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Sample records for borneo

  1. On Reptiles from North Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1893-01-01

    The following list is the catalogue of a collection of reptiles captured by Mr. J. Chr. Prakke in the neighbourhood of the Sandakan-bay (N. Borneo). As Dr. F. Mocquard in his latest papers ¹) on reptiles of Borneo gives a full account of the literature of Bornean herpetology, I think I may content m

  2. Borneo 2007. Three European Exhibitions

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    Bernard Sellato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2007 appears to have been an exceptionally good one for Borneo in Europe. Two exhibitions were held in France, and one in Switzerland, which prominently featured the big island, its forests, its peoples, its cultures, and its arts. Here a brief review of these three events. Bornéo... Dayak et Punan. Peuples de la forêt tropicale humide, Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Laon, France, 25 November 2006 – 11 March 2007 The beautiful city of Laon, only a short distance by train or by car fro...

  3. The provenance of Borneo's enigmatic alluvial diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lloyd; Graham, Ian; Tanner, Dominique; Hall, Robert; Armstrong, Richard; Yaxley, Greg; Barron, Larry; Spencer, Lee; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2016-04-01

    Gem-quality diamonds occur in several alluvial deposits across central and southern Borneo. Borneo has been a known source of diamonds for centuries, but the location of their primary igneous source remains enigmatic. Numerous geological models have been proposed to explain the distribution of Borneo's diamonds. To assess these models, we used a variety of techniques to examine heavy minerals from Kalimantan's Cempaka paleoalluvial diamond deposit. This involved collecting U-Pb isotopic data, fission track and trace element geochemistry of zircon as well as major element geochemical data of spinels and morphological descriptions of zircon and diamond. Our results indicate that the Cempaka diamonds were likely derived from at least two sources, one which was relatively local and/or involved little reworking, and the other more distal recording several periods of reworking. The distal diamond source is interpreted to be diamond-bearing pipes that intruded the basement of a block that: (1) rifted from northwest Australia (East Java or SW Borneo) and the diamonds were recycled into its sedimentary cover, or: (2) were emplaced elsewhere (e.g. NW Australia) and transported to a block (e.g. East Java or SW Borneo). Both of these scenarios require the diamonds to be transported with the block when it rifted from NW Australia in the Late Jurassic. The 'local' diamonds could be associated with ophiolitic rocks that are exposed in the nearby Meratus Mountains, or could be diamondiferous diatremes associated with eroded Miocene high-K alkaline intrusions north of the Barito Basin. If this were the case, these intrusions would indicate that the lithosphere beneath SW Borneo is thick (~150 km or greater).

  4. En ny religion i Borneos regnskov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothstein, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    En feltarbejdsbaseret undersøgelse af religiøse forandringer blandt Borneos jægere og samlere, som påvirkes voldsomt og ødelæggende af hhv. tømmerdrift og kristen mission. Som reaktion på disse påvirkninger, udvikles nye religiøse forestillinger og ritualer....

  5. An overview of Diospyros of Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, F.S.P.

    2001-01-01

    After a long absence from taxonomy, I accepted a contract to revise Diospyros for the Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak in July 1999. The last comprehensive revision of Diospyros that covered Borneo was Bakhuizen van den Brink’s Revisio ebenacearum malayensium [Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III, 15 (193

  6. Borneo vortex and mesoscale convective rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, S.; Koh, T.-Y.; Teo, C.-K.

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated how the Borneo vortex develops over the equatorial South China Sea under cold surge conditions in December during the Asian winter monsoon. Composite analysis using reanalysis and satellite data sets has revealed that absolute vorticity and water vapour are transported by strong cold surges from upstream of the South China Sea to around the Equator. Rainfall is correspondingly enhanced over the equatorial South China Sea. A semi-idealized experiment reproduced the Borneo vortex over the equatorial South China Sea during a "perpetual" cold surge. The Borneo vortex is manifested as a meso-α cyclone with a comma-shaped rainband in the northeast sector of the cyclone. Vorticity budget analysis showed that the growth/maintenance of the meso-α cyclone was achieved mainly by the vortex stretching. This vortex stretching is due to the upward motion forced by the latent heat release around the cyclone centre. The comma-shaped rainband consists of clusters of meso-β-scale rainfall cells. The intense rainfall in the comma head (comma tail) is generated by the confluence of the warmer and wetter cyclonic easterly flow (cyclonic southeasterly flow) and the cooler and drier northeasterly surge in the northwestern (northeastern) sector of the cyclone. Intense upward motion and heavy rainfall resulted due to the low-level convergence and the favourable thermodynamic profile at the confluence zone. In particular, the convergence in the northwestern sector is responsible for maintenance of the meso-α cyclone system. At both meso-α and meso-β scales, the convergence is ultimately caused by the deviatoric strain in the confluence wind pattern but is significantly self-enhanced by the nonlinear dynamics.

  7. Key and checklist of Xanthophyllum (Polygalaceae of Borneo

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    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A key to and a check list of the 56 Xanthophyllum (Polygalaceae species of Borneo is pre- sented. One species is newly described, X. albicaulis. Xanthophyllum hildebrandii is sunk in X. ellipticum.

  8. Forest fruit production is higher on Sumatra than on Borneo.

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    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands.

  9. Zoological results of the Dutch Scientific Expedition to Central Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, de J.G.

    1899-01-01

    Like the Macroura, also the Brachyura collected by Dr. Büttikofer in Central Borneo ought to be considered as a valuable contribution to the Carcinological Fauna of this Island. Fifteen species were collected, all but one freshwater forms, inhabitants of the Kapoeas-basin and of the Upper Mahakkam,

  10. Capparis buwaldae Jacobs (Capparaceae). A new Myrmecophyte from Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maschwitz, U.; Dumpert, K.; Moog, J.; LaFrankie, J.V.; Azarae, I.Hj.

    1996-01-01

    Capparis buwaldae, a climber of primary forests endemic to Borneo, is a myrmecophyte with stem domatia. The stems become hollow by pith degeneration and develop oval openings allowing ants to enter. These openings are localized at a strictly defined area above the insertion of the leaves and a pair

  11. Lessons from Research for Sustainable Development and Conservation in Borneo

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    William F. Laurance

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available I present a brief synopsis of six key lessons provided by research on forest ecology and conservation, focusing particularly on the Malaysian state of Sabah in northeastern Borneo. These lessons are generalizable to other contexts, especially for tropical developing nations, where surviving forests are under growing pressures from a range of human activities.

  12. Cyclommatus squamosus, a new species of Lucanid from Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1892-01-01

    Years ago I received from his Excellency, the Ex-Governor General of Dutch India J. W. van Lansbercre, a lot of beetles from Sintang (Borneo), containing a. o. a male Cyclommatus of minor development, which I believed to belong to an uudescribed species. I abstained, however, from describing it for

  13. A second species of Biplanispira from the Eocene of Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1938-01-01

    In 1928, when studying the genus Pellatispira 1), I found some sections of the foraminifer described below in a limestone from S.E. Borneo (no. 1446 B. 414). The foraminifer resembles Pellatispira in many respects, but the distal part of the test shows a different structure, consisting of a double a

  14. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

  15. Borneo vortex and meso-scale convective rainfall

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    S. Koseki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how the Borneo vortex develops over the equatorial South China Sea under cold surge conditions in December during the Asian winter monsoon. Composite analysis using reanalysis and satellite datasets has revealed that absolute vorticity and water vapour are transported by strong cold surges from upstream of the South China Sea to around the equator. Rainfall is correspondingly enhanced over the equatorial South China Sea. A semi-idealized experiment reproduced the Borneo vortex over the equatorial South China Sea during a "perpetual" cold surge. The Borneo vortex is manifested as a meso-α cyclone with a comma-shaped rainband in the northeast sector of the cyclone. Vorticity budget analysis showed that the growth of the meso-α cyclone was achieved mainly by vortex stretching. The comma-shaped rainband consists of clusters of meso-β scale rainfall patches. The warm and wet cyclonic southeasterly flow meets with the cold and dry northeasterly surge forming a confluence front in the northeastern sector of the cyclone. Intense upward motion and heavy rainfall result both due to the low-level convergence and the favourable thermodynamic profile at the confluence front. At both meso-α and meso-β scales, the convergence is ultimately caused by the deviatoric strain in the confluence wind pattern but is much enhanced by nonlinear self-enhancement dynamics.

  16. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo.

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    David L A Gaveau

    Full Text Available The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2 of Borneo's area (737,188 km2 was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2% in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%. We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km-2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km-2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8% of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo.

  17. Phaenandrogomphus safei, a new species from Sabah, northern Borneo (Odonata: Anisoptera: Gomphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A; Luke, Sarah H

    2015-01-09

    Phaenandrogomphus safei is described from a male from the Kalabakan Forest Reserve, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It is the first species of Phaenandrogomphus to be recorded from Borneo. Onychogomphus treadawayi, known from Busuanga Island in the Palawan region of the Philippines, is transferred to Phaenandrogomphus. 

  18. Borneo Vortex and Meso-scale Convective Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, T. Y.; Koseki, S.; Teo, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated how the Borneo vortex develops over the equatorial South China Sea under cold surge conditions in December during the Asian winter monsoon. Composite analysis using reanalysis and satellite datasets has revealed that absolute vorticity and water vapour are transported by strong cold surges from upstream of the South China Sea to around the equator. Rainfall is correspondingly enhanced over the equatorial South China Sea. A semi-idealized experiment reproduced the Borneo vortex over the equatorial South China Sea during a perpetual cold surge. The Borneo vortex is manifested as a meso-alpha cyclone with a comma-shaped rainband in the northeast sector of the cyclone. Vorticity budget analysis showed that the growth/maintenance of the meso-alpha cyclone was achieved mainly by the vortex stretching. This vortex stretching is due to the upward motion forced by the latent heat release around the cyclone centre. The comma-shaped rainband consists of clusters of meso-beta scale rainfall cells. The intense rainfall in the comma-head (comma-tail) is generated by the confluence of the warmer and wetter cyclonic easterly flow (cyclonic southeasterly flow) and the cooler and drier northeasterly surge in the northwestern (northeastern) sector of the cyclone. Intense upward motion and heavy rainfall resulted due to the low-level convergence and the favourable thermodynamic profile at the confluence zone. In particular, the convergence in the northwestern sector is responsible for maintenance of the meso-alpha cyclone system. At both meso-alpha and meso-beta scales, the convergence is ultimately caused by the deviatoric strain in the confluence wind pattern but is significantly self-enhanced by the nonlinear dynamics. Reference: Koseki, S., T.-Y. Koh and C.-K. Teo (2014), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 4539-4562, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4539-2014, 2014.

  19. Charles Bonnet syndrome in a Borneo Iban tribesman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, R; Yasin, Y

    2009-01-01

    A 31-year-old man Charles Bonnet syndrome is a condition usually seen in the visually-impaired elderly, causing complex visual hallucinations in the absence of any delirium, dementia or psychiatric illness. We report an elderly man, with blindness in one eye and a cataract in the other, from the Iban tribe, which is indigenous to the island of Borneo. He presented with a three-week history of vivid hallucinations of burglars intruding on his living quarters in the longhouse where he lived.

  20. People's perceptions about the importance of forests on Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijaard, Erik; Abram, Nicola K; Wells, Jessie A; Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Ancrenaz, Marc; Gaveau, David L A; Runting, Rebecca K; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2013-01-01

    We ascertained villagers' perceptions about the importance of forests for their livelihoods and health through 1,837 reliably answered interviews of mostly male respondents from 185 villages in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo. Variation in these perceptions related to several environmental and social variables, as shown in classification and regression analyses. Overall patterns indicated that forest use and cultural values are highest among people on Borneo who live close to remaining forest, and especially among older Christian residents. Support for forest clearing depended strongly on the scale at which deforestation occurs. Deforestation for small-scale agriculture was generally considered to be positive because it directly benefits people's welfare. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm or acacia plantations), on the other hand, appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have overall negative impacts on them, but with people in some areas considering the benefits to outweigh the costs. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Our study is unique in its geographic and trans-national scale. Our findings enable the development of maps of forest use and perceptions that could inform land use planning at a range of scales. Incorporating perspectives such as these could significantly reduce conflict over forest resources and ultimately result in more equitable development processes.

  1. People's perceptions about the importance of forests on Borneo.

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    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available We ascertained villagers' perceptions about the importance of forests for their livelihoods and health through 1,837 reliably answered interviews of mostly male respondents from 185 villages in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo. Variation in these perceptions related to several environmental and social variables, as shown in classification and regression analyses. Overall patterns indicated that forest use and cultural values are highest among people on Borneo who live close to remaining forest, and especially among older Christian residents. Support for forest clearing depended strongly on the scale at which deforestation occurs. Deforestation for small-scale agriculture was generally considered to be positive because it directly benefits people's welfare. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm or acacia plantations, on the other hand, appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have overall negative impacts on them, but with people in some areas considering the benefits to outweigh the costs. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Our study is unique in its geographic and trans-national scale. Our findings enable the development of maps of forest use and perceptions that could inform land use planning at a range of scales. Incorporating perspectives such as these could significantly reduce conflict over forest resources and ultimately result in more equitable development processes.

  2. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food

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    RUDITO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Rudito, Suwarto, Azkiyah L, Witono Y, Saragih B, Arung ET. 2017. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 99-103. Finding of local food sources to enhance food security areas. This study focuses on the characteristics of growth Dayak Borneo yam observation, toxic substances and detoxification techniques development of non nutritional. The objective of the research was to find out a more concrete picture, as well as comparing it with Java yam non nutritional components as a basis for further exploration of alternative food. Observations indicate that the plant growth of Dayak Borneo yam had specific characteristics, and can be grown in intercropping with other crops. Yam tubers have negative image due to the toxins contained by this commodity, as well as technology management (detoxification and processing of yam products that have not been controlled by the community. But based on the results of physical and chemical detoxification, indicates that the Dayak Borneo yam can be exploited further as food. Dayak Borneo yam need to be developed modification process in raw materials of Dayak Borneo yam as modified starch through fermentation techniques which also intended to obtain intermediate product from which Dayak Borneo yam has a larger functionality as a food ingredient.

  3. Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P; Pierron, Denis; Purnomo, Gludhug A; Adelaar, Alexander; Kivisild, Toomas; Letellier, Thierry; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Malagasy genetic diversity results from an exceptional protoglobalization process that took place over a thousand years ago across the Indian Ocean. Previous efforts to locate the Asian origin of Malagasy highlighted Borneo broadly as a potential source, but so far no firm source populations were identified. Here, we have generated genome-wide data from two Southeast Borneo populations, the Banjar and the Ngaju, together with published data from populations across the Indian Ocean region. We find strong support for an origin of the Asian ancestry of Malagasy among the Banjar. This group emerged from the long-standing presence of a Malay Empire trading post in Southeast Borneo, which favored admixture between the Malay and an autochthonous Borneo group, the Ma'anyan. Reconciling genetic, historical, and linguistic data, we show that the Banjar, in Malay-led voyages, were the most probable Asian source among the analyzed groups in the founding of the Malagasy gene pool.

  4. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  5. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo

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    Kathleen, M. M.; Felecia, C.; Reagan, E. L.; Kasing, A.; Lesley, M.; Toh, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture's surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n = 20), while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n = 90). The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n = 94) which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading.

  6. Studying Linguistic and Cultural Contact in Borneo: Prospects and Challenges

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    Antonia Soriente

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the variegated landscape of languages and cultures of Borneo, the study of languages is a powerful tool to shed light on the intricate history of relations that has long been obscured by the polarization between ‘Dayak’ and ‘Malay’. This article looks at some of the features of Lebu’ Kulit Kenyah, Penan Benalui, Punan Tubu’ and Ma’ Pnaan (Punan Malinau/Segah languages to clarify the linguistic and cultural affiliations among groups that were otherwise lumped together in vague classifications. It demonstrates what is to follow: according to a number of phonological, morphological and lexical evidence, and other historical evidence, Lebu’ Kulit has to be listed among the Kayanic languages. Penan Benalui, like the other Penan languages, is not a Kenyah language, whereas Punan Tubu’, despite the alleged cultural and social similarity with other Punan groups, cannot be classified within the Penan branch nor with other Punan languages. Ma’ Pnaan or Punan Malinau/Segah is not a Punan language and is linguistically classified within the Kayanic branch of the Kayan-Kenyah subgroup.

  7. Seasonal Forecasting of Fires across Southern Borneo, 1997-2010

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    Spessa, Allan; Field, Robert; Kaiser, Johannes; Langner, Andreas; Moore, Jonathan; Pappenberger, Florian; Siegert, Florian; Weber, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    several studies using historical data have established negative relationships between fires and antecedent rainfall, and/or positive relationships between fires and deforestation in regions affected by El Nino, comparatively little work has attempted to predict fires and emissions in such regions. Ensemble seasonal climate forecasts issued with several months lead-time have been applied to support risk assessment systems in many fields, notably agricultural production and natural disaster management of flooding, heat waves, drought and fire. The USA, for example, has a long-standing seasonal fire danger prediction system. Fire danger monitoring systems have been operating in Indonesia for over a decade, but, as of yet, no fire danger prediction systems exist. Given the effort required to mobilise suppression and prevention measures in Indonesia, one could argue that high fire danger periods must be anticipated months in advance for mitigation and response measures to be effective. To address this need, the goal of our work was to examine the utility of seasonal rainfall forecasts in predicting severe fires in Indonesia more than one month in advance, using southern Borneo (comprising the bulk of Kalimantan) as a case study. Here we present the results of comparing seasonal forecasts of monthly rainfall from ECMWF's System 4 against i) observed rainfall (GPCP), and ii) burnt area and deforestation (MODIS, AVHRR and Landsat) across southern Borneo for the period 1997-2010. Our results demonstrate the utility of using ECMWF's seasonal climate forecasts for predicting fire activity in the region. Potential applications include improved fire mitigation and responsiveness, and improved risk assessments of biodiversity and carbon losses through fire. These are important considerations for forest protection programmes (e.g. REDD+), forest carbon markets and forest (re)insurance enterprises.

  8. Mammalian communities as indicators of disturbance across Indonesian Borneo

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    Susan M. Cheyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using camera traps at eight grids across Indonesian Borneo we show how mammalian species assemblages can provide reliable information about how disturbance affects a forest. This enables us to use the large mammal community structure at each site to assess the impacts of human disturbance and habitat variables. Occupancy ranged from 0.01–0.77 with pig-tailed macaques, muntjac, orang-utans, sun bears, bearded pigs and common porcupines consistently having an occupancy of >0.5. These large mammals were generally making use of the whole forest surveyed and avoided the forest edge in only a few grids. A General Linear Model with general contrasts and survey effort as a covariate was performed to assess the impact of different variables. Logging and hunting were positively associated with low species number (F=6.3, p=0.012 and F=5.4, p=0.003 respectively. Logging and hunting contributed to a low % of carnivorous species (F=1.5, p=0.021 and F=4.8, p=0.041 respectively and a higher % of IUCN Endangered and Vulnerable species (F=5.9, p=0.044 and F=5.0, p=0.044 respectively. The presence of burnt areas within the study grids was positively associated with reduced species numbers (F=5.3, p=0.018 and reducted % of carnivorous species (F=6.8, p=0.023 but not the % of IUCN Endangered and Vulnerable species. This is likely a result of burnt areas reducing the area of suitable habitat for many mammals. The proximity of the grids to roads, villages, rivers and presence of logging camps have been proposed as suitable parameters to indicate disturbance. In our study none of these parameters significantly affected the total species numbers, % of carnivores, and % of IUCN concern (Endangered and Vulnerable, nor did the protected status of the forest. We have identified 4 species as specific indicators whose presence or absence can help determine the type and/or extent of forest disturbance and/or be a proxy indicator for the presence of other species. Leopard cat

  9. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

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    P. K. Misztal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works

  10. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-05-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been

  11. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic

  12. On probably young miocene fossils from the coal concession Batoe Panggal, near Tenggarong (Samarinda), Eastern Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1950-01-01

    In the collections of the Leyden Geological Museum is a set of fossiliferous clay-stones which was long ago collected by the mining engineer Hulshoff-Pol in the coal quarries of Batoe Panggal 1), Eastern Borneo. He presented the collection in 1902 to Dr M. Schmidt, who at that time was making geolog

  13. Basyuni `Imran, (Muhammad Basyuni b. Muhammad `Imran, Sambas, West Borneo, 1885-1953)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Basyuni `Imran was the last Maharaja Imam (highest religious official) of the Malay sultanate of Sambas in West Borneo and as such part of the traditional religious establishment. At the same time however he was a convinced reformist and probably Rashid Rida's most prominent and devoted disciple in

  14. Systematic and Faunistic remarks on Birds from Borneo and Java, with new records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper I have collected notes on a number of birds from Java and Borneo, which have accumulated over the past seven years as a by-product of other studies rather than as a result of directed research in our collections. Ardea cinerea altirostris subspecies nova Diagnosis. — Similar in plumage

  15. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development. PMID:27605501

  16. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  17. A global model study of the impact of land-use change in Borneo on atmospheric composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Warwick

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a high resolution version of the Cambridge p-TOMCAT chemical transport model is used, along with measurement data from the 2008 NERC-funded Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3 project, to examine the potential impact of the expansion of oil palm in Borneo on atmospheric composition. Several model emission scenarios are run for the OP3 measurement period, incorporating emissions from both global datasets and local flux measurements. Using the OP3 observed isoprene fluxes and OH recycling chemistry in p-TOMCAT substantially improves the comparison between modelled and observed isoprene and OH concentrations relative to using MEGAN isoprene emissions without OH recycling. However, a similar improvement was also achieved without using HOx recycling, by fixing boundary layer isoprene concentrations over Borneo to follow the OP3 observations. An extreme hypothetical future scenario, in which all of Borneo is converted to oil palm plantation, assessed the sensitivity of the model to changes in isoprene and NOx emissions associated with land-use change. This scenario suggested a 70% upper limit on surface ozone increases resulting from land-use change on Borneo, excluding the impact of future changes in emissions elsewhere. Although the largest changes in this scenario occurred directly over Borneo, the model also calculated notable regional changes of O3, OH and other species downwind of Borneo and in the free troposphere.

  18. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivaion of Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFRILIA TRI WIDYAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Widyawati AT, Nurbani. 2017. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivaion of Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima in East Kalimantan. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 127-131. The demand for high-value commodities such as oranges continues to increase every year. One of the qualities of orange that can not be met by domestic manufacturers is the color of a citrus peel. Most consumers like citrus orange, like mandarin oranges and other citrus imports. Efforts to reduce the national citrus imports is to improve the productivity and quality of citrus orange in Indonesia. Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima is one of the featured horticultural commodities in East Kalimantan, which has the advantage of being low lying tangerine with orange rind. It Is indispensable citrus cultivation technique is good and right, so that the citrus plant can develop optimally so that later can produce citrus fruit both in quality and quantity.

  19. A note on the occurrence of a crayback stalagmite at Niah Caves, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crayback stalagmites have mainly been reported from New South Wales, Australia. Here we document a small crayback in the entrance of Painted Cave (Kain Hitam, part of the Niah Caves complex in Sarawak, Borneo. Measuring some 65 cm in length and 18 cm in height, this deposit is elongate in the direction of the dominant wind and thus oriented towards the natural tunnel entrance. It shows the classic humpbacked long profile, made up of small transverse segments or plates, in this case the tail extending towards the entrance. The dark blue-green colour down the centre suggests that cyanobacterial growth follows the track of the wind-deflected roof drip. The dry silty cave sediment provides material for accretion onto the biological mat. This is the only example known from Borneo and one of the very few known from outside of Australia.

  20. Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins in Borneo: A Review of Current Knowledge with Emphasis on Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Gianna; Zulkifli Poh, Anna Norliza; Peter, Cindy; Porter, Lindsay; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are documented from various locations along Borneo's coast, including three sites in Sarawak, Malaysia, three sites in Sabah, Malaysia, three locations in Kalimantan, Indonesia and the limited coastal waters of the Sultanate of Brunei. Observations in all these areas indicate a similar external morphology, which seems to fall somewhere between that documented for Chinese populations known as S. chinensis, and that of Sousa sahulensis in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Sightings occur in shallow nearshore waters, often near estuaries and river mouths, and associations with Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) are frequently documented. Population estimates exist for only two locations and sightings information throughout Borneo indicates that frequency of occurrence is rare and group size is usually small. Threats from fisheries by-catch and coastal development are present in many locations and there are concerns over the ability of these small and fragmented populations to survive. The conservation and taxonomic status of humpback dolphins in Borneo remain unclear, and there are intriguing questions as to where these populations fit in our evolving understanding of the taxonomy of the genus.

  1. Contribution of the Heart of Borneo (HoB initiative towards botanical exploration in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Sabran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Heart of   Borneo (HoB declaration is a conservation agreement initiated by WWF and signed by three countries, i.e., Brunei       Darussalam, Indonesia and Malaysia in Bali, Indonesia on 12th February 2007 to protect more than 23 million hectares of forested region on Borneo Island. These forested areas could be well protected when conservation management plan is in place. One of the crucial activities to facilitate the planning and formulation of conservation plan is to conduct  scientific expeditions that include botanical exploration. The primary objective of the expedition is to identify the key conservation targets within the forest reserves. For the past five years, several expeditions have been conducted by the Sabah Forestry Department under the auspices of the HoB project to explore various forest reserves with conservation issues within the Heart of Borneo area. This paper will present the findings which include plant richness, endemism and plant conservation status in each forest reserves that has been explored. 

  2. Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yunwei; LING Zheng; CHEN Changlin

    2015-01-01

    Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated by using satellite data, climatological temperature and salinity fields and reanalysis data. The upwelling forms in Decem-ber, matures in January, starts to decay in February and almost disappears in March. Both Ekman trans-port induced by the alongshore winter monsoon and Ekman pumping due to orographic wind stress curl are favorable for the upwelling. Transport estimates demonstrate that the month-to-month variability of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping are both consistent with that of winter coastal upwelling, but Ek-man transport is two times larger than Ekman pumping in January and February. Under the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the upwelling shows remarkable interannual variability: during winter of El Niño (La Niña) years, an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) wind anomaly is established in the SCS, which behaves a northeasterly (southwesterly) anomaly and a positive (negative) wind stress curl anomaly off the north-west Borneo coast, enhancing (reducing) the upwelling and causing anomalous surface cooling (warming) and higher (lower) chlorophyll concentration. The sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) associated with ENSO off the northwest Borneo coast has an opposite phase to that off southeast Vietnam, resulting in a SSTA seesaw pattern in the southern SCS in winter.

  3. Fire in the vegetation and peatlands of Borneo, 1997-2007: Patterns, Drivers and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, A.; Weber, U.; Langner, A.; Siegert, F.; Heil, A.

    2009-04-01

    Fire activity and emissions from biomass burning in the so-called ‘Arc of Deforestation' along the southern Amazonian forest has been shown to be negatively and non-linearly correlated with rainfall variability, and that this correlation is mediated by human land use and land cover change (LULCC) which drives ignitions and promotes fire spread (Cochrane et al. 1999; Cochrane 2003; Aragao et al. 2008). Other studies have established a similar correlation between fires and associated emissions versus rainfall in Borneo, in particular Kalimantan, with ENSO-driven droughts being identified as the main cause of below average rainfall events over the past decade or so (Field & Shen 2008; van der Werf et al 2008). However, while these particular Borneo studies have indicated that the non-linear relationship between fires and rainfall may be caused by LULCC, they have demonstrated this link only at a broad regional scale. Siegert et al (2001) reported a clear link between fires and logging in Borneo, but this study was restricted to east Kalimantan and the period 1997-98, during which devastating El-Nino driven fires occurred there. Further El Nino events have occurred in Borneo in 2002, 2004 and 2006. The link between fires and emissions, rainfall and LULCC across the island of Borneo therefore remains to be examined using available fine resolution data over a multi-year period. Using rainfall and soil data in combination with state-of-the art satellite sensor data (LANDSAT ETM, MODIS, ATSR and AVHRR) to determine burnt area and deforestation patterns over the decade 1997-2007, we show at a pixel working resolution of 0.25 degrees the following: Burning across Borneo (1997-2007) predominated in southern Kalimantan. Fire activity is negatively and non-linearly correlated to rainfall mainly in pixels that have undergone a significant reduction in forest cover between 1997 and 2007, and that the bigger the reduction, the stronger the correlation. Such pixels occur

  4. Active tectonic deformation along rejuvenated faults in tropical Borneo: Inferences obtained from tectono-geomorphic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Manoj Joseph; Menier, David; Siddiqui, Numair; Kumar, Shashi Gaurav; Authemayou, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The island of Borneo is enveloped by tropical rainforests and hostile terrain characterized by high denudation rates. Owing to such conditions, studies pertaining to neotectonics and consequent geomorphic expressions with regard to surface processes and landscape evolution are inadequately constrained. Here we demonstrate the first systematic tectono-geomorphic evaluation of north Borneo through quantitative and qualitative morphotectonic analysis at sub-catchment scale, for two large drainage basins located in Sarawak: the Rajang and Baram basins. The extraction of morphometric parameters utilizing digital elevation models arranged within a GIS environment focuses on hypsometric curve analysis, distribution of hypsometric integrals through spatial autocorrelation statistics, relative uplift values, the asymmetry factor and the normalized channel steepness index. Hypsometric analysis suggests a young topography adjusting to changes in tectonic boundary conditions. Autocorrelation statistics show clusters of high values of hypsometric integrals as prominent hotspots that are associated with less eroded, young topography situated in the fold and thrust belts of the Interior Highlands of Borneo. High channel steepness and gradients (> 200 m0.9) are observed in zones corresponding to the hotspots. Relative uplift values reveal the presence of tectonically uplifted blocks together with relatively subsided or lesser uplifted zones along known faults. Sub-catchments of both basins display asymmetry indicating tectonic tilting. Stream longitudinal profiles demonstrate the presence of anomalies in the form of knickzones without apparent lithological controls along their channel reaches. Surfaces represented by cold spots of low HI values and low channel gradients observed in the high elevation headwaters of both basins are linked to isolated erosional planation surfaces that could be remnants of piracy processes. The implication of our results is that Borneo experiences

  5. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.

  6. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Gaveau, David L.A.; Douglas Sheil; Husnayaen; Mohammad A. Salim; Sanjiwana Arjasakusuma; Marc Ancrenaz; Pablo Pacheco; Erik Meijaard

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian...

  7. Diversity of Begonia (Begoniaceae in Borneo – how many species are there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 126 species are currently named and described from Borneo (Brunei - 16 species, Kalimantan – 5 species, Sabah – 41 species and Sarawak – 72 species. However, based on our survey of the Begonia collection in the Sarawak Herbarium, the un-named taxa (about 110 species significantly outnumber the 72-named species. The situation is probably the same for Sabah, so with many more new species than the 41 named ones at a conservative estimate the Sabah Begonia flora can be expected to exceed 100 species. For Kalimantan (5 named species, the total number of un-named species is likely to be even higher considering that Kalimantan occupies a  larger land area, its begonia-rich mountains and limestone areas are hardly collected, and the Begonia flora has hardly been studied at all. We can therefore expect the Begonia flora of Borneo to exceed 600 species. In view of the high level of narrow endemism (80% of species are known from a single locality, expeditions to unexplored areas are  necessary to document, in particular, areas that are experiencing irreversible land-use change. Alpha-taxonomy on a large scale is needed to tackle the backlog of literally hundreds of new undescribed species. 

  8. Do Anthropogenic Dark Earths Occur in the Interior of Borneo? Some Initial Observations from East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meine van Noordwijk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic soils of the Amazon Basin (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata reveal that pre-Colombian peoples made lasting improvements in the agricultural potential of nutrient-poor soils. Some have argued that applying similar techniques could improve agriculture over much of the humid tropics, enhancing local livelihoods and food security, while also sequestering large quantities of carbon to mitigate climate change. Here, we present preliminary evidence for Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADEs in tropical Asia. Our surveys in East Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo identified several sites where soils possess an anthropogenic development and context similar in several respects to the Amazon’s ADEs. Similarities include riverside locations, presence of useful fruit trees, spatial extent as well as soil characteristics such as dark color, high carbon content (in some cases, high phosphorus levels, and improved apparent fertility in comparison to neighboring soils. Local people value these soils for cultivation but are unaware of their origins. We discuss these soils in the context of local history and land-use and identify numerous unknowns. Incomplete biomass burning appears key to these modified soils. More study is required to clarify soil transformations in Borneo and to determine under what circumstances such soil improvements might remain ongoing.

  9. Comparative analysis of ITS1 nucleotide sequence reveals distinct genetic difference between Brugia malayi from Northeast Borneo and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mun-Yik; Noordin, Rahmah; Lau, Yee-Ling; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Idris, Zulkarnain Md

    2013-01-01

    Brugia malayi is one of the parasitic worms which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. Its geographical distribution includes a large part of Asia. Despite its wide distribution, very little is known about the genetic variation and molecular epidemiology of this species. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nucleotide sequences of B. malayi from microfilaria-positive human blood samples in Northeast Borneo Island were determined, and compared with published ITS1 sequences of B. malayi isolated from cats and humans in Thailand. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that B. malayi ITS1 sequences from Northeast Borneo were more similar to each other than to those from Thailand. Phylogenetic trees inferred using Neighbour-Joining and Maximum Parsimony methods showed similar topology, with 2 distinct B. malayi clusters. The first cluster consisted of Northeast Borneo B. malayi isolates, whereas the second consisted of the Thailand isolates. The findings of this study suggest that B. malayi in Borneo Island has diverged significantly from those of mainland Asia, and this has implications for the diagnosis of B. malayi infection across the region using ITS1-based molecular techniques.

  10. Annual variation in carbon budget using remote-sensing data and a process model in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Takeuchi, W.; Yamagata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) is one of the most important carbon emission reduction efforts in the tropical region. Deforestation and land use changes are human activities with major impact on the regional carbon budged and the other greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) emissions. Forest carbon biomass in Southeast Asia is largest in Asia region; however, the area of primary forest had continuously decreased due to land-use conversion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate carbon budged and greenhouse gases induced by deforestation from Borneo Island. We used time-series satellite remote-sensing data to track deforestation history in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia, and estimated the resulting forest carbon budget using a process-based model (VISIT: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases). The forest/non-forest area was mapped by applying the ALOS/PALSAR-calibrated threshold value to MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION, and NOAA-AVHRR images. The model allowed us to estimate changes in carbon budged and greenhouse gases by human disturbances, including land-use conversion from primary forest to cropland (e.g., oil-palm plantation). The estimated carbon stocks, budged, and greenhouse gases were verified using field observation of previous studies at some point of Borneo Island. Our results suggested that the southern part of Borneo Island was a large carbon source due to deforestation, although the VISIT model need be revised to account for tropical peatland.

  11. A study of the impact of land-use change in Borneo on atmospheric composition using a global model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Warwick

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we use a high resolution version of the Cambridge p-TOMCAT model, along with data collected during the 2008 NERC-funded Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3 project, to examine the potential impact of the expansion of oil palm in Borneo on air quality and atmospheric composition. Several model emission scenarios are run for the OP3 measurement period, incorporating emissions from both global datasets and local flux measurements. Isoprene fluxes observed at a forest site during OP3 were considerably less than fluxes calculated using the MEGAN model. Incorporating the observed isoprene fluxes into p-TOMCAT substantially improved the comparison between modelled and observed isoprene surface mixing ratios and OH concentrations relative to using the MEGAN emissions. If both observed isoprene fluxes and HOx recycling chemistry were included, the ability of the model to capture diurnal variations in isoprene and OH was further improved. However, a similar improvement was also achieved using a~standard chemical mechanism without HOx recycling, by fixing boundary layer isoprene concentrations over Borneo to follow the OP3 observations. Further model simulations, considering an extreme scenario with all of Borneo converted to oil palm plantation, were run to determine the maximum atmospheric impact of land use change in Borneo. In these simulations, the level of nitrogen oxides was found to be critical. If only isoprene emissions from oil palm are considered, then large scale conversion to oil palm produced a decrease in monthly mean surface ozone of up to ~20%. However, if related changes in NOx emissions from fertilisation, industrial processing and transport are also included then ozone increases of up to ~70% were calculated. Although the largest changes occurred locally, the model also calculated significant regional changes of O3, OH and other species downwind of Borneo and in the free troposphere.

  12. Preliminary Cluster Analysis For Several Representatives Of Genus Kerivoula (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Abdullah, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to use cluster analysis on morphometric parameters within the genus Kerivoula to produce a dendrogram and to determine the suitability of this method to describe the relationship among species within this genus. A total of 15 adult male individuals from genus Kerivoula taken from sampling trips around Borneo and specimens kept at the zoological museum of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak were examined. A total of 27 characters using dental, skull and external body measurements were recorded. Clustering analysis illustrated the grouping and morphometric relationships between the species of this genus. It has clearly separated each species from each other despite the overlapping of measurements of some species within the genus. Cluster analysis provides an alternative approach to make a preliminary identification of a species.

  13. Assessment of atmospheric impacts of biomass open burning in Kalimantan, Borneo during 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mastura

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning from the combustion of agricultural wastes and forest materials is one of the major sources of air pollution. The objective of the study is to investigate the major contribution of the biomass open burning events in the island of Borneo, Indonesia to the degradation of air quality in equatorial Southeast Asia. A total of 10173 active fire counts were detected by the MODIS Aqua satellite during August 2004, and consequently, elevated the PM10 concentration levels at six air quality stations in the state of Sarawak, in east Malaysia, which is located in northwestern Borneo. The PM10 concentrations measured on a daily basis were above the 50 μg m-3 criteria as stipulated by the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for most of the month, and exceeded the 24-h Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines of 150 μg m-3 on three separate periods from the 13th to the 30th August 2004. The average correlation between the ground level PM10 concentrations and the satellite derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.3 at several ground level air quality stations, implied the moderate relationship between the aerosols over the depth of the entire column of atmosphere and the ground level suspended particulate matter. Multiple regression for meteorological parameters such as rainfall, windspeed, visibility, mean temperature, relative humidity at two stations in Sarawak and active fire counts that were located near the centre of fire activities were only able to explain for 61% of the total variation in the AOD. The trajectory analysis of the low level mesoscale meteorological conditions simulated by the TAPM model illustrated the influence of the sea and land breezes within the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer, embedded within the prevailing monsoonal southwesterlies, in circulating the aged and new air particles within Sarawak.

  14. Semiterrestrial crabs of the genus Geosesarma De Man, 1892 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae) from western Borneo, Indonesia, with descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peter K L

    2015-11-24

    The poorly known semiterrestrial sesarmid crab, Geosesarma amphinome (De Man, 1899), from Kalimantan Barat in western Borneo, is redescribed and figured. Three other species from areas surrounding the town of Pontianak, are here described as new. Geosesarma ambawang sp. nov., G. pontianak sp. nov., and G. pylaemenes sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners on Borneo and adjacent areas by their colours in life, form of the carapaces and ambulatory legs, and the structures of the male abdomens and first gonopods.

  15. Depreissia decipiens, an enigmatic canopy spider from Borneo revisited (Araneae, Salticidae), with remarks on the distribution and diversity of canopy spiders in Sabah, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeleman-Reinhold, Christa L; Miller, Jeremy; Floren, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Depreissia is a little known genus comprising two hymenopteran-mimicking species, one found in Central Africa and one in the north of Borneo. The male of Depreissia decipiens is redescribed, the female is described for the first time. The carapace is elongated, dorsally flattened and rhombus-shaped, the rear of the thorax laterally depressed and transformed, with a pair of deep pits; the pedicel is almost as long as the abdomen. The male palp is unusual, characterized by the transverse deeply split membranous tegulum separating a ventral part which bears a sclerotized tegular apophysis and a large dagger-like retrodirected median apophysis. The female epigyne consists of one pair of large adjacent spermathecae and very long copulatory ducts arising posteriorly and rising laterally alongside the spermathecae continuing in several vertical and horizontal coils over the anterior surface. Relationships within the Salticidae are discussed and an affinity with the Cocalodinae is suggested. Arguments are provided for a hypothesis that Depreissia decipiens is not ant-mimicking as was previously believed, but is a mimic of polistinine wasps. The species was found in the canopy in the Kinabalu area only, in primary and old secondary rainforest at 200-700 m.a.s.l. Overlap of canopy-dwelling spider species with those in the understorey are discussed and examples of species richness and endemism in the canopy are highlighted. Canopy fogging is a very efficient method of collecting for most arthropods. The canopy fauna adds an extra dimension to the known biodiversity of the tropical rainforest. In southeast Asia, canopy research has been neglected, inhibiting evaluation of comparative results of this canopy project with that from other regions. More use of fogging as a collecting method would greatly improve insight into the actual species richness and species distribution in general.

  16. Fire, drought and El Niño relationships on Borneo during the pre-MODIS era (1980-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, M. J.; Perry, G. L. W.; Zoumas, A.

    2011-02-01

    Borneo (Indonesia) is Earth's third largest island, and the location of both extensive areas of rainforest and tropical peatlands. It is the site of both regular (seasonal) biomass burning associated with forest clearance and agricultural production preparations, and occasional, but much more severe, large fire episodes releasing enormous volumes of carbon from burning vegetation and peat. The latter's extreme magnitude is believed to be associated with the severity of El Niño related droughts. Over the last decade, data from the EOS MODIS satellite instruments have been used to study fire on Borneo, but earlier large fire events remain less well documented. Here we focus on the study of Borneo's large fire episodes in the "pre-MODIS" era, and specifically a 20 year period covering both the two strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on record (1997-1998 and 1982-1983) and an unprecedented series of more frequent, but weaker, El Niño's. For the five El Niño episodes occurring between 1980 and 2000, we develop quantitative measures of Borneo's fire activity based on active fire counts derived from NOAA AVHRR Global Area Coverage (CAC) satellite data. We use these metrics to investigate relationships between the strength and timing of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, the associated drought, and the fire activity magnitude. Significant fires are identified across parts of South, Central, East and West Kalimantan, always occurring within two or three fire sub-seasons separated by monsoons. We find that the length, overall strength, and growth rate of individual El Niño episodes effects the extent and harshness of the drought, and the magnitude of fire activity. We confirm significant correlations between monthly ENSO index and rainfall deficit measures, and between rainfall deficit and fire. The two strongest El Niño episodes are accompanied by the most abundant fires, showing two and three times the active fire count seen in the next

  17. Baseline coral disease surveys within three marine parks in Sabah, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Miller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most significant threats to coral reefs worldwide are bleaching and disease. However, there has been a scarcity of research on coral disease in South-East Asia, despite the high biodiversity and the strong dependence of local communities on the reefs in the region. This study provides baseline data on coral disease frequencies within three national parks in Sabah, Borneo, which exhibit different levels of human impacts and management histories. High mean coral cover (55% and variable disease frequency (mean 0.25 diseased colonies m−2 were found across the three sites. Highest disease frequency (0.44 diseased colonies per m2 was seen at the site closest to coastal population centres. Bleaching and pigmentation responses were actually higher at Sipadan, the more remote, offshore site, whereas none of the other coral diseases detected in the other two parks were detected in Sipadan. Results of this study offer a baseline dataset of disease in these parks and indicate the need for continued monitoring, and suggest that coral colonies in parks under higher anthropogenic stressors and with lower coral cover may be more susceptible to contracting disease.

  18. Extreme nickel hyperaccumulation in the vascular tracts of the tree Phyllanthus balgooyi from Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Barnabas, Alban; van der Ent, Antony

    2016-03-01

    Phyllanthus balgooyi (Phyllanthaceae), one of > 20 nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator plant species known in Sabah (Malaysia) on the island of Borneo, is remarkable because it contains > 16 wt% Ni in its phloem sap, the second highest concentration of Ni in any living material in the world (after Pycnandra acuminata (Sapotaceae) from New Caledonia with 25 wt% Ni in latex). This study focused on the tissue-level distribution of Ni and other elements in the leaves, petioles and stem of P. balgooyi using nuclear microprobe imaging (micro-PIXE). The results show that in the stems and petioles of P. balgooyi Ni concentrations were very high in the phloem, while in the leaves there was significant enrichment of this element in the major vascular bundles. In the leaves, cobalt (Co) was codistributed with Ni, while the distribution of manganese (Mn) was different. The highest enrichment of calcium (Ca) in the stems was in the periderm, the epidermis and subepidermis of the petiole, and in the palisade mesophyll of the leaf. Preferential accumulation of Ni in the vascular tracts suggests that Ni is present in a metabolically active form. The elemental distribution of P. balgooyi differs from those of many other Ni hyperaccumulator plant species from around the world where Ni is preferentially accumulated in leaf epidermal cells.

  19. ELECTRICITY-FREE PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM BIOMASS IN BORNEO TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Sasaki,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared from biomass of Borneo island (wood charcoal, peat, and coconut husk by using an electricity–free furnace, of which the energy source was exclusively wood charcoal. This furnace was comprised of two parts, an inner vessel equipped with water inlet for steam activation and an outer shell as a heating part for the inner vessel. The inside temperature of the inner vessel was able to reach over 1000 oC. Peat and wood charcoal were converted to AC by carbonization followed by steam activation, and the specific BET surface areas of resultant ACs were 889 m2/g and 749 m2/g, respectively. A mobile apparatus for water purification was newly designed and fabricated with the resultant AC, together with a white quartz sand, which is called keranggas in Kalimantan. The CODOH of both polluted creek water by the University of Palangka Raya and Kahayan River water were remarkably decreased by the purification with the designed apparatus from 20.0 mgO/L to 0.93 mgO/L, and 18.2 mgO/L to 0.74 mgO/L, respectively. Thus, the newly designed furnace and purification apparatus were shown to be highly effective tools to produce a promising agent for water purification and to produce clarified water without use of electricity, respectively.

  20. Fire in the Vegetation and Peatlands of Borneo, 1997-2007: Patterns, Drivers and Emissions from Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, Allan; Weber, Ulrich; Langner, Andreas; Siegert, Florian; Heil, Angelika

    2010-05-01

    The peatland forests of equatorial SE Asia cover over 20 Mha with most located in Indonesia. Indonesian peatlands are globally one of the largest near-surface reserves of terrestrial organic carbon, with peat deposits of up to 20m thick and an estimated carbon storage of 55-61 Gt. The destructive fires in Indonesia during the exceptionally strong drought of late 1997 and early 1998 mark some of the largest peak emissions events in recorded history of global fires. Past studies estimate that about 1Gt of carbon was released to the atmosphere from the Indonesian fires in 1997- equivalent to 14% of the average global annual fossil fuel emissions released during the 1990s. Previous studies have established a non-linear negative correlation between fires and antecedent rainfall in Borneo, with ENSO-driven droughts being identified as the main cause of below-average rainfall events over the past decade or so. However, while these studies suggest that this non-linear relationship is mediated by ignitions associated with land use and land cover change (LULCC), they have not demonstrated it. A clear link between fires and logging in Borneo has been reported, but this work was restricted to eastern Kalimantan and the period 1997-98. The relationship between fires, emissions, rainfall and LULCC across the island of Borneo therefore remains to be examined using available fine resolution data over a multi-year period. Using rainfall data, up-to-date peat maps and state-of-the art satellite sensor data to determine burnt area and deforestation patterns over the decade 1997-2007, we show at a pixel working resolution of 0.25 degrees the following: Burning across Borneo predominated in southern Kalimantan. Fire activity is negatively and non-linearly correlated to rainfall mainly in pixels that have undergone a significant reduction in forest cover, and that the bigger the reduction, the stronger the correlation. Such pixels occur overwhelmingly in southern Kalimantan. These

  1. Revision of the genus Coeliccia Kirby in Borneo part II: Two new species from the membranipes-group, with a redescription of C. macrostigma Laidlaw (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A

    2016-11-02

    Coeliccia matok sp. nov. (holotype male from Borneo, Sarawak, Samarahan Division, peat swamp forest at old UNIMAS campus, 25 ii 2008, to be deposited in BMNH) and Coeliccia paludensis sp. nov. (holotype male from Borneo, Kalimantan Tengah, peat swamp forest in ex Mega Rice Project Block E, 18 vi 2012, in RMNH) are described from Borneo. The two new species are apparently confined to peat swamp forest (C. paludensis) or largely confined to peat swamp forest and related forest formations (C. matok). Coeliccia macrostigma Laidlaw is redescribed and all available information on it is summarised. Additional terminology for characters of the prothorax in Coeliccia species is introduced. Distribution maps are given for all three species considered.

  2. Development of Jacket Platform Tsunami Risk Rating System in Waters Offshore North Borneo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Lee; MS Liew; NH Mardi; KL Na; Iraj Toloue; SK Wong

    2016-01-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3Mw seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US$25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  3. Development of jacket platform tsunami risk rating system in waters offshore North Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. E.; Liew, M. S.; Mardi, N. H.; Na, K. L.; Toloue, Iraj; Wong, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3 M w seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US 25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  4. Persistent Effects of Oil Palm Plantation Agriculture on Freshwater Stream Function in Indonesian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L.; Ratnasari, D.

    2012-12-01

    Conversion of forests to agricultural land uses alters freshwater stream ecosystems by changing flows of physical, chemical, and biological stream inputs. In contrast with annual agricultural crops, oil palm agribusiness may have distinctive effects on stream function because these plantations replace existing land cover with 1,000-20,000 ha tree-like monocultures that have 20-30 year rotation cycles. From 2008 to 2012 in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), we measured water temperature, metabolism, and sediment and nutrient loads in four streams draining watersheds dominated (> ~70%) by intact and logged forests, agroforests and agricultural fallows, and young ( 10 y) oil palm plantations. We find that mean daily stream temperature was elevated 12% at the mature and 8% at the young oil palm site compared to the forest stream (25.5 ± 0.3°C). No clear relationship emerged between land cover type and ecosystem respiration (ER, g O2 m-2 d-1) or gross primary production (GPP, g O2 m-2 d-1). Yet GPP:ER ratios were 600% and 650% greater at young and mature oil palm watersheds, respectively, than the forested watershed (0.020 ± 0.005). Sediment loads (t d-1) across measured water yields (m d-1) were higher in the young oil palm stream compared to all other streams. Total phosphorous, total dissolved phosphorous, and total nitrogen loads for measured water yields were elevated in the agroforest and young oil palm sites compared to the forest site. Our results indicate that oil palm plantation land use alters tropical stream temperature, metabolism, nutrient loads, and sediment loads; moreover, these conditions appear to persist for ≥ 15 years. We discuss the implications of these findings for local human communities and ecosystems.

  5. Rising floodwaters: mapping impacts and perceptions of flooding in Indonesian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jessie A.; Wilson, Kerrie A.; Abram, Nicola K.; Nunn, Malcolm; Gaveau, David L. A.; Runting, Rebecca K.; Tarniati, Nina; Mengersen, Kerrie L.; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-06-01

    The roles of forest and wetland ecosystems in regulating flooding have drawn increasing attention in the contexts of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. However, data on floods are scarce in many of the countries where people are most exposed and vulnerable to their impacts. Here, our separate analyses of village interview surveys (364 villages) and news archives (16 sources) show that floods have major impacts on lives and livelihoods in Indonesian Borneo, and flooding risks are associated with features of the local climate and landscape, particularly land uses that have seen rapid expansions over the past 30 years. In contrast with government assessments, we find that flooding is far more widespread, and that frequent, local, events can have large cumulative impacts. Over three years, local news agencies reported floods that affected 868 settlements, 966 times (including 89 in urban areas), inundated at least 197 000 houses, and displaced more than 776 000 people, possibly as many as 1.5 million (i.e. 5%-10% of the total population). Spatial analyses based on surveys in 364 villages show that flood frequency is associated with land use in catchment areas, including forest cover and condition, and the area of wetlands, mines (open-cut coal or gold mines), and oil palm. The probability that floods have become more frequent over the past 30 years was higher for villages closer to mines, and in watersheds with more extensive oil palm, but lower in watersheds with greater cover of selectively-logged or intact forests. We demonstrate that in data-poor regions, multiple sources of information can be integrated to gain insights into the hydrological services provided by forest and wetland ecosystems, and motivate more comprehensive assessment of flooding risks and options for ecosystem-based adaptation.

  6. Impact of Logging and Forest Conversion to Oil Palm Plantations on Soil Bacterial Communities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Edwards, David P.; Tripathi, Binu M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil bacteria, which constitute a large proportion of total biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, is a major conservation frontier. Here we studied the effects of logging history and forest conversion to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo, on the soil bacterial community. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, to compare the bacterial communities in primary, once-logged, and twice-logged forest and land converted to oil palm plantations. Bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, and OTU richness and local-scale α-diversity showed no difference between the various forest types and oil palm plantations. Focusing on the turnover of bacteria across space, true β-diversity was higher in oil palm plantation soil than in forest soil, whereas community dissimilarity-based metrics of β-diversity were only marginally different between habitats, suggesting that at large scales, oil palm plantation soil could have higher overall γ-diversity than forest soil, driven by a slightly more heterogeneous community across space. Clearance of primary and logged forest for oil palm plantations did, however, significantly impact the composition of soil bacterial communities, reflecting in part the loss of some forest bacteria, whereas primary and logged forests did not differ in composition. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacteria of tropical forest are to some extent resilient or resistant to logging but that the impacts of forest conversion to oil palm plantations are more severe. PMID:24056463

  7. Evading Colonial Authority. Rebels and Outlaws in the Borderlands of Dutch West Borneo 1850s–1920s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Borderlands in Southeast Asia are often portrayed as being outside state influence, as zones of anarchy where identities are flexible, loyalties ephemeral and state authority largely avoided. Depicted by shifting state administrators as rebels and outlaws roaming the border hills the populations...... nineteenth century and thus aims to contribute to the growing historiography of Southeast Asian borderlands and the more localized dynamics of state formation. By contrasting local Iban narratives with colonial records in the border regency of Boven-Kapoeas in Dutch West Borneo I show how renowned rebel...

  8. Along-strike Deformation in Quaternary Valleys of Tropical NW Borneo: Implications for Active Tectonics, Seismicity and Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, B.; Mathew, M. J.; Menier, D.; Pubellier, M. F.; Sapin, F.; Siddiqui, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the wee hours of 5th June, 2015, NW Borneo was jolted by a 6.0 magnitude earthquake, caused by fault movement at a shallow depth of 10 km. The quake that originated from near the foot of the picturesque Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, was felt as far as 350 km away from the epicentre and has produced more than 90 aftershocks to date; ranging in magnitudes from 1.6 to 5.2. Although the geologically complex NW Borneo has experienced more than 60 mainshocks and numerous aftershocks since 1970 to present; research pertaining to active tectonics, morphotectonics analysis and subsequent geomorphic response to resulting transient dynamic topography remains inadequate.Here, we show evidences of active tectonics in tropical Sabah, NW Borneo, using morphometric indices, geomorphic indicators and report our results of morphotectonic analysis and consequent feedback of landscape and topography. Results from stream length gradient index, normalized channel steepness index and spatial distribution of hypsometric integral showed evidences of fault rejuvenation during Quaternary and recent periods. River longitudinal profiles showed the presence of several knickpoints indicating fault reactivations as the study area lacks lithological contrasts and similar climatic conditions along the channel reach. Field survey revealed the presence of highly elevated Quaternary fluvial terraces illustrating recent and important tectonic uplift rates in the trend of the exhumation rates calculated on Mt. Kinabalu by means of thermochronology. The uplifted terraces show a positive correlation with geomorphic analysis along the main valleys and other areas of active tectonics. Our analysis show the competition between important uplifts related to the dynamics of the NW Borneo Wedge and active normal faulting. These faults are in trend to the major earthquakes that occurred recently in this area, which have a normal faulting mechanism. The cause of the mechanism for recent tectonism and/or decoupling

  9. Long term halocarbon observations from a~coastal and an inland site in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Robinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short lived halocarbons are believed to have important sources in the tropics where rapid vertical transport could provide a significant source to the stratosphere. In this study, quasi-continuous measurements of short-lived halocarbons are reported for two tropical sites in Sabah (Malaysian Borneo, one coastal and one inland (rainforest. We present the observations for C2Cl4, CHBr3, CH2Br2* (actually ~80% CH2Br2 and ~20% CHBrCl2 and CH3I from November 2008 to January 2010 made using our μDirac gas chromatographs with electron capture detection (GC-ECD. We focus on the first 15 months of observations, showing over one annual cycle for each compound and therefore adding significantly to the few limited-duration observational studies that have been conducted thus far in southeast Asia. The main feature in the C2Cl4 behaviour at both sites is its annual cycle with the winter months being influenced by northerly flow with higher concentrations, typical of the Northern Hemisphere, with the summer months influenced by southerly flow and lower concentrations representative of the Southern Hemisphere. No such clear annual cycle is seen for CHBr3, CH2Br2Br2* or CH3I. The baseline values for CHBr3 and CH2Br2Br2* are similar at the coastal (overall median: CHBr3 1.7 ppt; CH2Br2Br2* 1.4 ppt and inland sites (CHBr3 1.6 ppt, CH2Br2Br2* 1.1 ppt, but periods with elevated values are seen at the coast (overall 95th percentile: CHBr3 4.4 ppt; CH2Br2Br2* 1.9 ppt presumably resulting from the stronger influence of coastal emissions. Overall median bromine values from [CHBr3] + [CH2Br2Br2*] are 8.0 ppt at the coast and 6.8 ppt inland. The median values reported here are largely consistent with other limited tropical data and imply that southeast Asia generally is not, as has been suggested, a hot-spot for emissions of these compounds. These baseline values are consistent with the most recent emissions found for southeast Asia using the p-TOMCAT model. CH3I, which

  10. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  11. Aircraft-borne DOAS limb observations of iodine monoxide around Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großmann, Katja; Hossaini, Ryan; Mantle, Hannah; Chipperfield, Martyn; Wittrock, Folkard; Peters, Enno; Lampel, Johannes; Walker, Hannah; Heard, Dwayne; Krystofiak, Gisèle; Catoire, Valéry; Dorf, Marcel; Werner, Bodo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Iodine monoxide (IO) has a major impact on the photochemistry of the troposphere. It can for example catalytically destroy ozone, influence the atmospheric oxidation capacity by changing the partitioning of the HOx and NOx species, or contribute to the formation of ultrafine particles. Information regarding the vertical distribution of IO is still sparse since only few vertical profiles of IO exist for the troposphere. Spectroscopic measurements were carried out from aboard the research aircraft DLR-Falcon during the SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign at Malaysian Borneo in November and December 2011 to study the abundance and transport of trace gases in the lower atmosphere. Sixteen research flights were performed covering legs near the surface in the marine boundary layer (MBL) as well as in the free troposphere (FT) up to an altitude of 13 km. The spectroscopic measurements were evaluated using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique in limb geometry, which supports observations of UV/visible absorbing trace gases, such as O4, BrO, IO, NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, HONO and H2O, and altitude information was gained via the O4 scaling technique and/or full inversion. The inferred vertical profiles of IO showed mixing ratios of 0.5-1.5 ppt in the MBL, which decreased to 0.1-0.3 ppt in the FT. Occasionally, the IO observed in the FT of the marine environment coincided with elevated amounts of CO, but no IO was observed over land, neither in the boundary layer, nor in the FT. This behavior strongly indicated that the major sources for IO were organic and inorganic precursor molecules emitted from the ocean, which during daytime rapidly formed a sizable amount of IO in the MBL that was occasionally transported into the FT where efficient loss processes for IO must exist. The inferred vertical profiles of IO are compared to simulations using the global 3-D chemistry transport model TOMCAT including recent fluxes

  12. High incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer: similarity for 60% of mitochondrial DNA signatures between the Bidayuhs of Borneo and the Bai-yue of Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Wee; Tam Cam Ha; Susan Loong; Chao-Nan Qian

    2012-01-01

    Populations in Southern China (Bai-yue) and Borneo (Bidayuh) with high incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) share similar mitochondrial DNA signatures,supporting the hypothesis that these two populations may share the same genetic predisposition for NPC,which may have first appeared in a common ancestral reference population before the sea levels rose after the last ice age.

  13. On one new genus and three new species of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae and Grapsidae) from Lanjak-Entimau, Sarawak, East Malaysia, Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The freshwater crabs obtained from the Lanjak-Entimau area in Sarawak, East Malaysia, Borneo, are reported upon. One new genus (Ibanum) and two new species of Potamidae (Ibanum aethes and Isolapotamon stuebingi) and a new species of Grapsidae (Geosesarma katibas) are described. The identity of Potam

  14. Mesoscale model simulation of low level equatorial winds over Borneo during the haze episode of September 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mastura

    2009-08-01

    The large-scale vegetation fires instigated by the local farmers during the dry period of the major El Niño event in 1997 can be considered as one of the worst environmental disasters that have occurred in southeast Asia in recent history. This study investigated the local meteorology characteristics of an equatorial environment within a domain that includes the northwestern part of Borneo from the 17 to 27 September 1997 during the height of the haze episode by utilizing a limited area three-dimensional meteorological and dispersion model, The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). Daily land and sea breeze conditions near the northwestern coast of Borneo in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia were predicted with moderate success by the index of agreement of less than one between the observed and simulated values for wind speed and a slight overprediction of 2.3 of the skill indicator that evaluates the standard deviation to the observed values. The innermost domain of study comprises an area of 24,193 km2, from approximately 109°E to 111°E, and from 1°N to 2.3°N, which includes a part of the South China Sea. Tracer analysis of air particles that were sourced in the state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo verified the existence of the landward and shoreward movements of the air during the simulation of the low level wind field. Polluted air particles were transported seawards during night-time, and landwards during daytime, highlighting the recirculation features of aged and newer air particles during the length of eleven days throughout the model simulation. Near calm conditions at low levels were simulated by the trajectory analysis from midnight to mid-day on the 22 of September 1997. Low-level turbulence within the planetary boundary layer in terms of the total kinetic energy was weak, congruent with the weak strength of low level winds that reduced the ability of the air to transport the pollutants. Statistical evaluation showed that parameters such as the systematic

  15. Mesoscale model simulation of low level equatorial winds over Borneo during the haze episode of September 1997

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mastura Mahmud

    2009-08-01

    The large-scale vegetation fires instigated by the local farmers during the dry period of the major El Ni˜no event in 1997 can be considered as one of the worst environmental disasters that have occurred in southeast Asia in recent history. This study investigated the local meteorology characteristics of an equatorial environment within a domain that includes the northwestern part of Borneo from the 17 to 27 September 1997 during the height of the haze episode by utilizing a limited area three-dimensional meteorological and dispersion model, The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). Daily land and sea breeze conditions near the northwestern coast of Borneo in the state ofSarawak, Malaysia were predicted with moderate success by the index of agreement of less than one between the observed and simulated values for wind speed and a slight overprediction of 2.3 of the skill indicator that evaluates the standard deviation to the observed values. The innermost domain of study comprises an area of 24,193 km2, from approximately 109°E to 111°E, and from 1°N to 2.3°N, which includes a part of the South China Sea. Tracer analysis of air particles that were sourced in the state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo verified the existence of the landward and shoreward movements of the air during the simulation of the low level wind field. Polluted air particles were transported seawards during night-time, and landwards during daytime, highlighting the recirculation features of aged and newer air particles during the length of eleven days throughout the model simulation. Near calm conditions at low levels were simulated by the trajectory analysis from midnight to mid-day on the 22 of September 1997. Low-level turbulence within the planetary boundary layer in terms of the total kinetic energy was weak, congruent with the weak strength of low level winds that reduced the ability of the air to transport the pollutants. Statistical evaluation showed that parameters such as the systematic

  16. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001–2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zender

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Land clearing for crops and plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR since 2001. Our modeling studies show this smoke increases atmospheric heating, and reduces regional SST and dry-season precipitation, causing a potential feedback that increases drought-stress and air quality problems during El Niño years. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001–2009. Most smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3–4 m s−1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 ± 1.4 (mean ± std. error km, 708 ± 13 m, and 27 ± 0.75% of the plume length, respectively. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes, possibly due to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 ± 15 km2 varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15–25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere albedo peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The initially oblong plumes become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in plume geometry. We provide

  17. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001–2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zender

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Land clearing for crops, plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR since 2001. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of distinct fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001–2009. The local MISR overpass at 10:30 a.m. misses the afternoon peak of Borneo fire emissions, and may preferentially sample longer plumes from persistent fires burning overnight. Typically the smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3–4 m s−1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 km, 708 m, and 27% of the plume length, respectively. 50% of these plumes have length between 24 and 50 km, height between 523 and 993 m and width between 18% and 30% of plume length. Length and cross-plume width are lognormally distributed, while height follows a normal distribution. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are on average nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes. This could be due to sampling or to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 km2, with 25th and 75th percentiles at 99 km2 and 304 km2, respectively varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15–25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere reflectance peak about halfway down-plume, at

  18. The Relative Influences of ENSO Conventional, ENSO Modoki and Indian Ocean Dipole on Mindanao and Northeastern Borneo Precipitation Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.; Behera, S. K.; Waseda, T.; Tangang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Since the discovery of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and El Nino Modoki (EM), many had thought that all of these 3 climate phenomena are influencing the precipitation in Mindanao and Northeastern Borneo. However, no study was done to identify the real impact of these three climate phenomena on the precipitation of this area. Based on the situation above, this study intends to investigate the influence of ENSO, IOD and EM to Mindanao and Northeastern Borneo precipitation. Besides that, we are investigating factor other than those dominant climate phenomena that affect the precipitation in the study region. For this study, we used APHRODITE (observation precipitation data) as our primary precipitation data. For analysis, we used 850hPa wind data (JRA-55), 200hPa stream function data (JRA-55) and sea surface temperature data (SST; HadISST) from 1961 to 2007. Correlation, partial correlation and composite analyses are used as the method for this study. We discovered that ENSO during December-February (DJF), March-May and September-November (SON) influence the precipitation in the study region. Further analysis indicated that EM during DJF and SON influences precipitation of those regions. The results show that the ENSO and the EM influence the precipitation of this region through Walker circulation and associated teleconnections. However, IOD influence is not significant in any season. It is also discovered that the precipitation in the region is greatly affected by the local winds northeast of Mindanao during DJF. Those are the regional monsoon winds for the Asian Winter Monsoon. In addition, the winter monsoon rainfall is influenced by the winds that are in turn associated with the variations in Aleutian Low and Siberian High. Further analysis will be done to understand the links among them (SST, regional monsoon winds and 200hPa streamfunction) and consequently the mid-latitude teleconnections that affect the regional monsoon winds.

  19. Integration of carbon conservation into sustainable forest management using high resolution satellite imagery: A case study in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Andreas; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Ong, Robert C.; Titin, Jupiri; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2012-08-01

    Conservation of tropical forests is of outstanding importance for mitigation of climate change effects and preserving biodiversity. In Borneo most of the forests are classified as permanent forest estates and are selectively logged using conventional logging techniques causing high damage to the forest ecosystems. Incorporation of sustainable forest management into climate change mitigation measures such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) can help to avert further forest degradation by synergizing sustainable timber production with the conservation of biodiversity. In order to evaluate the efficiency of such initiatives, monitoring methods for forest degradation and above-ground biomass in tropical forests are urgently needed. In this study we developed an index using Landsat satellite data to describe the crown cover condition of lowland mixed dipterocarp forests. We showed that this index combined with field data can be used to estimate above-ground biomass using a regression model in two permanent forest estates in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Tangkulap represented a conventionally logged forest estate while Deramakot has been managed in accordance with sustainable forestry principles. The results revealed that conventional logging techniques used in Tangkulap during 1991 and 2000 decreased the above-ground biomass by an annual amount of average -6.0 t C/ha (-5.2 to -7.0 t C/ha, 95% confidential interval) whereas the biomass in Deramakot increased by 6.1 t C/ha per year (5.3-7.2 t C/ha, 95% confidential interval) between 2000 and 2007 while under sustainable forest management. This indicates that sustainable forest management with reduced-impact logging helps to protect above-ground biomass. In absolute terms, a conservative amount of 10.5 t C/ha per year, as documented using the methodology developed in this study, can be attributed to the different management systems, which will be of interest when implementing REDD+ that

  20. Drainage basin and topographic analysis of a tropical landscape: Insights into surface and tectonic processes in northern Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Manoj Joseph; Menier, David; Siddiqui, Numair; Ramkumar, Mu.; Santosh, M.; Kumar, Shashi; Hassaan, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the recent landscape development of Borneo through geomorphic analysis of two large drainage basins (Rajang and Baram basins). The extraction of morphometric parameters utilizing digital terrain data in a GIS environment, focusing on hydrography (stream length-gradient index, ratio of valley floor width to valley height, and transverse topographic symmetry factor) and topography (local relief and relief anomaly), was carried out in order to elucidate processes governing drainage and landscape evolution. Anomalously high and low values of stream length-gradient indices of main tributary streams associated with faults and multiple knick-points along the channel profiles are linked to deformation events. The development of deeply incised V-shaped valleys show enhanced incision capability of streams in response to steepening of hillslope gradients following tectonic inputs. Deflection of streams and probable dynamic reorganization of the drainage system through stream capture processes as feedbacks to tectonic uplift and orographic effect are observed. Local relief and relief anomaly maps highlight the presence of preserved elevation-accordant relict portions of landscapes characterized by low amplitude relief, nested between ridgelines in regions of complex folding. Our results reveal dynamic geomorphic adjustment of the landscape due to perturbations in tectonic and climatic boundary conditions. The implication is that the landscape of north Borneo experienced a tectonic phase of rapid uplift after 5 Ma and undergoes active folding of the Rajang Group thrust belts in the present-day. Active shortening combined with high rates of denudation in Sarawak, demonstrates transience emphasized by the drainage system attempting to adjust to tectonic and climatic forcing.

  1. Recent Shift of Deforestation to High Elevation Areas from 2001 to 2013 in Borneo Detected by MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, S.; Suzuki, R.

    2015-12-01

    The biomass of tropical forests sequestrates tons of carbon and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle regulating the climate. Also its high biodiversity ecosystems bring us many valuable resources and cultural and educational ecosystem services. However, large areas of the tropical forest are deforested and converted to oil palm or acacia plantation for the economic benefit of the local society mainly in Southeast Asia. Monitoring of the tropical forest from satellites provides us the information about the deforestation for decadal time period over extensive areas and enables us to discuss it from a scientific point of view. The purpose of this study is to reveal the interannual change and recent trend of deforestation in relation to the land elevation for decadal time period over Borneo by using data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We acquired the atmospherically corrected and cloud free Terra-MODIS and Aqua-MODIS daily data products (MOD09GA and MYD09GA; collection 5) from 2001 to 2013 for Borneo. We extracted the pixel values in the 500m surface reflectance bands 1 (red) and 4 (green) products and calculated the green-red vegetation index (GRVI), (band 4 - band 1) / (band 4 + band 1), at a daily time step. GRVI shows a positive value for the land prevailed by green vegetation, while it shows a negative value for the land prevailed by no-green components such as bare land. As for the elevation data, ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) which has 33.3m spatial resolution was employed. The original resolution was resampled to the grid system of MODIS data (i.e. 500m resolution). Pixels which had a negative GRVI ratio more than 80 % (termed as "no green pixel") in each year were regarded as the land characterized by no vegetation, and mapped the distribution for each year. Throughout the 13 years, no green pixels mainly found over the coastal low land below 20m of the elevation and the area was almost constant (around

  2. Stream ecosystem integrity is impaired by logging and shifting agriculture in a global megadiversity center (Sarawak, Borneo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinggut, Tajang; Yule, Catherine M; Boyero, Luz

    2012-10-15

    In common with most of Borneo, the Bakun region of Sarawak is currently subject to heavy deforestation mainly due to logging and, to a lesser extent, traditional slash-and-burn farming practices. This has the potential to affect stream ecosystems, which are integrators of environmental change in the surrounding terrestrial landscape. This study evaluated the effects of both types of deforestation by using functional and structural indicators (leaf litter decomposition rates and associated detritivores or 'shredders', respectively) to compare a fundamental ecosystem process, leaf litter decomposition, within logged, farmed and pristine streams. Slash-and-burn agricultural practices increased the overall rate of decomposition despite a decrease in shredder species richness (but not shredder abundance) due to increased microbial decomposition. In contrast, decomposition by microbes and invertebrates was slowed down in the logged streams, where shredders were less abundant and less species rich. This study suggests that shredder communities are less affected by traditional agricultural farming practices, while modern mechanized deforestation has an adverse effect on both shredder communities and leaf breakdown.

  3. Behind an ambitious megaproject in Asia: The history and implications of the Bakun hydroelectric dam in Borneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Bulan, L.C. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    Using a case-study, inductive, narrative approach, this article explores the history, drivers, benefits, and barriers to the Bakun Hydroelectric Project in East Malaysia. Situated on the island of Borneo, Bakun Dam is a 204 m high concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. Bakun Dam and its affiliated infrastructure could be the single largest and most expensive energy project ever undertaken in Southeast Asia. Based on data collected through site visits, original field research in Sarawak, and more than 80 research interviews, the article begins by teasing out the complex history and drivers behind the Bakun project before identifying a set of potential social, political, and economic benefits the project could deliver. It then delves into six sets of barriers in the technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental realms. We find that Bakun illustrates how centralized energy megaprojects, while ostensibly championed for reasons of economies of scale and the ability to bring about transformational change in the shortest period of time, often fail to address broader development goals such as fighting energy poverty and improving the livelihoods of the local communities they are supposed to serve. - Highlights: > Bakun Dam is concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. > The project faces technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental barriers. > We conclude the project will fail to fight energy poverty or improve the livelihoods of local populations.

  4. Rural Tourism at its Peak: Socio-Cultural Impacts towards Host Communities of Kinabalu Park, Sabah (Malaysian-Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangit Tania Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kinabalu Park in Sabah (Malaysian-Borneo represents multiple tourism opportunities for its stakeholders, host communities and tourists. Being the first World Heritage Site in Malaysia endorsed by UNESCO since 2000, this nature-based tourism destination is a popular tourism destination in Malaysia, as well as in the Asia region. The designated study area includes villages nearby Kinabalu Park. Through the popularity of the park and various other attractions within the area, tourism activities contributes to socio-cultural impacts towards its host communities. The perceptions and attitudes of the locals towards tourism are identified and evaluated. By having the input of host communities as part of conserving tourism whilst meeting certain principles of sustainable tourism, the paper aims to attain interesting findings about the perceptions of the host communities towards socio-cultural impacts of tourism on their community. The paper further aims to recommend for the continuous improvement of sustainable tourism development at Kinabalu Park and its surroundings.

  5. The Increase of Arthropods Biodiversity in Paddy Field Ecosystem Managed by Using Integrated Pest Management at South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samharinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the arthropods biodiversity in two paddy field ecosystems, namely, paddy field ecosystem using Integrated Pest Management (IPM system and non-IPM paddy field ecosystem. This study was conducted from April 2011 – November 2011 in three locations, that is, Pasar Kamis village and Sungai Rangas village in Banjar regency, and Guntung Payung village in Banjarbaru city, South Borneo Province. In this study, we used insect nets, yellow sticky traps, light trap and pitfall trap to get the sample or catch the arthropods in one period of planting season. The arthropods caught were then classified into some classes: pest (herbivore, natural enemy (parasitoid and predator, and other arthropods. After that, the Species Diversity Index was determined using its Shannon-Wiener Index (H’, Evenness (e, Species Richness (R, and Species Similarity Index (IS. The sum of arthropods which have the characteristic of pest and parasitoid were higher in the IPM paddy fields than in the non-IPM paddy fields, and the sum of other arthropods were the same. The highest H’ and e values were in the IPM paddy field in Pasar Kamis village. The IS value for each three locations were 77.5% in Pasar Kamis village, 93.42% in Guntung Payung village, and 78.76% in Sungai Rangas village.

  6. Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid viscosity to high prey diversity in a Nepenthes carnivorous plant from Borneo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bruno Di Giusto; Vladimir Grosbois; Elodie Fargeas; David J Marshall; Laurence Gaume

    2008-03-01

    Mechanisms that improve prey richness in carnivorous plants may involve three crucial phases of trapping: attraction, capture and retention. Nepenthes rafflesiana var. typica is an insectivorous pitcher plant that is widespread in northern Borneo. It exhibits ontogenetic pitcher dimorphism with the upper pitchers trapping more flying prey than the lower pitchers. While this difference in prey composition has been ascribed to differences in attraction, the contribution of capture and retention has been overlooked. This study focused on distinguishing between the prey trapping mechanisms, and assessing their relative contribution to prey diversity. Arthropod richness and diversity of both visitors and prey in the two types of pitchers were analysed to quantify the relative contribution of attraction to prey trapping. Rate of insect visits to the different pitcher parts and the presence or absence of a sweet fragrance was recorded to clarify the origin and mechanism of attraction. The mechanism of retention was studied by insect bioassays and measurements of fluid viscosity. Nepenthes rafflesiana was found to trap a broader prey spectrum than that previously described for any Nepenthes species, with the upper pitchers attracting and trapping a greater quantity and diversity of prey items than the lower pitchers. Capture efficiency was low compared with attraction or retention efficiency. Fragrance of the peristome, or nectar rim, accounted mainly for the observed non-specific, better prey attraction by the upper pitchers, while the retentive properties of the viscous fluid in these upper pitchers arguably explains the species richness of their flying prey. The pitchers of N. rafflesiana are therefore more than simple pitfall traps and the digestive fluid plays an important yet unsuspected role in the ecological success of the species.

  7. Coral Reefs at the Northernmost Tip of Borneo: An Assessment of Scleractinian Species Richness Patterns and Benthic Reef Assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Zarinah; van Mil, Harald G J; Syed Hussein, Muhammad Ali; Jumin, Robecca; Golam Ahad, Bobita; Hoeksema, Bert W

    2015-01-01

    The coral reefs at the northernmost tip of Sabah, Borneo will be established under a marine protected area: the Tun Mustapha Park (TMP) by the end of 2015. This area is a passage where the Sulu Sea meets the South China Sea and it is situated at the border of the area of maximum marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle. The TMP includes fringing and patch reefs established on a relatively shallow sea floor. Surveys were carried out to examine features of the coral reefs in terms of scleractinian species richness, and benthic reef assemblages following the Reef Check substrate categories, with emphasis on hard coral cover. Variation in scleractinian diversity was based on the species composition of coral families Fungiidae (n = 39), Agariciidae (n = 30) and Euphylliidae (n = 15). The number of coral species was highest at reefs with a larger depth gradient i.e. at the periphery of the study area and in the deep South Banggi Channel. Average live hard coral cover across the sites was 49%. Only 7% of the examined reefs had > 75% hard coral cover, while the majority of the reef sites were rated fair (51%) and good (38%). Sites with low coral cover and high rubble fragments are evidence of blast fishing, although the observed damage appeared old. Depth was a dominant factor in influencing the coral species composition and benthic reef communities in the TMP. Besides filling in the information gaps regarding species richness and benthic cover for reef areas that were previously without any data, the results of this study together with information that is already available on the coral reefs of TMP will be used to make informed decisions on zoning plans for conservation priorities in the proposed park.

  8. Land cover distribution in the peatlands of Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 with changes since 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Miettinen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Insular Southeast Asian peatlands have experienced rapid land cover changes over the past decades inducing a variety of environmental effects ranging from regional consequences on peatland ecology, biodiversity and hydrology to globally significant carbon emissions. In this paper we present the land cover and industrial plantation distribution in the peatlands of Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 and analyse their changes since 1990. We create the 2015 maps by visual interpretation of 30 m resolution Landsat data and combine them with fully comparable and completed land cover maps of 1990 and 2007 (Miettinen and Liew, 2010. Our results reveal continued peatland deforestation and conversion into managed land cover types. In 2015, 29% (4.6 Mha of the peatlands in the study area remain covered by peat swamp forest (vs. 41% or 6.4 Mha in 2007 and 76% or 11.9 Mha in 1990. Managed land cover types (industrial plantations and small-holder dominated areas cover 50% (7.8 Mha of all peatlands (vs. 33% 5.2 Mha in 2007 and 11% 1.7 Mha in 1990. Industrial plantations have nearly doubled their extent since 2007 (2.3 Mha; 15% and cover 4.3 Mha (27% of peatlands in 2015. The majority of these are oil palm plantations (73%; 3.1 Mha while nearly all of the rest (26%; 1.1 Mha are pulp wood plantations. We hope that the maps presented in this paper will enable improved evaluation of the magnitude of various regional to global level environmental effects of peatland conversion and that they will help decision makers to define sustainable peatland management policies for insular Southeast Asian peatlands.

  9. Sustained turbidity currents and their interaction with debrite-related topography; Labuan Island, offshore NW Borneo, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Johnson, Howard D.

    2009-07-01

    The Temburong Fm (Early Miocene), Labuan Island, offshore NW Borneo, was deposited in a lower-slope to proximal basin-floor setting, and provides an opportunity to study the deposits of sustained turbidity currents and their interaction with debrite-related topography. Two main gravity-flow facies are identified; (i) slump-derived debris-flow deposits (debrites) — characterised by ungraded silty mudstones in beds 1.5 to > 60 m thick which are rich in large (> 5 m) lithic clasts; and (ii) turbidity current deposits (turbidites) — characterised by medium-grained sandstone in beds up to 2 m thick, which contain structureless (T a) intervals alternating with planar-parallel (T b) and current-ripple (T c) laminated intervals. Laterally discontinuous, cobble-mantled scours are also locally developed within turbidite beds. Based on these characteristics, these sandstones are interpreted to have been deposited by sustained turbidity currents. The cobble-mantled scours indicate either periods of intense turbidity current waxing or individual flow events. The sustained turbidity currents are interpreted to have been derived from retrogressive collapse of sand-rich mouth bars (breaching) or directly from river effluent (hyperpycnal flow). Analysis of the stratal architecture of the two facies indicates that routing of the turbidity currents was influenced by topographic relief developed at the top of the underlying debrite. In addition, turbidite beds are locally eroded at the base of an overlying debrite, possibly due to clast-related substrate 'ploughing' during the latter flow event. This study highlights the difficulty in constraining the origin of sustained turbidity currents in ancient sedimentary sequences. In addition, this study documents the importance large debrites may have in generating topography on submarine slopes and influencing routing of subsequent turbidity currents and the geometry of their associated deposits.

  10. Two new species of Myliocotyle (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the gills of Aetomylaeus maculatus and A. nichofii (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae) from Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Leslie A; Whittington, Ian D

    2004-12-01

    Myliocotyle borneoensis sp. n. and M. multicrista sp. n. (Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) are described from the gills of the mottled eagle ray, Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray), and the banded eagle ray A. nichofii (Bloch et Schneider) (Myliobatidae), respectively, collected from the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo. These are the first monogeneans to be described on elasmobranchs from Borneo. The formerly monotypic Myliocotyle (for M. pteromylaei) was distinguished from other monocotylids by the distribution and morphology of the eight sclerotised dorsal haptoral accessory structures and the morphology of the male copulatory organ. However, we have determined that M. pteromylaei has ten structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor. Myliocotyle borneoensis is distinguished from M. pteromylaei by the morphology of the male copulatory organ and its accessory piece. Myliocotyle multicrista has 12 sclerotised dorsal haptoral accessory structures and a male copulatory organ with two accessory pieces. Additional sclerotised ridges across the ventral surfaces of each loculus (except the posterior-most pair) are also present in M. multicrista. The diagnosis for Myliocotyle is revised given our discovery of additional dorsal haptoral accessory structures in the type species and to accommodate other new characters of the two new species. Anterior secretions of Myliocotyle are discussed.

  11. Hydrogeomorphological and water quality impacts of oil palm conversion and logging in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo: a multi-catchment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Nainar, Anand; Bidin, Kawi; Higton, Sam; Annammala, Kogilavani; Blake, William; Luke, Sarah; Murphy, Laura; Perryman, Emily; Wall, Katy; Hanapi, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    The last three decades have seen a combination of logging and land-use change across most of the rainforest tropics. This has involved conversion to oil palm across large parts of SE Asia. Although much is now known about the hydrological and sediment transport impacts of logging, relatively little is known about how impacts of oil palm conversion compare with those of logging. Furthermore little is known about the impacts of both on river morphology and water quality. This paper reports some findings of the first phase of a ten-year large-scale manipulative multi-catchment experiment (part of the SAFE - Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems - Project), based in the upper part of the Brantian Catchment in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo; the project is designed to assess the degree to which adverse impacts of oil palm conversion (on erosion, downstream channel change, water quality and river ecology) might be reduced by retaining buffer zones of riparian forest of varying width from zero to 120 metres. Ten 2 km2 catchments of contrasting land use history have been instrumented since 2011 to record discharge, turbidity, conductivity and water temperature at 5-minute intervals. These comprise 6 repeat-logged catchments being subjected in 2015-16 to conversion to oil palm with varying riparian forest widths; a repeat-logged 'control' catchment; an old regrowth catchment; an oil palm catchment; and a primary forest catchment. In addition, (1) monthly water samples from the catchments have been analysed for nitrates and phosphates, (2) channel cross-sectional change along each stream has been monitored at six-monthly intervals and (3) supplementary surveys have been made of downstream bankfull channel cross-sectional size and water chemistry at a wider range of catchment sites, and (4) sediment cores have been taken and contemporary deposition monitored at a hierarchical network of sites in the large Brantian catchment for geochemical analysis and dating to establish the

  12. Fire, drought and El Niño relationships on Borneo (Southeast Asia) in the pre-MODIS era (1980-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, M. J.; Perry, G. L. W.; Zoumas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Borneo (Indonesia) is Earth's third largest island, and the location of both extensive areas of rainforest and tropical peatlands. It is the site of both regular (seasonal) biomass burning associated with deforestation, land cover change and agricultural production preparations, and occasional, but much more severe, extreme fire episodes releasing enormous volumes of carbon from burning vegetation and peat. These extreme fire episodes are believed to result from anthropogenic practices related to (the still ongoing) forest degradation and clearance activities, whose impact with regard to fire is magnified by the effects of El Niño related drought. Since 2000, data from the MODIS Earth Observation satellite instruments have been used to study fire on Borneo, but earlier large fire events remain less well documented. Here we focus on a series of large fire episodes prior to the MODIS era, and specifically a 20 yr period covering both the two strongest El Niño events on record (1997-1998 and 1982-1983), along with an unprecedented series of more frequent, but weaker, El Niños. For the five El Niños occurring between 1980 and 2000, we develop quantitative measures of the fire activity across Borneo based on active fire counts derived from NOAA AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC) Earth Observation satellite data. We use these metrics to investigate relationships between the strength and timing of the El Niño event, the associated drought, and the fire activity. During each El Niño, we find areas of major fire activity confined within two or three fire sub-seasons (separated by monsoons) and focused in parts of South and Central Kalimantan, and sometimes also in East and/or West Kalimantan. For each El Niño we investigate various lag correlations, and find relationships of similar strength between monthly rainfall deficit and fire, but of more variable strength between indices of El Niño strength (ENSO indices) and rainfall deficit. The two strongest El Ni

  13. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of fluid inclusions in speleothems using laser absorption spectroscopy: Application to stalagmites from Borneo and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Fleitmann, Dominik; Nele Meckler, Anna; Leuenberger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Speleothems are recognised as key continental archives for paleoclimate reconstructions. They contain fluid inclusions representing past drip water trapped in the calcite structure. Speleothem can be precisely dated and therefore the oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes of fluid inclusions constitute powerful proxies for paleotemperature or to investigate changes in the moisture source over several interglacial-glacial cycles. To liberate fluid inclusion water and to analyse its isotopic composition, a new online extraction method developed at Bern is used. The principle can be summarised as follows: Prior to crushing, the sample is placed into a copper tube, fixed to the line previously heated to 140° C and flushed with a nitrogen and standard water mixture. Thereafter, the speleothem sample is crushed using a simple hydraulic crushing device and the released water from fluid inclusions is transferred by the nitrogen-standard water mixture flow to a Picarro L1102-i isotopic liquid water and water vapor analyser. The measuring principle is based on wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) technology that allows us to simultaneously monitor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Reproducibility of standard water measurements is typically better than 1.5 o for δD and 0.4 o for δ18O. With this method, we successfully analysed δD and δ18O isotopic composition of a stalagmite from Northern Borneo (tropical West Pacific) covering almost two glacial-interglacial cycles from MIS 12 to early MIS 9 (460-330 ka) as well as recent samples from Switzerland and Borneo. These results are used in combination with calcite δ18O to reconstruct paleotemperature. Currently, we are measuring a stalagmite from Milandre cave (Jura, Switzerland) covering the Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas cold phase and the Holocene.

  14. Assessment of Above-Ground Biomass of Borneo Forests through a New Data-Fusion Approach Combining Two Pan-Tropical Biomass Maps

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    Andreas Langner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how two existing pan-tropical above-ground biomass (AGB maps (Saatchi 2011, Baccini 2012 can be combined to derive forest ecosystem specific carbon estimates. Several data-fusion models which combine these AGB maps according to their local correlations with independent datasets such as the spectral bands of SPOT VEGETATION imagery are analyzed. Indeed these spectral bands convey information about vegetation type and structure which can be related to biomass values. Our study area is the island of Borneo. The data-fusion models are evaluated against a reference AGB map available for two forest concessions in Sabah. The highest accuracy was achieved by a model which combines the AGB maps according to the mean of the local correlation coefficients calculated over different kernel sizes. Combining the resulting AGB map with a new Borneo land cover map (whose overall accuracy has been estimated at 86.5% leads to average AGB estimates of 279.8 t/ha and 233.1 t/ha for forests and degraded forests respectively. Lowland dipterocarp and mangrove forests have the highest and lowest AGB values (305.8 t/ha and 136.5 t/ha respectively. The AGB of all natural forests amounts to 10.8 Gt mainly stemming from lowland dipterocarp (66.4%, upper dipterocarp (10.9% and peat swamp forests (10.2%. Degraded forests account for another 2.1 Gt of AGB. One main advantage of our approach is that, once the best fitting data-fusion model is selected, no further AGB reference dataset is required for implementing the data-fusion process. Furthermore, the local harmonization of AGB datasets leads to more spatially precise maps. This approach can easily be extended to other areas in Southeast Asia which are dominated by lowland dipterocarp forest, and can be repeated when newer or more accurate AGB maps become available.

  15. Three new genera and six new species of lecanicephalideans (Cestoda) from eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from northern Australia and Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K R; Jensen, K; Caira, J N

    2012-02-01

    New lecanicephalidean cestodes inhabiting the spiral intestine were investigated in 4 of the 6 known species of eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus Garman. Hosts examined consisted of 5 specimens of Aetomylaeus vespertilio from northern Australia, 5 of Aetomylaeus maculatus from Borneo, 10 of Aetomylaeus nichofii sensu stricto from Borneo, and 7 of Aetomylaeus cf. nichofii 2 from northern Australia. As a result of these new collections, 3 new genera and 6 new species of lecanicephalideans are formally described. Aetomylaeus vespertilio hosted the new genera and species Collicocephalus baggioi n. gen., n. sp. and Rexapex nanus n. gen., n. sp., as well as Aberrapex weipaensis n. sp. Aetomylaeus maculatus and A. nichofii sensu stricto hosted 3 new species of the novel genus Elicilacunosus , with the former eagle ray hosting Elicilacunosus sarawakensis n. sp. and the latter hosting both Elicilacunosus dharmadii n. sp. and Elicilacunosus fahmii n. sp. No new lecanicephalideans were described from A. cf. nichofii 2. Collicocephalus n. gen. is conspicuously unique among the genera of its order in possessing a large, retractable apical organ that, in cross-section, is transversely oblong, rather than round. Rexapex n. gen. is distinctive in its possession of an apical organ that bears 18 papilliform projections around its perimeter, and Elicilacunosus n. gen. is unlike any other known lecanicephalidean, or eucestode, in its possession of a region of musculo-glandular tissue along the midline of the dorsal and ventral surfaces of its proglottids, manifested externally as a tandem series of depressions. Among other features, A. weipaensis n. sp. differs from its congeners in its lack of post-ovarian vitelline follicles. All 6 new species were each restricted to a single species of Aetomylaeus . These records formally establish species of Aetomylaeus as hosts of lecanicephalideans. A summary of cestodes of myliobatid rays is presented.

  16. Magnetic signature of river sediments drained into the southern and eastern part of the South China Sea (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Catherine; Liu, Zhifei; Li, Jinhua; Wandres, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic properties of 22 river samples collected in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan have been investigated in order to magnetically characterize the sediments drained and deposited into the South China Sea. The geological formations as well as the present climatic conditions are different from one region to another. Laboratory analyses include low-field magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic (ARM) and isothermal (IRM) remanent magnetizations acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three-axes IRM, hysteresis cycles and low-temperature magnetic measurements. The magnetic properties indicate that the sediments are a mixture of hematite, magnetite and pyrrhotite in different proportions depending on the region. Combined with results previously reported for the three main Asian rivers (Pearl, Red and Mekong rivers), the new data indicate that, in general, hematite-rich sediments are delivered to the southern basin of the South China Sea while the northern basin is fed with magnetite and pyrrhotite-rich sediments. In addition to this general picture, some variability is observed at smaller geographic scales. Indeed, the magnetic assemblages are closely related to the geology of the various catchments while clay minerals, previously reported for the same samples, are more representative of the climatic conditions under which the parent rocks have evolved within each catchment. The magnetic fraction, now well characterized in the main river sediments drained into the South China Sea, can be used as a tracer for changes in precipitation on land and in oceanic water mass transport and exchange.

  17. Revision of the genus Devadatta Kirby, 1890 in Borneo based on molecular and morphological methods, with descriptions of four new species (Odonata: Zygoptera: Devadattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A; Hämäläinen, Matti; Stokvis, Frank R

    2015-10-23

    Species of Devadatta from Borneo are studied using both morphological and molecular methods. As well as D. podolestoides Laidlaw, four new species are recognised from the island: D. aran spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Pulong Tau National Park, Miri division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. clavicauda spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Bukit Mina, Bukit Mina Wildlife Corridor, Sarawak Planted Forest Project, Bintulu division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. somoh spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from the Sungai Kahei area, Ulu Balui, Kapit division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH) and D. tanduk spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Poring Hot Springs, Kinabalu National Park, West Coast division, Sabah, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH). The Philippine taxon D. basilanensis Laidlaw is considered a good species rather than a subspecies of D. podolestoides. The Bornean species plus D. basilanensis are provisionally considered to form a species group, the podolestoides-group, within Devadatta. The species of the podolestoides-group are so similar in morphology and colouration that they are close to truly cryptic species. Two species appear to exhibit character displacement where their ranges overlap with other Devadatta species. A molecular analysis using four markers (COI, 16S, ITS and 28S) is presented. This analysis includes specimens of all species from the podolestoides-group and two Devadatta species from mainland Asia.

  18. Heart of borneo as a ′Jalan Tikus′: Exploring the links Between indigenous rights, extractive and exploitative industries, and conservation at the World Conservation Congress 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitchner Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Fourth World Conservation Congress in Barcelona in October 2008, a number of motions were passed that emphasised human and indigenous rights and the role of the private sector, particularly extractive and exploitative industries, in conservation. These issues are highly relevant to the ongoing World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-led Heart of Borneo (HoB conservation initiative, which is situated in an area with overlapping political jurisdictions and an array of possible futures, which could include new or expanded protected areas, community-managed conservation programmes, or oil palm plantations potentially covering millions of hectares. The HoB initiative is ambiguous in the sense that its borders are not fixed, its land and resource management strategies are not clearly defined, its projects are not predetermined, and its policies regarding who benefits from it are not obvious. HoB is also ambitious, and its actors must negotiate a number of different types of scales: geographic, political, economic, institutional, and ecological. These factors offer both opportunities and weaknesses both for conservation and for local and indigenous communities living within the HoB area. Using HoB as an example, I show how small NGOs, national branches of multinational NGOs like WWF, and local and indigenous communities must walk a ′jalan tikus′ to accomplish conservation and indigenous rights goals. I also offer suggestions on how the motions passed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN membership can be incorporated into HoB planning on the ground.

  19. Paleontology to policy: the Quaternary history of Southeast Asian tapirs (Tapiridae) in relation to large mammal species turnover, with a proposal for conservation of Malayan tapir by reintroduction to Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    of Cranbrook, Earl; Piper, Philip J

    2013-03-01

    The Southeast Asian zoogeographical region is divided into Indochinese, Sundaic and Philippine subregions. Two clades of tapirs, Tapirus spp., have been recognized in Quaternary Southeast Asia. A review of sites at which they occurred shows that representatives of both clades, one of which was the ancestral Malayan tapir Tapirus indicus, co-existed with a diversity of other Pleistocene mammal megafauna. The process of replacement of archaic large mammals was progressive and prolonged through the Quaternary. Zooarcheological investigation has extended knowledge of the former occurrence and distribution of tapirs and other large mammals of the region, with discoveries beyond the outer limits of their previously known ranges. These large mammals were subjected to paleoenvironmental changes as a consequence of the Quaternary cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Archeological evidence suggests that hunting pressure has intensified the effects of altered environments, leading ultimately to the local disappearance of the Malayan tapir in most of Southeast Asia, including Borneo. The survival of the Malayan tapir through the Quaternary until the present shows that the species is both resilient to environmental change and flexible in its ecological re'uirements and, given proper protection, could continue to inhabit tropical Southeast Asia. To assist the species conservation, reintroduction is proposed from the remaining range of Malayan tapir in the wild, to suitable sites of past occurrence in Borneo, where these ancient survivors of the Quaternary megafauna can be accommodated and safeguarded alongside other forms of land usage.

  20. Erosion on tropical rain-forest terrain: a re-evaluation in the light of long-term monitoring, aerial photographic evidence and sediment fingerprinting in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Clarke, Michelle; Sayer, Aimee; Ghazali, Rosmadi; Annammala, Kogila; Chappell, Nick; Douglas, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Rain-forest vegetation is generally considered to be highly protective against erosion, but with disturbance via logging leading to major, but relatively short-lived increases in erosion for a 2-year period until rapid revegetation of slopes has occurred. This paper questions and re-assesses these views using a combination of long-term monitoring, GIS-assisted aerial photograph analysis and multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting in primary rainforest and adjacent terrain that was selectively logged either in 1988-89 or in 1992-93 within the Segama catchment in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. In primary forest areas, repeat measurements using the erosion bridge technique over the 20-year period 1990-2010 demonstrate how slopewash rates are significant, but concentrated in extreme events and increasing sharply with slope angle. Continuous monitoring of suspended sediment, coupled with repeat erosion bridge measurement, however, demonstrate that pipe erosion is at least as important even on moderate terrain and landsliding is an important process on steep terrain. In the selectively logged Baru catchment, a combination of long-term monitoring of suspended sediment and repeat measurements at an erosion bridge network has demonstrated that the erosional impact of logging is longer-term than formerly thought, with a major secondary peak in erosion 5-10 years after logging due to road-linked landslides and the decay of logs in debris dams; analysis of current bed-sediment and floodplain cores using a multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting approach demonstrates that sources of sediment are still different to those in primary forest over 20 years after logging ceased. Sediment fingerprinting at the large catchment scale (focussing on the analysis of lateral bench and floodplain sediment cores compared with upstream tributary sediment inputs), together with GIS-assisted analysis of aerial photographic evidence of spatial differences in landslide occurrence, demonstrates the key

  1. High diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia along the northern coast of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo), with descriptions of P. bipertita sp. nov. and P. limii sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Sing Tung; Tan, Suh Nih; Lim, Hong Chang; Dao, Viet Ha; Bates, Stephen S; Leaw, Chui Pin

    2016-12-01

    Forty-eight isolates of Pseudo-nitzschia species were established from the Miri coast of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) and underwent TEM observation and molecular characterization. Ten species were found: P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. fukuyoi, P. kodamae, P. lundholmiae, P. multistriata, P. pungens, P. subfraudulenta, as well as two additional new morphotypes, herein designated as P. bipertita sp. nov. and P. limii sp. nov. This is the first report of P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. kodamae, P. fukuyoi, and P. lundholmiae in coastal waters of Malaysian Borneo. Pseudo-nitzschia bipertita differs from its congeners by the number of sectors that divide the poroids, densities of band striae, and its cingular band structure. Pseudo-nitzschia limii, a pseudo-cryptic species in the P. pseudodelicatissima complex sensu lato, is distinct by having wider proximal and distal mantles, a higher number of striae, and greater poroid height in the striae of the valvocopula. The species were further supported by the phylogenetic reconstructions of the nuclear-encoded large subunit ribosomal gene and the second internal transcribed spacer. Phylogenetically, P. bipertita clustered with its sister taxa (P. subpacifica + P. heimii); P. limii appears as a sister taxon to P. kodamae and P. hasleana in the ITS2 tree. Pairwise comparison of ITS2 transcripts with its closest relatives revealed the presence of both hemi- and compensatory base changes. Toxicity analysis showed detectable levels of domoic acid in P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. lundholmiae, and P. subfraudulenta, but both new species tested below the detection limit.

  2. Les rites de la mort à Bornéo : séparation ou renaissance ? Actualité de Robert Hertz Death Rites in Borneo: Separation or Rebirth? Robert Hertz’ Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Couderc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La publication récente par le Borneo Research Council d’un ouvrage collectif sur la mort fournit l’occasion de réévaluer l’apport de Robert Hertz à la compréhension des rites funéraires à Bornéo. Si la traduction en anglais, dans les années 1960, de l’essai de Hertz sur la représentation collective de la mort avait consacré, grâce notamment aux travaux de Peter Metcalf sur les Berawan, la puissance du modèle analytique hertzien, ce nouvel ouvrage semble signaler que le moment de la célébration finale est venu, où les héritiers se libèrent de l’emprise spirituelle du défunt. Tout en conservant une grande part de sa valeur comme théorie du deuil, le paradigme transitionnel ou « réactif » de Hertz révèle ses limites, mises ici en lumière par des données ethnographiques encore peu connues ou inédites, qui démontrent, par exemple, l’existence d’une circulation des composantes de la personne par delà l’opposition entre la vie et la mort, ou encore l’influence directe des secondes funérailles sur la renaissance des défunts. Cet article aborde le dépassement du modèle hertzien en retournant à la lettre de l’essai, dont il met en relief l’intelligence ethnographique et la finesse théorique.The recent publication by the Borneo Research Council of a collection of essays on death provides an opportunity to reassess the heritage of Robert Hertz, whose theory of the double obsequies relies heavily on the ethnography of the Ngaju and other Borneo peoples. The translation of Hertz’s essay on the collective representation of death in the 1960s, prompting in particular Peter Metcalf’s work on the Berawan, has consecrated the explanatory power of Hertz’s model. With this new book, however, time seems to have come for the final celebration that marks the heirs’ liberation from the deceased’s spiritual influence. While still largely valid as a general theory of mourning, Hertz’s paradigm of

  3. The status of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), with redescription of the type species, R. myliobatidis, and description of three new species from two species of Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N

    2006-09-01

    As part of a metazoan parasite survey of elasmobranchs from Malaysian Borneo, specimens of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 were collected from the eagle rays Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray) and Aetomylaeus niehofii (Bloch et Schneider). The type species is redescribed from its type host, and a neotype specimen is designated. In addition, three new species of Rhoptrobothrium are described: R. chongi sp. n., R. gambangi sp. n. and R. limae sp. n. Rhoptrobothrium myliobatidis conspicuously differs from the three new species in its lack of a secondary areola; R. limae is distinguished from R. chongi and R. gambangi based on its greater total length; R. chongi possesses conspicuously stalked remi, while R. gambangi possesses short remi, often folded anteriorly. Rhoptrobothrium is somewhat unusual among tetraphyllideans in its possession of a "metascolex," a character it shares with other taxa in the Thysanocephalinae (i.e., Myzocephalus Shipley et Hornell, 1906, Myzophyllobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 and Thysanocephalum Linton, 1889). The morphology of the "metascolex" of Rhoptrobothrium is investigated and new terminology is suggested to standardise the names given to structures constituting a metascolex. As a result, Rhoptrobothrium is considered to possess cephalic peduncle extensions, termed remi. In Rhoptrobothrium, each remus bears, at its distal end, a primary areola, and, in the case of the three new species, also a secondary areola proximal to the primary areola. Myzocephalus and Myzophyllobothrium are tentatively considered to possess remi; the configuration of the "metascolex" of Thysanocephalum, however, is not considered homologous to the condition in the other three genera currently placed in the Thysanocephalinae.

  4. A new Strychnos from Borneo (Loganiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1966-01-01

    A subsp. maingayi praecipue characteribus sequentibus differt: Folia 13 cm longa, 5½ cm lata. Inflorescentiae praecipue axillares, tenerae, 1½—2 cm longae, 3—11-florae, glabrae. Flores 4- vel 5-meri. Calyx heterosepalus, sepala dua 1.2 mm longa, tria 0.8 mm longa, omnia ovata, obtusa, extus glabra,

  5. NOTIZ USER EIN GNETUM VON BORNEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fr. Markgraf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diese Varietat, die ich friiher nach unvollstandigem Material zu G. diminutum gerechnet habe, besitzt in beiden Geschlechtern verzweigte Blutenstande. Dieses Merkmal kommt in der Gruppe mit sitzenden Fruch-ten (Subsection Sessiles nur bei G. leptostachyum, vor, zu dem auch die Friichte der neuen Varietat gut passen. Sie ist eine Nebelwaldpflanze grosserer Hohen und hat bei reduzierten Massen der Blatter und Bliitenstande die schmalen, kurzen mannlichen Katzchen der Tieflands-Varietat leptostachyum mit den kurzgliedrigen, grossfriichtigen weiblichen Bluten-standen der Tieflands-Varietat robustum vereinigt. In Indochina und Siam lebt eine zweite Berg-Varietat — entsprechend der weiteren Ent-fernung vom Aquator in etwas geringeren Hohen die umgekehrt die dicken mannlichen Katzchen von der Varietat robustum mit den lang-gliedrigen weiblichen Bliitenstanden von der Varietat leptostachyum vereinigt. In beiden Fallen sind die Verkiirzungs- und Verlangerungs-Tenden-zen bei den Berg-Varietaten starker als bei denen des Tieflandes.

  6. Borneo constituencies: Japanese rule and its legitimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raben, R.

    2005-01-01

    Thinking of wartime occupations, we tend to picture suppression, looting, and violent and arbitrary rule. For the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, the prevailing image is one of a brutal regime ruling Indonesian society at gunpoint and spoiling the lives of thousands, while incompetent administrato

  7. The use of downstream sediment mini-cores to indicate changes through time in the spatial pattern and process contribution of erosion within a small, selectively logged rainforest catchment in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. E.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Coombs, T. J.; Bidin, K.; Blake, W. H.

    2012-04-01

    Multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting (using changes in geochemical variables within downstream floodplain or lateral bench cores and relating them to differences in geochemical character of upstream tributary sediment inputs and/or down soil profiles, preferably in combination with dating using Pb-210 and Cs-137) provides the potential for assessing changes in sediment sources through time. This has rarely been done in tropical rainforest catchments, but needs to be tested at a variety of spatial scales. This poster paper presents the results of an attempt to use mini-cores of bankside sediment to explore changes through post-logging time in the relative contributions made by different sub-catchments to the sediment budget of a small (0.44 sq.km.) Baru catchment (selectively logged in the first half of 1989) in the Danum Valley area of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The catchment provides a good testing ground for the technique, as it has been monitored for slope erosion and stream suspended sediment transport continuously from before logging to the present day. The research design comprised (1) sampling (at 2 cm vertical intervals) fluvially deposited sediment down replicated pit profiles at three bankside locations at the downstream end of the catchment between the long-term gauging station and the confluence with a higher-order stream: (2) sampling of the finer bed-sediment the three principal tributaries (2West, 2Middle and 2East) and of surface, sub-surface and deep surface soil material from soil pits and road-cuttings across the catchment; (3) geochemical analysis of the graphical and statistical analysis of the data. Pit 1 (34 cm deep) was considered to provide the longest and most dependable sediment record and marked changes in the levels of some elements were detected, with Mn, Fe, Ti and Zr proving to be the most useful. Local spatial variations within the soil geochemistry dataset proved too great for changes in core geochemistry to be linked conclusively to

  8. Methodological issues and preliminary results from a combined sediment fingerprinting and radioisotope dating approach to explore changes in sediment sources with land-use change in the Brantian Catchment, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Higton, Sam; Marshall, Jake; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Nainar, Anand

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports some methodological issues and early results of a project investigating the erosional impacts of land use changes (multiple selective logging and progressive, partial conversion to oil palm) over the last 25-40 years in the 600km2 Brantian river catchment in Sabah, Borneo. A combined sediment fingerprinting and radioisotope dating approach is being applied to sediment cores taken in stream hierarchical fashion across the intermediate catchment scale. Changes in sediment sources and sedimentation rates over time can be captured by changes in the relative importance of geochemical elements with depth in downstream sediment cores, which in turn can be linked to parallel changes in upstream cores by the application of unmixing models and statistical techniques. Radioisotope analysis of the sediment cores allows these changes to be dated and sedimentation rates to be estimated. Work in the neighbouring Segama catchment had successfully demonstrated the potential of such an approach in a rainforest environment (Walsh et al. 2011). The paper first describes steps taken to address methodological issues. The approach relies on taking continuous sediment cores which have aggraded progressively over time and remain relatively undisturbed and uncontaminated. This issue has been tackled (1) through careful core sampling site selection with a focus on lateral bench sites and (2) deployment of techniques such as repeat-measurement erosion bridge transects to assess the contemporary nature of sedimentation to validate (or reject) candidate sites. The issue of sediment storage and uncertainties over lag times has been minimised by focussing on sets of above- and below-confluence sites in the intermediate zone of the catchment, thus minimising sediment transit times between upstream contributing and downstream destination core sites. This focus on the intermediate zone was also driven by difficulties in finding suitable core sites in the mountainous headwaters

  9. Of Negotiable Boundaries and Fixed Lines in Borneo: Practices and Views of the Border in the Apo Kayan Region of East Kalimantan Lignes fixes et limites négociables à Bornéo : visions et pratiques des frontières à Apo Kayan, Kalimantan-Est

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Eghenter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on borders and boundaries as practiced, perceived, changed, and enforced by different actors in the Apo Kayan region, an isolated plateau in the interior of Indonesian Borneo at the border with Sarawak (Malaysia. The paper proposes a longitudinal and multi-faceted description of “border” that takes into account the complexity of its historical, political, economic, and cognitive connotations in the context of practices and interactions across the border. The combined ethnohistorical and cognitive approach of this study makes it possible to unravel the contradictions that are inherent in the concept of “border.” On the one hand, the representation of a border is a fixed and rigid line that restricts and prevents. On the other hand, the border can be experienced and construed as an open and variable boundary, a division that can be negotiated, on the basis of prevalent economic, social, and cultural considerations.Dans la région d’Apo Kayan, un haut plateau isolé de l’intérieur du Bornéo indonésien, à la frontière de Sarawak (Malaysia, frontières et limites, au fil du temps, furent utilisées, perçues, modifiées et imposées de diverses façons par les différents acteurs concernés. Cet article offre une description longitudinale des multiples aspects de la « frontière », qui prend en compte la complexité de ses connotations historiques, politiques, économiques et cognitives dans le contexte des pratiques et interactions trans-frontalières. Son approche combinée, ethnohistorique et cognitive, permet de démêler les contradictions inhérentes au concept de « frontière » : d’une part, une frontière est représentée par une ligne fixe et stricte qui borde et obvie ; d’autre part, elle peut être interprétée et pratiquée comme une limite ouverte et variable, une démarcation franchissable, selon les considérations économiques, sociales et culturelles en vigueur.

  10. Reconciling forest conservation and logging in Indonesian Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L A Gaveau

    Full Text Available Combining protected areas with natural forest timber concessions may sustain larger forest landscapes than is possible via protected areas alone. However, the role of timber concessions in maintaining natural forest remains poorly characterized. An estimated 57% (303,525 km² of Kalimantan's land area (532,100 km² was covered by natural forest in 2000. About 14,212 km² (4.7% had been cleared by 2010. Forests in oil palm concessions had been reduced by 5,600 km² (14.1%, while the figures for timber concessions are 1,336 km² (1.5%, and for protected forests are 1,122 km² (1.2%. These deforestation rates explain little about the relative performance of the different land use categories under equivalent conversion risks due to the confounding effects of location. An estimated 25% of lands allocated for timber harvesting in 2000 had their status changed to industrial plantation concessions in 2010. Based on a sample of 3,391 forest plots (1×1 km; 100 ha, and matching statistical analyses, 2000-2010 deforestation was on average 17.6 ha lower (95% C.I.: -22.3 ha- -12.9 ha in timber concession plots than in oil palm concession plots. When location effects were accounted for, deforestation rates in timber concessions and protected areas were not significantly different (Mean difference: 0.35 ha; 95% C.I.: -0.002 ha-0.7 ha. Natural forest timber concessions in Kalimantan had similar ability as protected areas to maintain forest cover during 2000-2010, provided the former were not reclassified to industrial plantation concessions. Our study indicates the desirability of the Government of Indonesia designating its natural forest timber concessions as protected areas under the IUCN Protected Area Category VI to protect them from reclassification.

  11. National Intelligence Survey. British Borneo, Section 23, Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-03-01

    variations seldom exceed 4 Fahr - enheit degrees. The highest absolute maximum temperatures in this region have been recorded during the spring...Precautions should be taken against water- borne diseases . Disease -carrying insects are nu- merous in the many swampy locations in the coastal lowlands...mosquito netting is needed to combat sandflies. These po- tential disease carriers are nocturnal and the most annoying of all insects existing in

  12. Publications on Borneo from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 2001-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Sellato, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of East Asian Studies (IEAS) was created at the Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) in 1998 with Professor Michael Leigh as its inaugural Director. Michael Leigh is a long-time scholar of Sarawak. His earlier publications include: The Chinese Community of Sarawak: a Study of Communal Relations (1964), The Rising Moon: Political Change in Sarawak (1974), and Council Negri Sarawak, Malaysia’s Oldest Legislature (1992). It was after a long career in Australia (University of Sydney...

  13. Reconciling Forest Conservation and Logging in Indonesian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Kshatriya, Mrigesh; Sheil, Douglas; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Wijaya, Arief; Wich, Serge; Ancrenaz, Marc; Hansen, Matthew; Broich, Mark; Guariguata, Manuel R.; Pacheco, Pablo; Potapov, Peter; Turubanova, Svetlana; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Combining protected areas with natural forest timber concessions may sustain larger forest landscapes than is possible via protected areas alone. However, the role of timber concessions in maintaining natural forest remains poorly characterized. An estimated 57% (303,525 km2) of Kalimantan's land area (532,100 km2) was covered by natural forest in 2000. About 14,212 km2 (4.7%) had been cleared by 2010. Forests in oil palm concessions had been reduced by 5,600 km2 (14.1%), while the figures for timber concessions are 1,336 km2 (1.5%), and for protected forests are 1,122 km2 (1.2%). These deforestation rates explain little about the relative performance of the different land use categories under equivalent conversion risks due to the confounding effects of location. An estimated 25% of lands allocated for timber harvesting in 2000 had their status changed to industrial plantation concessions in 2010. Based on a sample of 3,391 forest plots (1×1 km; 100 ha), and matching statistical analyses, 2000–2010 deforestation was on average 17.6 ha lower (95% C.I.: −22.3 ha–−12.9 ha) in timber concession plots than in oil palm concession plots. When location effects were accounted for, deforestation rates in timber concessions and protected areas were not significantly different (Mean difference: 0.35 ha; 95% C.I.: −0.002 ha–0.7 ha). Natural forest timber concessions in Kalimantan had similar ability as protected areas to maintain forest cover during 2000–2010, provided the former were not reclassified to industrial plantation concessions. Our study indicates the desirability of the Government of Indonesia designating its natural forest timber concessions as protected areas under the IUCN Protected Area Category VI to protect them from reclassification. PMID:23967062

  14. DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BORNEO CANARIUM ODONTOPHYLLUM (DABAI FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality and shelf-life of an underutilized fruits are compromised by the conventional method of drying. We therefore proposed using hot-air chamber to develop the drying curves of Canarium odontophyllum (dabai fruit. Present study provides evidence of the best mathematical model to demonstrate the drying characteristics of this indigenous fruit and thus, may generate or add to the existing database. The drying experiments were performed at three different relative humidity of 10, 20 and 30% and a constant air velocity of 1 m sec-1. Drying kinetics of C. odontophyllum fruit were investigated and obtained. A non-linear regression procedure was used to fit three different one-term exponential models of thin layer drying models. The models were compared with experimental data of C. odontophyllum fruit drying at air temperature of 55°C. The fit quality of the models was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. The highest value of R2 obtained was 0.9348, the lowest MBE value was 0.0018 and the value for RMSE was 0.0420. Page model is the best mathematical model to describe the drying behavior of C. odontophyllum fruit.

  15. Plant diversity after rain-forest fires in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, Karl August Otto

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades El-Niño-induced fires have caused widespread destruction of forests in East Kalimantan. The 1997-98 fires were the most extensive yet. The post-fire situation was studied in detail by field assessments and high-resolution SAR-images. My results show that rain forests are bett

  16. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  17. Recent trends in the intrinsic water-use efficiency of ringless rainforest trees in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loader, N J; Walsh, R P D; Robertson, I; Bidin, K; Ong, R C; Reynolds, G; McCarroll, D; Gagen, M; Young, G H F

    2011-11-27

    Stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C) series were developed from analysis of sequential radial wood increments from AD 1850 to AD 2009 for four mature primary rainforest trees from the Danum and Imbak areas of Sabah, Malaysia. The aseasonal equatorial climate meant that conventional dendrochronology was not possible as the tree species investigated do not exhibit clear annual rings or dateable growth bands. Chronology was established using radiocarbon dating to model age-growth relationships and date the carbon isotopic series from which the intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE) was calculated. The two Eusideroxylon zwageri trees from Imbak yielded ages of their pith/central wood (±1 sigma) of 670 ± 40 and 759 ± 40 years old; the less dense Shorea johorensis and Shorea superba trees at Danum yielded ages of 240 ± 40 and 330 ± 40 years, respectively. All trees studied exhibit an increase in the IWUE since AD 1960. This reflects, in part, a response of the forest to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Unlike studies of some northern European trees, no clear plateau in this response was observed. A change in the IWUE implies an associated modification of the local carbon and/or hydrological cycles. To resolve these uncertainties, a shift in emphasis away from high-resolution studies towards long, well-replicated time series is proposed to develop the environmental data essential for model evaluation. Identification of old (greater than 700 years) ringless trees demonstrates their potential in assessing the impacts of climatic and atmospheric change. It also shows the scientific and applied value of a conservation policy that ensures the survival of primary forest containing particularly old trees (as in Imbak Canyon and Danum).

  18. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these factors. Soil fertility thus had a significant effect on both total aboveground biomass and its distribution among size classes.

  19. Heavy Metals Dyanamics and Source In Intertidal Mangrove Sediment of Sabah, Borneo Island

    OpenAIRE

    Sarva Mangala Praveena

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impact of anthropogenic activities in many tropical coastal areas such as in mangrove forest. Heavy metal cycling is a serious problem faced in mangrove environments due to the anthropogenic activities. This study was carried out to investigate the dynamics of heavy metals dynamics concentration. The results revealed relatively higher concentrations of heavy metals at high tide compared to low tide due. This observation is complex by other factors such as...

  20. Heavy Metals Dyanamics and Source In Intertidal Mangrove Sediment of Sabah, Borneo Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarva Mangala Praveena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about the impact of anthropogenic activities in many tropical coastal areas such as in mangrove forest. Heavy metal cycling is a serious problem faced in mangrove environments due to the anthropogenic activities. This study was carried out to investigate the dynamics of heavy metals dynamics concentration. The results revealed relatively higher concentrations of heavy metals at high tide compared to low tide due. This observation is complex by other factors such as redox condition, presence of hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. The major source of heavy metals in mangrove surface sediment is anthropogenic such as from agricultural, aquaculture and industrial activities. This finding has updated knowledge about intertidal role on heavy metal dynamics in tropical mangrove sediment. The results also influence the concern of using mangrove ecosystems to be an alternate low cost wastewater treatment system.

  1. Bagrichthys vaillantii (Popta, 1906), a valid species of bagrid catfish from eastern Borneo (Teleostei: Siluriformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    Bagrichthys vaillantii (Popta, 1906), a species of bagrid catfish previously considered a junior synonym of B. macracanthus Bleeker, 1854, is found to be a valid species distinct from the latter. It can be differentiated from B. macracanthus in having a shorter dorsal spine, smaller eye and steeper

  2. Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Transforming Landscape in Northern Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrière, Nicolas; Laumonier, Yves; Locatelli, Bruno; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Comptour, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Because industrial agriculture keeps expanding in Southeast Asia at the expense of natural forests and traditional swidden systems, comparing biodiversity and ecosystem services in the traditional forest-swidden agriculture system vs. monocultures is needed to guide decision making on land-use planning. Focusing on tree diversity, soil erosion control, and climate change mitigation through carbon storage, we surveyed vegetation and monitored soil loss in various land-use areas in a northern Bornean agricultural landscape shaped by swidden agriculture, rubber tapping, and logging, where various levels and types of disturbance have created a fine mosaic of vegetation from food crop fields to natural forest. Tree species diversity and ecosystem service production were highest in natural forests. Logged-over forests produced services similar to those of natural forests. Land uses related to the swidden agriculture system largely outperformed oil palm or rubber monocultures in terms of tree species diversity and service production. Natural and logged-over forests should be maintained or managed as integral parts of the swidden system, and landscape multifunctionality should be sustained. Because natural forests host a unique diversity of trees and produce high levels of ecosystem services, targeting carbon stock protection, e.g. through financial mechanisms such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), will synergistically provide benefits for biodiversity and a wide range of other services. However, the way such mechanisms could benefit communities must be carefully evaluated to counter the high opportunity cost of conversion to monocultures that might generate greater income, but would be detrimental to the production of multiple ecosystem services.

  3. ECOLOGY AND INFECTION RATES OF NATURAL VECTORS OF FILARIASIS IN TANAH INTAN, SOUTH KALIMANTAN (BORNEO), INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Soeroto Atmosoedjono; Purnomo Purnomo; Sutanti Ratiwayanto; Harijani A. Marwoto; Bangs, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Data ekologi nyamuk vektor dan tingkat infeksi filaría secara alami dan secara buatan telah diperoleh dari perkebunan karet di Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia. Berbagai macam cara penangkapan dalam kondisi ekologi yang berbeda telah dipakai dalam pengumpulan 51 jenis nyamuk (N = 95.735). Pembedahan nyamuk, infeksi buatan dan identifikasi larva filaría mengikuti prosedur dan kunci yang sudah baku. Infeksi filaría Brugia, Breinlia dan Cardiofílaria secara alami ditemukan pada nyamuk Coquillettidi...

  4. The Importance of Maintaining a Proper Database on Forest Restoration Program for Orangutans in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The lowland forest of Sabah is the most important habitat for orangutans and pygmy elephants. This is shown in the WWF-Malaysia’s elephant tracking programme in which satellite-based Global Position System (GPS collar devices are used to monitor their movement and the range of their habitats, as well as an aerial survey on orangutan’s nest is performed to determine the spatial distribution pattern. We observed the activities of both species and we found that these species stay inside lowland forests with on flat ground or with gentle slopes, below 500 m elevation, which is mostly covered by natural forest. The density of orangutan’s population was estimated to be higher in a certain location in natural lowland forests where the soils are more fertile. A suitable long term habitat for both species is located in the lowland dipterocarp forests. However, most of the pristine habitats in the lowland area have been converted into other land use activities such as a large scale plantation. This is due to the fact that most of the lowland forests are facing a continuous degradation process that will decrease its commercial value when it comes to generating revenue to the state government. As a result, the efforts to restore the forest are very vital. Approach: This study described the technical and biological aspects in the forest restoration planning, prioritizing, implementation and monitoring process, integrated with the data on habitat utilization by orangutan in lowland degraded dipterocarp forest. Key habitats for orangutans were identified, forest condition were mapped and field works were carried out using a plot sampling technique to identify the diversity and density of the forest (current and potential, in order to support the forest restoration planning. A proper database on forest restoration and tree maintenance planning had been developed to enable the monitoring process. Results: This study outlined some of the findings that include the main challenges that were faced in the forest restoration programme in North Ulu Segama (NUS, which could be used as lessons and guideline in the future. Conclusion: A long term monitoring programme is important in order to have a successful forest restoration programme as well as to have the opportunity to study the impact of this restoration on the behavior of orangutan as a result of their adaptation to the new forest structure.

  5. Epidemiological Characteristics of Strongyloidiasis in Inhabitants of Indigenous Communities in Borneo Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Halim, Noor Amira Abdul; Rajoo, Yamuna; Lim, Yvonne AL; Ambu, Stephen; Rajoo, Komalaveni; Chang, Tey Siew; Woon, Lu Chan; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological study on strongyloidiasis in humans is currently lacking in Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among the inhabitants of longhouse indigenous communities in Sarawak. A single stool and blood sample were collected from each participant and subjected to microscopy, serological and molecular techniques. Five species of intestinal parasites were identified by stool microscopy. None of the stool samples were positive for S. stercoralis. However, 11% of 236 serum samples were seropositive for strongyloidiasis. Further confirmation using molecular technique on stool samples of the seropositive individuals successfully amplified 5 samples, suggesting current active infections. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult males and tended to increase with age. S. stercoralis should no longer be neglected in any intestinal parasitic survey. Combination of more than 1 diagnostic technique is necessary to increase the likelihood of estimating the ‘true’ prevalence of S. stercoralis. PMID:27853126

  6. Metal concentrations in sediments from tourist beaches of Miri City, Sarawak, Malaysia (Borneo Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R; Jonathan, M P; Roy, Priyadarsi D; Wai-Hwa, L; Prasanna, M V; Sarkar, S K; Navarrete-López, M

    2013-08-15

    Forty-three sediment samples were collected from the beaches of Miri City, Sarawak, Malaysia to identify the enrichment of partially leached trace metals (PLTMs) from six different tourist beaches. The samples were analyzed for PLTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. The concentration pattern suggest that the southern side of the study area is enriched with Fe (1821-6097 μg g(-1)), Mn (11.57-90.22 μg g(-1)), Cr (51.50-311 μg g(-1)), Ni (18-51 μg g(-1)), Pb (8.81-84.05 μg g(-1)), Sr (25.95-140.49 μg g(-1)) and Zn (12.46-35.04 μg g(-1)). Compared to the eco-toxicological values, Cr>Effects range low (ERL), Lowest effect level (LEL), Severe effect level (SEL); Cu>Unpolluted sediments, ERL, LEL; Pb>Unpolluted sediments and Ni>ERL and LEL. Comparative results with other regions indicate that Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn are higher, indicating an external input rather than natural process.

  7. Biomass burning drives atmospheric nutrient redistribution within forested peatlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; Curran, Lisa M.; Pittman, Alice M.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Steele, Bethel G.; Ratnasari, Dessy; Mujiman; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2016-08-01

    Biomass burning plays a critical role not only in atmospheric emissions, but also in the deposition and redistribution of biologically important nutrients within tropical landscapes. We quantified the influence of fire on biogeochemical fluxes of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) in a 12 ha forested peatland in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Total (inorganic + organic) N, {{{{NO}}}3}- -N, {{{{NH}}}4}+ -N, total P, {{{{PO}}}4}3- -P, and {{{{SO}}}4}2- -S fluxes were measured in throughfall and bulk rainfall weekly from July 2013 to September 2014. To identify fire events, we used concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) and MODIS Active Fire Product counts within 20 and 100 km radius buffers surrounding the site. Dominant sources of throughfall nutrient deposition were explored using cluster and back-trajectory analysis. Our findings show that this Bornean peatland receives some of the highest P (7.9 kg {{{{PO}}}4}3- -P ha-1yr-1) and S (42 kg {{{{SO}}}4}2- -S ha-1yr-1) deposition reported globally, and that N deposition (8.7 kg inorganic N ha-1yr-1) exceeds critical load limits suggested for tropical forests. Six major dry periods and associated fire events occurred during the study. Seventy-eight percent of fires within 20 km and 40% within 100 km of the site were detected within oil palm plantation leases (industrial agriculture) on peatlands. These fires had a disproportionate impact on below-canopy nutrient fluxes. Post-fire throughfall events contributed >30% of the total inorganic N ({{{{NO}}}3}- -N + {{{{NH}}}4}+ -N) and {{{{PO}}}4}3- -P flux to peatland soils during the study period. Our results indicate that biomass burning associated with agricultural peat fires is a major source of N, P, and S in throughfall and could rival industrial pollution as an input to these systems during major fire years. Given the sheer magnitude of fluxes reported here, fire-related redistribution of nutrients may have significant fertilizing or acidifying effects on a diversity of nutrient-limited ecosystems.

  8. Tree sap flow and stand transpiration of two Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Malmer, A.

    2000-09-01

    Water use of Acacia mangium trees grown in plantations was measured by a heat balance method in two stands that largely differed in tree density. Tree sap flow was closely coupled to climatic drivers and responded with minimal time delay. Using no time shift, sap flow rate could be tightly fitted to a simple equation that combined a parabolic response to radiation and an inverse linear response to air humidity. On the contrary, the analysis of canopy conductance showed no meaningful response to either individual or combined microclimatic variables. No indication of water deficit was observed, though the measurement period was during the dry period of the year. The measurements indicate a minimal diurnal use of water stored in plant tissues. The difference in tree water use from the two studied stands was effectively scaled by tree sapwood area. Canopy transpiration of the densest stand reached in average 3.9 mm d -1 compared with 2.7 mm d -1 for the stand representing the average conditions in the catchment.

  9. Studies on Spiroboloid Millipeds. XIII. A third species of the genus Trachelomegalus from Borneo (Pachybolidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffman, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Pachybolid millipeds are presently known to occur in a rather narrow paraequatorial belt from West Africa eastward across the continent, with a sparse contingent in South Africa and Madagascar, to south India and southeast Asia and the Greater Sunda Islands. At the easternmost end of this range the

  10. Neues über das Tertiär von Java und die mesozoischen Schichten von West-Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1888-01-01

    Die Monographie, welche unter dem Titel Die Fossilien von Java herausgegeben wird ¹), ist so weit fortgeschritten, dass sich aus den in ihr beschriebenen Gastropoden bereits eine Anzahl von Schlussfolgerungen ableiten lässt, welche für die in Bearbeitung begriffene, geologische Karte von Java von Be

  11. Reproductive resource partitioning in two sympatric Goniothalamus species (Annonaceae) from Borneo: floral biology, pollinator trapping and plant breeding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jenny Y. Y.; Pang, Chun-Chiu; Ramsden, Lawrence; Saunders, Richard M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The floral phenology, pollination ecology and breeding systems of two sympatric early-divergent angiosperms, Goniothalamus tapisoides and G. suaveolens (Annonaceae) are compared. The flowers are protogynous and morphologically similar, with anthesis over 23–25 h. Both species are predominantly xenogamous and pollinated by small beetles: G. tapisoides mainly by Curculionidae and G. suaveolens mainly by Nitidulidae. Coevolution and reproductive resource partitioning, reducing interspecific pollen transfer, is achieved by temporal isolation, due to contrasting floral phenologies; and ethological isolation, due to contrasting floral scents that contain attractants specific to the two beetle families. Analysis of floral scents revealed three volatiles (3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 2-phenylethanol) that are known to be nitidulid attractants in the floral scent of G. suaveolens, but absent from that of G. tapisoides. An effective pollinator trapping mechanism is demonstrated for both species, representing the first such report for the family. Trapping is achieved by the compression of the outer petals against the apertures between the inner petals. This trapping mechanism is likely to be a key evolutionary innovation for Goniothalamus, increasing pollination efficiency by increasing pollen loading on beetles during the staminate phase, promoting effective interfloral pollinator movements, and increasing seed-set by enabling rapid turn-over of flowers. PMID:27767040

  12. Biological notes on herbivorous insects feeding on myrmecophytic Macaranga trees in the Lambir Hills National Park, Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu-kaya, Usun; Kishimoto-Yamada,Keiko; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Myrmecophytes are plants that harbor ant colonies in domatia, which are hollows in the plant body. Most ant species that colonize myrmecophytes aggressively attack and regulate the abundances of herbivorous insects that would otherwise feed on the leaves of host trees. Although previous studies have described the interactions between myrmecophytes and herbivorous insects, a large proportion of herbivores that are able to feed on these trees are still unrecorded and details of their feeding ha...

  13. The impact of selective-logging and forest clearance for oil palm on fungal communities in Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorsaf Kerfahi

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest.

  14. The impact of selective-logging and forest clearance for oil palm on fungal communities in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Lee, Junghoon; Edwards, David P; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads) observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest.

  15. Evaluating land use and aboveground biomass dynamics in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Borneo using optical remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minerva; Malhi, Yadvinder; Bhagwat, Shonil

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is to assess the efficacy of using optical remote sensing (RS) in evaluating disparities in forest composition and aboveground biomass (AGB). The research was carried out in the East Sabah region, Malaysia, which constitutes a disturbance gradient ranging from pristine old growth forests to forests that have experienced varying levels of disturbances. Additionally, a significant proportion of the area consists of oil palm plantations. In accordance with local laws, riparian forest (RF) zones have been retained within oil palm plantations and other forest types. The RS imagery was used to assess forest stand structure and AGB. Band reflectance, vegetation indicators, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) consistency features were used as predictor variables in regression analysis. Results indicate that the spectral variables were limited in their effectiveness in differentiating between forest types and in calculating biomass. However, GLCM based variables illustrated strong correlations with the forest stand structures as well as with the biomass of the various forest types in the study area. The present study provides new insights into the efficacy of texture examination methods in differentiating between various land-use types (including small, isolated forest zones such as RFs) as well as their AGB stocks.

  16. The mid-domain effect matters: simulation analyses of range-size distribution data from Mount Kinabalu, Borneo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grytnes, John-Arvid; Beaman, John H.; Romdal, Tom Skovlund;

    2008-01-01

    Aim In simulation exercises, mid-domain peaks in species richness arise as a result of the random placement of modelled species ranges within simulated geometric constraints. This has been called the mid-domain effect (MDE). Where close correspondence is found between such simulations and empirical...... within the domain (range-restricted MDE), and a model encompassing all species with the theoretical midpoint within the domain (midpoint-restricted MDE). These predictions are compared with observations from the elevational pattern of range-size distributions and species richness of vascular plants....... The distribution of range sizes gives different predictions between models including the MDE or not. Here, we produce predictions for species richness and distribution of range sizes from one model without the MDE and from two MDE models: a classical MDE model encompassing only species with their entire range...

  17. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sartono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. The results of the study indicate positive relationships between job satisfaction, work engagement and intrinsic motivation among the workers. Age and marital status were found to be significant contributors to workers’ job satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and work engagement. Implications of these results are that human resource interventions are required in order to deal with enhancing work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicate that intrinsic motivation and work engagement can enhance job satisfaction. The current study adds to the research pointing at job satisfaction as a promising underlying mechanism for employees’ to be internally motivated and engaged at work.

  18. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Mot...

  19. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  20. Bird community changes in response to single and repeated fires in a lowland tropical rainforest of eastern Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Balen, van S.

    2006-01-01

    Our current understanding of bird community responses to tropical forest fires is limited and strongly geographically biased towards South America. Here we used the circular plot method to carry out complete bird inventories in undisturbed, once burned (1998) and twice burned forests (1983 and 1998)

  1. Review of the odd chrysidid genus Loboscelidia Westwood, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae, Loboscelidiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Kimsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chrysidid genus Loboscelidia is reviewed and 11 new species are described, including L. cinnamonea (Borneo, L. fulgens (Viet Nam, L. fulva (Thailand, L. incompleta (India, L. kafae (Borneo, L. laminata (Viet Nam, L. meifungae (Borneo, L. nasiformis (Thailand, L. nitidula (Thailand, L. pecki (Viet Nam, and L. sisik (Borneo. A key to males of the species of Loboscelidia is given.

  2. Investment in seed physical defence is associated with species' light requirement for regeneration and seed persistence: evidence from Macaranga species in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life stage from seed dispersal to seedling emergence is often critical in determining the regeneration success of plants. During this period seeds must survive an array of seed predators and pathogens and germinate under conditions favorable for seedling establishment. To maximise recruitment s...

  3. Density, recruitment and growth performance of Asian green mussel (Perna viridis in Marudu Bay, Northeast Malaysian Borneo, three years after a massive mortality event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afizah Mohd Taib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Density, recruitment and growth performance of Asian green mussel (Perna viridis in a particular coastal marine environment can be affected by many factors, including environmental change, pollution, disease outbreak and massive mortality event. The present study was conducted to determine the density, recruitment and growth performance of farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay, three years after a mass mortality event. The study was carried out for 12 months between April 2013 and March 2014. The length frequency data of 1,308 individuals of green mussel were analyzed using the latest version of the FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT II. The result showed that the green mussel recruitment in Marudu Bay occurs throughout the year with two major peaks i.e. February and July which coincided with the monsoon seasons. The asymptotic length (L∞, growth coefficient (K and growth performance index (φ’ of the farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay are relatively high at 113.4 mm, 1.7 year-1 and 4.34, respectively. However, despite good culture location, the settlement density of green mussel in the bay was low. We suspected that the low settlement density could be influenced by the ecological effects due to the long term suspension of the culture substrates and the physiochemical properties of the water in Marudu Bay. Nevertheless, chlorophyll-á measurement alone was not able to justify if food scarcity has resulted in high mortality of the farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay.

  4. Description of two final stadium platystictid larvae from Borneo, including that of Drepanosticta ?attala Lieftinck, identified using DNA barcoding (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Albert G; Dow, Rory A

    2015-07-14

    The final stadium larva of Drepanosticta ?attala Lieftinck, is described and illustrated based on a single male specimen collected at Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, Brunei. The larva was identified by matching the mitochondrial marker COI with that of known adult specimens. The larva presented a good match with both D. attala and D. barbatula Lieftinck in this gene, but as adults of only the former species had been collected at the locality, it is presumed more likely to be that species. Another, unidentified platystictid larva, Platystictidae A, collected at the same general locality is also described. The two larvae show significant differences from each other and from D. sundana Krüger, the only other Oriental region member of the family for which larval morphology is known. The three species are also compared with the larvae of the Neotropical genus Palaemnema, which they closely resemble, despite being currently placed in different subfamilies. Based on this known material, Oriental and Neotropical forms differ significantly in details of mandibular morphology, especially the armature of the molar field.

  5. Analysis of biophysical and anthropogenic variables and their relation to the regional spatial variation of aboveground biomass illustrated for North and East Kalimantan, Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Laan, Carina; Verweij, Pita A.; Quiñones, Marcela J.; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Land use and land cover change occurring in tropical forest landscapes contributes substantially to carbon emissions. Better insights into the spatial variation of aboveground biomass is therefore needed. By means of multiple statistical tests, including geographically weighted regressio

  6. Investigating how fundamental parameters of XRF sample preparation and analysis affect the observed elemental concentration: an experiment using fluvial sediment from Sabah, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higton, Sam; Walsh, Rory

    2015-04-01

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is an important technique for measuring the concentrations of geochemical elements and inorganic contaminants adsorbed to sediments as an input to sediment tracing methods used to evaluate sediment transport dynamics in river catchments. In addition to traditional laboratory-based XRF instruments, the advent of increasingly advanced portable handheld XRF devices now mean that samples of fluvial sediment can be analysed in the field or in the laboratory following appropriate sample preparation procedures. There are limitations and sources of error associated with XRF sample preparation and analysis, however. It is therefore important to understand how fundamental parameters involved in sample preparation and analysis, such as sample compression and measurement exposure duration, affect observed variability in measurement results. Such considerations become important if the resulting measurement variability is high relative to the natural variability in element concentrations at a sample site. This paper deployed a simple experimental design to assess the impacts of varying a number of sample preparation and XRF analysis parameters on recorded measurements of elemental concentrations of the fine fraction (weight and sample quantity was sufficient to satisfy the assumption of 'infinite thickness' of sample. Standard plastic sample cups were used for both the Rigaku laboratory machine and the Niton portable XRF machine. A computer-controlled desktop laboratory stand was used in conjunction with the Niton handheld XRF analyser to ensure consistent repeated measurements. Parameters investigated related to sample preparation included consistent mechanical compression of samples within the sample cup and film thickness. Parameters investigated related to XRF analysis included the XRF machine selected and measurement exposure duration. As XRF is a non-destructive technique, wherever possible the same sample material was used to test different parameters, so as to reduce variations due to the heterogeneous nature of sediment. Observed XRF measurements demonstrate how the precision and relative accuracy of elemental concentrations of sediment can be affected by the XRF analyser selected as well as fundamental parameters of sample preparation and analysis procedure. This has implications for studies where comparability and repeatability of measurements is important. Furthermore, the heterogeneous nature of sediments over small spatial scales means that it is important to understand the levels of variability in elemental concentrations resulting from variations in sample preparation and analysis procedures.

  7. Artificial canopy gaps and the establishment of planted dipterocarp seedlings in Macaranga spp. dominated secondary tropical rain forests of Sabah, Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Romell, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The continued losses of primary tropical rain forests have increased the pressure on secondary tropical rain forests and led to additional logging and changes to other land uses. A requirement for a secondary tropical forest to recover the main traits of old-growth forests is the regeneration of non-pioneer (climax) species. To accelerate the recovery of non-pioneer species where natural regeneration is insufficient, enrichment planting can be used in artificially created gaps or lines. The s...

  8. Biodiversity of leaf-litter ants in fragmented tropical rainforests of Borneo: the value of publically and privately managed forest fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Tawatao, N; Lucey, JM; M Senior (Referee); Benedick, S; Vun Khen, C; Hill, JK; Hamer, KC

    2014-01-01

    In view of the rapid rate of expansion of agriculture in tropical regions, attention has focused on the potential for privately-managed rainforest patches within agricultural land to contribute to biodiversity conservation. However, these sites generally differ in their history of forest disturbance and management compared with other forest fragments, and more information is required on the biodiversity value of these privately-managed sites, particularly in oil-palm dominated landscapes of S...

  9. Habitat-use and conservation of two elusive ground birds (Carpococcyx radiatus and Polyplectron schleiermacheri) in Sungai Wain protection forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Fredriksson; V. Nijman

    2004-01-01

    We studied the distribution and habitat-use of two endemic ground birds, the Borneon groundcuckoo Carpococcyx radiatus and the Bornean peacockpheasant Polyplectron schleiermacheri in the Sungai Wain protection Forest, East Kalimantan. Both species are highly elusive and neither has been subject to a

  10. Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in Meretrix meretrix Roding, Water and Sediments from Estuaries in Sabah, North Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd. Harun; Sidi, Jovita; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in tissues of Meretrix meretrix Roding (M. meretrix R.), water and sediments from two estuaries were determined. One estuary is located in an urban area of Kota Kinabalu (Likas estuary) and the other in a rural district of Kota Belud (Kota Belud estuary), where both are in Sabah, North of…

  11. Four new Artocarpus species from Indo-Malesia (Moraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarrett, Frances M.

    1975-01-01

    Artocarpus annulatus, obtusus, and sarawakensis are described from Borneo and endemic in that island; A. excelsus is described from Borneo but occurs also in Indo-China. Further data will be given in the forthcoming Flora Malesiana revision.

  12. New genera and species of the tribe Taphurini (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) from Sundaland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Three new genera and five species of Taphurini from Sundaland (Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and Java) are described: Sundabroma including S. bimaculata sp. n. from Borneo and S. suffusca sp. n. from the Malayan Peninsula, Allobroma including A. kedenburgi (Breddin, 1905) comb. n. from Borneo a

  13. Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. from Sabah (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A; Afendy, Aqilah; Rahman, Homathevi

    2016-04-14

    Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. (holotype male, from Borneo, Sabah, West Coast division, Crocker Range National Park, Inobong, Kimamabang waterfall stream system, 21 ix 2012, deposited in RMNH) is described from Kinabalu National Park and Crocker Range National Park in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It is distinguished from all other species of Telosticta by the form of the male anal appendages.

  14. A taxonomic study on the genus Ettchellsia Cameron, with descriptions of three new species (Hymenoptera, Megalyridae, Dinapsini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiharu Mita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Ettchellsia Cameron, namely, E. ignita sp. n. from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo, E. nigripes sp. n. from Sulawesi and E. reidi sp. n. from Borneo are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Ettchellsia is provided based on females.

  15. The Caddisfly Triaenodes pellectus Ulmer (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae: Triaenodini) taken in Sabah, East Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Andersen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Triaenodes pellectus Ulmer is recorded from Sabah on the Island of Borneo, constituting the southernmost record of this widespread species. A checklist of the Triaenodes species from the southeast Asian islands and New Guinea is given.

  16. Four new species of Adicella MacLachlan (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae: Triaenodini) from Sabah, East Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Andersen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Four new species of Adicella MacLachlan, 1877, A. anakpanah spec, nov., A. bavanga spec, nov., A. danumensis spec, nov., and A. gada spec, nov., from Sabah (Borneo), East Malaysia, are described and figured.

  17. Indonesian Islands as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Indonesian Islands (partial cloud cover): Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, Sumbawa, as photographed from the Gemini 11 spacecraft during its 26th revolution of the earth, at an altitude of 570 nautical miles.

  18. A MONOGRAPH OF CARYODAPHNOPSIS A. SHAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a. j. g. h. kostermans

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the genus Caryodapknopaia 7 species are known, of which twoare described here for the first time. The genus occurs from Yunnanto Indochina, with the exception of C. tonkinensis, which goes as far asthe Philippines and Borneo. Apparently most species are distributed bywater and C.tonkinensis is assumed to have spread from the mainlandto Borneo during the glacial period, when a land connection existed.The genus is related to Nothaphoebe and Alseodaphne and hencebelongs to Perseae.

  19. Contrasting Linguistic and Genetic Origins of the Asian Source Populations of Malagasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cox, Murray P; Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Adelaar, Alexander; Sudoyo, Herawati; Letellier, Thierry; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2016-05-18

    The Austronesian expansion, one of the last major human migrations, influenced regions as distant as tropical Asia, Remote Oceania and Madagascar, off the east coast of Africa. The identity of the Asian groups that settled Madagascar is particularly mysterious. While language connects Madagascar to the Ma'anyan of southern Borneo, haploid genetic data are more ambiguous. Here, we screened genome-wide diversity in 211 individuals from the Ma'anyan and surrounding groups in southern Borneo. Surprisingly, the Ma'anyan are characterized by a distinct, high frequency genomic component that is not found in Malagasy. This novel genetic layer occurs at low levels across Island Southeast Asia and hints at a more complex model for the Austronesian expansion in this region. In contrast, Malagasy show genomic links to a range of Island Southeast Asian groups, particularly from southern Borneo, but do not have a clear genetic connection with the Ma'anyan despite the obvious linguistic association.

  20. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS NEESIA * Blume (Bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEPADMO SOEPADMO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1     Eight species are described:  N. altissima, synandra, glabra, koster-mansiana, malayana, parpurascens, piluliflora and strigosa.2     N. kostermansiana is a species new to science.3     N. glabra and synandra, formerly included in N. altissima are reinstated  as distinct species.4     The area of distribution of the genus covers Lower Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo, with Borneo as centre.

  1. Some introductory notes on the development and characteristics of Sabah Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Hoogervorst

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary description of the Malay variety used as a lingua franca in the Malaysian state of Sabah at the northernmost top of Borneo. The paper discusses a number of common linguistic features that distinguish Sabah Malay from other Malay varieties and analyses these features from a historical linguistic perspective. While it is argued that Sabah Malay has a close historical relation with other Malay dialects spoken in Borneo, especially Brunei Malay, the vernacular is also influenced phonologically and lexically by Sabah’s indigenous and immigrant speech communities. Words and sentences recorded or elicited during fieldwork in various parts of Sabah illustrate these points.

  2. Susceptibility of tropical mountain forests to biological invasions from the temperate and subtropical zone, exemplified by Zonitoides (Gastropoda: Gastrodontidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capinha, Cesar; Vermeulen, Jaap J.; bin Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno; Kappes, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Colonisation by, and spread of, animal species from the temperate zone are rather uncommon observations in the tropics. The study provides the first reports of two snail species of the genus Zonitoides in Sabah, Borneo, namely Z. arboreus (Say, 1819) and Z. nitidus (O.F. Muller, 1774). The identific

  3. Leidlikud lahendused : uus elamuehitus Amsterdamis = Enforcing Ingenuity New Housing in Amsterdam / Hans Ibelings ; hollandi keelest tõlk. eesti keelde Katrin Laiapea ja inglise keelde Robyn de Jong-Dalziel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ibelings, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Amsterdami kahe elamurajooni planeeringust. Borneo-Sporenburgi (1994-2001) planeeringu tegi Adriaan Geuze ja tema büroo West 8. Kolm hiigelelamut projekteerisid Koen van Velsen, Frits van Dongen ja Kees Christiaanse. Valmimisjärgus IJburgi planeeringu autorid Felix Claus, Frits van Dongen ja Ton Schaap. 13 ill

  4. Revision of Cyrtandra section Dissimiles (Gesneriaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramley, G.L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Section Dissimiles C.B. Clarke is reviewed. Eleven species are known, one of which is newly described here (C. fulvisericea), and one species is reduced to synonymy (C. producta = C. trisepala). The section is centred on Borneo, with two outlying species in Sumatra and one in Peninsular Malaysia. Se

  5. A taxonomic revision of the Malesian genus Trigonopleura Hook.f. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van Peter C.; Bulalacao, Lolita J.; Ôn, van Tran

    1995-01-01

    Trigonopleura, a genus from W Malesia, has three species, the widespread T. malayana (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi) and the two endemic species T. dubia (Philippines) and T. macrocarpa (Sarawak, Kuching). The species differ slightly from each other in leaf size, colour, and margin, flo

  6. Descriptions of Earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1895-01-01

    My colleague Mr. J. Büttikofer, at this moment making part of an expedition in West-Borneo, collected on the Goenong Kenepai a large earthworm, belonging to the family of the Moniligastridae. Though our knowledge of the organisation of this interesting group much increased in the last years thanks t

  7. Two new species of Pratinus Attems, with taxonomic notes on the genus and a redescription of its type-species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeekel, C.A.W.

    1964-01-01

    Recently, in my paper on the Paradoxosomatidae of Borneo (JEEKEL, 1963), I discussed the taxonomy of the genus Pratinus Attems, 1937, and showed that the species of this genus in the wide sense as conceived by ATTEMS (1937, 1953) in majority belong to three other genera, viz., Orthomorpha Bollman, 1

  8. Hispinen aus dem Holländischen Kolonialgebiet. 27. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Hispinen (Col. Chrys.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhmann, E.

    1930-01-01

    NEUE ART: Botryonopa Kleinei, Borneo, NEUE VERBREITUNGSGEBIETE: Metaxycera purpurata Guér, Surinam, bisher Brasilien, ferner Paraguay, Uruguay, Cayenne, Columbien. Sceloenopla maculata 01., Surinam, bisher Cayenne. Sceloenopla quinquemaculata Guér., Surinam, bisher Columbien. Amplipalpa collaris Gué

  9. The genus Rubus (Rosaceae) in Malesia. 3. The subgenus Micranthobatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.

    1987-01-01

    Subgenus Micranthobatus is separated again from subg. Lampobatus sensu Focke (1911). The c.12 species have a scattered area of distribution, suggesting an old Gondwanan history. In Malesia five species are endemic in New Guinea (incl. New Britain), one is distributed in Borneo, the Philippines and C

  10. Case report of a new pathogenic variant of Aspergillus fumigates isolated from Hipposideros cervinus (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.J. Seelan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of new Aspergillus fumigatus variant (UNIMAS F009 was reported from the ears of bats at Kubah National Park, Borneo, Malaysia. Morphological characterization of this isolate showed some differences in terms of their growth rate, colony color, size of conidia and pigmentation on different media.

  11. Case report of a new pathogenic variant of Aspergillus fumigates isolated from Hipposideros cervinus (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    S.S.J. Seelan; F.A. Anwarali

    2009-01-01

    First record of new Aspergillus fumigatus variant (UNIMAS F009) was reported from the ears of bats at Kubah National Park, Borneo, Malaysia. Morphological characterization of this isolate showed some differences in terms of their growth rate, colony color, size of conidia and pigmentation on different media.

  12. Florae Malesianae Precursores XL. Notes on Malesian and some extra-Malesian Cyperaceae IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, J.H.

    1966-01-01

    BORNEO. Sarawak: Ulu Tubau, Bintulu, skeletal sandy clay soil on steep hillside by sandstone rocks, Nyabau formation, mixed Dipterocarp forest, c. 350 m., Ashton S 18439 (L); base of Bt Naoung, Ulu Muput Kanan, Anap, sandstone rocks in shade, Biban formation, common, 600 m., Oct. II, 1963. Ashton S

  13. Of jars and gongs : Two keys to Ot Danum Dayak cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbey, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the traditional ritual art of Ot Danum Dayak subsistence farmers from a stretch of tropical rainforest in the hearth of Borneo. Together with the Ngaju, their neighbours to the south, they glories in one of the most elaborate secondary mortuary rites in the world. Much of their

  14. Population structure and demographic history of a tropical lowland rainforest tree species Shorea parvifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) from Southeastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Hiroko; Teshima, Kosuke M; Khatab, Ismael A; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Finkeldey, Reiner; Siregar, Iskandar Z; Siregar, Ulfah J; Szmidt, Alfred E

    2012-07-01

    Distribution of tropical rainforests in Southeastern Asia has changed over geo-logical time scale, due to movement of tectonic plates and/or global climatic changes. Shorea parvifolia is one of the most common tropical lowland rainforest tree species in Southeastern Asia. To infer population structure and demographic history of S. parvifolia, as indicators of temporal changes in the distribution and extent of tropical rainforest in this region, we studied levels and patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in the following five nuclear gene regions: GapC, GBSSI, PgiC, SBE2, and SODH. Seven populations from peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and eastern Borneo were included in the analyses. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that the investigated populations are divided into two groups: Sumatra-Malay and Borneo. Furthermore, each group contained one admixed population. Under isolation with migration model, divergence of the two groups was estimated to occur between late Pliocene (2.6 MYA) and middle Pleistocene (0.7 MYA). The log-likelihood ratio tests of several demographic models strongly supported model with population expansion and low level of migration after divergence of the Sumatra-Malay and Borneo groups. The inferred demographic history of S. parvifolia suggested the presence of a scarcely forested land bridge on the Sunda Shelf during glacial periods in the Pleistocene and predominance of tropical lowland rainforest at least in Sumatra and eastern Borneo.

  15. Survey on birds of prey and owls Falconiformes and Strigiformes) on Java sea islands: correction and additions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2005-01-01

    ): In Southeast Asia the short-eared owl Asio flammeus is a northern migrant and is normally not recorded south of Singapore and, rarely, northern Borneo. The occurrence of short-eared owl in the Kangean archipelago, Java Sea, has been noted in several publications, including a recent one in this jo

  16. Follow the drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch-Roy, O. [Dando Drilling International (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The paper discusses modern drilling techniques with which Dando Drilling has been involved. It describes equipment supplied to opencast coal operations in Kalimantan, Borneo. These include polycrystalline diamond drill bits, flushing media, rig drilling controls and other specialised equipment. 3 photos.

  17. Remarks on Chalcites malayanus (Raffles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1938-01-01

    Till now it was assumed that the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes are inhabited by the typical race of Chalcites malayanus. At Prof. Stresemann's request I compared the beautiful series collected by Heinrich in Celebes with the material in the Leiden Museum and it proved that the

  18. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  19. Zorotypus weiweii (Zoraptera: Zorotypidae), a new species of angel insects, from Sabah, East Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyun; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-09-12

    A new species of the insect order Zoraptera, Zorotypus weiweii, is described and figured from Sabah, East Malaysia. The new species represents the second angel insect from Borneo. Z. caudelli Karny was also collected near the type locality of Z. weiweii. Methods of specimen collection and a brief note of angel insects in Malaysia were provided based on new materials and biological observations.

  20. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infection detected by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); M. Rutten (Martine); R. Koelewijn (Rob); A.M. Zeeman (Anne Marie); J. Verweij (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter); C.H. Kocken (Clemens); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a PCR-confirmed case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection with a high parasitemia level and clinical signs of severe malaria in a migrant worker from Malaysian Borneo in the Netherlands. Investigations showed that commercially available rapid antigen tests for detection of human

  1. A new genus of Lindsaeoid ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.U.

    1957-01-01

    In revising the New World representatives of the genus Lindsaea, the author came across a fern specimen from Borneo preserved in the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, that did not seem to fit into any described genus. It had been described as Schizoloma stortii v. A. v. R., but in the author’s opinion the gen

  2. On two Mammals from the Calamianes-islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1895-01-01

    The study of the geographical distribution of the Mammals over the islands of the Malayan Archipelago teaches us the fact that only a very small number of species is common to Sumatra and Borneo and at the same time to Java. The most interesting species among them is without question Mydaus meliceps

  3. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodies

  4. On Phasianus ignitus and its nearest allies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1896-01-01

    While working out the ornithological results of the Dutch expedition to Central Borneo, I had to decide which name to bestow upon the Bornean Crested Fire-back, generally known as Euplocamus nobilis Scl., but afterwards united with E. ignitus Lath. by Elliot (Ibis 1878, p. 414), and lately also by O

  5. On Moniligaster coeruleus Horst (Moniligaster viridis Beddard)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1896-01-01

    In my description of this large earthworm from Borneo ¹) I made already the suggestion, that the species probably did not belong to the genus Moniligaster, but I preferred to range it provisionally in this genus till we were better informed about the characters of several Moniligaster- species, only

  6. Contributions to a review of the Dendrelaphis pictus complex (Serpentes: Colubridae) - 1. Description of a sympatric species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Rooijen; G. Vogel

    2008-01-01

    A new species of the colubrid genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger, 1890 is described. Dendrelaphis haasi sp. nov. ranges from the Malaysian Peninsula to Sumatra, Java and Borneo. Within this range it also inhabits the islands of Pulau Tioman, Nias, Billiton and the Mentawei Archipelago. D. haasi is similar

  7. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiteman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three years after publication of volume 2, which was entirely devoted to Bulbophyllum (by J.J. Vermeulen), volume 1 of what should become a complete iconography of the Orchids of Borneo has appeared. Each volume is projected to contain a hundred species, which means that eventually fifteen volumes w

  8. Negotiating development narratives within large-scale oil palm projects on village lands in Sarawak, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Egay, Kelvin;

    2016-01-01

    The Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo is one of the global hotspots of deforestation and forest degradation. The planting of oil palm has played a key role in the transformation of land use in the state. While much of the expansion in Sarawak so far has taken place in state forests...

  9. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2011-01-01

    ‘Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  10. English Language Teaching in Brunei: A View through a Critical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Clayton

    2011-01-01

    The small sultanate of Brunei, located on the island of Borneo in the South China Sea, introduced bilingual education shortly after independence. As a consequence, Brunei's Ministry of Education outsourced much of its English language teaching requirements to qualified expatriate teachers. Despite over 25 years of systemic English language…

  11. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities and bacterioplankton in Indonesian Marine lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, D.F.R.; Becking, L.E.; Polonia, A.; Freitas, B.M.; Gomes, N.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we compared communities of bacteria in two jellyfish species (the ‘golden’ jellyfish Mastigias cf. papua and the box jellyfish Tripedalia cf. cystophora) and water in three marine lakes located in the Berau region of northeastern Borneo, Indonesia. Jellyfish-associated bacteria

  12. The effects of logging on the architecture of Bornean rainforest trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterck, F.J.; Hille Ris Lamberis, R.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Tree parameters were compared between trees in a logged (logged eight years ago) and an unlogged forest in Borneo. This comparison was made for 3 to 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) trees of four tree species, namely, Mallotus penangensis, M. wrayi, Shorea johorensis and S. parvifolia. The crow

  13. Taxonomy of Hodgsonia (Cucurbitaceae), with a note on the ovules and seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2001-01-01

    Hodgsonia, ranging from NE India through S China to Java and Borneo, was for a long time considered as monotypic, but there are two (and possibly three) species, demarcated at the Isthmus of Kra in S Thailand. The few, woody ‘seeds’ should be regarded as pyrenes, a condition not known elsewhere in t

  14. The mushroom coral fauna (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) of Brunei Darussalam (South China Sea) and its relation to the Coral Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Lane, D.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Brunei Darussalam is situated on the northwest coast of Borneo, just outside the westernmost boundary of the area presently recognised as the centre of maximum marine biodiversity, the so-called Coral Triangle. This diversity is particularly quantified with regard to numbers of reef coral species. M

  15. The composition and variability of atmospheric aerosol over Southeast Asia during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Trivitayanurak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a nested version of the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model to better understand the composition and variation of aerosol over Borneo and the broader Southeast Asian region in conjunction with aircraft and satellite observations. Our focus on Southeast Asia reflects the importance of this region as a source of reactive organic gases and aerosols from natural forests, biomass burning, and food and fuel crops. We particularly focus on July 2008 when the UK BAe-146 research aircraft was deployed over northern Malaysian Borneo as part of the ACES/OP3 measurement campaign. During July 2008 we find using the model that Borneo (defined as Borneo Island and the surrounding Indonesian islands was a net exporter of primary organic aerosol (42 kT and black carbon aerosol (11 kT. We find only 13% of volatile organic compound oxidation products partition to secondary organic aerosol (SOA, with Borneo being a net exporter of SOA (15 kT. SOA represents approximately 19% of the total organic aerosol over the region. Sulphate is mainly from aqueous-phase oxidation (68%, with smaller contributions from gas-phase oxidation (15% and advection into the regions (14%. We find that there is a large source of sea salt, as expected, but this largely deposits within the region; we find that dust aerosol plays only a relatively small role in the aerosol burden. In contrast to coincident surface measurements over Northern Borneo that find a pristine environment with evidence for substantial biogenic SOA formation we find that the free troposphere is influenced by biomass burning aerosol transported from the northwest of the Island and further afield. We find several transport events during July 2008 over Borneo associated with elevated aerosol concentrations, none of which coincide with the aircraft flights. We use MODIS aerosol optical depths (AOD data and the model to put the July campaign into a longer temporal perspective. We find that Borneo is where

  16. Forest contraction in north equatorial Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Christopher M; Bird, Michael I; Bull, Ian D; Creed, Frances; Bryant, Charlotte; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Paz, Victor

    2010-08-31

    Today, insular Southeast Asia is important for both its remarkably rich biodiversity and globally significant roles in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Despite the fundamental importance of environmental history for diversity and conservation, there is little primary evidence concerning the nature of vegetation in north equatorial Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period (LGP). As a result, even the general distribution of vegetation during the Last Glacial Maximum is debated. Here we show, using the stable carbon isotope composition of ancient cave guano profiles, that there was a substantial forest contraction during the LGP on both peninsular Malaysia and Palawan, while rainforest was maintained in northern Borneo. These results directly support rainforest "refugia" hypotheses and provide evidence that environmental barriers likely reduced genetic mixing between Borneo and Sumatra flora and fauna. Moreover, it sheds light on possible early human dispersal events.

  17. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  18. Genetic identification and structure of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Southeast Asia using a mitochondrial DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paolin; Sulaiman, Zohrah

    2015-05-22

    A phylogenetic tree and median-joining network based on cytochrome b sequence data revealed clades consistent with morphological differences and geographical distribution of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Southeast Asia. AMOVA analysis for variation was significant among populations (PJava and Brunei/Borneo, Brunei/Borneo and west Malaysia, and Java and west Malaysia samples (P Java, and between west Malaysia and Laos-Sumatra. Nine haplotypes were unique to geographical regions. The Java species had high haplotype (1.000 ± 0.126) but low nucleotide (0.017) diversities, suggesting a population bottleneck followed by expansion. However, SSD and Hri (P=0.5) did not support demographic expansion. Instead, purifying selection where mutations occur and accumulate at silent sites is a more acceptable explanation.

  19. Serendipity at the Smithsonian: The 107-year journey of Rhipidocyrtus muiri Falin & Engel, new genus and species (Ripidiinae, Ripidiini), from jungle beast to valid taxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falin, Zachary H; Engel, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    THE LONG AND TORTUOUS HISTORY OF AN ENIGMATIC AND RARE NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF RIPIDIINE WEDGE BEETLE (RIPIPHORIDAE: Ripidiinae: Ripidiini) from Borneo is discussed and the taxon described and figured as Rhipidocyrtus muiri Falin & Engel, gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype male, and only known specimen, was collected 107 years ago in Borneo but subsequent to this it was transferred among early researchers in the early 1900s. The specimen was dissected and many portions slide mounted, but these were disassociated from the pinned body for more than a generation. A happenstance encounter led to the rediscovery and reassociation of the body and slide-mounted abdomen and other sclerites in 2011, and to its eventual description herein. Ripidiine diversity is briefly discussed and comparisons made between Rhipidocyrtus and other members of the subfamily.

  20. Serendipity at the Smithsonian: The 107-year journey of Rhipidocyrtus muiri Falin & Engel, new genus and species (Ripidiinae, Ripidiini, from jungle beast to valid taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Falin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The long and tortuous history of an enigmatic and rare new genus and species of ripidiine wedge beetle (Ripiphoridae: Ripidiinae: Ripidiini from Borneo is discussed and the taxon described and figured as Rhipidocyrtus muiri Falin & Engel, gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype male, and only known specimen, was collected 107 years ago in Borneo but subsequent to this it was transferred among early researchers in the early 1900s. The specimen was dissected and many portions slide mounted, but these were disassociated from the pinned body for more than a generation. A happenstance encounter led to the rediscovery and reassociation of the body and slide-mounted abdomen and other sclerites in 2011, and to its eventual description herein. Ripidiine diversity is briefly discussed and comparisons made between Rhipidocyrtus and other members of the subfamily.

  1. Clutch size declines with elevation in tropical birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, A.J.; Freeman, Benjamin G.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Clutch size commonly decreases with increasing elevation among temperate-zone and subtropical songbird species. Tropical songbirds typically lay small clutches, thus the ability to evolve even smaller clutch sizes at higher elevations is unclear and untested. We conducted a comparative phylogenetic analysis using data gathered from the literature to test whether clutch size varied with elevation among forest passerines from three tropical biogeographic regions—the Venezuelan Andes and adjacent lowlands, Malaysian Borneo, and New Guinea. We found a significant negative effect of elevation on variation in clutch size among species. We found the same pattern using field data sampled across elevational gradients in Venezuela and Malaysian Borneo. Field data were not available for New Guinea. Both sets of results demonstrate that tropical montane species across disparate biogeographic realms lay smaller clutches than closely related low-elevation species. The environmental sources of selection underlying this pattern remain uncertain and merit further investigation.

  2. Phase locking between atmospheric convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin waves and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Dariusz B.; Flatau, Maria K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Matthews, Adrian J.

    2016-08-01

    Convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) are a major component of the tropical atmospheric circulation, propagating eastward around the equatorial belt. Here we show that there are scale interactions between CCKWs and the diurnal cycle over the Maritime Continent. In particular, CCKW packets that pass a base point in the eastern Indian Ocean at 90°E between 0600 and 0900 UTC subsequently arrive over Sumatra in phase with the diurnal cycle of convection. As the distance between Sumatra and Borneo is equal to the distance traveled by a CCKW in 1 day, these waves are then also in phase with the diurnal cycle over Borneo. Consequently, this subset of CCKWs has a precipitation signal up to a factor of 3 larger than CCKWs that arrive at other times of the day and a 40% greater chance of successfully traversing the Maritime Continent.

  3. Population and economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...

  4. Description of the final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936 (Odonata, Libellulidae), using rearing and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Philip O M; Butler, Stephen G; Dow, Rory A

    2016-02-18

    The final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from three male and six female larvae collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with an early instar larva, which was matched to the adult O. borneense by DNA barcoding, and the known larvae of other species of this genus that occur in the region.

  5. Possible conservation units of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak based on variation of mtDNA control region.

    OpenAIRE

    ONUMA, Manabu; SUZUKI, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2006-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA control region of the sun bear(Helarctos malayanus) was sequenced using 21DNA samples collected from confiscated sun bears to identify conservation units, such as evolutionarily significant units and management units, in Sarawak, Borneo Island. A total of 10 haplotypes were observed, indicating the presence of at least two lineages in the sun bear population in Sarawak. Presumably, these two lineages could represent evolutionarily significant units. How...

  6. A revision of the spirit loaches, genus Lepidocephalus (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deein, Gridsada; Tangjitjaroen, Weerapongse; Page, Lawrence M

    2014-03-17

    Lepidocephalus has been assumed to include only two species and confined to peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia. However, based on records and collections reported herein, the genus contains five species and is most common in the Chao Phraya basin of Thailand. Large rivers seem to be the preferred habitat, and difficulty in collecting these rivers may account for the paucity of specimens in collections. The known range of these five species includes western and southern Borneo, Java, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, and central Thailand.

  7. WHAM: Winning Hearts and Minds in Afghanistan and Elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    destruction of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in Sri Lanka, where the prevailing government bloodily pulverized the minority Tamils with gunfire until...for applicable lessons to their anti-insurgent effort. Of these conflicts, the counterinsurgency in Malaya (now called the Federation of Malaysia ...the Federation comprises the Peninsular Malaysia and two islands states—Sabah and Sarawak—on Borneo. But during the fighting against postwar Britain

  8. Force Sizing for Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Angola ‘88‐’99 Argentina ‘69‐’83 Bolivia ‘67 Borneo ( Malaysia ) ‘63‐’66 Cuba ‘56-59 Cyprus ‘55-’59 Dhofar (Oman) ‘65-’75 El Salvador ‘79-’92 Greece ‘46...outcome of this campaign as a failure. Sri Lanka (1983-2009) – Success. The Sri Lankan government decisively defeated the Tamil insurgency in 2009

  9. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS DIPLODISCUS* Turcz. (TILIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Seven species of the genus Diplodiscus are described, of which three(D. microlepis, D. parviflorus and D. decumbens are new to science, and one (D. hookerianus was formerly described as Pentace (for the description of D. decumbens cf. p. 264.2. The area of distribution of the genus covers the Malay Peninsula,Borneo and the Philippines.3. The affinities of the genus are discussed.4. A key to the species is presented.

  10. The Sanity of Imperial Japan: How the Threat of Extinction Simplifies the Decision for War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    Philippines , Indo-China, Borneo, Indonesia, Malaya, and Burma were essentially forbidden. The infamous Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka eloquently...decide to exist according to Western practices or she would have to forcibly carve out a means for survival. Although references to a self-sufficiency... Philippines , Manchukuo, French Indo-China and the Dutch East Indies.25 In reality, this proclamation was not the reciprocal partnership of Hakko

  11. Whither Conscription in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Soldiers During the Malvinas/Falklands War (1982)‖ (CEMA Working Papers, Serie Documentos de Trabajo , September 2004), 17. 15Andrew, 137. 14 domestic...Borneo in Malaysia. On 27 July 1963, he planned to destabilize the economy and demoralize the population, to ―crush Malaysia‖ or ―gayang Malaysia...Malaysia and gained independence on 9 August 1965. With looming threats of Indonesian Kronfrontasi and the Malaysian‘s plan to subvert Singapore‘s

  12. Worldwide Report: Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Typhoid Outbreak 22 HONG KONG Health Official Gives Statistics on Malaria (Hong Kong HONGKONG STANDARD, 11 Jul 85) 23 Hong Kong’s First Cholera Case in...Dengue Cases Rise (Kuching THE BORNEO POST, 7 Jul 85) 36 - c - MEXICO Briefs Annual Rabies Mortality Statistics 37 NIGERIA Briefs Guinea Worm...TIMES, 9 Jun 85) 67 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Under Control ( Penang THE STAR, 14 Jun 85) 68 Briefs Cattle Disease Virus Identified 69 MEXICO Briefs

  13. Simulating Food Web Dynamics along a Gradient: Quantifying Human Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Ferenc Jordán; Nerta Gjata; Shu Mei; Yule, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Realistically parameterized and dynamically simulated food-webs are useful tool to explore the importance of the functional diversity of ecosystems, and in particular relations between the dynamics of species and the whole community. We present a stochastic dynamical food web simulation for the Kelian River (Borneo). The food web was constructed for six different locations, arrayed along a gradient of increasing human perturbation (mostly resulting from gold mining activities) along the river...

  14. BLOOD PRESSURE VALUES AND PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION IN CERTAIN ETHNIC GROUPS IN INDONESIA, 1976

    OpenAIRE

    Kartari D. S.; Buchari Lapau; J. Sulianti Saroso

    2012-01-01

    A survey of hypertension rates and blood pressure values were undertaken from urban and rural population of various ethnic groups, namely: Bataks (North Sumatra); Sundanese and Jakarta (West-Java); Javanese (Central Java) and Dayaks (East Borneo). Five thousand two hundred and forty individuals were covered in the study, comprising 2562 males and 2678 females. There were no significant differences of hypertension rates between the urban and rural areas, and between the ethnic groups. Using WH...

  15. The palaeogeography of Sundaland and Wallacea since the Late Jurassic

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Hall

    2013-01-01

    The continental core of Southeast (SE) Asia, Sundaland, was assembled from Gondwana fragments by the Early Mesozoic. Continental blocks rifted from Australia in the Jurassic [South West (SW) Borneo, East Java-West Sulawesi-Sumba], and the Woyla intraoceanic arc of Sumatra, were added to Sundaland in the Cretaceous. These fragments probably included emergent areas and could have carried a terrestrial flora and fauna. Sarawak, the offshore Luconia-Dangerous Grounds areas, and Palawan include As...

  16. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    OpenAIRE

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sen...

  17. Association between Landscape Factors and Spatial Patterns of Plasmodium knowlesi Infections in Sabah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fornace, K.M.; Abidin, T.R.; Alexander, N; Brock, P; Grigg, M.J.; William, T; Menon, J; Drakeley, C J; Cox, J.

    2016-01-01

    The zoonotic malaria species Plasmodium knowlesi has become the main cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Deforestation and associated environmental and population changes have been hypothesized as main drivers of this apparent emergence. We gathered village-level data for P. knowlesi incidence for the districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu in Sabah state, Malaysia, for 2008-2012. We adjusted malaria records from routine reporting systems to reflect the diagnostic uncertainty of microscopy...

  18. The lived experience of women pregnant (including preconception) post in vitro fertilization through the lens of virtual communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve; Montgomery, Rebecca M

    2009-11-01

    In this study, researchers explore and describe the experience of pregnancy via in vitro fertilization (IVF). The lived experience portrayed herein represents the experience of women from at least seven different countries (the United States, Australia, England, Ireland, Canada, Columbia, and Borneo). Professionals from multiple disciplines may use insights gained from this study to better understand emotional, psychological, and physical health needs of women pregnant post IVF.

  19. PERBANDINGAN MORFOMETRIK DAN MERISTIK SUB-FAMILI ETILINAE (Aprion virescens, Aphareus furca, Aphareus rutilans)

    OpenAIRE

    Jabarsyah, Abdul; Rukisah Saleh; Yusman

    2013-01-01

    Research executed by Territorial water of Derawan in starting juni month 2005 to Februari 2006. This research aim to know Species Aprion virescens morfometrik-meristik character or characteristic in Territorial water of 'Derawan and comparing with Aphareus furca species and Aphareus rutilans in Makassar Strait and Sea Sulawesi. Sampel in obtaining from haul in Territorial water 0f Derawan. Analysis Fish example by elementary laboratory of Faculty Fishery and Marinelogy University Borneo Tarak...

  20. Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Michael I.; Taylor, David; Hunt, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Consideration of a range of evidence from geomorphology, palynology, biogeography and vegetation/climate modelling suggests that a north-south 'savanna corridor' did exist through the continent of Sundaland (modern insular Indonesia and Malaysia) through the Last Glacial Period (LGP) at times of lowered sea-level, as originally proposed by Heaney [1991. Climatic Change 19, 53-61]. A minimal interpretation of the size of this corridor requires a narrow but continuous zone of open 'savanna' vegetation 50-150 km wide, running along the sand-covered divide between the modern South China and Java Seas. This area formed a land bridge between the Malaysian Peninsula and the major islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo. The savanna corridor connected similar open vegetation types north and south of the equator, and served as a barrier to the dispersal of rainforest-dependent species between Sumatra and Borneo. A maximal interpretation of the available evidence is compatible with the existence of a broad savanna corridor, with forest restricted to refugia primarily in Sumatra, Borneo and the continental shelf beneath the modern South China Sea. This savanna corridor may have provided a convenient route for the rapid early dispersal of modern humans through the region and on into Australasia.

  1. Potensi Sektor Perekonomian di Kabupaten Malinau Provinsi Kalimantan Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dio Caisar Darma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study uses LQ Analysis Tool, DLQ, Shift Share, and Overlay during 5 yeares (2009 – 2013. As for the operating variable in this study is the GDP at Constant Prices, Economic Growth, Growth Sector, in the economy of Malinau Regency and the North of Borneo Province. Based on the results of the analysis are sector LQ base (seed in Malinau Regency is agriculture, electricity, gas and water, building and construction sector, the hotel and restaurant trade, and services sectors. DLQ analysis results show that, of the nine in the field of business, only the mining and quarrying sector that has a great chance to be developed in the future. Then, with a Shift Share Analysis results it is known that there is a change in the sectoral aggregate workmanship compared to the changes in the same sector in the economy with the Malinau Regency Regional Share (Rj of -557,195.12 million rupiah. Shift Differential category (Dj are seven sector experienced more rapid economic growth in Malinau Regency than North of Borneo Province or Pj <0. From category Proportional Shift (Pj are eight sectors experiencing economic growth more quickly in Malinau Regency than North of Borneo Province or Pj> 0. The other side, from the results of the Analysis of Overlay, there are six sector, which has a value notation is quite positive and dominant namely: agriculture, electricity, gas and water, building and construction sector, trade, hotels and restaurants, as well as services sector dominates with results notation (+ - +.

  2. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in an urban and a PBA-dominated location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gabey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-wavelength Ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF measurements were performed on ambient environmental aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical, which are taken to represent environments with negligible and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA influences, respectively. Single-particle fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter were measured with a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Sensor, version 3 (WIBS3 in the diameter range 0.8 μm≤DP≤20 μm for 2–3 weeks and filters were analysed using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, which revealed mostly non-PBA dominated particle sizes larger than 1 μm in Manchester.

    The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: Fluorescence excited at 280 nm is recorded at 310–400 nm and 400–600 nm and fluorescence excited at 370 nm is detected at 400–600 nm. In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was at 1.2 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3–4 μm. The fluorescence intensity at 400–600 nm generally increased with DP at both sites, as did the 310–400 nm intensity in Borneo. In Manchester the 310–400 m fluorescence decreased at DP>4 μm, suggesting this channel offers additional discrimination between fluorescent particle types. Finally, the ratio of fluorescence intensity in two pairs of channels was investigated as a function of particle diameter and this varied significantly between the two environments, demonstrating that the fluorescent aerosol in each can in principle be distinguished using a combination of fluorescence and elastic scattering measurements.

  3. Control de langostas en Madagascar: desafío a la capacidad innovadora

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Quizás pocos lugares resulten tan atractivos como Madagascar para biólogos, naturalistas y aventureros. La “isla-continente” o “el mundo aparte”, como ha sido (apropiadamente) apodada, se encuentra en el Océano Indico, separada del Sudeste de África por el canal de Mozambique, de unos 400 km de ancho promedio. Por su superficie (590.000 km2) es la cuarta isla de la tierra, luego de Groenlandia, Nueva Guinea y Borneo. Las estimaciones más recientes indican que Madagascar se habría separado de ...

  4. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-01-01

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of...

  5. REVIEW: The Diversity of Indigenous Honey Bee Species of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOESILAWATI HADISOESILO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that Indonesia has the most diverse honey bee species in the world. At least five out of nine species of honey bees are native to Indonesia namely Apis andreniformis, A. dorsata, A. cerana, A. koschevnikovi, and A. nigrocincta. One species, A. florea, although it was claimed to be a species native to Indonesia, it is still debatable whether it is really found in Indonesia or not. The new species, A. nuluensis, which is found in Sabah, Borneo is likely to be found in Kalimantan but it has not confirmed yet. This paper discusses briefly the differences among those native honey bees.

  6. Variance in spermatozoa number among Apis dorsata drones and among Apis mellifera drones

    OpenAIRE

    Koeniger, Gudrun; KOENIGER, Nikolaus; Tingek, Salim; Phiancharoen, Mananya

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Published estimates of the mean spermatozoa numbers for Apis dorsata drones vary from 1.2 × 106 and 2.4 × 106; the number of spermatozoa per individual drone vary from 0.22 × 106 to 2.65 × 106. Counts presented here revealed 1.19 × 106 + 0.25 × 106 spermatozoa in drones sampled near a colony and 1.59 × 106 + 0.18 × 106 in drones sampled at a drone congregation area (DCA) in Sabah, Borneo. The difference between the two sites is significant. Further, the degree of varia...

  7. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Nederveen Pieterse; Nancy Eberhardt; Niels Mulder; Akira Suehiro; C.L.J. van der Meer; W.A.I.M. Segers; Thomas Lindblad; Jeffrey C. Alexander; Laeyendecker, L.; Jowa Imre Kis-Jovak; Nico de Jonge; Thomas Höllman; Huub de Jonge; K. Epskamp; Heins, M.

    1991-01-01

    - Walter E.A. van Beek, Ph. Quarles van Ufford, Religion and development; Towards an integrated approach, Amsterdam: Free University Press, 1988., M. Schoffeleers (eds.) - J.H. de Beer, H.F. Tillema, A journey among the people of Central Borneo in word and picture, edited and with an introduction by Victor T. King, Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989. 268 pp. - Chris de Beet, Richard Price, Alabi’s world. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press, 1990. xx + 444 pp. - G. Bo...

  8. Going the whole orang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wyhe, John; Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This article surveys the European discovery and early ideas about orangutans followed by the contrasting experiences with these animals of the co-founders of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. The first non-human great ape that both of them interacted...... with was the orangutan. They were both profoundly influenced by what they saw, but the contexts of their observations could hardly be more different. Darwin met orangutans in the Zoological Gardens in London while Wallace saw them in the wild in Borneo. In different ways these observations helped shape their views...

  9. 马来西亚发展香草种植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010年2月20日,马来西亚沙捞越香草种植公司Borneo Rainforest Vanilla总经理法兰西加纳博士透露,全球每年对香草产品需求量超过2万t,马来西亚看准市场需求,开始投入香草种植发展,并预计在10a内成为全球第3大香草生产国。

  10. PREDIKSI JUMLAH PENERIMAAN SISWA SMK SWASTA TAHUN AJARAN 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Sarjono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine prediction number of modern private Vocational High School (SMK students in a province in Borneo with the approach of six forecasting methods: Linear Regression, Exponential Smoothing with Trend, Exponential Smoothing, Weighted Moving Average, Moving Average, and the Naive Method, besides using Manual calculation, the approach of QM for windows is used as a comparison. The result will be determined by the six forecasting methods which is used as a proper basis for the next calculating based on the smallest MAD (Mean Absolute Deviation and MSE (Mean Squared Error approach. The data in this study were made by the writer alone. 

  11. Prediksi Jumlah Penerimaan Siswa SMK Swasta Tahun Ajaran 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Sarjono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine prediction number of modern private Vocational High School (SMK students in a province in Borneo with the approach of six forecasting methods: Linear Regression, Exponential Smoothing with Trend, Exponential Smoothing, Weighted Moving Average, Moving Average, and the Naive Method, besides using Manual calculation, the approach of QM for windows is used as a comparison. The result will be determined by the six forecasting methods which is used as a proper basis for the next calculating based on the smallest MAD (Mean Absolute Deviation and MSE (Mean Squared Error approach. The data in this study were made by the writer alone.

  12. A sighting of Plastingia naga (de Nicéville, [1884] (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae from central Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Nandi Das

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The species Plastingia naga, de Niceville 1884is a very rare butterfly, and it occurs widely from Assam to Myanmar, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and Philippines (Evans, 1932. Except India, recently this species was recorded from Singapore, Sumatra and Thailand. On 10 Oct 2014 around 10:00hr, a solitary individual of Plastingia naga was sighted in Panbari Reserve Forest, Central Assam. Apart from the fact that these records constitute existence of this species in North-East India, this is probably the first photographic record from North-East India.

  13. Review of the Oriental lantern-fly genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, with a new species from Sumatra (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Constant

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Datua brevirostris Lallemand, 1959 is transferred to the genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011 in the Aphaeninae and the new combination Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959 comb. nov. is proposed. Egregia marpessa Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, the type-species of the genus Egregia, is synonymized with Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959. A second species, Egregia laprincesse sp. nov. is described from Sumatra, extending the distribution of the genus hitherto recorded only from Borneo. Distribution maps and an identification key are provided. The male genitalia of E. brevirostris are illustrated and described. The genus Datua Schmidt, 1911 now contains a single species, D. bisinuata Schmidt, 1911.

  14. New Replacement Name for Rana paradoxa Mocquard, 1890 with Designations of Lectotypes for Rana paradoxa and Rana conspicil-lata Günther, 1872:Both Synonymized with Limnonectes kuhlii (Tschudi, 1838) (Dicroglossidae:Dicroglossinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masafumi MATSUI; Alain DUBOIS; Annemarie OHLER

    2013-01-01

    Fanged frogs, now called Limnonectes kuhlii, from Borneo are remotely related to true Javanese L. kuhlii. For future taxonomy of Bornean fanged frogs, we ifx the nomenclatural status of two existing names, Rana conspicillata Günther, 1872 and Rana paradoxa Mocquard, 1890. Morphological comparison of the type-series revealed heterospeciifc relationships of the two species. For R. conspicillata, we designate BMNH 1947.2.29.20 as the lectotype, and for R. para-doxa, we also designate MNHN 1889.222 as the lectotype and propose a replacement name Limnonectes mocquardi, in order to stabilize their nomenclature.

  15. Discussing the Social Entrepreneurial Movement as a Means of Provoking Normative Change in West Kalimantan, Indonesia: An Interview With Kinari Webb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany D. Kois

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinari Webb is a Yale-trained physician and currently runs the healthcare and environmental nonprofit organization Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI that is based in Sukadana, Indonesia. She has lived andworked near Gunung Palung National Park in Indonesian Borneo for 20 years. In this interview, conducted through email correspondence in March, 2013, Kinari talks about the social entrepreneurial movement, provides background on social and legal norms as they relate to illegal logging in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, and discusses the structure and methods used by ASRI to provoke positive societal change.

  16. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported.

  17. The tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia through accretionary and extensional episodes since the Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seton, M.; Zahirovic, S.; Müller, R.

    2012-12-01

    Although a number of tectonic reconstructions exist that document the development of the present-day complex assemblage of exotic terranes in Southeast Asia, very few describe the continuously evolving plate boundaries and the geodynamic driving forces in the region. We propose a plate motion model that attempts to reconcile evidence from both surface geology and the subsurface mantle structure, and implement continuously closing plate polygons using our open-source plate reconstruction software, GPlates, for the eastern Asian margin and eastern Tethyan domain since the Cretaceous. We link the change from a compressional to an extensional regime along eastern Asia in the Late Cretaceous as the likely opening of the Proto South China Sea in a back-arc setting to account for obducted ophiolite sections on Palawan that are Cretaceous in age, with a likely Miocene emplacement resulting from subduction of the Proto South China Sea crust. Such an interpretation is also consistent with the timing of accretionary episodes along northern Borneo and the upper mantle slab visible in P-wave seismic tomography models. The development of Sundaland is also intricately linked to the opening of the Proto South China Sea and the accretion of Gondwana-derived micro-continental blocks, including East Java and West Sulawesi, in the Cretaceous. Whether Sundaland behaved as a rigid cohesive block, or whether Borneo rotated and moved relative to Sundaland has been a matter of debate due to inconsistencies between paleomagnetic and structural data. Paleomagnetic results indicate significant rotations of Borneo that are accommodated by oroclinal bending without the need for bounding transform faults, which are not obvious in both seismic and potential field data. In the absence of preserved seafloor, we use geological evidence such as ophiolite emplacements, magmatic episodes, paleomagnetic constraints, structural reactivation and deformation as proxies to build a self-consistent plate

  18. ボルネオトウ, サバ ホクセイ カイイキ ノ カイテイ チケイ ト テイシツ

    OpenAIRE

    東川, 勢二; 内山, 正樹; 日高, 正康; 吉永, 圭輔; ヒガシカワ, セイジ; ウチヤマ, マサキ; ヒダカ, マサヤス; ヨシナガ, ケイスケ; HIGASHIKAWA, Seiji; UCHIYAMA, Masaki; Hidaka, Masayasu; YOSHINAGA, Keisuke; 日髙, 正康

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, T.S.Kagoshima Maru of Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University and the University Pertanian Malaysia were engaged in the cooperative survey on the fish resources in the area northwest of Sabar, Borneo Island. The writers were in charge of surveying bottom topography, sediments, bottom current and underwater TV camera. The following results were obtained. 1. Median diameter (Mdφ) of the bottom sediments is ranging from 2 to 3 level. 2. Sorting coefficient (So) ranges from +0.82 to +...

  19. Revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. four species are recognized: R. elliptica Korth., R. amoena (Bremek.) J.T. Johansson comb, nov., R. speciosa (Wall, ex Kurz) J.D. Hooker, and R. morindiformis (Korth.) Ridley. Rennellia includes shrubs and small trees with white to pale bluish or pale violet flowers in panicle-, umbel-, or spike-like cymes. The pedicels and ovaries are nearly always connate. Rennellia is confined to tropical rain forests in SE Asia, Sumatra, and Borneo. The genus...

  20. The palaeogeography of Sundaland and Wallacea since the Late Jurassic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hall

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The continental core of Southeast (SE Asia, Sundaland, was assembled from Gondwana fragments by the Early Mesozoic. Continental blocks rifted from Australia in the Jurassic [South West (SW Borneo, East Java-West Sulawesi-Sumba], and the Woyla intraoceanic arc of Sumatra, were added to Sundaland in the Cretaceous. These fragments probably included emergent areas and could have carried a terrestrial flora and fauna. Sarawak, the offshore Luconia-Dangerous Grounds areas, and Palawan include Asian continental material. These probably represent a wide accretionary zone at the Asia-Pacific boundary, which was an active continental margin until the mid Cretaceous. Subduction ceased around Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous, and from about 80 Ma most of Sundaland was emergent, physically connected to Asia, but separated by deep oceans from India and Australia. India moved rapidly north during the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic but there is no evidence that it made contact with SE Asia prior to collision with Asia. One or more arc-India collisions during the Eocene may have preceded India-Asia collision. The arcs could have provided dispersal pathways from India into SE Asia before final suturing of the two continents. During the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic there was no significant subduction beneath Sumatra, Java and Borneo. At about 45 Ma Australia began to move north, subduction resumed and there was widespread rifting within Sundaland. During the Paleogene east and north Borneo were largely submerged, the Makassar Straits became a wide marine barrier within Sundaland, and West Sulawesi was separated from Sundaland but included land. By the Early Miocene the proto-South China Sea had been eliminated by subduction leading to emergence of land in central Borneo, Sabah and Palawan. Australia-SE Asia collision began, eliminating the former deep ocean separating the two continents, and forming the region now known as Wallacea. The microplate or

  1. A new genus and species of myrmecophilous brentid beetle (Coleoptera: Brentidae) inhabiting the myrmecophytic epiphytes in the Bornean rainforest canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Munetoshi; Bartolozzi, Luca; Inui, Yoko; Tanaka, Hiroshi O; Hyodo, Fujio; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Takematsu, Yoko; Hishi, Takuo; Itioka, Takao

    2014-04-08

    Pycnotarsobrentus inuiae Maruyama & Bartolozzi, gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Brentinae: Eremoxenini) is described from the Lambir Hills National Park, Borneo (Sarawak, Malaysia) based on specimens collected from Crematogaster difformis F. Smith, 1857 ant nests in the myrmecophytic epiphytic ferns Platycerium crustacea Copel. and Lecanopteris ridleyi H. Christ. A second species of Pycnotarsobrentus is known from Malaysia but is represented by only one female and consequently not yet described pending discovery of a male. Pycnotarsobrentus belongs to the tribe Eremoxenini and shares some character states with the African genus Pericordus Kolbe, 1883. No species of Eremoxenini with similar morphological modifications are known from the Oriental region.

  2. Phylogeographic pattern of the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland: ancient river connectivity, geographical and anthropogenic signatures [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min Pau; Jamsari, Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin; Siti Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2012-01-01

    A phylogeographic study of an economically important freshwater fish, the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland was carried out using data from mtDNA ND5 gene target to elucidate genetic patterning. Templates obtained from a total of 280 individuals representing 24 sampling sites revealed 27 putative haplotypes. Three distinct genetic lineages were apparent; 1)northwest Peninsular Malaysia, 2)southern Peninsular, east Peninsular, Sumatra and SW (western Sarawak) and 3) central west Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo (except SW). Genetic structuring between lineages showed a significant signature of natural geographical barriers that have been acting as effective dividers between these populations. However, genetic propinquity between the SW and southern Peninsular and east Peninsular Malaysia populations was taken as evidence of ancient river connectivity between these regions during the Pleistocene epoch. Alternatively, close genetic relationship between central west Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo populations implied anthropogenic activities. Further, haplotype sharing between the east Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra populations revealed extraordinary migration ability of C. striata (>500 km) through ancient connectivity. These results provide interesting insights into the historical and contemporary landscape arrangement in shaping genetic patterns of freshwater species in Sundaland.

  3. Phylogeographic pattern of the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland: ancient river connectivity, geographical and anthropogenic signatures [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pau Tan

    Full Text Available A phylogeographic study of an economically important freshwater fish, the striped snakehead, Channa striata in Sundaland was carried out using data from mtDNA ND5 gene target to elucidate genetic patterning. Templates obtained from a total of 280 individuals representing 24 sampling sites revealed 27 putative haplotypes. Three distinct genetic lineages were apparent; 1northwest Peninsular Malaysia, 2southern Peninsular, east Peninsular, Sumatra and SW (western Sarawak and 3 central west Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo (except SW. Genetic structuring between lineages showed a significant signature of natural geographical barriers that have been acting as effective dividers between these populations. However, genetic propinquity between the SW and southern Peninsular and east Peninsular Malaysia populations was taken as evidence of ancient river connectivity between these regions during the Pleistocene epoch. Alternatively, close genetic relationship between central west Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo populations implied anthropogenic activities. Further, haplotype sharing between the east Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra populations revealed extraordinary migration ability of C. striata (>500 km through ancient connectivity. These results provide interesting insights into the historical and contemporary landscape arrangement in shaping genetic patterns of freshwater species in Sundaland.

  4. MODIS data used to study 2002 fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Douglas O.

    Smoke and haze blanketed western Indonesia during August and September 2002, signaling the arrival of another El Niño event in Southeast Asia. Although not as severe as the 1997-1998 El Niño event, the 2002 El Niño produced drought conditions in western Indonesia that favored extensive biomass burning in lowland areas of Borneo, Sumatra, and Sulawesi, three of the largest islands that form part of the vast Indonesian archipelago. Data derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on board the NASA Terra satellite showed that most of the burning during 2002 occurred in central and western Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), where forests are being cleared to make way for industrial oil palm and pulp plantations.Comparison of fire data from several different satellite sensors also reveals that fires detected in Kalimantan during 1997 appeared more numerous (Figure 1) and burned over a longer period (Figure 2) than fires that burned in late 2002 (see discussion below). This result is consistent with recent El Niño observations that characterize the current event as moderate relative to the 1997-1998 event (see http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ products/analysis_monitoring/enso_advisory/).

  5. Revision, phylogeny, and microhabitat shifts in the Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously poorly known Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana Huber, 2005 is revised. Fifteen species are newly described, and the first SEM data and a first phylogenetic analysis of the genus are presented. Four species groups are well supported, one restricted to Borneo, two restricted to the Philippines, and one ranging from the Philippines to Fiji. The cladistic analysis and field observations suggest that the ancestor of Aetana built its web close to the ground, in confined spaces among and under rocks and logs. In at least two cases, evolutionary shifts of microhabitat resulted in species being adapted to life in higher forest strata, with correlated morphological and behavioral changes (lighter coloration; longer abdomen; additional sheet in web or more strongly domed web. The following species are newly described: A. abadae Huber, sp. nov., A. baganihan Huber, sp. nov., A. banahaw Huber, sp. nov., A. kiukoki Huber, sp. nov., A. libjo Huber, sp. nov., A. loboc Huber, sp. nov., A. lozadae Huber, sp. nov., A. manansalai Huber, sp. nov., A. ocampoi Huber, sp. nov., A. paragua Huber, sp. nov. and A. pasambai Huber, sp. nov. from the Philippines; A. gaya Huber, sp. nov., A. indah Huber, sp. nov., A. lambir Huber, sp. nov. and A. poring Huber, sp. nov. from northern Borneo. The female of A. kinabalu Huber, 2005 is newly described. A potential case of female genital dimorphism is documented in A. ocampoi Huber, sp. nov.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  7. Moving in a hierarchized landscape Changing border regimes in Central Kalimantan

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    Dave Lumenta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transnational mobility is a common feature among borderland communities. Central Borneo has been a relatively fluid and open riverine-based socio-cultural and economic space since the arrival of colonial states, without much interference from the establishment of international boundaries on local cross-border mobility practices. This applies to the Kenyah, a cluster of related ethnic groups occupying the Apokayan plateau in East Kalimantan (Indonesia, who are historically an integral part of the socio-cultural and economic fabric throughout the major riverine systems of Sarawak (Malaysia. Despite the relative absence of states, Central Borneo has not escaped the onslaught of social differentiation embedded in nation-state identities. The penetration of Sarawak’s logging industry has brought the terrestrial re-ordering of the Bornean landscape away from the relative egalitarian social order of river basins into hierarchical social relations embedded in capitalistic modes of production. This has brought about the construction of the Kenyah’s visibility as an “Indonesian underclass“ inside Sarawak.

  8. Genetic Signature of Anthropogenic Population Collapse in Orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  9. Genetic signature of anthropogenic population collapse in orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Goossens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  10. Drought-mortality relationships for tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; van der Heijden, Geertje; Lewis, Simon L; López-González, Gabriela; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lloyd, Jon; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Almeida, Samuel; Dávila, Esteban Alvarez; Amaral, Iêda; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; da Costa, Lola; Feldpausch, Ted R; Fisher, Joshua B; Fyllas, Nikolaos M; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Jiménez, Eliana; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Lovett, Jon C; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Patiño, Sandra; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Cruz, Antonio Peña; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J W Ferry; Sonké, Bonaventure; Thomas, Anne Sota; Stropp, Juliana; Taplin, James R D; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Vilanova, Emilio

    2010-08-01

    *The rich ecology of tropical forests is intimately tied to their moisture status. Multi-site syntheses can provide a macro-scale view of these linkages and their susceptibility to changing climates. Here, we report pan-tropical and regional-scale analyses of tree vulnerability to drought. *We assembled available data on tropical forest tree stem mortality before, during, and after recent drought events, from 119 monitoring plots in 10 countries concentrated in Amazonia and Borneo. *In most sites, larger trees are disproportionately at risk. At least within Amazonia, low wood density trees are also at greater risk of drought-associated mortality, independent of size. For comparable drought intensities, trees in Borneo are more vulnerable than trees in the Amazon. There is some evidence for lagged impacts of drought, with mortality rates remaining elevated 2 yr after the meteorological event is over. *These findings indicate that repeated droughts would shift the functional composition of tropical forests toward smaller, denser-wooded trees. At very high drought intensities, the linear relationship between tree mortality and moisture stress apparently breaks down, suggesting the existence of moisture stress thresholds beyond which some tropical forests would suffer catastrophic tree mortality.

  11. Land Use Change Around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. J.; Defries, R.; Curran, L.; Liu, J.; Reid, R.; Turner, B.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of land use change outside of reserves on biodiversity within reserves is not well studied. This paper draws on research from Yellowstone, East Africa, Yucatan, Borneo, and Wolong, China to examine land use effects on nature reserves. Objectives are: quantify rates of change in land use around reserves; examine consequences for biodiversity within the context of specific ecological mechanisms; and draw implications for regional management. Within each of the study regions, semi-natural habitats around nature reserves have been converted to agricultural, rural residential, or urban land uses. Rates vary from 0.2-0.4 %/yr in Yucatan, to 9.5 %/yr in Borneo. Such land use changes may be important because nature reserves are often parts of larger ecosystems that are defined by flows in energy, materials, and organisms. Land use outside of reserves may disrupt these flows and alter biodiversity within reserves. Ecological mechanisms that connect biodiversity to these land use changes include habitat size, ecological flows, crucial habitats, and edge effects. For example, the effective size of the East African study area has been reduced by 45% by human activities. Based on the species area relationship, this reduction in habitat area will lead to a loss of 14% of bird and mammal species. A major conclusion is that the viability of nature reserves can best be ensured by managing them in the context of the surrounding region. Knowledge of the ecological mechanisms by which land use influences nature reserves provides design criteria for this regional management.

  12. Rapid transport of East Asian pollution to the deep tropics

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    M. J. Ashfold

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions from East Asia have increased over recent decades, and under the prevailing westerly winds, these increases have led to changes in atmospheric composition as far afield as North America. Here we show that, during Northern Hemisphere (NH winter, pollution originating in East Asia also directly affects atmospheric composition in the deep tropics. We present observations of marked intra-seasonal variability in the anthropogenic tracer perchloroethene (C2Cl4 collected at two locations in Borneo during the NH winter of 2008/09. We use the NAME trajectory model to show that the observed enhancements in C2Cl4 mixing ratio are caused by rapid meridional transport, in the form of "cold surges", from the relatively polluted East Asian land mass. In these events air masses can move across > 30° of latitude in 4 days. We then present data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate reanalysis which suggests that air masses high in C2Cl4 may also contain levels of the pollutants carbon monoxide and ozone that are approximately double the typical "background" levels in Borneo. Convection in Southeast Asia can be enhanced by cold surges, and further trajectory calculations indicate that the polluted air masses can subsequently be lifted to the tropical upper troposphere. This suggests a potentially important connection between mid-latitude pollution sources and the very low stratosphere.

  13. Targeted conservation to safeguard a biodiversity hotspot from climate and land-cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struebig, Matthew J; Wilting, Andreas; Gaveau, David L A; Meijaard, Erik; Smith, Robert J; Fischer, Manuela; Metcalfe, Kristian; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie

    2015-02-02

    Responses of biodiversity to changes in both land cover and climate are recognized [1] but still poorly understood [2]. This poses significant challenges for spatial planning as species could shift, contract, expand, or maintain their range inside or outside protected areas [2-4]. We examine this problem in Borneo, a global biodiversity hotspot [5], using spatial prioritization analyses that maximize species conservation under multiple environmental-change forecasts. Climate projections indicate that 11%-36% of Bornean mammal species will lose ≥ 30% of their habitat by 2080, and suitable ecological conditions will shift upslope for 23%-46%. Deforestation exacerbates this process, increasing the proportion of species facing comparable habitat loss to 30%-49%, a 2-fold increase on historical trends. Accommodating these distributional changes will require conserving land outside existing protected areas, but this may be less than anticipated from models incorporating deforestation alone because some species will colonize high-elevation reserves. Our results demonstrate the increasing importance of upland reserves and that relatively small additions (16,000-28,000 km(2)) to the current conservation estate could provide substantial benefits to biodiversity facing changes to land cover and climate. On Borneo, much of this land is under forestry jurisdiction, warranting targeted conservation partnerships to safeguard biodiversity in an era of global change.

  14. THE GENUS DURIO Adans. (Bombac.

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Durio comprises, as far as known, 27 species. The centre ofdistribution is Borneo with 19 species, followed by Malaya with 11 spe-cies and Sumatra with 7 species. It is likely, when Sumatra will be betterexplored, that this island will prove to have many more species. An exclave of the area of distribution is found in Burma, where one endemic species occurs. The common Durio zibethinus Murr. probably originated in Borneo or in Sumatra. It is now widely cultivated outside of its former area and in many places it has become spontaneous.The genus Durio is subdivided into two subgenera: Durio and BoschiaKosterm. & Soegeng, according to the way of dehiscence of the anthers(with a longitudinal slit in the former, with an apical pore in the latter.A key to the species is proposed. A map is added, to show distribution and endemism. Each species is amply described and provided with a drawing . Economic and ecological data are given.

  15. Diagnosing the Growth of Equatorial Typhoon Vamei (2001 from an Energy Standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Rong Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly, on 27 December 2001, a storm named Typhoon Vamei formed near in Singaporean waters. An examination on the SSM/I-derived rainfall rates and air-sea parameters showed that significant higher latent heat release and air-sea energy flux during convective rainfall activities played a key role in the typhoon¡¦s growth. A quantitative analysis revealed that the energy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and the latent heat release during the rainfall activities both increased significantly during the initial growth stage. However, the values rapidly decreased just before the storm reached typhoon strength. Separately, in contrast to a case that occurred in 1999, the total thermal energy calculated from Typhoon Vamei¡¦s formation was two times higher. Thus, despite a very weak Coriolis force in the equatorial belt, the special terrain of Borneo Island and narrow channel in the equatorial South China Sea caused a Borneo vortex via northeasterly cold surges, together with the accumulated energy was sufficiently strong enough to induce the formation of Typhoon Vamei.

  16. New record of a phoretic flea associated with earwigs (Dermaptera, Arixeniidae and a redescription of the bat flea Lagaropsylla signata (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae

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    Michael W. Hastriter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lagaropsylla signata (Wahlgren, 1903, previously known only from the Island of Java, Indonesia is redescribed and reported for the first time in Deer Cave, Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia (west coast of Borneo. Many were found clinging to the earwig Arixenia esau Jordan, 1909. A similar account of a phoretic flea (Lagaropsylla turba Smit, 1958 on the same species of cave-dwelling earwig has been reported in peninsular Malaysia in a well-documented association with the hairless naked bulldog bat, Cheiromeles torquatus Horsfield, 1824. The association of L. signata with A. esau is parallel to the evolution and co-existence with bats in Deer Cave just as in the case of L. turba, A. esau, and C. torquatus. The evidence suggests that L. turba and L. signata are obligate phoretic parasites whose survival depends on A. esau to access a bat host. Arixenia esau is reported for the first time in Deer Cave and the occurrence of L. signata on the island of Borneo represented a new record, previously being found only on the island of Java. Images of L. signata attached to A. esau are provided. Xeniaria jacobsoni (Burr, 1912, often associated with A. esau in other geographical areas, was not present in the material examined from Deer Cave. The natural history of the earwig genera Arixenia Jordan, 1909 and Xeniaria Maa, 1974 are discussed and summarized relative to their associations with phoretic fleas and their bat hosts.

  17. Diagnosing the Growth of Equatorial Typhoon Vamei (2001 from an Energy Standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Rong Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly, on 27 December 2001, a storm named Typhoon Vamei formed near in Singaporean waters. An examination on the SSM/I-derived rainfall rates and air-sea parameters showed that significant higher latent heat release and air-sea energy flux during convective rainfall activities played a key role in the _ growth. A quantitative analysis revealed that the energy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and the latent heat release during the rainfall activities both increased significantly during the initial growth stage. However, the values rapidly decreased just before the storm reached typhoon strength. Separately, in contrast to a case that occurred in 1999, the total thermal energy calculated from Typhoon _ formation was two times higher. Thus, despite a very weak Coriolis force in the equatorial belt, the special terrain of Borneo Island and narrow channel in the equatorial South China Sea caused a Borneo vortex via northeasterly cold surges, together with the accumulated energy was sufficiently strong enough to induce the formation of Typhoon Vamei.

  18. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G R; Dempewolf, J; Trigg, S N; Randerson, J T; Kasibhatla, P S; Giglio, L; Murdiyarso, D; Peters, W; Morton, D C; Collatz, G J; Dolman, A J; DeFries, R S

    2008-12-23

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire emissions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea during 2000-2006. We found that average fire emissions from this region [128 +/- 51 (1sigma) Tg carbon (C) year(-1), T = 10(12)] were comparable to fossil fuel emissions. In Borneo, carbon emissions from fires were highly variable, fluxes during the moderate 2006 El Niño more than 30 times greater than those during the 2000 La Niña (and with a 2000-2006 mean of 74 +/- 33 Tg C yr(-1)). Higher rates of forest loss and larger areas of peatland becoming vulnerable to fire in drought years caused a strong nonlinear relation between drought and fire emissions in southern Borneo. Fire emissions from Sumatra showed a positive linear trend, increasing at a rate of 8 Tg C year(-2) (approximately doubling during 2000-2006). These results highlight the importance of including deforestation in future climate agreements. They also imply that land manager responses to expected shifts in tropical precipitation may critically determine the strength of climate-carbon cycle feedbacks during the 21st century.

  19. Phylogeographic structure of the commercially important tropical tree species Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. F. (Dipterocarpaceae revealed by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifi Gus Dwiyanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. F. (Kapur is an economically important timber     species in Southeast Asia that can serve as a good model for studying the impact of the Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic diversity and distribution of species in tropical regions. Seven polymorphic microsatellite markers were        analyzed in five natural populations of D. aromatica (N = 120 individuals: Gunung Panti in Malay Peninsula, Lingga Island in Lingga Archipelago, Lambir Hills National Park, Limbang and Similajau National Park in Borneo. The level of gene diversity (HE for the five populations was relatively high with a range from 0.571 (Similajau to 0.729 (Gunung Panti. The high genetic diversity in the present study could be attributed to the larger refugia population sizes of D. aromatica than that of other species. The population genetic structure revealed two distinct groups: the Malay Peninsula-Lingga Archipelago and Borneo. This pattern suggests that populations in each geographical area might be the consequence of post-glacial expansion from one or two refugia, but that gene flow between different glacial refugia was fairly restricted. 

  20. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in urban and tropical rainforest locations

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    A. M. Gabey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available UV-LIF measurements were performed on ambient aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS3. These sites are taken to represent environments with minor and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA influences respectively, and the urban dataset describes the fluorescent background aerosol against which PBA must be identified by researchers using LIF. The ensemble aerosol at both sites was characterised over 2–3 weeks by measuring the fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter (DP of single particles sized 0.8 ≤ DP ≤ 20 μm. Filter samples were also collected for a subset of the Manchester campaign and analysed using energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, which revealed mostly non-PBA at D ≤ 1 μm.

    The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: the emission following a 280 nm excitation is recorded at 310–400 nm (channel F1 and 400–600 nm (F2, and fluorescence excited at 350 nm is detected at 400–600 nm (F3. In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was present at 0.8–1.2 μm, with a secondary fluorescent mode at 2–4 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 0.8–1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3–4 μm. Agreement between fluorescent number concentrations in each channel differed at the two sites, with F1 and F3 reporting similar concentrations in Borneo but F3 outnumbering F1 by a factor of 2–3 across the size spectrum in Manchester.

    The fluorescence intensity in each channel generally rose with DP at both sites with the exception of F1 intensity in Manchester, which peaked at DP = 4 μm, causing a divergence between F1 and F3 intensity at larger DP. This divergence and the differing

  1. Post-Jurassic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Seton, Maria; Dietmar Müller, R.; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The accretionary growth of Asia, linked to long-term convergence between Eurasia, Gondwana-derived blocks and the Pacific, resulted in a mosaic of terranes for which conflicting tectonic interpretations exist. Here, we propose solutions to a number of controversies related to the evolution of Sundaland through a synthesis of published geological data and plate reconstructions that reconcile both geological and geophysical constraints with plate driving forces. We propose that West Sulawesi, East Java and easternmost Borneo rifted from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, collided with an intra-oceanic arc at ~115 Ma and subsequently sutured to Sundaland by 80 Ma. Although recent models argue that the Southwest Borneo core accreted to Sundaland at this time, we use volcanic and biogeographic constraints to show that the core of Borneo was on the Asian margin since at least the mid Jurassic. This northward transfer of Gondwana-derived continental fragments required a convergent plate boundary in the easternmost Tethys that we propose gave rise to the Philippine Archipelago based on the formation of latest Jurassic-Early Cretaceous supra-subduction zone ophiolites on Halmahera, Obi Island and Luzon. The Late Cretaceous marks the shift from Andean-style subduction to back-arc opening on the east Asian margin. Arc volcanism along South China ceased by ~60 Ma due to the rollback of the Izanagi slab, leading to the oceanward migration of the volcanic arc and the opening of the Proto South China Sea (PSCS). We use the Apennines-Tyrrhenian system in the Mediterranean as an analogue to model this back-arc. Continued rollback detaches South Palawan, Mindoro and the Semitau continental blocks from the stable east Asian margin and transfers them onto Sundaland in the Eocene to produce the Sarawak Orogeny. The extrusion of Indochina and subduction polarity reversal along northern Borneo opens the South China Sea and transfers the Dangerous Grounds-Reed Bank southward to

  2. In situ measurements of IO and reactive iodine aboard the RV Sonne during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Dwayne; Walker, Hannah; Ingham, Trevor; Huang, Ru-Jin; Wittrock, Folker

    2013-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are emitted from the oceans by marine species such as macroalgae and phytoplankton and contribute to halogen loading in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project combined ship-borne, aircraft-based and ground-based measurements in and over the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea, and around the coast of Malaysian Borneo. In this paper we present measurements of IO radicals in coastal and open ocean regions made onboard the German research vessel RV Sonne in November 2011 between Singapore and Manila, via the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo (South China Sea) and the Sulu Sea. In situ measurements of IO were made on 12 days by the University of Leeds laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrument, with a detection limit of 0.3 pptv for a 30 minute averaging period. The cruise average IO concentration was found to be 1.2 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 2.4 pptv in the middle of the Sulu Sea, an area known for high biological activity. Only a weak diurnal profile was observed, with IO detected above the detection limit on 10 out of the 11 nights when the LIF instrument was operational. Measurements of IO at night in the open ocean have not previously been reported and indicate the presence of gas phase or heterogeneous mechanisms that recycle iodine species without requiring light. There was reasonable agreement for IO concentrations measured by the University of Leeds LIF and the University of Bremen MAX-DOAS instruments, for which a comparison will be presented. I2, ICl and HOI were measured by the University of Mainz using a coupled diffusion denuder system followed by analysis using gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectroscopy, with a detection of 0.17 pptv for 30 mins (I2). The cruise average I2 concentration was found to be 2.0 pptv, with a maximum concentration observed during one night of 12.7 pptv on the northern coast

  3. Four New Species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae from the Central Mountains of Mindanao, Philippines

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    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines are the main center of diversity for carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus, Nepenthes L. Nepenthes are the largest of all carnivorous plants, and the species with the biggest pitchers are capable of trapping and digesting small amphibians and even mammals. The central cordillera of Mindanao Island in the south of the Philippines is mostly covered with old, primary forest and is the largest remaining cohesive, untouched area of wilderness in the Philippines. In a recent field exploration of two areas of the central cordillera, namely Mount Sumagaya and a section of the Pantaron range, four new taxa of Nepenthes were discovered. These four remarkable new species, N. pantaronensis, N. cornuta, N. talaandig and N. amabilis, are described, illustrated and assessed.

  4. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.. Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  5. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos. PMID:27164153

  6. Characterisation of Asian Snakehead Murrel Channa striata (Channidae in Malaysia: An Insight into Molecular Data and Morphological Approach

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    Li Min Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation is imperative for the Asian snakeheads Channa striata, as the species has been overfished due to its high market demand. Using maternal markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI, we discovered that evolutionary forces that drove population divergence did not show any match between the genetic and morphological divergence pattern. However, there is evidence of incomplete divergence patterns between the Borneo population and the populations from Peninsular Malaysia. This supports the claim of historical coalescence of C. striata during Pleistocene glaciations. Ecological heterogeneity caused high phenotypic variance and was not correlated with genetic variance among the populations. Spatial conservation assessments are required to manage different stock units. Results on DNA barcoding show no evidence of cryptic species in C. striata in Malaysia. The newly obtained sequences add to the database of freshwater fish DNA barcodes and in future will provide information relevant to identification of species.

  7. Characterisation of Asian snakehead murrel Channa striata (Channidae) in Malaysia: an insight into molecular data and morphological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li Min; Munian, Kaviarasu; Abd Rashid, Zulkafli; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Conservation is imperative for the Asian snakeheads Channa striata, as the species has been overfished due to its high market demand. Using maternal markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI)), we discovered that evolutionary forces that drove population divergence did not show any match between the genetic and morphological divergence pattern. However, there is evidence of incomplete divergence patterns between the Borneo population and the populations from Peninsular Malaysia. This supports the claim of historical coalescence of C. striata during Pleistocene glaciations. Ecological heterogeneity caused high phenotypic variance and was not correlated with genetic variance among the populations. Spatial conservation assessments are required to manage different stock units. Results on DNA barcoding show no evidence of cryptic species in C. striata in Malaysia. The newly obtained sequences add to the database of freshwater fish DNA barcodes and in future will provide information relevant to identification of species.

  8. Wildlife Conservation in Bornean Timber Concessions

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    Scott A. Stanley

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extensive review of the literature, and broad consultation with experts, we have assessed the sensitivity of Bornean vertebrates to the direct and indirect effects of timber harvest. Well-implemented selective logging has a relatively limited direct impact on wildlife populations: few species appear quite sensitive, some benefit, some decline. However, current management practices in Indonesian Borneo generally cause a decline in wildlife populations. Guidelines for sustainable forest management are primarily focused on trees, with few specific recommendations on how to sustainably manage wildlife populations in timber concessions. Based on our findings, we provide extensive wildlife management guidelines, pointing out the importance of maintaining understory vegetation and large trees for fruit, seed, dead wood, and tree hollow production, limiting canopy gaps, and reducing hunting and wildlife trade in concessions. In addition, we provide specific management advice on high priority species of Bornean vertebrates.

  9. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    of confrontation between divergent political ideologies. In the majority of the Southeast Asian borderlands, this implied violent disruption in the lives of local borderlanders that came to affect their relationship to their nation-state. A case in point is the ethnic Iban population living along the international...... border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...... militarized international disputes with neighbouring Malaysia in the early 1960s, and in subsequent military co-operative ‘anti-communist’ ‘counter-insurgency’ efforts by the two states in the late 1960–1970s. This paper brings together facets of national belonging and citizenship within a borderland context...

  10. Going the whole orang: Darwin, Wallace and the natural history of orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyhe, John; Kjærgaard, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    This article surveys the European discovery and early ideas about orangutans followed by the contrasting experiences with these animals of the co-founders of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. The first non-human great ape that both of them interacted with was the orangutan. They were both profoundly influenced by what they saw, but the contexts of their observations could hardly be more different. Darwin met orangutans in the Zoological Gardens in London while Wallace saw them in the wild in Borneo. In different ways these observations helped shape their views of human evolution and humanity's place in nature. Their findings played a major role in shaping some of the key questions that were pursued in human evolutionary studies during the rest of the nineteenth century.

  11. Description of the final stadium larvae of Onychargia atrocyana Selys, 1865 from Sarawak, identified using DNA barcoding (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae), with an overview of larval characters in the Platycnemididae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Albert G; Dow, Rory A

    2015-11-11

    The final stadium larva of Onychargia atrocyana Selys, 1865, is described and illustrated based on two female specimens collected at Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia. The larvae were identified by matching the mitochondrial marker COI with that of known adult specimens from Gunung Mulu, Bintulu and Kuching in Sarawak and from Pahang state in West Malaysia. The specimens presented close matches with all adults in this gene. As O. atrocyana is a taxonomically isolated species with no close congeners in Borneo the determination is beyond doubt. O. atrocyana is the only member of the Onychargiinae for which the larva is known. It is compared with the known larvae of other platycnemidid subfamilies, and the possible significance of larval morphology in higher classification of the group is discussed.

  12. Endothermy by flowers of Rhizanthes lowii (Rafflesiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S; Grace, J; Bänziger, H

    2000-08-01

    Rhizanthes lowii (Beccari) Harms (Rafflesia- ceae) is a parasitic plant that grows in the understory of the rainforest in South-East Asia. This plant does not have leaves, stems, or photosynthetic tissue and is characterised by the emission of a strong odour that attracts the natural pollinators, carrion flies. Flowers that volatilise odorous compounds and attract carrion flies, beetles and other insects are often thermogenic. Here we present evidence of both thermogenesis and thermoregulation in R. lowii from microclimate and tissue temperatures measured during different stages of flower development in R. lowii, in natural conditions in Brunei, Borneo. Endothermy was detected in young and mature buds as well as in blooming flowers and even in decaying tissues 3 or more days after blooming. Tissue temperatures were maintained at 7-9 K above air temperature, in both female and male flowers, at all stages of floral development.

  13. Stingless bees use terpenes as olfactory cues to find resin sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, S D; Zeilhofer, S; Blüthgen, N; Schmitt, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Insects largely rely on olfactory cues when seeking and judging information on nests, partners, or resources. Bees are known to use volatile compounds-besides visual cues-to find flowers suitable for pollen and nectar collection. Tropical stingless bees additionally collect large amounts of plant resins for nest construction, nest maintenance, nest defense, and to derive chemical constituents for their cuticular profiles. We here demonstrate that stingless bees of Borneo also use olfactory cues to find tree resins. They rely on volatile mono- and sesquiterpenes to locate or recognize known resin sources. Moreover, by modifying resin extracts, we found that stingless bees do not use the entire resin bouquet but relative proportions of several terpenes. In doing so, the bees are able to learn specific tree resin profiles and distinguish between tree species and partly even tree individuals.

  14. Possible conservation units of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak based on variation of mtDNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Manabu; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2006-11-01

    The mitochondrial DNA control region of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) was sequenced using 21 DNA samples collected from confiscated sun bears to identify conservation units, such as evolutionarily significant units and management units, in Sarawak, Borneo Island. A total of 10 haplotypes were observed, indicating the presence of at least two lineages in the sun bear population in Sarawak. Presumably, these two lineages could represent evolutionarily significant units. However, the geographical distributions of the two lineages remained unknown due to the lack of information regarding the exact capture locations of the confiscated sun bears. It is essential to elucidate the geographical distributions of these lineages in order to create a proper conservation plan for the sun bears in Sarawak. Therefore, further studies examining the haplotype distributions using DNA samples from known localities are essential.

  15. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Hanneke J M

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  16. Analisis Sif Kerja, Masa Kerja, dan Budaya K3 dengan Fungsi Paru Pekerja Tambang Batu Bara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qomariyatus Sholihah

    2015-08-01

    study aimed to determine relations of work shift, work period and occupational health and safety (OHS culture with lung function of coal mining worker. This study was control case design with each amount of sample for case and control was 178 respondents. The study was conducted on October – November 2014 at PT X in South Borneo. Results based on chisquare test showed p value = 0.044 for work shift, 0.028 for work period and 0.013 for OHS culture. Based on logistic regression test results, p value for work shift was 0.01 with OR = 3.934. As conclusion, there is a relation between work shift with lung function, then there is no relation found between work period and OHS culture with lung function. Work shift is an independent variable most dominantly influencing the lung function.

  17. Present-day regional climate simulation over Malaysia and western Maritime Continent region using PRECIS forced with ERA40 reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Meng Sei; Tangang, Fredolin T.; Juneng, Liew

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of the regional climate model, PRECIS, in reproducing the historical seasonal mean climatology over the Malaysian region. The performance of the model in simulating the seasonal climate pattern of the temperature, precipitation and large-scale circulation was reasonably good. The biases of temperature are less than 2 °C in general, while the seasonal cycles match the observed pattern despite some differences in certain regions. However, the biases for precipitation were greater, particularly over the mountainous areas. These biases could be associated with the deficiencies of the model physics, related to the misrepresentation of the land-surface interaction and convective scheme. Furthermore, the model fails to simulate the mean sea-level pressure over the interior part of Borneo with a significant low-pressure centre. A higher magnitude of the moisture convergence and divergence simulated by the model also contributed to the biases of precipitation over Malaysia.

  18. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S; Amoroso, Victor B

    2016-05-06

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the-for Nepenthes-unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  19. MECHANICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF SODIUM METAPERIODATE-IMPREGNATED PLASTICIZED WOOD (PW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Rezaur Rahman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia, especially the Borneo Island state of Sarawak, has a large variety of tropical wood species. In this study, selected raw tropical wood species namely Artocarpus Elasticus, Artocarpus Rigidus, Xylopia spp., Koompassia Malaccensis, and Eugenia spp. were chemically treated with sodium metaperiodate to convert them into plasticized wood (PW. Manufactured plasticized wood samples were characterized using, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical testing (modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR, static Young’s modulus (Es, decay resistance, and water absorption. MOE and MOR were calculated using a three-point bending test. Es and decay resistance were calculated using the compression parallel to grain test and the natural laboratory decay test, respectively. The manufactured PW yielded higher MOE, MOR, and Es. PW had a lower water content compared to the untreated wood and had high resistance to decay exposure, with Eugenia spp. having the highest resistance compared to the others.

  20. Negotiating development narratives within large-scale oil palm projects on village lands in Sarawak, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Egay, Kelvin

    2016-01-01

    The Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo is one of the global hotspots of deforestation and forest degradation. The planting of oil palm has played a key role in the transformation of land use in the state. While much of the expansion in Sarawak so far has taken place in state forests...... resource development projects intersect with and accentuate internal community differences in sites of new plantations. We do so by examining the case of an Iban village where the introduction of a large-scale oil palm scheme has resulted in conflict and division within the community. By analysing...... the narratives that suggest that large-scale land development projects ‘bring development to the people’, utilising ‘idle lands’ and ‘creating employment’ to lift them out of poverty, we argue that political and economic processes related to cultivation of oil palm intersect with local community differences...

  1. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS SCHOUTENIA* Korth. (Tiliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROEKMOWATI ROEKMOWATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus consists of 8 species in Siam, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,Borneo, Java, and the Lesser Sunda Islands. It is here divided into 2 subgenera,the monotypic Schoutevia with S. cvata Korth. and Chartacalyx with S. accres-cens (Mast. Curtis as type species. Chartacalyx is divided into 2 sections, Char-tacalyx and A disci flora with S. kuiistleri King as type spscies.Three species, S. curtisii, corneri, and kostermansii are considered new.S. hypoleuca Pierre is reduced to synonymy of S. ovata Korth. S. peregrines Craib is reduced to a subspecies of S. glomerata King. The varieties of S. accrescens (Mast. Curtis are deleted. The species is dividedinto 3 subspecies: accrescens, stellata, and borneensis. A forma lepidota is reeog-nized for subspecies accrescens.. S. buurmanii K. et V. and S. kunstleri King- are considered to be differentspecies.

  2. A flow-tube based laser-induced fluorescence instrument to measure OH reactivity in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, T.; Goddard, A.; Whalley, L. K.; Furneaux, K. L.; Edwards, P. M.; Seal, C. P.; Self, D. E.; Johnson, G. P.; Read, K. A.; Lee, J. D.; Heard, D. E.

    2009-08-01

    A field instrument utilising the artificial generation of OH radicals in a sliding injector flow-tube reactor with detection by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed to measure the rate of decay of OH by reaction with its atmospheric sinks. The OH reactivity instrument has been calibrated using known concentrations of CO, NO2 and single hydrocarbons in a flow of zero air, and the impact of recycling of OH via the reaction HO2+NO→OH+NO2 on the measured OH reactivity has been quantified. As well as a detailed description of the apparatus, the capabilities of the new instrument are illustrated using representative results from deployment in the semi-polluted marine boundary layer at the Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory, UK, and in a tropical rainforest at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch station, Danum Valley, Borneo.

  3. Lability of soil organic carbon in tropical soils with different clay minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Thilde Bech; Elberling, Bo; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and turnover is influenced by interactions between organic matter and the mineral soil fraction. However, the influence of clay content and type on SOC turnover rates remains unclear, particularly in tropical soils under natural vegetation. We examined the lability...... of SOC in tropical soils with contrasting clay mineralogy (kaolinite, smectite, allophane and Al-rich chlorite). Soil was sampled from A horizons at six sites in humid tropical areas of Ghana, Malaysian Borneo and the Solomon Islands and separated into fractions above and below 250 µm by wet sieving....... Basal soil respiration rates were determined from bulk soils and soil fractions. Substrate induced respiration rates were determined from soil fractions. SOC lability was significantly influenced by clay mineralogy, but not by clay content when compared across contrasting clay minerals. The lability...

  4. New lucinid bivalves from shallow and deeper water of the Indian and West Pacific Oceans (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four new species and a new genus of lucinid bivalves are described from shallow and deeper waters in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans. The new genus Scabrilucina (subfamily Lucininae includes the little-known S. victorialis (Melvill, 1899 from the Arabian Sea and S. vitrea (Deshayes, 1844 from the Andaman Sea as well as a new species S. melvilli from the Torres Strait off northeastern Australia. Ferrocina brunei new species (Lucininae was recovered from 60 m near oil drilling activities off Borneo; its anatomy confirmed the presence of symbiotic bacteria. Two unusual deeper water species of Leucosphaerinae are described, both species included in on-going molecular analyses; Gonimyrtea ferruginea from 400–650 m in the southwest Pacific and Myrtina reflexa from 200–825 m off Zanzibar and Madagascar.

  5. Otolith growth of Springer's demoiselle, Chrysiptera springeri (Pomacentridae, Allen & Lubbock), on a protected and non-protected coral reef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Retzel, A.; Hansen, A.D.; Grønkjær, P.

    2007-01-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs is important for their function as shelter and feeding habitats for coral reef fishes, but physical disturbance by human activities often reduce complexity of the reefs by selectively destroying fragile and more complex coral species. The damselfish Springer......'s demoiselle Chrysiptera springeri primarily utilize complex coral heads for shelter and are hence vulnerable to human disturbance. In order to evaluate the potential effect of habitat degradation on juvenile fish growth, coral reef cover, fish age at settling and otolith growth, juvenile Springer's demoiselle...... was investigated on a protected and non-protected coral reef in Darvel Bay, Borneo. The protected reef had higher coverage of complex branching corals and exhibited a more complex 3-dimensional structure than the non-protected reef. Springer's demoiselle settled at the same age on non-protected and protected reefs...

  6. Immune responses in human infections with Brugia malayi: specific cellular unresponsiveness to filarial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piessens, W F; McGreevy, P B; Piessens, P W; McGreevy, M; Koiman, I; Saroso, J S; Dennis, D T

    1980-01-01

    We evaluated the cellular immune competence of 101 subjects living in an area of South Kalimantan (Borneo) where Malayan filariasis is endemic. All patients with elephantiasis but none with other clinical stages of filariasis reacted with adult worm antigens. The majority of subjects without clinical or parasitological evidence of filariasis and approximately one-half of those with amicrofilaremic filariasis reacted with microfilarial antigens. In contrast, most patients with patent microfilaremia did not respond to microfilarial antigens. The in vitro reactivity of all patient categories to nonparasite antigens was similar to that of the distant control group. These results indicate that patent microfilaremia is associated with a state of specific cellular immune unresponsiveness and are consistent with the current hypothesis that the various clinical manifestations of filariasis result from different types of immune responses to distinct antigens associated with different developmental stages of filarial worms. PMID:7350196

  7. The essential oil profiles and antibacterial activity of six wild Cinnamomum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairappan, Charles Santhanaraju; Nagappan, Thilahgavani; Kulip, Julius

    2014-09-01

    The essential oil composition of six species of wild Cinnamomum found in Borneo was investigated. The oils were obtained from bark by hydrodistillation and the volatile chemical profile was obtained via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). A total of 65 volatile constituents were identified, where the essential oils of the studied specimens contained high contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Eucalyptol (1.2-31.1%), terpinen-4-ol (7.9-22.1%), eugenol (0.4-37.9%) and α-cadinol (0.4-1.8%) were detected consistently in the specimens studied. The oils of C. cuspidatum and C. crassinervium exhibited significant inhibition against Listeria monocytogenes, specifically the latter, which displayed a lower minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value against Staphylococcus aereus and L. monocytogenes. This result had highlighted the possible usage of the essential oil derived from wild cinnamom species against food borne pathogens.

  8. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Bernet Kempers

    1978-10-01

    Full Text Available - B.J. Boland, G.F. Pijper, Studiën over de geschiedenis van de Islam in Indonesia, 1900-1950. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1977. 160 pp., 10 ill. - H.J.M. Claessen, Francis Edgar Williams, “The Vailala Madness” and other essays. Edited and with an introduction by Erik Schwimmer. London: C. Hurst and Company. 1976. 432 pp. Maps, bibliography, index. - J.E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, A.J. Bernet Kempers, Ageless Borobudur - Buddhist mystery in stone - Decay and restoration - Mendut and Pawon - Folklife in ancient Java. Katwijk aan Zee, Servire, 1976. 288 pp., 225 illustrations. - A. de Ruijter, G.N. Appell, The societies of Borneo. Explorations in the theory of cognatic social structure. A special publication of the American Anthropological Association, number 6, Washington, 1976. 160 pp.

  9. Structure II gas hydrates found below the bottom-simulating reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, M.; Cartwright, J. A.; Foschi, M.; Shipp, R. C.; Van Rensbergen, P.

    2016-06-01

    Gas hydrates are a major component in the organic carbon cycle. Their stability is controlled by temperature, pressure, water chemistry, and gas composition. The bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) is the primary seismic indicator of the base of hydrate stability in continental margins. Here we use seismic, well log, and core data from the convergent margin offshore NW Borneo to demonstrate that the BSR does not always represent the base of hydrate stability and can instead approximate the boundary between structure I hydrates above and structure II hydrates below. At this location, gas hydrate saturation below the BSR is higher than above and a process of chemical fractionation of the migrating free gas is responsible for the structure I-II transition. This research shows that in geological settings dominated by thermogenic gas migration, the hydrate stability zone may extend much deeper than suggested by the BSR.

  10. Retaining Access to Key Tourist Assets for Local Residents: A Case of Mount Kinabalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidder Christy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development can occur to the detriment of real or perceived access to major tourist destinations by local residents. They can find access changed due to privatization of assets or imposition of restrictions on the permissible uses. Drawing upon this subset of tourism impact on the host community, this study analyzes the access by local residents to Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Specifically, it examines the retention of access to the mountain for local Sabahans. Interviews with park management were conducted and questionnaires were distributed to local residents. The results show that the number of Sabahan climbers has always been significantly lower than other Malaysian and foreign climbers, despite the introduction of the Sabahan rate. Additionally, the actual number of Sabahan climbers is lower than the allocated quota potential. The paper proposes several recommendations that the park management can consider to ensure local Sabahans will have a fair and equal access to Mount Kinabalu.

  11. White light corona during total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaduddin, Irfan; Akbar, Evan I.; Putri, Gerhana P.

    2016-11-01

    We observed the white-light corona during the total solar eclipse of 2016 March 9 from Corong Beach, East Borneo. The solar corona is nearly circular with exception on the southern part of the Sun. Coronal structures are clearly seen. Based on the data, we obtained the Ludendorff flattening index, Nikolsky geometric flattening index, and phases of solar activity (Φ and P) are 0.129, 1.32, -0.716, and 0.573 respectively. Relation between Ludendorff and Nikolsky index, sunspot number, and phases of solar activity were discussed. We also predicted the amplitude of solar cycle 25 to be 196 ± 52 (based on 13-month smoothed monthly data) and 130 ± 42 (based on monthly sunspot number data).

  12. Association between Landscape Factors and Spatial Patterns of Plasmodium knowlesi Infections in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Abidin, Tommy Rowel; Alexander, Neal; Brock, Paddy; Grigg, Matthew J; Murphy, Amanda; William, Timothy; Menon, Jayaram; Drakeley, Chris J; Cox, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The zoonotic malaria species Plasmodium knowlesi has become the main cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Deforestation and associated environmental and population changes have been hypothesized as main drivers of this apparent emergence. We gathered village-level data for P. knowlesi incidence for the districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu in Sabah state, Malaysia, for 2008-2012. We adjusted malaria records from routine reporting systems to reflect the diagnostic uncertainty of microscopy for P. knowlesi. We also developed negative binomial spatial autoregressive models to assess potential associations between P. knowlesi incidence and environmental variables derived from satellite-based remote-sensing data. Marked spatial heterogeneity in P. knowlesi incidence was observed, and village-level numbers of P. knowlesi cases were positively associated with forest cover and historical forest loss in surrounding areas. These results suggest the likelihood that deforestation and associated environmental changes are key drivers in P. knowlesi transmission in these areas.

  13. Sylvatic transmission of arboviruses among Bornean orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, N D; Kilbourn, A M; Karesh, W B; Rahman, H A; Bosi, E J; Cropp, B C; Andau, M; Spielman, A; Gubler, D J

    2001-01-01

    Wild populations of nonhuman primates live in regions of sylvatic arbovirus transmission. To assess the status of arbovirus transmission in Bornean forests and the susceptibility of wild orangutans to arboviral infection, blood samples of wild orangutans, semi-captive orangutans, and humans were examined. Samples were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test for antibodies to viruses representing three families (Flaviviridae, Alphaviridae, and Bunyaviridae), including dengue-2, Japanese encephalitis, Zika, Langat, Tembusu, Sindbis, Chikungunya, and Batai viruses. Both wild and semi-captive orangutan groups as well as local human populations showed serologic evidence of arbovirus infection. The presence of neutralizing antibodies among wild orangutans strongly suggests the existence of sylvatic cycles for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and sindbis viruses in North Borneo. The present study demonstrates that orangutans are susceptible to arboviralinfections in the wild, although the impact of arboviral infections on this endangered ape remain unknown.

  14. The Role of Organizational Humanistic Social Support in Decreasing the Interference of Work Problems on Employees’ Family Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increased interest in humanistic touch in global organizational support, the nature of helping processes rendered by supervisor and coworkers is still vague. The study was performed to examine the relationship between organizational humanistic social support and work interference with family conflict using 100 usable questionnaires gathered from academic staff in a Malaysian public institution of higher learning in Borneo. The findings of SmartPLS path model indicated that humanistic touch in term of supervisory support significantly correlated with work interference with family conflict. Similarly, humanistic touch of coworker support significantly correlated with work interference with family conflict. This result shows that the readiness of supervisors and coworkers to amply offer material and moral support in performing task have reduced the intrusion of work problems in employees’ family affairs and enriched their skills to decrease family conflicts. In addition, discussion, implications and conclusion are elaborated.

  15. Biogenic VOC measurements during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlotte; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Lewis, Alastair; Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2010-05-01

    We present the first ambient air speciated monoterpene measurements from the UK FGAM (Facility for Ground based Atmospheric Measrements) - York dual channel gas chromatograph system with flame ionisation detectors, alongside measurements of other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) such as isoprene, which were made during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) campaign in Danum Valley, Borneo, in 2008. The monoterpenes measured were alpha-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, gamma-terpinene and limonene. We compare the relative concentrations and diurnal profiles of the different monoterpene species and other BVOCs such as isoprene, and analyse variability in their concentrations in light of various environmental conditions, in order to gain insight into factors which influence their emission rates, and therefore regulate their potential impact upon photochemical processes within the boundary layer. We also present regional BVOC measurements made onboard the FAAM BAE 146 aircraft over both the natural rainforest and oil palm plantations.

  16. The Cultural Landscape in Sarawakian Literature in English (SLIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Yeoh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the major works in the Sarawakian Literature in English (SLIE corpus of works (both original and contemporary writing in English and folktales translated into English from a cultural perspective to demonstrate how such ethnic diversity has influenced the very form and content of the multi-genred works of English writing in Sarawak, published particularly in the past half-century or so from the 1960s to the present. The hermeneutics approach is used in conjunction with a thematic approach, examining related themes in synchronic or paradigmatic clusters and applying the hermeneutic Post-Structural system. Keywords: Borneo Literature Bureau, literature from Sarawak, multi-cultural literature in English, post-Brooke era

  17. Heavy metals in emergent trees and pioneers from tropical forest with special reference to forest fires and local pollution sources in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breulman, G; Markert, B; Weckert, V; Herpin, U; Yoneda, R; Ogino, K

    2002-02-21

    Leaf samples of tropical trees, i.e. Dryobalanops lanceolata (Kapur paji), Dipterocarpaceae and Macaranga spp. (Mahang), Euphorbiaceae were analyzed for 21 chemical elements. The pioneer Macaranga spp. exhibited higher concentrations for the majority of elements compared to the emergent species of Dryobalanops lanceolata, which was attributed to the higher physiological activity of the fast growing pioneer species compared to emergent trees. Lead showed rather high concentrations in several samples from the Bakam re-forestation site. This is suggested to be caused by emissions through brick manufacturing and related activities in the vicinity. A comparison of Dryobalanops lanceolata samples collected in 1993, 1995 and 1997 in the Lambir Hills National Park revealed that certain heavy metals, i.e. Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Ti showed higher values in 1997 compared to the previous years, which could indicate an atmospheric input from the haze caused by the extensive forest fires raging in Borneo and other parts of Southeast Asia.

  18. Quantity and configuration of available elephant habitat and related conservation concerns in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain of Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Jason G; Othman, Nurzhafarina; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Goossens, Benoit; Ambu, Laurentius N; Estes, Anna B; Palmiotto, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    The approximately 300 (298, 95% CI: 152-581) elephants in the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo are a priority sub-population for Borneo's total elephant population (2,040, 95% CI: 1,184-3,652). Habitat loss and human-elephant conflict are recognized as the major threats to Bornean elephant survival. In the Kinabatangan region, human settlements and agricultural development for oil palm drive an intense fragmentation process. Electric fences guard against elephant crop raiding but also remove access to suitable habitat patches. We conducted expert opinion-based least-cost analyses, to model the quantity and configuration of available suitable elephant habitat in the Lower Kinabatangan, and called this the Elephant Habitat Linkage. At 184 km(2), our estimate of available habitat is 54% smaller than the estimate used in the State's Elephant Action Plan for the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (400 km(2)). During high flood levels, available habitat is reduced to only 61 km(2). As a consequence, short-term elephant densities are likely to surge during floods to 4.83 km(-2) (95% CI: 2.46-9.41), among the highest estimated for forest-dwelling elephants in Asia or Africa. During severe floods, the configuration of remaining elephant habitat and the surge in elephant density may put two villages at elevated risk of human-elephant conflict. Lower Kinabatangan elephants are vulnerable to the natural disturbance regime of the river due to their limited dispersal options. Twenty bottlenecks less than one km wide throughout the Elephant Habitat Linkage, have the potential to further reduce access to suitable habitat. Rebuilding landscape connectivity to isolated habitat patches and to the North Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (less than 35 km inland) are conservation priorities that would increase the quantity of available habitat, and may work as a mechanism to allow population release, lower elephant density, reduce human

  19. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-03-22

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ≈140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ≈4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ≈660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ≈20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ≈12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia.

  20. Genetic differentiation in two widespread, open-forest bird species of Southeast Asia (Copsychus saularis andMegalaima haemacephala):Insights from ecological niche modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haw Chuan LIM; Fasheng ZOU; Frederick H SHELDON

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling has emerged as an useful tool in the investigation of the phylogeographic histories of spe-cies or communities in a region. The high biodiversity (oftentimes cryptic), and complex geography and geological history of Southeast Asia particularly call for multipronged approaches in phylogeographic investigations. Past studies have focused on taxa that are associated with lowland rainforests, which is the dominant natural vegetation type. Here, we combine published phylo-genetic data, ecological niche modeling and paleo-climate models to reveal potential drivers of divergence in two open-forest bird species, the oriental magpie-robinCopsychus saularis and Coppersmith barbetMegalaima haemacephala. In spite of broad overlap in current distributions, there are subtle differences in their climatic niches, which result in different responses to past climatic changes. ForC. saularis, both Last Glacial Maximum climate models indicated that the entire Sundaland was climati-cally suitable, while phylogenetic analyses found divergent eastern and western Sundaland lineages. We thus postulate that this genetic divergence was a result of past separations of coastal habitats into eastern and western portions due to the emergence of Sunda shelf as sea-level fell. The current separation of morphological subspecies in Borneo is maintained by low climatic suita-bility (high annual rainfall) in certain regions. The extirpation ofM. haemacephala from Borneo and southern Malay Peninsula might have been driven by unsuitable conditions (high temperature seasonality) in central Sundaland and/or the lack of open woodlands. Our study shows that ecological niche modeling adds a powerful dimension to our attempt to understand lineage evolution in space [Current Zoology 61 (5): 922–934, 2015].

  1. Identification of traditional medicinal plant extracts with novel anti-influenza activity.

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    Dhivya Rajasekaran

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination

  2. Djenkolism: case report and literature review

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    Bunawan NC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nur C Bunawan,1 Asghar Rastegar,2 Kathleen P White,3 Nancy E Wang41Alam Sehat Lestari Clinic, West Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia; 2Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 3General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 4Department of Surgery and Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USAAbstract: Djenkolism is an uncommon but important cause of acute kidney injury. It sporadically occurs after an ingestion of the djenkol bean (Archidendron pauciflorum, which is native to Southeast Asia. The clinical features defining djenkolism include: spasmodic suprapubic and/or flank pain; urinary obstruction; and acute kidney injury. The precise pathogenesis of acute kidney injury following djenkol ingestion remains unknown. However, it is proposed that an interaction between the characteristics of the ingested beans and the host factors causes hypersaturation of djenkolic acid crystals within the urinary system, resulting in subsequent obstructive nephropathy with sludge, stones, or possible spasms. We report a case of djenkolism from our rural clinic in Borneo, Indonesia. Our systematic literature review identified 96 reported cases of djenkolism. The majority of patients recovered with hydration, bicarbonate therapy, and pain medication. Three patients required surgical intervention; one patient required ureteral stenting for the obstructing djenkolic acid stones. Four of the 96 reported patients died from acute kidney failure. We stress the importance of awareness of djenkolism to guide medical practitioners in the treatment of this rare disease in resource-poor areas in Southeast Asia.Keywords: djenkolism, acute renal failure, acute kidney injury, tropical medicine

  3. The Composition of Organic Aerosols in Southeast Asia During The 2006 Haze Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, H.; Zielinska, B.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    The regional smoke haze in Southeast Asia is a recurring air pollution problem. Uncontrolled forest fires from land-clearing activities in Sumatra and Borneo, and to a lesser extent Malaysia, have occurred almost every dry season since the late 1990s. The smoke haze that took place in October 2006 shrouded an estimated 215,000 square miles of land on Indonesia's islands of Sumatra and Borneo, and persisted for several weeks. Satellite pictures showed numerous hotspots in both Sumatra and Kalimantan. The prevailing, South-Southwesterly, winds blew smoke from land and forest fires in central and south Sumatra to Singapore, affecting the regional air quality significantly and reducing atmospheric visibility. During this haze episode, we carried out an intensive field study in Singapore to characterize the composition of organic aerosols, which usually account for a large fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM). A total of 17 PM samples were collected while the hazy atmospheric conditions persisted in Singapore, and subjected to accelerated solvent extraction with dichloromethane and acetone. The extracted compounds were grouped into three major fractions (n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polar organic compounds). More than 180 particulate-bound organic compounds were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In order to investigate the origin of organic species, the carbon preference indexes as well as diagnostic ratios were used. The compositional differences of organic aerosols between the haze- and non- haze periods will be presented. The atmospheric implications of the composition of organic aerosols of biomass burning origin will be discussed. Keywords: smoke haze, organic aerosols, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polar organic compounds

  4. South to south learning in great ape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld-de Lange, Nicolien; Meijaard, Erik; Löhr, Ansje

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that killing of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in South-East Asia is a major threat to the species, few researchers and non-governmental conservationists have addressed it in management and research, and there is virtually no implementation of anti-killing strategies. In large parts of the Congo Basin, Central Africa, instead, illegal killing of great apes is acknowledged to be their largest threat, and many conservation strategies have been used to reduce killing pressure. However, since these strategies have not been subject to systematic and comprehensive review, it remains unclear which of them have been successful and why. Knowledge of the success, failure, and practices of common conservation strategies to manage great ape killing is critical to ensure adaptive conservation management in the Congo Basin. Understanding the Congo context also facilitates simultaneously highlighting great ape killing in Borneo and suggesting solutions to manage orangutan killing. Here, we compile and analyze the available literature on great ape conservation strategies for reducing killing rates in the Congo Basin. Through a systematic literature review of 198 publications, we find that the most widely employed conservation strategies in the Congo Basin are legislation and law enforcement, protected area management, community-based conservation, alternatives to bushmeat consumption and trade, ecotourism, education, and capacity building. Despite lack of rigorous post-intervention evaluation of conservation impact, we derive several recommendations for addressing the orangutan killing issue in Borneo. A critical lesson, widely applicable to developing countries for conservationists and not limited to Congo Basin realities, is the need for rigorous post-intervention evaluations compared to pre-intervention baselines and over appropriate time frames. Am. J. Primatol. 78:669-678, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Tides and Their Dynamics over the Sunda Shelf of the Southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, See Hai; Abu Samah, Azizan; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performed on the inner domain. The model is forced at the sea surface by climatological monthly mean wind stress, freshwater (evaporation minus precipitation), and heat fluxes. Momentum and tracers (such as temperature and salinity) are prescribed in addition to the tidal heights and currents extracted from the Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution (TPXO7.2) at the open boundaries. The results are validated against observed tidal amplitudes and phases at 19 locations. Results show that the mean average power energy spectrum (in unit m2/s/cph) for diurnal tides at the southern end of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is approximately 43% greater than that in the East Malaysia region located in northern Borneo. In contrast, for the region of northern Borneo the semidiurnal power energy spectrum is approximately 25% greater than that in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This implies that diurnal tides are dominant along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia while both diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominate almost equally in coastal East Malaysia. Furthermore, the diurnal tidal energy flux is found to be 60% greater than that of the semidiurnal tides in the southern South China Sea. Based on these model analyses, the significant tidal mixing frontal areas are located primarily off Sarawak coast as indicated by high chlorophyll-a concentrations in the area. PMID:27622552

  6. Antihyperlipidemic activity of the medicinal plants among Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sabah is one of the 13 states within the Federation of Malaysia and is located in the northernmost part of Borneo. It is the second largest state in Malaysia with a landmass of approximately 7.4 million hectares. The total forested area is 4.7 million hectares. Sabah, being part of Borneo, is rich in plant biodiversity. There is also an abundance of medicinal plants and other plants for everyday use. There is a great awarness regarding association between low density lipoprotein reduction and decreased cardiovascular disease mortality. The antihyperlipidaemic activity of herbs plays an important role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, which is the top disease that causes mortality all over the world. Lipid-lowering activity of medicinal plant for phytomedicine research and drug development for such a disease are now focused all over the world. A plant-based diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and legumes and low in saturated fat is an effective prescription for anyone with more severe atherosclerosis. Howerver, there are few herbs available that provide some protection for persons with the above disease. The antihyperlipidaemia property in plant plays a vital role to reduce atherosclerosis. Thus, there is an increasing search for the lipid lowering agents from natural origin. In this review an attempt has been made to give an overview of the antihyperlipidemic activity in traditional medicinal plants found widely in Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia. The antihyperlipidemic activity of the traditional medicinal plants in these communities is more helpful for the development of new drugs used in the protection against dyslipidemia or atherosclerosis.

  7. Antihyperlipidemic activity of the medicinal plants among Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2014-01-01

    Sabah is one of the 13 states within the Federation of Malaysia and is located in the northernmost part of Borneo. It is the second largest state in Malaysia with a landmass of approximately 7.4 million hectares. The total forested area is 4.7 million hectares. Sabah, being part of Borneo, is rich in plant biodiversity. There is also an abundance of medicinal plants and other plants for everyday use. There is a great awarness regarding association between low density lipoprotein reduction and decreased cardiovascular disease mortality. The antihyperlipidaemic activity of herbs plays an important role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, which is the top disease that causes mortality all over the world. Lipid-lowering activity of medicinal plant for phytomedicine research and drug development for such a disease are now focused all over the world. A plant-based diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and legumes and low in saturated fat is an effective prescription for anyone with more severe atherosclerosis. Howerver, there are few herbs available that provide some protection for persons with the above disease. The antihyperlipidaemia property in plant plays a vital role to reduce atherosclerosis. Thus, there is an increasing search for the lipid lowering agents from natural origin. In this review an attempt has been made to give an overview of the antihyperlipidemic activity in traditional medicinal plants found widely in Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia. The antihyperlipidemic activity of the traditional medicinal plants in these communities is more helpful for the development of new drugs used in the protection against dyslipidemia or atherosclerosis.

  8. Antihyperlipidemic activity of the medicinal plants among Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah,Malaysia:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled; Mohamed; Mohamed; Koriem

    2014-01-01

    Sabah is one of the 13 states within the Federation of Malaysia and is located in the northernmost part of Borneo.It is the second largest state in Malaysia with a landmass of approximately 7.4million hectares.The total forested area is 4.7 million hectares.Sabah,being part of Borneo,is rich in plant biodiversity.There is also an abundance of medicinal plants and other plants for everyday use.There is a great awarness regarding association between low density lipoprotein reduction and decreased cardiovascular disease mortality.The antihyperlipidaemic activity of herbs plays an important role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases,which is the top disease that causes mortality all over the world.Lipid-lowering activity of medicinal plant for phytomedicine research and drug development for such a disease are now focused all over the world.A plant-based diet rich in fruit,vegetables,and legumes and low in saturated fat is an effective prescription for anyone with more severe atherosclerosis.Howerver,there are few herbs available that provide some protection for persons with the above disease.The antihyperlipidaemia property in plant plays a vital role to reduce atherosclerosis.Thus,there is an increasing search for the lipid lowering agents from natural origin.In this review an attempt has been made to give an overview of the antihyperlipidemic activity in traditional medicinal plants found widely in Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah,Malaysia.The antihyperlipidemic activity of the traditional medicinal plants in these communities is more helpful for the development of new drugs used in the protection against dyslipidemia or atherosclerosis.

  9. Relating Precipitation Phenomena with MODIS Detected Hot Spots in the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, E. M.; Reid, J. S.; Xian, P.; Hyer, E.; Turk, J.; Flatau, M.; Zhang, C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies of land use practices in SE Asia’s Maritime Continent (MC) have raised questions over potential meteorological implications including smoke-cloud interaction and changes in the regional radiation budget. Land management practices on Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula include biomass burning to clear primary forest as well as to maintain oil palm plantations. Burning is also employed for clearing unwanted remains from previous crops, rice stubble for example. However, burning activity is often dictated by weather, in particular precipitation. We studied 5 years of MODIS active fire hot spot and satellite precipitation data to investigate how observed burning activity correlated with precipitation features at four major scales: 1) Intraseasonal El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOP); 2) Seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ); 3) the 30-90 day Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO); and 4) regional convection from localized weather phenomenon (e.g., orographic, isolated thermal convection, sea breeze, etc…). It was found that observed burn patterns from each of the islands of the MC had differing responses to these four forcings. Observed burning activity on the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi correlated strongly with the ENSO and ITCZ indicies, whereas Sumatra was more influenced by the phase and strength of the MJO. Java, showing a mix of influence, exhibited strong fire activity in the morning rather than afternoon which is unusual for most burning regions. We hypothesize that these observed relationships reflect both physical land use differences and contextual bias/observability issues associated with the region’s heavy cloud cover. For further studies on smoke-meteorology interaction, our findings point to the need for a clear understanding of the meteorological context of satellite observations.

  10. A Revision of the Selenocosmiine Tarantula Genus Phlogiellus Pocock 1897 (Araneae: Theraphosidae, with Description of 4 New Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Nunn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tarantula genus Phlogiellus (Pocock 1897 is revised. The genus is diagnosed against all other selenocosmiine genera for the first time along with a new generic description. The tribe Yamiini (Kishida 1920 is diagnosed against all other selenocosmiine tribes. All Phlogiellus species are diagnosed from all congeners; all species are mapped. Complete dichotomous keys for both sexes of all species are included. Where appropriate, intraspecific variation is discussed. Four new species are described: P. bogadeki sp. nov. from Hong Kong, P. johnreylazoi sp. nov. from Palawan Island, Philippines, P. moniqueverdezae sp. nov. from Ranong, Thailand, and P. pelidnus sp. nov. from Sabah, Borneo. The type species P. atriceps (Pocock 1897 holotype male is redescribed and the male P. baeri (Simon 1877 is described in detail for the first time. The validity of P. inermis (Ausserer 1871 is confirmed. Relationships between all known selenocosmiine genera and Phlogiellus from the Philippines are discussed and several character traits are newly diagnosed. The tribe Phlogiellini (West et al. 2012 is a junior synonym of Yamiini (Kishida 1920. Selenocosmia orophila (Thorell 1897 from Myanmar, Selenocosmia insulana (Hirst 1909 from Djampea (= Jampea Island, and Selenocosmia obscura (Hirst 1909 from Sarawak, Borneo, are transferred to Phlogiellus, altering the specific names to Phlogiellus orophilus (Thorell 1897 comb. nov., Phlogiellus insulanus (Hirst 1909 comb. nov., and Phlogiellus obscurus (Hirst 1909 comb. nov. Phlogiellus subarmatus (Thorell 1891 is transferred to Chilobrachys (Karsch 1891, becoming Chilobrachys subarmatus (Thorell 1891 comb. nov. Phlogiellus kwebaburdeos (Barrion-Dupo et al., 2014 is transferred to Orphnaecus (Simon 1892, becoming Orphnaecus kwebaburdeos (Barrion-Dupo et al., 2014 comb. nov. Phlogiellus ornatus (Thorell 1897 and Phlogiellus nebulosus (Rainbow 1899 are considered species inquirenda. Phlogiellus baeri (Simon 1877 is no longer

  11. Sex Distribution of Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñailillo, Johany; Olivares, Gabriela; Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Chang, Chi-Shan; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Matthews, Peter J.; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent) is a dioecious tree native to East Asia and mainland Southeast-Asia, introduced prehistorically to Polynesia as a source of bark fiber by Austronesian-speaking voyagers. In Oceania, trees are coppiced and harvested for production of bark-cloth, so flowering is generally unknown. A survey of botanical records of paper mulberry revealed a distributional disjunction: the tree is apparently absent in Borneo and the Philippines. A subsequent study of chloroplast haplotypes linked paper mulberry of Remote Oceania directly to a population in southern Taiwan, distinct from known populations in mainland Southeast-Asia. Methodology We describe the optimization and use of a DNA marker designed to identify sex in paper mulberry. We used this marker to determine the sex distribution in selected localities across Asia, Near and Remote Oceania. We also characterized all samples using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS) in order to relate results to a previous survey of ITS diversity. Results In Near and Remote Oceania, contemporary paper mulberry plants are all female with the exception of Hawaii, where plants of both sexes are found. In its natural range in Asia, male and female plants are found, as expected. Male plants in Hawaii display an East Asian ITS genotype, consistent with modern introduction, while females in Remote Oceania share a distinctive variant. Conclusions Most paper mulberry plants now present in the Pacific appear to be descended from female clones introduced prehistorically. In Hawaii, the presence of male and female plants is thought to reflect a dual origin, one a prehistoric female introduction and the other a modern male introduction by Japanese/Chinese immigrants. If only female clones were dispersed from a source-region in Taiwan, this may explain the absence of botanical records and breeding populations in the Philippines and Borneo, and Remote Oceania. PMID

  12. Laboratory markers of disease severity in Plasmodium knowlesi infection: a case control study

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    Willmann Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium knowlesi malaria causes severe disease in up to 10% of cases in Malaysian Borneo and has a mortality rate of 1 - 2%. However, laboratory markers with the ability to identify patients at risk of developing complications have not yet been assessed as they have for other species of Plasmodium. Methods A case control study was undertaken in two hospitals in Sarikei and Sibu, Malaysian Borneo. One hundred and ten patients with uncomplicated (n = 93 and severe (n = 17 P. knowlesi malaria were studied. Standardized pigment-containing neutrophil (PCN count, parasite density and platelet counts were determined and analysed by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results The PCN count was strongly associated with risk of disease severity. Patients with high parasite density (≥ 35,000/μl or with thrombocytopaenia (≤ 45,000/μl were also more likely to develop complications (odds ratio (OR = 9.93 and OR = 5.27, respectively. The PCN count yielded the highest area under the ROC curve (AUC estimate among all markers of severity (AUC = 0.8561, 95% confidence interval: 0.7328, 0.9794. However, the difference between all parameter AUC estimates was not statistically significant (Wald test, p = 0.73. Conclusion Counting PCN is labour-intensive and not superior in predicting severity over parasitaemia and platelet counts. Parasite and platelet counts are simpler tests with an acceptable degree of precision. Any adult patient diagnosed with P. knowlesi malaria and having a parasite count ≥35,000/μl or ≥1% or a platelet count ≤45,000/μl can be regarded at risk of developing complications and should be managed according to current WHO guidelines for the treatment of severe malaria.

  13. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the scale-dependent role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, J.

    2015-02-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the Seven SouthEast Asian Studies program (7-SEAS), a 2-week, late September 2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Niña year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol life cycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm-3 and non-sea-salt PM2.5 10-25 μg m-3). These cases corresponded with two different

  14. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L. E.; Zhang, J.

    2014-08-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the 7 SouthEast Asian Studies program (7SEAS), a two-week, late September~2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan Archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a~receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a~narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Nina year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol lifecycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm-3 and non-sea salt PM2.510-25 μg m-3). These cases corresponded with two different mechanisms

  15. Deepwater fold and thrust belt classification, tectonics, structure and hydrocarbon prospectivity: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C. K.; King, R.; Hillis, R.; Tingay, M.; Backe, G.

    2011-01-01

    Deepwater fold and thrust belts (DWFTBs) are classified into near-field stress-driven Type 1 systems confined to the sedimentary section, and Type 2 systems deformed by either far-field stresses alone, or mixed near- and far-field stresses. DWFTBs can occur at all stages of the Wilson cycle up to early stage continent continent collision. Type 1 systems have either weak shale or salt detachments, they occur predominantly on passive margins but can also be found in convergent-related areas such as the Mediterranean and N. Borneo. Examples include the Niger and Nile deltas, the west coast of Africa, and the Gulf of Mexico. Type 2 systems are subdivided on a tectonic setting basis into continent convergence zones and active margin DWFTBs. Continent convergence zones cover DWFTBs developed during continent-arc or continent-continent collision, and those in a deepwater intracontinental setting (e.g. W. Sulawesi, Makassar Straits). Active margins include accretionary prisms and transform margins. The greatest variability in DWFTB structural style occurs between salt and shale detachments, and not between tectonic settings. Changes in fold amplitude and wavelength appear to be more related to thickness of the sedimentary section than to DWFTB type. In comparison with shale, salt detachment DWFTBS display a lower critical wedge taper, more detachment folds, long and episodic duration of deformation and more variation in vergence. Structures unique to salt include canopies and nappes. Accretionary prisms also standout from other DWFTBs due to their relatively long, continuous duration, rapid offshore propagation of the thrust front, and large amount of shortening. In terms of petroleum systems, many similar issues affect all DWFTBs, these include: the oceanward decrease in heat flow, offshore increase in age of mature source rock, and causes of trap failure (e.g. leaky oblique and frontal thrust faults, breach of top seal by fluid pipes). One major difference between Type 1

  16. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Pan

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available - Matthew Amster, Jérôme Rousseau, Kayan religion; Ritual life and religious reform in Central Borneo. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1998, 352 pp. [VKI 180.] - Atsushi Ota, Johan Talens, Een feodale samenleving in koloniaal vaarwater; Staatsvorming, koloniale expansie en economische onderontwikkeling in Banten, West-Java, 1600-1750. Hilversum: Verloren, 1999, 253 pp. - Wanda Avé, Johannes Salilah, Traditional medicine among the Ngaju Dayak in Central Kalimantan; The 1935 writings of a former Ngaju Dayak Priest, edited and translated by A.H. Klokke. Phillips, Maine: Borneo Research Council, 1998, xxi + 314 pp. [Borneo Research Council Monograph 3.] - Peter Boomgaard, Sandra Pannell, Old world places, new world problems; Exploring issues of resource management in eastern Indonesia. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, 1998, xiv + 387 pp., Franz von Benda-Beckmann (eds. - H.J.M. Claessen, Geoffrey M. White, Chiefs today; Traditional Pacific leadership and the postcolonial state. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1997, xiv + 343 pp., Lamont Lindstrom (eds. - H.J.M. Claessen, Judith Huntsman, Tokelau; A historical ethnography. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1996, xii + 355 pp., Antony Hooper (eds. - Hans Gooszen, Gavin W. Jones, Indonesia assessment; Population and human resources. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, 1997, 73 pp., Terence Hull (eds. - Rens Heringa, John Guy, Woven cargoes; Indian textiles in the East. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998, 192 pp., with 241 illustrations (145 in colour. - Rens Heringa, Ruth Barnes, Indian block-printed textiles in Egypt; The Newberry collection in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. Volume 1 (text: xiv + 138 pp., with 32 b/w illustrations and 43 colour plates; Volume 2 (catalogue: 379 pp., with 1226 b/w illustrations. - H.M.J. Maier, David T. Hill, Beyond the

  17. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the role of monsoonal flows, the Madden–Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the 7 SouthEast Asian Studies program (7SEAS, a two-week, late September~2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan Archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a~receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a~narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO La Nina year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO and its associated tropical cyclone (TC activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012. Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol lifecycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN −3, non-sea salt PM2.5=1μg m−3. However, elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm−3 and non-sea salt PM2.510–25

  18. The Changing Faces of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubellier, M. F.; Savva, D.; Franke, D.; Meresse, F.; Steuer, S.; Auxietre, J. L.; Aurelio, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Chan, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) region was situated during Mesozoic on the upper plate of a subduction zone. It later evolved as a collapsed continental basin on the edge of the Yenshanian Andean-type orogeny which has been since then considerably eroded, exposing only granites and relicts of Cretaceous molasse basins. The continental crust rifted from the Paleocene to the Mid Oligocene in the eastern part, and the rifting continued until the Middle Miocene in the SW, in an environment of marginal basin opened in the midst of the lower plate. Both spreading and rifting ceased when the subduction of the Proto South China Sea (PSCS) was blocked. Finally the SCS basin which was previously always open to the NE, became isolated by the docking of the northern Philippine Mobile Belt in Luzon, Mindoro and Taiwan islands, during the Late Miocene. Since then the basin subsided whereas the margins observed various amount of uplift, and subsequent gravity tectonics. We illustrate how these event are interdependent, the Cretaceous active margin opening the PSCS by rifting and oceanic crust developed from magma-poor rifting to subsequent seafloor spreading in the Paleogene. It is not clear how the inherited sub continental mantle played a role in the unusual rifting style of the SCS, whose upper crust was extremely stretched for a large time span and was sustained near sea level during the entire duration of the rifting process. The large Jurassic and Cretaceous granitic bodies conditioned the location of the extension via large detachments and normal faults; so that the present day morphology of the sea floor still reflects the location of the granites on which large reefal platforms developed. The mid Miocene cessation of subduction in the PSCS created shortening which jammed its sediments on the NE margin of Borneo, thus generating sub-aerial conditions for the NW Borneo wedge. The resulting erosion created the large deltas starting from the end of the Early Miocene. Excess of

  19. Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Andrew J.; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M.; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C.; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J. W.; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    Background The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for

  20. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Rasch

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During El Niño years, fires in tropical forests and peatlands in equatorial Asia create large regional smoke clouds. We characterized the sensitivity of these clouds to regional drought, and we investigated their effects on climate by using an atmospheric general circulation model. Satellite observations during 2000–2006 indicated that El Niño-induced regional drought led to increases in fire emissions and, consequently, increases in aerosol optical depths over Sumatra, Borneo and the surrounding ocean. Next, we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM to investigate how climate responded to this forcing. We conducted two 30 year simulations in which monthly fire emissions were prescribed for either a high (El Niño, 1997 or low (La Niña, 2000 fire year using a satellite-derived time series of fire emissions. Our simulations included the direct and semi-direct effects of aerosols on the radiation budget within the model. Fire aerosols reduced net shortwave radiation at the surface during August–October by 19.1±12.9 W m−2 (10% in a region that encompassed most of Sumatra and Borneo (90° E–120° E, 5° S–5° N. The reductions in net radiation cooled sea surface temperatures (SSTs and land surface temperatures by 0.5±0.3 and 0.4±0.2° C during these months. Tropospheric heating from black carbon (BC absorption averaged 20.5±9.3 W m−2 and was balanced by a reduction in latent heating. The combination of decreased SSTs and increased atmospheric heating reduced regional precipitation by 0.9±0.6 mm d−1 (10%. The vulnerability of ecosystems to fire was enhanced because the decreases in precipitation exceeded those for evapotranspiration. Together, the satellite and modeling results imply a possible positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic burning in the region intensifies drought stress during El Niño.

  1. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Tosca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During El Niño years, fires in tropical forests and peatlands in equatorial Asia create large regional smoke clouds. We characterized the sensitivity of these clouds to regional drought, and we investigated their effects on climate by using an atmospheric general circulation model. Satellite observations during 2000–2006 indicated that El Niño-induced regional drought led to increases in fire emissions and, consequently, increases in aerosol optical depths over Sumatra, Borneo and the surrounding ocean. Next, we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM to investigate how climate responded to this forcing. We conducted two 30 year simulations in which monthly fire emissions were prescribed for either a high (El Niño, 1997 or low (La Niña, 2000 fire year using a satellite-derived time series of fire emissions. Our simulations included the direct and semi-direct effects of aerosols on the radiation budget within the model. We assessed the radiative and climate effects of anthropogenic fire by analyzing the differences between the high and low fire simulations. Fire aerosols reduced net shortwave radiation at the surface during August–October by 19.1±12.9 W m−2 (10% in a region that encompassed most of Sumatra and Borneo (90° E–120° E, 5° S–5° N. The reductions in net shortwave radiation cooled sea surface temperatures (SSTs and land surface temperatures by 0.5±0.3 and 0.4±0.2 °C during these months. Tropospheric heating from black carbon (BC absorption averaged 20.5±9.3 W m−2 and was balanced by a reduction in latent heating. The combination of decreased SSTs and increased atmospheric heating reduced regional precipitation by 0.9±0.6 mm d−1 (10%. The vulnerability of ecosystems to fire was enhanced because the decreases in precipitation exceeded those for evapotranspiration. Together, the satellite and modeling results imply a possible positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic burning

  2. Spatio-temporal characteristics of PM10 concentration across Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneng, Liew; Latif, Mohd Talib; Tangang, Fredolin T.; Mansor, Haslina

    The recurrence of forest fires in Southeast Asia and associated biomass burning, has contributed markedly to the problem of trans-boundary haze and the long-range movement of pollutants in the region. Air pollutants, specifically particulate matter in the atmosphere, have received extensive attention, mainly because of their adverse effect on people's health. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of the PM10 concentration across Malaysia was analyzed by means of the rotated principal component analysis. The results suggest that the variability of the PM10 concentration can be decomposed into four dominant modes, each characterizing different spatial and temporal variations. The first mode characterizes the southwest coastal region of the Malaysian Peninsular with the PM10 showing a peak concentration during the summer monsoon i.e. when the winds are predominantly southerlies or southwesterlies, and a minimal concentration during the winter monsoon. The second mode features the region of western Borneo with the PM10 exhibiting a concentration surge in August-September, which is likely to be the result of the northward shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the subsequent rapid arrival of the rainy season. The third mode delineates the northern region of the Malaysian Peninsular with strong bimodality in the PM10 concentration. Seasonally, this component exhibits two concentration maxima during the late winter and summer monsoons, as well as two minima during the inter-monsoon periods. The fourth dominant mode characterizes the northern Borneo region which exhibits weaker seasonality of the PM10 concentration. Generally, the seasonal fluctuation of the PM10 concentration is largely associated with the seasonal variation of rainfall in the country. However, in addition to this, the PM10 concentration also fluctuates markedly in two timescale bands i.e. 10-20 days quasi-biweekly (QBW) and 30-60 days lower frequency (LF) band of the intra

  3. Geographic and Ethnic Distribution of P knowlesi infection in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daw Khin Saw Naing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasmodium knowlesi, an originally zoonotic malaria parasite is now increasingly recognized as a potentially virulent type of human malaria, particularly in South East Asia. The initial diagnosis based on light microscopy would not differentiate P knowlesi from P malaria and the nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction assay is the only reliable diagnostic method to correctly differentiate the two species. Sabah State Public Health Laboratory has launched its PCR service in 2007 for all government hospitals of Sabah to get accurate verification of malaria species. Sabah state is famous for its significant tourist attraction sites, of which Mount Kinabalu and Tip of Borneo are the most unique and mostly visited. A large variety of ethnic groups reside in Sabah with Kadazan-Dusun forming the largest indigenous group followed by Bajau and Murut.Aim & Objectives: To determine the geographic and ethnic distribution of zoonotic malaria among Sabah population so as to recommend effective preventive and control measures at popular tourist sites of Sabah. Methods/Study Design: A record review of all nested PCR assays done during 2009 at Sabah State Public Health Laboratory was made. SPSS version 16 and Microsoft excel 2007 softwares were used in analysis.Results/Findings: 445 cases were referred in 2009 for PCR assay from various hospitals of Sabah. Age range was 1 to 89 years (33±18 years and about 12 % were symptomatic cases while the rest were confirmed malaria by microscopy. 343 cases (253 males and 90 females were positive for Plasmodium knowlesi single infection or mixed with other species. Mixed infection with vivax was common (65 males and 18 females. Only two cases each for mixed infection with falciparum and malarie were detected. P knowlesi infection was confirmed in all age groups (under five as well as over 80.Among the positive cases, about 32% were Rungus, 28% Dunsun and 15% Murut. 41.7% were from Kudat which is close to the Tip

  4. Present-day stress field of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, Mark; Morley, Chris; King, Rosalind; Hillis, Richard; Coblentz, David; Hall, Robert

    2010-02-01

    It is now well established that ridge push forces provide a major control on the plate-scale stress field in most of the Earth's tectonic plates. However, the Sunda plate that comprises much of Southeast Asia is one of only two plates not bounded by a major spreading centre and thus provides an opportunity to evaluate other forces that control the intraplate stress field. The Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Sunda plate is usually considered to be controlled by escape tectonics associated with India-Eurasia collision. However, the Sunda plate is bounded by a poorly understood and complex range of convergent and strike-slip zones and little is known about the effect of these other plate boundaries on the intraplate stress field in the region. We compile the first extensive stress dataset for Southeast Asia, containing 275 A-D quality (177 A-C) horizontal stress orientations, consisting of 72 stress indicators from earthquakes (located mostly on the periphery of the plate), 202 stress indicators from breakouts and drilling-induced fractures and one hydraulic fracture test within 14 provinces in the plate interior. This data reveals that a variable stress pattern exists throughout Southeast Asia that is largely inconsistent with the Sunda plate's approximately ESE absolute motion direction. The present-day maximum horizontal stress in Thailand, Vietnam and the Malay Basin is predominately north-south, consistent with the radiating stress patterns arising from the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, the present-day maximum horizontal stress is primarily oriented NW-SE in Borneo, a direction that may reflect plate-boundary forces or topographic stresses exerted by the central Borneo highlands. Furthermore, the South and Central Sumatra Basins exhibit a NE-SW maximum horizontal stress direction that is perpendicular to the Indo-Australian subduction front. Hence, the plate-scale stress field in Southeast Asia appears to be controlled by a combination of Himalayan

  5. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  6. Some additions and corrections to the Coleoptera fauna of the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two endomychid species described from El Hierro (Canary Islands are removed from the Canarian fauna: Dapsa hierrensis Franz, 1976 is a synonym of Archipines intricata (Gorham, 1889, nov. syn., and the single specimen (holotype was probably collected in Central America. Dapsa curta Franz, 1976 is also poorly described and based on a single female. Without a male it is not possible to assess with full confidence if it belongs to the African genus Danae or more probably to the Oriental genus Tragoscelis, and to which species. It is for sure not a Dapsa and its Canarian origin relates probably to another labeling error of the author, who also collected in Borneo, where this latter genus is present with 5 species. Consequently, Dapsa curta Franz, 1996 is proposed as nomen dubium. Furthermore, three genera are recorded for the Canaries for the first time: Silpha puncticollis Lucas, 1854 (Silphidae, the coffee bean borer Araecerus fasciculatus (DeGeer, 1775, and Bruchela rufipes (Olivier, 1790 both Anthribidae. Only the latter species can be considered as native; the other two are introduced recently and the Coffee bean weevil could become a pest.Dos especies de endomíquidos descritos de El Hierro (islas Canarias se eliminan de la fauna canaria: Dapsa hierrensis Franz, 1976 es una sinonimia posterior de Archipines intricata (Gorham, 1889, nov. syn., y el único ejemplar conocido (holotipo fue colectado probablemente en América Central. La descripción de Dapsa curta Franz, 1976 es muy pobre y se basa en una única hembra. Sin conocer el macho es imposible determinar con garantías si se trata del género Danae o, lo más probable, del género oriental Tragoscelis, o a cuál de sus especies pertenece, si no es nueva. Es seguro que no se trata de una Dapsa y el presunto origen canario radica seguramente en otro error de etiquetado del autor, que también colectó en Borneo, donde se conocen cinco especies de Tragoscelis. En consecuencia, se propone

  7. Private sector financing of projects - implementation of the BAKUN hydroelectric project in Malaysia; Private Projektfinanzierung - Errichtung der Wasserkraftanlage Bakun in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failer, E. [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The BAKUN Hydroelectric Power Project in Malaysia represents, alongside the Three Gorges Project in China, one of today's most closely observed hydropower projects. The Bakun Project features a generating capacity of 2 520 MW, a 205 m high concrete face rockfill dam and a 1 320 km long power transmission system from Sarawak (Borneo) to West Malaysia. Implementation costs are estimated at around DM 10 000 million. In December 1996 the concession to construct and operate the Bakun Project for a period of 30 years on a BOT (build-operate-transfer) basis was granted to the Bakun Hydro-Electric Corporation, a private project development company. A US-Dollar million contract was awarded one year prior to this concession, to construct the river diversion works in advance. Completion of the three concrete-lined diversion tunnels, each with an inner diameter of 12 m, is scheduled for the end of 1998. After a brief overview of the Bakun Project, the paper describes a typical structure of the parties involved and the legal framework for BOT project finance. The most important features of the concession agreement, the power purchase agreement (PPA) and the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract are explained. Finally, the paper emphasizes that in future the water resources engineer will have to be more involved with topics such as fixed-price contracts, risk management, turnkey solutions and project finance. (orig.) [German] Mit einer geplanten installierten Leistung von 2 520 MW, einem 205 m hohen Steinschuettdamm mit Betonoberflaechendichtung, einem 1 320 km langen Energieuebertragungssystem von Sarawak (Borneo) nach Westmalaysia und mit Projektkosten von ca. 10 Mrd. DM stellt das BAKUN-Wasserprojekt in Malaysia, neben dem Dreischluchtenprojekt in China, eines der meist beachteten Wasserkraftprojekte der Gegenwart dar. Im Dezember 1996 erhielt die private Projektentwicklungsgesellschaft 'Bakun Hydro-Electric Corporation' die Konzession, das

  8. Non-refractory PM1 in SE Asia: Chemically speciated aerosol fluxes and concentrations above contrasting land-uses in SE Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gavin; Farmer, Delphine; di Marco, Chiara; Misztal, Pawel; Sueper, Donna; Kimmel, Joel; Jimenez, Jose; Fowler, David; Nemitz, Eiko

    2010-05-01

    New measurements of VOC emissions (measured with leaf cuvettes, and ecosystem fluxes obtained from eddy covariance measurements) suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest, in Borneo. These larger sources of isoprene measured over oil palm, allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions, contrasts with the composition of the atmosphere in the semi-remote tropical forest environment. The difference in the atmospheric composition above different land-uses has the potential to lead to contrasting chemistry and physics controlling the formation and processing of particulate matter. Thus land use changes, driven by the economics of biofuels, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions, chemical processing and composition of organic aerosol over both (semi-)natural and anthropogenic land uses in the tropical environment. Ecosystem flux measurements of chemically-speciated non-refractory PM1 were made over two contrasting land uses in the Malaysian state of Sabah, on the island of Borneo during 2008. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed at the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) site at a tropical rain forest location as well as the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as a collaboration between three UK NERC funded projects (OP3, APPRAISE/ACES and DIASPORA). Recent technical developments using ToF detectors allow us to record 10 Hz full mass spectra at both high resolution (HR) and unit-mass resolution (UMR), suitable for the calculation of local eddy-covariance fluxes. The measurements provide information on the deposition rate of anthropogenic aerosol components (e.g. sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and hydrocarbon-like aerosol) to tropical forest and oil palm. At the same time, any biogenic secondary organic

  9. Glacial termination hydroclimate in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Wang, X.; Chiang, H. W.; Bijaksana, S.; Jiang, X.; Imran, A. M.; Wicaksono, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Hydroclimatic change in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), the largest center of atmospheric deep convection on Earth, can have a profound influence on the global moisture and energy budgets. Although it has been extensively studied, the history of IPWP hydroclimate remains elusive, partially due to the scarcity of well-resolved hydroclimiate records from the region. Here we report a U/Th dated, high-resolution, calcite d18O record on IPWP hydroclimatic change, spanning the last glacial termination (termination-I or T-I) and the interval of time from the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 to MIS11 (termination-V or T-V). The record was obtained using speleothems collected from Southwest Sulawesi (S5o1', E119o44'), Indonesia. During T-I, the Sulawesi speleothem δ18O shows a few millennial-scale events, possibly a drier climate during the Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), but a relatively wet climate during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Bolling-Allerod (B-A). The pattern resembles those registered in the speleothem records from eastern China and Borneo. However, the Sulawesi d18O varies from ~ -5.8‰ to ~ -7.3‰ during the last termination, which is much smaller than the magnitudes shown in China and Borneo cave samples (~ 4‰). On the other hand, the Sulawesi cave record is anti-correlated with the Flores speleothem record in terms of their millennial-scale events. Yet, the two Indonesian records share a similar, small d18O variation (~1.5‰). Such observations therefore suggest that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) probably became narrower when responding to the northern high-latitude climatic forcing during the T-I, and it centered zonally between the two Indonesian locations. Interestingly, Sulawesi speleothem d18O has a larger magnitude of shift during T-V, from ~ -5.7‰ in MIS12 to ~ -8.7‰ at the peak of MIS11. Given that Sulawesi cave d18O is not sensitive to sea level change and orbital forcing, we suspect that a much lower

  10. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called "headless" diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make

  11. A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae, from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina

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    Thor-Seng Liew

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database. We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P.mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.

  12. Malaysia as the Archetypal Garden in the British Creative Imagination

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    Siti Nuraishah Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available European travel writing (1512–1984 represented Malaysia as a tropical Garden of Eden, an image that has also percolated into literary texts concerning the region. This article examines spatial images in British fiction through the framework of archetypal literary criticism and theories of colonial representations of space to reveal the worlding (Spivak 1999 of Malaysia as a garden. In order to ascertain the ways in which the garden archetype has been deployed by the British creative imagination in the past and the present, novels from the colonial and postcolonial periods have been selected for analysis. Three dominant incarnations of the garden archetype can be discerned throughout novels by Joseph Conrad, W. Somerset Maugham, and Anthony Burgess: the lush, Romantic garden; the restrained, ­disciplined Victorian garden; and the barren, dried-up garden. The postcolonial British novel, for its part, deploys images of the barren garden revived (William Riviere’s Borneo Fire as well as a return to the earlier Conradian image of the Romantic locus amoenus (Frederick Lees’ Fool’s Gold. This article concludes that the representation of Malaysia in various guises of the archetypal garden negates the indigenous worldview concerning space and produces instead “knowledge” about Malaysia rooted in the white man’s perspective.

  13. First molecular data and the phylogenetic position of the millipede-like centipede Edentistoma octosulcatum Tomosvary, 1882 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae.

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    Varpu Vahtera

    Full Text Available Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882, is a rare, superficially millipede-like centipede known only from Borneo and the Philippines. It is unique within the order Scolopendromorpha for its slow gait, robust tergites, and highly modified gizzard and mandible morphology. Not much is known about the biology of the species but it has been speculated to be arboreal with a possibly vegetarian diet. Until now its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Otostigminae has been based only on morphological characters, being variably ranked as a monotypic tribe (Arrhabdotini or classified with the Southeast Asian genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934. The first molecular data for E. octosulcatum sourced from a newly collected specimen from Sarawak were analysed with and without morphology. Parsimony analysis of 122 morphological characters together with two nuclear and two mitochondrial loci resolves Edentistoma as sister group to three Indo-Australian species of Rhysida, this clade in turn grouping with Ethmostigmus, whereas maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data on their own ally Edentistoma with species of Otostigmus. A position of Edentistoma within Otostigmini (rather than being its sister group as predicted by the Arrhabdotini hypothesis is consistently retrieved under different analytical conditions, but support values within the subfamily remain low for most nodes. The species exhibits strong pushing behaviour, suggestive of burrowing habits. Evidence against a suggested vegetarian diet is provided by observation of E. octosulcatum feeding on millipedes in the genus Trachelomegalus.

  14. Human amplification of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesia since 1960

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    Field, R. D.; van der Werf, G. R.; Shen, S. S.

    2009-05-01

    Much of the interannual variability in global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations has been attributed to variability of emissions from biomass burning. Under drought conditions, agricultural burning in Indonesia escapes control, and is a disproportionate contributor to these emissions, as seen in the 1997/98 haze disaster. Yet our understanding of the frequency, severity and underlying causes of severe biomass burning in Indonesia is limited because of the absence of satellite data that are useful for fire monitoring before the mid- 1990s. Here we present a continuous monthly record of severe burning events from 1960 to 2006 using the visibility reported at airports in the region. We find that these fires cause what are possibly the world's worst air quality conditions and that they occur only during years when precipitation falls below a well defined threshold. Historically, large fire events have occurred in Sumatra at least since the 1960s. By contrast, the first large fires are recorded in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) in the 1980s, despite earlier severe droughts. We attribute this difference to different patterns of changes in land use and population density. Fires in Indonesia have often been linked with El Niño, but we find that the Indian Ocean Dipole pattern is as important a contributing factor.

  15. Revision of the enigmatic Southeast Asian spider genus Savarna (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Savarna Huber, 2005 was previously one of the most poorly known Pholcinae genera. Less than 20 specimens (representing four nominal species were available worldwide; nothing was known about ultrastructure, natural history, or relationships. We present the first SEM data, supporting the position of the genus in Pholcinae outside the Pholcus group of genera and weakly suggesting a closer relationship with the genera Khorata Huber, 2005, Spermophorides Wunderlich, 1992, and two undescribed species of unknown affinity from Borneo. We provide the first data about microhabitat, web structure, and reaction to disturbance. We clarify the type locality of Savarna tessellata (Simon, 1901 (“Jalor, Biserat” and describe topotypical material. We describe the previously unknown male of Spermophora miser Bristowe, 1952 and transfer the species (that was previously considered incertae sedis to Savarna as Savarna miser (Bristowe, 1952 comb. nov. Savarna baso (Roewer, 1963 is newly synonymized with S. miser. We newly describe the most northern species in the genus, Savarna kaeo sp. nov., and provide amendments to the descriptions of all previously described species.

  16. Creative Conservation Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jason

    2015-04-01

    I am a fellow with the International League of Conservation photographers (iLCP) and have been focused on photographing conservation dynamics at the intersection of social and environmental issues for a decade. Subjects have included traditional concerns such as deforestation, water conservation, endangered species, and fisheries. However, I rarely make photographs of the traditional nature, wildlife, landscapes, or environmental atrocities that most people think of when they think about environmentalism. Instead, I photograph people and how they live on the planet, as I believe passionately that without also considering social and cultural concerns, we will not be able to effectively and sustainably do conservation work or achieve positive environmental change. My presentation will share recent photography projects on forest conservation in Indonesian Borneo and fisheries management in Central America where I used a 'stakeholder profile-based' process to broadly survey the complexity of the issues while also making personal connections for these projects' diverse audiences. Through these case studies I will explore the opportunities and challenges of combining the authenticity, accuracy, and scientific validity of journalistic and documentary work with the emotional impact of the conventions of art and storytelling.

  17. Revision of the Sundaland species of the genus Dysphaea Selys, 1853 using molecular and morphological methods, with notes on allied species (Odonata: Euphaeidae).

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    Hämäläinen, Matti; Dow, Rory A; Stokvis, Frank R

    2015-04-29

    The Sundaland species of the genus Dysphaea were studied using molecular and morphological methods. Four species are recognized: D. dimidiata Selys, D. lugens Selys, D. ulu spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Borneo, Sarawak, Miri division, Upper Baram, Sungai Pejelai, Ulu Moh, 24 viii 2014; deposited in RMNH) and D. vanida spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Thailand, Ranong province, Khlong Nakha, Khlong Bang Man, 12-13 v 1999; deposited in RMNH). The four species are described and illustrated for both sexes, with keys provided. The type specimens of the four Dysphaea taxa named by E. de Selys Longchamps, i.e. dimidiata, limbata, semilimbata and lugens, were studied and their taxonomic status is discussed. Lectotypes are designated for D. dimidiata and D. limbata. D. dimidiata is recorded from Palawan (the Philippines) for the first time. A molecular analysis using three markers (COI, 16S and 28S) is presented. This includes specimens of three Sundaland species of the genus (D. lugens missing) and two congeners from other regions (D. basi-tincta and D. gloriosa). Notes and photographs of the male holotype of D. walli Fraser (from Maymyo, Burma) are provided.

  18. DNA Barcoding Reveals High Cryptic Diversity of the Freshwater Halfbeak Genus Hemirhamphodon from Sundaland

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    Zainal Abidin, Muchlisin; Pulungan, Chaidir Parlindungan

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was utilized to assess the species diversity of the freshwater halfbeak genus Hemirhamphodon. A total of 201 individuals from 46 locations in Peninsular Malaysia, north Borneo (Sarawak) and Sumatra were successfully amplified for 616 base pairs of the COI gene revealing 231 variable and 213 parsimony informative sites. COI gene trees showed that most recognized species form monophyletic clades with high bootstrap support. Pairwise within species comparisons exhibited a wide range of intraspecific diversity from 0.0% to 14.8%, suggesting presence of cryptic diversity. This finding was further supported by barcode gap analysis, ABGD and the constructed COI gene trees. In particular, H. pogonognathus from Kelantan (northeast Peninsular Malaysia) diverged from the other H. pogonognathus groups with distances ranging from 7.8 to 11.8%, exceeding the nearest neighbor taxon. High intraspecific diversity was also observed in H. byssus and H. kuekanthali, but of a lower magnitude. This study also provides insights into endemism and phylogeographic structuring, and limited support for the Paleo-drainage divergence hypothesis as a driver of speciation in the genus Hemirhamphodon. PMID:27657915

  19. Public Service Integrity Perception: Case Study In Kutai Kartanegara Regency, Indonesia

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    Dyah Mutiarin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed to measure the integrity of public service at Kutai Kartanegara Regency, East Borneo Province, Indonesia. The public service integrity can be seen from many perspective such as how the citizens satisfied with the public services provided by the government, how the public perception on combating corruption, and how success the government providing minimum service standard to the public at large. This three forms of public service integrity was the main focuses of this research in Kutai Kartanegara regency. The phenomenon of public service in Kutai Kartanegara Regency shown out of the tracks and missing to convey the importance of public service values, characterized by uncertainty of charges, time, and procedures. The research used the quantitative methods by scoring 3 indexes, which are the Citizen Satisfaction Index, Corruption Perception Index, and Minimum Service Standard Index. This research used Non-probability Sampling method, also Judgment Sampling procedure, in the development and compilation of the citizens satisfaction index. There were 57 local government agencies that served as the samples. The results of this research were the public service integrity perceptions in Kutai Kartanegara regency was need to be improved on the quantity and quality of public service delivery, commitment and efforts to create a clean government, transparency and accountability especially on e-procurement and to implement minimum service standards in every government offices.

  20. Fecal steroid analysis for monitoring reproduction in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberger, Franz; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Schaller, Karl; Kolter, Lydia

    2004-12-01

    Fecal steroid analyses were conducted on captive (n = 10) and free-ranging (n = 2) sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) in order to establish a noninvasive technique for monitoring endocrine profiles during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Secondly, the effect of the contraceptive porcine zona pellucida protein (PZP) on reproductive function was studied. Finally, we investigated whether the sun bear, naturally living in the aseasonal tropical forests of Southeast Asia, is a seasonal breeder. Fecal samples were collected over periods of 7-48 months in captive untreated (n = 8) and PZP-treated (n = 2) female sun bears. In addition samples were collected over a period of 12 months from radio-collared free-ranging females (n = 2) in their natural habitat in Indonesian Borneo. Androgens, precursors of estrogens, were found to be reliable indicators of the follicular phase, whereas estrogens were found unsuitable. Pregnanediol assay was found to be a reliable indicator of luteal function. Results indicate that sun bears are polyestrous, nonseasonal breeders. Interestrus intervals in nonpregnant animals (n = 2), which were monitored for 27 months, were between 140 and 216 days. Luteal phases (89.6 +/- 3.7 days; n = 9) were preceded by androgen peaks of 15.2 +/- 1.0 days (n = 10). Hormonal profiles of two females treated with PZP indicated missing ovarian activity in one, and persistent follicular and luteal activity in another animal. However, extended periods of missing ovarian, and persistent follicular and luteal activity were also observed in other sun bears studied.

  1. Trophic flexibility and the persistence of understory birds in intensively logged rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Woodcock, Paul; Newton, Rob J; Edwards, Felicity A; Andrews, David J R; Docherty, Teegan D S; Mitchell, Simon L; Ota, Takahiro; Benedick, Suzan; Bottrell, Simon H; Hamer, Keith C

    2013-10-01

    Effects of logging on species composition in tropical rainforests are well known but may fail to reveal key changes in species interactions. We used nitrogen stable-isotope analysis of 73 species of understory birds to quantify trophic responses to repeated intensive logging of rainforest in northern Borneo and to test 4 hypotheses: logging has significant effects on trophic positions and trophic-niche widths of species, and the persistence of species in degraded forest is related to their trophic positions and trophic-niche widths in primary forest. Species fed from higher up the food chain and had narrower trophic-niche widths in degraded forest. Species with narrow trophic-niche widths in primary forest were less likely to persist after logging, a result that indicates a higher vulnerability of dietary specialists to local extinction following habitat disturbance. Persistence of species in degraded forest was not related to a species' trophic position. These results indicate changes in trophic organization that were not apparent from changes in species composition and highlight the importance of focusing on trophic flexibility over the prevailing emphasis on membership of static feeding guilds. Our results thus support the notion that alterations to trophic organization and interactions within tropical forests may be a pervasive and functionally important hidden effect of forest degradation.

  2. Evidence of extreme habitat stability in a Southeast Asian biodiversity hotspot based on the evolutionary analysis of neotenic net-winged beetles.

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    Malohlava, V; Bocak, L

    2010-11-01

    The diversification of neotenic beetle lineages has not been studied, despite the potential for defining biodiversity hotspots and elucidating the history of regional faunas. Additionally, neotenics may provide insight into the process of speciation in small populations with extremely low dispersal ability and a limited range. Here, we used two rDNA and three mtDNA markers to investigate the phylogeny of Scarelus, a neotenic lineage endemic to Southeast Asian rainforests. Most genetic differentiation was associated with Palaeogene geographical divisions, which remain distinct despite temporary connections. Dispersal events were rare, with only two inferred for Scarelus: from Borneo to the Philippines 28.3 million years ago (Ma) and from Sumatra to Java 13.9 Ma. We suggest that speciation resulted from allopatric range fragmentation, and Scarelus diversified readily when conditions were favourable; in this case, at different times in the eastern (19.3-39.1 Ma) and western (3.5-13.9 Ma) parts of Sundaland. The observed strong phenotypic similarity was preserved under speciation through complete allopatry. Neotenic Lycidae have survived for a long time in very stable habitats, and extremely low dispersal activity has not limited their persistence; however, the long-term diversification rate of neotenics is low and diversification is nonexistent under stable conditions. The modern ranges of neotenic lineages are indicative of ancient rainforest refugia and may be used in biodiversity conservation management. Most neotenics are at risk of extinction because of their small ranges and a low dispersal potential.

  3. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

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    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  4. Students Awareness towards Traditional Cultural Dances in Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Ahmad R. Albattat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has many ethnic groups, and each ethnic group has own custom and tradition that most Malaysians are not aware, especially traditional dances. Among the Malaysian states, Sabah and Sarawak, situated in the Borneo Island have the most diverse ethnic groups in Sarawak. It has more than 30 ethnic groups. Each of the ethnic groups has its own language, cultures and lifestyle. In this regards, this research focuses on the main ethnic groups of Sarawak which are Orang Ulu, Malays, Melanau, Bidayuh, Chinese and Ibans. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of awareness among the Management and Science University (MSU students regarding their level of awareness and knowledge about traditional dances of Sarawak. The data were gathered by distributing questionnaires among MSU students. The data were then analysed using SPSS system version 18.0. Results concluded that, most of MSU students have limited knowledge about Sarawak traditional dances. Interests, internet, performing arts clubs and family background are the independent variable factors to learn and gain knowledge about Sarawak traditional dances. The level of awareness among MSU students towards Sarawak traditional dances can be enhanced through events and special occasions to increase level of awareness towards Sarawak cultures. The government plays a major role in introducing Sarawak cultures to the whole of Malaysia. Future studies could focus on factors that influence the level of awareness towards Sarawak traditional dances, and the contribution of Sarawak’s traditional dances to Malaysia’s cultural and heritage tourism.

  5. The diversity and abundance of ground herbs in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest and heath forest in Brunei Darussalam

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    Nurul Hazlina Zaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants are important components of total plant species richness in tropical forests. Ground herb diversity and abundance were studied in a lowland Mixed Dipterocarp forest (Andulau and a heath forest (Bukit Sawat in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo. At each site, all ground herbs in twenty randomly selected 10 × 10 m subplots within a one hectare permanent plot were censused and identified. The study recorded a total of 20 families and 32 genera of ground herbs, with the family Zingiberaceae as the most abundant at both sites. Thirteen genera were recorded only at Andulau and 7 genera were exclusive to Bukit Sawat, with twelve genera common to both sites. Ground herb species richness appear higher at Andulau than Bukit Sawat (37 vs. 29, but this difference was not statistically significant at the subplot level. However, ground herb abundance and density were significantly higher at Bukit Sawat than Andulau (n =  846 vs. 385; 4230 vs. 1925 individuals ha-1. The more open canopy at Bukit Sawat may provide higher light availability here than at Andulau, which is characterised by a closed canopy. We suggest that light availability is the most important environmental factor influencing ground herb density and abundance at these sites. 

  6. Man-Made Wildlife Tourism Destination: The Visitors Perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park, Sabah, Malaysia

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    Boyd Sun Fatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabah is blessed with natural forest habitats and rich with floras and faunas. Amongst its’ attraction is wildlife endemism. Lok Kawi Wildlife Park was established to provide an alternative wildlife tourism destination with its inhabitants from the wildlife species of Borneo. Since its opening in 2007, multitudes of tourists have visited the park. However, there has been no study to identify the visitor’s perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park as man-made wildlife tourism destination. The study aims to assist the park’s management for the betterment of the park’s facilities and future development. A convenience sampling and a designed questionnaire was applied in this study, distributed after the visitors visited the park. The results showed that majority of the visitors were Malaysian and only a quarter were foreign visitors. Majority indicated that visiting the park is for recreational outing (holiday and only a few indicated that is an educational visit. Majority of the respondents knew the meaning of wildlife tourism and visiting the park’s is part of wildlife tourism. Most of the respondents came to know about the park’s existence through the local media and mostly agreed that the park indeed provide an authentic learning experience about wildlife, whilst creating wildlife conservation awareness.

  7. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

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    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  8. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

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    C. E. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a~tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt, respectively, and with an average monoterpene to isoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlight hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission occurred into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  9. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L.; Noller, Barry N.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H.

    2017-02-01

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves – in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni2+ does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni2+ chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants.

  10. Craniodental affinities of Southeast Asia's "negritos" and the concordance with their genetic affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbeck, David

    2013-01-01

    Genetic research into Southeast Asia's "negritos" has revealed their deep-rooted ancestry, with time depth comparable to that of Southwest Pacific populations. This finding is often interpreted as evidence that negritos, in contrast to other Southeast Asians, can trace much of their ancestry directly back to the early dispersal of Homo sapiens in the order of 70 kya from Africa to Pleistocene New Guinea and Australia. One view on negritos is to lump them and Southwest Pacific peoples into an "Australoid" race whose geographic distribution had included Southeast Asia prior to the Neolithic incursion of "Mongoloid" farmers. Studies into Semang osteology have revealed some hints of Southwest Pacific affinities in cranial shape, dental morphology, and dental metrical "shape." On the other hand, the Andamanese have been shown to resemble Africans in their craniometrics and South Asians in their dental morphology, while Philippine negritos resemble Mongoloid Southeast Asians in these respects and also in their dental metrics. This study expands the scope of negrito cranial comparisons by including Melayu Malays and additional coverage of South Asians. It highlights the distinction between the Mongoloid-like Philippine negritos and the Andamanese and Semang (and Senoi of Malaya) with their non-Mongoloid associations. It proposes that the early/mid-Holocene dispersal of the B4a1a mitochondrial DNA clade across Borneo, the Philippines, and Taiwan may be important for understanding the distinction between Philippine and other negritos.

  11. Selective logging in tropical forests decreases the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks to the loss of host tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Senior, Rebecca A; Rogers, Andrew; Nurdin, Deddy; Benedick, Suzan; Laurance, William F; Santamaria, Luis; Edwards, David P

    2016-03-16

    Selective logging is one of the major drivers of tropical forest degradation, causing important shifts in species composition. Whether such changes modify interactions between species and the networks in which they are embedded remain fundamental questions to assess the 'health' and ecosystem functionality of logged forests. We focus on interactions between lianas and their tree hosts within primary and selectively logged forests in the biodiversity hotspot of Malaysian Borneo. We found that lianas were more abundant, had higher species richness, and different species compositions in logged than in primary forests. Logged forests showed heavier liana loads disparately affecting slow-growing tree species, which could exacerbate the loss of timber value and carbon storage already associated with logging. Moreover, simulation scenarios of host tree local species loss indicated that logging might decrease the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks if heavily infested trees (i.e. the most connected ones) were more likely to disappear. This effect is partially mitigated in the short term by the colonization of host trees by a greater diversity of liana species within logged forests, yet this might not compensate for the loss of preferred tree hosts in the long term. As a consequence, species interaction networks may show a lagged response to disturbance, which may trigger sudden collapses in species richness and ecosystem function in response to additional disturbances, representing a new type of 'extinction debt'.

  12. Genetic polymorphism in domain I of the apical membrane antigen-1 among Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mun Yik; Wong, Shen Siang; Silva, Jeremy Ryan De; Lau, Yee Ling

    2015-12-01

    The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is now recognized as a species that can cause human malaria. The first report of large scale human knowlesi malaria was in 2004 in Malaysia Borneo. Since then, hundreds of human knowlesi malaria cases have been reported in Southeast Asia. The present study investigates the genetic polymorphism of P. knowlesi DI domain of the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1), a protein considered as a promising vaccine candidate for malaria. The DI domain of AMA-1 gene of P. knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia was amplified by PCR, cloned into Escherichia coli, then sequenced and analysed. Ninety-seven DI domain sequences were obtained. Comparison at the nucleotide level against P. knowlesi strain H as reference sequence showed 21 synonymous and 25 nonsynonymous mutations. Nonetheless, nucleotide sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity of the DI domain, and it was under purifying (negative) selection. At the amino acid level, 26 different haplotypes were identified and 2 were predominant haplotypes (H1, H2) with high frequencies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 26 haplotypes could be clustered into 2 distinct groups (I and II). Members of the groups were basically derived from haplotypes H1 and H2, respectively.

  13. Metabolic profiling and in vitro assessment of anthelmintic fractions of Picria fel-terrae Lour.

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    Rasika Kumarasingha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in gastrointestinal nematode populations, such that there is a consistent need to search for new anthelmintics. However, the cost of screening for new compounds is high and has a very low success rate. Using the knowledge of traditional healers from Borneo Rainforests (Sarawak, Malaysia, we have previously shown that some traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of potential new anthelmintic drug candidates. In this study, Picria fel-terrae Lour. plant extract, which has previously shown promising anthelmintic activities, was fractionated via the use of a solid phase extraction cartridge and each isolated fraction was then tested on free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. We found that a single fraction was enriched for nematocidal activity, killing ≥90% of C. elegans adults and inhibiting the motility of exsheathed L3 of H. contortus, while having minimal cytotoxic activity in mammalian cell culture. Metabolic profiling and chemometric analysis of the effective fraction indicated medium chained fatty acids and phenolic acids were highly represented.

  14. Effects of meteorology, astronomical variables, location and human disturbance on the singing apes: Hylobates albibarbis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Susan M

    2008-04-01

    Gibbons are characterized by their species-specific calls. The frequency of singing is known to be affected by rainfall, with singing occurring less in the wet season. I investigate the hypothesis that gibbon singing is also affected by the natural light-dark cycle, and by the changing light intensity and air quality resulting from the smoke haze which blankets the Indonesian island of Borneo on a yearly basis. I compare three singing variables-onset of singing, average duration of singing bout and number of female great calls produced during the dry season of 2006 when there was no smoke haze (June-August) and when there was smoke haze present (September-November). I present evidence which indicates that the changes in singing behavior are affected by changes in rainfall and smoke intensity but not by other meteorological factors (i.e. wind and light intensity) or changing astronomical cues (light intensity, month, time of sunrise, time of moonrise, nocturnal illumination index, day length and night length). The possible long-term effects of this on gibbon behavior and territoriality are discussed. The need to carry out more research on the long-term effects of the smoke haze on wildlife behavior and possible solutions to the problem are discussed.

  15. Analysing Threshold Value in Fire Detection Algorithm Using MODIS Data

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    Bowo E. Cahyono

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available MODIS instruments have been designed to include special channels for fire monitoring by adding more spectral thermal band detector on them. The basic understanding of remote sensing fire detection should be kept in mind to be able to improve the algorithm for regional scale detection purposes. It still gives many chances for more exploration. This paper describe the principle of fire investigation applied on MODIS data. The main used algorithm in this research is contextual algorithm which has been developed by NASA scientist team. By varying applied threshold of T4 value in the range of 320-360K it shows that detected fire is significantly changed. While significant difference of detected FHS by changing ∆T threshold value is occurred in the range of 15-35K. Improve and adjustment of fire detection algorithm is needed to get the best accuracy result proper to local or regional conditions. MOD14 algorithm is applied threshold values of 325K for T4 and 20K for ∆T. Validation has been done from the algorithm result of MODIS dataset over Indonesia and South Africa. The accuracy of MODIS fire detection by MOD14 algorithm is 73.2% and 91.7% on MODIS data over Sumatra-Borneo and South Africa respectively

  16. COMPOSICIÓN DE LOS ACEITES ESENCIALES DE LIPPIA JUNELIANA, LIPPIA INTEGRIFOLIA Y LIPPIA TURBINATA DE LA PROVINCIA DE SAN LUIS (ARGENTINA

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    Claudia Duschatzky

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los aceites esenciales extraídos de las partes aéreas de Lippia Juneliana (Mold. Tronc. (n.v.salvialoraj, L. integrifolia (Gris. Hier. (n.v. incayuyoj' L. turbinata Gris. (n.v. poleo de la provincia de San Luis (Argentina. Se identificaron los componentes mayoritarios por índices de retención, índices de Kovats, por CG y CG/E.M. Los componentes mayoritarios encontrados son: óxido de piperitenona 36,5%, limoneno 23,1%, alcanfor 7,9%, espatulenol 6,5% en L.juneliana; |3-cariofileno 18,4%, a-humuleno 9,7 %, limoneno 8,2 %, espatulenol 6,6 %, borneo! 5,7 % enL. integrifolia; y limoneno 43,3%, óxido de piperitenona 24,8 %, 1,8-cineol 14,7 %, en L.tiirbinara.( porcentaje relativo expresado con base en las áreas de pico

  17. Geologic and geomorphic controls of coal development in some Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, R.M. (US Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center)

    1993-09-01

    Previous investigations have not well defined the controls on the development of minable coals in fluvial environments. This study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding of these controls, particularly in the lower Tertiary coal-bearing deposits of the Raton and Powder River basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. In this region, large amounts of coals accumulated in swamps formed in the flow-through fluvial systems that infilled these intermontane basins. Extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonism partly controlled the stratigraphic and facies distributions of minable coal deposits. The regional accumulation of coals was favoured by the rapid basin subsidence coupled with minimal uplift of the source area. During these events, coals developed in swamps associated with anastomosed and meandering fluvial systems and alluvial fans. The extensive and high rate of sediment input from these fluvial systems promoted the formation of ombrotrophic, raised swamps, which produced low ash and anomalously thick coals. The petrology and palynology of these coals, and the paleobotany of the associated sediments, suggest that ombrotrophic, raised swamps were common in the Powder River Basin, where the climate during the early Tertiary was paratropical. The paleoecology of these swamps is identical to that of the modern ombrotrophic raised swamps of the Baram and Mahakam Rivers of Borneo. 32 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Quality of life among Malaysian mothers with a child with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geok, Chan Kim; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Kee, Ling How

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of life (QOL) among mothers with a child with Down syndrome using The World Health Organization Quality of Life scale instrument. A convenience sample of 161 mothers was accessed through the various institutions which provide interventional or educational programmes to children with disabilities within two of the regions of the Borneo State of Malaysia (Sarawak). Nearly half of the group of mothers perceived their QOL as neither poor nor good (n = 73). An overall QOL score of 14.0 ± 1.84 was obtained. The highest and lowest domain scores were found for social relationship domain (Mean = 14.9 ± 2.1) and environmental support domain (Mean = 13.3 ± 2.1) respectively. Correlation analysis of selected background variables (i.e. locality, education, income and marital status) and overall QOL indicated rho (161) = 0.22-0.28 (P policy-makers and care professionals in their practice.

  19. Congruence of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in acrobat ants (Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) myrmecophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants.

  20. Competition can lead to unexpected patterns in tropical ant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Blüthgen, Nico; Fayle, Tom M.; Foster, William A.; Menzel, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Ecological communities are structured by competitive, predatory, mutualistic and parasitic interactions combined with chance events. Separating deterministic from stochastic processes is possible, but finding statistical evidence for specific biological interactions is challenging. We attempt to solve this problem for ant communities nesting in epiphytic bird's nest ferns (Asplenium nidus) in Borneo's lowland rainforest. By recording the frequencies with which each and every single ant species occurred together, we were able to test statistically for patterns associated with interspecific competition. We found evidence for competition, but the resulting co-occurrence pattern was the opposite of what we expected. Rather than detecting species segregation-the classical hallmark of competition-we found species aggregation. Moreover, our approach of testing individual pairwise interactions mostly revealed spatially positive rather than negative associations. Significant negative interactions were only detected among large ants, and among species of the subfamily Ponerinae. Remarkably, the results from this study, and from a corroborating analysis of ant communities known to be structured by competition, suggest that competition within the ants leads to species aggregation rather than segregation. We believe this unexpected result is linked with the displacement of species following asymmetric competition. We conclude that analysing co-occurrence frequencies across complete species assemblages, separately for each species, and for each unique pairwise combination of species, represents a subtle yet powerful way of detecting structure and compartmentalisation in ecological communities.

  1. Behavioral Studies Peptic Ulcer Patients Self-Medication by Visiting Pharmacy in Pontianak

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    Eka K. Untari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication practices is now considered as a component of self-care. Gastric ulcer is one of minor symptom that can be treated by self-medication. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, behavior, and appropriateness of self-medication practice for gastric ulcer or its related symptom amongst population. The population of this study attended community pharmacies in Pontianak of West Borneo province. This study was a cross sectional survey involving 98 adults who did self-medication on peptic ulcer or its related symptom. This study was conducted in 2010. The result of showed that 67.3% of gastric ulcer self-medication practice was appropriate; 66.3% subject used antacida class to treat the symptom; 6.1% participant however, still used antibiotic; and only 27% subject satisfied with the information given during self-medication process. Although self-medication practice for gastric ulcer was often done, some practice might be harmful. Thus, there is a need to educate the community to ensure its safe practices.

  2. Beyond Moa's Ark and Wallace's Line: extralimital distribution of new species of Austronothrus (Acari, Oribatida, Crotoniidae) and the endemicity of the New Zealand oribatid mite fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Matthew J; Cameron, Stephen L

    2014-03-21

    The genus Austronothrus was previously known from three species recorded only from New Zealand. Austronothrus kinabalu sp. nov. is described from Sabah, Borneo and A. rostralis sp. nov. from Norfolk Island, south-west Pacific. A key to Austronothrus is included. These new species extend the distribution of Austronothrus beyond New Zealand and confirms that the subfamily Crotoniinae is not confined to former Gondwanan landmasses. The distribution pattern of Austronothrus spp., combining Oriental and Gondwanan localities, is indicative of a curved, linear track; consistent with the accretion of island arcs and volcanic terranes around the plate margins of the Pacific Ocean, with older taxa persisting on younger island though localised dispersal within island arc metapopulations. Phylogenetic analysis and an area cladogram are consistent with a broad ancestral distribution of Austronothrus in the Oriental region and on Gondwanan terranes, with subsequent divergence and distribution southward from the Sunda region to New Zealand. This pattern is more complex than might be expected if the New Zealand oribatid fauna was derived from dispersal following re-emergence of land after inundation during the Oligocene (25 mya), as well as if the fauna emanated from endemic, relictual taxa following separation of New Zealand from Gondwana during the Cretaceous (80 mya).

  3. The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu M; Edwards, David P; Mendes, Lucas William; Kim, Mincheol; Dong, Ke; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes.

  4. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  5. Population exposure to hazardous air quality due to the 2015 fires in Equatorial Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, P.; Castruccio, S.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lebron, G. B.; Kuwata, M.; Thota, A.; Sumin, S.; Butt, E.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades. We performed high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry based on a new fire emission product. The model captures the spatio-temporal variability of extreme pollution episodes relative to space- and ground-based observations and allows for identification of pollution sources and transport over Equatorial Asia. We calculate that high particulate matter concentrations from fires during Fall 2015 were responsible for persistent exposure of 69 million people to unhealthy air quality conditions. Short-term exposure to this pollution may have caused 11,880 (6,153–17,270) excess mortalities. Results from this research provide decision-relevant information to policy makers regarding the impact of land use changes and human driven deforestation on fire frequency and population exposure to degraded air quality.

  6. Analisis Energi dan Sebaran Suhu pada Gasifier Unggun Tetap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Sirodz Gaos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance test of Imbert Downdraft Gesifier by using cyclone as an auxiliary for tar filtering has been conducted with three kinds of feeding chips, i. e; borneo wood, tamarind wood and leucena wood. The research has been developed to support as an energy source for combined heat power generation. Gesifier will be coupled to diesel generating set and waste heat from the exhaust gas will be used as energy source for an adsorption type refrigeration system. The test had produced the best combustible gas with the chemical composition CO = 55,59 %, CH4 = 0,14 %, C2H6 = 0,3 % and C3H8= 0, 08 %. The maximum temperature 1142 oC has been found in oxidation zone based on the leucena wood test, meanwhile the calculation result of energy availability for the combustible gas was 60,39 kW and specific energy availability was 0,082 kg/kWh. The test result of temperature distribution along the reactor compare to numerical solution of mathemathicai modelling has got the similar curve.

  7. Naturkonzepte und indigene Identitätsentwürfe im Kontext ökologischer Konflikte in Kalimantan

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    Timo Duile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In hegemonialen Diskursen, die sich gerade in ökonomischer Hinsicht als wirkmächtig erwiesen haben, erscheinen ökologische Konflikte meist als Konflikte um das adäquate Management von Ressourcen. Der epistemische Subtext dieser Herangehensweise an den Gegenstand „Umwelt“ basiert auf einem spezifischen Konzept von Natur, welches Natur als Materie, als das Andere der Kultur und des menschlichen Geistes begreift. Mit Bezug auf Philippe Descola soll in diesem Artikel gezeigt werden, dass sich die im Kontext indigener politischer Strategien revitalisierenden und neu ausgehandelten Naturkonzepte der Dayak auf der Insel Borneo von diesem hegemonialen Naturkonzept unterscheiden – auch wenn sich diese immer wieder auf Grundlagen der hegemonialen Episteme beziehen müssen, um in die globalen Diskurse eintreten zu können. Der Beitrag veranschaulicht diese epistemische Dimension ökologischer Konflikte, indem exemplarisch Publikationen von John Bamba, Direktor einer indigenen Organisation im indonesischen West-Kalimantan, analysiert werden. Es soll außerdem gezeigt werden, wie indigenes Wissen in seiner epistemischen Gesamtheit in hegemonialen Diskursen über lokales Wissen in Kalimantan ausgeblendet wird.

  8. Strongyloides spp Distribution on Orangutans in Tanjung Putting National Park, Care Center in Pangkalanbun, and Sebangau National Park

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    Wisnu Nurcahyo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides spp is a parasitic nematode in livestock, primate and human which is  considered asa danger zoonotic disease. Therefore, study about parasite distribution is very important in order to find outgenetic diversity among orangutan in quarantine, zoo and nature, as an effort to explore infection patternand life cycle of Strongyloides spp on orangutan. Amount of 326 orangutan feces were taken from threedifferent habitat of orangutan in Central Borneo, Tanjung Puting National Park, Orangutan Care Centerand Sebangau National Park. Samples which were collected from Tanjung Puting, Care Center and Sebangauwere 75, 80 and 171 respectively. Those samples were transported to the Parasitology laboratory in Facultyof Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta for examination and detection.  Prevalence ofstrongyloides in Tanjung Putting, Sebangau and Orangutan Care Center were 24%, 14,6% and 13,3%respectively. Among positive samples of Strongyloides, 62,5% were from male orangutans, while 37,5% werefrom female orangutans. Strongyloides in pre adult and baby orangutan were 91,6% and 4,2% respectively.Meanwhile, Strongyloides in adult orangutan were very rare. Orangutan habitat in Sebangau National Parkis an ideal habitat for orangutan, supported by the watery condition of peat land, so that Strongyloides re-infection become difficult. Some factors may have important role in Strongyloidoses, such as behavior,physical condition, nutrition, age, body weight, sex, immunity and social status of orangutan.

  9. BLOOD PRESSURE VALUES AND PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION IN CERTAIN ETHNIC GROUPS IN INDONESIA, 1976

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    Kartari D. S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of hypertension rates and blood pressure values were undertaken from urban and rural population of various ethnic groups, namely: Bataks (North Sumatra; Sundanese and Jakarta (West-Java; Javanese (Central Java and Dayaks (East Borneo. Five thousand two hundred and forty individuals were covered in the study, comprising 2562 males and 2678 females. There were no significant differences of hypertension rates between the urban and rural areas, and between the ethnic groups. Using WHO classification for hypertension it was found that under 35 years the hypertension rates was 5% or less. From 35 to 44 years the rates increased to 8% - 10%, while after 45 years it increased to 20% or more. At age 45 years or more the ratio of hypertension was 18,5%, salt consumption among Dayaks is men­tioned as some of the factors which contribute to hypertension. Being a metropolitan city, Jakarta has significantly higher rates of hypertension then elsewhere. 

  10. Findings of the SHIVA field campaign in the South China Sea in Nov.-Dec. 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Marine emissions of so-called halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are known to considerably contribute to the ozone destroying halogen loading of the stratosphere. In this context, most crucial are VSLS emissions in regions of large vertical transport, i.e. the tropics and in particular in the warm pool of the Western Pacific during the rainy seasons (November to March). In order to study the biogenic emissions of halogenated VSLS, their atmospheric transport and transformation, the internationally coordinated field expedition SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was performed within the margins of the South China Sea in November and December 2011. Partners from 19 institutions from 9 countries participated in the campaign. Funding came from the EU's 7th framework programme and additionally from a larger number of national funding agencies. The activities included investigations in the laboratory and on the ground, during local ship cruises, the research vessel SONNE, deployments of the DLR (Germany's national research center for aeronautics and space) Falcon aircraft around Borneo, simultaneous satellite observations, the meteorological forecasting and analysis, and numerical modeling of atmospheric transport and photochemistry. The present talk provides an overview on the performed research activities, reports on joint studies, and some core research results obtained to date.

  11. REVIEW ESSAY: COMPARATIVE BORDERLANDS ACROSS DISCIPLINES AND ACROSS SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Noseworthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Early in the colonial period, many studies examining upland Southeast Asia focused on ethnography and ecology as a means for the colonial state to better understand the region's geography. This process resulted in the construction of physical, social, and intellectual boundaries that sought to maintain control of the colonial enterprise. The natural borderlands of the region defied such easy definition – the highlands, the plains at the edges of deltas, and heavily forested regions – became a fascination of colonial study. In the climate of pending Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN integration, which promises to begin the process of loosening restrictions for border crossing between Southeast Asian states by area residents, the study of borderlands has risen again. Because many of these border areas have pockets of highlands culture, continued study of the uplands is particularly relevant to deepening an understanding of the region. This review of several books on the Southeast Asian uplands explores historical and cultural strategies of individuals, particularly in Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, the Dayak community on the island of Borneo, and the Cham community in Vietnam and Cambodia, as well as some of the challenges that they face regarding 'the borderlands'. Putting these studies in conversation can help develop an interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in Anthropology, Political Science, Linguistics, Ethnomusicology, and History, allowing for a more integrated international perspective.

  12. [Is the fight against dengue complicated with the emergence of a new viral serotype?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Nereida; Quiroz, Yasmir

    2014-09-01

    Dengue is a viral acute febrile illness, currently considered one of the most important arbovirosis worldwide in terms of morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Various theories have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of severe forms of dengue, involving among other factors, features related to the virus, such as the presence of more virulent strains and/or strains with increased replicative capacity. A crucial point at this time is the discovery of a new viral type, dengue 5, from nonhuman primates in Malaysia-Borneo, which could result in greater difficulties for control and vaccine production (currently in efficacy tests). Once the circulation of this viral type has been demonstrated in the human population, the high risk of infection will have extreme or controversial public health implications. Therefore, a worldwide program to combat dengue should include an urgent need to implement continuous vector elimination, community education and prevention and control of the disease. Only then, we will be aiming to reduce the morbidity and transmission risk of dengue, while new technological and effective alternatives come about.

  13. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R.; Friess, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation. PMID:26712025

  14. Kajian Bentuk dan Makna Simbolik Figurin Gerabah Majapahit (Periode Hayam Wuruk 1350-1389 M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Susannawaty

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The earthware figurines of Majapahit  were clay-based artworks from the Majapahit Kingdom (1350-1389 AD of Trowulan at Mojokerto, East Java. The name “majapahit” itself refers to the known great kingdom that unite “nusantara” (covering Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, Celebes, up North to the Southern of Phillipine. Having exposed to the varieties and high-quality of earthware figurines of Majapahit from the Trowulan site, the study looks into their symbolic shapes and meanings which was known to be heavily influenced by Hinduism. To address this issue, the study applied qualitative-descriptive method by means of visual analysis. Study on clay-objects’ shapes was carried out to explore the associated meanings of 4 (four figurine groups: (1 male figurines, (2 female figurines, (3 child figurines, and (4 deformed-face figurines. Results indicate that shapes of the object cater their symbols and associated meanings to the way religion and/or beliefs were held. Figure of gods, kings, and the nobles were made to manifest values (truth, heroism, devotion,and loyalty. Yet, although Hinduism was the most associated values to appear on the objects, Budhism were also identified.This shows that earthware figurines of Majapahit were product of acculturation where different values are met, explored, and exposed to appease the spirits (dharma through ritual and performance. 

  15. Molecular phylogeny reveals high diversity, geographic structure and limited ranges in neotenic net-winged beetles platerodrilus (coleoptera: lycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Michal; Palata, Vaclav; Bray, Timothy C; Bocak, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    The neotenic Platerodrilus net-winged beetles have strongly modified development where females do not pupate and retain larval morphology when sexually mature. As a result, dispersal propensity of females is extremely low and the lineage can be used for reconstruction of ancient dispersal and vicariance patterns and identification of centres of diversity. We identified three deep lineages in Platerodrilus occurring predominantly in (1) Borneo and the Philippines, (2) continental Asia, and (3) Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and Java. We document limited ranges of all species of Platerodrilus and complete species level turnover between the Sunda Islands and even between individual mountain regions in Sumatra. Few dispersal events were recovered among the major geographical regions despite long evolutionary history of occurrence; all of them were dated at the early phase of Platerodrilus diversification up to the end of Miocene and no exchange of island faunas was identified during the Pliocene and Pleistocene despite the frequently exposed Sunda Shelf as sea levels fluctuated with each glacial cycle. We observed high diversity in the regions with persisting humid tropical forests during cool periods. The origins of multiple species were inferred in Sumatra soon after the island emerged and the mountain range uplifted 15 million years ago with the speciation rate lower since then. We suppose that the extremely low dispersal propensity makes Platerodrilus a valuable indicator of uninterrupted persistence of rainforests over a long time span. Additionally, if the diversity of these neotenic lineages is to be protected, a high dense system of protected areas would be necessary.

  16. It's not just conflict that motivates killing of orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline T Davis

    Full Text Available We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI. These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.

  17. Rodent Species Distribution and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Residential and Forested areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential (n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) (p rodent populations in Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.

  18. BANJARESE GREETINGS SYSTEM IN DISTRICT KAPUAS OF CENTRAL KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Perdana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the study of the use of greeting in Banjarese which stay in Kapuas District of Central Borneo.This Research focused to describe the greeting word used by the people, particularly the greeting word in Banjarese used by the first generetion in Kapuas. The research method used is descriptive qualitative. Data collection by observation with a look at, involved notes. Sources of research data used is the preference of all speech that is displayed by 1 Aged over 30 years, 2 Native language studied. 3 Knowing its own culture, 4 The Banjarese are the first generation derived from Banjarmasin, 5 The Banjarese who had lived in Kapuas. Based on this research shows 1 Greetings kinship to greet our parents (father + mother → (+ Uma Abah; Greetings kinship parents to greet our father and mother (grandfather + grandmother → (kai + nini; Greetings kinship to greet parents our grandparents are corrected; Greetings kinship to greet both parents protested was waring; Greetings kinship to say hello (brother + sister → (kaka + ading. Greetings kinship to say hello if our children have children (grandchildren → (grandchildren; Greetings kinship to say hello if we have children and grandchildren is a great-grandfather. And 2 The system of daily greeting, to call people who may be called ikam lifetime, lives. I use the word, unda to appoint themselves. As for honor or call older used the word pian, and said ulun to appoint its own self.

  19. EXPLORING L1 INTERFERENCE IN THE WRITINGS OF KADAZANDUSUN ESL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelster Sherralyn Jeoffrey Pudin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For many ethnic KadazanDusuns from Sabah, North Borneo, English is a third language after their mother tongue and Malay. The burden of having to contend with an additional language frequently leads to errors, particularly those caused by interference from the first language (L1. This study set out to identify the types and frequency of English language errors and their correlations in the writing of KadazanDusun ESL students at Universiti Malaysia Sabah. A further aim of the study was to establish which of these errors could be attributed to L1 interference. A total of 54 students with lower Malaysian University Entrance Test (MUET band scores were asked to complete a questionnaire and write a short essay on a designated topic. The language errors were categorized and analysed via statistical analysis. Errors considered to be related to L1 interference were then identified after consultation with an experienced KadazanDusun language lecturer. The most common errors were those involving singular /plural nouns and unusual sentence structures. The results show that approximately 25% of the errors were attributable to L1 interference, i.e. mode (normal/involuntary, voice (actor (-ing form /undergoer (-ed form, overuse of article, linker (when linker is used, no article is needed, auxiliary verb and direct translation. The findings of this study give ESL practitioners a better insight into student errors and should lead to improved writing performance in the classroom.

  20. The dispersal of Homo sapiens across southern Asia: how early, how often, how complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennell, Robin; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2012-07-01

    The timing and the paths of colonization of southern Asia by Homo sapiens are poorly known, though many population geneticists, paleoanthropologists, and archaeologists have contended that this process began with dispersal from East Africa, and occurred between 60,000 and 40,000 years ago. However, the evidence for this scenario is very weak, particularly the lack of human skeletal evidence between the Levant and Borneo before 40 ka, and other explanations are possible. Here we argue that environmental and archaeological information is increasingly indicating the likelihood that H. sapiens exited Africa much earlier than commonly thought, and may have colonized much of southern Asia well before 60,000 years ago. Additionally, we cannot exclude the possibility that several dispersal events occurred, from both North and East Africa, nor the likelihood that early populations of H. sapiens in southern Asia interbred with indigenous populations of Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo erectus. The population history of southern Asia during the Upper Pleistocene is likely far more complex than currently envisaged.

  1. Thinned crustal structure and tectonic boundary of the Nansha Block, southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Miao; Wu, Shi-Guo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    The southern South China Sea margin consists of the thinned crustal Nansha Block and a compressional collision zone. The Nansha Block's deep structure and tectonic evolution contains critical information about the South China Sea's rifting. Multiple geophysical data sets, including regional magnetic, gravity and reflection seismic data, reveal the deep structure and rifting processes. Curie point depth (CPD), estimated from magnetic anomalies using a windowed wavenumber-domain algorithm, enables us to image thermal structures. To derive a 3D Moho topography and crustal thickness model, we apply Oldenburg algorithm to the gravity anomaly, which was extracted from the observed free air gravity anomaly data after removing the gravity effect of density variations of sediments, and temperature and pressure variations of the lithospheric mantle. We found that the Moho depth (20 km) is shallower than the CPD (24 km) in the Northwest Borneo Trough, possibly caused by thinned crust, low heat flow and a low vertical geothermal gradient. The Nansha Block's northern boundary is a narrow continent-ocean transition zone constrained by magnetic anomalies, reflection seismic data, gravity anomalies and an interpretation of Moho depth (about 13 km). The block extends southward beneath a gravity-driven deformed sediment wedge caused by uplift on land after a collision, with a contribution from deep crustal flow. Its southwestern boundary is close to the Lupar Line defined by a significant negative reduction to the pole (RTP) of magnetic anomaly and short-length-scale variation in crustal thickness, increasing from 18 to 26 km.

  2. Discursive barriers and cross-scale forest governance in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb T. Gallemore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Students of social-ecological systems have emphasized the need for effective cross-scale governance. We theorized that discursive barriers, particularly between technical and traditional practices, can act as a barrier to cross-scale collaboration. We analyzed the effects of discursive divides on collaboration on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ policy development in Central Kalimantan, an Indonesian province on the island of Borneo selected in 2010 to pilot subnational REDD+ policy. We argue that the complexities of bridging local land management practices and technical approaches to greenhouse gas emissions reduction and carbon offsetting create barriers to cross-scale collaboration. We tested these hypotheses using an exponential random graph model of collaboration among 36 organizations active in REDD+ policy in the province. We found that discursive divides were associated with a decreased probability of collaboration between organizations and that organizations headquartered outside the province were less likely to collaborate with organizations headquartered in the province. We conclude that bridging discursive communities presents a chicken-and-egg problem for cross-scale governance of social-ecological systems. In precisely the situations where it is most important, when bridging transnational standards with local knowledge and land management practices, it is the most difficult.

  3. Technical Note: Calcium and carbon stable isotope ratios as paleodietary indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Crowley, Brooke E; Brown, Shaun T; Wheatley, Patrick V; Moritz, Gillian L; Yit Yu, Fred Tuh; Bernard, Henry; DePaolo, Donald J; Jacobson, Andrew D; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-08-01

    Calcium stable isotope ratios are hypothesized to vary as a function of trophic level. This premise raises the possibility of using calcium stable isotope ratios to study the dietary behaviors of fossil taxa and to test competing hypotheses on the adaptive origins of euprimates. To explore this concept, we measured the stable isotope composition of contemporary mammals in northern Borneo and northwestern Costa Rica, two communities with functional or phylogenetic relevance to primate origins. We found that bone collagen δ(13) C and δ(15) N values could differentiate trophic levels in each assemblage, a result that justifies the use of these systems to test the predicted inverse relationship between bioapatite δ(13) C and δ(44) Ca values. As expected, taxonomic carnivores (felids) showed a combination of high δ(13) C and low δ(44) Ca values; however, the δ(44) Ca values of other faunivores were indistinguishable from those of primary consumers. We suggest that the trophic insensitivity of most bioapatite δ(44) Ca values is attributable to the negligible calcium content of arthropod prey. Although the present results are inconclusive, the tandem analysis of δ(44) Ca and δ(13) C values in fossils continues to hold promise for informing paleodietary studies and we highlight this potential by drawing attention to the stable isotope composition of the Early Eocene primate Cantius.

  4. Can a global model chemical mechanism reproduce NO, NO2, and O3 measurements above a tropical rainforest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Hewitt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-platform field campaign, OP3, was conducted in the state of Sabah in Malaysian Borneo between April and July of 2008. Among the suite of observations recorded, the campaign included measurements of NOx and O3–crucial outputs of any model chemistry mechanism. We describe the measurements of these species made from both the ground site and aircraft. We examine the output from the global model p-TOMCAT at two resolutions for this location during the April campaign period. The models exhibit reasonable ability in capturing the NOx diurnal cycle, but ozone is overestimated. We use a box model containing the same chemical mechanism to explore the weaknesses in the global model and the ability of the simplified global model chemical mechanism to capture the chemistry at the rainforest site. We achieve a good fit to the data for all three species (NO, NO2, and O3, though the model is much more sensitive to changes in the treatment of physical processes than to changes in the chemical mechanism. Indeed, without some parameterization of the nighttime boundary layer-free troposphere mixing, a time dependent box model will not reproduce the observations. The final simulation uses this mixing parameterization for NO and NO2 but not O3, as determined by the vertical structure of each species, and matches the measurements well.

  5. The settlement of Madagascar: what dialects and languages can tell

    CERN Document Server

    Serva, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    The dialects of Madagascar belong to the Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family and it is widely accepted that the Island was colonized by Indonesian sailors after a maritime trek which probably took place around 650 CE. The language most closely related to Malagasy dialects is Maanyan but also Malay is strongly related especially for what concerns navigation terms. Since the Maanyan Dayaks live along the Barito river in Kalimantan (Borneo) and they do not possess the necessary skill for long maritime navigation, probably they were brought as subordinates by Malay sailors. In a recent paper we compared 23 different Malagasy dialects in order to determine the time and the landing area of the first colonization. In this research we use new data and new methods to confirm that the landing took place on the south-east coast of the Island. Furthermore, we are able to state here that it is unlikely that there were multiple settlements and, therefore, colonization consisted in a single founding event. ...

  6. Scent marking in Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi): novel observations close a key gap in understanding felid communication behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L.; Wittmer, Heiko U.; Setiawan, Endro; Jaffe, Sarah; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication is integral to the behavioural ecology of solitary carnivores, but observing and quantifying their communication behaviours in natural environments is difficult. Our systematic literature review found that basic information on scent marking is completely lacking for 23% of all felid species, and information on 21% of other felid species comes solely from one study of captive animals. Here we present results of the first systematic investigation of the scent marking behaviours of Sunda clouded leopards in the wild. Our observations using motion-triggered video cameras in Indonesian Borneo are novel for clouded leopards, and contrary to previous descriptions of their behaviour. We found that clouded leopards displayed 10 distinct communication behaviours, with olfaction, scraping, and cheek rubbing the most frequently recorded. We also showed that males make repeated visits to areas they previously used for marking and that multiple males advertise and receive information at the same sites, potentially enhancing our ability to document and monitor clouded leopard populations. The behaviours we recorded are remarkably similar to those described in other solitary felids, despite tremendous variation in the environments they inhabit, and close a key gap in understanding and interpreting communication behaviours of clouded leopards and other solitary felids. PMID:27739507

  7. Ancestry of the Iban is predominantly Southeast Asian: genetic evidence from autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatum S Simonson

    Full Text Available Humans reached present-day Island Southeast Asia (ISEA in one of the first major human migrations out of Africa. Population movements in the millennia following this initial settlement are thought to have greatly influenced the genetic makeup of current inhabitants, yet the extent attributed to different events is not clear. Recent studies suggest that south-to-north gene flow largely influenced present-day patterns of genetic variation in Southeast Asian populations and that late Pleistocene and early Holocene migrations from Southeast Asia are responsible for a substantial proportion of ISEA ancestry. Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests that the ancestors of present-day inhabitants came mainly from north-to-south migrations from Taiwan and throughout ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago. We report a large-scale genetic analysis of human variation in the Iban population from the Malaysian state of Sarawak in northwestern Borneo, located in the center of ISEA. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers analyzed here suggest that the Iban exhibit greatest genetic similarity to Indonesian and mainland Southeast Asian populations. The most common non-recombining Y (NRY and mitochondrial (mt DNA haplogroups present in the Iban are associated with populations of Southeast Asia. We conclude that migrations from Southeast Asia made a large contribution to Iban ancestry, although evidence of potential gene flow from Taiwan is also seen in uniparentally inherited marker data.

  8. Local Sabahans’ Satisfaction with Level of Access to Mount Kinabalu

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    Bidder Christy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the local Sabahans’ satisfaction with the level of access to Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Specifically, it examines the number of complaints by local Sabahans regarding access and their perception of changes in accessibility to the mountain. Interviews with Sabah Parks and Sutera Sanctuary Lodges were conducted and questionnaires were distributed to local residents to collect data. The results show that there were intense complaints regarding the climbing cost and extensive waiting time to secure a confirmed booking at the outset of price increases. However, the researchers could not locate any recently published complaints. Respondents who have previously climbed Mount Kinabalu perceive the mountain to be less accessible for local Sabahans now due to a less affordable cost and a longer waiting time. Those who have not climbed Mount Kinabalu also think the climbing cost has become less affordable for local Sabahans, but they do not perceive that to be causing the mountain less accessible for local Sabahans.

  9. Anthropogenic and Climatic Influence on Vegetation Fires in Peatland of Insular Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, S.; Miettinen, J.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is traditionally used as a tool in land clearing by farmers and shifting cultivators in Southeast Asia. However, the small scale clearing of land is increasingly being replaced by modern large-scale conversion of forests into plantations/agricultural land, usually also by fires. Fires get out of control in periods of extreme drought, especially during the El Nino periods, resulting in severe episodes of transboundary air pollution in the form of smoke haze. We use the MODIS active fires product (hotspots) to establish correlations between the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation fires with climatic variables, land cover change and soil type (peat or non-peat) in the western part of Insular Southeast Asia for a decade from 2001 to 2010. Fire occurrence exhibits a negative correlation with rainfall, and is more severe overall during the El-Nino periods. However, not all regions are equally affected by El-Nino. In Southern Sumatra and Southern Borneo the correlation with El-Nino is high. However, fires in some regions such as the peatland in Riau, Jambi and Sarawak do not appear to be influenced by El-Nino. These regions are also experiencing rapid conversion of forest to large scale plantations.

  10. Plasmodium knowlesi transmission: integrating quantitative approaches from epidemiology and ecology to understand malaria as a zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, P M; Fornace, K M; Parmiter, M; Cox, J; Drakeley, C J; Ferguson, H M; Kao, R R

    2016-04-01

    The public health threat posed by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi appears to be growing: it is increasingly reported across South East Asia, and is the leading cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Plasmodium knowlesi threatens progress towards malaria elimination as aspects of its transmission, such as spillover from wildlife reservoirs and reliance on outdoor-biting vectors, may limit the effectiveness of conventional methods of malaria control. The development of new quantitative approaches that address the ecological complexity of P. knowlesi, particularly through a focus on its primary reservoir hosts, will be required to control it. Here, we review what is known about P. knowlesi transmission, identify key knowledge gaps in the context of current approaches to transmission modelling, and discuss the integration of these approaches with clinical parasitology and geostatistical analysis. We highlight the need to incorporate the influences of fine-scale spatial variation, rapid changes to the landscape, and reservoir population and transmission dynamics. The proposed integrated approach would address the unique challenges posed by malaria as a zoonosis, aid the identification of transmission hotspots, provide insight into the mechanistic links between incidence and land use change and support the design of appropriate interventions.

  11. Human infections and detection of Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir; Daneshvar, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite that is found in nature in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Naturally acquired human infections were thought to be extremely rare until a large focus of human infections was reported in 2004 in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Human infections have since been described throughout Southeast Asia, and P. knowlesi is now recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in humans. The molecular, entomological, and epidemiological data indicate that human infections with P. knowlesi are not newly emergent and that knowlesi malaria is primarily a zoonosis. Human infections were undiagnosed until molecular detection methods that could distinguish P. knowlesi from the morphologically similar human malaria parasite P. malariae became available. P. knowlesi infections cause a spectrum of disease and are potentially fatal, but if detected early enough, infections in humans are readily treatable. In this review on knowlesi malaria, we describe the early studies on P. knowlesi and focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects, and treatment of knowlesi malaria. We also discuss the gaps in our knowledge and the challenges that lie ahead in studying the epidemiology and pathogenesis of knowlesi malaria and in the prevention and control of this zoonotic infection.

  12. Primary production in the Sulu Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ian S F Jones

    2002-09-01

    The Sulu Sea, located between Borneo and the Philippines, is separated from the surrounding ocean by two chains of islands. There are no passages below 500m depth and the basin, which at the deepest is 5,000 m, is filled with warm low oxygen water. The near surface chlorophyll concentration has been examined with the aid of ocean colour sensors on board satellites. Direct comparisons between a field observation of chlorophyll and its remotely sensed values from OCTS (Ocean Colour Temperature Scanner) are found to be in satisfactory agreement. An 8-month time series of chlorophyll near the centre of the Sulu Sea has been used to show that the chlorophyll level is significantly higher than the level in the adjacent South China Sea. This was most pronounced at the period of change between the monsoons. The greater primary productivity may provide the explanation for the higher deposition rate of carbon in the Sulu Sea. Although the Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea, the central area can still be classified as a desert. Estimates of the new primary production in the central Sulu Sea seem to be just su#cient to support the current fishery.

  13. R and D activities on CANDU-type fuel in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suripto, A.; Badruzzaman, M.; Latief, A. [Nuclear Fuel Element Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Puspiptek, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1997-07-01

    The status of R and D activities in Indonesia with respect of CANDU-type fuel development is presented. The activities have been started since the first feasibility study to introduce nuclear power plants was carried out in 1970s. The early research comprised the in-situ pilot production of yellow-cake in Kalimantan (Borneo) experimental mining site, uranium purification and pellet preparation. This program continued to gain a full support from the Government which culminated in the realisation of the construction by BATAN of a large fuel development laboratory in Serpong, starting from 1984 in co-operation with NIRA Ansaldo of Italy. The laboratory, which is called the Power Reactor Experimental Fuel Element Installation (EFEI) was originally designed as an experimental facility to integrate the acquired domestic R and D results gained so far on the CANDU-type fuel technology and the additional know-how received from NIRA Ansaldo which at that time was engaged, in developing a CANDU-type fuel, called the CIRENE fuel design. In the present days the facility houses the power reactor fuel development activities carried out to build up the national capability on power reactor fuel fabrication technology in anticipation to embark upon the nuclear energy era in the near future. (author)

  14. Co-benefits of sustainable forest management in biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Imai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustainable forest management (SFM, which has been recently introduced to tropical natural production forests, is beneficial in maintaining timber resources, but information about the co-benefits for biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration is currently lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated the diversity of medium to large-bodied forest-dwelling vertebrates using a heat-sensor camera trapping system and the amount of above-ground, fine-roots, and soil organic carbon by a combination of ground surveys and aerial-imagery interpretations. This research was undertaken both in SFM applied as well as conventionally logged production forests in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Our carbon estimation revealed that the application of SFM resulted in a net gain of 54 Mg C ha(-1 on a landscape scale. Overall vertebrate diversity was greater in the SFM applied forest than in the conventionally logged forest. Specifically, several vertebrate species (6 out of recorded 36 species showed higher frequency in the SFM applied forest than in the conventionally logged forest. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of SFM to degraded natural production forests could result in greater diversity and abundance of vertebrate species as well as increasing carbon storage in the tropical rain forest ecosystems.

  15. Measurements of trace gases above the tropical forests....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Monks, P. S.

    2009-04-01

    Measurements of trace gases above the tropical forests; A comparison between ozone levels in the forest and the oil palm plantation areas using the BAe -146 aircraft. The atmospheric composition of Sabah region (Borneo) was sampled using the FAAM BAE-146 instrumented aircraft during July 2008 as part of the OP3 (Oxidant particle photochemical processes above a South East Asia tropical rain forest) project. Tropical forests play an important role in the carbon and energy balance of the Earth (which determine global climate) and are themselves vulnerable to climate change. The tropical biosphere is one of the main sources of reactive trace gas emissions into the global atmosphere, and understanding the role of ozone in these areas is of major importance given the rapid changes in land-use in the tropics. This poster presents preliminary ozone concentrations results collected using the FAAM BAE 146 instrumented aircraft over some of Malaysia most extended oil palm plantations; comparing these with the results recorded when flying over forest areas. Oil palm is becoming one of the most widespread tropical crops; in Malaysia 13% of the land area (4.3Mha) is now oil palm plantations (MPOCP, 2008) compared with 1% in 1974 (FAO, 2005). This poster is expected to show very significant ozone concentrations over the two different landscapes. The set-up of the instruments, the specific sampling sites, as well as the land cover areas will be described.

  16. Pemodelan Lokasi-Alokasi Terminal Bahan Baku untuk Meminimasi Total Biaya Rantai Pasok pada Industri Produk Jadi Rotan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniaristanto .

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Surakarta and its surroundings (Solo Raya, there exists more than 400 Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs that produce finished products of rattan. Due to the high procurement cost as total operational cost of raw rattan distribution network from the sources, e.g. Borneo and Celebes to the rattan industries, the competitiveness of their products is lower than products from other countries. Therefore, to overcome the problem, those costs should be reduced for example by aggregating the demand of rattan industries. This police needs to be supported by the warehouse for storing and distributing raw rattan. Hence, this research aims to develop a facility location-allocation model so that total supply chain costs, including raw rattan procurement costs as well as facilities opening and closing costs can be minimized. The location-allocation model will be presented in a mixed integer non-linear programming model and solved using MS-Excel Solver. The results are number and location of the warehouse along with the raw rattan allocation in the warehouse to ensure raw rattan supply for rattan industries.

  17. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2016-01-12

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation.

  18. Not by science alone: why orangutan conservationists must think outside the box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijaard, Erik; Wich, Serge; Ancrenaz, Marc; Marshall, Andrew J

    2012-02-01

    Orangutan survival is threatened by habitat loss and illegal killing. Most wild populations will disappear over the next few decades unless threats are abated. Saving orangutans is ultimately in the hands of the governments and people of Indonesia and Malaysia, which need to ensure that habitats of viable orangutan populations are protected from deforestation and well managed to ensure no hunting takes place. Companies working in orangutan habitat also have to play a much bigger role in habitat management. Although the major problems and the direct actions required to solve them-reducing forest loss and hunting-have been known for decades, orangutan populations continue to decline. Orangutan populations in Sumatra and Borneo have declined by between 2,280 and 5,250 orangutans annually over the past 25 years. As the total current population for the two species is some 60,000 animals in an area of about 90,000 km(2) , there is not much time left to make conservation efforts truly effective. Our review discusses what has and has not worked in conservation to guide future conservation efforts.

  19. The Lived Experiences of Mentoring Nurses in Malaysia

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    Noraini Binti Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a nursing mentor is not an entirely new concept in nursing. However, it is a new phenomenon in the nursing profession in Malaysia. The nursing administration and the senior nurses in Malaysia have claimed that they have started a mentorship program by having senior nurses shadow new graduate nurses for the past two to three years ago. With no study found in Malaysia investigating the lived experiences of mentors mentoring new registered nurses, it led the researcher to develop this research that explores the real life experiences of these senior Malaysian nurses who mentor neophyte nurses.Objectives: This research explores and describes the lived experiences of nurses mentoring neophyte or new registered nurses at one of the major hospital in the Malaysia Borneo and how such experiences influence their daily routine as a nurse and also as a mentor. The research will also attaches meaning to these experiences and identifies both positive and negative experiences as a mentor to neophyte.Methods: The experiences of nurses mentoring the neophyte in the clinical area were captured using a qualitative approach to research and further viewed through methods informed by phenomenology, which used interpretive and descriptive semi-structured interviews. Hermeneutic interpretive phenomenology was used in the focus to analyze interview transcript into textual expression of the mentors. Three main themes emerge from this study are being unprepared and challenged, perceptions of mentees, mentor hope and desire.Key words: nursing mentor, phenomenon, neophyte, Malaysia.

  20. Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

    2010-01-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified “toilet pitchers” that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with feces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Feces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species. PMID:20861680

  1. Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants: perspectives and avenues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Charles; Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

    2010-10-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified "toilet pitchers" that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with faeces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Faeces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews, and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species.

  2. Population genetics of the black scar oyster, Crassostrea iredalei: repercussion of anthropogenic interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Abidin, Danial Hariz; Mustaffa, Suzana; Rahim, Masazurah A; Nair, Devakie M; Naim, Darlina Md; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was utilized to assess the population genetics of the commercially important black scar oyster, Crassostrea iredalei among 11 populations throughout the west and east coasts Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo). Overall, populations of C. iredalei demonstrated low nucleotide diversity π (0.000-0.004) and low-to-high haplotype diversity h (0.000-0.795) levels. Genetic structuring was detected between the Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah populations as revealed by the FST analysis. However, the COI gene analyses showed minimal and non-significant (p > 0.05) population differentiation within the east and west coasts Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah regions. This was attributed to both high larval dispersal along the east and west coasts and human-driven spat translocation between the two coastlines due to C. iredalei cultivation practices. Phylogeographic relationships inferences were also conducted to further support these hypotheses. The neutrality and mismatch distribution analyses suggested that C. iredalei had experienced a/several bottleneck event(s), followed by population expansion. The molecular information obtained from this study could be incorporated in a pragmatic aquaculture management strategy of wild broodstock and the hatchery lines of C. iredalei in Malaysia.

  3. KAPASITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN INHIBITOR ALFA GLUKOSIDASE EKSTRAK UMBI BAWANG DAYAK [Antioxidant and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Properties of Bawang Dayak Bulb Extracts

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    Andi Early Febrinda*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bawang dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia is an indigenous plant in Borneo traditionally used by Dayak tribes to treat any kind of degenerative deseases including diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this research was to measure antioxidant and antidiabetic capacities of water and ethanolic extracts of bawang dayak bulb. Parameters evaluated in this research were phytochemical screening, total phenolics, flavonoid content, DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, and alpha glucosidase inhibiting (AGI activity. The result showed that the total phenolics and flavonoid content in bawang dayak ethanolic extract (217.71 mg GAE/g and 65.35 mg QE/g were higher than that of the water extract (139.93 mg GAE/g and 16.95 mg QE/g. The ethanolic extract also had higher antioxidant and AGI activities (IC50 112 and 241 ppm than that of the water extract (IC50 526 and 505 ppm. In addition, the IC50 values for AGI in bawang dayak ethanolic extract was lower than acarbose which is known as a commercial antidiabetic agent.

  4. The intangible legacy of the Indonesian Bajo

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    Chandra Nuraini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sama-Bajau, or Bajo diaspora, extends from the southern Philippines and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo to the eastern part of Indonesia. The Indonesian Bajo, now scattered along the coasts of Sulawesi (Celebes and East Kalimantan, the Eastern Lesser Sunda Islands and Maluku, were once mostly nomadic fishermen of the sea or ocean freight carriers. Today, the Bajo are almost all fishermen and settled. Their former and present ways of life made them favour intangible forms of culture: it is impossible to transport bulky artefacts when moving frequently by boat, or when living in stilt houses, very close to the sea or on a reef. It is therefore an intangible legacy that is the essence of the Bajo’s culture. Sandro healers have a vast range of expertise that allows them to protect and heal people when they suffer from natural or supernatural diseases. On the other hand, music and especially oral literature are very rich. In addition to song and the pantun poetry contests, the most prestigious genre is the iko-iko, long epic songs that the Bajo consider to be historical rather than fictional narratives. The Bajo’s intangible heritage is fragile, since it is based on oral transmission. In this article, I give a description of this heritage, dividing it into two areas: the knowledge that allows them to “protect and heal” on the one hand, and to “distract and relax”, on the other.

  5. New leaf- and litter-dwelling species of the genus Pholcus from Southeast Asia (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Bernhard Huber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe eight new species of the genus Pholcus, and document their microhabitats. Four species are assigned to the previously described Pholcus ethagala group: P. tanahrata Huber sp. nov., P. uludong Huber sp. nov., and P. bukittimah Huber sp. nov. from the Malay Peninsula, and P. barisan Huber sp. nov. from Sumatra. These species are all litter-dwellers that build domed sheet webs on the undersides of large dead leaves on the ground. The other four species are assigned to newly created species groups: the P. tambunan group with two species from northern Borneo: P. tambunan Huber sp. nov. and P. bario Huber sp. nov.; and the P. domingo group with two species from the Philippines, Mindanao: P. domingo Huber sp. nov. and P. matutum Huber sp. nov. These latter four species are leaf-dwellers that build barely visible silk platforms tightly attached to the undersides of live leaves. The main rationale for this paper is to provide part of the taxonomic and natural history background for upcoming phylogenetic and evolutionary (microhabitat shifts analyses.

  6. Designing multifunctional landscapes for forest conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santika, Truly; Meijaard, Erik; Wilson, Kerrie A.

    2015-11-01

    A multifunctional landscape approach to forest protection has been advocated for tropical countries. Designing such landscapes necessitates that the role of different land uses in protecting forest be evaluated, along with the spatial interactions between land uses. However, such evaluations have been hindered by a lack of suitable analysis methodologies and data with fine spatial resolution over long time periods. We demonstrate the utility of a matching method with multiple categories to evaluate the role of alternative land uses in protecting forest. We also assessed the impact of land use change trajectories on the rate of deforestation. We employed data from Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) at three different time periods during 2000-2012 to illustrate our approach. Four single land uses (protected areas (PA), natural forest logging concessions (LC), timber plantation concessions (TC) and oil-palm plantation concessions (OC)) and two mixed land uses (mixed concessions and the overlap between concessions and PA) were assessed. The rate of deforestation was found to be lowest for PA, followed by LC. Deforestation rates for all land uses tended to be highest for locations that share the characteristics of areas in which TC or OC are located (e.g. degraded areas), suggesting that these areas are inherently more susceptible to deforestation due to foregone opportunities. Our approach provides important insights into how multifunctional landscapes can be designed to enhance the protection of biodiversity.

  7. Ancestry of the Iban is predominantly Southeast Asian: genetic evidence from autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Tatum S; Xing, Jinchuan; Barrett, Robert; Jerah, Edward; Loa, Peter; Zhang, Yuhua; Watkins, W Scott; Witherspoon, David J; Huff, Chad D; Woodward, Scott; Mowry, Bryan; Jorde, Lynn B

    2011-01-31

    Humans reached present-day Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) in one of the first major human migrations out of Africa. Population movements in the millennia following this initial settlement are thought to have greatly influenced the genetic makeup of current inhabitants, yet the extent attributed to different events is not clear. Recent studies suggest that south-to-north gene flow largely influenced present-day patterns of genetic variation in Southeast Asian populations and that late Pleistocene and early Holocene migrations from Southeast Asia are responsible for a substantial proportion of ISEA ancestry. Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests that the ancestors of present-day inhabitants came mainly from north-to-south migrations from Taiwan and throughout ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago. We report a large-scale genetic analysis of human variation in the Iban population from the Malaysian state of Sarawak in northwestern Borneo, located in the center of ISEA. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers analyzed here suggest that the Iban exhibit greatest genetic similarity to Indonesian and mainland Southeast Asian populations. The most common non-recombining Y (NRY) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups present in the Iban are associated with populations of Southeast Asia. We conclude that migrations from Southeast Asia made a large contribution to Iban ancestry, although evidence of potential gene flow from Taiwan is also seen in uniparentally inherited marker data.

  8. On the type species of the genus Aetius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896: The first description of male with notes on cymbial notch and mating plug (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhin, Puthoor Pattammal; Nafin, Karunnappilli Shamsudheen; Simmons, Zoë; Sudhikumar, Ambalaparambil Vasu

    2016-08-23

    The rare ant mimicking sac spider genus Aetius was erected by O. Pickard-Cambridge in 1896 based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s) collected from Sri Lanka. The type species of the genus, A. decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896, has been redescribed twice based on the holotype (Majumder & Tikader 1991; Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). Reimoser (1934) recorded the genus for the first time from India, who collected a male specimen from Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu State of southern India. This specimen was identified as A. decollatus, but it was never formally described and was later recognised to be a penultimate male (Dankittipakul & Singtripop 2013). Deeleman-Reinhold (2001) described the second representative of the genus, A. nocturnus, based on a single female specimen from Borneo, 105 years after the establishment of the genus. Dankittipakul & Singtripop (2013) described the male of A. nocturnus, thereby revealing the male genitalia of the genus, but the type species was still known only from the female sex.

  9. Variabilidade genética de genótipos de bananeira (Musa spp submetidos ao estresse salino Genetic variability of banana (Musa spp genotypes subjected to saline stress

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    Eline W. F. Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor mundial de bananas, sendo Pernambuco o estado que apresenta maior expansão da cultura na região do perímetro irrigado do Vale do São Francisco em cujas áreas, porém, são freqüentes os problemas de salinização do solo o que se pode tornar um fator limitante para a cultura. A utilização de cultivares tolerantes à salinidade apresenta-se como uma alternativa bastante viável; assim, identificar genótipos que se adaptem a solos salinos da Região Nordeste, é de fundamental importância para os programas de melhoramento. Este trabalho teve por finalidade utilizar marcadores moleculares, obtidos por amplificação de DNA via Reação em Cadeia polimerase (PCR com iniciadores (primers de RAPD, para determinar a variabilidade genética entre dez genótipos de banana (Musa spp: Pacovan, Nanicão, Caipira, FHIA18, Calcuttá, SN/2, Borneo, M-53, Microcarpa e Lidi, correlacionando-os com a tolerância ao estresse salino. Foram testados 25 primers. O iniciador D0142A07 gerou o maior número de loci polimórficos, enquanto o D0142B05 originou o menor. Em geral, o polimorfismo gerado com os marcadores de DNA mostrou que, apesar da base genética estreita, no caso das que são formadas pelo mesmo grupo genômico, os genótipos de bananeira apresentam variabilidade genética relativamente alta. As variedades que apresentaram maior tolerância ao estresse salino, como a Pacovan e SN/2, mostraram-se distantes geneticamente, quando comparadas com as mais sensíveis ao sal, como Calcuttá e Lidi.Brazil is the second lagest banana producer. The State of Pernambuco has presented the greatest expansion of banana cultivation in the irrigated perimeters of the São Francisco Valley. In these areas, however, there are frequent problems with high salt content in the soil, which could turn out to be a major limiting factor to its cultivation. The utilization of cultivars tolerant to saline conditions is a rather viable

  10. Morte súbita dos citros: suscetibilidade de seleções de limão-cravo e uso de interenxertos Citrus sudden death: susceptibility of rangpur lime selections and the use of interstocks

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    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte súbita dos citros é uma doença que afeta cultivares de laranjas e tangerinas enxertadas nos limões-Cravo e Volkameriano. Ela foi observada em plantas com dois a seis anos de idade que, após mostrarem sintomas gerais de declínio, entraram em colapso e morreram. A retirada da casca dos porta-enxertos suscetíveis revela o amarelecimento na região cambial, sendo esse o sintoma-diagnóstico da doença e que precede os sintomas da copa. As plantas enxertadas nas tangerinas Cleópatra e Sunki, no trifoliata e no citrumelo Swingle, não mostram sintomas da doença. A transmissão por borbulha e a evolução espacial sugerem que a morte súbita dos citros seja causada por patógeno transmitido por vetor alado. Com o objetivo de selecionar porta-enxertos tolerantes à doença, laranjeiras Valência enxertadas em 254 porta-enxertos foram plantadas em maio de 2003 e 2004 em solos onde foram erradicados pomares afetados pela morte súbita dos citros e próximos a pomares afetados pela doença. Em novembro de 2006, o sintoma-diagnóstico da doença estava presente em dez seleções de limão-Cravo: Santa Barbara red lime, Borneo red lime, Limão-Cravo Taquaritinga, Rangpur India C-26-1, Rangpur rose lemon, Rangpur Kusaie lime, Rangpur red lime D-33-40, Rangpur Egyptian lime, Rangpur lemon India e Japanshe citroen. A presença de interenxerto de trifoliata ou de tangerina Cleópatra, entre o limão-Cravo e a laranja Valência, não impediu a manifestação da doença.Citrus sudden death (CSD or morte súbita dos citros affects sweet orange cultivars and some mandarin trees grafted on Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon rootstocks. The disease was observed in trees with ages ranging from two to six years; after showing general decline symptoms, the affected trees suddenly collapse and die. Trees on Cleopatra and Sunki mandarins, 'Swingle' citrumelo and trifoliate orange showed no symptoms of CSD. Cambial yellowing in the rootstock can be observed

  11. Palynological records and paleoclimate of core SA09-040 in the south of South China Sea%南海南部SA09-040孔孢粉记录及古气候

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉兰; 彭学超; 贾丽; 戴璐

    2012-01-01

    依据南海低纬地区SA09-040孔高分辨率的孢粉记录,自下至上划分了4个孢粉组合带.从孢粉成分的变化,重建了22.25 ka B P以来的植被与气候变化历史.结果表明:孢粉主要来源于婆罗洲和周围岛屿,孢粉1带(22.25~16.6 kaBP),低山雨林植被发育,为暖热气候,从测年时间看,当时为末次冰期晚期.孢粉2带(16.6~10.82 ka B P,为末次冰消期),植被以热带低山雨林和低地雨林为主,针叶的松数量较多,当时的气温比现在低.孢粉3带(全新世早期,10.82~6.43 kaBP),植被以热带低山雨林和低地雨林为主,针叶松属数量减少,气温比前期升高,海平面也上升.孢粉4带(全新世中晚期,6.43 ka B P至今),全新世中期为炎热、湿润的气候环境,全新世晚期可能与婆罗洲现今的植被景观相近,为热、湿的气候环境.%According to the high resolution pollen record in the Core SA09-040 which was taken in the low latitude of the South China Sea, four pollen zones have been divided in ascending order. Based on the pollen composition change,the vegetation evolution and climate change since 22. 25 ka B P were reconstructed. The research result shows that the pollen mainly came from the Borneo and nearby islands. In pollen zone 1(22. 25 ~16. 6 ka B P) , the low mountain rainforest were luxuriant, the climate was warm to hot. Judged from the dating result, the age was the late stage of the Last glacial period. Pollen zone 2(16. 6~10. 82 ka B P, the Last deglaciation) shows that the vegetation were mainly tropical low mountain rainforest and lowland rainforest. There were many conifer pines. The temperature was lower than that of now. Pollen zone 3(the early stage of Holocene, 10. 82~6. 43 ka B P) shows that the vegetation were mainly tropical low mountain rainforest and lowland rainforest. The conifer pines were fewer than that in pollen zone 2, the temperature was higher than before, the sea-level rose. Pollen zone 4(the middle or late

  12. Circadian long call distribution in wild orangutans Distribution circadienne des cris longs (long calls chez l’orang-outan en milieu naturel

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    Thomas Geissmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present first data on circadian long call distribution of wild orangutans in Northwest Borneo. Data were collected during two months in Batang Ai National Park. A total of 151 male long calls were heard, exhibiting a bimodal distribution pattern with peaks at 05:00-06:00 hours and 18:00-19:00 hours. An earlier study found pronounced differences between the calling rates of Bornean orangutans, which showed an almost unimodal call distribution with its peak at mid-morning, and those of Sumatran orangutans, which showed a bimodal call distribution with a distinct calling peak at predawn and a more moderate peak near dusk (MacKinnon 1974. Our findings from Batang Ai resemble more closely the pattern reported for Sumatra than those reported for other Bornean localities and, therefore, contradict earlier reports suggesting a Sumatra-Borneo dichotomy in orangutan call distribution. In addition, orangutans in Batang Ai were heard to regularly emit long calls throughout the night. This behaviour is unusual for a diurnal species.Nous présentons les premières données sur la distribution circadienne des cris longs (long calls chez les mâles orangs-outans vivant en milieu naturel au nord-ouest de Bornéo. Les données ont été récoltées lors d’une étude de terrain de deux mois au Parc National de Batang Ai. Les 151 cris longs entendus montraient une distribution bimodale, caractérisée par des pics à 05:00-06:00 et 18:00-19:00 heures. Une étude précédente avait révélé des différences profondes entre les taux de cris longs des orangs-outans de Bornéo et de Sumatra. Alors que la distribution des cris longs à Bornéo était presque unimodale et montrait un pic en milieu d’avant-midi, la distribution à Sumatra était bimodale et montrait un pic distinct avant l’aube et un second pic plus modéré au crépuscule (MacKinnon 1974. Nos résultats à Batang Ai ressemblent davantage au schéma rapporté précédemment à Sumatra qu

  13. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sitor Situmorang, Toba na Sae; Sejarah lembaga sosial politik abad XIII-XX (Johann Angerler Raul Pertierra, Science, technology, and everyday culture in the Philippines (Greg Bankoff Françoise Gérard and François Ruf (eds, Agriculture in crisis; People, commodities and natural resources in Indonesia, 1996-2000 (Peter Boomgaard Kennet Sillander, Acting authoritatively; How authority is expressed through social action among the Bentian of Indonesian Borneo (Aurora Donzelli Kathleen M. Nadeau, Liberation theology in the Philippines; Faith in a revolution (Gareth Fisher Roy Ellen, On the edge of the Banda Zone; Past and present in the social organization of a Moluccan trading network (Gregory Forth Roy Ellen, On the edge of the Banda Zone; Past and present in the social organization of a Moluccan trading network (J.M. Gullick I.H.N. Evans, Bornean diaries, 1938-1942 (Fiona Harris S. Margana, Kraton Surakarta dan Yogyakarta 1769-1874 (Mason C. Hoadley Henry Frei, Guns of February; Ordinary Japanese soldiers’ views of the Malayan campaign and the fall of Singapore 1941-42 (Russell Jones Gerrit Knaap and Heather Sutherland, Monsoon traders; Ships, skippers and commodities in eighteenth-century Makassar (J. Thomas Lindblad David W. Fraser and Barbara G. Fraser, Mantles of merit; Chin textiles from Myanmar, India and Bangladesh (Sandra A. Niessen Kees Snoek, E. du Perron; Het leven van een smalle mens (Frank Okker Arthur J. Dommen, The Indochinese experience of the French and the Americans; Nationalism and communism in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam (Vatthana Pholsena J.H.M.C. Boelaars and A.C. Blom, Mono Koame; ‘Wij denken ook’ (Anton Ploeg James J. Fox and Dionisio Babo Soares (eds, Out of the ashes; Destruction and reconstruction of East Timor (Johanna van Reenen Anke Niehof and Firman Lubis (eds, Two is enough; Family planning in Indonesia under the New Order 1968-1998 (Elisabeth Schr

  14. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  15. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: coupling of smoke direct radiative effect below and above the low-level clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Reid, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent (MC, 10° S-10° N, 90-150° E) during October 2006 when a significant El Niño event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of an OC (organic carbon) / BC (black carbon) ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the clouds can reverse the negative smoke forcing in cloud-free conditions to a positive value. The net absorption of the atmosphere is largely enhanced when smoke resides above a cloud. This led to a warming effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) with a domain and monthly average forcing value of ~ 20 W m-2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3 K) is largely confined above the low-level clouds, and results in a local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), hence rendering a positive effect. This positive effect contrasts with a decrease in the cloud fraction resulting from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stable boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative effect in which a decrease of the cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During the nighttime, the elevated smoke layer lying above the clouds in the daytime is decoupled from the boundary layer, and the enhanced downdraft and shallower boundary layer lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of monthly smoke radiative extinction, the amount of solar input at the surface is reduced by as much as 60 W m-2, which leads to a decrease in sensible heat, latent heat, 2 m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 W m-2, 20 W m-2, 1 K, and 120 m

  16. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Coupling of smoke direct radiative feedbacks below and above the low-level clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Reid, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the southeast Asian Marine Continents (MC, 10°S - 10°N, 90°E-150°E) during October 2006 when a significant El Nino event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of OC (Organic Carbon) /BC (Black Carbon) ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the low-level clouds amplifying effect on smoke absorption led to a warming effect at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) with a domain/monthly average forcing value of ~20 Wm-2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. The smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3K) that is largely confined above the low-level clouds results in the local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence coupled with daytime planetary boundary layer turbulent mixing, transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), hence rendering a positive feedback. This positive feedback contrasts with the decrease of cloud fraction resulted from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stability in the boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative feedback in which decrease of cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During nighttime, the elevated smoke layer (above clouds in daytime) is decoupled from boundary layer, and the reduction of PBLH due to the residual surface cooling from the daytime lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of smoke radiative extinction, on monthly basis, the amount of the solar input at the surface is reduced as large as 60 Wm-2, which lead to the decrease of sensible heat, latent heat, 2-m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 Wm-2, 20 Wm-2, 1K, 120 m, respectively. The cloud changes over continents are mostly

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Jon Fraenkel; The manipulation of custom; From uprising to intervention in the Solomon Islands (Jaap Timmer Clive Moore; Happy isles in crisis; The historical causes for a failing state in Solomon Islands, 1998-2004 (Jaap Timmer Peter Burns; The Leiden legacy; Concepts of law in Indonesia (Bryan S. Turner Terry Crowley; Bislama reference grammar (Kees Versteegh REVIEW ESSAY Matthew Isaac Cohen; Transnational and postcolonial gamelan Lisa Gold; Music in Bali Margaret J. Kartomi; The Gamelan Digul and the prison camp musician who built it; An Australian link with the Indonesian revolution Marc Perlman; Unplayed melodies; Javanese gamelan and the genesis of music theory Ted Solís (ed.; Performing ethnomusicology; Teaching and representation in world music ensembles Henry Spiller; Gamelan; The traditional sounds of Indonesia Andrew N. Weintraub; Power plays; Wayang golek theater of West Java REVIEW ESSAY Victor T. King; People and nature in Borneo Tim Bending; Penan histories; Contentious narratives in upriver Sarawak Rajindra K. Puri; Deadly dances in the Bornean rainforest; Hunting knowledge of the Penan Benalui, 2005 Reed L. Wadley (ed.; Histories of the Borneo environment; Economic, political and social dimensions of change and continuity In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde no. 162 (2006, no: 4, Leiden

  18. Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the

  19. The First Estimates of Marbled Cat Pardofelis marmorata Population Density from Bornean Primary and Selectively Logged Forest.

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    Andrew J Hearn

    Full Text Available The marbled cat Pardofelis marmorata is a poorly known wild cat that has a broad distribution across much of the Indomalayan ecorealm. This felid is thought to exist at low population densities throughout its range, yet no estimates of its abundance exist, hampering assessment of its conservation status. To investigate the distribution and abundance of marbled cats we conducted intensive, felid-focused camera trap surveys of eight forest areas and two oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Study sites were broadly representative of the range of habitat types and the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance and fragmentation present in contemporary Sabah. We recorded marbled cats from all forest study areas apart from a small, relatively isolated forest patch, although photographic detection frequency varied greatly between areas. No marbled cats were recorded within the plantations, but a single individual was recorded walking along the forest/plantation boundary. We collected sufficient numbers of marbled cat photographic captures at three study areas to permit density estimation based on spatially explicit capture-recapture analyses. Estimates of population density from the primary, lowland Danum Valley Conservation Area and primary upland, Tawau Hills Park, were 19.57 (SD: 8.36 and 7.10 (SD: 1.90 individuals per 100 km2, respectively, and the selectively logged, lowland Tabin Wildlife Reserve yielded an estimated density of 10.45 (SD: 3.38 individuals per 100 km2. The low detection frequencies recorded in our other survey sites and from published studies elsewhere in its range, and the absence of previous density estimates for this felid suggest that our density estimates may be from the higher end of their abundance spectrum. We provide recommendations for future marbled cat survey approaches.

  20. Simulating food web dynamics along a gradient: quantifying human influence.

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    Ferenc Jordán

    Full Text Available Realistically parameterized and dynamically simulated food-webs are useful tool to explore the importance of the functional diversity of ecosystems, and in particular relations between the dynamics of species and the whole community. We present a stochastic dynamical food web simulation for the Kelian River (Borneo. The food web was constructed for six different locations, arrayed along a gradient of increasing human perturbation (mostly resulting from gold mining activities along the river. Along the river, the relative importance of grazers, filterers and shredders decreases with increasing disturbance downstream, while predators become more dominant in governing eco-dynamics. Human activity led to increased turbidity and sedimentation which adversely impacts primary productivity. Since the main difference between the study sites was not the composition of the food webs (structure is quite similar but the strengths of interactions and the abundance of the trophic groups, a dynamical simulation approach seemed to be useful to better explain human influence. In the pristine river (study site 1, when comparing a structural version of our model with the dynamical model we found that structurally central groups such as omnivores and carnivores were not the most important ones dynamically. Instead, primary consumers such as invertebrate grazers and shredders generated a greater dynamical response. Based on the dynamically most important groups, bottom-up control is replaced by the predominant top-down control regime as distance downstream and human disturbance increased. An important finding, potentially explaining the poor structure to dynamics relationship, is that indirect effects are at least as important as direct ones during the simulations. We suggest that our approach and this simulation framework could serve systems-based conservation efforts. Quantitative indicators on the relative importance of trophic groups and the mechanistic modeling

  1. Simulating food web dynamics along a gradient: quantifying human influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Ferenc; Gjata, Nerta; Mei, Shu; Yule, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Realistically parameterized and dynamically simulated food-webs are useful tool to explore the importance of the functional diversity of ecosystems, and in particular relations between the dynamics of species and the whole community. We present a stochastic dynamical food web simulation for the Kelian River (Borneo). The food web was constructed for six different locations, arrayed along a gradient of increasing human perturbation (mostly resulting from gold mining activities) along the river. Along the river, the relative importance of grazers, filterers and shredders decreases with increasing disturbance downstream, while predators become more dominant in governing eco-dynamics. Human activity led to increased turbidity and sedimentation which adversely impacts primary productivity. Since the main difference between the study sites was not the composition of the food webs (structure is quite similar) but the strengths of interactions and the abundance of the trophic groups, a dynamical simulation approach seemed to be useful to better explain human influence. In the pristine river (study site 1), when comparing a structural version of our model with the dynamical model we found that structurally central groups such as omnivores and carnivores were not the most important ones dynamically. Instead, primary consumers such as invertebrate grazers and shredders generated a greater dynamical response. Based on the dynamically most important groups, bottom-up control is replaced by the predominant top-down control regime as distance downstream and human disturbance increased. An important finding, potentially explaining the poor structure to dynamics relationship, is that indirect effects are at least as important as direct ones during the simulations. We suggest that our approach and this simulation framework could serve systems-based conservation efforts. Quantitative indicators on the relative importance of trophic groups and the mechanistic modeling of eco

  2. A tree species inventory in a one-hectare plot at the Batang Gadis National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswata Kartawinata

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available KARTAWINATA, KUSWATA; SAMSOEDIN, ISMAYADI; HERIYANTO, M. AND AFRIASTINI, J. J. 2004. A tree species inventory in a one-hectare plot at the Batang Gadis National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (2: 145 – 157. The results of the inventory of trees with DBH ≥ 10 cm shows that 184 species in 41 families, represented by 583 individuals with the total basal areas of 40.56 m² occurred in the one-hectare plot sampled. Together with the saplings and shrubs the number of species was 240 belonging to 47 families. The forest is richer in tree species than other lowland forests in North Sumatra, but poorer than those in Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. Dipterocarps constituted 18.42 % of total species with basal area of 18.99 m² or 46.82 % of the total basal area in the plot. The most prominent species was Shorea gibbosa. Hopea nigra, reported to be rare in Bangka and Belitung, occurred here as one of the ten leading species. The species-area curve shows that a considerable number of additional species was encountered more or less steadily up to one hectare and there was no indication of levelling off. A simulated profile diagram shows the forest may be stratified into five layers: (1 emergent layer, (2 upper canopy, (3 middle canopy, (4 lower canopy and (5 ground canopy. Dipterocarps were leading species in the emergent layer, upper canopy and middle canopy. Only 82 species were regenerating as represented by their presence in the sapling stage ranging from 5 to 50 plants/hectare. Macaranga lowii King ex Hook. f. dominated the section which seemed to be previously occupied by gaps.

  3. Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Giordano, Anthony J; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry; Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan; Ambu, Laurentius

    2015-02-01

    Humans influence tropical rainforest animals directly via exploitation and indirectly via habitat disturbance. Bushmeat hunting and logging occur extensively in tropical forests and have large effects on particular species. But how they alter animal diversity across landscape scales and whether their impacts are correlated across species remain less known. We used spatially widespread measurements of mammal occurrence across Malaysian Borneo and recently developed multispecies hierarchical models to assess the species richness of medium- to large-bodied terrestrial mammals while accounting for imperfect detection of all species. Hunting was associated with 31% lower species richness. Moreover, hunting remained high even where richness was very low, highlighting that hunting pressure persisted even in chronically overhunted areas. Newly logged sites had 11% lower species richness than unlogged sites, but sites logged >10 years previously had richness levels similar to those in old-growth forest. Hunting was a more serious long-term threat than logging for 91% of primate and ungulate species. Hunting and logging impacts across species were not correlated across taxa. Negative impacts of hunting were the greatest for common mammalian species, but commonness versus rarity was not related to species-specific impacts of logging. Direct human impacts appeared highly persistent and lead to defaunation of certain areas. These impacts were particularly severe for species of ecological importance as seed dispersers and herbivores. Indirect impacts were also strong but appeared to attenuate more rapidly than previously thought. The lack of correlation between direct and indirect impacts across species highlights that multifaceted conservation strategies may be needed for mammal conservation in tropical rainforests, Earth's most biodiverse ecosystems.

  4. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  5. Decadal variability of chlorophyll a in the South China Sea:a possible mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fenfen; CHEN Chuqun; ZHAN Haigang

    2012-01-01

    Four climatologies on a monthly scale (January,April,May and November) of chlorophyll a within the South China Sea (SCS) were calculated using a Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) (1979-1983) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) (1998-2002).We analyzed decadal variability of chlorophyll a by comparing the products of the two observation periods.The relationships of variability in chlorophyll a with sea surface wind speed (SSW),sea surface temperature (SST),wind stress (WS),and mixed layer depth (MLD) were determined.The results indicate that there is obvious chlorophyll a decadal variability in the SCS.The decadal chlorophyll a presents distinct seasonal variability in characteristics,which may be as a result of various different dynamic processes.The negative chlorophyll a concentration anomaly in January was associated with the warming of SST and a shallower MLD.Generally,there were higher chlorophyll a concentrations in spring during the SeaWiFS period compared with the CZCS period.However,the chlorophyll a concentration exhibits some regional differences during this season,leading to an explanation being difficult.The deepened MLD may have contributed to the positive chlorophyll a concentration anomalies from the northwestern Luzon Island to the northeastern region of Vietnam during April and May.The increases of chlorophyll a concentration in northwestem Borneo during May may be because the stronger SSW and higher WS produce a deeper mixed layer and convective mixing,leading to high levels of nutrient concentrations.The higher chlorophyll a off southeastem Vietnam may be associated with the advective transport of the colder water extending from the Karimata Strait to southeastem Vietnam.

  6. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

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    Michael P Muehlenbein

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53 from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental

  7. Bayesian inference reveals ancient origin of simian foamy virus in orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michael J C; Switzer, William M; Schillaci, Michael A; Klegarth, Amy R; Campbell, Ellsworth; Ragonnet, Manon; Joanisse, Isabelle; Caminiti, Kyna; Lowenberger, Carl A; Galdikas, Birute Mary F; Hollocher, Hope; Sandstrom, Paul A; Brooks, James I

    2017-03-05

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) infect most nonhuman primate species and appears to co-evolve with its hosts. This co-evolutionary signal is particularly strong among great apes, including orangutans (genus Pongo). Previous studies have identified three distinct orangutan SFV clades. The first of these three clades is composed of SFV from P. abelii from Sumatra, the second consists of SFV from P. pygmaeus from Borneo, while the third clade is mixed, comprising an SFV strain found in both species of orangutan. The existence of the mixed clade has been attributed to an expansion of P. pygmaeus into Sumatra following the Mount Toba super-volcanic eruption about 73,000years ago. Divergence dating, however, has yet to be performed to establish a temporal association with the Toba eruption. Here, we use a Bayesian framework and a relaxed molecular clock model with fossil calibrations to test the Toba hypothesis and to gain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history of orangutan SFV. As with previous studies, our results show a similar three-clade orangutan SFV phylogeny, along with strong statistical support for SFV-host co-evolution in orangutans. Using Bayesian inference, we date the origin of orangutan SFV to >4.7 million years ago (mya), while the mixed species clade dates to approximately 1.7mya, >1.6 million years older than the Toba super-eruption. These results, combined with fossil and paleogeographic evidence, suggest that the origin of SFV in Sumatran and Bornean orangutans, including the mixed species clade, likely occurred on the mainland of Indo-China during the Late Pliocene and Calabrian stage of the Pleistocene, respectively.

  8. Distinctive tropical forest variants have unique soil microbial communities, but not always low microbial diversity

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    Binu M Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity.

  9. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (ppopulations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.

  10. Overview of the Sustainable Uses of Peat Soil in Malaysia with Some Relevant Geotechnical Assessments

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    Rashidah Adon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peat soil is an important ecosystem that provides a significant contribution to the global climate stability. In Malaysia, peat soils are considered as a soil with little economic benefit, apart from it being used for agricultural activity. The total world coverage of peat soil is about thirty million hectares with Canada and Russia having the largest distribution of peat (Zainorabiddin,2010. More than sixty percent of the world’s tropical peat lands are found in South-East Asia (Lette,2006. Most notable are the large peat land on the islands of Borneo (belonging to Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei and Sumatra (Indonesia. However, there are also significant occurrences in other parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines. The main contributory functions and benefits of peat soil are within the engineering disciplines of hydrology, agriculture, social-economics, biodiversity habitats and carbon sequestration. Peat was used in temperate climates (especially in Finland, Ireland, Sweden and UK as a fuel to generate electricity and heat. Therefore peat can be considered as a renewable energy source but this will be very detrimental to the market of genuine renewables. The western coastal lowlands of Malaysia (such as Kukup are mangroves that represent the initiation of peat soil formation. Such areas provide the natural habitat of mangrove forests. It also fixes more carbon from the atmosphere than is released and approximately one-quarter of the carbon stored in land plants and soils. On the other hand, peat is one of the problematic or challenging foundation soil of poor quality due to it’s very high water content, high compressibility and low shear strength. Peat consists of decomposed plant fragments and the unfavourable characteristics of peat soil deposits make them unsuitable for making sustainable infrastructure development for varied engineering projects. This paper therefore gives an overview of the pros and cons

  11. Public health impacts of the severe haze in Equatorial Asia in September-October 2015: demonstration of a new framework for informing fire management strategies to reduce downwind smoke exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplitz, Shannon N.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Marlier, Miriam E.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Kim, Patrick S.; Liu, Tianjia; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Schwartz, Joel; Pongsiri, Montira; Myers, Samuel S.

    2016-09-01

    In September-October 2015, El Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions set the stage for massive fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), leading to persistently hazardous levels of smoke pollution across much of Equatorial Asia. Here we quantify the emission sources and health impacts of this haze episode and compare the sources and impacts to an event of similar magnitude occurring under similar meteorological conditions in September-October 2006. Using the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, we first calculate the influence of potential fire emissions across the domain on smoke concentrations in three receptor areas downwind—Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore—during the 2006 event. This step maps the sensitivity of each receptor to fire emissions in each grid cell upwind. We then combine these sensitivities with 2006 and 2015 fire emission inventories from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) to estimate the resulting population-weighted smoke exposure. This method, which assumes similar smoke transport pathways in 2006 and 2015, allows near real-time assessment of smoke pollution exposure, and therefore the consequent morbidity and premature mortality, due to severe haze. Our approach also provides rapid assessment of the relative contribution of fire emissions generated in a specific province to smoke-related health impacts in the receptor areas. We estimate that haze in 2015 resulted in 100 300 excess deaths across Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, more than double those of the 2006 event, with much of the increase due to fires in Indonesia’s South Sumatra Province. The model framework we introduce in this study can rapidly identify those areas where land use management to reduce and/or avoid fires would yield the greatest benefit to human health, both nationally and regionally.

  12. Societies drifting apart? Behavioural, genetic and chemical differentiation between supercolonies in the yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes.

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    Jochen Drescher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In populations of most social insects, gene flow is maintained through mating between reproductive individuals from different colonies in periodic nuptial flights followed by dispersal of the fertilized foundresses. Some ant species, however, form large polygynous supercolonies, in which mating takes place within the maternal nest (intranidal mating and fertilized queens disperse within or along the boundary of the supercolony, leading to supercolony growth (colony budding. As a consequence, gene flow is largely confined within supercolonies. Over time, such supercolonies may diverge genetically and, thus, also in recognition cues (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHC's by a combination of genetic drift and accumulation of colony-specific, neutral mutations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested this hypothesis for six supercolonies of the invasive ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in north-east Borneo. Within supercolonies, workers from different nests tolerated each other, were closely related and showed highly similar CHC profiles. Between supercolonies, aggression ranged from tolerance to mortal encounters and was negatively correlated with relatedness and CHC profile similarity. Supercolonies were genetically and chemically distinct, with mutually aggressive supercolony pairs sharing only 33.1%±17.5% (mean ± SD of their alleles across six microsatellite loci and 73.8%±11.6% of the compounds in their CHC profile. Moreover, the proportion of alleles that differed between supercolony pairs was positively correlated to the proportion of qualitatively different CHC compounds. These qualitatively differing CHC compounds were found across various substance classes including alkanes, alkenes and mono-, di- and trimethyl-branched alkanes. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that positive feedback between genetic, chemical and behavioural traits may further enhance supercolony differentiation through genetic drift and neutral evolution, and may drive

  13. Size-resolved aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties in the remote marine South China Sea - Part 1: Observations and source classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Samuel A.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Blake, Donald R.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Lagrosas, Nofel D.; Xian, Peng; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Sessions, Walter R.; Simpas, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Ship-based measurements of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties are presented for 2 weeks of observations in remote marine regions of the South China Sea/East Sea during the southwestern monsoon (SWM) season. Smoke from extensive biomass burning throughout the Maritime Continent advected into this region during the SWM, where it was mixed with anthropogenic continental pollution and emissions from heavy shipping activities. Eight aerosol types were identified using a k-means cluster analysis with data from a size-resolved CCN characterization system. Interpretation of the clusters was supplemented by additional onboard aerosol and meteorological measurements, satellite, and model products for the region. A typical bimodal marine boundary layer background aerosol population was identified and observed mixing with accumulation mode aerosol from other sources, primarily smoke from fires in Borneo and Sumatra. Hygroscopicity was assessed using the κ parameter and was found to average 0.40 for samples dominated by aged accumulation mode smoke; 0.65 for accumulation mode marine aerosol; 0.60 in an anthropogenic aerosol plume; and 0.22 during a short period that was characterized by elevated levels of volatile organic compounds not associated with biomass burning impacts. As a special subset of the background marine aerosol, clean air masses substantially scrubbed of particles were observed following heavy precipitation or the passage of squall lines, with changes in observed aerosol properties occurring on the order of minutes. Average CN number concentrations, size distributions, and κ values are reported for each population type, along with CCN number concentrations for particles that activated at supersaturations between 0.14 and 0.85 %.

  14. Direct ecosystem fluxes of volatile organic compounds from oil palms in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first direct eddy covariance fluxes of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs from oil palms to the atmosphere using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, measured at a plantation in Malaysian Borneo. At midday, net isoprene flux constituted the largest fraction (84% of all emitted BVOCs measured, at up to 30 mg m−2 h−1 over 12 days. By contrast, the sum of its oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR exhibited clear deposition, with a small average canopy resistance of 230 s m−1. Approximately 15% of the resolved BVOC flux from oil palm trees could be attributed to floral emissions, which are thought to be the largest reported biogenic source of estragole and possibly also toluene. Although on average the midday volume mixing ratio of estragole exceeded that of toluene by almost a factor of two, the corresponding fluxes of these two compounds were nearly the same, amounting to 0.81 and 0.76 mg m−2 h−1, respectively. By fitting the canopy temperature and PAR response of the MEGAN emissions algorithm for isoprene and other emitted BVOCs a basal emission rate of isoprene of 7.8 mg m−2 h−1 was derived. We parameterise fluxes of depositing compounds using a resistance approach using direct canopy measurements of deposition. We propose that it is important to include deposition in flux models, especially for secondary oxidation products, in order to improve flux predictions.

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Oosten

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available - M.A. van Bakel, Frederic L. Pryor, The origins of the economy. A comparative study of distribution in primitive and peasant economies. Academic Press, New York 1977. XVIII + 475 blz. - H.J. de Graaf, W. Ph. Coolhaas, Generale missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan heren XVII der Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie. Deel VII. 1713-1725. ‘s-Gravenhage 1979. Rijks geschiedkundige publicatiën. Grote Serie 164. - F.G.P. Jaquet, P. Sutikno, J. Bastin, Nineteenth century prints and illustrated books of Indonesia; with particular reference to the print collection of the Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam; a descriptive bibliography. Utrecht etc., Het Spectrum, 1979. XIV, 386 pp. Ills., B. Brommer (eds. - S. Kooijman, Adrienne L. Kaeppler, “Artificial curiosities” being an exposition of native manufactures collected on the three Pacific voyages of Captain James Cook, R.N. at the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum January 18, 1978 - August 31, 1978 on the occasion of the Bicentennial of the European discovery of the Hawaiian islands by Captain Cook - January 18, 1778. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication 65, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1978. - J.G. Oosten, Marcel Mauss, Seasonal variations of the Eskimo. A study in social morphology. Marcel Mauss in collaboration with Henri Beuchat. Translated, with a foreword by James J. Fox. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, Boston and Henley 1979. - Jérôme Rousseau, W.F. Schneeberger, Contributions to the ethnology of central Northeast Borneo (parts of Kalimantan, Sarawak and Sabah. The University of Berne, Institute of Ethnology, Berne 1979. Series: Studia ethnologica Bernensia, no. 2. 143 pages. Maps, figures, plates.

  16. Research on the dynamics of the South China Sea opening: Evidence from analogue modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Zhen; ZHOU; Di; ZHONG; Zhihong; XIA; Bin; QIU; Xuelin; ZENG; Zuoxun

    2006-01-01

    Independent of Indochina extrusion, the South China Sea experienced a process from passive continental rifting to marginal sea drifting. According to the fault patterns in the Beibu Gulf basin and the Pearl River Mouth basin, the continental rifting and early spreading stage from 32 to 26 Ma were controlled by extensional stress field, which shifted clockwise from southeastward to south southeastward. From 24 Ma on, the sea spread in NW-SE direction and ceased spreading at around 15.5 Ma. Integrated geological information with the assumption that the South China Sea developed along a pre-Cenozoic weakness zone, we did analogue experiments on the South China Sea evolution. Experiments revealed that the pre-existing weakness zone goes roughly along the uplift zone between the present Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression. The pre-existing weakness zone is composed of three segments trending NNE, roughly EW and NEE, respectively. The early opening of the South China Sea is accompanied with roughly 15° clockwise rotation, while the SE sub-sea basin opened with SE extension. Tinjar fault was the western boundary of the Nansha block (Dangerous Ground),while Lupar fault was the eastern boundary of the Indochina, NW-trending rift belt known as Zengmu basin developed between above two faults due to block divergent of Indochina from Nansha. In the experiment, transtensional flower structures along NW-trending faults are seen, and slight inversion occurs along some NE-dipping faults. The existence of rigid massifs changed the orientations of some faults and rift belt, and also led to deformation concentrate around the massifs. The rifting and drifting of the South China Sea might be caused by slab pull from the proto South China Sea subducting toward Borneo and/or mantle flow caused by India-Asia collision.

  17. The large terrestrial carnivore guild in Quaternary Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louys, Julien

    2014-07-01

    Much of Southeast Asia's large terrestrial carnivores appeared, evolved and disappeared from the region for reasons that remain poorly understood. Two of the most significant extinctions are represented by the charismatic Pleistocene megacarnivores Pachycrocuta and Pliocrocuta. Southeast Asia hosts the last populations of these species globally. Their persistence in southern China until the late Pleistocene suggests their extinction was not tied to that of the machairodont cats, which like the rest of the world became extinct sometime in the early Pleistocene in this region. Instead the disappearance of the hyenids is probably related to climate change and deteriorating environmental conditions. There is some evidence that the wolf and domesticated dog first appeared in Southeast Asia, although confirmation of this awaits more detailed fossil records. There does not appear to be a large carnivore guild turnover of the same scale or time as recorded in Europe and Africa, although an extinction event in the late Pleistocene is provisionally recorded. Environmental changes and fluctuating sea levels have had a unique impact on the region's large carnivore guild. Several large carnivores from Java show unique genetic and morphological variations, and this could potentially be related to the connection between Java and the Indochinese mainland sometime during the middle Pleistocene. The effects of islands on the large carnivores are complicated and at times contradictory. Nevertheless, periods of isolation of large carnivores on Java, Sumatra and Borneo from the continent had impacts on both extinctions and speciations, with at least one well documented endemic large carnivore evolving in Sundaland (Sunda clouded leopard). Hunting and deforestation ongoing since the mid- to late Holocene means that many extant members of the large carnivore guild are at high risk of extinction.

  18. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Gaveau, David; Abram, Nicola; Ancrenaz, Marc; Baccini, Alessandro; Brend, Stephen; Curran, Lisa; Delgado, Roberto A; Erman, Andi; Fredriksson, Gabriella M; Goossens, Benoit; Husson, Simon J; Lackman, Isabelle; Marshall, Andrew J; Naomi, Anita; Molidena, Elis; Nardiyono; Nurcahyo, Anton; Odom, Kisar; Panda, Adventus; Purnomo; Rafiastanto, Andjar; Ratnasari, Dessy; Santana, Adi H; Sapari, Imam; van Schaik, Carel P; Sihite, Jamartin; Spehar, Stephanie; Santoso, Eddy; Suyoko, Amat; Tiju, Albertus; Usher, Graham; Atmoko, Sri Suci Utami; Willems, Erik P; Meijaard, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions) is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2) (21% of Borneo's landmass) and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic gains, rather than

  19. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  20. The Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a long-term test of the role of tree diversity in restoring tropical forest structure and functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Andy; Philipson, Christopher; Saner, Philippe; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; O'Brien, Michael; Snaddon, Jake L; Ulok, Philip; Weilenmann, Maja; Reynolds, Glen; Godfray, H Charles J

    2011-11-27

    Relatively, little is known about the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in forests, especially in the tropics. We describe the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a large-scale, long-term field study on the island of Borneo. The project aims at understanding the relationship between tree species diversity and the functioning of lowland dipterocarp rainforest during restoration following selective logging. The experiment is planned to run for several decades (from seed to adult tree), so here we focus on introducing the project and its experimental design and on assessing initial conditions and the potential for restoration of the structure and functioning of the study system, the Malua Forest Reserve. We estimate residual impacts 22 years after selective logging by comparison with an appropriate neighbouring area of primary forest in Danum Valley of similar conditions. There was no difference in the alpha or beta species diversity of transect plots in the two forest types, probably owing to the selective nature of the logging and potential effects of competitive release. However, despite equal total stem density, forest structure differed as expected with a deficit of large trees and a surfeit of saplings in selectively logged areas. These impacts on structure have the potential to influence ecosystem functioning. In particular, above-ground biomass and carbon pools in selectively logged areas were only 60 per cent of those in the primary forest even after 22 years of recovery. Our results establish the initial conditions for the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment and confirm the potential to accelerate restoration by using enrichment planting of dipterocarps to overcome recruitment limitation. What role dipterocarp diversity plays in restoration only will become clear with long-term results.

  1. Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slik, J W Ferry; Bernard, Caroline S; Van Beek, Marloes; Breman, Floris C; Eichhorn, Karl A O

    2008-12-01

    Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions. In recent decades, however, tropical forest fires occur more frequently and at larger spatial scales than they used to. We studied forest structure, tree species diversity, tree species composition, and aboveground biomass during the first 7 years since fire in unburned, once burned and twice burned forest of eastern Borneo to determine the rate of recovery of these forests. We paid special attention to changes in the tree species composition during burned forest regeneration because we expect the long-term recovery of aboveground biomass and ecosystem functions in burned forests to largely depend on the successful regeneration of the pre-fire, heavy-wood, species composition. We found that forest structure (canopy openness, leaf area index, herb cover, and stem density) is strongly affected by fire but shows quick recovery. However, species composition shows no or limited recovery and aboveground biomass, which is greatly reduced by fire, continues to be low or decline up to 7 years after fire. Consequently, large amounts of the C released to the atmosphere by fire will not be recaptured by the burned forest ecosystem in the near future. We also observed that repeated fire, with an inter-fire interval of 15 years, does not necessarily lead to a huge deterioration in the regeneration potential of tropical forest. We conclude that burned forests are valuable and should be conserved and that long-term monitoring programs in secondary forests are necessary to determine their recovery rates, especially in relation to aboveground biomass accumulation.

  2. Spectral Discrimination of Fine and Coarse Mode Aerosol Optical Depth from AERONET Direct Sun Data of Singapore and South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Cortijo, S.; Chew, B.; Liew, S.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth combined with the Angstrom exponent and its derivative, are often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol particle size, with Angstrom exp. values greater than 2 indicating small (fine mode) particles associated with urban pollution and bio-mass burning. Around this region, forest fires are a regular occurrence during the dry season, specially near the large land masses of Sumatra and Borneo. The practice of clearing land by burning the primary and sometimes secondary forest, results in a smog-like haze covering large areas of regional cities such as cities Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and sometimes the south of Thailand, often reducing visibility and increasing health problems for the local population. In Singapore, the sources of aerosols are mostly from fossil fuel burning (energy stations, incinerators, urban transport etc.) and from the industrial and urban areas. The proximity to the sea adds a possible oceanic source. However, as stated above and depending on the time of the year, there can be a strong bio-mass component coming from forest fires from various regions of the neighboring countries. Bio-mass related aerosol particles are typically characterized by showing a large optical depth and small, sub-micron particle size distributions. In this work, we analyze three years of direct Sun measurements performed with a multi-channel Cimel Sun-Photometer (part of the AERONET network) located at our site. In order to identify bio-mass burning events in this region, we perform a spectral discrimination between coarse and fine mode optical depth; subsequently, the fine mode parameters such as optical depth, optical ratio and fine mode Angstrom exponents (and its derivative) are used to identify possible bio-mass related events within the data set.

  3. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  4. Declining orangutan encounter rates from Wallace to the present suggest the species was once more abundant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus currently occur at low densities and seeing a wild one is a rare event. Compared to present low encounter rates of orangutans, it is striking how many orangutan each day historic collectors like Alfred Russel Wallace were able to shoot continuously over weeks or even months. Does that indicate that some 150 years ago encounter rates with orangutans, or their densities, were higher than now? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test this hypothesis by quantifying encounter rates obtained from hunting accounts, museum collections, and recent field studies, and analysing whether there is a declining trend over time. Logistic regression analyses of our data support such a decline on Borneo between the mid-19th century and the present. Even when controlled for variation in the size of survey and hunting teams and the durations of expeditions, mean daily encounter rates appear to have declined about 6-fold in areas with little or no forest disturbance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding has potential consequences for our understanding of orangutans, because it suggests that Bornean orangutans once occurred at higher densities. We explore potential explanations-habitat loss and degradation, hunting, and disease-and conclude that hunting fits the observed patterns best. This suggests that hunting has been underestimated as a key causal factor of orangutan density and distribution, and that species population declines have been more severe than previously estimated based on habitat loss only. Our findings may require us to rethink the biology of orangutans, with much of our ecological understanding possibly being based on field studies of animals living at lower densities than they did historically. Our approach of quantifying species encounter rates from historic data demonstrates that this method can yield valuable information about the ecology and population density of species in the past, providing new

  5. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, K.; Folberth, G.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wild, O.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale production of feedstock crops for biofuels will lead to land use changes. We quantify the effects of realistic land use change scenarios for biofuel feedstock production on isoprene emissions and hence atmospheric composition and chemistry using the HadGEM2 model. Two feedstocks are considered: oil palm for biodiesel in the tropics and short rotation coppice (SRC) in the mid-latitudes. In total, 69 Mha of oil palm and 9 Mha of SRC are planted, each sufficient to replace just over 1% of projected global fossil fuel demand in 2020. Both planting scenarios result in increases in total global annual isoprene emissions of about 1%. In each case, changes in surface concentrations of ozone and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA) are substantial at the regional scale, with implications for air quality standards. However, the changes in tropospheric burden of ozone and the OH radical, and hence effects on global climate, are negligible. Over SE Asia, one region of oil palm planting, increases in annual mean surface ozone and bSOA concentrations reach over 3 ppbv (+11%) and 0.4 μg m-3 (+10%) respectively for parts of Borneo, with monthly mean increases of up to 6.5 ppbv (+25%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+12%). Under the SRC scenario, Europe experiences monthly mean changes of over 0.6 ppbv (+1%) and 0.1 μg m-3 (+5%) in June and July, with peak increases of over 2 ppbv (+3%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+8 %). That appreciable regional atmospheric impacts result from low level planting scenarios demonstrates the need to include changes in emissions of reactive trace gases such as isoprene in life cycle assessments performed on potential biofuel feedstocks.

  6. Predicting dispersal of auto-gyrating fruit in tropical trees: a case study from the Dipterocarpaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James R; Bagchi, Robert; Ellens, Judith; Kettle, Chris J; Burslem, David F R P; Maycock, Colin R; Khoo, Eyen; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2015-05-01

    Seed dispersal governs the distribution of plant propagules in the landscape and hence forms the template on which density-dependent processes act. Dispersal is therefore a vital component of many species coexistence and forest dynamics models and is of applied value in understanding forest regeneration. Research on the processes that facilitate forest regeneration and restoration is given further weight in the context of widespread loss and degradation of tropical forests, and provides impetus to improve estimates of seed dispersal for tropical forest trees. South-East Asian lowland rainforests, which have been subject to severe degradation, are dominated by trees of the Dipterocarpaceae family which constitute over 40% of forest biomass. Dipterocarp dispersal is generally considered to be poor given their large, gyration-dispersed fruits. However, there is wide variability in fruit size and morphology which we hypothesize mechanistically underpins dispersal potential through the lift provided to seeds mediated by the wings. We explored experimentally how the ratio of fruit wing area to mass ("inverse wing loading," IWL) explains variation in seed dispersal kernels among 13 dipterocarp species by releasing fruit from a canopy tower. Horizontal seed dispersal distances increased with IWL, especially at high wind speeds. Seed dispersal of all species was predominantly local, with 90% of seed dispersing <10 m, although maximum dispersal distances varied widely among species. We present a generic seed dispersal model for dipterocarps based on attributes of seed morphology and provide modeled seed dispersal kernels for all dipterocarp species with IWLs of 1-50, representing 75% of species in Borneo.

  7. The Life History of the Protandrous Tropical Shad Tenualosa macrura (Alosinae: Clupeidae): Fishery Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, S. J. M.; Brewer, D. T.; Milton, D. A.; Merta, Gede Sedana; Efizon, D.; Fry, G.; van der Velde, T.

    1999-11-01

    Tenualosa macrura is a tropical shad that was previously found throughout the estuaries and coastal waters of Sumatra and Borneo where it formed the basis of flourishing fisheries. The only viable fishery today has contracted to the Riau Province of Sumatra, Indonesia. To provide information for conservation and fisheries management, a two-year study of the biology, ecology and life history characteristics of T. macrura was conducted. The evidence from sizes of sexes, sex ratios and histology is that T. macrura is a protandrous hermaphrodite. It changes from male to female mainly between 14 and 20 cm SL (standard length) (six months to one year in age), after the male has spawned. Almost all fish in their second year are females; the species does not appear to live beyond two years. There is a regular movement of spawning males and females between the Strait of Malacca (salinity 28-30) and the spawning grounds in the sheltered straits (salinity 20-28) of Riau Province on each new and full moon. Their occurrence in the inshore straits leads to heavy fishing during these moon phases. The main nursery areas are the shallow coastal waters of the Strait of Malacca. The decline in catches of T. macrura has probably been as a result of fishers intensively targeting aggregations of spawning females. Furthermore, most are caught before spawning. It is postulated that the protandrous habit of this species, and its likewise endangered congener of Sarawak, T. toli, renders them more vulnerable to overfishing than is the gonochoristic and more widespread T. ilisha that is heavily fished from Burma through the Indian sub-continent to Kuwait.

  8. Height-related changes in leaf photosynthetic traits in diverse Bornean tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzo, Tanaka; Inoue, Yuta; Yoshimura, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Megumi; Tanaka-Oda, Ayumi; Ichie, Tomoaki

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of variations in morphophysiological leaf traits with forest height is essential for quantifying carbon and water fluxes from forest ecosystems. Here, we examined changes in leaf traits with forest height in diverse tree species and their role in environmental acclimation in a tropical rain forest in Borneo that does not experience dry spells. Height-related changes in leaf physiological and morphological traits [e.g., maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs), dark respiration rate (Rd), carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C), nitrogen (N) content, and leaf mass per area (LMA)] from understory to emergent trees were investigated in 104 species in 29 families. We found that many leaf area-based physiological traits (e.g., A(max-area), Rd, gs), N, δ(13)C, and LMA increased linearly with tree height, while leaf mass-based physiological traits (e.g., A(max-mass)) only increased slightly. These patterns differed from other biomes such as temperate and tropical dry forests, where trees usually show decreased photosynthetic capacity (e.g., A(max-area), A(max-mass)) with height. Increases in photosynthetic capacity, LMA, and δ(13)C are favored under bright and dry upper canopy conditions with higher photosynthetic productivity and drought tolerance, whereas lower R d and LMA may improve shade tolerance in lower canopy trees. Rapid recovery of leaf midday water potential to theoretical gravity potential during the night supports the idea that the majority of trees do not suffer from strong drought stress. Overall, leaf area-based photosynthetic traits were associated with tree height and the degree of leaf drought stress, even in diverse tropical rain forest trees.

  9. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-08

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet <10% of lease area was planted. Projecting business as usual (BAU), by 2020 ∼40% of regional and 35% of community lands are cleared for oil palm, generating 26% of net carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  10. Aerosol transport model evaluation of an extreme smoke episode in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Edward J.; Chew, Boon Ning

    2010-04-01

    Biomass burning is one of many sources of particulate pollution in Southeast Asia, but its irregular spatial and temporal patterns mean that large episodes can cause acute air quality problems in urban areas. Fires in Sumatra and Borneo during September and October 2006 contributed to 24-h mean PM 10 concentrations above 150 μg m -3 at multiple locations in Singapore and Malaysia over several days. We use the FLAMBE model of biomass burning emissions and the NAAPS model of aerosol transport and evolution to simulate these events, and compare our simulation results to 24-h average PM 10 measurements from 54 stations in Singapore and Malaysia. The model simulation, including the FLAMBE smoke source as well as dust, sulfate, and sea salt aerosol species, was able to explain 50% or more of the variance in 24-h PM 10 observations at 29 of 54 sites. Simulation results indicated that biomass burning smoke contributed to nearly all of the extreme PM 10 observations during September-November 2006, but the exact contribution of smoke was unclear because the model severely underestimated total smoke emissions. Using regression analysis at each site, the bias in the smoke aerosol flux was determined to be a factor of between 2.5 and 10, and an overall factor of 3.5 was estimated. After application of this factor, the simulated smoke aerosol concentration averaged 20% of observed PM 10, and 40% of PM 10 for days with 24-h average concentrations above 150 μg m -3. These results suggest that aerosol transport models can aid analysis of severe pollution events in Southeast Asia, but that improvements are needed in models of biomass burning smoke emissions.

  11. Hillslope hydrology in tropical rainforest steeplands in Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, A. P.; Thornes, J. B.

    2000-02-01

    Many remaining areas of tropical rainforest in south-east Asia are located on landscapes dominated by deep valleys and very steep slopes. Now that logging activities are extending into these steeplands, it is essential to understand how the natural rainforest system behaves if any kind of realistic assessment of the effects of such disturbance is to be made. This paper examines the hydrological behaviour of an undisturbed rainforest system on steep topography in the Temburong District of Brunei, north-west Borneo. The physical and hydrological properties of the regolith material are generally typical of tropical residual soils. The regolith has a clay texture and a low dry bulk density beneath a superficial litter/organic horizon. The infiltration capacity of the surface soil was several hundred mm h-1. That of the exposed mineral subsoil was an order of magnitude less, similar to the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of around 180 mm h-1 at a depth of 150 cm. There was no indication that Ksat reduced with depth except very near the bedrock interface.Soil tensions were measured using a two-dimensional array of tensiometers on a 30° slope. During dry season conditions, infiltrating rain-water contributes to soil moisture, and drying of the soil is dominated by transpiration losses. During wet season conditions, perched water tables quickly develop during heavy rainfall, giving rise to the rapid production of return flow in ephemeral channels. No infiltration excess or saturation overland flow was observed on hillslopes away from channel margins. Subsurface storm flow combined with return flow produce stream flow hydrographs with high peak discharges and very short lag times. Storm event runoff coefficients are estimated to be as high as 40%. It is concluded that the most distinctive feature of the hydrology of this steepland rainforest is the extremely flashy nature of the catchment runoff regime produced by the combination of thin but very permeable regolith

  12. Sub-chronic toxicological evaluation of the Baccaurea angulata (Belimbing Dayak fruit juice in rats

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    D Ibrahim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Toxicity study on normal rats was carried out using freeze-dried whole fruit (FDWF sample of Baccaurea angulata. Animals in these sub-chronic studies illustrated no significant changes in general behaviour, growth, and relative organ weights. In liver function test, total protein and alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in male treated Group-II (300 mg/kg, giving 36.50±2.65 g/L and 47.90±4.48 U/L, respectively.  Meanwhile, low dose female group (Group-II, there was significant increase in the same parameters, giving 63.70±5.28 g/L and 73.50±12.91 U/L respectively.  In general, there was no evidence that demonstrated any tissue injury, the no-observable adverse effect level for B. angulata was 1,200 mg/kg administered orally for 13 weeks.Industrial relevance. The whole fruit juice of B. angulata, one of underutilized fruits found in Borneo island of Malaysia, has the potential to be utilized for preparation of health drink. Our earlier studies on the fruit showed that it contains the essential nutrients including dietary fiber that are good in promoting human health. Besides that, it has also been found to contain essential amount of antioxidant constituents as confirmed by antioxidant activities. This present study, additionally, found it to be safe and thus offer diverse potentials to be developed for nutraceeutical and functional fruit product.Key words. Underutilized Fruits; Baccaurea angulate; Belimbing Dayak; Sub-chronic toxicity

  13. Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.

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    Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture.

  14. EVALUASI KEBIJAKAN PROGRAM PEMBERANTASAN FILARIASIS DI KABUPATEN TANAH BUMBU PROVINSI KALIMANTAN SELATAN

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    Lukman Waris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elephantiasis in this lime has still become the problem of trensetter health of society these days. This disease can be catching and have the character of chronical which because of worm of filaria attacking lymph gland and channel causing and lymphangitis of elephantiasis. Borneo South Province, counted 13 Sub-Province/town (100% expressed as Filariasis endemis among others in Tanah Bumbu Sub Province. Target of this research is to know policy of execution of filaria eliminasi in Tanah Bumbu Sub-Province and also applying of strategy of eliminasi mount District and factors which and resistor of PSP society of endemis filariasis. This Research methode is observasional and conducted to organizer of program and also taker of policy of Tanah Bumbu Sub-Province (study qualitative and quantitative study's chosen society by using transversal crosscut Desain study (cross secsional by statistical analysis. Result of research indicate that all taker of policy is not to know surely case picture of filariasis in Tanah Bumbu Sub-Province, so that cannot do resource allocation and over come take action in eradication of filariasis. Result of assessment of knowledge of attitude and behavior of responder, productive age (26-35 year though living many as farmer with education of finish mean of SMA more is owning of knowledge, positive behavior and attitude if compared to other age group. Pursuant to statistical analysis of productive age group at most counselling terpapar by officer of health so that they more is knowing of disease of filaria in general. Key words: filariasis, study policy, tanah bumbu sub province

  15. Pleistocene microvertebrates from fissure-fillings in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Suteethorn, Varavudh

    Microvertebrates (and among them specially, rodents) have contributed to the elaboration of precise biochronological time scales and to the reconstitution of Pleistocene paleoenvironments in several parts of the world (North America, Africa, Europe and Japan). They have been demonstrated to be highly sensitive to climatic changes since they are very sensitive to vegetation changes. Up to now, no data is available for Southeast Asia and very few information is available concerning the nature of climatic changes which affected that part of the tropical world during the Pleistocene. In the past few years, we have discovered several fissure fillings in Thailand yielding numerous remains of microvertebrates which have been extracted by dissolution in acetic acid solution. These deposits are the result of the feeding activity of predators, like owls or diurnal raptors, whose pellets are accumulated in caves or fissures. Eleven localities, located in Central (2), Eastern (1), Western (2) and Peninsular Thailand (6) have been investigated so far. Several rodent species, belonging to 9 genera of Murinae (rats and mice) and 9 genera of Sciuridae (squirrels) have been identified in these localities. The most important differences with the extant representatives often concern the size of the teeth of these fossil species. The meaning of these size differences is not yet clearly understood since they can be attributed either to significant time differences between localities (microevolution) or as the result of size variations related to climatic changes (clinical variations). More data will have to be collected to calibrate the temporal frame. Already, important modification of the geographic distribution of some species have been discovered which testify that during the Pleistocene, significative climatic changes have affected Southeast Asia. For example, Exilisciurus, a squirrel which is presently restricted to Borneo has been recognized in Peninsular Thailand. Also, Iomys

  16. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results

  17. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2–3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664

  18. Investigation of individual and group variability in estrous cycle characteristics in female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the Oregon Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, S S; Hunt, K E; Martin, M S; Finnegan, M; Brown, J L

    2012-07-15

    Evaluating ovarian cycle activity through longitudinal progestagen monitoring is important for optimizing breeding management of captive elephants and understanding impact of life events (births, deaths, and transfers) on reproductive function. This study summarized serum progestagen profiles for eight Asian mainland elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) and one Bornean elephant (E. maximus borneensis) at the Oregon Zoo over a 20-yr interval, and represents the longest longitudinal dataset evaluated to date. Estrous cycle characteristics were more varied than previously reported for this species, with an overall duration of 12 to 19 wk, luteal phase duration of 4 to 15 wk, and follicular phase duration of 2 to 12 wk. In general, there was more cycle variability across than within individual elephants. Compared with other elephants in the group, the Borneo female exhibited consistently longer cycle lengths, higher progestagen concentrations, and greater cycle variability; however, it is not known if this represents a subspecies or an individual difference. Cycle durations did not appear to change over time or with age, and the first pubertal cycle was similar to subsequent cycles. Variability in duration of the follicular phase was greater than that of the luteal phase. In addition, there was a significant negative relationship between luteal and follicular phase durations, suggesting a possible regulatory role of the follicular phase in maintaining a relatively consistent cycle duration within individuals. Overall, we found these elephants to be highly resilient in that major life events (births, deaths, and changes in herd structure) had minimal effect on cycle dynamics over time. In conclusion, the higher range in cycle phase characteristics is likely because of the larger number of elephants studied and longer duration of longitudinal monitoring, and may be more representative of the captive population as a whole. Furthermore, identification of significant

  19. Effective population size dynamics and the demographic collapse of Bornean orang-utans.

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    Reeta Sharma

    Full Text Available Bornean orang-utans experienced a major demographic decline and local extirpations during the Pleistocene and Holocene due to climate change, the arrival of modern humans, of farmers and recent commercially-driven habitat loss and fragmentation. The recent loss of habitat and its dramatic fragmentation has affected the patterns of genetic variability and differentiation among the remaining populations and increased the extinction risk of the most isolated ones. However, the contribution of recent demographic events to such genetic patterns is still not fully clear. Indeed, it can be difficult to separate the effects of recent anthropogenic fragmentation from the genetic signature of prehistoric demographic events. Here, we investigated the genetic structure and population size dynamics of orang-utans from different sites. Altogether 126 individuals were analyzed and a full-likelihood Bayesian approach was applied. All sites exhibited clear signals of population decline. Population structure is known to generate spurious bottleneck signals and we found that it does indeed contribute to the signals observed. However, population structure alone does not easily explain the observed patterns. The dating of the population decline varied across sites but was always within the 200-2000 years period. This suggests that in some sites at least, orang-utan populations were affected by demographic events that started before the recent anthropogenic effects that occurred in Borneo. These results do not mean that the recent forest exploitation did not leave its genetic mark on orang-utans but suggests that the genetic pool of orang-utans is also impacted by more ancient events. While we cannot identify the main cause for this decline, our results suggests that the decline may be related to the arrival of the first farmers or climatic events, and that more theoretical work is needed to understand how multiple demographic events impact the genome of species and

  20. The impact of logging roads on dung beetle assemblages in a tropical rainforest reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Felicity A; Finan, Jessica; Graham, Lucy K; Larsen, Trond H; Wilcove, David S; Hsu, Wayne W; Chey, V K; Hamer, Keith C

    2017-01-01

    The demand for timber products is facilitating the degradation and opening up of large areas of intact habitats rich in biodiversity. Logging creates an extensive network of access roads within the forest, yet these are commonly ignored or excluded when assessing impacts of logging on forest biodiversity. Here we determine the impact of these roads on the overall condition of selectively logged forests in Borneo, Southeast Asia. Focusing on dung beetles along > 40 km logging roads we determine: (i) the magnitude and extent of edge effects alongside logging roads; (ii) whether vegetation characteristics can explain patterns in dung beetle communities, and; (iii) how the inclusion of road edge forest impacts dung beetle assemblages within the overall logged landscape. We found that while vegetation structure was significantly affected up to 34 m from the road edge, impacts on dung beetle communities penetrated much further and were discernible up to 170 m into the forest interior. We found larger species and particularly tunnelling species responded more than other functional groups which were also influenced by micro-habitat variation. We provide important new insights into the long-term ecological impacts of tropical logging. We also support calls for improved logging road design both during and after timber extraction to conserve more effectively biodiversity in production forests, for instance, by considering the minimum volume of timber, per unit length of logging road needed to justify road construction. In particular, we suggest that governments and certification bodies need to highlight more clearly the biodiversity and environmental impacts of logging roads.

  1. Impacts of Intensive Logging on the Trophic Organisation of Ant Communities in a Biodiversity Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Newton, Rob J.; Vun Khen, Chey; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Trophic organisation defines the flow of energy through ecosystems and is a key component of community structure. Widespread and intensifying anthropogenic disturbance threatens to disrupt trophic organisation by altering species composition and relative abundances and by driving shifts in the trophic ecology of species that persist in disturbed ecosystems. We examined how intensive disturbance caused by selective logging affects trophic organisation in the biodiversity hotspot of Sabah, Borneo. Using stable nitrogen isotopes, we quantified the positions in the food web of 159 leaf-litter ant species in unlogged and logged rainforest and tested four predictions: (i) there is a negative relationship between the trophic position of a species in unlogged forest and its change in abundance following logging, (ii) the trophic positions of species are altered by logging, (iii) disturbance alters the frequency distribution of trophic positions within the ant assemblage, and (iv) disturbance reduces food chain length. We found that ant abundance was 30% lower in logged forest than in unlogged forest but changes in abundance of individual species were not related to trophic position, providing no support for prediction (i). However, trophic positions of individual species were significantly higher in logged forest, supporting prediction (ii). Consequently, the frequency distribution of trophic positions differed significantly between unlogged and logged forest, supporting prediction (iii), and food chains were 0.2 trophic levels longer in logged forest, the opposite of prediction (iv). Our results demonstrate that disturbance can alter trophic organisation even without trophically-biased changes in community composition. Nonetheless, the absence of any reduction in food chain length in logged forest suggests that species-rich arthropod food webs do not experience trophic downgrading or a related collapse in trophic organisation despite the disturbance caused by logging

  2. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2-3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future.

  3. Seasonal variability of the meridional overturning circulation in the South China Sea and its connection with inter-ocean transport based on SODA2.2.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaohua; Fang, Guohong; Wei, Zexun; Wang, Yonggang; Teng, Fei; Qu, Tangdong

    2016-05-01

    We have proposed a five-layer-scheme to investigate the volume transport through the South China Sea (SCS) based on the updated Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA2.2.4) product. By demonstrating horizontal transport in each layer, we have revealed different formation mechanisms for the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) in winter and summer in the SCS. Our analysis suggests three meridional circulation systems in the SCS: (1) the seasonal monsoon-driven circulation in the surface layer, i.e., southward circulation in winter and northward in summer, (2) the compensatory transport-induced seasonal intermediate MOC in the central SCS, and (3) the persistent deep MOC in the southern SCS all year round. By examining vertical velocity distribution, we have identified that the major overturning process of the intermediate MOC is located along the continental slope east and southeast of Vietnam, while the major overturning process of the deep MOC is located along the continental slope northwest of Borneo. The downwelling in the intermediate MOC in winter and upwelling in the deep MOC all year round bring different water masses to the intermediate and subintermediate layers to be mixed in the SCS. We found no evidence to suggest that the strength and extent of the MOC south of 18°N are related to inter-ocean volume transport. The surface layer transport in the Luzon Strait has been decreasing since the 1960s. However, the causes of the meridionally staggered and interdecadal alternating acceleration/slowdown of the meridional stream function difference are unknown.

  4. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Ari Fahrial; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zain, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014-February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267). Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P culture were 90.2%, 92.9% and 80.5%, 98.2%, respectively. The patients aged 50-59 years group had significantly higher H. pylori infection than 30-39 years group (OR 2.98, P = 0.05). Protestant had significantly higher H. pylori infection rate than that among Catholic (OR 4.42, P = 0.008). It was also significantly lower among peoples who used tap water as source of drinking water than from Wells/river (OR 9.67, P = 0.03). However only ethnics as become independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although we confirmed low prevalence of H. pylori in Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia.

  5. Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Indonesian populations of Sumatra, Sulawesi and Moluccas Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velickovic, M; Velickovic, Z; Panigoro, R; Dunckley, H

    2010-10-01

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activity of natural killer and T cells through interaction with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules on target cells. Like HLA class I genes that are characterised by extreme allelic polymorphism, KIR genes are diverse and vary in both gene content and allelic polymorphism. Population studies conducted over the last several years have showed that KIR gene frequencies (GF) and genotype content vary among different ethnic groups, indicating the extent of KIR diversity. Some studies have also shown the effect of the presence or absence of specific KIR genes in human disease. We have recently reported the distribution of KIR genes in populations from Java (Central Javanese and the Sundanese of West Java), East Timor (Timorese), Kalimantan provinces of Indonesian Borneo (Dayaks) and Irian Jaya (Western half of the island of New Guinea; Melanese). We here extend analysis of the KIR genes in populations from North Sulawesi (Minahasans), West Sumatra (Minangs) and Moluccas Islands. All 16 KIR genes were observed in all three populations. Variation in GF between populations was observed, except for the KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3 and KIR3DP1 genes, which were present in every individual tested. When comparing KIR GF between populations, both principal component analysis and phylogenetic tree analyses showed a close relationship between Minahasan and Moluccan populations that are clustered with Timorese in the same clade. The Minang tribe lies between the Javanese/Kalimantan and the Timorese/Minahasan/Moluccan clades, whereas Irianese show the greatest genetic distances from other Indonesian populations. The results correspond well with the history of migration in Indonesia and will contribute to the understanding of the genetic as well as the geographic history of the region.

  6. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax in transmigration settlements of West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryauff, D J; Tuti, S; Mardi, A; Masbar, S; Patipelohi, R; Leksana, B; Kain, K C; Bangs, M J; Richie, T L; Baird, J K

    1998-10-01

    Malariometric surveys were conducted during July 1996 in native Dayak villages and predominantly Javanese transmigration settlements in Ketapang district of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Malaria prevalence ranged from 0.9% to 2.7% in Dayak villages and from 1% to 20% in the transmigration settlements. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 67% of the cases among Dayaks but P. vivax was dominant among transmigrants, accounting for more than 72% of the infections. Chloroquine sensitivity/resistance was assessed by 28-day in vivo testing of uncomplicated malaria infections and measurement of chloroquine blood levels in cases where parasitemias reappeared within the 28-day test period. Resistance was based on the appearance of asexual parasites against chloroquine plus desethylchloroquine levels exceeding the minimally effective whole blood concentrations proposed for sensitive parasite strains (P. vivax, 100 ng/ml; P. falciparum, 200 ng/ml). All parasitemias cleared initially within four days of beginning supervised chloroquine therapy (25 mg base/kg over a 48-hr period), but asexual parasites reappeared within 28 days in 27 of 52 P. vivax and three of 12 P. falciparum cases. Chloroquine blood levels at the time of recurrent parasitemias revealed resistance in 12 of the 27 P. vivax cases and in one of the three P. falciparum cases. Genotypes of nine of the 12 recurrent P. vivax isolates matched with their primary isolates and ruled out reinfection. These findings establish the presence of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax on the island of Borneo. The pattern of malaria and the high frequency of chloroquine resistance by P. vivax at the West Kalimantan location may relate to demographic, ecologic, agricultural, and socioeconomic changes associated with transmigration.

  7. The effect of 25% Mauli banana stem extract gel to increase the epithel thickness of wound healing process in oral mucosa

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    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mauli banana is a special plant of South Borneo that can be used as alternatif medicine for wound healing wound healing. Recent studies showed that Mauli banana stem contained some compound such as flavonoid, saponin, and tannin that had antibacterial and antiinflamation effect, and can accelerate the wound healing. Purpose: This study was aimed to know the effect of 25% Mauli banana extract gel to the epithel thickness of wound healing process in oral mucosa. Method: It was the real experimental with post test only control group design. It used 36 Sprague dawley rats that divided into 3 groups: the negative control group by giving aquadest, the positive control group by giving drug contain Aloe vera, and the treatment group by giving 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem. Biopsy was done on day 3, 5, 7 and the preparat was made to measure the thickness of oral mucosa epithel by Image J software. Result: The result showed that 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem can increased the thickness of oral mucosa epithel on third day (51.26 µm, fifth days (108.49 µm, and seventh day (170.66 µm. The top thickness of mucosa epithel was on the seventh day. Two-ways Anova and Post Hoc LSD (p<0.05 showed the significant different between aquadest and 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem. 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem and drug contains Aloe vera are the aqual of meaningfull. Conclusion: 25%ethanol extract of Mauli banana can increase the epithelial thickness of wound healing procces in oral mucosa.

  8. Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, macaques and mosquitoes in peninsular Malaysia

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    NorParina Ismail

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since a large focus of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig tailed macaques, was reported in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, it was pertinent to study the situation in peninsular Malaysia. A study was thus initiated to screen human cases of Plasmodium malariae using molecular techniques, to determine the presence of P. knowlesi in non- human primates and to elucidate its vectors. Methods Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to identify all Plasmodium species present in the human blood samples sent to the Parasitology laboratory of Institute for Medical Research. At the same time, non-human primates were also screened for malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out to determine the presence of P. knowlesi. Mosquitoes were collected from Pahang by human landing collection and monkey-baited-traps situated on three different levels. All mosquitoes were identified and salivary glands and midguts of anopheline mosquitoes were dissected to determine the presence of malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out on positive glands. Sequencing of the csp genes were carried on P. knowlesi samples from humans, monkeys and mosquitoes, positive by PCR. Results and Discussion Plasmodium knowlesi was detected in 77 (69.37% of the 111 human samples, 10 (6.90% of the 145 monkey blood and in 2 (1.7% Anopheles cracens. Sequence of the csp gene clustered with other P. knowlesi isolates. Conclusion Human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi is occurring in most states of peninsular Malaysia. An. cracens is the main vector. Economic exploitation of the forest is perhaps bringing monkeys, mosquitoes and humans into increased contact. A single bite from a mosquito infected with P. knowlesi is sufficient to introduce the parasite to humans. Thus, this zoonotic transmission has to be considered in the future planning of malaria control.

  9. From carbon sink to carbon source: extensive peat oxidation in insular Southeast Asia since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Liew, Soo Chin; Page, Susan E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical peatlands of the western part of insular Southeast Asia have experienced extensive land cover changes since 1990. Typically involving drainage, these land cover changes have resulted in increased peat oxidation in the upper peat profile. In this paper we provide current (2015) and cumulative carbon emissions estimates since 1990 from peat oxidation in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, utilizing newly published peatland land cover information and the recently agreed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) peat oxidation emission values for tropical peatland areas. Our results highlight the change of one of the Earth’s most efficient long-term carbon sinks to a short-term emission source, with cumulative carbon emissions since 1990 estimated to have been in the order of 2.5 Gt C. Current (2015) levels of emissions are estimated at around 146 Mt C yr‑1, with a range of 132–159 Mt C yr‑1 depending on the selection of emissions factors for different land cover types. 44% (or 64 Mt C yr‑1) of the emissions come from industrial plantations (mainly oil palm and Acacia pulpwood), followed by 34% (49 Mt C yr‑1) of emissions from small-holder areas. Thus, altogether 78% of current peat oxidation emissions come from managed land cover types. Although based on the latest information, these estimates may still include considerable, yet currently unquantifiable, uncertainties (e.g. due to uncertainties in the extent of peatlands and drainage networks) which need to be focused on in future research. In comparison, fire induced carbon dioxide emissions over the past ten years for the entire equatorial Southeast Asia region have been estimated to average 122 Mt C yr‑1 (www.globalfiredata.org/_index.html). The results emphasise that whilst reducing emissions from peat fires is important, urgent efforts are also needed to mitigate the constantly high level of emissions arising from peat drainage, regardless of fire occurrence.

  10. The contribution of oceanic halocarbons to marine and free tropospheric air over the tropical West Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Quack, Birgit; Tegtmeier, Susann; Atlas, Elliot; Hepach, Helmke; Shi, Qiang; Raimund, Stefan; Krüger, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Emissions of halogenated very-short-lived substances (VSLSs) from the oceans contribute to the atmospheric halogen budget and affect tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. Here, we investigate the contribution of natural oceanic VSLS emissions to the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) and their transport into the free troposphere (FT) over the tropical West Pacific. The study concentrates on bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide measured on ship and aircraft during the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in the South China and Sulu seas in November 2011. Elevated oceanic concentrations for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide of on average 19.9, 5.0 and 3.8 pmol L-1, in particular close to Singapore and to the coast of Borneo, with high corresponding oceanic emissions of 1486, 405 and 433 pmol m-2 h-1 respectively, characterise this tropical region as a strong source of these compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios in the MABL were unexpectedly relatively low with 2.08, 1.17 and 0.39 ppt for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide. We use meteorological and chemical ship and aircraft observations, FLEXPART trajectory calculations and source-loss estimates to identify the oceanic VSLS contribution to the MABL and to the FT. Our results show that the well-ventilated MABL and intense convection led to the low atmospheric mixing ratios in the MABL despite the high oceanic emissions. Up to 45 % of the accumulated bromoform in the FT above the region originates from the local South China Sea area, while dibromomethane is largely advected from distant source regions and the local ocean only contributes 20 %. The accumulated methyl iodide in the FT is higher than can be explained with local contributions. Possible reasons, uncertainties and consequences of our observations and model estimates are discussed.

  11. Characterizing forest structure variations across an intact tropical peat dome using field samplings and airborne LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Hutyra, Lucy R; Hardiman, Brady S; Raciti, Steve M

    2016-03-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) are one of the most carbon dense ecosystems on the globe and are experiencing substantial natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we combined direct field sampling and airborne LiDAR to empirically quantify forest structure and aboveground live biomass (AGB) across a large, intact tropical peat dome in Northwestern Borneo. Moving up a 4 m elevational gradient, we observed increasing stem density but decreasing canopy height, crown area, and crown roughness. These findings were consistent with hypotheses that nutrient and hydrological dynamics co-influence forest structure and stature of the canopy individuals, leading to reduced productivity towards the dome interior. Gap frequency as a function of gap size followed a power law distribution with a shape factor (λ) of 1.76 ± 0.06. Ground-based and dome-wide estimates of AGB were 217.7 ± 28.3 Mg C/ha and 222.4 ± 24.4 Mg C/ha, respectively, which were higher than previously reported AGB for PSF and tropical forests in general. However, dome-wide AGB estimates were based on height statistics, and we found the coefficient of variation on canopy height was only 0.08, three times less than stem diameter measurements, suggesting LiDAR height metrics may not be a robust predictor of AGB in tall tropical forests with dense canopies. Our structural characterization of this ecosystem advances the understanding of the ecology of intact tropical peat domes and factors that influence biomass density and landscape-scale spatial variation. This ecological understanding is essential to improve estimates of forest carbon density and its spatial distribution in PSF and to effectively model the effects of disturbance and deforestation in these carbon dense ecosystems.

  12. Reactive nitrogen deposition to South East Asian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, Chiara F.; Phillips, Gavin J.; Thomas, Rick; Tang, Sim; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark A.; Fowler, David; Lim, Sei F.

    2010-05-01

    The supply of reactive nitrogen (N) to global terrestrial ecosystems has doubled since the 1960s as a consequence of human activities, such as fertilizer application and production of nitrogen oxides by fossil-fuel burning. The deposition of atmospheric N species constitutes a major nutrient input to the biosphere. Tropical forests have been undergoing a radical land use change by increasing cultivation of sugar cane and oil palms and the remaining forests are increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. Yet, quantifications of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to tropical forests, and nitrogen cycling under near-pristine and polluted conditions are rare. The OP3 project ("Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest") was conceived to study how emissions of reactive trace gases from a tropical rain forest mediate the regional scale production and processing of oxidants and particles, and to better understand the impact of these processes on local, regional and global scale atmospheric composition, chemistry and climate. As part of this study we have measured reactive, nitrogen containing trace gas (ammonia, nitric acid) and the associated aerosol components (ammonium, nitrate) at monthly time resolution using a simple filter / denuder for 16 months. These measurements were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch tower near Danum Valley in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo. In addition, the same compounds were measured at hourly time-resolution during an intensive measurement period, with a combination of a wet-chemistry system based on denuders and steam jet aerosol collectors and an aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), providing additional information on the temporal controls. During this period, concentrations and fluxes of NO, NO2 and N2O were also measured. The measurements are used for inferential dry deposition modelling and combined with wet deposition data from the South East Asian Acid

  13. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study.

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    Ari Fahrial Syam

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014-February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267. Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P <0.05. The sensitivity and specificity for RUT and culture were 90.2%, 92.9% and 80.5%, 98.2%, respectively. The patients aged 50-59 years group had significantly higher H. pylori infection than 30-39 years group (OR 2.98, P = 0.05. Protestant had significantly higher H. pylori infection rate than that among Catholic (OR 4.42, P = 0.008. It was also significantly lower among peoples who used tap water as source of drinking water than from Wells/river (OR 9.67, P = 0.03. However only ethnics as become independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although we confirmed low prevalence of H. pylori in Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia.

  14. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Birka; Dornburg, Veronika; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodiesel and the associated GHG emissions are also studied. This study follows the methodology suggested by the Dutch Commission on Sustainable Biomass (Cramer Commission). The results demonstrate that land use change is the most decisive factor in overall GHG emissions and that palm oil energy chains based on land that was previously natural rainforest or peatland have such large emissions that they cannot meet the 50-70% GHG emission reduction target set by the Cramer Commission. However, if CPO production takes place on degraded land, management of CPO production is improved, or if the by-product PFAD is used for electricity production, the emission reduction criteria can be met, and palm-oil-based electricity can be considered sustainable from a GHG emission point of view. Even though the biodiesel base case on logged-over forest meets the Cramer Commission's emission reduction target for biofuels of 30%, other cases, such as oil palm plantations on degraded land and improved management, can achieve emissions reductions of more than 150%, turning oil palm plantations into carbon sinks. In order for bioenergy to be sustainably produced from palm oil and its derivatives, degraded land should be used for palm oil production and management should be improved. (author)

  15. BIBLE A whole-air sampling as a window on Asian biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Scott; Blake, Donald R.; Blake, Nicola J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Sive, Barkley C.; Smith, Felisa A.

    2003-02-01

    Asian trace gas and aerosol emissions into carbon, nitrogen, and other elemental cycles will figure prominently in near term Earth system evolution. Atmospheric hydrocarbon measurements resolve numerous chemical species and can be used to investigate sourcing for key geocarriers. A recent aircraft study of biomass burning and lightning (BIBLE A) explored the East Asian atmosphere and was unique in centering on the Indonesian archipelago. Samples of volatile organics taken over/between the islands of Japan, Saipan, Java, and Borneo are here examined as a guide to whole-air-based studies of future Asian biogeochemistry. The midlatitude onshore/offshore pulse and tropical convection strongly influence concentration distributions. As species of increasing molecular weight are considered, rural, combustion, and industrial source regimes emerge. Methane-rich inputs such as waste treatment and rice cultivation are evidenced in the geostrophic outflow. The Indonesian atmosphere is rich in biomass burning markers and also those of vehicular activity. Complexity of air chemistry in the archipelago is a direct reflection of diverse topography, land use, and local economies in a rapidly developing nation. Conspicuous in its absence is the fingerprint for liquefied petroleum gas leakage, but it can be expected to appear as demand for clean fossil fuels rises along with per capita incomes. Combustion tracers indicate high nitrogen mobilization rates, linking regional terrestrial geocycles with open marine ecosystems. Sea to air fluxes are superimposed on continental and marine backgrounds for the methyl halides. However, ocean hot spots are not coordinated and suggest an intricate subsurface kinetics. Levels of long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons attest to the success of international environmental treaties while reactive chlorine containing species track industrial air masses. The dozens of hydrocarbons resolvable by gas chromatographic methods will enable monitoring of

  16. Recent surveys in the forests of Ulu Segama Malua, Sabah, Malaysia, show that orang-utans (P. p. morio can be maintained in slightly logged forests.

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    Marc Ancrenaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, the "Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project" (KOCP conducted aerial and ground surveys of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio nests in the commercial forest reserves of Ulu Segama Malua (USM in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Compared with previous estimates obtained in 2002, our recent data clearly shows that orang-utan populations can be maintained in forests that have been lightly and sustainably logged. However, forests that are heavily logged or subjected to fast, successive coupes that follow conventional extraction methods, exhibit a decline in orang-utan numbers which will eventually result in localized extinction (the rapid extraction of more than 100 m(3 ha(-1 of timber led to the crash of one of the surveyed sub-populations. Nest distribution in the forests of USM indicates that orang-utans leave areas undergoing active disturbance and take momentarily refuge in surrounding forests that are free of human activity, even if these forests are located above 500 m asl. Displaced individuals will then recolonize the old-logged areas after a period of time, depending on availability of food sources in the regenerating areas. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that diligent planning prior to timber extraction and the implementation of reduced-impact logging practices can potentially be compatible with great ape conservation.

  17. Solar Eclipses and the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2009-05-01

    Solar eclipses capture the attention of millions of people in the countries from which they are visible and provide a major opportunity for public education, in addition to the scientific research and student training that they provide. The 2009 International Year of Astronomy began with an annular eclipse visible from Indonesia on 26 January, with partial phases visible also in other parts of southeast Asia. On 22 July, a major and unusually long total solar eclipse will begin at dawn in India and travel across China, with almost six minutes of totality visible near Shanghai and somewhat more visible from Japanese islands and from ships at sea in the Pacific. Partial phases will be visible from most of eastern Asia, from mid-Sumatra and Borneo northward to mid-Siberia. Eclipse activities include many scientific expeditions and much ecotourism to Shanghai, Hangzhou, and vicinity. My review article on "Eclipses as an Astrophysical Laboratory" will appear in Nature as part of their IYA coverage. Our planetarium presented teacher workshops and we made a film about solar research. Several new books about the corona or eclipses are appearing or have appeared. Many articles are appearing in astronomy magazines and other outlets. Eclipse interviews are appearing on the Planetary Society's podcast "365 Days of Astronomy" and on National Geographic Radio. Information about the eclipse and safe observation of the partial phases are available at http://www.eclipses.info, the Website of the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses and of its Program Group on Public Education at the Times of Eclipses of its Commission on Education and Development. The Williams College Expedition to the 2009 Eclipse in the mountains near Hangzhou, China, is supported in part by a grant from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. E/PO workshops were supported by NASA.

  18. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Anuar, Shahrul; Riyanto, Awal; Ahmad, Norhayati; Muin, Mohd A; Sumontha, Montri; Grismer, Jesse L; Onn, Chan Kin; Quah, Evan S H; Pauwels, Olivier S A

    2014-10-31

    A well-supported and well-resolved phylogeny based on a concatenated data set from one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, six morphological characters, and nine color pattern characters for 44 of the 50 species of the Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) is consistent with the previous taxonomy of Cnemaspis based solely on morphology and color pattern. Cnemaspis is partitioned into four major clades that collectively contain six species groups. The monophyly of all clades and species groups is strongly supported and they are parapatrically distributed across well-established, biogeographical regions ranging from southern Vietnam westward through southern Indochina, southward through the Thai-Malay Peninsula, then eastward to Borneo. Eight new species (Cnemaspis omari sp. nov. from the Thai-Malaysian border; C. temiah sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia; C. stongensis sp. nov. from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, Malaysia; C. hangus sp. nov. from Bukit Hangus, Pahang, Malaysia; C. sundagekko sp. nov. from Pulau Siantan, Indonesia; C. peninsularis sp. nov. from southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, and C. mumpuniae sp. nov. and C. sundainsula sp. nov. from Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia) are described based on morphology and color pattern and all but C. sundagekko sp. nov. are included in the phylogenetic analyses. Cnemaspis kendallii is polyphyletic and a composite of six species. An updated taxonomy consistent with the phylogeny is proposed for all 50 species and is based on 25 morphological and 53 color pattern characters scored across 594 specimens. Cladogenetic events and biogeographical relationships within Cnemaspis were likely influenced by this group's low vagility and the cyclical patterns of geographical and environmental changes in Sundaland over the last 25 million years and especially within the last 2.5 million years. The phylogeny indicates that nocturnality, diurnality, substrate preferences, and the presence of

  19. The catastrophic decline of the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni in Sabah: Historic exploitation, reduced female reproductive performance and population viability

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    P. Kretzschmar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for catastrophic declines of Sumatran rhinos are far from clear and data necessary to improve decisions for conservation management are often lacking. We reviewed literature and assembled a comprehensive data set on surveys of the Sumatran rhino subspecies (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni in the Malaysian state of Sabah on Borneo to chart the historical development of the population in Sabah and its exploitation until the present day. We fitted resource selection functions to identify habitat features preferred by a remnant population of rhinos living in the Tabin Wildlife Reserve in Sabah, and ran a series of population viability analyses (PVAs to extract the key demographic parameters most likely to affect population dynamics. We show that as preferred habitat, the individuals in the reserve were most likely encountered in elevated areas away from roads, in close distance to mud-volcanoes, with a low presence of human trespassers and a wallow on site, and within a neighbourhood of dense forest and grassland patches preferably on Fluvisols and Acrisols. Our population viability analyses identified the percentage of breeding females and female lifetime reproductive period as the crucial parameters driving population dynamics, in combination with total protection even moderate improvements could elevate population viability substantially. The analysis also indicates that unrestrained hunting between 1930 and 1950 drastically reduced the historical rhino population in Sabah and that the remnant population could be rescued by combining the effort of total protection and stimulation of breeding activity. Based on our results, we recommend to translocate isolated reproductively healthy individuals to protected locations and to undertake measures to maximise conceptions, or running state-of-the-art reproductive management with assisted reproduction techniques. Our study demonstrates that a judicious combination of techniques can do

  20. Soup to Tree: The Phylogeny of Beetles Inferred by Mitochondrial Metagenomics of a Bornean Rainforest Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton-Platt, Alex; Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Gimmel, Matthew L; Kutty, Sujatha Narayanan; Cockerill, Timothy D; Vun Khen, Chey; Vogler, Alfried P

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the growth of molecular ecology, systematics and next-generation sequencing, the discovery and analysis of diversity is not currently integrated with building the tree-of-life. Tropical arthropod ecologists are well placed to accelerate this process if all specimens obtained through mass-trapping, many of which will be new species, could be incorporated routinely into phylogeny reconstruction. Here we test a shotgun sequencing approach, whereby mitochondrial genomes are assembled from complex ecological mixtures through mitochondrial metagenomics, and demonstrate how the approach overcomes many of the taxonomic impediments to the study of biodiversity. DNA from approximately 500 beetle specimens, originating from a single rainforest canopy fogging sample from Borneo, was pooled and shotgun sequenced, followed by de novo assembly of complete and partial mitogenomes for 175 species. The phylogenetic tree obtained from this local sample was highly similar to that from existing mitogenomes selected for global coverage of major lineages of Coleoptera. When all sequences were combined only minor topological changes were induced against this reference set, indicating an increasingly stable estimate of coleopteran phylogeny, while the ecological sample expanded the tip-level representation of several lineages. Robust trees generated from ecological samples now enable an evolutionary framework for ecology. Meanwhile, the inclusion of uncharacterized samples in the tree-of-life rapidly expands taxon and biogeographic representation of lineages without morphological identification. Mitogenomes from shotgun sequencing of unsorted environmental samples and their associated metadata, placed robustly into the phylogenetic tree, constitute novel DNA "superbarcodes" for testing hypotheses regarding global patterns of diversity.

  1. Dihydrofolate-Reductase Mutations in Plasmodium knowlesi Appear Unrelated to Selective Drug Pressure from Putative Human-To-Human Transmission in Sabah, Malaysia.

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    Matthew J Grigg

    Full Text Available Malaria caused by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi is an emerging threat in Eastern Malaysia. Despite demonstrated vector competency, it is unknown whether human-to-human (H-H transmission is occurring naturally. We sought evidence of drug selection pressure from the antimalarial sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP as a potential marker of H-H transmission.The P. knowlesi dihdyrofolate-reductase (pkdhfr gene was sequenced from 449 P. knowlesi malaria cases from Sabah (Malaysian Borneo and genotypes evaluated for association with clinical and epidemiological factors. Homology modelling using the pvdhfr template was used to assess the effect of pkdhfr mutations on the pyrimethamine binding pocket.Fourteen non-synonymous mutations were detected, with the most common being at codon T91P (10.2% and R34L (10.0%, resulting in 21 different genotypes, including the wild-type, 14 single mutants, and six double mutants. One third of the P. knowlesi infections were with pkdhfr mutants; 145 (32% patients had single mutants and 14 (3% had double-mutants. In contrast, among the 47 P. falciparum isolates sequenced, three pfdhfr genotypes were found, with the double mutant 108N+59R being fixed and the triple mutants 108N+59R+51I and 108N+59R+164L occurring with frequencies of 4% and 8%, respectively. Two non-random spatio-temporal clusters were identified with pkdhfr genotypes. There was no association between pkdhfr mutations and hyperparasitaemia or malaria severity, both hypothesized to be indicators of H-H transmission. The orthologous loci associated with resistance in P. falciparum were not mutated in pkdhfr. Subsequent homology modelling of pkdhfr revealed gene loci 13, 53, 120, and 173 as being critical for pyrimethamine binding, however, there were no mutations at these sites among the 449 P. knowlesi isolates.Although moderate diversity was observed in pkdhfr in Sabah, there was no evidence this reflected selective antifolate drug pressure in humans.

  2. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

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    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2 (21% of Borneo's landmass and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic

  3. Differential Spatio-temporal Multiband Satellite Image Clustering using K-means Optimization With Reinforcement Programming

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    Irene Erlyn Wina Rachmawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestration is one of the crucial issues in Indonesia because now Indonesia has world's highest deforestation rate. In other hand, multispectral image delivers a great source of data for studying spatial and temporal changeability of the environmental such as deforestration area. This research present differential image processing methods for detecting nature change of deforestration. Our differential image processing algorithms extract and indicating area automatically. The feature of our proposed idea produce extracted information from multiband satellite image and calculate the area of deforestration by years with calculating data using temporal dataset. Yet, multiband satellite image consists of big data size that were difficult to be handled for segmentation. Commonly, K- Means clustering is considered to be a powerfull clustering algorithm because of its ability to clustering big data. However K-Means has sensitivity of its first generated centroids, which could lead into a bad performance. In this paper we propose a new approach to optimize K-Means clustering using Reinforcement Programming in order to clustering multispectral image. We build a new mechanism for generating initial centroids by implementing exploration and exploitation knowledge from Reinforcement Programming. This optimization will lead a better result for K-means data cluster. We select multispectral image from Landsat 7 in past ten years in Medawai, Borneo, Indonesia, and apply two segmentation areas consist of deforestration land and forest field. We made series of experiments and compared the experimental results of K-means using Reinforcement Programming as optimizing initiate centroid and normal K-means without optimization process. Keywords: Deforestration, Multispectral images, landsat, automatic clustering, K-means.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Deforestation Measurement Using Automatic Clustering

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    Irene Erlyn Wina Rachmawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is one of the crucial issues in Indonesia. In 2012, deforestation rate in Indonesia reached 0.84 million hectares, exceeding Brazil. According to the 2009 Guinness World Records, Indonesia's deforestation rate was 1.8 million hectares per year between 2000 and 2005. An interesting view is the fact that Indonesia government denied the deforestation rate in those years and said that the rate was only 1.08 million hectares per year in 2000 and 2005. The different problem is on the technique how to deal with the deforestation rate. In this paper, we proposed a new approach for automatically identifying the deforestation area and measuring the deforestation rate. This approach involves differential image processing for detecting Spatio-temporal nature changes of deforestation. It consists series of important features extracted from multiband satellite images which are considered as the dataset of the research. These data are proceeded through the following stages: (1 Automatic clustering for multiband satellite images, (2 Reinforcement Programming to optimize K-Means clustering, (3 Automatic interpretation for deforestation areas, and (4 Deforestation measurement adjusting with elevation of the satellite. For experimental study, we applied our proposed approach to analyze and measure the deforestation in Mendawai, South Borneo. We utilized Landsat 7 to obtain the multiband images for that area from the year 2001 to 2013. Our proposed approach is able to identify the deforestation area and measure the rate. The experiment with our proposed approach made a temporal measurement for the area and showed the increasing deforestation size of the area 1.80 hectares during those years.

  5. Two species of Southeast Asian cats in the genus Catopuma with diverging histories: an island endemic forest specialist and a widespread habitat generalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Daniel W.; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Rayan, Mark D.; Mohamed, Shariff W.; Werner, Laura; Lenz, Dorina; Pfestorf, Hans; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Radchuk, Viktoriia; Fickel, Jörns; Wilting, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background. The bay cat Catopuma badia is endemic to Borneo, whereas its sister species the Asian golden cat Catopuma temminckii is distributed from the Himalayas and southern China through Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Based on morphological data, up to five subspecies of the Asian golden cat have been recognized, but a taxonomic assessment, including molecular data and morphological characters, is still lacking. Results. We combined molecular data (whole mitochondrial genomes), morphological data (pelage) and species distribution projections (up to the Late Pleistocene) to infer how environmental changes may have influenced the distribution of these sister species over the past 120 000 years. The molecular analysis was based on sequenced mitogenomes of 3 bay cats and 40 Asian golden cats derived mainly from archival samples. Our molecular data suggested a time of split between the two species approximately 3.16 Ma and revealed very low nucleotide diversity within the Asian golden cat population, which supports recent expansion of the population. Discussion. The low nucleotide diversity suggested a population bottleneck in the Asian golden cat, possibly caused by the eruption of the Toba volcano in Northern Sumatra (approx. 74 kya), followed by a continuous population expansion in the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene. Species distribution projections, the reconstruction of the demographic history, a genetic isolation-by-distance pattern and a gradual variation of pelage pattern support the hypothesis of a post-Toba population expansion of the Asian golden cat from south China/Indochina to Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Our findings reject the current classification of five subspecies for the Asian golden cat, but instead support either a monotypic species or one comprising two subspecies: (i) the Sunda golden cat, distributed south of the Isthmus of Kra: C. t. temminckii and (ii) Indochinese, Indian, Himalayan and Chinese golden cats

  6. Analysis of Fine and Coarse mode Aerosol Distributions from AERONET's mini-DRAGON Set-up at Singapore 2012

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    Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Muller, A.; Liew, S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth combined with the Angstrom exponent and its derivative, are often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol type and particle size regime. In Singapore, the sources of aerosols are mostly from fossil fuel burning (energy stations, incinerators, urban transport etc.) and from industrial and urban areas. However, depending on the time of the year (July-October), there can be a strong bio-mass component originated from uncontrolled forest/plantation fires from the neighboring land masses of Sumatra and Borneo. Unlike urban/fossil fuel aerosols, smoke or bio-mass related aerosol particles are typically characterized by showing a large optical depth and small, sub-micron particle size distributions. Trans-boundary smoke episodes has become an annual phenomenon in this region. Severe episodes were recorded in 1997 and 2006 and other minor episodes happened during 2002, 2004, 2010 and more recently on 2013. On August-September 2012, as part of CRISP participation on the August-September ground campaign of the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS), a Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) set of six CIMEL CE-318A automatic Sun-tracking photometers have been deployed at sites located at North (Yishun ITE), East (Temasek Poly), West (NUS and Pandan Reservoir), Central (NEA) and South (St. John's island) of Singapore. In order to fully discriminate bio-mass burning events over other local sources, we perform a spectral discrimination of fine/coarse mode particle regime to all DRAGON sites; subsequently, the fine mode parameters such as optical depth, optical ratio and fine mode Angstrom exponent are used to identify possible bio-mass related events within the data set. Spatio-temporal relationship between sites are also investigated.

  7. The Diurnal Cycle over the Maritime Continent and its Interaction with the MJO

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    Matthews, A. J.; Peatman, S.; Baranowski, D. B.; Stevens, D. P.; Heywood, K. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Schmidtko, S.

    2014-12-01

    The complex land-sea distribution and topography of the maritime continent acts to disrupt or even completely block the eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific. This leads to changes in tropical latent heat release and subsequent impacts on global circulation. Convection over the maritime continent is dominated by the diurnal cycle. Where the mean diurnal cycle is strong (over the islands and surrounding seas), 80% of the MJO precipitation signal in the maritime continent is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. The canonical view of the MJO as the smooth eastward propagation of a large-scale precipitation envelope also breaks down over the islands of the Maritime Continent. Instead, a vanguard of precipitation jumps ahead of the main body by approximately 6 days or 2000 km. Hence, there can be enhanced precipitation over Sumatra, Borneo or New Guinea when the large-scale MJO envelope over the surrounding ocean is one of suppressed precipitation. This behaviour is discussed in terms of an interaction between the diurnal cycle and the MJO circulation. The diurnal cycle is also strong in the ocean. Seaglider measurements taken during the CINDY/DYNAMO campaign show the existence of a diurnal warm layer in the upper few metres of the ocean. This has a significant effect on the surface fluxes, of an order of Watts per square metre. The diurnal warm layer is favoured during the inactive phase of the MJO and may act to help precondition the atmosphere to convection. The activities of the MJO Task Force and Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction project will be discussed in this context.

  8. Severe malaria - a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings: a case report

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    Adem Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoonotic malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is an important, but newly recognized, human pathogen. For the first time, post-mortem findings from a fatal case of knowlesi malaria are reported here. Case presentation A formerly healthy 40 year-old male became symptomatic 10 days after spending time in the jungle of North Borneo. Four days later, he presented to hospital in a state of collapse and died within two hours. He was hyponatraemic and had elevated blood urea, potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and amino transferase values; he was also thrombocytopenic and eosinophilic. Dengue haemorrhagic shock was suspected and a post-mortem examination performed. Investigations for dengue virus were negative. Blood for malaria parasites indicated hyperparasitaemia and single species P. knowlesi infection was confirmed by nested-PCR. Macroscopic pathology of the brain and endocardium showed multiple petechial haemorrhages, the liver and spleen were enlarged and lungs had features consistent with ARDS. Microscopic pathology showed sequestration of pigmented parasitized red blood cells in the vessels of the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart and kidney without evidence of chronic inflammatory reaction in the brain or any other organ examined. Brain sections were negative for intracellular adhesion molecule-1. The spleen and liver had abundant pigment containing macrophages and parasitized red blood cells. The kidney had evidence of acute tubular necrosis and endothelial cells in heart sections were prominent. Conclusions The overall picture in this case was one of systemic malaria infection that fit the WHO classification for severe malaria. Post-mortem findings in this case were unexpectedly similar to those that define fatal falciparum malaria, including cerebral pathology. There were important differences including the absence of coma despite petechial haemorrhages and parasite sequestration in the brain. These results suggest that further

  9. Fire and smoke in the earth system: Evaluating the impact of fire aerosols on regional and global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Michael G.

    Landscape and wildland fires across the globe emit black and organic carbon smoke particles that have atmospheric lifetimes of days to weeks. Some regions, like Africa, experience strong seasonal burning, and other regions, like equatorial Asia, experience substantial interannual variability associated with changes in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. In equatorial Asia, anthropogenic fires in tropical forests and peatlands produce regionally expansive smoke clouds that have important effects on atmospheric radiation and air quality. I estimated the height of smoke on Borneo and Sumatra and characterized its sensitivity to El Nino and regional drought. My measurements and analyses suggested that direct injection of smoke into the free troposphere within fire plumes was not an important mechanism for vertical mixing of aerosols in equatorial Asia. I also characterized the sensitivity of smoke clouds to regional drought, and investigated how climate responded to the smoke forcing using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 3. Together, the satellite and modeling results imply a possible positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic burning in the region intensifies drought stress during El Nino. I expanded the scope of this project beyond equatorial Asia and characterized the global climate response to smoke aerosols using the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), embedded within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). A combination of smoke-induced tropospheric heating and reduced surface temperatures increased equatorial subsidence and weakened and expanded the Hadley cells. As a consequence, precipitation decreased over tropical forests in South America, Africa and equatorial Asia. These results are consistent with the observed correlation between global temperatures and the strength of the Hadley circulation and studies linking black carbon tropospheric heating and tropical expansion.

  10. Impact of biomass burning on surface water quality in Southeast Asia through atmospheric deposition: field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarambal, P.; Balasubramanian, R.; Tkalich, P.; He, J.

    2010-03-01

    Atmospheric nutrients have recently gained attention as a significant additional source of new nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading to the ocean. The effect of atmospheric N on marine productivity depends on the biological availability of both inorganic and organic N and P forms. During October 2006, the regional smoke haze episode in Southeast Asia (SEA) that resulted from uncontrolled forest fires in Sumatra and Borneo blanketed large tracts of the region. In this work, we determined the composition of nutrients in aerosols and rainwater during haze and non-haze periods to assess their impacts on aquatic ecosystem in SEA for the first time. We compared atmospheric dry and wet deposition of N and P species in aerosol and rainwater in Singapore between haze and non haze periods. Air mass back trajectories showed that large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were a significant source of atmospheric nutrients to aquatic environments in Singapore and SEA region on hazy days. It was observed that the average concentrations of nutrients increased approximately by a factor of 3 to 8 on hazy days when compared with non-hazy days. The mean dry atmospheric fluxes (g/m2/year) of TN and TP observed during hazy and non-hazy days were 4.77±0.775 and 0.3±0.082, and 0.91±0.471 and 0.046±0.01, respectively. The mean wet deposition fluxes (g/m2/year) of TN and TP were 12.2±3.53 and 0.726±0.074, and 2.71±0.989 and 0.144±0.06 for hazy and non-hazy days, respectively. The occurrences of higher concentrations of nutrients from atmospheric deposition during smoke haze episodes may have adverse consequences on receiving aquatic ecosystems with cascading impacts on water quality.

  11. Trans-National Genetic Distance and Genetic Identity of Barak Valley Hindus en Route the Journey of Mankind from Africa for ABO Gene

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    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at estimating the genetic distance and genetic identity between Barak Valley Hindus and other twenty four nations for ABO blood group gene along the route of historic journey of mankind from Africa as proposed by Stephen Oppenheimer to gain insights on the evolutionary relationship and genetic closeness of the Hindus with other nations. Barak Valley Zone, located in southern part of Assam state in North East India, has inhabited the major endogamous group, the Hindus, for several centuries. Over the last few decades, they have maintained distinct culture and life style. This study used ABO gene frequency data of these populations to estimate Neis standard genetic distance and genetic identity of population genetics between Barak Valley Hindus and other nations. The historic journey of mankind commenced from Africa about 200,000 years ago (www.bradshawfoundation.com. Genetic distance estimate ranged from 0.07 to 5.18%. Barak Valley Hindus (BVH showed relatively low genetic distance for ABO gene with the populations of Saudi Arabia (0.07%, India (0.13%, Borneo (0.40%, Russia (0.59%, Central Asia (0.60%, Siberia (0.60%, South China (0.71% and Sri Lanka (0.93% suggesting high genetic identity and possible evolutionary relationship of BVH during migration with these nations. But the BVH showed highest genetic distance with Australia (5.18% followed by Norway (4.13%, Sudan (3.89% and Sweden (3.60% indicating low genetic identity of BVH with these nations. Migration was not the key determining factor in changing the ABO gene frequency in human populations.

  12. Book Reviews

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    Malcom W. Mintz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, Simone Prodolliet, Händlerinnen, Goldgr��ber und Staatsbeamte; Sozialgeschichte einer Kleinstadt im Hochland Südwestsumatras. Berlin: Reimer, 1996, 372 pp. [Berner Sumatra-Forschungen.] - Richard Chauvel, Antje van der Hoek, Religie in Ballingschap; Institutionalisering en Leiderschap onder Christelijke en Islamitische Molukkers in Nederland. Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij, 1994, 297 pp. - J.E. Lelijveld, Kees Groeneboer, Weg tot het Westen; Het Nederlands voor Indië 1600-1950. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1993, xii + 580 pp. - Bernd Nothofer, P.W. Martin, Language Use & Language Change in Brunei Darussalam, Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1996, xvi + 373 pp. [Monographs in International Studies 100.], C. Ozog, G. Poedjosoedarmo (eds. - Anton Ploeg, Pamela Swadling, Plumes from Paradise; Trade cycles in outer Southeast Asia and their impact on New Guinea and nearby islands until 1920. With contributions by Roy Wagner and Billai Laba. Boroko/Coorparoo (Qld: Papua New Guinea National Museum in association with R. Brown & Ass. (Qld, 1996, 352 pp. Plates, maps, index. - Bernard Sellato, Traude Gavin, The women’s warpath; Iban ritual fabrics from Borneo, Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 1996, 99 pp. - Jyh Wee Sew, Malcom W. Mintz, A course in conversational Indonesian (with equivalent Malay vocabulary. Singapore: EPB Publishers, 1994, 558 pp. - Kees Snoek, Liesbeth Dolk, Twee Zielen, Twee Gedachten; Tijdschriften en Intellectuelen op Java (1900-1957, Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1993, 220 pp. - Nicholas Tarling, Paul H. Kratoska, Malaya and Singapore during the Japanese Occupation. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995, xii + 175 pp. [Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Special Publications Series 3.

  13. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect-plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated (15)N/(14)N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ(15)N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a (15)N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ(15)N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers' trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants' prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant.

  14. Solar cycle modulation of the ENSO impact on the winter climate of East Asia

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    Zhou, Qun; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Wen

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how the East Asian winter climate response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) varies with the 11-year solar cycle. The results indicate that the ENSO and East Asian climate relationship is robust and significant during winters with low solar (LS) activity, with evident warming in the lower troposphere over East Asia, which can be closely linked to the decreased pressure gradient between the cold Eurasian continent and the warm Pacific. Moreover, during the LS and El Niño winters, there is a typical rainfall response in Southeast Asia, with wet conditions over South China and dry conditions over the Philippines, Borneo, Celebes, and Sulawesi, which can be explained by the anticyclone over the western North Pacific (WNP). However, during high solar activity winters, both the surface temperature and rainfall anomalies are much less closely associated with the ENSO. The possible mechanism for this solar modulation of the ENSO-related East Asian climate anomalies may be the change in the tropospheric circulation with the ENSO in both tropical and extratropical regions. Particularly, in the LS cases, an anomalous WNP anticyclone is intensified and a noticeable cyclone occupies northern Northeast Asia, resulting from the changing location and strength of the large-scale Walker circulation induced by the more pronounced sea surface temperature anomalies associated with the ENSO. Further investigation with long historic data confirms that the relationship between the ENSO and the East Asian winter climate anomalies depends on the phases of 11 year solar cycle, with enhanced East Asian climate variation during the LS winters.

  15. Plasmodium knowlesi genome sequences from clinical isolates reveal extensive genomic dimorphism.

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    Miguel M Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Plasmodium knowlesi is a newly described zoonosis that causes malaria in the human population that can be severe and fatal. The study of P. knowlesi parasites from human clinical isolates is relatively new and, in order to obtain maximum information from patient sample collections, we explored the possibility of generating P. knowlesi genome sequences from archived clinical isolates. Our patient sample collection consisted of frozen whole blood samples that contained excessive human DNA contamination and, in that form, were not suitable for parasite genome sequencing. We developed a method to reduce the amount of human DNA in the thawed blood samples in preparation for high throughput parasite genome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq sequencing platforms. Seven of fifteen samples processed had sufficiently pure P. knowlesi DNA for whole genome sequencing. The reads were mapped to the P. knowlesi H strain reference genome and an average mapping of 90% was obtained. Genes with low coverage were removed leaving 4623 genes for subsequent analyses. Previously we identified a DNA sequence dimorphism on a small fragment of the P. knowlesi normocyte binding protein xa gene on chromosome 14. We used the genome data to assemble full-length Pknbpxa sequences and discovered that the dimorphism extended along the gene. An in-house algorithm was developed to detect SNP sites co-associating with the dimorphism. More than half of the P. knowlesi genome was dimorphic, involving genes on all chromosomes and suggesting that two distinct types of P. knowlesi infect the human population in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We use P. knowlesi clinical samples to demonstrate that Plasmodium DNA from archived patient samples can produce high quality genome data. We show that analyses, of even small numbers of difficult clinical malaria isolates, can generate comprehensive genomic information that will improve our understanding of malaria parasite diversity and

  16. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, C N; MacKenzie, A R; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J R; Evans, M; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M W; Hopkins, J R; Jones, C E; Langford, B; Lee, J D; Lewis, A C; Lim, S F; McQuaid, J; Misztal, P; Moller, S J; Monks, P S; Nemitz, E; Oram, D E; Owen, S M; Phillips, G J; Pugh, T A M; Pyle, J A; Reeves, C E; Ryder, J; Siong, J; Skiba, U; Stewart, D J

    2009-11-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an "environmentally friendly" fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O(3) concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O(3) concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (10(9)) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wheatley

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available - G.N. Appell, Michael B. Leigh, Checklist of holdings on Borneo in the Cornell University Libraries. Made with the assistance of John M. Echols. Data paper: Number 62, Southeast Asia Program. Department of Asian Studies. Ithaca, Cornell University, 1966. 62 pages. - R.E. Downs, P. Middelkoop, Headhunting in Timor and its historical implications. Oceania Linguistic Monograph No. 8. The Univeristy of Sydney, Sydney, 1964. 423 pp. - M.G. Swift, Rosemary Firth, Housekeeping among Malay peasants. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology, No. 7. The Athlone Press, London 1966. Pp. xiv and 242. - Umar Junus, Harsja W. Bachtiar, Negeri Taram: A Minangkabau village community in Koentjaraningrat, ed., Villages in Indonesia. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1967. 445 pp. - William R. Roff, Judith Djamour, The Muslim matrimonial court in Singapore. London School of Economics, Monographs on Social Anthropology. No. 31. Athlone Press, London, 1966. 189 pp. - Paul Wheatley, O.W. Wolters, Early Indonesian commerce: A study of the origins of Srivijaya. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1967. 404 pp., 4 maps. - M.P.H. Roessingh, Th. P.M. de Jong, De krimpende horizon van de Hollandse kooplieden. Hollands Welvaren in het Caribisch Zeegebied (1780-1830. Van Gorcum en Comp., Assen, 1966. 352 pp., 2 ills., 1 krt. Oorspr. proefschrift Groningen, met een voorwoord van de schrijver; tevens verschenen als Anjerpublicatie nr. 9, met een woord vooraf van de promotor, Prof. Dr. H. Baudet. - M. Leifer, James de V. Allen, The Malayan Union. Yale University, Southeast Asia Studies, 1967. Monograph Series No. 10. XIV + 181 pp., with appendices. - P. Voorhoeve, M.A. Jaspan, Folk literature of South Sumatra. Rejang Ka-Ga-Nga Texts. Australian University Press, Canberra 1964. 92 pp.

  18. Two new species of Halysioncum Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta et Ivanov, 2013 (Cestoda, Diphyllidea) from Indo-Pacific rays of the genus Aetomylaeus Garman (Myliobatiformes, Myliobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Verónica A; Caira, Janine N

    2013-09-01

    Recent collections of cestode parasites from two species of the myliobatid genus Aetomylaeus Garman from several localities in the Pacific Ocean resulted in the discovery of two new species of Halysioncum Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta et Ivanov, 2013. Halysioncum gibsoni sp. n. from Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray) in the South China Sea off Borneo differs from all of its congeners in having the following combination of characters: 27 apical hooks (14 type A and 13 type B hooks), 11-12 lateral hooklets, 22-28 spines per column on the cephalic peduncle, testes distributed in a single column and an internal seminal vesicle. Halysioncum arafurense sp. n., recovered from Aetomylaeus cf. nichofii 2 (sensu Naylor et al. 2012b) in the Arafura Sea off the Wessel Islands, Northern Territory, Australia, can be distinguished from its congeners based on the following combination of characters: 23 apical hooks (12 type A and 11 type B hooks), the number of lateral hooklets (9-11), the number of spines per column on the cephalic peduncle (20-24), the number and distribution of the testes (13-15 testes in two irregular columns), and the distribution of vitelline follicles (interrupted dorsally at the level of the ovarian lobes). Both species represent the first verified records of diphyllideans from eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus and formally extend the host associations of diphyllideans to include a third genus of Myliobatiformes. The myliobatiforms are indeed an understudied group of available hosts for diphyllideans and represent interesting target hosts if the diversity of diphyllidean tapeworms is to be fully estimated and understood.

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1969-04-01

    Full Text Available - A. Teeuw, W.J.S. Poerwadarminta, Bahasa Indonesia untuk karang-mengarang. U.P. Indonesia. Jogjakarta 1967. 168 pp. - A. Teeuw, Sutomo Tjokronegoro, Tjukuplah saudara membina bahasa kesatuan kita? P.T. Eresco, Djakarta Bandung 1968. XXIV and 313 pp. - E.C.G. Barrett, William R. Roff, The origins of Malay nationalism. Yale Southeast Asia Studies, 2. Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1967. Pp. XX and 297. - W. Brand, Bram Peper, Grootte en groei van Java’s inheemse bevolking in de negentiende eeuw. Publicatie Nr. 11, Afdeling Zuid- en Zuidoost Azië, Anthropologisch-Sociologisch Centrum, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1967, 151 blz. - M.A. Jaspan, H.J. Heeren, Het land aan de overkant: Transmigratie van Java naar Sumatra. J.A. Boom en Zoon, Meppel, 1967. Pp. VIII, 225, maps, tables, bibliogr. - J.B. Avé, Benedict Sandin, The sea Dayaks of Borneo before white Rajah rule. MacMillan, London-Melbourne-Toronto, 1967. XX, 13 pp. - Tocihi Mabuchi, Alois Pache, Die religiöse vorstellung in der mythen der formosanischen Bergstämme. Studia Instituti Anthropos, Vol. 19, XV + 271 Seiten. Verlag der Missionsdruckerei St. Gabriel, Wien-Mödling 1964. - S. Kooijman, Th. P. van Baaren, Korwars and korwar style. Art and ancestor worship in North-West New Guinea. Art in its context. Museum series: volume 2, Mouton & Co 1968. 104 pp., 69 plates. - R.S. Karni, M.A. Jaspan, Westerly, a quarterly review. Published by the University of Western Australia Press. (Perth, W.A. Special issue: Indonesia, no. 2, October 1966; 93 p., 4 pls. - ,

  20. Long-term field data and climate-habitat models show that orangutan persistence depends on effective forest management and greenhouse gas mitigation.

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    Stephen D Gregory

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asian deforestation rates are among the world's highest and threaten to drive many forest-dependent species to extinction. Climate change is expected to interact with deforestation to amplify this risk. Here we examine whether regional incentives for sustainable forest management will be effective in improving threatened mammal conservation, in isolation and when combined with global climate change mitigation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a long time-series of orangutan nest counts for Sabah (2000-10, Malaysian Borneo, we evaluated the effect of sustainable forest management and climate change scenarios, and their interaction, on orangutan spatial abundance patterns. By linking dynamic land-cover and downscaled global climate model projections, we determine the relative influence of these factors on orangutan spatial abundance and use the resulting statistical models to identify habitat crucial for their long-term conservation. We show that land-cover change the degradation of primary forest had the gr