ploeg James J. Fox and Dionisio Babo Soares (eds, Out of the ashes; Destruction and reconstruction of East Timor (Johanna van Reenen Anke Niehof and Firman Lubis (eds, Two is enough; Family planning in Indonesia under the New Order 1968-1998 (Elisabeth Schr

  12. Rabies in the Dutch East Indies a century ago - a spatio-temporal case study in disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to spread through the Indonesian archipelago. During the past 20 years, several islands - including Flores, Ambon and Bali - that had historically been free of rabies have become infected. However, the Dutch East Indies (a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II) had been infected since the 1880s. The spread of rabies is a lesson in the emergence of an infectious disease. Reports of human cases treated for rabies and livestock rabies cases from the 1880s to 1917 were compiled. The spatial and temporal distribution of these cases was analyzed using maps, spatial statistics and time-series techniques. The first confirmed case of rabies was reported in 1889 from the Batavia [Jakarta] district (although disease suspicion was reported as early as 1884). During the 1890s rabies was already commonly reported from Java and the east coast of Sumatra, and by the late 1890s, from Celebes [Sulawesi]. Between 1900 and 1916, cases were reported from other parts of Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi, and from Borneo, the Moluccas and other outlying islands. Between 1897 and 1916, a total of 8826 human cases treated for rabies were reported and between 1908 and 1917, 1033 livestock cases were reported. Most (97.5%) human cases treated were attributed to rabid dogs. Increasing numbers of reports were observed during the period. Between 1908 and 1916 the correlation between human and livestock case reports was 64.2%, and at the district level it was 75.9%. Moderate correlations (>40%) were found between human cases and livestock cases reported up to six months previously. Based on year of first report from each district, human cases were strongly clustered (Moran's autocorrelation 0.47, P=0.005). The most likely spatio-temporal cluster of reported cases of humans treated for rabies originated from the west coast of Sumatra between 1899 and 1905, and other clusters were identified in west Java (1898-1899), the district of Batavia and in east Java

  13. Morte súbita dos citros: suscetibilidade de seleções de limão-cravo e uso de interenxertos Citrus sudden death: susceptibility of rangpur lime selections and the use of interstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte súbita dos citros é uma doença que afeta cultivares de laranjas e tangerinas enxertadas nos limões-Cravo e Volkameriano. Ela foi observada em plantas com dois a seis anos de idade que, após mostrarem sintomas gerais de declínio, entraram em colapso e morreram. A retirada da casca dos porta-enxertos suscetíveis revela o amarelecimento na região cambial, sendo esse o sintoma-diagnóstico da doença e que precede os sintomas da copa. As plantas enxertadas nas tangerinas Cleópatra e Sunki, no trifoliata e no citrumelo Swingle, não mostram sintomas da doença. A transmissão por borbulha e a evolução espacial sugerem que a morte súbita dos citros seja causada por patógeno transmitido por vetor alado. Com o objetivo de selecionar porta-enxertos tolerantes à doença, laranjeiras Valência enxertadas em 254 porta-enxertos foram plantadas em maio de 2003 e 2004 em solos onde foram erradicados pomares afetados pela morte súbita dos citros e próximos a pomares afetados pela doença. Em novembro de 2006, o sintoma-diagnóstico da doença estava presente em dez seleções de limão-Cravo: Santa Barbara red lime, Borneo red lime, Limão-Cravo Taquaritinga, Rangpur India C-26-1, Rangpur rose lemon, Rangpur Kusaie lime, Rangpur red lime D-33-40, Rangpur Egyptian lime, Rangpur lemon India e Japanshe citroen. A presença de interenxerto de trifoliata ou de tangerina Cleópatra, entre o limão-Cravo e a laranja Valência, não impediu a manifestação da doença.Citrus sudden death (CSD or morte súbita dos citros affects sweet orange cultivars and some mandarin trees grafted on Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon rootstocks. The disease was observed in trees with ages ranging from two to six years; after showing general decline symptoms, the affected trees suddenly collapse and die. Trees on Cleopatra and Sunki mandarins, 'Swingle' citrumelo and trifoliate orange showed no symptoms of CSD. Cambial yellowing in the rootstock can be observed

  14. Variabilidade genética de genótipos de bananeira (Musa spp submetidos ao estresse salino Genetic variability of banana (Musa spp genotypes subjected to saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline W. F. Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor mundial de bananas, sendo Pernambuco o estado que apresenta maior expansão da cultura na região do perímetro irrigado do Vale do São Francisco em cujas áreas, porém, são freqüentes os problemas de salinização do solo o que se pode tornar um fator limitante para a cultura. A utilização de cultivares tolerantes à salinidade apresenta-se como uma alternativa bastante viável; assim, identificar genótipos que se adaptem a solos salinos da Região Nordeste, é de fundamental importância para os programas de melhoramento. Este trabalho teve por finalidade utilizar marcadores moleculares, obtidos por amplificação de DNA via Reação em Cadeia polimerase (PCR com iniciadores (primers de RAPD, para determinar a variabilidade genética entre dez genótipos de banana (Musa spp: Pacovan, Nanicão, Caipira, FHIA18, Calcuttá, SN/2, Borneo, M-53, Microcarpa e Lidi, correlacionando-os com a tolerância ao estresse salino. Foram testados 25 primers. O iniciador D0142A07 gerou o maior número de loci polimórficos, enquanto o D0142B05 originou o menor. Em geral, o polimorfismo gerado com os marcadores de DNA mostrou que, apesar da base genética estreita, no caso das que são formadas pelo mesmo grupo genômico, os genótipos de bananeira apresentam variabilidade genética relativamente alta. As variedades que apresentaram maior tolerância ao estresse salino, como a Pacovan e SN/2, mostraram-se distantes geneticamente, quando comparadas com as mais sensíveis ao sal, como Calcuttá e Lidi.Brazil is the second lagest banana producer. The State of Pernambuco has presented the greatest expansion of banana cultivation in the irrigated perimeters of the São Francisco Valley. In these areas, however, there are frequent problems with high salt content in the soil, which could turn out to be a major limiting factor to its cultivation. The utilization of cultivars tolerant to saline conditions is a rather viable

  15. Summarizing Spatial Distribution Density, Movement Patterns and Food Resources to Study the Impacts of Logging and Forest Conversion on Orang-utan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Orang-utan is classified as a totally protected species and is listed as an endangered species in Borneo. The survival of this species is highly dependent on the existence and quality of the lowland forest of Sabah. However, most of the pristine habitats in the lowland area have been converted into other land use activities such as a large scale plantation. This is due to the fact that most of the lowland forests are facing a continuous degradation process that will decrease its commercial value when it comes to generating revenue to the state government. Thus, the efforts to restore the forest are very vital. The main objectives of this study include establishing the relative spatial distribution of orang-utan in order to assess and determine the effects of the forest conversions in four main wild orang-utan population landscape, demonstrating the orang-utan population movement pattern as a response to the heavy logging activities and also quantifying the effect of logging activities on the status of food trees or plant species for orang-utan in their current forest habitat. Approach: In this research, relevant features are constructed in order to study the impacts of logging and forest conversion on Orang-utan population in Borneo. These features include aerial surveys and feeding behaviors. An aerial survey on orang-utan’s nest in four out of six main forest habitats for orang-utan in Sabah has been conducted between May 2005 and June 2009 in order to map the relative distribution and spatial density of the orang-utans. This is conducted in order to determine the impacts of the forest conversion for the last 20 years upon the orang-utan spatial distribution. In this project, three series of aerial surveys, covering Malua Forest Reserve, have been conducted to demonstrate the dynamic movement and habitat utilization by the orang-utan population, due to the logging activities within the forest habitat. A long term

  16. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L. E.; Zhang, J.

    2014-08-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the 7 SouthEast Asian Studies program (7SEAS), a two-week, late September~2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan Archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a~receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a~narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Nina year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol lifecycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN 3000 cm-3 and non-sea salt PM2.510-25 μg m-3). These cases corresponded with two different mechanisms of convection suppression: lower free-tropospheric dry-air intrusion from the Indian Ocean, and large-scale TC-induced subsidence. Veering vertical wind shear also resulted in aerosol transport into this region being mainly in the marine boundary layer (MBL), although lower free

  17. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the scale-dependent role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, J.

    2015-02-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the Seven SouthEast Asian Studies program (7-SEAS), a 2-week, late September 2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Niña year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol life cycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN 3000 cm-3 and non-sea-salt PM2.5 10-25 μg m-3). These cases corresponded with two different mechanisms of convection suppression: lower free-tropospheric dry-air intrusion from the Indian Ocean, and large-scale TC-induced subsidence. Veering vertical wind shear also resulted in aerosol transport into this region being mainly in the marine boundary layer (MBL), although lower

  18. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: coupling of smoke direct radiative effect below and above the low-level clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Reid, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent (MC, 10° S-10° N, 90-150° E) during October 2006 when a significant El Niño event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of an OC (organic carbon) / BC (black carbon) ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the clouds can reverse the negative smoke forcing in cloud-free conditions to a positive value. The net absorption of the atmosphere is largely enhanced when smoke resides above a cloud. This led to a warming effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) with a domain and monthly average forcing value of ~ 20 W m-2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3 K) is largely confined above the low-level clouds, and results in a local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), hence rendering a positive effect. This positive effect contrasts with a decrease in the cloud fraction resulting from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stable boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative effect in which a decrease of the cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During the nighttime, the elevated smoke layer lying above the clouds in the daytime is decoupled from the boundary layer, and the enhanced downdraft and shallower boundary layer lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of monthly smoke radiative extinction, the amount of solar input at the surface is reduced by as much as 60 W m-2, which leads to a decrease in sensible heat, latent heat, 2 m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 W m-2, 20 W m-2, 1 K, and 120 m

  19. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Coupling of smoke direct radiative feedbacks below and above the low-level clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Reid, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the southeast Asian Marine Continents (MC, 10°S - 10°N, 90°E-150°E) during October 2006 when a significant El Nino event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of OC (Organic Carbon) /BC (Black Carbon) ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the low-level clouds amplifying effect on smoke absorption led to a warming effect at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) with a domain/monthly average forcing value of ~20 Wm-2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. The smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3K) that is largely confined above the low-level clouds results in the local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence coupled with daytime planetary boundary layer turbulent mixing, transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), hence rendering a positive feedback. This positive feedback contrasts with the decrease of cloud fraction resulted from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stability in the boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative feedback in which decrease of cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During nighttime, the elevated smoke layer (above clouds in daytime) is decoupled from boundary layer, and the reduction of PBLH due to the residual surface cooling from the daytime lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of smoke radiative extinction, on monthly basis, the amount of the solar input at the surface is reduced as large as 60 Wm-2, which lead to the decrease of sensible heat, latent heat, 2-m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 Wm-2, 20 Wm-2, 1K, 120 m, respectively. The cloud changes over continents are mostly

  20. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: coupling of smoke direct radiative feedbacks below and above the low-level clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Marine Continents (MC, 10° S–10° N, 90° E–150° E during October 2006 when a significant El Nino event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of OC (Organic Carbon/BC (Black Carbon ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the low-level clouds amplifying effect on smoke absorption led to a warming effect at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA with a domain/monthly average forcing value of ~20 W m−2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. The smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3 K that is largely confined above the low-level clouds results in the local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence coupled with daytime planetary boundary layer turbulent mixing, transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH, hence rendering a positive feedback. This positive feedback contrasts with the decrease of cloud fraction resulted from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stability in the boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative feedback in which decrease of cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During nighttime, the elevated smoke layer (above clouds in daytime is decoupled from boundary layer, and the reduction of PBLH due to the residual surface cooling from the daytime lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of smoke radiative extinction, on monthly basis, the amount of the solar input at the surface is reduced as large as 60 W m−2, which lead to the decrease of sensible heat, latent heat, 2 m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 W m−2, 20 W m−2, 1 K, 120 m, respectively. The decrease of

  1. Increased losses of organic carbon and destabilising of tropical peatlands following deforestation, drainage and burning. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S.; Gauci, V.; Evans, C.; Page, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical peatlands contain one of the largest pools of terrestrial organic carbon, amounting to about 89,000 teragrams. Approximately 65% of this carbon store is in Indonesia, where extensive anthropogenic degradation in the form of deforestation, drainage and associated fire is converting it into a globally significant source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Unlike boreal and temperate forests and higher-latitude wetlands, however, the loss of fluvial organic carbon from tropical peats has yet to be fully quantified. Here, we present the first data from intact and degraded peat swamp forest (PSF) catchments in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, that indicate a doubling of fluvial organic carbon losses from tropical peatlands following deforestation and drainage. Through carbon-14 dating of dissolved organic carbon (DO14C), we find that leaching of DOC from intact PSF is derived mainly from recent primary production. In contrast, DOC from disturbed PSF consists mostly of much older carbon from deep within the peat column. When we include this fluvial carbon loss, which is often ignored in peatland carbon budgets, we find that it increases the estimate of total carbon lost from the disturbed peatlands in our study by 22%. We further estimate that since 1990, peatland disturbance has resulted in a 32% increase in fluvial organic carbon flux from Southeast Asia - an increase that equates to more than half of the entire annual fluvial organic carbon flux from all European peatlands. Finally, we monitored fluvial organic carbon fluxes following large-scale peatland fires in 2009/10 within the study sub-catchments and found fluvial carbon fluxes to be 30-70% larger in the fire-affected catchments when compared to fluxes during the same interval in the previous year (pre-fire). This is in marked contrast to the intact catchment (control/no fire) where there were no differences observed in fluxes 'pre to post fire years'. Our sub-catchment findings were also found to be

  2. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  3. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Jon Fraenkel; The manipulation of custom; From uprising to intervention in the Solomon Islands (Jaap Timmer Clive Moore; Happy isles in crisis; The historical causes for a failing state in Solomon Islands, 1998-2004 (Jaap Timmer Peter Burns; The Leiden legacy; Concepts of law in Indonesia (Bryan S. Turner Terry Crowley; Bislama reference grammar (Kees Versteegh REVIEW ESSAY Matthew Isaac Cohen; Transnational and postcolonial gamelan Lisa Gold; Music in Bali Margaret J. Kartomi; The Gamelan Digul and the prison camp musician who built it; An Australian link with the Indonesian revolution Marc Perlman; Unplayed melodies; Javanese gamelan and the genesis of music theory Ted Solís (ed.; Performing ethnomusicology; Teaching and representation in world music ensembles Henry Spiller; Gamelan; The traditional sounds of Indonesia Andrew N. Weintraub; Power plays; Wayang golek theater of West Java REVIEW ESSAY Victor T. King; People and nature in Borneo Tim Bending; Penan histories; Contentious narratives in upriver Sarawak Rajindra K. Puri; Deadly dances in the Bornean rainforest; Hunting knowledge of the Penan Benalui, 2005 Reed L. Wadley (ed.; Histories of the Borneo environment; Economic, political and social dimensions of change and continuity In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde no. 162 (2006, no: 4, Leiden

  4. Atmospheric deposition of 210Po and 210Pb in Malaysian waters during haze events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogenic burning as forest fire phenomena occurring from April to August each year in the Sumatra and Borneo islands are major sources of biogenic uranium–thorium decay series in marine systems. 30 samples were collected during the Ekspedisi Pelayaran Saintifik Perdana 2009 cruise (EPSP 2009 cruise) between 12th June and 1st August 2009 from the Straits of Malacca to the Sulu and Sulawesi Seas to study the effect of haze and the monsoon season on the deposition rate of 210Po and 210Pb in Malaysian waters. All samples were spiked with 1 ml of lead [Pb(NO3)2; 25 mg ml-1] and 0.05 ml of Polonium-209 tracer (26.08 dpm ml-1). 210Po activity was determined by auto plating onto silver foil and counting using an alpha spectrometry system (Canberra model Alpha Analyst with a silicon-surface barrier detector). Lead that was collected via electrodeposition, formed lead sulphate (PbSO4) precipitation. This precipitate was wrapped onto plastic discs and counted for 210Pb beta activity using a gross alpha-beta counting system (Tennelec model LB-5100 low background gas-flowing anti-coincidence alpha/beta counter) after 1 month to allow bismuth ingrowths. The range of 210Po activities varied between 51.08 ± 15.1 and 742.08 ± 220.34 Bq/kg, whereas the activity of 210Pb ranged from 31.10 ± 4.20 to 880.23 ± 123.86 Bq/kg and 210Po/210Pb ratio value varied between sampling stations from 0.19 to 13.77. The contents of 210Po were also statistically positively correlated with the amount of total suspended particulate especially those recorded during heavy haze period events. (author)

  5. Sub-chronic toxicological evaluation of the Baccaurea angulata (Belimbing Dayak fruit juice in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ibrahim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Toxicity study on normal rats was carried out using freeze-dried whole fruit (FDWF sample of Baccaurea angulata. Animals in these sub-chronic studies illustrated no significant changes in general behaviour, growth, and relative organ weights. In liver function test, total protein and alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in male treated Group-II (300 mg/kg, giving 36.50±2.65 g/L and 47.90±4.48 U/L, respectively.  Meanwhile, low dose female group (Group-II, there was significant increase in the same parameters, giving 63.70±5.28 g/L and 73.50±12.91 U/L respectively.  In general, there was no evidence that demonstrated any tissue injury, the no-observable adverse effect level for B. angulata was 1,200 mg/kg administered orally for 13 weeks.Industrial relevance. The whole fruit juice of B. angulata, one of underutilized fruits found in Borneo island of Malaysia, has the potential to be utilized for preparation of health drink. Our earlier studies on the fruit showed that it contains the essential nutrients including dietary fiber that are good in promoting human health. Besides that, it has also been found to contain essential amount of antioxidant constituents as confirmed by antioxidant activities. This present study, additionally, found it to be safe and thus offer diverse potentials to be developed for nutraceeutical and functional fruit product.Key words. Underutilized Fruits; Baccaurea angulate; Belimbing Dayak; Sub-chronic toxicity

  6. Research on the dynamics of the South China Sea opening: Evidence from analogue modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Zhen; ZHOU; Di; ZHONG; Zhihong; XIA; Bin; QIU; Xuelin; ZENG; Zuoxun

    2006-01-01

    Independent of Indochina extrusion, the South China Sea experienced a process from passive continental rifting to marginal sea drifting. According to the fault patterns in the Beibu Gulf basin and the Pearl River Mouth basin, the continental rifting and early spreading stage from 32 to 26 Ma were controlled by extensional stress field, which shifted clockwise from southeastward to south southeastward. From 24 Ma on, the sea spread in NW-SE direction and ceased spreading at around 15.5 Ma. Integrated geological information with the assumption that the South China Sea developed along a pre-Cenozoic weakness zone, we did analogue experiments on the South China Sea evolution. Experiments revealed that the pre-existing weakness zone goes roughly along the uplift zone between the present Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression. The pre-existing weakness zone is composed of three segments trending NNE, roughly EW and NEE, respectively. The early opening of the South China Sea is accompanied with roughly 15° clockwise rotation, while the SE sub-sea basin opened with SE extension. Tinjar fault was the western boundary of the Nansha block (Dangerous Ground),while Lupar fault was the eastern boundary of the Indochina, NW-trending rift belt known as Zengmu basin developed between above two faults due to block divergent of Indochina from Nansha. In the experiment, transtensional flower structures along NW-trending faults are seen, and slight inversion occurs along some NE-dipping faults. The existence of rigid massifs changed the orientations of some faults and rift belt, and also led to deformation concentrate around the massifs. The rifting and drifting of the South China Sea might be caused by slab pull from the proto South China Sea subducting toward Borneo and/or mantle flow caused by India-Asia collision.

  7. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Muehlenbein

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53 from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental

  8. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2-3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future.

  9. The Architectural and Cultural Heritage of Sabah - The Rungus Longhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahauddin Azizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper dwells into heritage tourism that is related to the architectural and cultural heritage of the Rungus people of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It investigates the cultural influence on the architecture of the longhouse. The Rungus tribal group can be found in the northeast corner of Sabah, farming the land mostly on agricultural products in small scale plantations. Their longhouses, facing extinction, are dual-purpose dwellings, constructed entirely of traditional materials utilising small split timbers lashed with rattan for the frame, palm fronds for the thatched roof, split bamboo for the floor and tree bark of hewn wood for the compartment walls. Each family has its own separate quarters off a common hall for socialising and community work and village life is usually based on the cultural traditions. Strongly related to the spirit of the place, the ‘rice spirit’, in particular, figures prominently in the Rungus people’s beliefs and practices in controlling the spirits and the people’s daily life and often governed by the words of the bobohizans, the high priestess. The objectives gear towards analysing the architectural values and investigating cultural understanding associated with the longhouses. Most importantly, the issue of how the Rungus people relate to the environment is studied through the tangible and intangible cultural aspects of the people. The research utilises the observation technique, interviews with the residents, visual data collection and measured drawings of five longhouses as the processes to document data. The paper instigates an investigation into the conformity of the Rungus people of their place in the environment to perpetuate their lifestyle blessed with a unique heritage found in their architecture and culture, in a land where nature reigns. It is a heritage that worth a second look in the tourism industry of Sabah.

  10. Quantifying Dynamics in Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Biomass with Multi-Temporal LiDAR Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Siegert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat swamp forests in Indonesia store huge amounts of carbon and are responsible for enormous carbon emissions every year due to forest degradation and deforestation. These forest areas are in the focus of REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks projects, which require an accurate monitoring of their carbon stocks or aboveground biomass (AGB. Our study objective was to evaluate multi-temporal LiDAR measurements of a tropical forested peatland area in Central Kalimantan on Borneo. Canopy height and AGB dynamics were quantified with a special focus on unaffected, selective logged and burned forests. More than 11,000 ha were surveyed with airborne LiDAR in 2007 and 2011. In a first step, the comparability of these datasets was examined and canopy height models were created. Novel AGB regression models were developed on the basis of field inventory measurements and LiDAR derived height histograms for 2007 (r2 = 0.77, n = 79 and 2011 (r2 = 0.81, n = 53, taking the different point densities into account. Changes in peat swamp forests were identified by analyzing multispectral imagery. Unaffected forests accumulated on average 20 t/ha AGB with a canopy height increase of 2.3 m over the four year time period. Selective logged forests experienced an average AGB loss of 55 t/ha within 30 m and 42 t/ha within 50 m of detected logging trails, although the mean canopy height increased by 0.5 m and 1.0 m, respectively. Burned forests lost 92% of the initial biomass. These results demonstrate the great potential of repetitive airborne LiDAR surveys to precisely quantify even small scale AGB and canopy height dynamics in remote tropical forests, thereby featuring the needs of REDD+.

  11. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  12. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Anuar, Shahrul; Riyanto, Awal; Ahmad, Norhayati; Muin, Mohd A; Sumontha, Montri; Grismer, Jesse L; Onn, Chan Kin; Quah, Evan S H; Pauwels, Olivier S A

    2014-10-31

    A well-supported and well-resolved phylogeny based on a concatenated data set from one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, six morphological characters, and nine color pattern characters for 44 of the 50 species of the Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) is consistent with the previous taxonomy of Cnemaspis based solely on morphology and color pattern. Cnemaspis is partitioned into four major clades that collectively contain six species groups. The monophyly of all clades and species groups is strongly supported and they are parapatrically distributed across well-established, biogeographical regions ranging from southern Vietnam westward through southern Indochina, southward through the Thai-Malay Peninsula, then eastward to Borneo. Eight new species (Cnemaspis omari sp. nov. from the Thai-Malaysian border; C. temiah sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia; C. stongensis sp. nov. from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, Malaysia; C. hangus sp. nov. from Bukit Hangus, Pahang, Malaysia; C. sundagekko sp. nov. from Pulau Siantan, Indonesia; C. peninsularis sp. nov. from southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, and C. mumpuniae sp. nov. and C. sundainsula sp. nov. from Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia) are described based on morphology and color pattern and all but C. sundagekko sp. nov. are included in the phylogenetic analyses. Cnemaspis kendallii is polyphyletic and a composite of six species. An updated taxonomy consistent with the phylogeny is proposed for all 50 species and is based on 25 morphological and 53 color pattern characters scored across 594 specimens. Cladogenetic events and biogeographical relationships within Cnemaspis were likely influenced by this group's low vagility and the cyclical patterns of geographical and environmental changes in Sundaland over the last 25 million years and especially within the last 2.5 million years. The phylogeny indicates that nocturnality, diurnality, substrate preferences, and the presence of

  13. Distinctive tropical forest variants have unique soil microbial communities, but not always low microbial diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu M Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity.

  14. An airborne spectrometer with three infrared lasers for trace gas measurements applied to convection case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoire, V.; Krysztofiak, G.; Robert, C.; Chartier, M.

    2012-12-01

    An infrared absorption spectrometer named SPIRIT (SPectromètre InfraRouge In situ Toute altitude) has been built for airborne simultaneous online measurements of trace gases. SPIRIT is based on two recent technological advances, leading to optimal performances and miniaturization: continuous wave quantum cascade lasers (CW-QCL) operating near room temperature coupled to a new, patented, multipass optical cell (Robert, Appl. Optics, 2007). An essential electronic development allows the sequential use of three QCLs with the same single cell. With judicious selected spectral micro-windows, this potentially leads to the measurements of at least four species at 0.7 Hz frequency. The first deployment of SPIRIT was made onboard the DLR Falcon-20 aircraft during the campaign associated to the EU SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project in Nov.-Dec. 2011 over Malaysia. In the present paper, the flight of 19 Nov. is presented in detail as an example of the SPIRIT performances, with CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O as measured species. The aircraft crossed four times the anvil of a severe thunderstorm from 11.3 km to 12.8 km altitude corresponding to a large convective system near Borneo island (6.0°N-115.5°E). During the crossing, carbon monoxide mixing ratios increase by 5 to 10 ppbv from the ambient cloud free environment to the anvil cloud correlated with an increase of CH4 mixing ratio. Using these observations, the fraction of boundary layer air contained in fresh convective outflow has been calculated. Other convection cases were detected, allowing for other fractions to be calculated, with results ranging between 0.15 and 0.55 and showing the variability of the mixing taking place during convective transport.

  15. Structural geology mapping using PALSAR data in the Bau gold mining district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-08-01

    The application of optical remote sensing data for geological mapping is difficult in the tropical environment. The persistent cloud coverage, dominated vegetation in the landscape and limited bedrock exposures are constraints imposed by the tropical climate. Structural geology investigations that are searching for epithermal or polymetallic vein-type ore deposits can be developed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data in tropical/sub-tropical regions. The Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo has been selected for this study. The Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits, but gold mineralization at Bau is much more structurally controlled. Geological analyses coupled with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing data were used to detect structural elements associated with gold mineralization. The PALSAR data were used to perform lithological-structural mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Structural elements were detected along the SSW to NNE trend of the Tuban fault zone and Tai Parit fault that corresponds to the areas of occurrence of the gold mineralization in the Bau Limestone. Most of quartz-gold bearing veins occur in high-angle faults, fractures and joints within massive units of the Bau Limestone. The results show that four deformation events (D1-D4) in the structures of the Bau district and structurally controlled gold mineralization indicators, including faults, joints and fractures are detectable using PALSAR data at both regional and district scales. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide preliminary information for exploration potentially interesting areas of epithermal or polymetallic vein-type mineralization using the PALSAR data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  16. Remotely sensed forest cover loss shows high spatial and temporal variation across Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia 2000-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew; Stolle, Fred; Potapov, Peter; Arunarwati Margono, Belinda; Adusei, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The Indonesian islands of Sumatera and Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo) are a center of significant and rapid forest cover loss in the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity conservation, and local livelihoods. The aim of our research was to analyze and interpret annual trends of forest cover loss for different sub-regions of the study area. We mapped forest cover loss for 2000-2008 using multi-resolution remote sensing data from the Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM +) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors and analyzed annual trends per island, province, and official land allocation zone. The total forest cover loss for Sumatera and Kalimantan 2000-2008 was 5.39 Mha, which represents 5.3% of the land area and 9.2% of the year 2000 forest cover of these two islands. At least 6.5% of all mapped forest cover loss occurred in land allocation zones prohibiting clearing. An additional 13.6% of forest cover loss occurred where clearing is legally restricted. The overall trend of forest cover loss increased until 2006 and decreased thereafter. The trends for Sumatera and Kalimantan were distinctly different, driven primarily by the trends of Riau and Central Kalimantan provinces, respectively. This analysis shows that annual mapping of forest cover change yields a clearer picture than a one-time overall national estimate. Monitoring forest dynamics is important for national policy makers, especially given the commitment of Indonesia to reducing greenhouse gas emissions as part of the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries initiative (REDD +). The improved spatio-temporal detail of forest change monitoring products will make it possible to target policies and projects in meeting this commitment. Accurate, annual forest cover loss maps will be integral to many REDD + objectives, including policy formulation, definition of baselines, detection

  17. The large terrestrial carnivore guild in Quaternary Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louys, Julien

    2014-07-01

    Much of Southeast Asia's large terrestrial carnivores appeared, evolved and disappeared from the region for reasons that remain poorly understood. Two of the most significant extinctions are represented by the charismatic Pleistocene megacarnivores Pachycrocuta and Pliocrocuta. Southeast Asia hosts the last populations of these species globally. Their persistence in southern China until the late Pleistocene suggests their extinction was not tied to that of the machairodont cats, which like the rest of the world became extinct sometime in the early Pleistocene in this region. Instead the disappearance of the hyenids is probably related to climate change and deteriorating environmental conditions. There is some evidence that the wolf and domesticated dog first appeared in Southeast Asia, although confirmation of this awaits more detailed fossil records. There does not appear to be a large carnivore guild turnover of the same scale or time as recorded in Europe and Africa, although an extinction event in the late Pleistocene is provisionally recorded. Environmental changes and fluctuating sea levels have had a unique impact on the region's large carnivore guild. Several large carnivores from Java show unique genetic and morphological variations, and this could potentially be related to the connection between Java and the Indochinese mainland sometime during the middle Pleistocene. The effects of islands on the large carnivores are complicated and at times contradictory. Nevertheless, periods of isolation of large carnivores on Java, Sumatra and Borneo from the continent had impacts on both extinctions and speciations, with at least one well documented endemic large carnivore evolving in Sundaland (Sunda clouded leopard). Hunting and deforestation ongoing since the mid- to late Holocene means that many extant members of the large carnivore guild are at high risk of extinction.

  18. The role of tree-fall dynamics in long-term carbon storage of tropical peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommain, R.; Cobb, A.; Joosten, H.; Glaser, P. H.; Chua, A.; Gandois, L.; Kai, F. M.; Noren, A. J.; Kamariah, A. S.; Su'ut, N. S.; Harvey, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    The forested peatlands of the Earth's tropical belt represent a major terrestrial carbon pool that may contain over 90 petagram C. However, the mechanisms that led to the build-up of this significant pool of carbon are poorly understood. Moreover, the rates of carbon uptake by peat accumulation in these tropical settings have rarely been quantified and natural variations in uptake on decadal to millennial scales are not well constrained. We studied carbon accumulation dynamics on these timescales of a peat swamp forest dominated by the dipterocarp Shorea albida - a unique forest type that, until recently, widely covered the lowlands of northwest Borneo. The impressive Shorea albida trees may reach heights of 70 m and are therefore strongly susceptible to windthrow and lightning. Such natural disturbances cause these trees to fall and uproot - excavating over 1 m deep holes into the peat that fill with water to become tip-up pools. The analysis of high-resolution aerial photographs and radiocarbon dated peat cores from our field site in Brunei together with the construction of a simulation model of peat accumulation allowed us to determine the role of tree-fall and tip-up pools in carbon storage. In a hectare of Shorea albida forest four tip-up pools form per decade. A pool completely fills with organic matter within 200 years according to our pollen record and a dated pool deposit stored 40 kg C m-2 of the total 110 kg C m-2 large local peat carbon pool. The carbon accumulation rates in these pools reach over 800 g C m-2 yr-1 - within the range of annual litterfall in dipterocarp forests. The simulation model indicates that up to 60% of the peat deposits under Shorea albida forests could be derived from infilled pools. Tip-up pools are therefore local hotspots for carbon storage in tropical forested peatlands.

  19. Distinctive Tropical Forest Variants Have Unique Soil Microbial Communities, But Not Always Low Microbial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu M; Song, Woojin; Slik, J W F; Sukri, Rahayu S; Jaafar, Salwana; Dong, Ke; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, Northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests) due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity. PMID:27092105

  20. INFLUENCE OF SERVICE FACTORS IN THE MODEL OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT MODE: A BANJARMASIN – BANJARBARU ROUTE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iphan F. Radam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine the extent to which the service factors will affect the probability of people choice on public transports offered. The service factors are essential since the habits in the planning of new public transport at developing cities tend to prioritizes “travel time” and “travel cost” only. Consequently, there will be more than a small number of new public transports that will meet the same fate as the previous ones, i.e. unable to attract the users’ interest. The research is focused on Banjarmasin City and Banjarbaru City which are two administrative cities with high development level and are large generation/attraction zones in South Borneo. The tendency of the use of private vehicles remains high with one of the reasons is the level of transportation services which are still low. Therefore, the planning of new alternative transports (bus is required, in addition to the existing Paratransit transportation (mikrolet/Indonesian minibus. To obtain a utility and probability model of the of travelers (users in selecting the public transport modes between the existing transports and new bus alternative transports, the Logit method approach was used and the data were collected by using Stated Preference technique. From the result of this research, the model of mode choice is obtained by including service factors showing the improvement of goodness of fit model, and is compared by those without including service factors. The average of service effect on the increase in the choice probability of the services is 22%, both in the sensitivity of the travel time and travel costs.

  1. Remotely sensed forest cover loss shows high spatial and temporal variation across Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia 2000-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew; Potapov, Peter; Margono, Belinda Arunarwati; Adusei, Bernard [South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Stolle, Fred, E-mail: mark.broich@sdstate.edu [World Resources Institute, Washington, DC 20002 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The Indonesian islands of Sumatera and Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo) are a center of significant and rapid forest cover loss in the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity conservation, and local livelihoods. The aim of our research was to analyze and interpret annual trends of forest cover loss for different sub-regions of the study area. We mapped forest cover loss for 2000-2008 using multi-resolution remote sensing data from the Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM +) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors and analyzed annual trends per island, province, and official land allocation zone. The total forest cover loss for Sumatera and Kalimantan 2000-2008 was 5.39 Mha, which represents 5.3% of the land area and 9.2% of the year 2000 forest cover of these two islands. At least 6.5% of all mapped forest cover loss occurred in land allocation zones prohibiting clearing. An additional 13.6% of forest cover loss occurred where clearing is legally restricted. The overall trend of forest cover loss increased until 2006 and decreased thereafter. The trends for Sumatera and Kalimantan were distinctly different, driven primarily by the trends of Riau and Central Kalimantan provinces, respectively. This analysis shows that annual mapping of forest cover change yields a clearer picture than a one-time overall national estimate. Monitoring forest dynamics is important for national policy makers, especially given the commitment of Indonesia to reducing greenhouse gas emissions as part of the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries initiative (REDD +). The improved spatio-temporal detail of forest change monitoring products will make it possible to target policies and projects in meeting this commitment. Accurate, annual forest cover loss maps will be integral to many REDD + objectives, including policy formulation, definition of baselines, detection

  2. Solar cycle modulation of the ENSO impact on the winter climate of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Wen

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how the East Asian winter climate response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) varies with the 11-year solar cycle. The results indicate that the ENSO and East Asian climate relationship is robust and significant during winters with low solar (LS) activity, with evident warming in the lower troposphere over East Asia, which can be closely linked to the decreased pressure gradient between the cold Eurasian continent and the warm Pacific. Moreover, during the LS and El Niño winters, there is a typical rainfall response in Southeast Asia, with wet conditions over South China and dry conditions over the Philippines, Borneo, Celebes, and Sulawesi, which can be explained by the anticyclone over the western North Pacific (WNP). However, during high solar activity winters, both the surface temperature and rainfall anomalies are much less closely associated with the ENSO. The possible mechanism for this solar modulation of the ENSO-related East Asian climate anomalies may be the change in the tropospheric circulation with the ENSO in both tropical and extratropical regions. Particularly, in the LS cases, an anomalous WNP anticyclone is intensified and a noticeable cyclone occupies northern Northeast Asia, resulting from the changing location and strength of the large-scale Walker circulation induced by the more pronounced sea surface temperature anomalies associated with the ENSO. Further investigation with long historic data confirms that the relationship between the ENSO and the East Asian winter climate anomalies depends on the phases of 11 year solar cycle, with enhanced East Asian climate variation during the LS winters.

  3. Overview of the Sustainable Uses of Peat Soil in Malaysia with Some Relevant Geotechnical Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidah Adon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peat soil is an important ecosystem that provides a significant contribution to the global climate stability. In Malaysia, peat soils are considered as a soil with little economic benefit, apart from it being used for agricultural activity. The total world coverage of peat soil is about thirty million hectares with Canada and Russia having the largest distribution of peat (Zainorabiddin,2010. More than sixty percent of the world’s tropical peat lands are found in South-East Asia (Lette,2006. Most notable are the large peat land on the islands of Borneo (belonging to Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei and Sumatra (Indonesia. However, there are also significant occurrences in other parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines. The main contributory functions and benefits of peat soil are within the engineering disciplines of hydrology, agriculture, social-economics, biodiversity habitats and carbon sequestration. Peat was used in temperate climates (especially in Finland, Ireland, Sweden and UK as a fuel to generate electricity and heat. Therefore peat can be considered as a renewable energy source but this will be very detrimental to the market of genuine renewables. The western coastal lowlands of Malaysia (such as Kukup are mangroves that represent the initiation of peat soil formation. Such areas provide the natural habitat of mangrove forests. It also fixes more carbon from the atmosphere than is released and approximately one-quarter of the carbon stored in land plants and soils. On the other hand, peat is one of the problematic or challenging foundation soil of poor quality due to it’s very high water content, high compressibility and low shear strength. Peat consists of decomposed plant fragments and the unfavourable characteristics of peat soil deposits make them unsuitable for making sustainable infrastructure development for varied engineering projects. This paper therefore gives an overview of the pros and cons

  4. Plasmodium knowlesi genome sequences from clinical isolates reveal extensive genomic dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel M Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Plasmodium knowlesi is a newly described zoonosis that causes malaria in the human population that can be severe and fatal. The study of P. knowlesi parasites from human clinical isolates is relatively new and, in order to obtain maximum information from patient sample collections, we explored the possibility of generating P. knowlesi genome sequences from archived clinical isolates. Our patient sample collection consisted of frozen whole blood samples that contained excessive human DNA contamination and, in that form, were not suitable for parasite genome sequencing. We developed a method to reduce the amount of human DNA in the thawed blood samples in preparation for high throughput parasite genome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq sequencing platforms. Seven of fifteen samples processed had sufficiently pure P. knowlesi DNA for whole genome sequencing. The reads were mapped to the P. knowlesi H strain reference genome and an average mapping of 90% was obtained. Genes with low coverage were removed leaving 4623 genes for subsequent analyses. Previously we identified a DNA sequence dimorphism on a small fragment of the P. knowlesi normocyte binding protein xa gene on chromosome 14. We used the genome data to assemble full-length Pknbpxa sequences and discovered that the dimorphism extended along the gene. An in-house algorithm was developed to detect SNP sites co-associating with the dimorphism. More than half of the P. knowlesi genome was dimorphic, involving genes on all chromosomes and suggesting that two distinct types of P. knowlesi infect the human population in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We use P. knowlesi clinical samples to demonstrate that Plasmodium DNA from archived patient samples can produce high quality genome data. We show that analyses, of even small numbers of difficult clinical malaria isolates, can generate comprehensive genomic information that will improve our understanding of malaria parasite diversity and

  5. Characterizing forest structure variations across an intact tropical peat dome using field samplings and airborne LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Hutyra, Lucy R; Hardiman, Brady S; Raciti, Steve M

    2016-03-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) are one of the most carbon dense ecosystems on the globe and are experiencing substantial natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we combined direct field sampling and airborne LiDAR to empirically quantify forest structure and aboveground live biomass (AGB) across a large, intact tropical peat dome in Northwestern Borneo. Moving up a 4 m elevational gradient, we observed increasing stem density but decreasing canopy height, crown area, and crown roughness. These findings were consistent with hypotheses that nutrient and hydrological dynamics co-influence forest structure and stature of the canopy individuals, leading to reduced productivity towards the dome interior. Gap frequency as a function of gap size followed a power law distribution with a shape factor (λ) of 1.76 ± 0.06. Ground-based and dome-wide estimates of AGB were 217.7 ± 28.3 Mg C/ha and 222.4 ± 24.4 Mg C/ha, respectively, which were higher than previously reported AGB for PSF and tropical forests in general. However, dome-wide AGB estimates were based on height statistics, and we found the coefficient of variation on canopy height was only 0.08, three times less than stem diameter measurements, suggesting LiDAR height metrics may not be a robust predictor of AGB in tall tropical forests with dense canopies. Our structural characterization of this ecosystem advances the understanding of the ecology of intact tropical peat domes and factors that influence biomass density and landscape-scale spatial variation. This ecological understanding is essential to improve estimates of forest carbon density and its spatial distribution in PSF and to effectively model the effects of disturbance and deforestation in these carbon dense ecosystems. PMID:27209797

  6. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, C N; MacKenzie, A R; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J R; Evans, M; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M W; Hopkins, J R; Jones, C E; Langford, B; Lee, J D; Lewis, A C; Lim, S F; McQuaid, J; Misztal, P; Moller, S J; Monks, P S; Nemitz, E; Oram, D E; Owen, S M; Phillips, G J; Pugh, T A M; Pyle, J A; Reeves, C E; Ryder, J; Siong, J; Skiba, U; Stewart, D J

    2009-11-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an "environmentally friendly" fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O(3) concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O(3) concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (10(9)) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  7. Plant diversity and biomass of Marudu bay mangroves in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mangroves of Marudu Bay in the state of Sabah is situated at the tip of Borneo Island, and at the southern limit of the Coral Triangle whose waters hold the highest diversity of corals, fish, molluscks, crustaceans and marine plant species in the world. The ecosystem shows a deterioration due to unsustainable fishing, pollution and encroachment, and these are impacting the Marudu Bay coastal communities economically. Fishing is the major economic activity here. Realising the importance of conserving the mangroves to uplift the socio-economic livelihood of the coastal community, a resource inventory of the mangroves and its productivity study were carried out. A total of 16 plant species in 12 genera and 9 families were identified. It was also found that 0.7 ha is capable of capturing all the species in the mangrove forest. The mangrove forests of Marudu Bay are dominated by Rhizopora apiculata and R. mucronata. The highest Importance Value index (IVI) was given by Rhizophora mucronata. Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) for 1-ha of mangrove forest in Marudu Bay was estimated to be 98.4 t/ha. It was found in other parallel studies that the mangroves of Marudu Bay are productive ecosystems that provide valuable habitats, nurseries and spawning grounds for various commercially important species of fish and invertebrates such as shrimp besides many species of wildlife. The mangroves at Marudu Bay are not only aesthetically attractive but provide opportunities for ecotourism activities that can be undertaken by the local community inhabiting the area to uplift their meagre income, These activities include mangrove cruising, recreational fishing, educational tourism and mangrove honey production, amongst others. This way, the degradation of the mangrove in Marudu Bay can be halted and reversed. (author)

  8. Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the

  9. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

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    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2 (21% of Borneo's landmass and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic

  10. Identifying spatial heterogeneity of coal resource quality in a multilayer coal deposit by multivariate geostatistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriawan, Mohamad Nur [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Earth Resources Exploration Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Koike, Katsuaki [Department of Life and Environmental Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2008-02-01

    This study presents a new geostatistical approach to characterization of the geometry and quality of a multilayer coal deposit using the data of seam thickness as a geometric property and the contents of ash, sodium, total sulphur, and the heating value as quality properties. A coal deposit in East Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia, which has a synclinal geological structure, was chosen as the study site. Semivariogram analysis clarified the strong dependence of heating value on ash content in the top and bottom parts of each seam and the existence of a strong correlation with sodium content over the sub-seams in the same location. The correlations between the geometry and quality of the seams were generally weak. A linear coregionalization model was used to derive the spatial correlation coefficients of two variables at each scale component from the single- and cross-semivariogram matrices. Because the data were correlated spatially in the same seam or over different seams, multivariate techniques (ordinary cokriging and factorial cokriging) were mainly used and the resultant spatial estimates were compared to those derived using a univariate technique (ordinary kriging). A factorial cokriging was effective to decompose the spatial correlation structures with different scales. Another important characteristic was that the sodium content shows distinct segregation: the low zones are concentrated near the boundary of the sedimentary basin, while the high zones are concentrated in the central part. The main component of sodium originates from the abundance of saline water. Therefore, it can be inferred that seawater had stronger effects on the coal depositional process in the central basin than in the border part. The geostatistical modeling results suggest that the thicknesses of all the major seams were controlled by the syncline structure, while the coal qualities chiefly were originated from the coal depositional and diagenetic processes. (author)

  11. DNA capture reveals transoceanic gene flow in endangered river sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhong; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Straube, Nicolas; Harris, Mark; Hofreiter, Michael; White, William T; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2015-10-27

    For over a hundred years, the "river sharks" of the genus Glyphis were only known from the type specimens of species that had been collected in the 19th century. They were widely considered extinct until populations of Glyphis-like sharks were rediscovered in remote regions of Borneo and Northern Australia at the end of the 20th century. However, the genetic affinities between the newly discovered Glyphis-like populations and the poorly preserved, original museum-type specimens have never been established. Here, we present the first (to our knowledge) fully resolved, complete phylogeny of Glyphis that includes both archival-type specimens and modern material. We used a sensitive DNA hybridization capture method to obtain complete mitochondrial genomes from all of our samples and show that three of the five described river shark species are probably conspecific and widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Furthermore we show that there has been recent gene flow between locations that are separated by large oceanic expanses. Our data strongly suggest marine dispersal in these species, overturning the widely held notion that river sharks are restricted to freshwater. It seems that species in the genus Glyphis are euryhaline with an ecology similar to the bull shark, in which adult individuals live in the ocean while the young grow up in river habitats with reduced predation pressure. Finally, we discovered a previously unidentified species within the genus Glyphis that is deeply divergent from all other lineages, underscoring the current lack of knowledge about the biodiversity and ecology of these mysterious sharks. PMID:26460025

  12. From orogenic collapse to rifting ; structures of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubellier, M.; Chan, L. S.; Chamot Rooke, N.; Shen, W.; Ringenbach, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    The opening of the South China Sea has been a matter of debate for many years because of its internal structure, the differences between the conjugate margins and the variations of rifting and spreading directions. Although it is considered as being a back-arc basin, it is not sitting directly above a subduction zone, and the rifting process lasted for an unusually long duration. Among the specific characteristics is the early phase of rifting which took place early in place of the former Yanshanian andean-type mountain range. This stage is marked by narrow basins filled with deformed conglomerate, and initiated around 70My ago within a framework where the oblique subduction marked by igneous activity and ductile wrench faults, was replaced by orogenic collapse. The rifting stage is marked by Eocene syntectonic normal faults and occasional volcanics centres and has proceeded from NW-SE to NS extension. The NW stretching created at least two aborted basins which remained at rift stage. Extension was followed by spreading from 33 to ~20 Ma in the South China Sea. The ocean floor spreading also changed direction to NW-SE with a propagator inside the Sunda shelf from 20 to 17My ago. However the propagator opening implies that deformation is also taken by rifting around a southern wedge which in turn created strain inside the thinned crust. Another extension parallel to the margin is also observed althought the spreading was in process. The southward motion of the southern conjugate margin was later accommodated by its subduction beneath the NW Borneo wedge until completion of the Proto South China Sea subduction. Variations of rifting spreading through time and variations of structural styles are discussed in terms of boundary forces acting to the SE.

  13. THE GENUS CAREX IN MALAYSIA

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    E. NELMES

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a fully descriptive account of the 108 species of Carex known to occur in Malaysia. They are arranged in three subgenera: Subgenus Indocarex Baill. (43 species, Subgenus Carex (Eucarex Coss. et Germ. (57 species, and Subgenus Vignea (P. Beauv. Nees (8 species. These are in turn divided into 33 sections. The classi- fication of these Malaysian Carices differs radically from past systems (cf. that of Kiikenthal, Engl. Pflanzenreich, 1909 and is based on the phylogenetic views of the author. Following the descriptions are citations of all the specimens seen by the author, and a few not seen but which have mainly been determined' by Kiikenthal. The majority of the specimens Came from Bogor (Buitenzorg (about 1500 sheets and Leiden (about 600, including important historical specimens. About half of the species are restricted (endemic to one or another of the 'island areas' into which Malaysia can be conveniently divided: 18 species in New Guinea, 10 in the Philippines, 5 in Borneo and in Sumatra, 4 in the Malay Peninsula, 3 in Java and in Celebes, 2 in the Moluccas, and 1 in the Lesser Sunda Islands. The remaining 58 species have a slightly to much wider distribution, the chief connection being with India, and, to a slightly less extent, Japan and China. Keys are provided to the species as a whole, to the subgenera, the sections, and to the species in each section. The introductory part of the work explains, among other things, the classi- fication, the relative taxonomic value of characters in the descriptions, distribution, and sources of the material,.

  14. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010–2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations

  15. Societies drifting apart? Behavioural, genetic and chemical differentiation between supercolonies in the yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes.

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    Jochen Drescher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In populations of most social insects, gene flow is maintained through mating between reproductive individuals from different colonies in periodic nuptial flights followed by dispersal of the fertilized foundresses. Some ant species, however, form large polygynous supercolonies, in which mating takes place within the maternal nest (intranidal mating and fertilized queens disperse within or along the boundary of the supercolony, leading to supercolony growth (colony budding. As a consequence, gene flow is largely confined within supercolonies. Over time, such supercolonies may diverge genetically and, thus, also in recognition cues (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHC's by a combination of genetic drift and accumulation of colony-specific, neutral mutations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested this hypothesis for six supercolonies of the invasive ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in north-east Borneo. Within supercolonies, workers from different nests tolerated each other, were closely related and showed highly similar CHC profiles. Between supercolonies, aggression ranged from tolerance to mortal encounters and was negatively correlated with relatedness and CHC profile similarity. Supercolonies were genetically and chemically distinct, with mutually aggressive supercolony pairs sharing only 33.1%±17.5% (mean ± SD of their alleles across six microsatellite loci and 73.8%±11.6% of the compounds in their CHC profile. Moreover, the proportion of alleles that differed between supercolony pairs was positively correlated to the proportion of qualitatively different CHC compounds. These qualitatively differing CHC compounds were found across various substance classes including alkanes, alkenes and mono-, di- and trimethyl-branched alkanes. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that positive feedback between genetic, chemical and behavioural traits may further enhance supercolony differentiation through genetic drift and neutral evolution, and may drive

  16. Biodiversity assessment in incomplete inventories: leaf litter ant communities in several types of Bornean rain forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available Biodiversity assessment of tropical taxa is hampered by their tremendous richness, which leads to large numbers of singletons and incomplete inventories in survey studies. Species estimators can be used for assessment of alpha diversity, but calculation of beta diversity is hampered by pseudo-turnover of species in undersampled plots. To assess the impact of unseen species, we investigated different methods, including an unbiased estimator of Shannon beta diversity that was compared to biased calculations. We studied alpha and beta diversity of a diverse ground ant assemblage from the Southeast Asian island of Borneo in different types of tropical forest: diperocarp forest, alluvial forest, limestone forest and heath forests. Forests varied in plant composition, geology, flooding regimes and other environmental parameters. We tested whether forest types differed in species composition and if species turnover was a function of the distance between plots at different spatial scales. As pseudo-turnover may bias beta diversity we hypothesized a large effect of unseen species reducing beta diversity. We sampled 206 ant species (25% singletons from ten subfamilies and 55 genera. Diversity partitioning among the four forest types revealed that whereas alpha species richness and alpha Shannon diversity were significantly smaller than expected, beta-diversity for both measurements was significantly higher than expected by chance. This result was confirmed when we used the unbiased estimation of Shannon diversity: while alpha diversity was much higher, beta diversity differed only slightly from biased calculations. Beta diversity as measured with the Chao-Sørensen or Morisita-Horn Index correlated with distance between transects and between sample points, indicating a distance decay of similarity between communities. We conclude that habitat heterogeneity has a high influence on ant diversity and species turnover in tropical sites and that unseen species

  17. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, K.; Folberth, G.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wild, O.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale production of feedstock crops for biofuels will lead to land use changes. We quantify the effects of realistic land use change scenarios for biofuel feedstock production on isoprene emissions and hence atmospheric composition and chemistry using the HadGEM2 model. Two feedstocks are considered: oil palm for biodiesel in the tropics and short rotation coppice (SRC) in the mid-latitudes. In total, 69 Mha of oil palm and 9 Mha of SRC are planted, each sufficient to replace just over 1% of projected global fossil fuel demand in 2020. Both planting scenarios result in increases in total global annual isoprene emissions of about 1%. In each case, changes in surface concentrations of ozone and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA) are substantial at the regional scale, with implications for air quality standards. However, the changes in tropospheric burden of ozone and the OH radical, and hence effects on global climate, are negligible. Over SE Asia, one region of oil palm planting, increases in annual mean surface ozone and bSOA concentrations reach over 3 ppbv (+11%) and 0.4 μg m-3 (+10%) respectively for parts of Borneo, with monthly mean increases of up to 6.5 ppbv (+25%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+12%). Under the SRC scenario, Europe experiences monthly mean changes of over 0.6 ppbv (+1%) and 0.1 μg m-3 (+5%) in June and July, with peak increases of over 2 ppbv (+3%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+8 %). That appreciable regional atmospheric impacts result from low level planting scenarios demonstrates the need to include changes in emissions of reactive trace gases such as isoprene in life cycle assessments performed on potential biofuel feedstocks.

  18. Height-related changes in leaf photosynthetic traits in diverse Bornean tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzo, Tanaka; Inoue, Yuta; Yoshimura, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Megumi; Tanaka-Oda, Ayumi; Ichie, Tomoaki

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of variations in morphophysiological leaf traits with forest height is essential for quantifying carbon and water fluxes from forest ecosystems. Here, we examined changes in leaf traits with forest height in diverse tree species and their role in environmental acclimation in a tropical rain forest in Borneo that does not experience dry spells. Height-related changes in leaf physiological and morphological traits [e.g., maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs), dark respiration rate (Rd), carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C), nitrogen (N) content, and leaf mass per area (LMA)] from understory to emergent trees were investigated in 104 species in 29 families. We found that many leaf area-based physiological traits (e.g., A(max-area), Rd, gs), N, δ(13)C, and LMA increased linearly with tree height, while leaf mass-based physiological traits (e.g., A(max-mass)) only increased slightly. These patterns differed from other biomes such as temperate and tropical dry forests, where trees usually show decreased photosynthetic capacity (e.g., A(max-area), A(max-mass)) with height. Increases in photosynthetic capacity, LMA, and δ(13)C are favored under bright and dry upper canopy conditions with higher photosynthetic productivity and drought tolerance, whereas lower R d and LMA may improve shade tolerance in lower canopy trees. Rapid recovery of leaf midday water potential to theoretical gravity potential during the night supports the idea that the majority of trees do not suffer from strong drought stress. Overall, leaf area-based photosynthetic traits were associated with tree height and the degree of leaf drought stress, even in diverse tropical rain forest trees.

  19. Carbon storage in Amazonian podzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Celia; Lucas, Yves; Pereira, Osvaldo; Merdy, Patricia; Santin, Roberta; Ishida, Débora; du Gardin, Beryl; Melfi, Adolpho

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that Amazonian podzols may store much larger quantities of carbon than previously thought, particularly in their deep Bh horizons (over 13.6 Pg for Brazilian Amazonia alone [1]). Similarly high carbon stocks are likely to exist in similar climate/soil areas, mainly in Africa and in Borneo. Such carbon stocks raise the problem of their stability in response to changes in land use or climate. Any significant changes in vegetation cover would significantly alter the soil water dynamics, which is likely to affect organic matter turnover in soils. The direction of the change, however, is not clear and is likely to depend on the specific conditions of carbon storage and properties of the soils. It is reasonable to assume that the drying of the Bh horizons of equatorial podzols, which are generally saturated, will lead to an increase in C mineralization, although the extent of this increase has not yet been determined. These unknowns resulted in research programs, granted by the Brazilian FAPESP and the French Région PACA-ARCUS and ANR, dedicated improving estimates of the Amazonian podzol carbon stocks and to an estimate of its mineralisability. Eight test areas were determined from the analysis of remote sensing data in the larger Amazonian podzol region located in the High Rio Negro catchment and studied in detail. Despite the extreme difficulties in carrying out the field work (difficulties in reaching the study sites and extracting the soils), more than a hundred points were sampled. In all podzols the presence of a thick deep Bh was confirmed, sometimes to depths greater than 12 m. The Bh carbon was quantified, indicating that carbon stocks in these podzols are even higher than estimated recently [1]. References 1- Montes, C.R.; Lucas, Y.; Pereira, O.J.R.; Achard, R.; Grimaldi, M.; Mefli, A.J. Deep plant?derived carbon storage in Amazonian podzols. Biogeosciences, 8, 113?120, 2011.

  20. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2–3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664