WorldWideScience

Sample records for bornean nepenthes pitcher

  1. A unique resource mutualism between the giant Bornean pitcher plant, Nepenthes rajah, and members of a small mammal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Greenwood

    Full Text Available The carnivorous pitcher plant genus Nepenthes grows in nutrient-deficient substrates and produce jug-shaped leaf organs (pitchers that trap arthropods as a source of N and P. A number of Bornean Nepenthes demonstrate novel nutrient acquisition strategies. Notably, three giant montane species are engaged in a mutualistic association with the mountain treeshrew, Tupaia montana, in which the treeshrew defecates into the pitchers while visiting them to feed on nectar secretions on the pitchers' lids.Although the basis of this resource mutualism has been elucidated, many aspects are yet to be investigated. We sought to provide insights into the value of the mutualism to each participant. During initial observations we discovered that the summit rat, R. baluensis, also feeds on sugary exudates of N. rajah pitchers and defecates into them, and that this behavior appears to be habitual. The scope of the study was therefore expanded to assess to what degree N. rajah interacts with the small mammal community.We found that both T. montana and R. baluensis are engaged in a mutualistic interaction with N. rajah. T .montana visit pitchers more frequently than R. baluensis, but daily scat deposition rates within pitchers do not differ, suggesting that the mutualistic relationships are of a similar strength. This study is the first to demonstrate that a mutualism exists between a carnivorous plant species and multiple members of a small mammal community. Further, the newly discovered mutualism between R. baluensis and N. rajah represents only the second ever example of a multidirectional resource-based mutualism between a mammal and a carnivorous plant.

  2. Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of tree shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin

    2012-10-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from tree shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three species, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the tree shrews' attention. Tree shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes species were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the tree shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of "tuning," notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous species sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to tree shrew sensitivity maxima.

  3. With a flick of the lid: a novel trapping mechanism in Nepenthes gracilis pitcher plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Bauer

    Full Text Available Carnivorous pitcher plants capture prey with modified leaves (pitchers, using diverse mechanisms such as 'insect aquaplaning' on the wet pitcher rim, slippery wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall, and viscoelastic retentive fluids. Here we describe a new trapping mechanism for Nepenthes gracilis which has evolved a unique, semi-slippery wax crystal surface on the underside of the pitcher lid and utilises the impact of rain drops to 'flick' insects into the trap. Depending on the experimental conditions (simulated 'rain', wet after 'rain', or dry, insects were captured mainly by the lid, the peristome, or the inner pitcher wall, respectively. The application of an anti-slip coating to the lower lid surface reduced prey capture in the field. Compared to sympatric N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis pitchers secreted more nectar under the lid and less on the peristome, thereby directing prey mainly towards the lid. The direct contribution to prey capture represents a novel function of the pitcher lid.

  4. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Two Bornean Nepenthes Species with Differences in Nitrogen Acquisition Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Wiebke; Grafe, T Ulmar; Meuche, Ivonne; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Keller, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have been studied for over a century, but surprisingly little is known about associations with microorganisms. The two species Nepenthes rafflesiana and Nepenthes hemsleyana differ in their pitcher-mediated nutrient sources, sequestering nitrogen from arthropod prey and arthropods as well as bat faeces, respectively. We expected bacterial communities living in the pitchers to resemble this diet difference. Samples were taken from different parts of the pitchers (leaf, peristome, inside, outside, digestive fluid) of both species. Bacterial communities were determined using culture-independent high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Bacterial richness and community structure were similar in leaves, peristomes, inside and outside walls of both plant species. Regarding digestive fluids, bacterial richness was higher in N. hemsleyana than in N. rafflesiana. Additionally, digestive fluid communities were highly variable in structure, with strain-specific differences in community composition between replicates. Acidophilic taxa were mostly of low abundance, except the genus Acidocella, which strikingly reached extremely high levels in two N. rafflesiana fluids. In N. hemsleyana fluid, some taxa classified as vertebrate gut symbionts as well as saprophytes were enriched compared to N. rafflesiana, with saprophytes constituting potential competitors for nutrients. The high variation in community structure might be caused by a number of biotic and abiotic factors. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were present in both study species, which might provide essential nutrients to the plant at times of low prey capture and/or rare encounters with bats.

  5. Explorative study of tropical pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) types and insects that trapped inside in Sebangau National Park Palangka Raya Central Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestariningsih, Nanik; Setyaningsih, Denik

    2017-01-01

    Pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) is a plant with unique shape either of shades of colors, pouch shape and its capability in catching insects. Pitcher plant (Nepenthes sp.) is one of the plants that protected under Law Number. 5 of 1990 about Conservation of Biological Resources and Ecosystem and Government Regulation Number 7/1999 about Preservation of Plants and Animals. Sebangau National Park is one of representative of peat swamp ecosystem and one of some types of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) habitat. This study aimed to determine the types and diversity levels of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) and the trapped insects inside in Sebangau National and to determine the differences of diversity levels of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) and the trapped insects inside in the opened and closed forest in Sebangau National Park. The research type was conducted descriptive qualitative research. The method used survey method with purpossive sampling technique.The result of the study the number of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) obtained in opened forest were three types consist of Nepenthes mirabilis, Nepenthes rafflesiana and Nepenthes gracilis with two types insects trapped inside those were Diptera ordo and Hymenoptera ordo. While the number of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) obtained in closed forest as many as two types consist of Nepenthes ampullaria and Nepenthes rafflesiana with two type insects trapped inside those were Diptera ordo and Hymenoptera ordo. The results of the analysis calculation pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) species diversity index in opened and closed forest showed lower category. The diversity in row were 1 and 0,45 with H’ criteria ≤ 1 low diversity. The results of the study of insects trapped inside of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) obtained in opened and closed forest showed low category. The diversity in a row were 0,63 and 0,52 with the criteria of H’ ≤ 1 low diversity.

  6. Diversity and Growth Behaviour of Nepenthes (Pitcher Plants in Tanjung Puting National Park, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DODO

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nepenthes is one of the popular genus of pitcher plants. Research on the biodiversity and growth beharviour of Nepenthes spp. in Tanjung Puting National Park was carried out. There were four species studied, namely: N. ampullaria, N. mirabilis N. rafflesiana, and N. x. hookeriana,. There were about 2096 individuals recorded in this study consisting of 1322 N. ampullaria, 1332 N. mirabilis, 141 N. rafflesiana, and 111 N. x. hookeriana. Variation of tendril positions occurred in 1 rosette plant and 3 climbing stems (mature plants of N. ampullaria, 2 rosettes and 9 mature N. mirabilis, 1 rosette and 4 mature N. rafflesiana, 2 rosettes and 2 mature N. x. hookeriana. Their habitats were also very specific. It was noted that 6 species of other plants were grown and associated with the Nepenthes spp.

  7. The effect of surface anisotropy in the slippery zone of Nepenthes alata pitchers on beetle attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Gorb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The slippery zone in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata bears scattered prominent lunate cells and displays continuous epicuticular crystalline wax coverage. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the surface anisotropy, caused by the shape of lunate cells, on insect attachment ability. Traction tests with ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata were performed in two types of experiments, where surface samples of (1 intact pitchers, (2 chemically de-waxed pitchers, and (3 their polymer replicas were placed horizontally. Beetle traction forces were measured when they walked on test surfaces in either an upward (towards the peristome or downward (towards the pitcher bottom direction, corresponding to the upright or inverted positions of the pitcher. On intact pitcher surfaces covered with both lunate cells and wax crystals, experiments showed significantly higher forces in the direction towards the pitcher bottom. To distinguish between the contributions, from claw interlocking and pad adhesion, to insect attachment on the pitcher surfaces, intact versus claw-ablated beetles were used in the second type of experiment. On both de-waxed plant samples and their replicas, intact insects generated much higher forces in the downward direction compared to the upward one, whereas clawless insects did not. These results led to the conclusion that, (i due to the particular shape of lunate cells, the pitcher surface has anisotropic properties in terms of insect attachment, and (ii claws were mainly responsible for attachment enhancement in the downward pitcher direction, since, in this direction, they could interlock with overhanging edges of lunate cells.

  8. Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid viscosity to high prey diversity in a Nepenthes carnivorous plant from Borneo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bruno Di Giusto; Vladimir Grosbois; Elodie Fargeas; David J Marshall; Laurence Gaume

    2008-03-01

    Mechanisms that improve prey richness in carnivorous plants may involve three crucial phases of trapping: attraction, capture and retention. Nepenthes rafflesiana var. typica is an insectivorous pitcher plant that is widespread in northern Borneo. It exhibits ontogenetic pitcher dimorphism with the upper pitchers trapping more flying prey than the lower pitchers. While this difference in prey composition has been ascribed to differences in attraction, the contribution of capture and retention has been overlooked. This study focused on distinguishing between the prey trapping mechanisms, and assessing their relative contribution to prey diversity. Arthropod richness and diversity of both visitors and prey in the two types of pitchers were analysed to quantify the relative contribution of attraction to prey trapping. Rate of insect visits to the different pitcher parts and the presence or absence of a sweet fragrance was recorded to clarify the origin and mechanism of attraction. The mechanism of retention was studied by insect bioassays and measurements of fluid viscosity. Nepenthes rafflesiana was found to trap a broader prey spectrum than that previously described for any Nepenthes species, with the upper pitchers attracting and trapping a greater quantity and diversity of prey items than the lower pitchers. Capture efficiency was low compared with attraction or retention efficiency. Fragrance of the peristome, or nectar rim, accounted mainly for the observed non-specific, better prey attraction by the upper pitchers, while the retentive properties of the viscous fluid in these upper pitchers arguably explains the species richness of their flying prey. The pitchers of N. rafflesiana are therefore more than simple pitfall traps and the digestive fluid plays an important yet unsuspected role in the ecological success of the species.

  9. Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, Elena V; Purtov, Julia; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-03

    The wax coverage of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers consists of two clearly distinguishable layers, designated the upper and lower wax layers. Since these layers were reported to reduce insect attachment, they were considered to have anti-adhesive properties. However, no reliable adhesion tests have been performed with these wax layers. In this study, pull-off force measurements were carried out on both wax layers of the N. alata pitcher and on two reference polymer surfaces using deformable polydimethylsiloxane half-spheres as probes. To explain the results obtained, roughness measurements were performed on test surfaces. Micro-morphology of both surface samples and probes tested was examined before and after experiments. Pull-off forces measured on the upper wax layer were the lowest among surfaces tested. Here, contamination of probes by wax crystals detached from the pitcher surface was found. This suggests that low insect attachment on the upper wax layer is caused primarily by the breaking off of wax crystals from the upper wax layer, which acts as a separation layer between the insect pad and the pitcher surface. High adhesion forces obtained on the lower wax layer are explained by the high deformability of probes and the particular roughness of the substrate.

  10. Composite structure and properties of the pitcher surface of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes and its influence on the insect attachment system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin Wang; Qiang Zhou; Yongjun Zheng; Shuyan Xu

    2009-01-01

    Pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes have evolved specialized organs serving the purpose of attracting,capturing,retaining and digesting small animals,mostly insects.They consist of several well distinguishable zones,including a leaf-like lid,a collar-like peristome,a slippery zone and a digestive zone,differing in morphology,microstructure,chemical composition and physical properties.Discriminating zones display different functions,and the combined effects of several zones result in great trapping efficiency.The principal aim of this review is to introduce the structure and physiochemical properties of the pitcher surface,as well as the interaction between the pitcher surface and the insect attachment systems.Combining with our present study,the potential application of the pitcher surface being utilized in bionics to manufacture insect slippery trapping plates is discussed,and the original research direction of the pitcher surface and its application on agricultural pest control is highlighted.

  11. PITCHER PLANTS RECORDED FROM BRIS FOREST IN JAMBU BONGKOK, KUALA TRENGGANU, MALAYSIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jumaat H Adam; Jumat Salimon; Sahibin Abd Rahim; Marlia Mohd Hanafiah; Nurulhuda Edy Muslim; Abdul Halim Hashim; Abd Rahim Othman; Hafiza Abd Hamid; Gire Kibe Gopir; Lydia M Pilik; Ramlan Omar; Muhammad Barzani Qasim

    2005-01-01

    A dichotomous key and descriptions of the species of pitcher plants recorded from bris forest at Jambu Bongkok is given. Three species of pitcher plants were recognized from the study area. They are Nepenthes rafflesiana, Nepenthes gracilis and Nepenthes mirabilis. These species can easily be identified by their morphological differences. Nepenthes gracilis differed from the other two species in having triangular stem, sessile leaves, winged leaf base, under lid surface of the pitcher sparsely covered with honey glands, inner pitcher cavity wall covered exposed digestive glands and very narrow peristome with the thickness of ≤ 1 cm. On the other hand, Nepenthes rafflesiana and Nepenthes mirabilis have cylindrical stem, stalked leaves, semi-amplexicaul leaf base, under lid surface densely covered with honey glands, inner pitcher cavity wall covered with overarched digestive glands and broad peristome with a thickness of ≥1 cm. Nepenthes rafflesiana can be differentiated from Nepenthes mirabilis by its infundibulate upper pitcher, ellipsoidal lower pitcher, inner pitcher wall cavity wholly covered with digestive glands whereas Nepenthes mirabilis have tublose-ventricose upper and lower pitchers, inner pitcher cavity wall of both pitchers partly covered with digestive glands.

  12. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous Nepenthes plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Buch; W.E. Kaman; F.J. Bikker; A. Yilamujiang; A. Mithöfer

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themse

  13. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous Nepenthes plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, F. (Franziska); W.E. Kaman (Wendy); F.J. Bikker (Floris); Yilamujiang, A. (Ayufu); Mithöfer, A. (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCarnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the p

  14. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous nepenthes plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Buch

    Full Text Available Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep. Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory.

  15. 猪笼草滑移区表面结构参数表征与捕集滑板仿生设计%Dimensions of Surface Structures of Slippery Zone in Nepenthes Pitchers and Bionic Design of Locust Trapping Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 周强; 刘启航

    2011-01-01

    猪笼草(Nepenthes)叶笼滑移区因具有特殊的表面结构而对昆虫表现出良好的滑移功能.利用扫描电子显微镜和三维白光干涉表面形貌仪对滑移区表面结构进行了显微观测并提取了三维结构参数,结果表明滑移区表面主要由两端略向下弯曲的月骨体和致密无序排列的蜡质晶体组成.基于滑移区表面微结构及其三维参数,利用3DSMAX软件设计了蝗虫捕集滑板的表面结构,为具有良好滑移功能的蝗虫捕集滑板的制造提供了理论基础.%The slippery zone of inner pitchers in Nepenthes bears specialized structures to serve the functions of trapping insects. The surface microstructures of slippery zone and its geometrical dimensions were acquired with scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) and scanning white-light interferometer ( SWLI) . The slippery zone consists of plenty of downward-directed lunate cells, as well as relatively dense and irregular wax crystals. Based on the microstructures and the geometrical dimensions, surface structures of slippery trapping plates used in controlling plague locust was designed with 3DSMAX software, and this design provided theoretical foundations for manufacturing slippery trapping plates.

  16. Adaptive radiation with regard to nutrient sequestration strategies in the carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovič, Andrej

    2012-02-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved a great diversity of pitcher morphologies. Selective pressures for maximizing nutrient uptake have driven speciation and diversification of the genus in a process known as adaptive radiation. This leads to the evolution of pitchers adapted to specific and often bizarre source of nutrients, which are not strictly animal-derived. One example is Nepenthes ampullaria with unusual growth pattern and pitcher morphology what enables the plant to capture a leaf litter from the canopy above. We showed that the plant benefits from nitrogen uptake by increased rate of photosynthesis and growth what may provide competitive advantage over others co-habiting plants. A possible impact of such specialization toward hybridization, an important mechanism in speciation, is discussed.

  17. A novel resource-service mutualism between bats and pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafe, T Ulmar; Schöner, Caroline R; Kerth, Gerald; Junaidi, Anissa; Schöner, Michael G

    2011-06-23

    Mutualistic relationships between vertebrates and plants apart from the pollen and seed-dispersal syndromes are rare. At first view, carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes seem to be highly unlikely candidates for mutualistic interactions with animals, as they form dimorphic terrestrial and aerial pitchers that trap arthropods and small vertebrates. Surprisingly, however, the aerial pitchers of Nepenthes rafflesiana variety elongata are poor insect traps, with low amounts of insect-attractive volatile compounds and low amounts of digestive fluid. Here, we show that N. rafflesiana elongata gains an estimated 33.8 per cent of the total foliar nitrogen from the faeces of Hardwicke's woolly bats (Kerivoula hardwickii hardwickii) that exclusively roost in its aerial pitchers. This is the first case in which the faeces-trapping syndrome has been documented in a pitcher plant that attracts bats and only the second case of a mutualistic association between a carnivorous plant and a mammal to date.

  18. Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

    2010-01-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified “toilet pitchers” that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with feces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Feces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species. PMID:20861680

  19. Four New Species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae from the Central Mountains of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines are the main center of diversity for carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus, Nepenthes L. Nepenthes are the largest of all carnivorous plants, and the species with the biggest pitchers are capable of trapping and digesting small amphibians and even mammals. The central cordillera of Mindanao Island in the south of the Philippines is mostly covered with old, primary forest and is the largest remaining cohesive, untouched area of wilderness in the Philippines. In a recent field exploration of two areas of the central cordillera, namely Mount Sumagaya and a section of the Pantaron range, four new taxa of Nepenthes were discovered. These four remarkable new species, N. pantaronensis, N. cornuta, N. talaandig and N. amabilis, are described, illustrated and assessed.

  20. Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) of Halmahera, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Two new paniculate species of Nepenthes, N. halmahera and N. weda, both allied to N. danseri Jebb & Cheek, are described respectively from lowland and lower montane forest on ultramafic substrate. Nepenthes weda appears to be unique in the genus due to the adaxial tepal surfaces which in the distal p

  1. Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants: perspectives and avenues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Charles; Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

    2010-10-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified "toilet pitchers" that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with faeces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Faeces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews, and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species.

  2. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect-plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated (15)N/(14)N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ(15)N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a (15)N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ(15)N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers' trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants' prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant.

  3. SAVING THE PITCHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Carroll

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This hardcover book introduces and updates the average fan as well as coaches, trainers, pitchers, biomechanical experts and such people to the theory and practice of analyzing the mechanics of pitching and preventing the possible injuries as a result. The book addresses different aspects of pitcher conditioning, mechanics, workload, abuse and avoiding injury. It also brings some controversial ideas into the world of baseball.

  4. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S; Amoroso, Victor B

    2016-05-06

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the-for Nepenthes-unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  5. Insectivore Plants Nepenthes sp. at Mount Merbabu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to know the existence of the Nepenthes at mount Merbabu, variations of its morphology, associated plants, and ecological conditions. Nepenthes are one of plants that were categorized as conserved plant by Indonesian government as indicated in PPRI No. 7/1999. Many researchers attracted to study this unique plant since it’s distinct feature and the way to get nutrient by trapping insects at its sac. Samples were taken randomly along the path for climbing from Selo, Boyolali to the top of the mountain between April to May 2000. The results show that the plants were found at the altitude of around 1500 to 2000 tsl. There were two forms of the sacs, long and short at the same individual plants. The plants grow coiling on Myristica trees and shrubs of Thunbergia fragrans Roxb., and also could grow at the stoned-soil.

  6. Nepenthes ultra (Nepenthaceae), a new species from Luzon, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheek, M.; Jebb, M.

    2013-01-01

    Nepenthes ultra is described from low altitude, ultramafic coastal scrub in Luzon, Philippines. It is placed in the Nepenthes alata group and is assessed as Endangered using the IUCN 2001 standard. Open cast mining and touristic development are threats to this species.

  7. Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, M R; Borsa, P A; Lephart, S M; Fu, F H; Warner, J J

    2001-01-01

    We examined proprioceptive differences between the dominant and nondominant shoulders of 21 collegiate baseball pitchers without a history of shoulder instability or surgery. A proprioceptive testing device was used to measure kinesthesia and joint position sense. Joint position sense was significantly (P =.05) more accurate in the nondominant shoulder than in the dominant shoulder when starting at 75% of maximal external rotation and moving into internal rotation. There were no significant differences for proprioception in the other measured positions or with kinesthesia testing. Six pitchers with recent shoulder pain had a significant (P =.04) kinesthetic deficit in the symptomatic dominant shoulder compared with the asymptomatic shoulder, as measured in neutral rotation moving into internal rotation. The net effect of training, exercise-induced laxity, and increased external rotation in baseball pitchers does not affect proprioception, although shoulder pain, possibly due to rotator cuff inflammation or tendinitis, is associated with reduced kinesthetic sensation.

  8. Nepenthes samar (Nepenthaceae), a new species from Samar, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheek, M.; Jebb, M.

    2013-01-01

    Nepenthes samar is described from the island of Samar in the Visayas of the Philippines. Similar to N. merrilliana of Mindanao, it is distinguished on foliar and floral characteristics and assessed as Critically Endangered using the IUCN 2001 standard.

  9. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.. Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  10. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos. PMID:27164153

  11. Continuous directional water transport on the peristome surface of Nepenthes alata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Liwen; Liu, Hongliang; Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Deyuan; Han, Zhiwu; Jiang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Numerous natural systems contain surfaces or threads that enable directional water transport. This behaviour is usually ascribed to hierarchical structural features at the microscale and nanoscale, with gradients in surface energy and gradients in Laplace pressure thought to be the main driving forces. Here we study the prey-trapping pitcher organs of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata. We find that continuous, directional water transport occurs on the surface of the ‘peristome’—the rim of the pitcher—because of its multiscale structure, which optimizes and enhances capillary rise in the transport direction, and prevents backflow by pinning in place any water front that is moving in the reverse direction. This results not only in unidirectional flow despite the absence of any surface-energy gradient, but also in a transport speed that is much higher than previously thought. We anticipate that the basic ‘design’ principles underlying this behaviour could be used to develop artificial fluid-transport systems with practical applications.

  12. Wildlife Conservation in Bornean Timber Concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Stanley

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extensive review of the literature, and broad consultation with experts, we have assessed the sensitivity of Bornean vertebrates to the direct and indirect effects of timber harvest. Well-implemented selective logging has a relatively limited direct impact on wildlife populations: few species appear quite sensitive, some benefit, some decline. However, current management practices in Indonesian Borneo generally cause a decline in wildlife populations. Guidelines for sustainable forest management are primarily focused on trees, with few specific recommendations on how to sustainably manage wildlife populations in timber concessions. Based on our findings, we provide extensive wildlife management guidelines, pointing out the importance of maintaining understory vegetation and large trees for fruit, seed, dead wood, and tree hollow production, limiting canopy gaps, and reducing hunting and wildlife trade in concessions. In addition, we provide specific management advice on high priority species of Bornean vertebrates.

  13. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomito, Matthew J; Ferreria, Joel V; Nissen, Carl W

    2016-06-02

    Left-handed baseball pitchers are thought to have a number of theoretical advantages compared to right-handed pitchers; however, there is limited scientific research detailing differences in the pitching mechanics of right- and left-handed pitchers. Therefore, this study sought to understand whether any kinematic and kinetic differences existed between right- and left-handed baseball pitchers. A total of 52 collegiate pitchers were included in this study; 26 left-handed pitchers were compared to 26 age-, height-, weight- and ball velocity-matched right-handed pitchers. Demographic information, passive shoulder range of motion and kinematic and kinetic data were obtained for each pitcher participating in the study. Results indicated that left-handed pitchers did not have a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit as compared to right-handed pitchers. Kinematic analysis indicated that elbow flexion, horizontal glenohumeral abduction and wrist coronal plane motion were significantly different between the two study cohorts. It was also noted that left-handed pitchers had increased elbow varus moments. The findings of this study suggest that pitching coaches should be aware that there are biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed pitchers.

  14. Sylvatic transmission of arboviruses among Bornean orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, N D; Kilbourn, A M; Karesh, W B; Rahman, H A; Bosi, E J; Cropp, B C; Andau, M; Spielman, A; Gubler, D J

    2001-01-01

    Wild populations of nonhuman primates live in regions of sylvatic arbovirus transmission. To assess the status of arbovirus transmission in Bornean forests and the susceptibility of wild orangutans to arboviral infection, blood samples of wild orangutans, semi-captive orangutans, and humans were examined. Samples were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test for antibodies to viruses representing three families (Flaviviridae, Alphaviridae, and Bunyaviridae), including dengue-2, Japanese encephalitis, Zika, Langat, Tembusu, Sindbis, Chikungunya, and Batai viruses. Both wild and semi-captive orangutan groups as well as local human populations showed serologic evidence of arbovirus infection. The presence of neutralizing antibodies among wild orangutans strongly suggests the existence of sylvatic cycles for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and sindbis viruses in North Borneo. The present study demonstrates that orangutans are susceptible to arboviralinfections in the wild, although the impact of arboviral infections on this endangered ape remain unknown.

  15. Glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchetti, E T; Weidner, Z; Lawrence, J T R; Sennett, B J; Huffman, G R

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about outcomes of glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We hypothesized that following repair, pitching performance would not be significantly different from an uninjured cohort. Fifty-one pitchers were identified who pitched in at least one MLB game prior to undergoing isolated glenoid labral repair. For the three years prior to and following surgery, demographic and performance variables were analyzed for an association with labral injury and repair, and compared to a control cohort of MLB pitchers without history of repair. Following surgery, 72.5% of pitchers returned to MLB at a mean of 13.1 months with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers had a higher risk of labral injury requiring repair (p< or =0.05). Pitchers that returned to play averaged more innings pitched in the seasons prior to surgery and had a higher body mass index than those that did not return to play (p< or =0.05). Approximately 70% of MLB pitchers undergoing labral repair can be expected to return to competition postoperatively with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers are more likely to undergo repair, but pitchers with greater preoperative innings pitched per season have a greater likelihood of returning to play.

  16. Geological Cartography of Inner Materials of an Impact Crater on Nepenthes Mensae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, A.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    We present the geological map and a brief description of the materials, its geological history and an approach to their astrobiological and exopaleontological implications from sedimentary materials located into impact crater, in Nepenthes Mensae, Mars.

  17. Slippery liquid-infused porous surface bio-inspired by pitcher plant for marine anti-biofouling application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Lu, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Marine biofouling, caused by the adhesion of microorganism, is a worldwide problem in marine systems. In this research work, slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS), inspired by Nepenthes pitcher plant, was constructed over aluminum for marine anti-biofouling application. The as-fabricated SLIPS was characterized with SEM, AFM, and contact angle meter. Its anti-biofouling performance was evaluated with settlement experiment of a typical marine biofouling organism Chlorella vulgaris in both static and dynamic conditions. The effect of solid substrate micro-structure on anti-biofouling property of SLIPS was studied. It was suggested that the micro-structure with low length scale and high degree of regularity should be considered for designing stable SLIPS with exceptional anti-biofouling property. The liquid-like property is proven to be the main contributor for the exceptional anti-biofouling performance of SLIPS in both static and dynamic conditions. The low roughness, which facilitates removing the settled C. vulgaris under shear force, is also a main contributor for the anti-biofouling performance of SLIPS in dynamic condition.

  18. Hip and Shoulder Range of Motion in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H

    2016-10-01

    Oliver, GD and Weimar, WH. Hip and shoulder range of motion in youth baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2823-2827, 2016-Lack of range of motion (ROM) has long been suspected as contributing to injury in baseball pitchers. However, all previous ROM research has focused on collegiate and professional pitchers. It was thus the purpose of this study to measure and evaluate bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational passive range of motion (PROM) in youth baseball pitchers. Twenty-six youth baseball pitchers (11.3 ± 1.0 years; 152.4 ± 9.0 cm; 47.5 ± 11.3 kg) with no history of injury participated. Bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational PROM was measured. There were no significant side-to-side differences for the hip variables (p ≥ 0.05). Shoulder external rotation (ER) was significantly greater than shoulder internal rotation (IR). And the lead leg hip had significantly greater ER than IR. Shoulder ER revealed significant correlations with both lead and stance hip IR (r = 0.45, p = 0.02 and r = 0.48, p = 0.01, respectively). The youth baseball pitchers in this study displayed similar PROM patterns as collegiate and professional baseball pitchers. Additionally, our youth baseball pitchers also presented strong relationships between hip and shoulder PROM. This study reveals that the PROM patterns displayed by these youth may indicate that their available ROM could survive maturation. It is therefore suggested that clinical focus be directed to maintaining hip and shoulder rotational ROM throughout maturation in attempt to determine a possible relations between injurious mechanisms and performance enhancement.

  19. Prevention of Elbow Injuries in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although baseball is a relatively safe sport, numerous reports suggest a rapid rise in elbow injury rate among youth baseball pitchers. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanical, and clinical studies of elbow injuries in baseball (keywords: “youth OR adolescent” AND baseball AND pitching AND “ulnar collateral ligament OR elbow”; published January 2000 – April 2012). Studies with relevance to youth baseball pitchers were reviewed. Relevant references f...

  20. Systematic studies of Bornean Zingiberaceae V. Zingiberoideae of Lambir Hills, Sarawak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, S.; Nagamasu, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the subfamily Zingiberoideae (Zingiberaceae) of Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Twelve species representing Boesenbergia, Globba, and Zingiber are recorded. Systematic and ecological notes are provided, and the key to the Bornean species of Boesenbergia is updated.

  1. Effects of Game Performance on Softball Pitchers and Catchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary A; Washington, Jessie; Weimar, Wendi H; Brambeck, Allison

    2017-02-21

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of game exposure on pitchers and catchers' hip and glenohumeral range of motion (ROM), isometric strength, and vertical jump performance and power. Five college female softball pitchers (174.24 ± 7.53 cm; 82.10 ± 11.27 kg; 20 ± 1.82 years) and four catchers (165.10 ± 9.04 kg; 68.61 ± 3.87 cm; 20 ± 1.41 years) participated. Hip and glenohumeral rotational ROM; hip and glenohumeral rotational isometric strength; hip abduction and adduction strength; and vertical jump height were assessed pre and post-game exposure. The catchers displayed significantly greater throwing side hip IR ROM (Mean Difference = +6.88°, p=0.03) post-game exposure, while the pitchers exhibited less IR (Mean Difference = -2.02%, p = .013) and ER (Mean Difference = -1.95%, p = .026) strength in the non-throwing side hip pre versus post-game exposure. The performance demands of pitchers and catchers vary greatly, causing position specific decreases/increases in various tests following game performance. Pitchers exhibited significant decreases in non-throwing side hip IR and ER strength. In catchers, throwing side hip IR range of motion significantly increased following game exposure. Further evaluation of ROM, strength, and power is necessary as it is unknown how these changes following a game affect sports performance or risk of injury.

  2. Kinematics and Kinetics of Youth Baseball Catchers and Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the throwing kinematics and kinetics of youth catchers and pitchers. It was hypothesized that catchers and pitchers would exhibit differences throughout the throwing motion. Descriptive statistics were used to investigate kinematics during the four events of throwing: foot contact (FC, maximum shoulder external rotation (MER, ball release (BR and maximum shoulder internal rotation (MIR. Additionally, kinetics were investigated within phases of the events: Phase 1 (cocking; FC to MER, Phase 2 (acceleration; MER to BR and Phase 3 (deceleration; BR to MIR. Results revealed significant difference in torso flexion, lateral flexion, pelvis lateral flexion and segment velocities between the catchers and pitchers. Based on data from the current study, it appears that the youth catchers execute their throw as they have been instructed. It is unclear if the throwing mechanics displayed by these youth are efficient for a catcher, thus further investigation is needed to determine long-term injury susceptibility.

  3. Medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Fronek, Jan [Scripps Healthcare, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    We report the occurrence of a medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher. To our knowledge, this fracture has not been described in the literature, and awareness of this entity allows initiation of therapy and precludes further unnecessary work-up. The radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging appearances are reviewed and the mechanism of injury is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Differences in hip range of motion among collegiate pitchers when compared to youth and professional baseball pitcher data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Scott W.; Shimamura, Kathryn Kumagai; Kolber, Morey J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure passive hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM) in collegiate baseball pitchers and compare to published youth and professional values. Measures were taken on the bilateral hips of 29 participants (mean age 20.0±1.4, range 18–22 years). Results identified no significant differences between the stance and stride hip in collegiate right handed pitchers for IR (p= 0.22, ES 0.23) and ER (p=.08, ES= 0.25). There was no significant difference in left handed pitchers for IR (p= 0.80, ES= 0.11) and ER (p= 0.56, ES= 0.15). When comparing youth to collegiate, IR increased in the stance (2º) and stride (5º) hip and an increase in the stance (5º) and stride (5º) hip were present for ER as well. From collegiate to professional, IR increased in the stance (4º) and stride (3º) hip whereas a decrease in the stance (9º) and stride (12º) hip was present for ER. The data suggests an increase in passive ROM from youth to collegiate and a decrease from collegiate to professional. Understanding passive hip ROM values among the different levels of pitchers may assist clinicians in developing time dependent interventions to prevent future injury and enhance performance. PMID:27713579

  5. Meat-eating by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Benjamin J W; Dench, Rosalie J; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Bustani, Unyil; Chivers, David J

    2015-10-01

    We present the first evidence for consumption of meat by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Meat-eating has been reported in Sumatran orang-utans, specifically the hunting and consumption of slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), but loris-hunting behaviour has not been observed in the Bornean species and meat of any species is essentially absent from their diet, with only two anecdotal reports of vertebrate meat consumption prior to this current finding in over 40 years of study. In August 2012 an unhabituated adult flanged male orang-utan was observed eating an adult horse-tailed squirrel (Sundasciurus hippurus) carcass in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. We suspect this to be a case of scavenging, never reported previously in a Bornean orang-utan.

  6. Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  7. Carbon allocation in a Bornean tropical rainforest without dry seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Kume, Tomonori; Komatsu, Hikaru; Saitoh, Taku M; Ohashi, Mizue; Nakagawa, Michiko; Suzuki, Masakazu; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2013-07-01

    To clarify characteristics of carbon (C) allocation in a Bornean tropical rainforest without dry seasons, gross primary production (GPP) and C allocation, i.e., above-ground net primary production (ANPP), aboveground plant respiration (APR), and total below-ground carbon flux (TBCF) for the forest were examined and compared with those from Amazonian tropical rainforests with dry seasons. GPP (30.61 MgC ha(-1) year(-1), eddy covariance measurements; 34.40 MgC ha(-1) year(-1), biometric measurements) was comparable to those for Amazonian rainforests. ANPP (6.76 MgC ha(-1) year(-1)) was comparable to, and APR (8.01 MgC ha(-1) year(-1)) was slightly lower than, their respective values for Amazonian rainforests, even though aboveground biomass was greater at our site. TBCF (19.63 MgC ha(-1) year(-1)) was higher than those for Amazonian forests. The comparable ANPP and higher TBCF were unexpected, since higher water availability would suggest less fine root competition for water, giving higher ANPP and lower TBCF to GPP. Low nutrient availability may explain the comparable ANPP and higher TBCF. These data show that there are variations in C allocation patterns among mature tropical rainforests, and the variations cannot be explained solely by differences in soil water availability.

  8. Medial collateral ligament reconstruction in the baseball Pitcher's elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erne, Holger C; Zouzias, Ioannis C; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2009-08-01

    Pitchers are prone to elbow injuries because of high and repetitive valgus stresses on the elbow. The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MCL) of the elbow is the primary restraint and is often attenuated with time, leading to functional incompetence and ultimate failure. Pitchers with a history of medial elbow pain, reduced velocity, and loss of command may have an MCL injury in evolution. Physical examination and imaging can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment begins with rest and activity modification. All medial elbow pain is not MCL injury. Surgery is considered only for talented athletes who wish to return to competitive play and may include elite scholastic and other collegiates and professionals. The technique for MCL reconstruction was first described in 1986. Many variations have been offered since then, which can result in predictable outcomes, allowing many to return to the same level of competitive play.

  9. Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term Pitcher Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013. The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114. With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.

  10. Pitching Speed and Glenohumeral Adaptation in High School Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-08-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation are common findings in baseball pitchers. To the authors' knowledge, no study has focused on the adaptation of glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation in relation to pitching speed. This study evaluated changes in range of motion in the throwing shoulder in high school pitchers to determine whether changes in internal and external rotation directly correlate with pitch velocity. The shoulders of 22 high school varsity pitchers were evaluated. Standard goniometric technique was used to measure passive external and internal glenohumeral range of motion in both arms. Measurements were evaluated for statistically significant differences in range of motion. Demographic features, including height, weight, and age, were assessed. Fifteen consecutive in-game pitch speeds were recorded, and the fastest pitch was used for evaluation. Pitch speeds were correlated to the player's glenohumeral internal rotational deficit, increased glenohumeral external rotation, and physical demographics. Average age was 16.9 years. Average external rotation of the throwing arm was significantly greater than that of the nonthrowing arm (143.00° vs 130.32°, P=.005). Average internal rotation of the throwing arm was significantly less than that of the nonthrowing arm (49.50° vs 65.90°, P=.006). Both shoulders had similar total arc of motion (throwing shoulder, 192.54; nonthrowing shoulder, 196.23; P=.822). Average maximum velocity was 77.7 mph (maximum, 88 mph; minimum, 66 mph). Maximum pitch velocity did not correlate with changes in glenohumeral internal rotational deficit (P=.683) or increased glenohumeral external rotation (P=.241). There was also no evidence of correlation between pitch velocity and player age, height, weight, or dominant hand. The stress of pitching creates adaptations to the throwing shoulder, even in young athletes. There appears to be

  11. Bornean freshwater crabs of the genus Arachnothelphusa gen. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1991-01-01

    A new genus, Arachnothelphusa gen. nov., is established for five species of Bornean freshwater crabs (Gecarcinucidae) previously placed in Thelphusula Bott, 1969. One species from Sabah, A. terrapes, is here described as new. The genus is characterised by its long ambulatory legs, shape of the carap

  12. A New Cembrane Diterpene from the Bornean Soft Coral Nephthea sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ishii

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new cembrane diterpene, 6-acetoxy-7,8-epoxynephthenol acetate (1 was isolated along with a known compound, epoxynephthenol acetate (2, from the organic extract of a Bornean soft coral Nephthea sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and comparison with those previous literature data.

  13. Gluteus medius and scapula muscle activations in youth baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H; Plummer, Hillary A

    2015-06-01

    The baseball pitching motion is a total kinetic chain activity that must efficiently use both the upper and lower extremity. Of particular importance is the scapular motion, which is critical for humeral positioning and proper alignment of shoulder musculature. It was hypothesized that scapular stability is enhanced by pelvic girdle stability. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to determine the muscle activations of selected pelvic and scapular stabilizing muscles during a fastball pitch in youth baseball pitchers. Twenty youth baseball pitchers (age: 11.3 + 1.0 years; height: 152.4 + 9.0 cm; weight: 47.5 + 11.3 kg) were recorded throwing 4-seam fastballs for strikes. Data revealed moderate (20-39% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) to moderately strong (>40% MVIC) activation of the ipsilateral (throwing arm side) gluteus medius, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior throughout phases 2 (maximum shoulder external rotation to ball release) and 3 (ball release to maximum shoulder internal rotation). Moderately strong activation (>40% MVIC) of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior was noted during phases 2 and 3 of the pitching motion. Pearson's product-moment correlation revealed significant relationships between bilateral gluteus medius and the force couples about the scapula during all 3 phases of the pitching motion. The results of this study provide important data that improve the understanding of the muscular relationship between the pelvic and scapular stabilizers during the fastball pitch. Training and rehabilitation programs should consider focusing on lumbopelvic-hip and scapular muscle strengthening as well as coordinated strengthening of the pelvic and scapular stabilizers, in baseball pitchers.

  14. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility.

  15. Characterization of novel polyomaviruses from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, Marlous J; Fagrouch, Zahra; van Gessel, Sabine; Niphuis, Henk; Bulavaite, Aiste; Warren, Kristin S; Heeney, Jonathan L; Verschoor, Ernst J

    2010-03-01

    Serological screening of sera from orang-utans demonstrated a high percentage of sera that cross-reacted with antigens of the polyomavirus (PyV) simian virus 40. Analysis of archival DNA samples from 71 Bornean and eight Sumatran orang-utans with a broad-spectrum PCR assay resulted in the detection of PyV infections in 11 animals from both species. Sequence analysis of the amplicons revealed considerable differences between the PyVs from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans. The genome from two PyVs, one from each species, was therefore amplified and sequenced. Both viral genomes revealed a characteristic PyV architecture, but lacked an obvious agnogene. Neighbour-joining analysis positioned the viruses in a large cluster together with viruses from bats, bovines, rodents and several primate PyVs from chimpanzees, African green monkeys, squirrel monkeys and the human Merkel cell PyV.

  16. Elbow Joint Active Replication in College Pitchers Following Simulated Game Throwing

    OpenAIRE

    Manske, Robert; Stovak, Mark; Cox, Kara; Smith, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elbow injuries are common in college baseball players. Pitching creates stress and fatigue in and around the elbow. Lack of joint proprioception can contribute to nonphysiological joint loading and injury. Hypothesis: There will be no difference in elbow joint active reproduction sense following a simulated 3-inning pitching sequence. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Seventeen collegiate pitchers participated. Each pitcher was bilaterally tested for active elbow range...

  17. Contribution of aboveground plant respiration to carbon cycling in a Bornean tropical rainforet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Tanaka, Kenzo; Ichie, Tomoaki; Kume, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ohashi, Mizue; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-05-01

    Bornean tropical rainforests have a different characteristic from Amazonian tropical rainforests, that is, larger aboveground biomass caused by higher stand density of large trees. Larger biomass may cause different carbon cycling and allocation pattern. However, there are fewer studies on carbon allocation and each component in Bornean tropical rainforests, especially for aboveground plant respiration, compared to Amazonian forests. In this study, we measured woody tissue respiration and leaf respiration, and estimated those in ecosystem scale in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Then, we examined carbon allocation using the data of soil respiration and aboveground net primary production obtained from our previous studies. Woody tissue respiration rate was positively correlated with diameter at breast height (dbh) and stem growth rate. Using the relationships and biomass data, we estimated woody tissue respiration in ecosystem scale though methods of scaling resulted in different estimates values (4.52 - 9.33 MgC ha-1 yr-1). Woody tissue respiration based on surface area (8.88 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was larger than those in Amazon because of large aboveground biomass (563.0 Mg ha-1). Leaf respiration rate was positively correlated with height. Using the relationship and leaf area density data at each 5-m height, leaf respiration in ecosystem scale was estimated (9.46 MgC ha-1 yr-1), which was similar to those in Amazon because of comparable LAI (5.8 m2 m-2). Gross primary production estimated from biometric measurements (44.81 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was much higher than those in Amazon, and more carbon was allocated to woody tissue respiration and total belowground carbon flux. Large tree with dbh > 60cm accounted for about half of aboveground biomass and aboveground biomass increment. Soil respiration was also related to position of large trees, resulting in high soil respiration rate in this study site. Photosynthesis ability of top canopy for large trees was high and leaves for

  18. Cohabitation Study of the Leaf Monkey and Bornean White-Bearded Gibbons in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANTO SANTOSA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet and habitat overlaps were studied for the leaf monkey (Presbytis rubicunda and bornean white-bearded gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis in tropical forest of Cabang Panti Research Station (CPRS, Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan. Systematic data on feeding and ranging behaviour were collected from August 2009 up to February 2010 for the three groups of two sympatric primate species that shared two neighbouring patches. Our results showed that seven types of habitat in CPRS were affected to both primates, particularly in plant utilization for feed and the use of vertical space patterns. If the leaf monkeys were present in the same forest patch, the Bornean white-bearded gibbons showed a reduced within-group dispersal and significantly less foraging time in a given forest patch. This might be due to the bornean white-bearded gibbons were more selective in their diet selection. When fruits were scarce, bornean white-bearded gibbons spent most of their foraging time in many types of forest ecosystem, while leaf monkey foraged within one or two types of forest ecosystem. At this period, diet and habitat overlaps between the two species were low. When the availability of fruits increased, leaf monkeys shifted their foraging range and both species became confined to the forest habitat. Consequently, the overlaps of diets and habitats were increased while the peak was at the end of the fruit season.

  19. The Bornean genus Hypobathrum (Rubiaceae. An investi-gation of its characters and taxonomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri - Mulyaningsih

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available MULYANINGSIH, TRI. & RIDSDALE, C. E. 2002. The Bornean genus Hypobathrum (Rubiaceae. An investi-gation of its characters and taxonomic status. Reinwardtia 12(1: 95–116. ⎯ The investigation on the characters and taxonomic status of the Bornean genus Hypobathrum was based on morphological observations of 140 specimens in Herbarium Borgoriense. The present study shows that there are 24 species that can be recognised. There are six species already placed in the genus (H. frutescens, H. longifolium, H. microcarpum, H. racemosum, H. salicinum and H. venulosum, three species require new combinations (H. coniocarpum, H. gracile, and H. rufidulum, one species requires a new combination and a new status (H. hirtum, a new name in Hypobathrum is required for one species (H. lancifolium. In the present study twelve new species are proposed (H. bangueyense, H. caudifolium, H. collinum, H. ellipticifolium, H. glaberrimum, H. glabrum, H. lithophilum, H. palustre, H. rheophy-ticum, H. riparium, H. sampitense, and H. subulatum. In addition, one incompletely known species is mentioned.

  20. Change in pitching biomechanics in the late-inning in Taiwanese high school baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei-Hsi Chou, Paul; Huang, Yen-Po; Gu, Yi-Hsuan; Liu, Chiang; Chen, Shen-Kai; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive overhead throwing may result in overuse injuries and a change in the pitching mechanics of a baseball pitcher. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in the muscle strength and pitching motion kinematics in the late-innings stage of a baseball game. Sixteen healthy baseball pitchers (16.77 ± 0.73 years) recruited from a high school, which won the National High School Baseball Championship in Taiwan in 2011; each performed 100 pitches in a bullpen throwing session. Isometric muscle strength measurements and joint kinematic data were obtained before and after the throwing session. The mean Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion index was found to have a value of 14.14, indicating a medium-to-large degree of perceived tiredness. The results showed that the ball velocity and horizontal abduction angle decreased significantly as the pitchers became tired. Moreover, the upper torso forward tilt and knee flexion angle both increased significantly at the moment of ball release. Finally, the muscle strength of the upper extremity remained decreased 2 days after the bullpen throwing session. Overall, the results suggest that an adequate amount of rest and specific strengthening programs for the shoulder external rotator, shoulder internal rotator, shoulder flexor, shoulder extensor, shoulder adductor, and shoulder abductor muscles are recommended to the coaches and for adolescent baseball pitchers. In addition, the changes in pitching mechanics noted in this study should be carefully monitored during the course of a baseball game to minimize the risk for overuse injuries.

  1. Hand Blisters in Major League Baseball Pitchers: Current Concepts and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Andrew R; Ensell, Scott; Farley, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Friction blisters are a common sequela of many athletic activities. Their significance can range from minor annoyance to major performance disruptions. The latter is particularly true in baseball pitchers, who sustain repeated trauma between the baseball seams and the fingers of the pitching hand, predominately at the tips of the index and long fingers. Since 2010, 6 Major League Baseball (MLB) players accounted for 7 stints on the disabled list (DL) due to blisters. These injuries resulted in a total of 151 days spent on the DL. Since 2012, 8 minor league players spent time on the DL due to blisters. Moreover, there have been several documented and publicized instances of professional baseball pitchers suffering blisters that did not require placement on the DL but did result in injury time and missed starts. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology and pathophysiology of friction blisters with particular reference to baseball pitchers; provide an overview of past and current prevention methods; and discuss our experience in treating friction blisters in MLB pitchers.

  2. Home range and ranging behaviour of Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Alfred

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Home range is defined as the extent and location of the area covered annually by a wild animal in its natural habitat. Studies of African and Indian elephants in landscapes of largely open habitats have indicated that the sizes of the home range are determined not only by the food supplies and seasonal changes, but also by numerous other factors including availability of water sources, habitat loss and the existence of man-made barriers. The home range size for the Bornean elephant had never been investigated before. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The first satellite tracking program to investigate the movement of wild Bornean elephants in Sabah was initiated in 2005. Five adult female elephants were immobilized and neck collars were fitted with tracking devices. The sizes of their home range and movement patterns were determined using location data gathered from a satellite tracking system and analyzed by using the Minimum Convex Polygon and Harmonic Mean methods. Home range size was estimated to be 250 to 400 km(2 in a non-fragmented forest and 600 km(2 in a fragmented forest. The ranging behavior was influenced by the size of the natural forest habitat and the availability of permanent water sources. The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation. Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas. Therefore movement rate in fragmented forest was higher than in the non-fragmented forest. Finally, in fragmented habitat human and elephant conflict occurrences were likely to be higher, due to increased movement bringing elephants into contact more often with humans.

  3. In-Game Heart Rate Responses Among Professional Baseball Starting Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, David J; Paxson, Jeffrey L; Caplinger, Roger A; Seligman, Joshua R; Davis, Nicholas A; Flees, Robert J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2017-01-01

    Cornell, DJ, Paxson, JL, Caplinger, RA, Seligman, JR, Davis, NA, Flees, RJ, and Ebersole, KT. In-game heart rate responses among professional baseball starting pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 24-29, 2017-The purpose of the current study was to characterize the in-game heart rate (HR) responses of baseball pitching. In-game HR was recorded from 16 professional baseball starting pitchers (mean ± SD, age = 22.1 ± 1.3 years; height = 187.9 ± 4.4 cm; weight = 90.5 ± 9.5 kg) for a total of 682 innings (home = 381, away = 301). All analyzed HR data were then normalized to each pitcher's age-predicted maximal HR (%HRmax). The group mean ± SD in-game %HRmax among all pitchers was 84.8 ± 3.9%, suggesting that baseball pitching is predominantly an anaerobic task. A split-plot mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variance identified a significant interaction effect between inning and game location (p = 0.042). Follow-up simple effects indicated that the in-game %HRmax was significantly different across innings, but only during home starts (p game %HRmax during home starts were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the first and second innings than in all other innings. In addition, follow-up simple effects indicated that the in-game %HRmax was significantly (p = 0.017) higher during home starts than away starts in the first inning (87.3 ± 3.6% vs. 85.8 vs. 3.8%, respectively). Thus, it is possible that inning-dependent psychological factors may have contributed to the observed changes in in-game physiological intensity across innings and that these factors are specific to game location. Consequently, strength and conditioning practitioners should prescribe high-intensity exercises when developing conditioning programs for professional baseball starting pitchers.

  4. Nepenthes khasiana mediated synthesis of stabilized gold nanoparticles: Characterization and biocompatibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamecha, Dinesh; Jalalpure, Sunil; Jadhav, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    The current study summarizes a unique green process for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by simple treatment of gold salts with aqueous extract of Nepenthes khasiana (NK)--a red listed medicinal plant and its characterization. Study on the effect of different process parameters like temperature, pH and stirring on surface and stability characteristics has been demonstrated. Formation of GNPs was visually observed by change in color from colorless to wine red and characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, Zetasizer, X-RD, ICP-AES, SEM-EDAX, AFM and TEM. In vitro stability studies of gold colloidal dispersion in various blood components suggest that, NK mediated GNPs exhibit remarkable in vitro stability in 2% bovine serum albumin, 2% human serum albumin (HSA), 0.2M histidine, and 0.2M cysteine but unstable in 5% NaCl solution and acidic pH. Biocompatibility of NK stabilized GNPs against normal mouse fibroblasts (L929) cell lines revealed nontoxic nature of GNPs and thus provides exceptional opportunities for their uses as nanomedicine for diagnosis and drug therapy. The role of antioxidant phytochemicals (flavonoids and polyphenols) of NK extract in synthesis of biocompatible and stabilized GNPs was demonstrated by estimating total flavonoid content, total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of extract before and after formation of GNPs. Fast and easy synthesis of biocompatible GNPs possesses unique physical and chemical features which serve as an advantage for its use in various biomedical applications. The overall approach designated in the present research investigation for the synthesis of GNPs is based on all 12 principles of green chemistry, in which no man-made chemical other than the gold chloride was used.

  5. Effects of a Simulated Game on Muscle Activation in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H; Henning, Lisa E

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that playing with fatigue is a primary predictor of injury in youth baseball because muscular fatigue is believed to alter mechanics during the arm cocking and acceleration phases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe gluteal and upper extremity muscle activations in youth baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-three youth baseball players (11.2 ± 0.8 years; 151.4 ± 8.7 cm; 47.5 ± 10.8 kg) participated. Data were collected through a Delsys Bagnoli-8-channel electromyography system. Single differential electrodes (interelectrode distance: 10 mm) were attached to the bilateral gluteus maximus and medius and throwing side latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior and upper trapezius. After warm-up, participants were instructed to throw randomly provided game situations over a regulation distance (46 feet; 14.02 meters) to a catcher. Three, 4-seam fastballs for strikes, thrown in the first and last innings of the simulated game were selected for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences in muscle activity at the 3 phases of the throw, between first and last innings of the simulated game with an observed power of 0.274 (phase 1: foot contact to maximum shoulder external rotation), 0.297 (phase 2: maximum shoulder external rotation to ball release), and 0.226 (phase 3: ball release to maximum shoulder internal rotation). Examining muscle activations as a pitcher approaches fatigue provides information on how long a pitcher can perform before mechanical alterations occur. Although this study did not reveal significant changes, it did reiterate the fact that pitch counts may be working in possibly preventing a youth pitcher throwing to fatigue.

  6. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s-1 and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s-1. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching.

  7. Proteomic characterization of the major arthropod associates of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Smith, Aidan M; Ellison, Aaron M; Ballif, Bryan A

    2011-06-01

    The array of biomolecules generated by a functioning ecosystem represents both a potential resource for sustainable harvest and a potential indicator of ecosystem health and function. The cupped leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, harbor a dynamic food web of aquatic invertebrates in a fully functional miniature ecosystem. The energetic base of this food web consists of insect prey, which is shredded by aquatic invertebrates and decomposed by microbes. Biomolecules and metabolites produced by this food web are actively exchanged with the photosynthesizing plant. In this report, we provide the first proteomic characterization of the sacrophagid fly (Fletcherimyia fletcheri), the pitcher plant mosquito (Wyeomyia smithii), and the pitcher-plant midge (Metriocnemus knabi). These three arthropods act as predators, filter feeders, and shredders at distinct trophic levels within the S. purpurea food web. More than 50 proteins from each species were identified, ten of which were predominantly or uniquely found in one species. Furthermore, 19 peptides unique to one of the three species were identified using an assembled database of 100 metazoan myosin heavy chain orthologs. These molecular signatures may be useful in species monitoring within heterogeneous ecosystem biomass and may also serve as indicators of ecosystem state.

  8. Anconeus epitrochlearis as a source of medial elbow pain in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinning; Dines, Joshua S; Gorman, Matthew; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph; Yocum, Lou

    2012-07-01

    Medial elbow pain is reported in 18% to 69% of baseball players aged of 9 and 19 years. This is due to the large valgus stresses focused on the medial side of the elbow during overhead activities. In overhead throwers and pitchers, pain can be attributed to valgus extension overload with resultant posteromedial impingement, overuse of the flexor-pronator musculature resulting in medial epicondylitis, or occasional muscle tears or ruptures. The anconeus epitrochlearis is a known cause of cubital tunnel syndrome and has been postulated as a source of medial elbow pain in overhead athletes. This article describes the cases of 3 right-handed baseball pitchers with persistent right-sided medial elbow pain during throwing despite a prolonged period of rest, physical therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Two patients had symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome as diagnosed by electromyogram and nerve conduction studies and the presence of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle per magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent isolated release of the anconeus muscle without ulnar nerve transposition and returned to their previous levels of activity. The diagnosis and treatment of pitchers who present with medial-sided elbow pain can be complex. The differential should include an enlarged or inflamed anconeus epitrochlearis muscle as a possible cause. Conservative management should be the first modality. However, surgical excision with isolated release of the muscle can be successful in returning patients with persistent pain despite a trial of conservative management to their previous levels of function.

  9. A biomechanical model correlating shoulder kinetics to pain in young baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D; Dougherty, Christopher P

    2012-10-01

    Previous work has postulated that shoulder pain may be associated with increases in both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. Unfortunately these relationships have yet to be quantified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to associate these kinetic values with reported shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Nineteen healthy baseball pitchers participated in this study. Segment based reference systems and established calculations were utilized to identify peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. A medical history questionnaire was utilized to identify shoulder pain. Following collection of these data, the strength of the relationships between both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force and shoulder pain were analyzed. Although peak anterior force was not significantly correlated to shoulder pain, peak proximal force was. These results lead to the development of a single variable logistic regression model able to accurately predict 84.2% of all cases and 71.4% of shoulder pain cases. This model indicated that for every 1 N increase in peak proximal force, there was a corresponding 4.6% increase in the likelihood of shoulder pain. The magnitude of peak proximal force is both correlated to reported shoulder pain and capable of being used to accurately predict the likelihood of experiencing shoulder pain. It appears that those pitchers exhibiting high magnitudes of peak proximal force are significantly more likely to report experiencing shoulder pain than those who generate lower magnitudes of peak proximal force.

  10. The influence of ambient noise on maternal behavior in a Bornean sun bear (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Megan A; Hall, Suzanne; Bryant, Lisa; Swaisgood, Ronald R

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise has become a pervasive feature of both marine and terrestrial habitats worldwide. While a comprehensive understanding of the biologically significant impacts of noise on wildlife is lacking, concerns regarding its influence persist. Noise is also a common feature in the zoological setting, and much can be learned regarding the species-typical response to ambient noise by studying animals in captivity. Here we correlate behavioral and vocal patterns in a Bornean sun bear (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus) mother and cub with ambient noise levels during the 6-month post-partum period. We hypothesized that loud ambient noise would be correlated with changes in behavior, and predicted that noise would be negatively correlated with maternal care behavior, potentially masking cub vocalizations or providing a distraction to the mother. Contrary to expectation, we found that the mother spent significantly more time attending to her cub (P=0.03) on loud days. We also found that she tended to spend less time feeding (P=0.08); however her time spent resting was not affected. The cub was approximately twice as vocal on loud days, although these results were not statistically significant (humming: P=0.10; squawks/cries: P=0.14). Taken together, these results suggest that the behavioral response to ambient noise may have potential energetic costs, and as a result efforts should be made to reduce ambient noise exposure during the post-partum period.

  11. Multimodal communication in a noisy environment: a case study of the Bornean rock frog Staurois parvus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ulmar Grafe

    Full Text Available High background noise is an impediment to signal detection and perception. We report the use of multiple solutions to improve signal perception in the acoustic and visual modality by the Bornean rock frog, Staurois parvus. We discovered that vocal communication was not impaired by continuous abiotic background noise characterised by fast-flowing water. Males modified amplitude, pitch, repetition rate and duration of notes within their advertisement call. The difference in sound pressure between advertisement calls and background noise at the call dominant frequency of 5578 Hz was 8 dB, a difference sufficient for receiver detection. In addition, males used several visual signals to communicate with conspecifics with foot flagging and foot flashing being the most common and conspicuous visual displays, followed by arm waving, upright posture, crouching, and an open-mouth display. We used acoustic playback experiments to test the efficacy-based alerting signal hypothesis of multimodal communication. In support of the alerting hypothesis, we found that acoustic signals and foot flagging are functionally linked with advertisement calling preceding foot flagging. We conclude that S. parvus has solved the problem of continuous broadband low-frequency noise by both modifying its advertisement call in multiple ways and by using numerous visual signals. This is the first example of a frog using multiple acoustic and visual solutions to communicate in an environment characterised by continuous noise.

  12. Performance and Return-to-Sport after Tommy John Surgery in Major League Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anil Kumar; Erickson, Brandon J.; Harris, Joshua David; Bach, Bernard R.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Juan, Angielyn San; Cole, Brian J.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a common procedure performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers with symptomatic UCL deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the rate of return to pitching in the MLB following UCLR, 2) performance after return to pitching, and 3) the difference in return to pitching and performance between pitchers who underwent UCLR and matched controls who did not. Methods: MLB pitchers with symptomatic UCL deficiency that underwent UCLR between 1986 and 2012 were evaluated. Players' data was extracted from MLB team websites, injury reports, player profiles/biographies, press releases and cross-referenced with the MLB injury database (MLB411). All player, elbow, and surgical demographic data were analyzed. Age, body mass index (BMI), position, handedness, and MLB experience-matched controls were selected from the MLB during the same years as those undergoing UCLR. An "index year" was designated for controls, analogous to UCLR year in cases. Return to pitching and performance measures in MLB was compared between cases and controls. Student's t-tests were performed for analysis of within-group and between-group variables, respectively. Results: One hundred forty-eight pitchers (83%) were able to return to pitching in MLB. Length of career in MLB following UCLR was 3.9 +/- 2.84 years. Revision rate was 3.9%. In the year prior to UCLR (or index year in controls), cases were significantly (p<0.05) worse than controls with regard to number of innings pitched, games played, wins, and winning percentage and were not significantly different than controls in all remaining parameters. Pitchers undergoing UCLR had significantly (p<0.05) fewer losses, a lower losing percentage, and lower earned run average (ERA) following surgery (versus pre-surgery). In addition, cases threw significantly (p<0.05) fewer walks and allowed fewer hits, runs, and home runs following surgery. Comparisons between cases and

  13. Comparison of dominant hand range of motion among throwing types in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Shih, Sheng-Wen; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Su, Fong-Chin

    2013-08-01

    Previous research on baseball pitchers' wrists, elbows, and should joints contributes to our understanding of pitchers' control over delicate joint motion and ball release. However, limited research on forearm, wrist, and hand joints prevents full comprehension of the throwing mechanism. The present descriptive laboratory study quantifies angular performances of hand and wrist joints while pitching breaking balls, including fastballs, curveballs and sliders, among pitchers with different skill levels. Nineteen baseball pitchers performed required pitching tasks (10 from university and 9 from high school). A three-dimensional motion analysis system collected pitching motion data. The range of joint motion in the wrist and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the index and middle fingers were compared among fastballs, curveballs and sliders. Thirteen reflective markers were placed on selected anatomic landmarks of the wrist, middle and index fingers of the hand. Wrist flexion angle in the pitching acceleration phase was larger in fastballs (20.58±4.07°) and sliders (22.48±5.45°) than in curveballs (9.08±3.03°) (p = .001). The flexion angle of the PIP joint was significantly larger in curveballs (38.5±3.8°) than in fastballs (30.3±4.8°) and sliders (30.2±4.5°) (p=.004) of the middle finger. Abduction angle of MP joint on the middle finger was significantly larger in curveballs (15.4 ±3.6°) than in fastballs (8.9±1.2°) and sliders (6.9±2.9°) (p=.001) of the middle finger, and the abduction angle of index finger was significantly larger in sliders (13.5±15.0°) than in fastballs (7.2 ±2.8°) (p=.007). Hand and wrist motion and grip types affect the relative position between fingers and ball, which produces different types of baseball pitches. A larger extension angle of the wrist joint and the coordination of middle and index fingers are crucial when pitching a fastball. Abduction and flexion movement on the MP joint

  14. Effective population size dynamics and the demographic collapse of Bornean orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Sharma

    Full Text Available Bornean orang-utans experienced a major demographic decline and local extirpations during the Pleistocene and Holocene due to climate change, the arrival of modern humans, of farmers and recent commercially-driven habitat loss and fragmentation. The recent loss of habitat and its dramatic fragmentation has affected the patterns of genetic variability and differentiation among the remaining populations and increased the extinction risk of the most isolated ones. However, the contribution of recent demographic events to such genetic patterns is still not fully clear. Indeed, it can be difficult to separate the effects of recent anthropogenic fragmentation from the genetic signature of prehistoric demographic events. Here, we investigated the genetic structure and population size dynamics of orang-utans from different sites. Altogether 126 individuals were analyzed and a full-likelihood Bayesian approach was applied. All sites exhibited clear signals of population decline. Population structure is known to generate spurious bottleneck signals and we found that it does indeed contribute to the signals observed. However, population structure alone does not easily explain the observed patterns. The dating of the population decline varied across sites but was always within the 200-2000 years period. This suggests that in some sites at least, orang-utan populations were affected by demographic events that started before the recent anthropogenic effects that occurred in Borneo. These results do not mean that the recent forest exploitation did not leave its genetic mark on orang-utans but suggests that the genetic pool of orang-utans is also impacted by more ancient events. While we cannot identify the main cause for this decline, our results suggests that the decline may be related to the arrival of the first farmers or climatic events, and that more theoretical work is needed to understand how multiple demographic events impact the genome of species and

  15. Three-Tesla MR imaging of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, Filippo [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Servizio di Radiologia. Lugano, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano-TI (Switzerland); Aro, Michael; Farahani, Sahar Jalali; Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wilckens, John; Cosgarea, Andrew [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-01-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the qualitative and quantitative 3-T MR imaging features of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers presenting as major league draft picks or trades. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the HIPPA-compliant study. Informed consent was waived. Twenty-one professional non-symptomatic baseball pitchers (mean age 23, range 18 to 34 years old) underwent 3-T MR imaging of the pitching elbow. Two experienced readers independently performed qualitative (collateral ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bones, ulnar nerve, olecranon fossa, and joint fluid) and quantitative (collateral ligaments and posteromedial plica) evaluation. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Collateral ligament thickening was seen in a high proportion, nearly half, however, without features of full thickness tearing. Tendinosis without tearing was seen in 19 % (4/21) of common extensors. Cartilage abnormalities were infrequent. Bone abnormalities manifested as edema in 24 % (5/21) and humeroulnar osteophytosis. Ulnar nerve signal and/or morphologic abnormalities were seen in a very high proportion, up to 81 % (17/21). The olceranon fat pad showed scarring features in about one third. The median ligament thicknesses in mm measured: 4.6 UCL anterior bundle, 1.8 UCL posterior bundle, 1.9 RCL, 2.5 LUCL, and 0.7 mm anular. The median plica dimensions were 5.3 by 2.2 by 2.7 mm. High-resolution 3-T MR imaging frequently shows abnormalities involving the ligaments, tendons, nerves, olecranon fat pad, and bones in non-symptomatic baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  16. A Description of Sub-Equatorial Volcanic Structures Consistent with Sub-Ice Magmatism East of Nepenthes Mensae, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprarelli, G.; de Pablo Hernandez, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Martian region located immediately north of the dichotomy scarp, between latitudes 120°E and 135°E, is covered by fretted terrains, characterised by the presence of knobs and mesas formed by eroded and reworked material of highlands provenance, and the smoother terrains between them [1]. Topographic depressions of oblong shape, generally parallel to the scarp, of rough and chaotic appearance, are also observed. The high resolution (~ 6 m/pixel, [2]) Context Camera (CTX) on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) makes it possible to examine the morphologies of these topographic depressions in great detail, unveiling their complex geological histories. Here we expand on our earlier work in the adjacent Nepenthes Mensae region [3] and present the results of our observations of morphologies of likely igneous origin. We identified a variety of shapes consistent with magmatic structures and constructs: dikes, collapsed lava tubes, and lava flows are observable in the smoother terrains. Most of the elevated structures in the areas are strongly eroded knobs and mesas covered by dust and debris. In some cases however, the morphological characteristics of 2-10 km-size structures are clear and sharp, which allowed us to identify features consistent with sub-ice volcanic constructs, such as tuyas and tindars [4]. Geological reconstructions involving magma-ice interaction are supported by the presence of lobate aprons around knobs and mesas, and of scalloped ejecta surrounding complex impact craters, suggesting the existence of ice both underground and on the surface of these low elevation areas at the time of formation of these constructs. [1] Tanaka et al. (2005) Geologic Map of the Northern Plains of Mars. USGS SIM 2888. [2] Malin et al. (2007) Context Camera investigation on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. JGR 112, E05S04, 10.1029/2006JE002808. [3] dePablo and Caprarelli (2010) Possible subglacial volcanoes in Nepenthes Mensae, eastern hemisphere, Mars. LPSC

  17. A carnivorous plant fed by its ant symbiont: a unique multi-faceted nutritional mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bazile

    Full Text Available Scarcity of essential nutrients has led plants to evolve alternative nutritional strategies, such as myrmecotrophy (ant-waste-derived nutrition and carnivory (invertebrate predation. The carnivorous plant Nepenthes bicalcarata grows in the Bornean peatswamp forests and is believed to have a mutualistic relationship with its symbiotic ant Camponotus schmitzi. However, the benefits provided by the ant have not been quantified. We tested the hypothesis of a nutritional mutualism, using foliar isotopic and reflectance analyses and by comparing fitness-related traits between ant-inhabited and uninhabited plants. Plants inhabited by C. schmitzi produced more leaves of greater area and nitrogen content than unoccupied plants. The ants were estimated to provide a 200% increase in foliar nitrogen to adult plants. Inhabited plants also produced more and larger pitchers containing higher prey biomass. C. schmitzi-occupied pitchers differed qualitatively in containing C. schmitzi wastes and captured large ants and flying insects. Pitcher abortion rates were lower in inhabited plants partly because of herbivore deterrence as herbivory-aborted buds decreased with ant occupation rate. Lower abortion was also attributed to ant nutritional service. The ants had higher δ(15N values than any tested prey, and foliar δ(15N increased with ant occupation rate, confirming their predatory behaviour and demonstrating their direct contribution to the plant-recycled N. We estimated that N. bicalcarata derives on average 42% of its foliar N from C. schmitzi wastes, (76% in highly-occupied plants. According to the Structure Independent Pigment Index, plants without C. schmitzi were nutrient stressed compared to both occupied plants, and pitcher-lacking plants. This attests to the physiological cost of pitcher production and poor nutrient assimilation in the absence of the symbiont. Hence C. schmitzi contributes crucially to the nutrition of N. bicalcarata, via protection

  18. A carnivorous plant fed by its ant symbiont: a unique multi-faceted nutritional mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Vincent; Moran, Jonathan A; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Marshall, David J; Gaume, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Scarcity of essential nutrients has led plants to evolve alternative nutritional strategies, such as myrmecotrophy (ant-waste-derived nutrition) and carnivory (invertebrate predation). The carnivorous plant Nepenthes bicalcarata grows in the Bornean peatswamp forests and is believed to have a mutualistic relationship with its symbiotic ant Camponotus schmitzi. However, the benefits provided by the ant have not been quantified. We tested the hypothesis of a nutritional mutualism, using foliar isotopic and reflectance analyses and by comparing fitness-related traits between ant-inhabited and uninhabited plants. Plants inhabited by C. schmitzi produced more leaves of greater area and nitrogen content than unoccupied plants. The ants were estimated to provide a 200% increase in foliar nitrogen to adult plants. Inhabited plants also produced more and larger pitchers containing higher prey biomass. C. schmitzi-occupied pitchers differed qualitatively in containing C. schmitzi wastes and captured large ants and flying insects. Pitcher abortion rates were lower in inhabited plants partly because of herbivore deterrence as herbivory-aborted buds decreased with ant occupation rate. Lower abortion was also attributed to ant nutritional service. The ants had higher δ(15)N values than any tested prey, and foliar δ(15)N increased with ant occupation rate, confirming their predatory behaviour and demonstrating their direct contribution to the plant-recycled N. We estimated that N. bicalcarata derives on average 42% of its foliar N from C. schmitzi wastes, (76% in highly-occupied plants). According to the Structure Independent Pigment Index, plants without C. schmitzi were nutrient stressed compared to both occupied plants, and pitcher-lacking plants. This attests to the physiological cost of pitcher production and poor nutrient assimilation in the absence of the symbiont. Hence C. schmitzi contributes crucially to the nutrition of N. bicalcarata, via protection of assimilatory

  19. Source attribution of Bornean air masses by back trajectory analysis during the OP3 project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2011-09-01

    basin shows Bornean composition to arise from a different, more complex mixture of sources. In particular sulphate loadings are much greater than in Amazonia which is likely to mainly be the result of the marine influence on the site. This suggests that the significant region of the tropics made up of island networks is not well represented by extrapolation from measurements made in the Amazon. In addition, it is likely that there were no periods where the site was influenced only by the rainforest, with even the most pristine inland periods showing some evidence of non-rainforest aerosol. This is in contrast to Amazonia which experienced periods dominated by rainforest emissions.

  20. Source attribution of Bornean air masses by back trajectory analysis during the OP3 project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2011-05-01

    basin shows Bornean composition to arise from a different, more complex mixture of sources. In particular sulphate loadings are much greater than in Amazonia which is likely to mainly be the result of the marine influence on the site. This suggests that the significant region of the tropics made up of island networks is not well represented by extrapolation from measurements made in the Amazon. In addition, it is likely that there were no periods where the site was influenced only by the rainforest, with even the most pristine inland periods showing some evidence of non-rainforest aerosol. This is in contrast to Amazonia which experienced periods dominated by rainforest emissions.

  1. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L.; Byers, Stacey E.; Shively, Dawn A.; Ferguson, Donna M.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2005-01-01

    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n = 43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28 ± 0.23 and 1.97 ± 0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 °C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth.

  2. Quantifying the Water Footprint of Manufactured Products: A Case Study of Pitcher Water Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Barker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a finite resource that is critically needed bysociety for a variety of purposes. The demand for freshwater will grow as the world population and global livingstandard increase, and fresh water shortages will becomemore commonplace. This will put significant stress onsociety. It has been argued that fresh water may becomethe next oil, and efforts have to be made to better manageits fresh water consumption by agricultural and domesticusers. Industry also uses large amounts. Surprisingly, onlyrecently is serious attention being directed toward waterrelatedissues. This effort to quantify the water footprint ofa manufactured product represents one of the first initiativesto characterize the role of water in a discrete good.This study employed a life cycle assessment methodologyto determine the water footprint of a pitcher water filter.This particular product was selected because many waterintensivematerials and processes are needed to produceits major components: for example, agricultural processesused to produce activated carbon and petrochemicalprocesses used to produce the polypropylene casing. Inaddition, a large amount of water is consumed during theproduct’s use phase. Water data was obtained from theEcoinvent 2.1 database and categorized as either beingassociated with blue or green water.The blue water footprint (surface water consumption forthe pitcher water filter was 76 gallons per filter: 10 gallonsconsumed for materials extraction, 15 gallons for themanufacturing stage, and 50 gallons during the use phase.The green water footprint (precipitation was associatedwith the cultivation of the coconut tree; activated carbonis obtained from the coconut shells. The green waterfootprint was calculated to be 164 gallons per filter.The overall water footprint was 240 gallons per filter;the filter footprint is heavily dominated by green water(68% rather than blue water (32%. Future studies mayinvestigate how the production and

  3. Large-Scale Mapping of Tree-Community Composition as a Surrogate of Forest Degradation in Bornean Tropical Rain Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogoro Fujiki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the progress of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD and the safeguarding of ecosystems from the perverse negative impacts caused by Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus (REDD+ requires the development of spatiotemporally robust and sensitive indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem health. Recently, it has been proposed that tree-community composition based on count-plot surveys could serve as a robust, sensitive, and cost-effective indicator for forest intactness in Bornean logged-over rain forests. In this study, we developed an algorithm to map tree-community composition across the entire landscape based on Landsat imagery. We targeted six forest management units (FMUs, each of which ranged from 50,000 to 100,000 ha in area, covering a broad geographic range spanning the most area of Borneo. Approximately fifty 20 m-radius circular plots were established in each FMU, and the differences in tree-community composition at a genus level among plots were examined for trees with diameter at breast height ≥10 cm using an ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS. Subsequently, we developed a linear regression model based on Landsat metrics (e.g., reflectance value, vegetation indices and textures to explain the nMDS axis-1 scores of the plots, and extrapolated the model to the landscape to establish a tree-community composition map in each FMU. The adjusted R2 values based on a cross-validation approach between the predicted and observed nMDS axis-1 scores indicated a close correlation, ranging from 0.54 to 0.69. Histograms of the frequency distributions of extrapolated nMDS axis-1 scores were derived from each map and used to quantitatively diagnose the forest intactness of the FMUs. Our study indicated that tree-community composition, which was reported as a robust indicator of forest intactness, could be mapped at a landscape level to

  4. Effects of a non-native biocontrol weevil, Larinus planus, and other emerging threats on populations of the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle, Cirsium pitcheri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Kayri; Jolls, Claudia L.; Marik, Julie E.; Vitt, Pati; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Kind, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Larinus planus Frabicius (Curculionidae), is a seed-eating weevil that was inadvertently introduced into the US and was subsequently distributed in the US and Canada for the control of noxious thistle species of rangelands. It has been detected recently in the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). We assayed weevil damage in a natural population of Pitcher's thistle at Whitefish Dunes State Park, Door County, WI and quantified the impact on fecundity. We then estimated the impact of this introduced weevil and other emerging threats on two natural, uninvaded populations of Pitcher's thistle for which we have long-term demographic data for 16 yr (Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, MI) and 23 yr (Miller High Dunes, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter County, IN). We used transition matrices to determine growth rates and project the potential effects of weevil damage, inbreeding, goldfinch predation, and vegetative succession on Pitcher's thistle population viability. Based on our models, weevil seed predation reduced population growth rate by 10–12%, but this reduction was enough to reduce time to extinction from 24 yr to 13 yr and 8 yr to 5 yr in the MI and IN population, respectively. This impact is particularly severe, given most populations of Pitcher's thistle throughout its range hover near or below replacement. This is the first report of unanticipated ecological impacts from a biocontrol agent on natural populations of Cirsium pitcheri.

  5. Nutrient allocation among plant organs across 13 tree species in three Bornean rain forests with contrasting nutrient availabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Ryota; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2016-07-01

    Allocation of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) among plant organs is an important factor regulating growth rate, which is a key ecological process associated with plant life-history strategies. However, few studies have explored how N and P investment in photosynthetic (leaves) and non-photosynthetic (stems and roots) organs changes in relation to depletion of each element. We investigated nutrient concentrations of plant organs in relation to whole-plant nutrient concentration (total nutrient weight per total biomass) as an index of nutrient status of each individual using the saplings of the 13 species in three tropical rain forests with contrasting N and P availabilities (tropical evergreen forests and tropical heath forests). We found a steeper decrease in foliar N concentration than foliar P concentration with decreasing whole-plant nutrient concentration. Moreover, the steeper decrease in foliar N concentration was associated with relatively stable N concentration in stems, and vice versa for P. We suggest that the depletion of N is associated with a rapid dilution of foliar N because the cell walls in non-photosynthetic organs function as an N sink. On the other hand, these species can maintain foliar P concentration by decreasing stem P concentrations despites the depletion of P. Our results emphasize the significance of non-photosynthetic organs as an N sink for understanding the variation of foliar nutrient concentrations for the tree species in the three Bornean rain forests with different N and P availabilities.

  6. FIRST RIB STRESS FRACTURE IN A SIDEARM BASEBALL PITCHER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures of the first rib in athletes are rare. A 14-year-old male, a baseball pitcher who changed from an overhand to a sidearm style, with a stress fracture of the first rib, was reported. Most Stress fractures in the first rib occur at the subclavian groove, between the attachments of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles, which is the thinnest and weakest portion of the rib. However, in this case the stress fracture occurred at the uncommon region, posterior to the insertion of the scalenus medius muscle, in the first rib. The motion analysis of the pitching in this case demonstrated that the sidearm style induced much more horizontal abduction in the shoulder at the top position than did the overhand style. The findings of electromyography in the serratus anterior muscle, one of the muscles which insert on the first rib, through the pitching motion did not demonstrate any significant differences between the two styles. In this case, the repetition of horizontal over-abduction of the shoulder when sidearm pitching appears to have been the cause of the unusual stress fracture of the first rib at this site

  7. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hoffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL of the elbow are common injuries in overhead athletes. Although surgical reconstruction of the UCL has improved outcomes, not all athletes return to their previous level of competition and when this goal is achieved, the time required averages one to two years. Therefore, additional techniques are needed to further improve return to play and the rate of return to play in overhead athletes. A construct comprising a dermal allograft, platelet rich plasma (PRP, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been shown to successfully improve healing in the rotator cuff. Given the promising provisional findings, we postulated that this construct could also improve healing if applied to the UCL. Therefore, the purpose of the present report was to examine the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher. No complications were encountered. Although limited to minimal follow-up, the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and has returned to activity.

  8. Effects of Varying Recovery Periods on Muscle Enzymes, Soreness, and Performance in Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A.; Blessing, Daniel L.; Wilson, G. Dennis

    1992-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of varied recovery time on serum creatine kinase (CK), serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), muscle soreness, and pitch velocity in baseball pitchers. Ten males who had pitching experience participated in the study. After an 18-day training period, subjects pitched three simulated games. Game A and Game B were separated by four days of rest, while Game B and Game C were separated by two days of rest. CK, LDH, and muscle soreness were evaluated at the following times: before and immediately after exercise, and six, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. Muscle performance was evaluated by measuring pitch velocity during the games. The CK level was elevated after each game (Game A - 249 U/l; Game B - 243 U/l; and Game C - 240 U/l); then it dropped toward baseline (p≤0.01). CK post-exercise values were not different among games A, B, and C. LDH displayed a response similar to CK; however, there was a reduction over the span of the games (p≤0.05). Muscle soreness was significantly elevated immediately after exercise (p≤0.01) compared to all other measurement times. Pitch velocity was not different among games A, B, and C. Results indicate that muscle damage, as evidenced by CK release, occurs in response to baseball pitching. However CK values, muscle soreness, and pitch velocity are not significantly affected by changes in the amount of recovery time typically scheduled between games. PMID:16558126

  9. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor K Paisie

    Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  10. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery.

  11. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1989-01-01

    The West German government has banned the import of all pitcher plants, Nepenthes spp., from wild populations as of 1 January 1987, except when they are for scientific research, and if the species is not rare. Nepenthes rajah, only known from the Kinabalu, is specifically mentioned, but as custom of

  12. Propiedades psicométricas del test de adjetivos de Pitcher para la evaluación del liderazgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Juárez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron las propiedades psicométricas de Test de Adjetivos de Pitcher (TAP para evaluar el liderazgo. Participaron 400 trabajadores del sector salud, de las ciudades de Bogotá, Cali, Bucaramanga y Barranquilla, en Colombia. Mediante un modelo logístico con los parámetros de dificultad y discriminación se analizaron las propiedades de los ítems. La función de información del test resultó más informativa en los niveles intermedios (entre -1.4 y 1.6; los indicadores de dificultad y discriminación fueron adecuados. El coeficiente de confiabilidad marginal fue de .94. Un análisis de correspondencias múltiples arrojó una solución de dos dimensiones de liderazgo y mediante un análisis de clases latentes con un modelo de crédito parcial, se obtuvo una clasificación de los participantes en tres estilos de liderazgo. De acuerdo con esto, se concluye que las propiedades psicométricas son adecuadas, por lo que el Test de Adjetivos de Pitcher resulta de interés, ofreciendo una clasificación que no obedece a las habitualmente utilizadas.

  13. Nest density as determinants for habitat utilizations of Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii in degraded forests of Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIDIK PRASETYO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Prasetyo D, Sugardjito J (2011 Nest density as determinants for habitat utilizations of Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii in degraded forests of Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan. Biodiversitas 12: 164-170. Conversion of forests into non-forests areas particularly for the development of timber industry and oil palm plantation in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan province was drastically increased recently. We have conducted an assessmment for the density of Bornean orangutans Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii L. in degraded forests of the boundary of Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan in 2004 and 2005. We used line-transects nest-count to survey 39,6 km length at 13 sites including 7 in side the park and the other 6 situated out side the park which holds a difference status of forest management. The differences of nest density between degraded forests habitat was calculated. The old degraded forest which has been logged for 5 years or more, were containing more new nests in a cluster compared to the recently as well as currently logged. The highest number of orangutan’s nests could be found in the old degraded forest in side the park, whereas the lowest one was obtained in the currently logged protection forest with the density of 3.70 ind/km2 and 0.06 ind/km2 respectively. We compare these results with the survey undertaken previously in the area when the logging and forest conversion activities have just begun in the region in 2001.

  14. Influence of Combinations of Shoulder, Elbow and Trunk Orientation on Elbow Joint Loads in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Inui, Hiroaki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Muto, Tomoyuki; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers is a well-recognized phenomenon. Common problems in pitching mechanics that can lead to injury begin with stride foot contact. The purpose of this study was to address the relationships between the combinations of shoulder, elbow and trunk orientation at the instant of stride foot contact and elbow joint loads in youth baseball pitchers. Methods: A total of 143 Japanese male youth baseball pitchers participated in this study after providing written informed consents approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. The procedures to be performed were also explained to their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Each participant was not currently injured or recovering from an injury at time of testing. For data collection of baseball pitching, a set of 14-mm spherical reflective markers was placed on the skin overlying 34 anatomical landmarks determined. Subsequently, a motion capture three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 500-Hz from 7 charge-coupled-device synchronized cameras was set up around the regulation pitching mound in an indoor laboratory. After performing a preparation routine of stretching and warm-up pitching, each player pitch to 5 fastball pitches off the pitching mound to a catcher at the regulation distance of 16 m for youth pitchers. The best pitch thrown for a strike was chosen for kinematic and kinetic analysis. The local coordinate systems were used to calculate 3-dimesional rotation at the trunk, shoulder and elbow using the typical Eulerian sequence. Afterward, the standard inverse dynamic equation was used to estimate resultant joint forces and torques at throwing shoulder and elbow. In order to normalize data between subjects, forces and torques were expressed as percent using body weight and height. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to assess the combined effects of shoulder (external rotation, abduction and horizontal adduction), elbow

  15. Effects of Three Recovery Protocols on Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate in Baseball Pitchers During a Simulated Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Courtney D; Szymanski, David J; Landers, Merrill R

    2015-11-01

    Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-one Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 185.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 86.5 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 11.2 ± 2.6) volunteered to pitch 3 simulated 5-inning games, with a maximum of 70 fastballs thrown per game while wearing an HR monitor. Range of motion was measured pre, post, and 24 hours postpitching for shoulder internal and external rotation at 90° and elbow flexion and extension. Heart rate was recorded after each pitch and after every 30 seconds of the 6-minute recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded after the last pitch of each inning and after completing each 6-minute recovery period. Immediately after throwing the last pitch of each inning, postpitching blood lactate concentration (PPLa-) was measured. At the end of the 6-minute recovery period, before the next inning started, postrecovery blood lactate concentration (PRLa-) was measured. Pitchers were instructed to throw each pitch at or above 95% of their best-pitched fastball. This was enforced to ensure that each pitcher was throwing close to maximal effort for all 3 simulated games. All data presented represent group mean values. Results revealed that the method of recovery protocol did not significantly influence ROM (p > 0

  16. New Bornean Acanthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1960-01-01

    Descriptions are given of the tribe Lepidagathideae, that had already been proposed in an earlier paper, and of an entirely new tribe related to the latter, the Borneacantheae. The last-named tribe comprises so far but a single genus, Borneacanthus, based on B. grandifolius; it further includes B. a

  17. Replicate phylogenies and post-glacial range expansion of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Merz

    Full Text Available Herein we tested the repeatability of phylogenetic inference based on high throughput sequencing by increased taxon sampling using our previously published techniques in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii in North America. We sampled 25 natural populations drawn from different localities nearby 21 previous collection localities and used these new data to construct a second, independent phylogeny, expressly to test the reproducibility of phylogenetic patterns. Comparison of trees between the two data sets based on both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood with Bayesian posterior probabilities showed close correspondence in the grouping of the most southern populations into clear clades. However, discrepancies emerged, particularly in the middle of W. smithii's current range near the previous maximum extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, especially concerning the most recent common ancestor to mountain and northern populations. Combining all 46 populations from both studies into a single maximum parsimony tree and taking into account the post-glacial historical biogeography of associated flora provided an improved picture of W. smithii's range expansion in North America. In a more general sense, we propose that extensive taxon sampling, especially in areas of known geological disruption is key to a comprehensive approach to phylogenetics that leads to biologically meaningful phylogenetic inference.

  18. Chronic pain due to Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in an adolescent baseball pitcher: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylynko, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of chronic Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in reference to pain presentation, physical capabilities, and recovery time. Clinical Features: A 17-year-old, junior baseball pitcher presented with shoulder pain when performing high velocity pitching. Conservative treatment for an assumed soft tissue injury failed to resolve the pain, which was regularly aggravated by pitching, and which subsequently prompted further evaluation, and eventual confirmation of Little Leaguer’s Shoulder on subsequent computerized tomography (CT) imaging. Intervention and Outcome: Prior to proper diagnosis, conservative treatment had consisted of activity modification, spinal adjusting, laser therapy, shockwave therapy, Active Release Techniques®, Kinesiotape,® and rehabilitation. Later, rehabilitation, consisting of general muscle and core strengthening, continued for a further six months under the supervision of college athletic trainers. The athlete was able to return to normal pitching duties approximately 12 months later. Summary: In this case, a potentially damaging bone injury masquerading as a simple musculo-tendinous injury created a diagnostic challenge. The patient eventually recovered with rest, time, strengthening, and eventual compliance to prescribed activity modification. PMID:26815884

  19. Concurrent little leaguer's elbow and shoulder in a 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domes, Christopher M; Petering, Ryan C; Chesnutt, James C; Mirarchi, Adam

    2012-01-16

    Little leaguer's elbow and Little leaguer's shoulder are overuse pathologies seen in overhead-throwing athletes. No instance of simultaneously occurring pathologies has been published. A 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback developed pain in his throwing shoulder and elbow during spring baseball, which partially resolved with several months of rest. During fall football practice, he felt a pop and pain over his medial throwing elbow. Five days after the initial injury, medial elbow tenderness, mild swelling, and decreased range of motion were noted. Radiographs revealed a Salter I avulsion fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle (Little leaguer's elbow) and a periosteal reaction along the lateral aspect of the humeral metadiaphysis with slight widening (Little leaguer's shoulder). Surgical fixation of the medial epicondyle fracture and nonoperative treatment of the shoulder pathology were performed. Two-year follow-up radiographs showed a healed medial epicondylar fracture and resolution of the periosteal reaction of the humeral metadiaphysis. The patient returned to full activity and was starting quarterback for his football team. Biomechanical forces specific to overhead-throwing activities are associated with the development of Little leaguer's elbow and shoulder. Treatments of both pathologies remain controversial, with either initial operative vs nonoperative care. In this patient, a good outcome was achieved with surgical fixation of the elbow fracture and conservative management of the shoulder pathology. Educating coaches and parents on proper throwing technique and pitching limits should be the first step in reducing the occurrence of either pathology in this population.

  20. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Gaveau, David; Abram, Nicola; Ancrenaz, Marc; Baccini, Alessandro; Brend, Stephen; Curran, Lisa; Delgado, Roberto A; Erman, Andi; Fredriksson, Gabriella M; Goossens, Benoit; Husson, Simon J; Lackman, Isabelle; Marshall, Andrew J; Naomi, Anita; Molidena, Elis; Nardiyono; Nurcahyo, Anton; Odom, Kisar; Panda, Adventus; Purnomo; Rafiastanto, Andjar; Ratnasari, Dessy; Santana, Adi H; Sapari, Imam; van Schaik, Carel P; Sihite, Jamartin; Spehar, Stephanie; Santoso, Eddy; Suyoko, Amat; Tiju, Albertus; Usher, Graham; Atmoko, Sri Suci Utami; Willems, Erik P; Meijaard, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions) is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2) (21% of Borneo's landmass) and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic gains, rather than

  1. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2 (21% of Borneo's landmass and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic

  2. SCREENING FOR REFERRAL BY A SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPIST REVEALS AN EFFORT THROMBOSIS IN A COLLEGIATE PITCHER: A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinerola, Jase; Ogle, Karen Craig; Wallmann, Harvey W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and Purpose Screening for referral, regardless of setting, is the responsibility of all physical therapists. A serious condition that sports physical therapists may encounter is upper extremity (UE) deep venous thrombosis (DVT), which can result in the important and sometimes fatal complication of pulmonary embolism. Case Description A 22 year-old male right-hand dominant collegiate pitcher was referred for physical therapist evaluation and treatment secondary to acute right UE pain and swelling. The athlete described the onset of these symptoms as insidious, denying any form of trauma. The athlete had undergone testing, which included UE Doppler ultrasound of the bilateral UE veins and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest without contrast; both of which were deemed negative. He was subsequently diagnosed with thoracic outlet syndrome and referred to the team physical therapist. After examination, the physical therapist hypothesized the athlete was presenting with a possible vascular compromise. Findings leading to this decision were: 1) insidious onset, 2) inability to account for the athlete's pain with ROM, strength, neurological, or provocation testing, 3) significant swelling of the right UE (arm and forearm), 4) increased discomfort with palpation in the supraclavicular region, and 5) history of strenuous UE use. Outcomes The athlete was referred back to the orthopedist. A venogram CT was ordered, which revealed an axillary and subclavian DVT and the presence of venous collaterals. The athlete was referred to a vascular surgeon who performed a right first rib removal. The athlete was able to complete post-operative rehabilitation and successfully return to competitive throwing the following spring. Discussion The delay in the initial diagnosis may have been due to the vague symptomology associated with venous complications and negative findings upon initial diagnostic testing. Conclusion This case report highlights the importance

  3. Conservative management of posterior interosseous neuropathy in an elite baseball pitcher's return to play: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Andrew; Sajko, Sandy

    2009-12-01

    This report documents retrospectively a case of Posterior Interosseous Neuropathy (PIN) occurring in an elite baseball pitcher experiencing a deep ache in the radial aspect of the forearm and altered sensation in the dorsum of the hand on the throwing arm during his pitching motion. The initial clinical goal was to control for inflammation to the nerve and muscle with active rest, microcurrent therapy, low-level laser therapy, and cessation of throwing. Minimizing mechanosensitivity at the common extensor region of the right elbow and PIN, was achieved by employing the use of myofascial release and augmented soft tissue mobilization techniques. Neurodynamic mobilization technique was also administered to improve neural function. Implementation of a sport specific protocol for the purposes of maintaining throwing mechanics and overall conditioning was utilized. Successful resolution of symptomatology and return to pre-injury status was achieved in 5 weeks. A review of literature and an evidence-based discussion for the differential diagnoses, clinical examination, diagnosis, management and rehabilitation of PIN is presented.

  4. 全国青少年棒球锦标赛投手技术分析与研究--以2014年全国少年棒球锦标赛为例%Study on Technical Analysis of Pitchers in National Youth Baseball Championship---Taking 2014 National Junior Baseball Championship as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝彬

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to find out the existing problems of young pitchers in the game , and provide a theoretical basis for the coaches to guide training pitcher with the research methods of questionnaire , on-the-spot investigation, statistical analysis, comparative analysis of technical pitcher the 2014 National Youth Baseball Championship.%通过问卷调查法、实地考察法、数理分析法等研究方法,对2014年全国青少年棒球锦标赛投手技术进行比较分析,找出青少年投手比赛中存在的问题,为教练员指导训练投手提供理论依据。

  5. Ballistic resistance training in the power development for baseball pitchers%弹震式阻力训练在发展棒球投手爆发力上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋燕

    2012-01-01

    通过对弹震式阻力训练的生理机制进行分析,发现棒球投手的投掷动作具备弹震式动作的特性.进而提出弹震式阻力训练是一种发展棒球投手爆发力及提升球速的优势训练方式.%An analysis is conducted of physiological mechanisms involved in the ballistic resistance training, it is pointed out that the pitch movement of a baseball pitcher has the characteristics of ballistic movement, and that ballistic resistance training is an ideal training targeted for developing baseball pitchers' power and speed.

  6. Correlation of Kinematic Parameters and Isometric Muscle Strength of Elite Pitcher%优秀棒球投手的等速肌力与投球运动学参数间关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙逊; 罗炯; 张庭然; 秦春莉; 宋吉祥

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the correlation of kinematic parameters and isometric muscle strength of elite pitchers, and the difference between different type pitchers. Methods: Isometric test system and three high-speed camera were used to obtained raw data in kinematics and kinetics parameters in this study. Results:( a) High correlation of the rations of peak torques between external and internal rotation, flexion and extension on shoulder joints, both high positive correlation with elbow swing velocity, release velocity of baseball and velocity of contact barrier. ( b) There are many significantly differences between non -balanced type and balanced type:total pithing time, lifting knee time, stretching and treading time, and acceleration time became signifi-cantly shorter in the latter;whereas , flexion and extension amplitude of elbow joints were significantly larger in the latter. ( c) There are significantly positive correlation between velocity of elbow swing and maximal angle of external abduction, whereas, negative correlation with total time of pitching;there are negative correlation be-tween acceleration time and maximal abduction angle and positive correlation with twist angle of trunk. ( d) There are significantly positive correlation between release velocity of pitching, or contact barrier and maximal abduction angle in shoulder joints. Conclusion: To date the difference between Chinese elite baseball pitcher and foreign pitcher indicated that many kinematical parameters are significant, the key point is the unbalance development of pitching arm.%目的::探讨棒球投手运动学与等速肌力参数间关联关系,并比较不同类型投手各类参数的差异性。方法:采用德国ISOMED2000等速肌力测试系统及三台高速摄像机获取相关参数。结果:( a)肩关节外、内旋峰力矩及屈、伸峰力矩两个比值高度相关,两者均与挥肘速度、棒球出手及触垒速度高度正相关;( b)与“非衡

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bornean orangutan [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te Pongo_pygmaeus_L.png Pongo_pygmaeus_NL.png Pongo_pygmaeus_S.png Pongo_pygmaeus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygmaeus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygm...aeus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygmaeus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygmaeus&t=NS ...

  8. Aerosols in and Above the Bornean Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Niall Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect climate directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by affecting the albedo and lifetime of clouds through their role as cloud condensation nuclei. Aerosol sources, and the processes that govern their evolution in the atmosphere are not well understood, making the aerosol effects a significant source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. The tropics experience a large solar flux meaning that any radiative forcing in this region is p...

  9. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan English

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant’s preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when quantities have recovered sufficiently to meet their intake requirements. The implications for habitat and elephant management are discussed.

  10. Fluvial organic carbon losses from a Bornean black water river

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The transport of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems such as peatlands into rivers and out to the oceans plays an important role in the carbon cycle because it provides a link between the terrestrial and marine carbon cycles. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) were analysed from the source to the mouth of the River Sebangau in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia during the dry and wet seasons in 2008/2009 and an annual total organic carbon (TOC) flu...

  11. Metabolite profiling of the carnivorous pitcher plants Darlingtonia and Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki

    2017-01-01

    Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals. In this comprehensive metabolic profiling study, we looked for compound patterns that are associated with the taxonomy of Sarracenia species. In total, 57 different Sarracenia and D. californica accessions were used for metabolite content screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting high-dimensional data were studied using a data mining approach. The two genera are characterized by a large number of metabolites and huge chemical diversity between different species. By applying feature selection for clustering and by integrating new biochemical data with existing phylogenetic data, we were able to demonstrate that the chemical composition of the species can be explained by their known classification. Although transcriptome analysis did not reveal a candidate gene for coniine biosynthesis, the use of a sensitive selected ion monitoring method enabled the detection of coniine in eight Sarracenia species, showing that it is more widespread in this genus than previously believed. PMID:28222171

  12. Cequent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: the biological pitcher for RNAi therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keates, Andrew C; Fruehauf, Johannes H; Xiang, Shuanglin; Parker, Peter D; Li, Chiang J

    2007-07-01

    Cequent Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a recently established biopharmaceutical company that aims to develop clinically compatible therapies based on RNAi, a potent gene-silencing mechanism discovered in 1998. The company's proprietary technology, transkingdom RNAi (tkRNAi), uses nonpathogenic bacteria to produce and deliver shRNA into target cells to induce RNAi. Our initial focus is on the development of a tkRNAi-based therapy for familial adenatomous polyposis, an inherited form of colon cancer. Cequent's first tkRNAi-based drug for familial adenatomous polyposis, CEQ501, is currently in advanced preclinical testing. As part of its ongoing activities, Cequent plans to develop additional tkRNAi-based products for indications within and outside the GI tract. Our overall goal is to establish tkRNAi as a platform for developing a wide range of RNAi-based therapies.

  13. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  14. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces for drag reduction in viscous laminar flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brian; Khalil, Karim; Varanasi, Kripa; MIT Team

    2013-11-01

    For the first time, we explore the potential of lubricant impregnated surfaces (LIS) in reducing drag. LIS, inspired by the surface of the Nepenthes pitcher plant, have been introduced as a novel way of functionalizing a surface. LIS are characterized by extremely low contact angle hysteresis and have been show to effectively repel various liquids including water, oils, ketchup and blood. Motivated by the slippery nature of such surfaces, we explore the potential of LIS to reduce drag in internal flows. We observe a reduction in drag for LIS surfaces in a viscous laminar drag flow and model the impact of relevant system parameters (lubricant viscosity, working fluid viscosity, solid fraction, depth of texture, etc.).

  15. Polymeric Slippery Coatings: Nature and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Samaha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We review recent developments in nature-inspired superhydrophobic and omniphobic surfaces. Water droplets beading on a surface at significantly high static contact angles and low contact-angle hystereses characterize superhydrophobicity. Microscopically, rough hydrophobic surfaces could entrap air in their pores resulting in a portion of a submerged surface with air–water interface, which is responsible for the slip effect. Suberhydrophobicity enhances the mobility of droplets on lotus leaves for self-cleaning purposes, so-called lotus effect. Amongst other applications, superhydrophobicity could be used to design slippery surfaces with minimal skin-friction drag for energy conservation. Another kind of slippery coatings is the recently invented slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS, which are one type of omniphobic surfaces. Certain plants such as the carnivorous Nepenthes pitcher inspired SLIPS. Their interior surfaces have microstructural roughness, which can lock in place an infused lubricating liquid. The lubricant is then utilized as a repellent surface for other liquids such as water, blood, crude oil, and alcohol. In this review, we discuss the concepts of both lotus effect and Nepenthes slippery mechanism. We then present a review of recent advances in manufacturing polymeric and non-polymeric slippery surfaces with ordered and disordered micro/nanostructures. Furthermore, we discuss the performance and longevity of such surfaces. Techniques used to characterize the surfaces are also detailed. We conclude the article with an overview of the latest advances in characterizing and using slippery surfaces for different applications.

  16. CONSERVATION STRATEGIES FOR NEPENTHES KHASIANA IN THE NOKREK BIOSPHERE RESERVE OF GARO HILLS, NORTHEAST, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikarma SINGH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the various disturbance agents such as coal mining, limestone extraction, stone quarrying, jhum cultivation, fire, grazing, over-exploitation of resources, road constructions etc., affecting the natural growth of Nepethes khasiana in the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve of India. N. khasiana is the prominent insectivorous scandent shrubs species of this biosphere reserve and is an important source of medicine and basic ornamental uses for the local garo tribal people of north-east India. The inevitable pressure due to commercialization of the N. khasiana is leading to severe destruction of the species and may create the scarcity of that species in the near future. Therefore, joint efforts need to be implemented by the local garo villagers with governmental and non-governmental agencies for conservation and sustainable use of N. khasiana. The government may also take initiative by allotting demarcated forests areas to the villagers as village forest, thus motivating the villagers to take special care for its protection and rehabilitation and for a sustainable output.

  17. Butterfly, seedling, sapling and tree diversity and composition is a fire-affected Bornean rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, D.F.R.; Priadjati, A.; Suryokusumo, B.K.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fire-affected forests are becoming an increasingly important component of tropical landscapes. The impact of wildfires on rainforest communities is, however, poorly understood. In this study the density, species richness and community composition of seedlings, saplings, trees and butterflies were as

  18. Butterfly, seedling, sapling and tree diversity and composition in a fire-affected Bornean rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, D.F.R.; Priadjati, A.; Suryokusumo, B.K.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fire-affected forests are becoming an increasingly important component of tropical landscapes. The impact of wildfires on rainforest communities is, however, poorly understood. In this study the density, species richness and community composition of seedlings, saplings, trees and butterflies were as

  19. A study of mathematical thoughts in the geometrical design of bertam (wild Bornean sago) weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Bakar, Wan Norliza; Ahmad Shukri, Fuziatul Norsyiha; Ramli, Masnira

    2013-04-01

    Kelarai, a design for weaving, which is made up of various motifs can be produced by a variety of natural products. The main focus of the study is on Kelarai Bertam which is selected based on the firm and robust quality of the wood which was often used as the building materials of traditional houses. The objective of the study is to investigate the geometrical design in the weaving art of kelarai bertam, the stimulation of mathematical thoughts in geometrical designs and the evolution of geometrical designs in the weaving art of kelarai bertam. The research method utilized in the study was the triangulation method consisting of observation, interview and analysis. The findings revealed that quadrilateral forms and symmetrical forms such as reflection, translation, rotation and magnification were present in the weaving of kelarai bertam. The design of kelarai has undergone the process of evolution beginning from the Siku Keluang motif and has now expanded to 20 exquisite motifs. The evolution of the design and motifs resulted from the observation made upon the natives' house and wall decorations from Indonesia. In fact, geometrical concept has long been applied in the weaving art but this was not realized by the individual weaver. It is suggested that extensive research can be conducted on the combination of different weaving materials such as wild bertam and bamboo which will produce different geometrical designs such as polygon.

  20. Height-related changes in leaf photosynthetic traits in diverse Bornean tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzo, Tanaka; Inoue, Yuta; Yoshimura, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Megumi; Tanaka-Oda, Ayumi; Ichie, Tomoaki

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of variations in morphophysiological leaf traits with forest height is essential for quantifying carbon and water fluxes from forest ecosystems. Here, we examined changes in leaf traits with forest height in diverse tree species and their role in environmental acclimation in a tropical rain forest in Borneo that does not experience dry spells. Height-related changes in leaf physiological and morphological traits [e.g., maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs), dark respiration rate (Rd), carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C), nitrogen (N) content, and leaf mass per area (LMA)] from understory to emergent trees were investigated in 104 species in 29 families. We found that many leaf area-based physiological traits (e.g., A(max-area), Rd, gs), N, δ(13)C, and LMA increased linearly with tree height, while leaf mass-based physiological traits (e.g., A(max-mass)) only increased slightly. These patterns differed from other biomes such as temperate and tropical dry forests, where trees usually show decreased photosynthetic capacity (e.g., A(max-area), A(max-mass)) with height. Increases in photosynthetic capacity, LMA, and δ(13)C are favored under bright and dry upper canopy conditions with higher photosynthetic productivity and drought tolerance, whereas lower R d and LMA may improve shade tolerance in lower canopy trees. Rapid recovery of leaf midday water potential to theoretical gravity potential during the night supports the idea that the majority of trees do not suffer from strong drought stress. Overall, leaf area-based photosynthetic traits were associated with tree height and the degree of leaf drought stress, even in diverse tropical rain forest trees.

  1. The Ontogeny of Gap Crossing Behaviour in Bornean Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Jackie; Phillips, Abigail C; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Mitra Setia, Tatang; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2015-01-01

    For orangutans, the largest predominantly arboreal primates, discontinuous canopy presents a particular challenge. The shortest gaps between trees lie between thin peripheral branches, which offer the least stability to large animals. The affordances of the forest canopy experienced by orangutans of different ages however, must vary substantially as adult males are an order of magnitude larger in size than infants during the early stages of locomotor independence. Orangutans have developed a diverse range of locomotor behaviour to cross gaps between trees, which vary in their physical and cognitive demands. The aims of this study were to examine the ontogeny of orangutan gap crossing behaviours and to determine which factors influence the distance orangutans crossed. A non-invasive photographic technique was used to quantify forearm length as a measure of body size. We also recorded locomotor behaviour, support use and the distance crossed between trees. Our results suggest that gap crossing varies with both physical and cognitive development. More complex locomotor behaviours, which utilized compliant trunks and lianas, were used to cross the largest gaps, but these peaked in frequency much earlier than expected, between the ages of 4 and 5 years old, which probably reflects play behaviour to perfect locomotor techniques. Smaller individuals also crossed disproportionately large gaps relative to their size, by using support deformation. Our results suggest that orangutans acquire the full repertoire of gap crossing techniques, including the more cognitively demanding ones, before weaning, but adjust the frequency of the use of these techniques to their increasing body size.

  2. The Ontogeny of Gap Crossing Behaviour in Bornean Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Chappell

    Full Text Available For orangutans, the largest predominantly arboreal primates, discontinuous canopy presents a particular challenge. The shortest gaps between trees lie between thin peripheral branches, which offer the least stability to large animals. The affordances of the forest canopy experienced by orangutans of different ages however, must vary substantially as adult males are an order of magnitude larger in size than infants during the early stages of locomotor independence. Orangutans have developed a diverse range of locomotor behaviour to cross gaps between trees, which vary in their physical and cognitive demands. The aims of this study were to examine the ontogeny of orangutan gap crossing behaviours and to determine which factors influence the distance orangutans crossed. A non-invasive photographic technique was used to quantify forearm length as a measure of body size. We also recorded locomotor behaviour, support use and the distance crossed between trees. Our results suggest that gap crossing varies with both physical and cognitive development. More complex locomotor behaviours, which utilized compliant trunks and lianas, were used to cross the largest gaps, but these peaked in frequency much earlier than expected, between the ages of 4 and 5 years old, which probably reflects play behaviour to perfect locomotor techniques. Smaller individuals also crossed disproportionately large gaps relative to their size, by using support deformation. Our results suggest that orangutans acquire the full repertoire of gap crossing techniques, including the more cognitively demanding ones, before weaning, but adjust the frequency of the use of these techniques to their increasing body size.

  3. The Ontogeny of Gap Crossing Behaviour in Bornean Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii)

    OpenAIRE

    Jackie Chappell; Phillips, Abigail C.; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Tatang Mitra Setia; Thorpe, Susannah K. S.

    2015-01-01

    For orangutans, the largest predominantly arboreal primates, discontinuous canopy presents a particular challenge. The shortest gaps between trees lie between thin peripheral branches, which offer the least stability to large animals. The affordances of the forest canopy experienced by orangutans of different ages however, must vary substantially as adult males are an order of magnitude larger in size than infants during the early stages of locomotor independence. Orangutans have developed a ...

  4. Soup to Tree: The Phylogeny of Beetles Inferred by Mitochondrial Metagenomics of a Bornean Rainforest Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton-Platt, Alex; Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Gimmel, Matthew L; Kutty, Sujatha Narayanan; Cockerill, Timothy D; Vun Khen, Chey; Vogler, Alfried P

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the growth of molecular ecology, systematics and next-generation sequencing, the discovery and analysis of diversity is not currently integrated with building the tree-of-life. Tropical arthropod ecologists are well placed to accelerate this process if all specimens obtained through mass-trapping, many of which will be new species, could be incorporated routinely into phylogeny reconstruction. Here we test a shotgun sequencing approach, whereby mitochondrial genomes are assembled from complex ecological mixtures through mitochondrial metagenomics, and demonstrate how the approach overcomes many of the taxonomic impediments to the study of biodiversity. DNA from approximately 500 beetle specimens, originating from a single rainforest canopy fogging sample from Borneo, was pooled and shotgun sequenced, followed by de novo assembly of complete and partial mitogenomes for 175 species. The phylogenetic tree obtained from this local sample was highly similar to that from existing mitogenomes selected for global coverage of major lineages of Coleoptera. When all sequences were combined only minor topological changes were induced against this reference set, indicating an increasingly stable estimate of coleopteran phylogeny, while the ecological sample expanded the tip-level representation of several lineages. Robust trees generated from ecological samples now enable an evolutionary framework for ecology. Meanwhile, the inclusion of uncharacterized samples in the tree-of-life rapidly expands taxon and biogeographic representation of lineages without morphological identification. Mitogenomes from shotgun sequencing of unsorted environmental samples and their associated metadata, placed robustly into the phylogenetic tree, constitute novel DNA "superbarcodes" for testing hypotheses regarding global patterns of diversity.

  5. The effects of logging on the architecture of Bornean rainforest trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterck, F.J.; Hille Ris Lamberis, R.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Tree parameters were compared between trees in a logged (logged eight years ago) and an unlogged forest in Borneo. This comparison was made for 3 to 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) trees of four tree species, namely, Mallotus penangensis, M. wrayi, Shorea johorensis and S. parvifolia. The crow

  6. Vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for live emergent trees in a Bornean tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Kume, Tomonori; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ohashi, Mizue; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2014-05-01

    Difficult access to 40-m-tall emergent trees in tropical rainforests has resulted in a lack of data related to vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux, even though significant variations in wood CO2 efflux are an important source of errors when estimating whole-tree total wood CO2 efflux. This study aimed to clarify vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for emergent trees and to document the impact of the variations on the whole-tree estimates of stem and branch CO2 efflux. First, we measured wood CO2 efflux and factors related to tree morphology and environment for seven live emergent trees of two dipterocarp species at four to seven heights of up to ∼ 40 m for each tree using ladders and a crane. No systematic tendencies in vertical variations were observed for all the trees. Wood CO2 efflux was not affected by stem and air temperature, stem diameter, stem height or stem growth. The ratios of wood CO2 efflux at the treetop to that at breast height were larger in emergent trees with relatively smaller diameters at breast height. Second, we compared whole-tree stem CO2 efflux estimates using vertical measurements with those based on solely breast height measurements. We found similar whole-tree stem CO2 efflux estimates regardless of the patterns of vertical variations in CO2 efflux because the surface area in the canopy, where wood CO2 efflux often differed from that at breast height, was very small compared with that at low stem heights, resulting in little effect of the vertical variations on the estimate. Additionally, whole-tree branch CO2 efflux estimates using measured wood CO2 efflux in the canopy were considerably different from those measured using only breast height measurements. Uncertainties in wood CO2 efflux in the canopy did not cause any bias in stem CO2 efflux scaling, but affected branch CO2 efflux.

  7. Biodiversity assessment in incomplete inventories: leaf litter ant communities in several types of Bornean rain forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available Biodiversity assessment of tropical taxa is hampered by their tremendous richness, which leads to large numbers of singletons and incomplete inventories in survey studies. Species estimators can be used for assessment of alpha diversity, but calculation of beta diversity is hampered by pseudo-turnover of species in undersampled plots. To assess the impact of unseen species, we investigated different methods, including an unbiased estimator of Shannon beta diversity that was compared to biased calculations. We studied alpha and beta diversity of a diverse ground ant assemblage from the Southeast Asian island of Borneo in different types of tropical forest: diperocarp forest, alluvial forest, limestone forest and heath forests. Forests varied in plant composition, geology, flooding regimes and other environmental parameters. We tested whether forest types differed in species composition and if species turnover was a function of the distance between plots at different spatial scales. As pseudo-turnover may bias beta diversity we hypothesized a large effect of unseen species reducing beta diversity. We sampled 206 ant species (25% singletons from ten subfamilies and 55 genera. Diversity partitioning among the four forest types revealed that whereas alpha species richness and alpha Shannon diversity were significantly smaller than expected, beta-diversity for both measurements was significantly higher than expected by chance. This result was confirmed when we used the unbiased estimation of Shannon diversity: while alpha diversity was much higher, beta diversity differed only slightly from biased calculations. Beta diversity as measured with the Chao-Sørensen or Morisita-Horn Index correlated with distance between transects and between sample points, indicating a distance decay of similarity between communities. We conclude that habitat heterogeneity has a high influence on ant diversity and species turnover in tropical sites and that unseen species may have only little impact on calculation of Shannon beta diversity when sampling effort has been high.

  8. Evidence for Novel Atmospheric Organic Aerosol Measured in a Bornean Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. H.; Hamilton, J. F.; Allan, J. D.; Langford, B.; Oram, D. E.; Chen, Q.; Ward, M. W.; Hewitt, C. N.; Martin, S. T.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G. B.

    2009-12-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth’s atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are currently not well understood or quantified. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects around pristine rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Off line analysis of filter samples was performed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/ToFMS). This technique provide a more detailed chemical characterisation of the SOA, allowing direct links back to gas phase precursors. The ground site data are compared with Aerodyne Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) measurements made on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Airborne measurements were made above pristine rainforest surrounding the Danum Valley site, as well as nearby oil palm agricultural sites and palm oil rendering plants. Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS) measurements of VOCs were made at the ground site and from the FAAM aircraft. Novel organic aerosol was measured by both AMSs, and identified by GCxGC/ToFMS analysis. The aerosol component was compared to gas phase precursor measurements. We will discuss the likely sources of this aerosol component.

  9. The First Estimates of Marbled Cat Pardofelis marmorata Population Density from Bornean Primary and Selectively Logged Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hearn

    Full Text Available The marbled cat Pardofelis marmorata is a poorly known wild cat that has a broad distribution across much of the Indomalayan ecorealm. This felid is thought to exist at low population densities throughout its range, yet no estimates of its abundance exist, hampering assessment of its conservation status. To investigate the distribution and abundance of marbled cats we conducted intensive, felid-focused camera trap surveys of eight forest areas and two oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Study sites were broadly representative of the range of habitat types and the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance and fragmentation present in contemporary Sabah. We recorded marbled cats from all forest study areas apart from a small, relatively isolated forest patch, although photographic detection frequency varied greatly between areas. No marbled cats were recorded within the plantations, but a single individual was recorded walking along the forest/plantation boundary. We collected sufficient numbers of marbled cat photographic captures at three study areas to permit density estimation based on spatially explicit capture-recapture analyses. Estimates of population density from the primary, lowland Danum Valley Conservation Area and primary upland, Tawau Hills Park, were 19.57 (SD: 8.36 and 7.10 (SD: 1.90 individuals per 100 km2, respectively, and the selectively logged, lowland Tabin Wildlife Reserve yielded an estimated density of 10.45 (SD: 3.38 individuals per 100 km2. The low detection frequencies recorded in our other survey sites and from published studies elsewhere in its range, and the absence of previous density estimates for this felid suggest that our density estimates may be from the higher end of their abundance spectrum. We provide recommendations for future marbled cat survey approaches.

  10. Dietary diversity, feeding selectivity, and responses to fruit scarcity of two sympatric Bornean primates (Hylobates albibarbis and Presbytis rubicunda rubida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clink, Dena J.; Dillis, Christopher; Feilen, Katie L.; Beaudrot, Lydia; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Effectively characterizing primate diets is fundamental to understanding primate behavior, ecology and morphology. Examining temporal variation in a species’ diet, as well as comparing the responses of different species to variation in resource availability, can enhance understanding of the evolution of morphology and socioecology. In this study, we use feeding data collected over five years to describe the diets of two sympatric Southeast Asian primate species of similar body size: white-bearded gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis) and red leaf monkeys (Presbytis rubicunda rubida), in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Long-term data sets are especially important for characterizing primate diets in Southeast Asia, where the forests exhibit supra-annual mast fruiting events. We found that gibbons were mainly frugivorous, with fruit and figs comprising 70% of their 145 independent feeding observations, whereas leaf monkeys ate a substantial amount of seeds (26%), fruits and figs (26.5%) and leaves (30%, n = 219 independent feeding observations). Leaf monkeys consumed a higher number of plant genera, and this was due mostly to the non-frugivorous portion of their diet. To investigate resource selection by these primates we utilized two different approaches: the Manly Selectivity Ratio, which did not take into account temporal variation of resource availability, and a model selection framework which did incorporate temporal variation. Both species selected figs (Ficus) more than predicted based on their availability under the Manly Selectivity Ratio. Model selection allowed us to determine how these primates alter the proportion of leaves, flowers, seeds, figs and fruit in their diets in response to variation in fruit availability. When fruits were scarce, both gibbons and leaf monkeys incorporated more leaves and figs into their diets, indicating that these two food classes are fallback foods for these primates. We discuss how different measures of resource selection can provide seemingly contradictory results, and emphasize the importance of long term studies that combine independent feeding observations with rigorous assessment of temporal variation in resource availability when modelling feeding selectivity. PMID:28278215

  11. Habitat Suitability Modeling of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus in Betung Kerihun National Park, Danau Sentarum and Corridor, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prayogo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas such as national parks became the last safe area for biodiversity in Indonesia, especially for orangutan, because they have permanent status, and other forest areas may change at any time. Currently, there have been tremendous numbers of land use changes in orangutan habitats such as the development of roads, large scale plantations, settlements, farming as well as logging.  However, the available national parks still offer secure places for orangutans. This research was conducted to study the impact of spatial land use policy on the habitat distribution of orangutans. A remote sensing technology was used to study the habitat distribution and suitability of orangutan in Betung Kerihun National Park (BKNP, Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP and a corridor which connects these 2 parks. Seven parameters have been observed to characterize the habitat of orangutans. Habitat suitability levels of three research sites i.e. BKNP, corridor, and DSNP were 53.72%, 42.94%, and 3.34% which is considered as high, moderate, and low level of habitat suitability, respectively. These results were obtained with 93.63% of validation.Keywords: orangutan, habitat suitability, remote sensing technology, validation

  12. Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slik, J W Ferry; Bernard, Caroline S; Van Beek, Marloes; Breman, Floris C; Eichhorn, Karl A O

    2008-12-01

    Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions. In recent decades, however, tropical forest fires occur more frequently and at larger spatial scales than they used to. We studied forest structure, tree species diversity, tree species composition, and aboveground biomass during the first 7 years since fire in unburned, once burned and twice burned forest of eastern Borneo to determine the rate of recovery of these forests. We paid special attention to changes in the tree species composition during burned forest regeneration because we expect the long-term recovery of aboveground biomass and ecosystem functions in burned forests to largely depend on the successful regeneration of the pre-fire, heavy-wood, species composition. We found that forest structure (canopy openness, leaf area index, herb cover, and stem density) is strongly affected by fire but shows quick recovery. However, species composition shows no or limited recovery and aboveground biomass, which is greatly reduced by fire, continues to be low or decline up to 7 years after fire. Consequently, large amounts of the C released to the atmosphere by fire will not be recaptured by the burned forest ecosystem in the near future. We also observed that repeated fire, with an inter-fire interval of 15 years, does not necessarily lead to a huge deterioration in the regeneration potential of tropical forest. We conclude that burned forests are valuable and should be conserved and that long-term monitoring programs in secondary forests are necessary to determine their recovery rates, especially in relation to aboveground biomass accumulation.

  13. Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Bernard, C.S.; Beek, van M.; Breman, F.C.; Eichhorn, K.A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions. In recent

  14. Estimating Divergence Time and Ancestral Effective Population Size of Bornean and Sumatran Orangutan Subspecies Using a Coalescent Hidden Markov Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien; Hobolth, Asger

    2011-01-01

    event has occurred to split them apart. The size of these segments of constant divergence depends on the recombination rate, but also on the speciation time, the effective population size of the ancestral population, as well as demographic effects and selection. Thus, inference of these parameters may......ue to genetic variation in the ancestor of two populations or two species, the divergence time for DNA sequences from two populations is variable along the genome. Within genomic segments all bases will share the same divergence—because they share a most recent common ancestor—when no recombination...

  15. A new genus and species of myrmecophilous brentid beetle (Coleoptera: Brentidae) inhabiting the myrmecophytic epiphytes in the Bornean rainforest canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Munetoshi; Bartolozzi, Luca; Inui, Yoko; Tanaka, Hiroshi O; Hyodo, Fujio; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Takematsu, Yoko; Hishi, Takuo; Itioka, Takao

    2014-04-08

    Pycnotarsobrentus inuiae Maruyama & Bartolozzi, gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Brentinae: Eremoxenini) is described from the Lambir Hills National Park, Borneo (Sarawak, Malaysia) based on specimens collected from Crematogaster difformis F. Smith, 1857 ant nests in the myrmecophytic epiphytic ferns Platycerium crustacea Copel. and Lecanopteris ridleyi H. Christ. A second species of Pycnotarsobrentus is known from Malaysia but is represented by only one female and consequently not yet described pending discovery of a male. Pycnotarsobrentus belongs to the tribe Eremoxenini and shares some character states with the African genus Pericordus Kolbe, 1883. No species of Eremoxenini with similar morphological modifications are known from the Oriental region.

  16. Transparent self-cleaning lubricant-infused surfaces made with large-area breath figure patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Liwen; Ran, Tong; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-11-01

    Nepenthes pitcher inspired slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces greatly impact the understanding of liquid-repellent surfaces construction and have attracted extensive attention in recent years due to their potential applications in self-cleaning, anti-fouling, anti-icing, etc. In this work, we have successfully fabricated transparent slippery lubricant-infused surfaces based on breath figure patterns (BFPs). Large-area BFPs with interconnected pores were initially formed on the glass substrate and then a suitable lubricant was added onto the surfaces. The interconnected pores in BFPs were able to hold the lubricant liquid in place and form a stable liquid/solid composite surface capable of repelling a variety of liquids. The liquid-repellent surfaces show extremely low critical sliding angles for various liquids, thus providing the surfaces with efficient self-cleaning property. It was also found that the liquid droplets' sliding behaviors on the surfaces were significantly influenced by the tilting angle of the substrate, liquid volume, liquid chemical properties, and pore sizes of the surfaces.

  17. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, Elena V.; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2017-01-01

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion. PMID:28367985

  18. Nanoporous Monolithic Microsphere Arrays Have Anti-Adhesive Properties Independent of Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Eichler-Volf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioinspired artificial surfaces with tailored adhesive properties have attracted significant interest. While fibrillar adhesive pads mimicking gecko feet are optimized for strong reversible adhesion, monolithic microsphere arrays mimicking the slippery zone of the pitchers of carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes show anti-adhesive properties even against tacky counterpart surfaces. In contrast to the influence of topography, the influence of relative humidity (RH on adhesion has been widely neglected. Some previous works deal with the influence of RH on the adhesive performance of fibrillar adhesive pads. Commonly, humidity-induced softening of the fibrils enhances adhesion. However, little is known on the influence of RH on solid anti-adhesive surfaces. We prepared polymeric nanoporous monolithic microsphere arrays (NMMAs with microsphere diameters of a few 10 µm to test their anti-adhesive properties at RHs of 2% and 90%. Despite the presence of continuous nanopore systems through which the inner nanopore walls were accessible to humid air, the topography-induced anti-adhesive properties of NMMAs on tacky counterpart surfaces were retained even at RH = 90%. This RH-independent robustness of the anti-adhesive properties of NMMAs significantly contrasts the adhesion enhancement by humidity-induced softening on nanoporous fibrillar adhesive pads made of the same material.

  19. Crystallization of nepenthesin I using a low-pH crystallization screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejfarová, Karla; Kádek, Alan; Mrázek, Hynek; Hausner, Jiří; Tretyachenko, Vyacheslav; Koval', Tomáš; Man, Petr; Hašek, Jindřich; Dohnálek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Nepenthesins are aspartic proteases secreted by carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes. They significantly differ in sequence from other plant aspartic proteases. This difference, which provides more cysteine residues in the structure of nepenthesins, may contribute to their unique stability profile. Recombinantly produced nepenthesin 1 (rNep1) from N. gracilis in complex with pepstatin A was crystallized under two different crystallization conditions using a newly formulated low-pH crystallization screen. The diffraction data were processed to 2.9 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.63, b = 95.90, c = 105.40 Å, α = β = γ = 90° and a = 86.28, b = 97.22, c = 103.78 Å, α = β = γ = 90°, respectively. Matthews coefficient and solvent-content calculations suggest the presence of two molecules of rNep1 in the asymmetric unit. Here, the details of the crystallization experiment and analysis of the X-ray data are reported.

  20. Dissecting host-associated communities with DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Naomi E.

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding and metabarcoding methods have been invaluable in the study of interactions between host organisms and their symbiotic communities. Barcodes can help identify individual symbionts that are difficult to distinguish using morphological characters, and provide a way to classify undescribed species. Entire symbiont communities can be characterized rapidly using barcoding and especially metabarcoding methods, which is often crucial for isolating ecological signal from the substantial variation among individual hosts. Furthermore, barcodes allow the evolutionary histories of symbionts and their hosts to be assessed simultaneously and in reference to one another. Here, we describe three projects illustrating the utility of barcodes for studying symbiotic interactions: first, we consider communities of arthropods found in the ant-occupied domatia of the East African ant-plant Vachellia (Acacia) drepanolobium; second, we examine communities of arthropod and protozoan inquilines in three species of Nepenthes pitcher plant in South East Asia; third, we investigate communities of gut bacteria of South American ants in the genus Cephalotes. Advances in sequencing and computation, and greater database connectivity, will continue to expand the utility of barcoding methods for the study of species interactions, especially if barcoding can be approached flexibly by making use of alternative genetic loci, metagenomes and whole-genome data. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481780

  1. Dissecting host-associated communities with DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher C M; Bittleston, Leonora S; Sanders, Jon G; Pierce, Naomi E

    2016-09-05

    DNA barcoding and metabarcoding methods have been invaluable in the study of interactions between host organisms and their symbiotic communities. Barcodes can help identify individual symbionts that are difficult to distinguish using morphological characters, and provide a way to classify undescribed species. Entire symbiont communities can be characterized rapidly using barcoding and especially metabarcoding methods, which is often crucial for isolating ecological signal from the substantial variation among individual hosts. Furthermore, barcodes allow the evolutionary histories of symbionts and their hosts to be assessed simultaneously and in reference to one another. Here, we describe three projects illustrating the utility of barcodes for studying symbiotic interactions: first, we consider communities of arthropods found in the ant-occupied domatia of the East African ant-plant Vachellia (Acacia) drepanolobium; second, we examine communities of arthropod and protozoan inquilines in three species of Nepenthes pitcher plant in South East Asia; third, we investigate communities of gut bacteria of South American ants in the genus Cephalotes Advances in sequencing and computation, and greater database connectivity, will continue to expand the utility of barcoding methods for the study of species interactions, especially if barcoding can be approached flexibly by making use of alternative genetic loci, metagenomes and whole-genome data.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'.

  2. Drag reduction using slippery liquid infused surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultmark, Marcus; Stone, Howard; Smits, Alexander; Jacobi, Ian; Samaha, Mohamed; Wexler, Jason; Shang, Jessica; Rosenberg, Brian; Hellström, Leo; Fan, Yuyang

    2013-11-01

    A new method for passive drag reduction is introduced. A surface treatment inspired by the Nepenthes pitcher plant, previously developed by Wong et al. (2011), is utilized and its design parameters are studied for increased drag reduction and durability. Nano- and micro-structured surfaces infused with a lubricant allow for mobility within the lubricant itself when the surface is exposed to flow. The mobility causes slip at the fluid-fluid interface, which drastically reduces the viscous friction. These new surfaces are fundamentally different from the more conventional superhydrophobic surfaces previously used in drag reduction studies, which rely on a gas-liquid interface. The main advantage of the liquid infused surfaces over the conventional surfaces is that the lubricant adheres more strongly to the surface, decreasing the risk of failure when exposed to turbulence and other high-shear flows. We have shown that these surfaces can reduce viscous drag up to 20% in both Taylor-Couette flow and in a parallel plate rheometer. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim).

  3. Potensi Ekowisata Danau di Kawasan Kamipang Kalimantan Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decenly -

    2014-09-01

    potential of abiotic and social aspects were outlined descriptively and the potential biological aspects were analyzed using fish biodiversity index and vegetation important value index. The study showed the potential of abiotic aspects i.e. natural lakes with relatively good hydrological conditions (BOD value ranged between 2-4 mg/L and turbidity was less than 25 NTU and tropical climate with fertile soil, whereas the biological potential comprised the diversity of fishes and vegetation around the lake along with the presence of fishes and plants that have been listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013 from the category of Least Concerned, i.e. Peang fish (Channa Maurilius, Balida (Notopterus Chitala and Kantong Semar (pitcher plants (Nepenthes Gracilis. The social potential was the uniqueness culture and the traditional arts.

  4. 棒球投手上肢肌力研究%Study on Upper Extremity Strength in Baseball Pitchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正利; 张胜年

    2005-01-01

    在查阅国外大量相关文献资料的基础上,了解棒球投手上肢肌力的研究现状,从投手上肢肌力与球速的关系、投手两侧上肢肌力对比研究、上肢主动肌/对抗肌比值研究等几个方面进行了归纳分析,并对研究中存在的问题及今后的发展提出了看法.今后应加强对肘关节屈和伸肌群肌力的研究,进一步探索不同投手前臂旋前肌群和旋后肌群的肌力变化情况.

  5. Bioinspired self-repairing slippery surfaces with pressure-stable omniphobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tak-Sing; Kang, Sung Hoon; Tang, Sindy K Y; Smythe, Elizabeth J; Hatton, Benjamin D; Grinthal, Alison; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2011-09-21

    Creating a robust synthetic surface that repels various liquids would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from biomedical devices and fuel transport to architecture but has proved extremely challenging. Inspirations from natural nonwetting structures, particularly the leaves of the lotus, have led to the development of liquid-repellent microtextured surfaces that rely on the formation of a stable air-liquid interface. Despite over a decade of intense research, these surfaces are, however, still plagued with problems that restrict their practical applications: limited oleophobicity with high contact angle hysteresis, failure under pressure and upon physical damage, inability to self-heal and high production cost. To address these challenges, here we report a strategy to create self-healing, slippery liquid-infused porous surface(s) (SLIPS) with exceptional liquid- and ice-repellency, pressure stability and enhanced optical transparency. Our approach-inspired by Nepenthes pitcher plants-is conceptually different from the lotus effect, because we use nano/microstructured substrates to lock in place the infused lubricating fluid. We define the requirements for which the lubricant forms a stable, defect-free and inert 'slippery' interface. This surface outperforms its natural counterparts and state-of-the-art synthetic liquid-repellent surfaces in its capability to repel various simple and complex liquids (water, hydrocarbons, crude oil and blood), maintain low contact angle hysteresis (<2.5°), quickly restore liquid-repellency after physical damage (within 0.1-1 s), resist ice adhesion, and function at high pressures (up to about 680 atm). We show that these properties are insensitive to the precise geometry of the underlying substrate, making our approach applicable to various inexpensive, low-surface-energy structured materials (such as porous Teflon membrane). We envision that these slippery surfaces will be useful in fluid handling and

  6. Long-term reproductive behaviour of woody plants across seven Bornean forest types in the Gunung Palung National Park (Indonesia): suprannual synchrony, temporal productivity and fruiting diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles H; Curran, Lisa M; Marshall, Andrew J; Leighton, Mark

    2007-10-01

    For 68 months, we observed the reproductive behaviour of 7288 woody plants (172 figs, 1457 climbers and 5659 trees) spanning major soil and elevational gradients. Two 2-3 month community-wide supra-annual fruiting events were synchronized across five forest types, coinciding with ENSO events. At least 27 genera in 24 families restricted their reproduction to these events, which involved a substantial proportion of tree diversity (> 80% of phylogenetic diversity). During these events, mean reproductive levels (8.5%) represented an almost four-fold increase compared with other months. These patterns indicate a strong behavioural advantage to this unusual reproductive behaviour. Montane forest experienced a single, separate fruiting peak while the peat swamp forest did not participate. Excluding these events, no temporal reproductive pattern was detectable, at either the landscape or forest type. These phenological patterns have major implications for the conservation of frugivore communities, with montane and swamp forests acting as 'keystone' forests.

  7. Influence of tree size, taxonomy, and edaphic conditions on heart rot in mixed-dipterocarp Bornean rainforests: implications for aboveground biomass estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Heineman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungal decay of heartwood creates hollows and areas of reduced wood density within the stems of living trees known as heart rot. Although heart rot is acknowledged as a source of error in forest aboveground biomass estimates, there are few datasets available to evaluate the environmental controls over heart rot infection and severity in tropical forests. Using legacy and recent data from drilled, felled, and cored stems in mixed dipterocarp forests in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, we quantified the frequency and severity of heart rot, and used generalized linear mixed effect models to characterize the association of heart rot with tree size, wood density, taxonomy, and edaphic conditions. Heart rot was detected in 55% of felled stems > 30 cm DBH, while the detection frequency was lower for stems of the same size evaluated by non-destructive drilling (45% and coring (23% methods. Heart rot severity, defined as the percent stem volume lost in infected stems, ranged widely from 0.1–82.8%. Tree taxonomy explained the greatest proportion of variance in heart rot frequency and severity among the fixed and random effects evaluated in our models. Heart rot frequency, but not severity, increased sharply with tree diameter, ranging from 56% infection across all datasets in stems > 50 cm DBH to 11% in trees 10–30 cm DBH. The frequency and severity of heart rot increased significantly in soils with low pH and cation concentrations in topsoil, and heart rot was more common in tree species associated with dystrophic sandy soils than with nutrient-rich clays. When scaled to forest stands, the percent of stem biomass lost to heart rot varied significantly with soil properties, and we estimate that 7% of the forest biomass is in some stage of heart rot decay. This study demonstrates not only that heart rot is a significant source of error in forest carbon estimates, but also that it strongly covaries with soil resources, underscoring the need to account for edaphic variation in estimating carbon storage in tropical forests.

  8. Exploration of shoulder rotation characteristics in baseball pitchers%棒球投手肩关节旋转运动特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勇

    2006-01-01

    应用超声波动力学测量仪和CYBEX-6000等速仪器分别对26名棒球投手和22名自愿者肩关节内、外旋活动范围(range of motion,ROM)、内外旋肌力进行测量,以探讨棒球投手肩关节旋转运动特征.结果表明:棒球投手优势臂的外旋活动范围明显大于非优势臂,而其优势臂的内旋活动范围则显著小于非优势臂,优势臂的整个旋转活动范围也明显比非优势臂小;对照组的优势臂和非优势臂旋转活动范围无显著差异.测试还发现:棒球投手肩关节存在内、外旋肌力不平衡,实验组优势臂内旋IR(210°/s)、IR(300°/s)相对峰力矩明显大于非优势臂(WTBX()P<0.001),优势臂外旋ER(210°/s)、ER(300°/s)峰力矩与非优势臂相比,无明显差异(P>0.05),实验组优势臂外旋/内旋峰力矩比值(ER/IR)明显小于非优势臂.

  9. Kinematic Analysis of the Stretch step Technology of Woman Baseball Pitchers%女子垒球投手伸踏技术的运动学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀全; 邵滨

    2013-01-01

    一支垒球队的核心是投手,在很大程度上决定着比赛的胜负.通过对女子垒球投手投球动作的图像解析,选择与下肢伸踏技术相关性较强的技术指标,对其伸踏技术进行了理论分析.以期对教练员提高投手下肢技术的运动学认知、投球技术改进、提高投球球速等方面提供参考.

  10. AFSOC Urban Operations Training & Capabilities Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    flatwoods, and baygall communities throughout Eglin. ● Pineland Hoary Pea ( Tephrosia mohrii). The Pineland Hoary Pea, an herbaceous plant, is a...Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea ). The purple pitcher plant is a native, carnivorous herb. In its southern distribution, this pitcher plant

  11. Come and Play Baselall with a machine!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the past, mechanical pitchers wereused only for the training of professionalbaseball players in China. But now ordinaryChinese people too can have a try if they goto the Baseball Ground at the OlympicSports Center in Beijing’s Asian GamesVillage. Four mechanical pitchers areinstalled there. They serve the balls fromdifferent angles and speeds, just like ahuman pitcher. When I step into the batter’s box readyfor a hit, I feel like one of those baseball

  12. 78 FR 67389 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) from the Primate Brain Bank..., Bonita Springs, FL; PRT-19966B The applicant requests a permit to import a sport-hunted trophy of...

  13. 棒球比赛投手与击球手零和对策的全解%A Complete Solution to the Zero-sum Game Between Pitchers and Batters On the Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 盛立人

    2009-01-01

    棒球赛最重要也是最激烈的环节发生在击球手与投手之间的较量.本文根据美国棒球大联盟部分统计资料,通过投手与击球手的对策局势表,用优化方法与图解法即期望值的计算出投手和击球手之间的最佳对策.

  14. 棒球投手投球动作的运动生物力学研究综述%Sport Biomechanical Research Summary of Baseball Pitching of Baseball Pitcher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀杰; 韩志磊; 梁占锁

    2010-01-01

    通过对近20多年来国内、外学者对棒球投手的运动生物力学研究成果进行整理分析研究,研究认为,目前对棒球投手的生物力学研究主要运用高速摄影、等速肌力测试、肌电图、三维测力台等科研手段,从运动学、动力学、肌电学方面对影响棒球投球动作质量及投球速度的关键部位和因素进行了深入研究,并在此基础上对优化投球动作以减少运动损伤等方面进行了探讨.

  15. Entrapment neuropathies in sports medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The more frequent entrapment neuropathies related to sport are described: thoracic outlet syndrome in aquatic athletes and pitchers, long thoracic neuropathy in tennis players, suprascapular neuropathy in volleyball and tennis players, ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow in pitchers and at the wrist in cyclists, Morton's syndrome in runners and dancers. Peer reviewed

  16. Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

  17. B61 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) Weapons Systems Evaluation Program (WSEP) Eglin Air Force Base, FL Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Water Tupelo Nyssa biflora Five-lined Skink Eumeces fasciatus Pitcher Plant Sarracenis purpurea Green Anole Anolis carolinensis Red Titi Cyrilla...Unknown C-52C Lilium iridollae Panhandle lily SE C-52C Tephrosia mohrii Pineland Hoary Pea ST C-52C Sarracenia rubra Red-flowered Pitcher Plant SE C

  18. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik eCheshin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from MLB World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  19. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  20. Preventing Musculoskeletal Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical condition to play the sport. Follow the rules of the sport. Wear appropriate protective gear (for example, shin guards for soccer, a hard-shell helmet when facing a baseball or softball pitcher, a helmet and body padding ...

  1. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Test Area C-74 Complex, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-18

    Sarracenis purpurea Green Anole Anolis carolinensis Red Titi Cyrilla racemiflora Garter Snake Thamnophis sirtalis Tulip Poplar Liriodendrom... Tephrosia mohrii) Eglin’s open canopy Sandhills and upland pine forest Sweet Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rubra) Wet flatwoods, wet prairies, and baygalls

  2. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), rushes (Juncus spp.), and sedges ( Carex spp.). The Gulf coastal plain in Texas was originally prairie laced with hardwood...sunlight produce highly diverse understory assemblages of grasses, sedges , and other herbaceous plants. Pitcher plants (Sarracenia spp.), other carnivorous...typical bog vegetation containing pitcher plants, grasses, sedges , orchids, and yellow-eyed grass (Xyris spp.), surrounded or broken by areas of shrubs

  3. Assessment of professional baseball players aerobic exercise performance depending on their positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Won

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the average and SD of professional baseball players' cardiorespiratory endurance, maximum oxygen consumption, oxygen consumption during anaerobic threshold, maximum oxygen consumption of anaerobic threshold %, maximum heart rate, and heart rate of anaerobic threshold. We also report the comparison between pitchers and fielders. Considering the total number of results, percentile was used and results were classified into 5 grades. One professional baseball players' organization with more than 14 years of experience participated in this study. First, we observed that the average pitchers' V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was 53.64 ml·kg·min, whereas the average fielders' was 52.30 ml·kg·min. These values were lower than other sports players. Second, in case of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT, pitchers showed 39.35 ml·kg·min and fielders showed 39.96 ml·kg·min. %V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT showed a significant difference of 71.13% between pitchers and fielders-pitchers, whereas fielders showed 73.89% (p baseball players and higher than other sports players. In conclusion, both professional baseball pitchers and fielders should be aware of the necessity of systematic cardiorespiratory endurance data analysis. Moreover, baseball teams, athletic trainers, and coaches should also be aware of the importance of cardiorespiratory endurance.

  4. Differences among fastball, curveball, and change-up pitching biomechanics across various levels of baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Laughlin, Walter A; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2016-06-01

    Controversy continues whether curveballs are stressful for young baseball pitchers. Furthermore, it is unproven whether professional baseball pitchers have fewer kinematic differences between fastballs and off-speed pitches than lower level pitchers. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured for 111 healthy baseball pitchers (26 youth, 21 high school, 20 collegiate, 26 minor league, and 18 major league level) throwing fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups in an indoor biomechanics laboratory with a high-speed, automated digitising system. Differences between pitch types and between competition levels were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Shoulder and elbow kinetics were greater in fastballs than in change-ups, while curveball kinetics were not different from the other two types of pitches. Kinematic angles at the instant of ball release varied between pitch types, while kinematic angles at the instant of lead foot contact varied between competition levels. There were no significant interactions between pitch type and competition level, meaning that kinetic and kinematic differences between pitch types did not vary by competition level. Like previous investigations, this study did not support the theory that curveballs are relatively more stressful for young pitchers. Although pitchers desire consistent kinematics, there were differences between pitch types, independent of competition level.

  5. Surface structure biomimetic design and performance testing of slippery trapping plate used for controlling agricultural insect%致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板表面结构仿生构建与性能验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 黄风山; 周强

    2015-01-01

    致灾农业昆虫光电诱导滑移捕集技术中,致使昆虫产生良好滑移行为的捕集滑板是获取该技术高效应用的关键.红瓶猪笼草(Nepenthes alata)叶笼滑移区依靠特殊形貌对昆虫附着系统表现出显著滑移功能,为致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板的研制提供了仿生原型.采用扫描电子显微镜(scanning electron microscope, SEM)与三维白光形貌干涉仪(scanning white light interferometer, SWLI)对滑移区表面微形貌进行观测分析并获取三维结构参数,据此构建了致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板表面结构的仿生模型;采用激光微纳加工技术和高压静电吸附技术实现捕集滑板的仿生制备.为验证仿生制备致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板功效,测试了蝗虫(Locusta migratoria manilensis)在捕集滑板和仿生原型的附着力,结果分别为(402.9±26.1)mN和(361.9±25.5)mN,相近的附着力预示研制的致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板具有与仿生原型类似的性能.%The technology of photoelectric inducing-trapping can kill agricultural insect (locust, ant, etc.) and protect the agricultural production from being destroyed effectively, and avoid the environment pollution caused by spraying pesticide. The key factor of this technology is to develop a kind of slippery trapping plate which can restrict insects' excellent attachment ability generated by rigid claw and adhesive pad. To obtain structural information for biomimetic developing the slippery trapping plate, surface morphology of bionic prototype (slippery zone ofNepenthes alata pitcher) was detailedly examined in August and September of 2013. Several sections (1 cm2) were cut from the slippery surface and rinsed in distilled water before being air-dried, then mounted on aluminum blocks and sputter coated, and observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fresh sample (2 cm2) was cut from slippery surface and glued to an aluminum block, and examined with a scanning white-light interferometer

  6. 77 FR 298 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... variegata), western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), leopard (Panthera pardus), Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) to enhance their... their captive-bred wildlife registration under 50 CFR 17.21(g) for leopard (Panthera pardus) and...

  7. Macrogeographical variability in the great call of Hylobates agilis: assessing the applicability of vocal analysis in studies of fine-scale taxonomy of gibbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R; Pedersen, Adam Frederik Sander; Wang, Christian William;

    2010-01-01

    -populations and between-islands. The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of geographical isolation on variability in song pattern and to test whether proposed island-specific song characteristics exist, reflecting evolutionary divergence between Sumatran and Bornean agile gibbons. One hundred great calls were...

  8. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by Röh

  9. A list of the birds recorded from Bangka Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    An enumeration of bird specimens from Bangka present in museum-collections, has resulted in a faunal list of 172 species (176 forms). A discussion is given of the zoogeography of the island, the avifauna of which is mainly Sumatran in its affinities, but with a distinct Bornean influence. In contrad

  10. On Reptiles from North Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1893-01-01

    The following list is the catalogue of a collection of reptiles captured by Mr. J. Chr. Prakke in the neighbourhood of the Sandakan-bay (N. Borneo). As Dr. F. Mocquard in his latest papers ¹) on reptiles of Borneo gives a full account of the literature of Bornean herpetology, I think I may content m

  11. On Phasianus ignitus and its nearest allies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1896-01-01

    While working out the ornithological results of the Dutch expedition to Central Borneo, I had to decide which name to bestow upon the Bornean Crested Fire-back, generally known as Euplocamus nobilis Scl., but afterwards united with E. ignitus Lath. by Elliot (Ibis 1878, p. 414), and lately also by O

  12. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2011-01-01

    ‘Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  13. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia.

  14. Habitat-use and conservation of two elusive ground birds (Carpococcyx radiatus and Polyplectron schleiermacheri) in Sungai Wain protection forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Fredriksson; V. Nijman

    2004-01-01

    We studied the distribution and habitat-use of two endemic ground birds, the Borneon groundcuckoo Carpococcyx radiatus and the Bornean peacockpheasant Polyplectron schleiermacheri in the Sungai Wain protection Forest, East Kalimantan. Both species are highly elusive and neither has been subject to a

  15. Adolescent baseball pitching technique: lower extremity biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Matthew D; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Solomito, Matthew; Westwell, Melany; Nissen, Carl W

    2012-11-01

    Documentation of the lower extremity motion patterns of adolescent pitchers is an important part of understanding the pitching motion and the implication of lower extremity technique on upper extremity loads, injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to take the initial step in this process by documenting the biomechanics of the lower extremities during the pitching cycle in adolescent pitchers and to compare these findings with the published data for older pitchers. Three-dimensional motion analysis using a comprehensive lower extremity model was used to evaluate the fast ball pitch technique in adolescent pitchers. Thirty-two pitchers with a mean age of 12.4 years (range 10.5-14.7 years) and at least 2 years of experience were included in this study. The pitchers showed a mean of 49 ± 12° of knee flexion of the lead leg at foot contact. They tended to maintain this position through ball release, and then extended their knee during the follow through phase (ball release to maximal internal glenohumeral rotation). The lead leg hip rapidly progressed into adduction and flexion during the arm cocking phase with a range of motion of 40 ± 10° adduction and 30 ± 13° flexion. The lead hip mean peak adduction velocity was 434 ± 83°/s and flexion velocity was 456 ± 156°/s. Simultaneously, the trailing leg hip rapidly extended approaching to a mean peak extension of -8 ± 5° at 39% of the pitch cycle, which is close to passive range of motion constraints. Peak hip abduction of the trailing leg at foot contact was -31 ± 12°, which also approached passive range of motion constraints. Differences and similarities were also noted between the adolescent lower extremity kinematics and adult pitchers; however, a more comprehensive analysis using similar methods is needed for a complete comparison.

  16. [Helen of Troy and medicine, a picture of the "Salle des Actes"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    The picture of the 17th century, placed upon the great chimney in the "Salle des Actes", is attributed to the painter Simon Vouet or to his co-workers. It depicts a scene extracted from Odyssey by Homer. During their way-back to Greece, after the fall and the fire of Troia, Helen and Menelaus received in Egypt the famous nepenthes from the hands of Polydamna. An inventory of the possessions of the College of Pharmacy mentioned also helenium and moly. Nepenthes was really cited by Homer as a medicine used by Helen, but helenium was only related to Helen by euphony and moly referred to a totally different part of Odyssey and was not linked at all to Helen. This study points out the importance of mythology so far as origins of Pharmacy are concerned.

  17. The Designated Hitter Rule in Baseball as a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner La Croix

    2010-01-01

    All but two professional baseball leagues have adopted the “designated hitter” (DH) rule, which allows a team’s manager to designate a player to bat at the plate and run the bases in place of another player, usually the team’s pitcher. Unlike the team’s other players, the designated hitter does not take the field to play defense. This paper provides a survey of a large literature investigating the DH rule’s effect on the incentives of pitchers to hit batters and on changes in the number of hi...

  18. Fields and Streams: Stream Restoration, Neoliberalism, and the Future of Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin

    2013-02-01

    In 2012, Robert Allen (R. A.) Dickey won the Cy Young award, the highest honor for a pitcher in Major League Baseball. Dickey was the first to win the award by throwing knuckleballs, an enormously difficult to master, quixotic pitch thrown without spin that moves through the air in ways normal pitches don't. When done well, a knuckleball shows the nuanced skill of an unusual pitcher and systemic weakness in hundreds of big-league hitters, who rarely face such a pitch.

  19. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  20. Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses. Infofacts/Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The February 2003 death of Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler, who according to the coroner's report died after taking ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra), has garnered national attention for the topic of nutritional supplements and energy drinks. Energy drinks and energy-enhancing pills, diet aids, muscle-enlargers, and other supplements fall…

  1. 77 FR 25741 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Reservation, Arizona; and the Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona. History and Description of the Remains In 1930... individuals were identified. The three associated funerary objects are one ceramic bowl, one ceramic jar, and one ceramic pitcher. Queen Creek Ruin was a large habitation site that included trash mounds,...

  2. 77 FR 25737 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    .... History and Description of the Cultural Items In 1930, cultural items were removed from Queen Creek Ruin... donated to the Arizona State Museum. The 30 unassociated funerary objects are 12 ceramic bowls, 8 ceramic jars, 1 ceramic ladle, 3 ceramic pitchers, 5 ceramic scoops, and 1 ceramic sherd. Queen Creek Ruin...

  3. 77 FR 52056 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    .... History and Description of the Cultural Items The unassociated funerary objects are six ceramic bowls, four ceramic jars, two ceramic pitchers, and three ceramic sherds. The funerary objects were removed... reported in a Notice of Inventory Completion in the Federal Register (73 FR 8356-8357, February 13,...

  4. Are Avid Readers Lurking in Your Language Arts Classroom? Myths of the Avid Adolescent Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nance S.; Kelley, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study conducted with 10 identified avid adolescent readers who completed the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) (Pitcher, Albright, DeLaney, Walker, Seunarienesingh, & Moggie, 2007) that includes both a survey to determine students' self-concept and value of reading and an interview that sheds light on what…

  5. 77 FR 55498 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Device USA Inc. of Plano, Texas. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amanda S. Pitcher, Office of the... Technologies (USA) of Plano, Texas; ZTE Corporation of Shenzhen, China; and ZTE (USA) Inc. of Richardson, Texas... business at 5700 Tennyson Parkway, Suite 600, Plano, Texas 75024. On August 9, 2012, the ALJ issued an...

  6. 78 FR 50100 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Wupatki...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... are 9 animal bones, 1 piece of charred cotton cloth, 1 axe, 1 pitcher fragment, 1 Walnut black-on... the time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2),...

  7. Shoulder Stretching Intervention Reduces the Incidence of Shoulder and Elbow Injuries in High School Baseball Players: a Time-to-Event Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Hamano, Noritaka; Ueno, Akira; Endo, Fumitaka; Oshima, Atsufumi; Sakane, Hideo; Tachibana, Masahiro; Tomomatsu, Yusuke; Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Osawa, Toshihisa; Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the effects of a prevention program on the incidence of shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers. Ninety-two pitchers participated in this study and were taught to perform stretching and strength exercises aimed at improving shoulder external rotation strength in the preseason. The pitchers freely chose to participate in one of four groups [SM-group: performed both exercises, S-group: performed stretching exercise only, M-group: performed strength training only, and N-group: performed neither intervention]. Injury was defined as inability to play for ≥8 days because of shoulder/elbow symptoms. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and hazard ratios (HRs) for injury occurrence were calculated using multivariate Cox regression. Log-rank test was used for between-group comparisons of survival distributions. The injuries occurred in 25, 35, and 57% of participants and median times to injury were 89, 92, and 29.5 days in the S- (n = 32), SM- (n = 46), and N- (n = 14) group, respectively. Nobody chose M-group. HRs were 0.36 and 0.47 for the S- and SM-group, respectively, based on the N-group. The incidence of injury was significantly lower in the S-group than in the N-group (p = 0.04). Daily posterior shoulder stretching may reduce the incidence of the injuries in high school baseball pitchers. PMID:28345616

  8. A Field Study of Traditional and Nontraditional Children's Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Younger children often have problems playing baseball using adult rules because pitchers lack ability to throw consistently and batters have trouble hitting erratically thrown balls. A modification of adult rules allowed the team coach to pitch to batters. More offensive and defensive activity occurred in the nontraditional games than in…

  9. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... particularly pitchers and infielders, should wear protective cups. Rules regarding which players must wear cups vary from league to league. Additional gear that some players like includes sliding pants, which are meant to go under baseball pants to protect against scrapes and cuts; batting ...

  10. Test Area C-62 Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    bog or pitcher plant bog is a small, grass/ sedge /forb dominated wetland occurring along a gentle slope intersection of the horizontal water table...Pluchea rosea Godfrey CYPERACEAE Carex spp. Fuirena breviseta (Coville) Coville in Harper Fuirena spp. CYRILLACEAE Cliftonia monophylla (Lam

  11. ONR Graduate Traineeship Award in Ocean Acoustics for Ms. Deanelle T. Symonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-30

    is directly tied to catchability rates [18,19]. Shoaling fish are amongst the most heavily exploited species in the ocean, as commercial fishing gear...1996). 18. S. Mackinson, U.R. Sumalia, T.J. Pitcher, “Bioeconomics and catchability : fish and fishers behavior during stock collapse,” Fisheries

  12. Estuarine and Riverine Areas Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-25

    the surface during the rainy season. Rare plants include southern milkweed , white-top pitcher plant, sweet pitcherplant, Chapman’s butterwort, and... cancer causing, and adversely affects reproduction, liver and thyroid function, disease resistance. Plants and animals may bioconcentrate lead but

  13. Novel Acoustic Techniques for Assessing Fish Schooling in the Context of an Operational Ocean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    and onshore waters. A unique acoustic scattering source was identified during the experiment as dense, monotypic aggregations of a pelagic gastropod ...can often reveal hidden coherent structure. IMPACT/ APPLICATIONS The distribution of fish and the variability in their distribution has...direct and waveguide scattering for application to fish. REFERENCES Pitcher, T. J., and J. K. Parrish. 1993. Function of shoaling behavior in teleosts

  14. Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjaer; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri;

    2002-01-01

    . This shows that extreme contamination values that are often thought to originate within the domestic domain have to be attributed to the public domain transmission, i.e. filling and washing of the water pitchers. This finding has implications for interventions that aim at the elimination of these extreme...

  15. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success.

  16. Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: First Year Results and Second Year Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.; Hare, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland boundary (HLB) extends >1500 km westward from northern Nepenthes Mensae to the topographic saddle that separates Isidis and Utopia Planitiae. It contains bench-like platforms that contain depressions, pitted cones (some organized into arcuate chains and thumbprint terrain), isolated domes, lineated depressions, buried circular depressions, ring fractures, polygonal fractures, and other locally- to regionally-dispersed landforms [1]. The objective of our mapping project is to clarify the geologic evolution of the southern Utopia Planitia HLB by identifying the geologic, structural, and stratigraphic relationships of surface materials in MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247.

  17. New Replacement Name for Rana paradoxa Mocquard, 1890 with Designations of Lectotypes for Rana paradoxa and Rana conspicil-lata Günther, 1872:Both Synonymized with Limnonectes kuhlii (Tschudi, 1838) (Dicroglossidae:Dicroglossinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masafumi MATSUI; Alain DUBOIS; Annemarie OHLER

    2013-01-01

    Fanged frogs, now called Limnonectes kuhlii, from Borneo are remotely related to true Javanese L. kuhlii. For future taxonomy of Bornean fanged frogs, we ifx the nomenclatural status of two existing names, Rana conspicillata Günther, 1872 and Rana paradoxa Mocquard, 1890. Morphological comparison of the type-series revealed heterospeciifc relationships of the two species. For R. conspicillata, we designate BMNH 1947.2.29.20 as the lectotype, and for R. para-doxa, we also designate MNHN 1889.222 as the lectotype and propose a replacement name Limnonectes mocquardi, in order to stabilize their nomenclature.

  18. Estilos de liderazgo, riesgo psicosocial y clima organizacional en un grupo de empresas colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCOISE CONTRERAS

    2010-01-01

    Psicosociales en el Trabajo (CFP y el Test de Adjetivos de Pitcher (Pitcher Test Adjectives [PAT¬]. Se obtuvieron coeficientes de correlación y regresiones lineales. En general, las dimensiones del ECO correlacionaron negativamente con las del CFP. En el PAT se obtuvieron dos estilos de liderazgo, uno deseable y otro no deseable. Ambos estilos correlacionaron negativamente con la mayoría de las dimensiones del CFP y positivamente con las del ECO, pero el no deseable obtuvo coeficientes más débiles. El impacto del factor organizacional y del de relaciones (ambos con coeficiente negativo y las manifestaciones de salud (coeficiente positivo, junto con el apoyo, predijeron el liderazgo deseable. El apoyo (coeficiente positivo y el control (coeficiente negativo, predijeron el liderazgo no deseable.

  19. De cántaros y amores en el México decimonónico: La papanteca de Luz Osorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Úrsula Tania Estrada López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a reading of the painting La papanteca by Luz Osorio, based on an analysis of the topos of the pitcher. Osorio was a Mexican artist active in the city of Puebla towards the 1880’s, whose work is little known and has not been studied in depth. This article contributes to the knowledge of both her work and biography. The analysis situates the painting within two art traditions: on one hand, the painting of peasants, which is considered was initiated by Lépold Robert in 1822, and on the other hand its regionalization in Mexico, begun by Manuel Ocaranza in 1871. The article discusses the implications of the topos of the pitcher in Osorio’s painting by contextualizing it within different imaginaries on women’s sexuality present in nineteenth century Mexico.

  20. Differences in Attentional Focus Associated With Recovery From Sports Injury: Does Injury Induce an Internal Focus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2015-12-01

    Although it is commonly believed that focusing too much attention on the injured body area impairs recovery in sports, this has not been directly assessed. The present study investigated attentional focus following sports injury. Experienced baseball position players recovering from knee surgery (Expt 1) and baseball pitchers recovering from elbow surgery (Expt 2) performed simulated batting and pitching respectively. They also performed three different secondary tasks: leg angle judgments, arm angle judgments, and judgments about the ball leaving their bat/hand. Injured athletes were compared with expert and novice control groups. Performance on the secondary tasks indicated that the injured batters had an internal focus of attention localized on the area of the injury resulting in significantly poorer batting performance as compared with the expert controls. Injured pitchers had a diffuse, internal attentional focus similar to that of novices resulting in poorer pitching performance as compared with the expert controls.

  1. The relationship between trunk rotation, upper quarter dynamic stability and pitch velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Garrett S; Schmitt, Abigail C; Chasse, Patrick; Little, Barrett A; Diehl, Lee H; Butler, Robert J

    2017-02-21

    Understanding the relationship between upper quarter mobility, dynamic stability and pitching velocity may be beneficial in elucidating underlying factors that affect pitching performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper trunk rotation mobility and upper quarter dynamic stability and their correlation to pitch velocity in NCAA Division I collegiate pitchers. We hypothesized that collegiate pitchers with greater upper trunk rotation mobility and upper extremity dynamic stability would exhibit higher pitching velocity. Trunk rotation and the Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-UQ) were measured utilizing standardized protocols. Collegiate pitchers (n=30) then proceeded to complete their team prescribed dynamic and throwing warm up followed by a pitching session from regulation distance at 100% effort. Each pitch was recorded for velocity and pitch type, only fastballs were utilized in analysis. The relationships between trunk rotation and fastball velocity, and YBT-UQ scores and fastball velocity were assessed using a series of two-tail Pearsons Correlations (p<.05). Throwing and non-throwing sides (69.6± 9.5 deg., 70.7± 9.4 deg.) had similar trunk rotation mobility. No statistically significant correlation between upper trunk rotation mobility and pitch velocity was found (throwing arm: r=.131, p<.491; non-throwing arm: r=.135, p<.478). There was also no correlation between the YBT-UQ and fastball velocity. In this study of Division I baseball pitchers, we found no relationship between trunk rotational mobility, upper quarter dynamic stability and pitching velocity. This suggests that increased upper extremity stability and trunk mobility are not directly related to fastball velocity. Understanding factors that associate to velocity may be helpful in predicting pitching performance.

  2. 大话双语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Milkmaid A country maid was walking to the town to sell some milk,which she carried in a pitcher on her head.As she went along,she said to herself,"I have already fifty eggs at home;with themoney which I get for my milk I will buy fifty more.Thesehundred eggs cannot fail to bring me at least eighty chick-

  3. Modulation of motor area activity by the outcome for a player during observation of a baseball game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotaro Shimada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observing competitive games such as sports is a pervasive entertainment among humans. The inclination to watch others play may be based on our social-cognitive ability to understand the internal states of others. The mirror neuron system, which is activated when a subject observes the actions of others, as well as when they perform the same action themselves, seems to play a crucial role in this process. Our previous study showed that activity of the mirror neuron system was modulated by the outcome of the subject's favored player during observation of a simple competitive game (rock-paper-scissors. However, whether the mirror neuron system responds similarly in a more complex and naturalistic sports game has not yet been fully investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we measured the activity of motor areas when the subjects, who were amateur baseball field players (non-pitchers, watched short movie clips of scenes in professional baseball games. The subjects were instructed to support either a batter or a pitcher when observing the movie clip. The results showed that activity in the motor area exhibited a strong interaction between the subject's supported side (batter or pitcher and the outcome (a hit or an out. When the subject supported the batter, motor area activity was significantly higher when the batter made an out than when he made a hit. However, such modulation was not apparent when the subject supported the pitcher. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This result indicates that mirror neuron system activity is modulated by the outcome for a particular player in a competitive game even when observing a complex and naturalistic sports game. We suggest that our inclination to watch competitive games is facilitated by this characteristic of the mirror neuron system.

  4. Imaging quiz: perplexing shin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, E G; Kraus, E H

    1997-04-01

    A 19-year-old minor league baseball pitcher from South America felt pain in his left shin while pitching and presented to the trainer right after the game. He had suffered no injury to the shin, but over a period of 6 weeks, the pain became progressively worse. He had considerable nocturnal discomfort, but no fevers or night sweats. Anti-inflammatories, rest, and ice did not reduce the pain. The patient was otherwise healthy, with no other symptoms or notable history.

  5. Test Area B-70 Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Karst Pond Yellow-eyed Grass Xyris longisepala SE -- Pineland Hoary Pea Tephrosia mohrii ST -- Pineland Wild Indigo Baptista calycosa var villosa ST...threatened pineland hoary pea ( Tephrosia mohrii) is a small herbaceous perennial herb that can be found in the Sandhills ecological association and...fasciatus Purple Pitcher Plant Sarracena purpurea Green Anole Anolis carolinensis Swamp Titi Cyrilla racemiflora Garter Snake Thamnophis sirtalis

  6. The Effect of Intermittent Arm and Shoulder Cooling on Baseball Pitching Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Ryan, Gregory A; Katica, Charles P; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-04-01

    The throwing arm of a baseball pitcher is subjected to high stress as a result of the repetitive activity of pitching. Intermittent cryotherapy may facilitate recovery from this repeated high stress, but few researchers have investigated cryotherapy's efficacy in an ecologically valid setting. This study investigated the effects of intermittent cryotherapy on pitching velocity and subjective measures of recovery and exertion in a simulated baseball game. Trained college-aged male baseball pitchers (n = 8) threw 12 pitches (1 pitch every 20 seconds) per inning for 5 total innings during a simulated pitching start. Between each inning, pitchers received shoulder and arm cooling (AC) or, on a separate occasion, no cooling (NC). All sessions took place in a temperate environment (18.3 ± 2.8° C; 49 ± 4% relative humidity). Pitch speeds were averaged for each participant each inning and overall for 5 innings. Perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) was recorded at the end of each simulated inning. Perceived recovery (perceived recovery scale [PRS]) was recorded after treatment between each inning. Mean pitching velocity for all-innings combined was higher (p = 0.04) for shoulder and elbow cooling (AC) (31.2 ± 2.1 m·s) than for no cooling (NC) (30.6 ± 2.1 m·s). Average pitch speed was significantly higher in the fourth (p = baseball pitching, decreased RPE, and facilitated subjective recovery during a 5-inning simulated game.

  7. Unsubsidised Self-Supply in Eastern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. MacCarthy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply is widely reported across various contexts, filling gaps left by other forms of water supply provision. This study assesses mature and unsubsidised Self-supply markets in an urban context in Madagascar. Locally manufactured drilling and pumping technologies are widely provided by the local private sector, enabling households to access shallow groundwater. The market for Pitcher Pump systems (suction pumps fitted onto hand-driven boreholes has developed over several decades, reaching a level of maturity and scale. In the eastern port city of Tamatave, 9000 of these systems are estimated to be in use and Self-supply constitutes a primary domestic water source for the majority of the city’s 280,000 inhabitants. The market is supplied by more than 50 small businesses that manufacture and install the systems at lower cost (US$35-100 than a connection to the piped water supply system. Mixed methods are used to assess the performance of the Pitcher Pump system and the characteristics of the market. Discussion includes a description of the manufacturing process and sales network that supply Pitcher Pump systems, environmental health concerns related to water quality, pump performance, and system management. In a context where urban piped water supplies are unlikely to be accessible to all anytime soon, recommendations are made for further research and potential technology developments to improve the performance of Self-supply.

  8. Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon L.; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Begne, Serge K.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R.; Banin, Lindsay; Bastin, Jean-François; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Collins, Murray; Djagbletey, Gloria; Djuikouo, Marie Noël K.; Droissart, Vincent; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Ewango, Cornielle E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Foli, Ernest G.; Gillet, Jean-François; Hamilton, Alan C.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; de Haulleville, Thales; Hladik, Annette; Hufkens, Koen; Huygens, Dries; Jeanmart, Philippe; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Leal, Miguel E.; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C.; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marshall, Andrew R.; Ojo, Lucas; Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Pickavance, Georgia; Poulsen, John R.; Reitsma, Jan M.; Sheil, Douglas; Simo, Murielle; Steppe, Kathy; Taedoumg, Hermann E.; Talbot, Joey; Taplin, James R. D.; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C.; Toirambe, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Vleminckx, Jason; White, Lee J. T.; Willcock, Simon; Woell, Hannsjorg; Zemagho, Lise

    2013-01-01

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha−1 (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha−1) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low (426 ± 11 stems ha−1 greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : N ratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus–AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes. PMID:23878327

  9. DISCRIMINATION OF TWO SPECIES OF ORANGUTANS (PONGO SP.: A RAPID PROTOCOL FOR REHABILITATION CENTRES AND ZOOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYAH PERWITASARI-FARAJALLAH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently orangutans are found in widely fragmented and isolated populations. Sumatran orangutan is primarily found in northern Sumatra, and the Bornean orangutans is distributed in Central, West, and East Kalimantan, Sarawak and Sabah. The determination of intra- and inter-species variation between Bornean and Sumatran orangutans is been stated to be essential for both the management of orangutan reintroduction projects and the planning of conservation strategies to preserve the remaining wild populations. This study aimed to identify two species of Orangutans (Pongo sp. by means of RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. An approximately 540 bp single fragment of the ND5 gene near the 5'-region was PCR amplified for all samples tested. Digestion pattern for both AluI and MseI were different between two groups of ND5 fragments in this study. Present result showed a rapid protocol to identify these two species by means of RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analyses of mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA. This technique can be applied easily to rehabilitation centres and zoos to resolve species discrimination problem.

  10. Neophobia and learning mechanisms: how captive orangutans discover medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Krief, Sabrina; Saint Jalme, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Great apes sometimes feed on items of low nutritional value with bioactive secondary compounds. These molecules may be toxic and neophobia is presumed to be an essential factor in avoiding the ingestion of noxious items. The aim of this study is to investigate, in captive orangutans, individual and social learning involved in the discovery and ingestion of new items. We presented novel aromatic plants - 11 fresh plants and 4 infused plants - to 4 captive weaned Bornean orangutans, both under isolated and group conditions, and recorded their behaviour and interactions between group members. All animals tasted by nibbling or ingested most of the plants presented. Regardless of the experimental condition, individual responses did not vary visibly across the sessions, despite numerous close observations, and food transfers between individuals were observed. Our results suggest that a low level of neophobia and a strong propensity to look to conspecifics for information allow Bornean orangutans to expand their diet after weaning. Our results also provide some evidence that olfaction is a key sense in determining food edibility based on previous experience.

  11. Curvature-driven bubbles or droplets on the spiral surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanpeng; Liu, Jianlin; Hou, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Directional motion of droplets or bubbles can often be observed in nature and our daily life, and this phenomenon holds great potential in many engineering areas. The study shows that droplets or bubbles can be driven to migrate perpetually on some special substrates, such as the Archimedean spiral, the logarithmic spiral and a cantilever sheet in large deflection. It is found that a bubble approaches or deviates from the position with highest curvature of the substrate, when it is on the concave or convex side. This fact is helpful to explain the repelling water capability of Nepenthes alata. Based on the force and energy analysis, the mechanism of the bubble migration is well addressed. These findings pave a new way to accurately manipulate droplet or bubble movement, which bring inspirations to the design of microfluidic and water harvesting devices, as well as oil displacement and ore filtration.

  12. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoshi Higuchi

    Full Text Available The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms after the ball release (R+150, occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150, and a condition with no occlusion (NO. Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1. Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001, additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05. The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay.

  13. Sports chronobiology consultation: from the lab to the arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Teodor T; Hung, Tsung-Min; Rosenthal, Richard N; Soriano, Joseph J; Montes, Fernando; Stiller, John W

    2005-04-01

    This final article, coauthored by a chronobiology consultant, a sports psychologist who applied a chronobiology-based program to an Olympic national team, a clinical neurologist, a performance data analyst, a training-conditioning coach from a major league baseball team who applied chronobiology principles to major league pitchers, and a substance abuse expert, discusses practical aspects of a sports chronobiology consultation, including the goals and current arsenal of available interventions. Short vignettes of actual cases are presented for edification, and references are made to appropriate reviews found elsewhere in this issue.

  14. Seasonal variability of the upper ocean driven by the atmospheric forcing and its regulation of nutrients and chlorophyll in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, J.

    resolve all the characteristics of the seasonal variability. 130 References Antonov, J. I., R. A. Locarnini, T. P. Boyer, A. V. Mishonov, and H. E. Garcia, (2006), World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 2: Salinity, edited by S. Levitus, NOAA Atlas.... Mishonov, M. T. Pitcher, O. K. Baranova, and I. Smolyar, ( 2006), World Ocean Database 2005, Chapter 1: Introduction, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 60, Ed. S. Levitus, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 182 pp, DVD. Brainerd, K.E. and M.C. Gregg...

  15. A cold pool south of Indo-Sri Lanka channel and its intrus on into the southeastern Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, R.R.; GirishKumar, M.S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    –3499. Boyer, T.P., Antonov, J.I., Garcia, H.E., Johnson, D.R., Locarnini, R.A., Mishonov, A.V., Pitcher, M.T., Baranova, O.K., Smolyar, I.V., 2006. World Ocean Database, 2005. In: Levitus, S. (Ed.), NOAA Atlas NESDIS 60. US Government Printing Office.... Geophysical Research Letters 33, L03609. Hastenrath, S., Lamb, P., 1979. Climatic Atlas of the Indian Ocean, Part I: Surface Climate and Atmospheric Circulation. University of Wiscon- sin Press, Madison, p. 116. Jensen, T.G., 2003. Cross-equatorial pathways...

  16. Describing baseball pitch movement with right-hand rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahill, A Terry; Baldwin, David G

    2007-07-01

    The right-hand rules show the direction of the spin-induced deflection of baseball pitches: thus, they explain the movement of the fastball, curveball, slider and screwball. The direction of deflection is described by a pair of right-hand rules commonly used in science and engineering. Our new model for the magnitude of the lateral spin-induced deflection of the ball considers the orientation of the axis of rotation of the ball relative to the direction in which the ball is moving. This paper also describes how models based on somatic metaphors might provide variability in a pitcher's repertoire.

  17. Fatalities and catastrophic injuries in high school and college sports, 1982-1997 lessons for improving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, R C; Mueller, F O

    1999-08-01

    The prohibition of 'spearing' in football and the rules regarding water depth and the racing dive in swimming are examples of how data on deaths and catastrophic injuries can be used to help promote the safety of young athletes. Other preventive measures supported by research include anchoring movable soccer goals to prevent tipping, improved training for high school wrestling coaches, increased awareness of pathogenic weight control in wrestling and gymnastics, rules against pushing or checking from behind in ice hockey, protective helmets for batting-practice pitchers in baseball, and barriers around the discus circle in track and field.

  18. Mario Bunge y la verdad como correspondencia en términos psicofisiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Garay, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    La teoría de la correspondencia de la verdad es una de las más desprestigiadas. Ciertamente, como ha sido observado en diversas oportunidades (Pitcher 1964, Haack 1982, Prior 1967, Johnson 1992, Devitt 1988, Goldman 1986, Walker 1989), ha tenido dificultades no sólo al tratar de establecer que tipo de relación es la correspondencia sino también al investigar cuáles son los elementos que deberían integrar esa relación. En una epistemología naturalizada neurofisiológicamente debemos aceptar las...

  19. Frequent loss and alteration of the MOXD2 gene in catarrhines and whales: a possible connection with the evolution of olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Seon; Wang, Yao; Oh, Hye Ji; Lee, Kangseok; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2014-01-01

    The MOXD2 gene encodes a membrane-bound monooxygenase similar to dopamine-β-hydroxylase, and has been proposed to be associated with olfaction. In this study, we analyzed MOXD2 genes from 64 mammalian species, and identified loss-of-function mutations in apes (humans, Sumatran and Bornean orangutans, and five gibbon species from the four major gibbon genera), toothed whales (killer whales, bottlenose dolphins, finless porpoises, baijis, and sperm whales), and baleen whales (minke whales and fin whales). We also identified a shared 13-nt deletion in the last exon of Old World cercopithecine monkeys that results in conversion of a membrane-bound protein to a soluble form. We hypothesize that the frequent inactivation and alteration of MOXD2 genes in catarrhines and whales may be associated with the evolution of olfaction in these clades.

  20. Evolutionary history and distance dependence control survival of dipterocarp seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Robert; Press, Malcolm C; Scholes, Julie D

    2010-01-01

    One important hypothesis to explain tree-species coexistence in tropical forests suggests that increased attack by natural enemies near conspecific trees gives locally rare species a competitive advantage. Host ranges of natural enemies generally encompass several closely related plant taxa suggesting that seedlings should also do poorly around adults of closely related species. We investigated the effects of adult Parashorea malaanonan on seedling survival in a Bornean rain forest. Survival of P. malaanonan seedlings was highest at intermediate distances from parent trees while heterospecific seedlings were unaffected by distance. Leaf herbivores did not drive this relationship. Survival of seedlings was lowest for P. malaanonan, and increased with phylogenetic dissimilarity from this species, suggesting that survival of close relatives of common species is reduced. This study suggests that distance dependence contributes to species coexistence and highlights the need for further investigation into the role of shared plant enemies in community dynamics.

  1. The languages and peoples of the Müller Mountains; A contribution to the study of the origins of Borneo’s nomads and their languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sellato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Müller and northern Schwaner mountain ranges are home to a handful of tiny, isolated groups (Aoheng, Hovongan, Kereho, Semukung, Seputan, altogether totaling about 5,000 persons, which are believed to have been forest hunter-gatherers in a distant or recent past. Linguistic data were collected among these groups and other neighbouring groups between 1975 and 2010, leading to the delineation of two distinct clusters of languages of nomadic or formerly nomadic groups, which are called MSP (Müller-Schwaner Punan and BBL (Bukat-Beketan-Lisum clusters. These languages also display lexical affinity to the languages of various major Bornean settled farming groups (Kayan, Ot Danum. Following brief regional and particular historical sketches, their phonological systems and some key features are described and compared within the wider local linguistic setting, which is expected to contribute to an elucidation of the ultimate origins of these people and their languages.

  2. Declining orangutan encounter rates from Wallace to the present suggest the species was once more abundant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus currently occur at low densities and seeing a wild one is a rare event. Compared to present low encounter rates of orangutans, it is striking how many orangutan each day historic collectors like Alfred Russel Wallace were able to shoot continuously over weeks or even months. Does that indicate that some 150 years ago encounter rates with orangutans, or their densities, were higher than now? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test this hypothesis by quantifying encounter rates obtained from hunting accounts, museum collections, and recent field studies, and analysing whether there is a declining trend over time. Logistic regression analyses of our data support such a decline on Borneo between the mid-19th century and the present. Even when controlled for variation in the size of survey and hunting teams and the durations of expeditions, mean daily encounter rates appear to have declined about 6-fold in areas with little or no forest disturbance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding has potential consequences for our understanding of orangutans, because it suggests that Bornean orangutans once occurred at higher densities. We explore potential explanations-habitat loss and degradation, hunting, and disease-and conclude that hunting fits the observed patterns best. This suggests that hunting has been underestimated as a key causal factor of orangutan density and distribution, and that species population declines have been more severe than previously estimated based on habitat loss only. Our findings may require us to rethink the biology of orangutans, with much of our ecological understanding possibly being based on field studies of animals living at lower densities than they did historically. Our approach of quantifying species encounter rates from historic data demonstrates that this method can yield valuable information about the ecology and population density of species in the past, providing new

  3. A Highly Miniaturized, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit for Characterizing the Dynamics of Pitched Baseballs and Softballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel C. Perkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseball and softball pitch types are distinguished by the path and speed of the ball which, in turn, are determined by the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center at the instant of release from the pitcher’s hand. While radar guns and video-based motion capture (mocap resolve ball speed, they provide little information about how the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center develop and change during the throwing motion. Moreover, mocap requires measurements in a controlled lab environment and by a skilled technician. This study addresses these shortcomings by introducing a highly miniaturized, wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU that is embedded in both baseballs and softballs. The resulting “ball-embedded” sensor resolves ball dynamics right on the field of play. Experimental results from ten pitches, five thrown by one softball pitcher and five by one baseball pitcher, demonstrate that this sensor technology can deduce the magnitude and direction of the ball’s velocity at release to within 4.6% of measurements made using standard mocap. Moreover, the IMU directly measures the angular velocity of the ball, which further enables the analysis of different pitch types.

  4. Accuracy of qualitative analysis for assessment of skilled baseball pitching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Rochelle; Fleisig, Glenn; Elliott, Bruce; Lyman, Stephen; Osinski, Edmund

    2003-07-01

    Baseball pitching must be performed with correct technique if injuries are to be avoided and performance maximized. High-speed video analysis is accepted as the most accurate and objective method for evaluation of baseball pitching mechanics. The aim of this research was to develop an equivalent qualitative analysis method for use with standard video equipment. A qualitative analysis protocol (QAP) was developed for 24 kinematic variables identified as important to pitching performance. Twenty male baseball pitchers were videotaped using 60 Hz camcorders, and their technique evaluated using the QAP, by two independent raters. Each pitcher was also assessed using a 6-camera 200 Hz Motion Analysis system (MAS). Four QAP variables (22%) showed significant similarity with MAS results. Inter-rater reliability showed agreement on 33% of QAP variables. It was concluded that a complete and accurate profile of an athlete's pitching mechanics cannot be made using the QAP in its current form, but it is possible such simple forms of biomechanical analysis could yield accurate results before 3-D methods become obligatory.

  5. Reliability and Validity of Quantitative Video Analysis of Baseball Pitching Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Sakiko; Sosa, Araceli; Campbell, Rebekah; Correa, Alexandra

    2017-02-01

    Video recordings are used to quantitatively analyze pitchers' techniques. However, reliability and validity of such analysis is unknown. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability and validity of joint and segment angles identified during a pitching motion using video analysis. Thirty high school baseball pitchers participated. The pitching motion was captured using 2 high-speed video cameras and a motion capture system. Two raters reviewed the videos to digitize the body segments to calculate 2-dimensional angles. The corresponding 3-dimensional angles were calculated from the motion capture data. Intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and validity of the 2-dimensional angles were determined. The intrarater and interrater reliability of the 2-dimensional angles were high for most variables. The trunk contralateral flexion at maximum external rotation was the only variable with high validity. Trunk contralateral flexion at ball release, trunk forward flexion at foot contact and ball release, shoulder elevation angle at foot contact, and maximum shoulder external rotation had moderate validity. Two-dimensional angles at the shoulder, elbow, and trunk could be measured with high reliability. However, the angles are not necessarily anatomically correct, and thus use of quantitative video analysis should be limited to angles that can be measured with good validity.

  6. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers.

  7. Rotator Interval Lesion and Damaged Subscapularis Tendon Repair in a High School Baseball Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Muto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, a 16-year-old baseball pitcher visited Nobuhara Hospital complaining of shoulder pain and limited range of motion in his throwing shoulder. High signal intensity in the rotator interval (RI area (ball sign, injured subscapularis tendon, and damage to both the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments were identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Repair of the RI lesion and partially damaged subscapularis tendon was performed in this pitcher. During surgery, an opened RI and dropping of the subscapularis tendon were observed. The RI was closed in a 90° externally rotated and abducted position. To reconfirm the exact repaired state of the patient, arthroscopic examination was performed from behind. However, suture points were not visible in the >30° externally rotated position, which indicates that the RI could not be correctly repaired with the arthroscopic procedure. One year after surgery, the patient obtained full function of the shoulder and returned to play at a national convention. Surgical repair of the RI lesion should be performed in exactly the correct position of the upper extremity.

  8. Reliability and Validity of Kinetic and Kinematic Parameters Determined With Force Plates Embedded Under Soil-Filled Baseball Mound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Toshimasa; Matsuo, Akifumi; Maeda, Akira; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mizutani, Mirai; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2017-01-13

    We developed a force measurement system in a soil-filled mound for measuring ground reaction forces (GRFs) acting on baseball pitchers and examined the reliability and validity of kinetic and kinematic parameters determined from the GRFs. Three soil-filled trays of dimensions that satisfied the official baseball rules were fixed onto three force platforms. Eight collegiate pitchers wearing baseball shoes with metal cleats were asked to throw 5 fastballs with maximum effort from the mound toward a catcher. The reliability of each parameter was determined for each subject as the coefficient of variation across the 5 pitches. The validity of the measurements was tested by comparing the outcomes either with the true values or the corresponding values computed from a motion capture system. The coefficients of variation in the repeated measurements of the peak forces ranged from 0.00 to 0.17, and were smaller for the pivot foot than the stride foot. The mean absolute errors in the impulses determined over entire duration of pitching motion were 5.3 N·s, 1.9 N·s, and 8.2 N·s for the X-, Y-, and Z-directions, respectively. These results suggest that the present method is reliable and valid for determining selected kinetic and kinematic parameters for analyzing pitching performance.

  9. Variability of a "force signature" during windmill softball pitching and relationship between discrete force variables and pitch velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimphius, Sophia; McGuigan, Michael R; Suchomel, Timothy J; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed reliability of discrete ground reaction force (GRF) variables over multiple pitching trials, investigated the relationships between discrete GRF variables and pitch velocity (PV) and assessed the variability of the "force signature" or continuous force-time curve during the pitching motion of windmill softball pitchers. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for all discrete variables was high (0.86-0.99) while the coefficient of variance (CV) was low (1.4-5.2%). Two discrete variables were significantly correlated to PV; second vertical peak force (r(5)=0.81, p=0.03) and time between peak forces (r(5)=-0.79; p=0.03). High ICCs and low CVs support the reliability of discrete GRF and PV variables over multiple trials and significant correlations indicate there is a relationship between the ability to produce force and the timing of this force production with PV. The mean of all pitchers' curve-average standard deviation of their continuous force-time curves demonstrated low variability (CV=4.4%) indicating a repeatable and identifiable "force signature" pattern during this motion. As such, the continuous force-time curve in addition to discrete GRF variables should be examined in future research as a potential method to monitor or explain changes in pitching performance.

  10. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  11. Roles of an Upper-Body Compression Garment on Athletic Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, David R; Dulkis, Lexie L; Secola, Paul J; Holtzum, Gabriel; Harper, Sean P; Kalkowski, Ryan J; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; DuPont, William H; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S; Culley, Kevin P; Kraemer, William J

    2015-09-01

    Compression garments (CGs) have been previously shown to enhance proprioception; however, this benefit has not been previously shown to transfer to improved performance in sports skills. The purpose of this study was to assess whether enhanced proprioception and comfort can be manifested in improved sports performance of high-level athletes. Eleven Division I collegiate pitchers (age: 21.0 ± 2.9 years; height: 181.0 ± 4.6 cm; weight: 89.0 ± 13.0 kg; body fat: 12.0 ± 4.1%) and 10 Division I collegiate golfers (age: 20.0 ± 1.3 years; height: 178.1 ± 3.9 cm; weight: 76.4 ± 8.3 kg; body fat: 11.8 ± 2.6%) participated in the study. A counterbalanced within-group design was used. Subjects performed the respective baseball or golf protocol wearing either typical noncompressive (NC) or the experimental CG. Golfers participated in an assessment of driving distance and accuracy, as well as approach shot, chipping, and putting accuracy. Pitchers were assessed for fastball accuracy and velocity. In pitchers, there was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in fastball accuracy (NC: 0.30 ± 0.04 vs. CG: 0.21 ± 0.07 cm). There were no differences in pitching velocity. In golfers, there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvements in driving accuracy (NC: 86.7 ± 30.6 vs. CG: 68.9 ± 18.5 feet), as well as approach shot accuracy (NC: 26.6 ± 11.9 vs. CG: 22.1 ± 8.2 feet) and chipping accuracy (NC: 2.9 ± 0.6 vs. CG: 2.3 ± 0.6 inch). There was also a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in comfort for the golfers (NC: 3.7 ± 0.8 vs. CG: 4.5 ± 1.0). These results demonstrate that comfort and performance can be improved with the use of CGs in high-level athletes being most likely mediated by improved proprioceptive cues during upper-body movements.

  12. Anti-adhesion effects of liquid-infused textured surfaces on high-temperature stainless steel for soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Liwen; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-11-01

    Soft tissue adhesion on the electrosurgical instruments can induce many serious complications, such as failure of hemostasis and damage to the surrounding soft tissue. The soft tissue adhesion is mainly caused by the high temperature on the instrument surface generally made of stainless steel. Nepenthes inspired liquid-infused surfaces (LIS), highly promising for anti-adhesion, have attracted considerable interests. In this paper, we investigated the anti-adhesion effects of LIS on high-temperature stainless steel for soft tissue for the first time, aiming to develop a new approach to solve the soft tissue adhesion problem. The textured surface, acting as the holding structures, was fabricated by photolithography-assisted chemical etching. Silicone oil, with good biocompatibility and high-temperature resistance, was chosen as the infused liquid. The adhesion force measurements for soft tissue on the LIS at high temperatures indicated that the soft tissue adhesion force was decreased by approximately 80% at 250 °C. Besides, the cycle tests of soft tissue adhesion force demonstrated the excellent stability of prepared LIS. We anticipate that LIS will be of great promise for practical applications on the electrosurgical instruments.

  13. Mutually-Antagonistic Interactions in Baseball Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit interesting structural changes over time. We also find that these networks exhibit a significant network structure that is sensitive to baseball's rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions. We find that a player's position in the network does not correlate with his success in the random walker ranking but instead has a substantial effect on its sensitivity to changes in his own aggregate performance.

  14. Self-Replenishable Anti-Waxing Organogel Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Wang, Jianjun; Jiang, Lei

    2015-07-27

    Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self-replenishable organogel material which shows ultra-low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low-molar-mass oil from its crude-oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems.

  15. Self‐Replenishable Anti‐Waxing Organogel Materials†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self‐replenishable organogel material which shows ultra‐low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low‐molar‐mass oil from its crude‐oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems. PMID:26083324

  16. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  17. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks.

  18. Calculating proper transfer prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorkey, F.C. (Meliora Research Associates, Rochester, NY (United States)); Jarrell, G.A. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  19. Evaluation of the peak torque, total work, average power of flexor-estensor and prono-supinator muscles of the elbow in baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Cosimo; Vaienti, Enrico; Pogliacomi, Francesco

    2003-08-01

    The Authors, after a short analysis on biomechanics of the elbow during throwing in baseball, show the movements of the elbow during the different phases of the throw and the stabilizing action of the ulnar collateral ligament, flexor-pronator muscles of the wrist, anconeus and brachial triceps muscles. Aim of this study is the evaluation of the peak torque, total work and average power of the flexor-extensor and pronator-supinator muscles of the elbows in professional baseball players. Isokinetic test data show that a mayor peak torque in flexo-extension at power and resistance test in the pitchers compared to the strikers. Whereas the strikers show a higher peak torque in pronation at the resistance test. This may happen because during a baseball match the ball is hit many times by the bat and the pronator muscle of the wrist are notably stimulated and reinforced.

  20. Industry brief letter : Search for ideal concrete - Last lecture of Prof. Okamura; Riso no konkurito wo motomete/okamura kyoju saishu kogi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-10

    The last lecture of Dr. Okamura, a Prof. at the engineering department of Tokyo University, was held on March 27, 1999. He was a well-known baseball pitcher who won 17 victories at Tokyo 6-College baseball league. In his development of high-performance concrete (later renamed to-self compacting concrete), he thought that we should not demand fine technique for concrete application, but instead we should cover the technique by the advantages of a material. His hardship existed in expressing the properties of cement in numeric values and the establishment of numerical analysis technique starting from empirical equation. He stated that he was able to succeed in the development of an ideal concrete with high-strength, high-durability, self-compacting concrete with the suggestions from many colleagues. He will become Vice President of Kochi Univ. and Chairman of Civil Eng. Society. (translated by NEDO)

  1. Energy ethics: a Christian response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessel, D.T. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    Beyond the question of how soon do we run out of what there lie the deeper questions: what should we be doing about energy; what are the criteria for making moral choices in this complex field. These questions are treated in 7 chapters, namely: (1) Eco-justice in the Eighties, by Dieter T. Hessel; (2) Energy And Society: Choosing a Future, by Scott Paradise; (3) Energy as a Moral and Religious Issue, by Alvin Pitcher; (4) The Politics of Energy Policy, by Beverly Harrison; (5) Ways to Influence Energy Systems, by Douglas Still; (6) Exodus from Nuclear Bondage, by Mark Reader; (7) Ethical Implications of Energy Production and Use, by Chris Cowap. In addition, there are 4 appendices and an extensive bibliography.

  2. Patrones de liderazgo en la cultura regional: un análisis intersectorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Espinosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es observar si existe un patrón característico de liderazgo en una cultura regional específica y analizar si se presentan diferencias significativas en razón del sector económico al que pertenecen las organizaciones (industria y servicio. Se trabajó con una muestra de 449 empleados de ocho empresas que operan en la ciudad de Bucaramanga. Se utilizó el Test de adjetivos de Pitcher —PAT—. De acuerdo con los resultados, sí existe un patrón de liderazgo caracterizado por los adjetivos: responsable, humano, trabajador, colaborador, honesto y amable. En general, las características de liderazgo en los dos sectores estudiados fueron muy similares, aunque se observaron algunas diferencias. En este texto se discuten estos hallazgos.

  3. Humeral shaft fracture treatment in the elite throwing athlete: a unique application of flexible intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher S; Davis, Shane M; Ho, Hoang-Anh; Fronek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Humeral shaft stress fractures are being increasingly recognized as injuries that can significantly impact throwing mechanics if residual malalignment exists. While minimally displaced and angulated injuries are treated nonoperatively in a fracture brace, the management of significantly displaced humeral shaft fractures in the throwing athlete is less clear. Currently described techniques such as open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis and rigid antegrade/retrograde locked intramedullary nailing have significant morbidity due to soft tissue dissection and damage. We present a case report of a high-level baseball pitcher whose significantly displaced humeral shaft stress fracture failed to be nonoperatively managed and was subsequently treated successfully with unlocked, retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The athlete was able to return to pitching baseball in one year and is currently pitching in Major League Baseball. We were able to recently collect 10-year follow-up data.

  4. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach—based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants—that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle’s bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  5. Direction of spin axis and spin rate of the pitched baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinji, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Shinji

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate of pitched baseballs and to estimate the associated aerodynamic forces. In addition, the effects of the spin axis direction and spin rate on the trajectory of a pitched baseball were evaluated. The trajectories of baseballs pitched by both a pitcher and a pitching machine were recorded using four synchronized video cameras (60 Hz) and were analyzed using direct linear transform (DLT) procedures. A polynomial function using the least squares method was used to derive the time-displacement relationship of the ball coordinates during flight for each pitch. The baseball was filmed immediately after ball release using a high-speed video camera (250 Hz), and the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate (omega) were calculated based on the positional changes of the marks on the ball. The lift coefficient was correlated closely with omegasinalpha (r = 0.860), where alpha is the angle between the spin axis and the pitching direction. The term omegasinalpha represents the vertical component of the velocity vector. The lift force, which is a result of the Magnus effect occurring because of the rotation of the ball, acts perpendicularly to the axis of rotation. The Magnus effect was found to be greatest when the angular and translational velocity vectors were perpendicular to each other, and the break of the pitched baseball became smaller as the angle between these vectors approached 0 degrees. Balls delivered from a pitching machine broke more than actual pitcher's balls. It is necessary to consider the differences when we use pitching machines in batting practice.

  6. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased.

  7. Ancient DNA analyses of museum specimens from selected Presbytis (primate: Colobinae) based on partial Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aifat, N. R.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2016-11-01

    The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has categorized Malaysian primates from being data deficient to critically endanger. Thus, ancient DNA analyses hold great potential to understand phylogeny, phylogeography and population history of extinct and extant species. Museum samples are one of the alternatives to provide important sources of biological materials for a large proportion of ancient DNA studies. In this study, a total of six museum skin samples from species Presbytis hosei (4 samples) and Presbytis frontata (2 samples), aged between 43 and 124 years old were extracted to obtain the DNA. Extraction was done by using QIAGEN QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit and the ability of this kit to extract museum skin samples was tested by amplification of partial Cyt b sequence using species-specific designed primer. Two primer pairs were designed specifically for P. hosei and P. frontata, respectively. These primer pairs proved to be efficient in amplifying 200bp of the targeted species in the optimized PCR conditions. The performance of the sequences were tested to determine genetic distance of genus Presbytis in Malaysia. From the analyses, P. hosei is closely related to P. chrysomelas and P. frontata with the value of 0.095 and 0.106, respectively. Cyt b gave a clear data in determining relationships among Bornean species. Thus, with the optimized condition, museum specimens can be used for molecular systematic studies of the Malaysian primates.

  8. Revision of the genus Devadatta Kirby, 1890 in Borneo based on molecular and morphological methods, with descriptions of four new species (Odonata: Zygoptera: Devadattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A; Hämäläinen, Matti; Stokvis, Frank R

    2015-10-23

    Species of Devadatta from Borneo are studied using both morphological and molecular methods. As well as D. podolestoides Laidlaw, four new species are recognised from the island: D. aran spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Pulong Tau National Park, Miri division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. clavicauda spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Bukit Mina, Bukit Mina Wildlife Corridor, Sarawak Planted Forest Project, Bintulu division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. somoh spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from the Sungai Kahei area, Ulu Balui, Kapit division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH) and D. tanduk spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Poring Hot Springs, Kinabalu National Park, West Coast division, Sabah, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH). The Philippine taxon D. basilanensis Laidlaw is considered a good species rather than a subspecies of D. podolestoides. The Bornean species plus D. basilanensis are provisionally considered to form a species group, the podolestoides-group, within Devadatta. The species of the podolestoides-group are so similar in morphology and colouration that they are close to truly cryptic species. Two species appear to exhibit character displacement where their ranges overlap with other Devadatta species. A molecular analysis using four markers (COI, 16S, ITS and 28S) is presented. This analysis includes specimens of all species from the podolestoides-group and two Devadatta species from mainland Asia.

  9. Moving in a hierarchized landscape Changing border regimes in Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Lumenta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transnational mobility is a common feature among borderland communities. Central Borneo has been a relatively fluid and open riverine-based socio-cultural and economic space since the arrival of colonial states, without much interference from the establishment of international boundaries on local cross-border mobility practices. This applies to the Kenyah, a cluster of related ethnic groups occupying the Apokayan plateau in East Kalimantan (Indonesia, who are historically an integral part of the socio-cultural and economic fabric throughout the major riverine systems of Sarawak (Malaysia. Despite the relative absence of states, Central Borneo has not escaped the onslaught of social differentiation embedded in nation-state identities. The penetration of Sarawak’s logging industry has brought the terrestrial re-ordering of the Bornean landscape away from the relative egalitarian social order of river basins into hierarchical social relations embedded in capitalistic modes of production. This has brought about the construction of the Kenyah’s visibility as an “Indonesian underclass“ inside Sarawak.

  10. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mailund

    Full Text Available We present a hidden Markov model (HMM for inferring gradual isolation between two populations during speciation, modelled as a time interval with restricted gene flow. The HMM describes the history of adjacent nucleotides in two genomic sequences, such that the nucleotides can be separated by recombination, can migrate between populations, or can coalesce at variable time points, all dependent on the parameters of the model, which are the effective population sizes, splitting times, recombination rate, and migration rate. We show by extensive simulations that the HMM can accurately infer all parameters except the recombination rate, which is biased downwards. Inference is robust to variation in the mutation rate and the recombination rate over the sequence and also robust to unknown phase of genomes unless they are very closely related. We provide a test for whether divergence is gradual or instantaneous, and we apply the model to three key divergence processes in great apes: (a the bonobo and common chimpanzee, (b the eastern and western gorilla, and (c the Sumatran and Bornean orang-utan. We find that the bonobo and chimpanzee appear to have undergone a clear split, whereas the divergence processes of the gorilla and orang-utan species occurred over several hundred thousands years with gene flow stopping quite recently. We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation.

  11. Forest fruit production is higher on Sumatra than on Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands.

  12. Lack of host specificity leads to independent assortment of dipterocarps and ectomycorrhizal fungi across a soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Russo, Sabrina E; McGuire, Krista L; Lim, Zhenyu; Chan, Ju Ping; Tan, Sylvester; Davies, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    Plants interact with a diversity of microorganisms, and there is often concordance in their community structures. Because most community-level studies are observational, it is unclear if such concordance arises because of host specificity, in which microorganisms or plants limit each other's occurrence. Using a reciprocal transplant experiment, we tested the hypothesis that host specificity between trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi determines patterns of tree and fungal soil specialisation. Seedlings of 13 dipterocarp species with contrasting soil specialisations were seeded into plots crossing soil type and canopy openness. Ectomycorrhizal colonists were identified by DNA sequencing. After 2.5 years, we found no evidence of host specificity. Rather, soil environment was the primary determinant of ectomycorrhizal diversity and composition on seedlings. Despite their close symbiosis, our results show that ectomycorrhizal fungi and tree communities in this Bornean rain forest assemble independently of host-specific interactions, raising questions about how mutualism shapes the realised niche.

  13. What cognitive strategies do orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) use to solve a trial-unique puzzle-tube task incorporating multiple obstacles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecwyn, Emma C; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Chappell, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Apparently sophisticated behaviour during problem-solving is often the product of simple underlying mechanisms, such as associative learning or the use of procedural rules. These and other more parsimonious explanations need to be eliminated before higher-level cognitive processes such as causal reasoning or planning can be inferred. We presented three Bornean orangutans with 64 trial-unique configurations of a puzzle-tube to investigate whether they were able to consider multiple obstacles in two alternative paths, and subsequently choose the correct direction in which to move a reward in order to retrieve it. We were particularly interested in how subjects attempted to solve the task, namely which behavioural strategies they could have been using, as this is how we may begin to elucidate the cognitive mechanisms underpinning their choices. To explore this, we simulated performance outcomes across the 64 trials for various procedural rules and rule combinations that subjects may have been using based on the configuration of different obstacles. Two of the three subjects solved the task, suggesting that they were able to consider at least some of the obstacles in the puzzle-tube before executing action to retrieve the reward. This is impressive compared with the past performances of great apes on similar, arguably less complex tasks. Successful subjects may have been using a heuristic rule combination based on what they deemed to be the most relevant cue (the configuration of the puzzle-tube ends), which may be a cognitively economical strategy.

  14. Targeted conservation to safeguard a biodiversity hotspot from climate and land-cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struebig, Matthew J; Wilting, Andreas; Gaveau, David L A; Meijaard, Erik; Smith, Robert J; Fischer, Manuela; Metcalfe, Kristian; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie

    2015-02-02

    Responses of biodiversity to changes in both land cover and climate are recognized [1] but still poorly understood [2]. This poses significant challenges for spatial planning as species could shift, contract, expand, or maintain their range inside or outside protected areas [2-4]. We examine this problem in Borneo, a global biodiversity hotspot [5], using spatial prioritization analyses that maximize species conservation under multiple environmental-change forecasts. Climate projections indicate that 11%-36% of Bornean mammal species will lose ≥ 30% of their habitat by 2080, and suitable ecological conditions will shift upslope for 23%-46%. Deforestation exacerbates this process, increasing the proportion of species facing comparable habitat loss to 30%-49%, a 2-fold increase on historical trends. Accommodating these distributional changes will require conserving land outside existing protected areas, but this may be less than anticipated from models incorporating deforestation alone because some species will colonize high-elevation reserves. Our results demonstrate the increasing importance of upland reserves and that relatively small additions (16,000-28,000 km(2)) to the current conservation estate could provide substantial benefits to biodiversity facing changes to land cover and climate. On Borneo, much of this land is under forestry jurisdiction, warranting targeted conservation partnerships to safeguard biodiversity in an era of global change.

  15. A second dimension to the leaf economics spectrum predicts edaphic habitat association in a tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Baltzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Strong patterns of habitat association are frequent among tropical forest trees and contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity. The relation of edaphic differentiation to tradeoffs among leaf functional traits is less clear, but may provide insights into mechanisms of habitat partitioning in these species rich assemblages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantify the leaf economics spectrum (LES for 16 tree species within a Bornean forest characterized by highly pronounced habitat specialization. Our findings suggest that the primary axis of trait variation in light-limited, lowland tropical forests was identical to the LES and corresponds with the shade tolerance continuum. There was no separation with respect to edaphic variation along this primary axis of trait variation. However, a second orthogonal axis determined largely by foliar P concentrations resulted in a near-perfect separation of species occupying distinct soil types within the forest. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that this second axis of leaf trait variation represents a "leaf edaphic habitat spectrum" related to foliar P and potentially other nutrients closely linked to geological substrate, and may generally occur in plant communities characterized by strong edaphic resource gradients.

  16. Three new species of fleas belonging to the genus Macrostylophora from the three-striped ground squirrel, Lariscus insignis, in Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, L A; Beaucournu, J-C

    2014-12-01

    Three new species of fleas belonging to the genus Macrostylophora (Siphonaptera, Ceratophyllidae) are described from the three-striped ground squirrel, Lariscus insignis, from Tjibodas, West Java (Jawa Barat), Indonesia at an elevation of 1500 m. Macrostylophora larisci sp. n. is described from three male specimens, Macrostylophora debilitata sp. n. is described from one male and Macrostylophora wilsoni sp. n. is described from one female. Non-genital morphological characters of the female specimen, including ctenidial spine shapes and lengths, show that it is not the corresponding female for either M. larisci sp. n. or M. debilitata sp. n. It is unusual for three different species of congeneric fleas to parasitize the same host species in the same geographical location. These three new species represent the first known records of Macrostylophora from Java and they could be enzootic vectors between rodents of flea-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia typhi and Yersinia pestis, both of which are established on Java. A list is provided of the 43 known species and 12 subspecies of Macrostylophora together with their known geographical distributions and hosts. A map depicting the distributions of known Indonesian (and Bornean) species of Macrostylophora is also included.

  17. The uncoupling protein 1 gene (UCP1 is disrupted in the pig lineage: a genetic explanation for poor thermoregulation in piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Berg

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Piglets appear to lack brown adipose tissue, a specific type of fat that is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals, and they rely on shivering as the main mechanism for thermoregulation. Here we provide a genetic explanation for the poor thermoregulation in pigs as we demonstrate that the gene for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 was disrupted in the pig lineage. UCP1 is exclusively expressed in brown adipose tissue and plays a crucial role for thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. We used long-range PCR and genome walking to determine the complete genome sequence of pig UCP1. An alignment with human UCP1 revealed that exons 3 to 5 were eliminated by a deletion in the pig sequence. The presence of this deletion was confirmed in all tested domestic pigs, as well as in European wild boars, Bornean bearded pigs, wart hogs, and red river hogs. Three additional disrupting mutations were detected in the remaining exons. Furthermore, the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions was clearly elevated in the pig sequence compared with the corresponding sequences in humans, cattle, and mice, and we used this increased rate to estimate that UCP1 was disrupted about 20 million years ago.

  18. Nutritional Differences between Two Orangutan Habitats: Implications for Population Density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin R Vogel

    Full Text Available Bottom-up regulatory factors have been proposed to exert a strong influence on mammalian population density. Studies relating habitat quality to population density have typically made comparisons among distant species or communities without considering variation in food quality among localities. We compared dietary nutritional quality of two Bornean orangutan populations with differing population densities in peatland habitats, Tuanan and Sabangau, separated by 63 km. We hypothesized that because Tuanan is alluvial, the plant species included in the orangutan diet would be of higher nutritional quality compared to Sabangau, resulting in higher daily caloric intake in Tuanan. We also predicted that forest productivity would be greater in Tuanan compared to Sabangau. In support of these hypotheses, the overall quality of the diet and the quality of matched dietary items were higher in Tuanan, resulting in higher daily caloric intake compared to Sabangau. These differences in dietary nutritional quality may provide insights into why orangutan population density is almost two times greater in Tuanan compared to Sabangau, in agreement with a potentially important influence of diet quality on primate population density.

  19. Plio-Pleistocene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, paleo-oceanography, and sediment accumulation rates, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.E.; Johnson, G.W.; Spotz, B.

    1987-05-01

    The planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy has been analyzed for Ocean Drilling Program's hole 625B (Leg 100), drilled to a total subbottom depth of 235 m south of De Soto Canyon in the northeast Gulf of Mexico. The hole penetrated to at least early Pliocene (zone N19), as indicated by the Globigerina nepenthes LAD (approx. 3.7 Ma) at 182 m. Preliminary seismic section of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the continental slope in the northeast Gulf suggested a relatively continuous depositional record. However, sediment accumulation rates have fluctuated in parallel with paleo-oceanographic changes. Percent coarse (approx. 63 ..mu..m) carbonate fraction (mainly planktonic foraminiferal tests) in hole 625 B shows high-frequency, low-amplitude fluctuations from the Pliocene to the Jaramillo paleomagnetic event (approx. 900,000 y.B.P.), whereupon low-frequency, high-amplitude fluctuations occur to the Holocene. Low-frequency, high-amplitude fluctuations correspond primarily to increased amplitude of sea level fluctuations and terrigenous dilution during low sea level stands. Percent abundance of Globorotalia menardii and percent coarse carbonate fraction in the uppermost 18 m reflects oxygen isotope stages 1-5 and therefore, primarily, ice volume and, secondarily, water temperature. However, the lack of a strict correspondence between G. menardii abundance, percent coarse carbonate fraction, and planktonic-benthic ratios (presumed dissolution indicator) lower in the hole indicates that G. menardii abundance peaks reflect not only eustatic sea level changes and water temperature but possibly also productivity (upwelling) and/or differential dissolution. Preliminary results of factor analysis of foraminiferal assemblages are also presented.

  20. CHRONIC UCL INJURY: A MULTIMODAL APPROACH TO CORRECTING ALTERED MECHANICS AND IMPROVING HEALING IN A COLLEGE ATHLETE— A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rachel; McGinty, Josh; Lucado, Ann; Collier, Beth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears and associated Tommy Johns surgical intervention from excessive and poor quality pitching has increased immensely—with more college and professional pitchers undergoing the surgery in 2014 alone than in the 1990s as a whole.1 Faulty mechanics developed at young ages are often well-engrained by the late adolescent years and the minimal healing ability of the largely avascular UCL often leads to delayed safe return to sport.2 Purpose The purpose of this case study was to describe an innovative, multimodal approach to conservative management of a chronic UCL injury in a college-aged baseball pitcher. This innovative approach utilizes both contractile and non-contractile dry needling to enhance soft tissue healing combined with standard conservative treatment to decrease pain and improve sport performance as measured by the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Numeric Pain Report Scale (NPRS), and return to sport. Study Design Retrospective Case Report Case Description A collegiate athlete presented to an outpatient orthopedic physical therapy clinic for treatment of UCL sprain approximately six weeks post-injury and platelet-rich plasma injection. Diagnostic testing revealed chronic ligamentous microtrauma. Impairments at evaluation included proximal stabilizing strength deficits, myofascial trigger points throughout the dominant upper extremity, improper pitching form, and inability to pitch in game conditions due to severe pain. Interventions included addressing strength deficits throughout the body, dry needling, and sport-specific biomechanical training with pitching form analysis and correction. Outcomes Conventional DASH and Sport-Specific scale on the DASH and the numeric pain rating scale improved beyond both the minimally clinically important difference and minimal detectable change over the 12 week treatment3,4 At 24-week follow up, conventional DASH scores decreased from 34.20% disability

  1. Circadian long call distribution in wild orangutans Distribution circadienne des cris longs (long calls chez l’orang-outan en milieu naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geissmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present first data on circadian long call distribution of wild orangutans in Northwest Borneo. Data were collected during two months in Batang Ai National Park. A total of 151 male long calls were heard, exhibiting a bimodal distribution pattern with peaks at 05:00-06:00 hours and 18:00-19:00 hours. An earlier study found pronounced differences between the calling rates of Bornean orangutans, which showed an almost unimodal call distribution with its peak at mid-morning, and those of Sumatran orangutans, which showed a bimodal call distribution with a distinct calling peak at predawn and a more moderate peak near dusk (MacKinnon 1974. Our findings from Batang Ai resemble more closely the pattern reported for Sumatra than those reported for other Bornean localities and, therefore, contradict earlier reports suggesting a Sumatra-Borneo dichotomy in orangutan call distribution. In addition, orangutans in Batang Ai were heard to regularly emit long calls throughout the night. This behaviour is unusual for a diurnal species.Nous présentons les premières données sur la distribution circadienne des cris longs (long calls chez les mâles orangs-outans vivant en milieu naturel au nord-ouest de Bornéo. Les données ont été récoltées lors d’une étude de terrain de deux mois au Parc National de Batang Ai. Les 151 cris longs entendus montraient une distribution bimodale, caractérisée par des pics à 05:00-06:00 et 18:00-19:00 heures. Une étude précédente avait révélé des différences profondes entre les taux de cris longs des orangs-outans de Bornéo et de Sumatra. Alors que la distribution des cris longs à Bornéo était presque unimodale et montrait un pic en milieu d’avant-midi, la distribution à Sumatra était bimodale et montrait un pic distinct avant l’aube et un second pic plus modéré au crépuscule (MacKinnon 1974. Nos résultats à Batang Ai ressemblent davantage au schéma rapporté précédemment à Sumatra qu

  2. Bayesian inference reveals ancient origin of simian foamy virus in orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michael J C; Switzer, William M; Schillaci, Michael A; Klegarth, Amy R; Campbell, Ellsworth; Ragonnet, Manon; Joanisse, Isabelle; Caminiti, Kyna; Lowenberger, Carl A; Galdikas, Birute Mary F; Hollocher, Hope; Sandstrom, Paul A; Brooks, James I

    2017-03-05

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) infect most nonhuman primate species and appears to co-evolve with its hosts. This co-evolutionary signal is particularly strong among great apes, including orangutans (genus Pongo). Previous studies have identified three distinct orangutan SFV clades. The first of these three clades is composed of SFV from P. abelii from Sumatra, the second consists of SFV from P. pygmaeus from Borneo, while the third clade is mixed, comprising an SFV strain found in both species of orangutan. The existence of the mixed clade has been attributed to an expansion of P. pygmaeus into Sumatra following the Mount Toba super-volcanic eruption about 73,000years ago. Divergence dating, however, has yet to be performed to establish a temporal association with the Toba eruption. Here, we use a Bayesian framework and a relaxed molecular clock model with fossil calibrations to test the Toba hypothesis and to gain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history of orangutan SFV. As with previous studies, our results show a similar three-clade orangutan SFV phylogeny, along with strong statistical support for SFV-host co-evolution in orangutans. Using Bayesian inference, we date the origin of orangutan SFV to >4.7 million years ago (mya), while the mixed species clade dates to approximately 1.7mya, >1.6 million years older than the Toba super-eruption. These results, combined with fossil and paleogeographic evidence, suggest that the origin of SFV in Sumatran and Bornean orangutans, including the mixed species clade, likely occurred on the mainland of Indo-China during the Late Pliocene and Calabrian stage of the Pleistocene, respectively.

  3. Quantity and configuration of available elephant habitat and related conservation concerns in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain of Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Jason G; Othman, Nurzhafarina; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Goossens, Benoit; Ambu, Laurentius N; Estes, Anna B; Palmiotto, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    The approximately 300 (298, 95% CI: 152-581) elephants in the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo are a priority sub-population for Borneo's total elephant population (2,040, 95% CI: 1,184-3,652). Habitat loss and human-elephant conflict are recognized as the major threats to Bornean elephant survival. In the Kinabatangan region, human settlements and agricultural development for oil palm drive an intense fragmentation process. Electric fences guard against elephant crop raiding but also remove access to suitable habitat patches. We conducted expert opinion-based least-cost analyses, to model the quantity and configuration of available suitable elephant habitat in the Lower Kinabatangan, and called this the Elephant Habitat Linkage. At 184 km(2), our estimate of available habitat is 54% smaller than the estimate used in the State's Elephant Action Plan for the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (400 km(2)). During high flood levels, available habitat is reduced to only 61 km(2). As a consequence, short-term elephant densities are likely to surge during floods to 4.83 km(-2) (95% CI: 2.46-9.41), among the highest estimated for forest-dwelling elephants in Asia or Africa. During severe floods, the configuration of remaining elephant habitat and the surge in elephant density may put two villages at elevated risk of human-elephant conflict. Lower Kinabatangan elephants are vulnerable to the natural disturbance regime of the river due to their limited dispersal options. Twenty bottlenecks less than one km wide throughout the Elephant Habitat Linkage, have the potential to further reduce access to suitable habitat. Rebuilding landscape connectivity to isolated habitat patches and to the North Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (less than 35 km inland) are conservation priorities that would increase the quantity of available habitat, and may work as a mechanism to allow population release, lower elephant density, reduce human

  4. Y-Chromosome variation in hominids: intraspecific variation is limited to the polygamous chimpanzee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Greve

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the Y-specific ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia and CDY (chromodomain protein Y varied with respect to copy number and position among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. In comparison, seven Y-chromosomal lineages of the bonobo (Pan paniscus, the chimpanzee's closest living relative, showed no variation. We extend our earlier comparative investigation to include an analysis of the intraspecific variation of these genes in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus, and examine the resulting patterns in the light of the species' markedly different social and mating behaviors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH of DAZ and CDY in 12 Y-chromosomal lineages of western lowland gorilla (G. gorilla gorilla and a single lineage of the eastern lowland gorilla (G. beringei graueri showed no variation among lineages. Similar findings were noted for the 10 Y-chromosomal lineages examined in the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, and 11 Y-chromosomal lineages of the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii. We validated the contrasting DAZ and CDY patterns using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in chimpanzee and bonobo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: High intraspecific variation in copy number and position of the DAZ and CDY genes is seen only in the chimpanzee. We hypothesize that this is best explained by sperm competition that results in the variant DAZ and CDY haplotypes detected in this species. In contrast, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans-species that are not subject to sperm competition-showed no intraspecific variation in DAZ and CDY suggesting that monoandry in gorillas, and preferential female mate choice in bonobos and orangutans, probably permitted the fixation of a single Y variant in each taxon. These data support the notion that the evolutionary history of a primate Y chromosome is not simply encrypted in its DNA

  5. Discovery of a new human polyomavirus associated with trichodysplasia spinulosa in an immunocompromized patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els van der Meijden

    Full Text Available The Polyomaviridae constitute a family of small DNA viruses infecting a variety of hosts. In humans, polyomaviruses can cause infections of the central nervous system, urinary tract, skin, and possibly the respiratory tract. Here we report the identification of a new human polyomavirus in plucked facial spines of a heart transplant patient with trichodysplasia spinulosa, a rare skin disease exclusively seen in immunocompromized patients. The trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSV genome was amplified through rolling-circle amplification and consists of a 5232-nucleotide circular DNA organized similarly to known polyomaviruses. Two putative "early" (small and large T antigen and three putative "late" (VP1, VP2, VP3 genes were identified. The TSV large T antigen contains several domains (e.g. J-domain and motifs (e.g. HPDKGG, pRb family-binding, zinc finger described for other polyomaviruses and potentially involved in cellular transformation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship of TSV with the Bornean orangutan polyomavirus and, more distantly, the Merkel cell polyomavirus that is found integrated in Merkel cell carcinomas of the skin. The presence of TSV in the affected patient's skin was confirmed by newly designed quantitative TSV-specific PCR, indicative of a viral load of 10(5 copies per cell. After topical cidofovir treatment, the lesions largely resolved coinciding with a reduction in TSV load. PCR screening demonstrated a 4% prevalence of TSV in an unrelated group of immunosuppressed transplant recipients without apparent disease. In conclusion, a new human polyomavirus was discovered and identified as the possible cause of trichodysplasia spinulosa in immunocompromized patients. The presence of TSV also in clinically unaffected individuals suggests frequent virus transmission causing subclinical, probably latent infections. Further studies have to reveal the impact of TSV infection in relation to other

  6. Serological evidence of Ebola virus infection in Indonesian orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairul A Nidom

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV belong to the family Filoviridae and cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Despite the discovery of EBOV (Reston virus in nonhuman primates and domestic pigs in the Philippines and the serological evidence for its infection of humans and fruit bats, information on the reservoirs and potential amplifying hosts for filoviruses in Asia is lacking. In this study, serum samples collected from 353 healthy Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus in Kalimantan Island, Indonesia, during the period from December 2005 to December 2006 were screened for filovirus-specific IgG antibodies using a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with recombinant viral surface glycoprotein (GP antigens derived from multiple species of filoviruses (5 EBOV and 1 MARV species. Here we show that 18.4% (65/353 and 1.7% (6/353 of the samples were seropositive for EBOV and MARV, respectively, with little cross-reactivity among EBOV and MARV antigens. In these positive samples, IgG antibodies to viral internal proteins were also detected by immunoblotting. Interestingly, while the specificity for Reston virus, which has been recognized as an Asian filovirus, was the highest in only 1.4% (5/353 of the serum samples, the majority of EBOV-positive sera showed specificity to Zaire, Sudan, Cote d'Ivoire, or Bundibugyo viruses, all of which have been found so far only in Africa. These results suggest the existence of multiple species of filoviruses or unknown filovirus-related viruses in Indonesia, some of which are serologically similar to African EBOVs, and transmission of the viruses from yet unidentified reservoir hosts into the orangutan populations. Our findings point to the need for risk assessment and continued surveillance of filovirus infection of human and nonhuman primates, as well as wild and domestic animals, in Asia.

  7. Y-Chromosome Variation in Hominids: Intraspecific Variation Is Limited to the Polygamous Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Gabriele; Alechine, Evguenia; Pasantes, Juan J.; Hodler, Christine; Rietschel, Wolfram; Robinson, Terence J.; Schempp, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that the Y-specific ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) and CDY (chromodomain protein Y) varied with respect to copy number and position among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In comparison, seven Y-chromosomal lineages of the bonobo (Pan paniscus), the chimpanzee's closest living relative, showed no variation. We extend our earlier comparative investigation to include an analysis of the intraspecific variation of these genes in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and examine the resulting patterns in the light of the species' markedly different social and mating behaviors. Methodology/Principal Findings Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) of DAZ and CDY in 12 Y-chromosomal lineages of western lowland gorilla (G. gorilla gorilla) and a single lineage of the eastern lowland gorilla (G. beringei graueri) showed no variation among lineages. Similar findings were noted for the 10 Y-chromosomal lineages examined in the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and 11 Y-chromosomal lineages of the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii). We validated the contrasting DAZ and CDY patterns using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in chimpanzee and bonobo. Conclusion/Significance High intraspecific variation in copy number and position of the DAZ and CDY genes is seen only in the chimpanzee. We hypothesize that this is best explained by sperm competition that results in the variant DAZ and CDY haplotypes detected in this species. In contrast, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans—species that are not subject to sperm competition—showed no intraspecific variation in DAZ and CDY suggesting that monoandry in gorillas, and preferential female mate choice in bonobos and orangutans, probably permitted the fixation of a single Y variant in each taxon. These data support the notion that the evolutionary history of a primate Y chromosome is not simply encrypted in its DNA

  8. Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Transforming Landscape in Northern Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrière, Nicolas; Laumonier, Yves; Locatelli, Bruno; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Comptour, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Because industrial agriculture keeps expanding in Southeast Asia at the expense of natural forests and traditional swidden systems, comparing biodiversity and ecosystem services in the traditional forest-swidden agriculture system vs. monocultures is needed to guide decision making on land-use planning. Focusing on tree diversity, soil erosion control, and climate change mitigation through carbon storage, we surveyed vegetation and monitored soil loss in various land-use areas in a northern Bornean agricultural landscape shaped by swidden agriculture, rubber tapping, and logging, where various levels and types of disturbance have created a fine mosaic of vegetation from food crop fields to natural forest. Tree species diversity and ecosystem service production were highest in natural forests. Logged-over forests produced services similar to those of natural forests. Land uses related to the swidden agriculture system largely outperformed oil palm or rubber monocultures in terms of tree species diversity and service production. Natural and logged-over forests should be maintained or managed as integral parts of the swidden system, and landscape multifunctionality should be sustained. Because natural forests host a unique diversity of trees and produce high levels of ecosystem services, targeting carbon stock protection, e.g. through financial mechanisms such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), will synergistically provide benefits for biodiversity and a wide range of other services. However, the way such mechanisms could benefit communities must be carefully evaluated to counter the high opportunity cost of conversion to monocultures that might generate greater income, but would be detrimental to the production of multiple ecosystem services.

  9. South to south learning in great ape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld-de Lange, Nicolien; Meijaard, Erik; Löhr, Ansje

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that killing of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in South-East Asia is a major threat to the species, few researchers and non-governmental conservationists have addressed it in management and research, and there is virtually no implementation of anti-killing strategies. In large parts of the Congo Basin, Central Africa, instead, illegal killing of great apes is acknowledged to be their largest threat, and many conservation strategies have been used to reduce killing pressure. However, since these strategies have not been subject to systematic and comprehensive review, it remains unclear which of them have been successful and why. Knowledge of the success, failure, and practices of common conservation strategies to manage great ape killing is critical to ensure adaptive conservation management in the Congo Basin. Understanding the Congo context also facilitates simultaneously highlighting great ape killing in Borneo and suggesting solutions to manage orangutan killing. Here, we compile and analyze the available literature on great ape conservation strategies for reducing killing rates in the Congo Basin. Through a systematic literature review of 198 publications, we find that the most widely employed conservation strategies in the Congo Basin are legislation and law enforcement, protected area management, community-based conservation, alternatives to bushmeat consumption and trade, ecotourism, education, and capacity building. Despite lack of rigorous post-intervention evaluation of conservation impact, we derive several recommendations for addressing the orangutan killing issue in Borneo. A critical lesson, widely applicable to developing countries for conservationists and not limited to Congo Basin realities, is the need for rigorous post-intervention evaluations compared to pre-intervention baselines and over appropriate time frames. Am. J. Primatol. 78:669-678, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Investigation of individual and group variability in estrous cycle characteristics in female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the Oregon Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, S S; Hunt, K E; Martin, M S; Finnegan, M; Brown, J L

    2012-07-15

    Evaluating ovarian cycle activity through longitudinal progestagen monitoring is important for optimizing breeding management of captive elephants and understanding impact of life events (births, deaths, and transfers) on reproductive function. This study summarized serum progestagen profiles for eight Asian mainland elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) and one Bornean elephant (E. maximus borneensis) at the Oregon Zoo over a 20-yr interval, and represents the longest longitudinal dataset evaluated to date. Estrous cycle characteristics were more varied than previously reported for this species, with an overall duration of 12 to 19 wk, luteal phase duration of 4 to 15 wk, and follicular phase duration of 2 to 12 wk. In general, there was more cycle variability across than within individual elephants. Compared with other elephants in the group, the Borneo female exhibited consistently longer cycle lengths, higher progestagen concentrations, and greater cycle variability; however, it is not known if this represents a subspecies or an individual difference. Cycle durations did not appear to change over time or with age, and the first pubertal cycle was similar to subsequent cycles. Variability in duration of the follicular phase was greater than that of the luteal phase. In addition, there was a significant negative relationship between luteal and follicular phase durations, suggesting a possible regulatory role of the follicular phase in maintaining a relatively consistent cycle duration within individuals. Overall, we found these elephants to be highly resilient in that major life events (births, deaths, and changes in herd structure) had minimal effect on cycle dynamics over time. In conclusion, the higher range in cycle phase characteristics is likely because of the larger number of elephants studied and longer duration of longitudinal monitoring, and may be more representative of the captive population as a whole. Furthermore, identification of significant

  11. Estimation of the stand ages of tropical secondary forests after shifting cultivation based on the combination of WorldView-2 and time-series Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Shogoro; Okada, Kei-ichi; Nishio, Shogo; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new method to estimate stand ages of secondary vegetation in the Bornean montane zone, where local people conduct traditional shifting cultivation and protected areas are surrounded by patches of recovering secondary vegetation of various ages. Identifying stand ages at the landscape level is critical to improve conservation policies. We combined a high-resolution satellite image (WorldView-2) with time-series Landsat images. We extracted stand ages (the time elapsed since the most recent slash and burn) from a change-detection analysis with Landsat time-series images and superimposed the derived stand ages on the segments classified by object-based image analysis using WorldView-2. We regarded stand ages as a response variable, and object-based metrics as independent variables, to develop regression models that explain stand ages. Subsequently, we classified the vegetation of the target area into six age units and one rubber plantation unit (1-3 yr, 3-5 yr, 5-7 yr, 7-30 yr, 30-50 yr, >50 yr and 'rubber plantation') using regression models and linear discriminant analyses. Validation demonstrated an accuracy of 84.3%. Our approach is particularly effective in classifying highly dynamic pioneer vegetation younger than 7 years into 2-yr intervals, suggesting that rapid changes in vegetation canopies can be detected with high accuracy. The combination of a spectral time-series analysis and object-based metrics based on high-resolution imagery enabled the classification of dynamic vegetation under intensive shifting cultivation and yielded an informative land cover map based on stand ages.

  12. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of three novel sheep (Ovis aries) genes - BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G Y; Gao, S Z

    2009-01-01

    The complete coding sequences of three sheep genes- BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA were amplified using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), based on the conserved sequence information of the mouse or other mammals. The nucleotide sequences of these three genes revealed that the sheep BCKDHA gene encodes a protein of 313 amino acids which has high homology with the BCKDHA gene that encodes a protein of 447 amino acids that has high homology with the Branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase El, alpha polypeptide (BCKDHA) of five species chimpanzee (93%), human (96%), crab-eating macaque (93%), bovine (98%) and mouse (91%). The sheep NAGA gene encodes a protein of 411 amino acids that has high homology with the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) of five species human (85%), bovine (94%), mouse (91%), rat (83%) and chicken (74%). The sheep HEXA gene encodes a protein of 529 amino acids that has high homology with the hexosaminidase A(HEXA) of five species bovine (98%), human (84%), Bornean orangután (84%), rat (80%) and mouse (81%). Finally these three novel sheep genes were assigned to GenelDs: 100145857, 100145858 and 100145856. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the sheep BCKDHA, NAGA, and HEXA all have closer genetic relationships to the BCKDHA, NAGA, and HEXA of bovine. Tissue expression profile analysis was also carried out and results revealed that sheep BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA genes were differentially expressed in tissues including muscle, heart, liver, fat, kidney, lung, small and large intestine. Our experiment is the first to establish the primary foundation for further research on these three sheep genes.

  13. Ten years of orangutan-related wildlife crime investigation in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Cathryn; Rahman, Edi; Knott, Cheryl

    2016-12-13

    Poaching for the pet trade is considered one of the main threats to orangutan survival, especially to the Bornean species (Pongo pygmaeus). However, there have been few attempts to quantify the number of individuals taken from the wild or to evaluate the drivers of the trade. Most orangutan poaching is thought to be opportunistic in nature, occurring in conjunction with deforestation for large-scale agriculture. Using data from our long-term wildlife crime field investigation program collected from 2004 to 2014, we evaluated the prevalence of orangutan poaching and its spatial distribution in and around Gunung Palung National Park, in the regencies (districts) of Ketapang and Kayong Utara, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over the project period, investigators uncovered 145 cases of orangutans being illegally held captive for the pet trade. There was a significant correlation between the extent of oil palm and the number of cases reported from each sub-district in the landscape, supporting the widely held hypothesis that orangutan poaching is opportunistic, and we found no evidence of orangutan trading rings (i.e., international traders) targeting Gunung Palung National Park. Over the past decade, there only has been one prosecution of orangutan trading in West Kalimantan, and weak law enforcement by Indonesian authorities remains the most significant challenge in addressing wildlife trade. We offer four recommendations to address this, including that Indonesia dedicate at least $3 million more to addressing orangutan poaching and trade in Kalimantan and that the country's wildlife protection laws be revised and strengthened, with the new laws socialized to a wide audience, including government officials and all aspects of civil society. As oil palm begins to expand into Africa, this study also may help predict how this will affect gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos, encouraging proactive conservation action.

  14. An ant-plant by-product mutualism is robust to selective logging of rain forest and conversion to oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayle, Tom M; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance and the spread of non-native species disrupt natural communities, but also create novel interactions between species. By-product mutualisms, in which benefits accrue as side effects of partner behaviour or morphology, are often non-specific and hence may persist in novel ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis for a two-way by-product mutualism between epiphytic ferns and their ant inhabitants in the Bornean rain forest, in which ants gain housing in root-masses while ferns gain protection from herbivores. Specifically, we assessed how the specificity (overlap between fern and ground-dwelling ants) and the benefits of this interaction are altered by selective logging and conversion to an oil palm plantation habitat. We found that despite the high turnover of ant species, ant protection against herbivores persisted in modified habitats. However, in ferns growing in the oil palm plantation, ant occupancy, abundance and species richness declined, potentially due to the harsher microclimate. The specificity of the fern-ant interactions was also lower in the oil palm plantation habitat than in the forest habitats. We found no correlations between colony size and fern size in modified habitats, and hence no evidence for partner fidelity feedbacks, in which ants are incentivised to protect fern hosts. Per species, non-native ant species in the oil palm plantation habitat (18 % of occurrences) were as important as native ones in terms of fern protection and contributed to an increase in ant abundance and species richness with fern size. We conclude that this by-product mutualism persists in logged forest and oil palm plantation habitats, with no detectable shift in partner benefits. Such persistence of generalist interactions in novel ecosystems may be important for driving ecosystem functioning.

  15. Increased androgenic sensitivity in the hind limb muscular system marks the evolution of a derived gestural display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Schuppe, Eric R.; Taylor, Rebecca S.; Hödl, Walter; Preininger, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Physical gestures are prominent features of many species’ multimodal displays, yet how evolution incorporates body and leg movements into animal signaling repertoires is unclear. Androgenic hormones modulate the production of reproductive signals and sexual motor skills in many vertebrates; therefore, one possibility is that selection for physical signals drives the evolution of androgenic sensitivity in select neuromotor pathways. We examined this issue in the Bornean rock frog (Staurois parvus, family: Ranidae). Males court females and compete with rivals by performing both vocalizations and hind limb gestural signals, called “foot flags.” Foot flagging is a derived display that emerged in the ranids after vocal signaling. Here, we show that administration of testosterone (T) increases foot flagging behavior under seminatural conditions. Moreover, using quantitative PCR, we also find that adult male S. parvus maintain a unique androgenic phenotype, in which androgen receptor (AR) in the hind limb musculature is expressed at levels ∼10× greater than in two other anuran species, which do not produce foot flags (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis). Finally, because males of all three of these species solicit mates with calls, we accordingly detect no differences in AR expression in the vocal apparatus (larynx) among taxa. The results show that foot flagging is an androgen-dependent gestural signal, and its emergence is associated with increased androgenic sensitivity within the hind limb musculature. Selection for this novel gestural signal may therefore drive the evolution of increased AR expression in key muscles that control signal production to support adaptive motor performance. PMID:27143723

  16. How gender and task difficulty affect a sport-protective response in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, David B.; Eckner, James T.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that gender and task difficulty affect the reaction, movement, and total response times associated with performing a head protective response. Twenty-four healthy young adults (13 females) performed a protective response of raising their hands from waist level to block a foam ball fired at their head from an air cannon. Participants initially stood 8.25 m away from the cannon (‘low difficulty’), and were moved successively closer in 60 cm increments until they failed to block at least 5 of 8 balls (‘high difficulty’). Limb motion was quantified using optoelectronic markers on the participants’ left wrist. Males had significantly faster total response times (p = 0.042), a trend towards faster movement times (p = 0.054), and faster peak wrist velocity (p < .001) and acceleration (p = 0.032) than females. Reaction time, movement time, and total response time were significantly faster under high difficulty conditions for both genders (p < .001). This study suggests that baseball and softball pitchers and fielders should have sufficient time to protect their head from a batted ball under optimal conditions if they are adequately prepared for the task. PMID:23234296

  17. Schisandra chinensis peptidoglycan-assisted transmembrane transport of lignans uniquely altered the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms in human HepG2 cell model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charng-Cherng Chyau

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis (Turz Baill (S. chinensis (SC fruit is a hepatoprotective herb containing many lignans and a large amount of polysaccharides. A novel polysaccharide (called SC-2 was isolated from SC of MW 841 kDa, which exhibited a protein-to-polysaccharide ratio of 0.4089, and showed a characteristic FTIR spectrum of a peptidoglycan. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed microcrystalline structures within SC-2. SC-2 contained 10 monosaccharides and 15 amino acids (essential amino acids of 78.12%w/w. In a HepG2 cell model, SC-2 was shown by MTT and TUNEL assay to be completely non-cytotoxic. A kinetic analysis and fluorescence-labeling technique revealed no intracellular disposition of SC-2. Combined treatment of lignans with SC-2 enhanced the intracellular transport of schisandrin B and deoxyschisandrin but decreased that of gomisin C, resulting in alteration of cell-killing bioactivity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics allows this type of unidirectional transport. Conclusively, SC-2 alters the transport and cell killing capability by a "Catcher-Pitcher Unidirectional Transport Mechanism".

  18. The sweet spots in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques.

  19. Development of Transcriptomic Markers for Population Analysis Using Restriction Site Associated RNA Sequencing (RARseq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy S Alabady

    Full Text Available We describe restriction site associated RNA sequencing (RARseq, an RNAseq-based genotype by sequencing (GBS method. It includes the construction of RNAseq libraries from double stranded cDNA digested with selected restriction enzymes. To test this, we constructed six single- and six-dual-digested RARseq libraries from six F2 pitcher plant individuals and sequenced them on a half of a Miseq run. On average, the de novo approach of population genome analysis detected 544 and 570 RNA SNPs, whereas the reference transcriptome-based approach revealed an average of 1907 and 1876 RNA SNPs per individual, from single- and dual-digested RARseq data, respectively. The average numbers of RNA SNPs and alleles per loci are 1.89 and 2.17, respectively. Our results suggest that the RARseq protocol allows good depth of coverage per loci for detecting RNA SNPs and polymorphic loci for population genomics and mapping analyses. In non-model systems where complete genomes sequences are not always available, RARseq data can be analyzed in reference to the transcriptome. In addition to enriching for functional markers, this method may prove particularly useful in organisms where the genomes are not favorable for DNA GBS.

  20. Two new desma-less species of Theonella Gray, 1868 (Demospongiae: Astrophorida: Theonellidae), from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia,and a re-evaluation of one species assigned previously to Dercitus Gray, 1867.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathryn A; Ekins, Merrick G; Hooper, John N A

    2014-06-11

    Extensive surveys of the biodiversity on the seafloor of the inter-reef regions of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, have resulted in the collection of large numbers of sponges, many of which are likely new to science. Identification of these sponges, however, was made difficult by the absence in some specimens of key diagnostic characters, such as megascleres. We used an integrated approach to the taxonomy of these sponges, incorporating morphological examination by SEM, analysis of DNA sequence data (using the COI barcoding fragment of mtDNA) and preliminary studies of the chemistry of the sponges, to describe the new species, which were found to contain no native spicules other than acanthose microrhabds. Here, we propose two new species of Theonella Gray, 1868: Theonella deliqua n. sp. (found in association with a single unidentified species of siliquariid mollusc) and Theonella maricae n. sp. from the Great Barrier Reef. Further, we propose the new combination of Theonella xantha (Sutcliffe, Hooper and Pitcher 2010) n. comb. for another microrhabd-only-bearing species. On the basis of our gene trees, we recognise Theonella (and Theonellidae Lendenfeld, 1903) within Astrophorida Sollas, 1887. We discuss the potential for chemotaxonomic and DNA-based insights into the origins and radiation of species of Theonella and explore the evolutionary significance of the reduced morphology of the three additional species recognised here.

  1. Water-Repellent Properties of Superhydrophobic and Lubricant-Infused "Slippery" Surfaces: A Brief Study on the Functions and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Moyuan; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Cunming; Li, Kan; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2016-02-17

    Bioinspired water-repellent materials offer a wealth of opportunities to solve scientific and technological issues. Lotus-leaf and pitcher plants represent two types of antiwetting surfaces, i.e., superhydrophobic and lubricant-infused "slippery" surfaces. Here we investigate the functions and applications of those two types of interfacial materials. The superhydrophobic surface was fabricated on the basis of a hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticle/poly(dimethylsiloxane) composite layer, and the lubricant-infused "slippery" surface was prepared on the basis of silicone oil infusion. The fabrication, characteristics, and functions of both substrates were studied, including the wettability, transparency, adhesive force, dynamic droplet impact, antifogging, self-cleaning ability, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the surfaces were briefly discussed, indicating the most suitable applications of the antiwetting materials. This contribution is aimed at providing meaningful information on how to select water-repellent substrates to solve the scientific and practical issues, which can also stimulate new thinking for the development of antiwetting interfacial materials.

  2. Radio-ulnar joint supinates around ball release during baseball fastball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Jinji, Tsutomu; Hirayama, Daisaku; Nasu, Daiki; Ozaki, Hiroki

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether a supination phase of the forearm exists around ball release (BRL), and, if present, to determine whether this supination is explained by a reaction force or by the body configuration required for this task. A 16-camera motion analysis system with a sampling frequency of 1,000 Hz recorded 20 healthy male semi-professional pitchers pitching from an indoor pitching mound. A short supination phase around BRL was confirmed for all participants in the current study. Correlation analyses revealed that the supination angle at BRL had significant relationships with several measurements of shoulder movement kinematics. Mechanical work analysis of the forearm's longitudinal axis revealed several variations in joint power curve and various patterns of mechanical work among the participants, suggesting that a reaction force originating from accelerating a ball might not be the main cause of supination. The raw data also were down-sampled to a sampling frequency of 250 Hz, to match previous studies and to investigate the discrepancy among previous studies concerning the existence of the supination phase. The experience of participants and methodological differences, such as the definition of BRL and the time-normalisation technique, influenced whether the supination phase was observed.

  3. Avaliação do ombro doloroso no jogador de beisebol Evaluation of painful shoulder in baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2011-04-01

    Sciences, Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo. They were all males, aged between 15 and 33 years (mean of 21; they attended an average of three training sessions per week and had been doing this sport for a mean of 10 years. RESULTS: 14 of the 55 players evaluated were pitchers, and 20 reported pain during the throwing motion. The mean values for lateral and medial rotation and range of motion (ROM in the dominant shoulder were, respectively, 110º, 61º and 171º, with a statistically significant difference in relation to the non-dominant limb. Pitchers had greater gains in lateral rotation and deficits in medial rotation than did non-pitchers. Pain presented a statistically significant correlation with diminished ROM, greater length of time plating the sport and situations of "shoulder at risk". CONCLUSIONS: Statistically significant differences in dominant shoulder mobility were found, with increased lateral rotation, diminished medial rotation and smaller ROM, in relation to the contralateral limb. There was a statistically significant relationship between the pitcher's position and greater gain in lateral rotation and diminished medial rotation. There were statistically significant correlations between pain and diminished ROM, greater length of time playing the sport and situations of "shoulder at risk". There was a statistical tendency suggesting that players with diminished medial rotation of the dominant shoulder presented a relationship with pain.

  4. Numerical study of neutron beam divergence in a beam-fusion scenario employing laser driven ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; McKenna, P.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.

    2016-09-01

    The most established route to create a laser-based neutron source is by employing laser accelerated, low atomic-number ions in fusion reactions. In addition to the high reaction cross-sections at moderate energies of the projectile ions, the anisotropy in neutron emission is another important feature of beam-fusion reactions. Using a simple numerical model based on neutron generation in a pitcher-catcher scenario, anisotropy in neutron emission was studied for the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. Simulation results are consistent with the narrow-divergence (∼ 70 ° full width at half maximum) neutron beam recently served in an experiment employing multi-MeV deuteron beams of narrow divergence (up to 30° FWHM, depending on the ion energy) accelerated by a sub-petawatt laser pulse from thin deuterated plastic foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism. By varying the input ion beam parameters, simulations show that a further improvement in the neutron beam directionality (i.e. reduction in the beam divergence) can be obtained by increasing the projectile ion beam temperature and cut-off energy, as expected from interactions employing higher power lasers at upcoming facilities.

  5. Pick-up of early visual information to guide kinetics and kinematics within a group of highly skilled baseball batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MüLler, Sean; Lalović, Alex; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Rosalie, Simon M; Harbaugh, Allen G

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study integrated sport expertise and biomechanics methodologies within a baseball batting task. Purpose was to examine differences within a highly skilled group of baseball batters to use visual information to guide weight transfer and bat movements. One batter who played at Major League Baseball (MLB) level was compared to five batters who played at Australian Baseball League (ABL) level in a case-control design. Batters faced pitchers in a simulated competition and attempted to hit pitches, while vision was temporally occluded during ball flight or not occluded. Time of weight transfer (kinetics), as well as bat downswing initiation and duration (kinematics) from the point of ball release, were compared between the MLB batter and ABL batters. Results indicated that the MLB batter coordinated his striking pattern by completing his weight transfer earlier than the ABL batters. His bat downswing was also initiated earlier than some ABL batters, but there was no difference in duration of bat downswing between batters. All batters initiated bat downswing prior to completion of weight transfer. Understanding of motor expertise is furthered using a novel methodology.

  6. Comparison of three baseball-specific 6-week training programs on throwing velocity in high school baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Ionno, Michele; deMahy, M Scott; Fleisig, Glenn S; Wilk, Kevin E; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-07-01

    Throwing velocity is an important baseball performance variable for baseball pitchers, because greater throwing velocity results in less time for hitters to make a decision to swing. Throwing velocity is also an important baseball performance variable for position players, because greater throwing velocity results in decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base. This study compared the effects of 3 baseball-specific 6-week training programs on maximum throwing velocity. Sixty-eight high school baseball players 14-17 years of age were randomly and equally divided into 3 training groups and a nontraining control group. The 3 training groups were the Throwers Ten (TT), Keiser Pneumatic (KP), and Plyometric (PLY). Each training group trained 3 d·wk(-1) for 6 weeks, which comprised approximately 5-10 minutes for warm-up, 45 minutes of resistance training, and 5-10 for cool-down. Throwing velocity was assessed before (pretest) and just after (posttest) the 6-week training program for all the subjects. A 2-factor repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc paired t-tests was used to assess throwing velocity differences (p baseball players, but the results of this study did not demonstrate that 1 resistance training program was more effective than another resistance training program in increasing throwing velocity.

  7. DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY COMPOSITION OF PLAYERS OF THE POLISH NATIONAL BASEBALL TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiełło Marina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the differentiation of body composition among players of Polish national baseball team in comparison to persons of the same population not professionally engaged in sport. The study involved Polish baseball representatives (n=20. Competitors’ age was 18-28 years, body mass from 67.7 kg to 114 kg (85±10.3 kg, and body height 173-196 cm (185.1±4.8. The training experience was 7-14 years and it was highly differentiated. The stoutness factor is the dominant factor among "infielders" and "pitchers", and among "outfielders" - the length one. The proportions of the features within the factors show that players are characterized by a strongly muscled forearm and a shank and by a clear predominance of the elbow width with a disproportionately - to the overall size of the factor - small knee and shoulder width. In the length factor an even contribution of the upper and lower extremity length with lower sitting body height can be noted. Depending on the position on the field there is a differentiation of the internal proportions of the body.

  8. Evaluation of hip internal and external rotation range of motion as an injury risk factor for hip, abdominal and groin injuries in professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinning Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal hip range of motion (ROM is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201 in one professional organization (major and minor league during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011. Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201 with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37. Both pitchers (N=93 and catchers (N=22 had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86. Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.

  9. Major League Baseball pace-of-play rules and their influence on predicted muscle fatigue during simulated baseball games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Michael W L; Keir, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) has proposed rule changes to speed up baseball games. Reducing the time between pitches may impair recovery from fatigue. Fatigue is a known precursor to injury and may jeopardise joint stability. This study examined how fatigue accumulated during baseball games and how different pace of play initiatives may influence fatigue. Pitcher data were retrieved from a public database. A predictive model of muscle fatigue estimated muscle fatigue in 8 arm muscles. A self-selected pace (22.7 s), 12 s pace (Rule 8.04 from the MLB) and a 20 s rest (a pitch clock examined in the 2014 Arizona Fall League (AFL)) were examined. Significantly more muscle fatigue existed in both the AFL and Rule 8.04 conditions, when compared to the self-selected pace condition (5.01 ± 1.73%, 3.95 ± 1.20% and 3.70 ± 1.10% MVC force lost, respectively). Elevated levels of muscle fatigue are predicted in the flexor-pronator mass, which is responsible for providing elbow stability. Reduced effectiveness of the flexor-pronator mass may reduce the active contributions to joint rotational stiffness, increasing strain on the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and possibly increasing injury risk.

  10. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-07-31

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  11. Resistência de alguns vírus à ação oligodinâmica da prata Resistence of some viruses to the silver oligodynamic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guilherme Lacorte

    1959-10-01

    , Instituto Oswaldo Cruz strain, as we have done with the influenza virus, PR8 strain and DL/Rio strain. In the tests we used clay pitchers covered in the inner surface with a thin layer of silver of with powdered silver mixed with the clay material. The 10 per cent infectious cerebral emulsion of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or of the poliomyelitis virus were put into the pitcher and the pathogenic power for mice verified, at regular intervals, by the intracerebral injection of 0,03 ml. The results expressed in the tables 1 and 2 indicates that those viruses resist the silver oligodynamic action. In the case of the vaccinia virus, the dilution was put into the pitcher in the same way. The virus presented, too, complete resistence, as we can see in the figures 1, 2 and 3. Control experiments made with Micrococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli, put into the pitchers with silver, showed that the bacteriae were dead after 20 hours. As we emphasized in the paper about the influenza viruses, the reported phenomenon is important because we know that the oligodynamic effect is observed upon microorganisms like bacteria, protozoa and other living beeings altering its properties or killing them and, therefore, intersting from the biological point of view. The phenomenon can also be applied to the isolation of viruses with bacterial contamination.

  12. Schisandra chinensis Peptidoglycan-Assisted Transmembrane Transport of Lignans Uniquely Altered the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Mechanisms in Human HepG2 Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Chang, Chi-Huang; Huang, Shiau-Huei; Wang, Hui-Er; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y.

    2014-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis (Turz Baill) (S. chinensis) (SC) fruit is a hepatoprotective herb containing many lignans and a large amount of polysaccharides. A novel polysaccharide (called SC-2) was isolated from SC of MW 841 kDa, which exhibited a protein-to-polysaccharide ratio of 0.4089, and showed a characteristic FTIR spectrum of a peptidoglycan. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed microcrystalline structures within SC-2. SC-2 contained 10 monosaccharides and 15 amino acids (essential amino acids of 78.12%w/w). In a HepG2 cell model, SC-2 was shown by MTT and TUNEL assay to be completely non-cytotoxic. A kinetic analysis and fluorescence-labeling technique revealed no intracellular disposition of SC-2. Combined treatment of lignans with SC-2 enhanced the intracellular transport of schisandrin B and deoxyschisandrin but decreased that of gomisin C, resulting in alteration of cell-killing bioactivity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics allows this type of unidirectional transport. Conclusively, SC-2 alters the transport and cell killing capability by a “Catcher-Pitcher Unidirectional Transport Mechanism”. PMID:24475039

  13. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  14. Study on Impact Loading and Humerus Injury for Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Oda, Juhachi; Yonemura, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Jiro

    In the United States and Japan, baseball is a very popular sport played by many people. However, the ball used is hard and moves fast. A professional baseball pitcher in good form can throw a ball at speeds upwards of 41.7m/s (150km/hr). If a ball at this speed hits the batter, serious injury can occur. In this paper we will describe our investigations on the impact of a baseball with living tissues by finite element analysis. Baseballs were projected at a load cell plate using a specialized pitching machine. The dynamic properties of the baseball were determined by comparing the wall-ball collision experimentally measuring the time history of the force and the displacement using dynamic finite element analysis software (ANSYS/ LS-DYNA). The finite element model representing a human humerus and its surrounding tissue was simulated for balls pitched at variable speeds and pitch types (knuckle and fastball). In so doing, the stress distribution and stress wave in the bone and soft tissue were obtained. From the results, the peak stress of the bone nearly yielded to the stress caused by a high fast ball. If the collision position or direction is moved from the center of the upper arm, it is assumed that the stress exuded on the humerus will be reduced. Some methods to reduce the severity of the injury which can be applied in actual baseball games are also discussed.

  15. Calidad de vida laboral y liderazgo en trabajadores asistenciales y administrativos en un centro oncológico de Bogotá (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue describir la Calidad de vida laboral ( CVL y el estilo de liderazgo percibido por el personal administrativo/asistencial de un centro oncológico y estimar la asociación entre ellas, considerando las características sociodemográficas. Para ello se aplicó el Cuestionario de Vida Profesional [ CVP -35 ] y el Test de Adjetivos de Pitcher [ PAT ] a 38 trabajadores de la salud, que constituyen el 97.2 % del total del personal que labora en el centro. En general, los participantes presentan una CVL satisfactoria, caracterizada principalmente por motivación intrínseca, lo cual fue más evidente en el personal asistencial. Se observó una percepción de ausencia de liderazgo o características poco deseables de este, lo cual, aunque no determina la CVL , sí constituye un factor modulador de la misma; las variables sociodemográficas no guardaron relación con la CVL . Por último se resalta la responsabilidad social que tienen los directivos en el bienestar de los trabajadores de la salud y, consecuentemente, en la atención al paciente. Se discuten estos hallazgos y lo pertinente de utilizar las categorías emergentes del PAT .

  16. Visual-Motor Control in Baseball Batting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With margins for error of a few milliseconds and fractions of an inch it is not surprising that hitting a baseball is considered to be one of the most difficult acts in all of sports. We have been investigating this challenging behavior using a virtual baseball batting setup in which simulations of an approaching ball, pitcher, and field are combined with real-time recording of bat and limb movements. I will present evidence that baseball batting involves variable pre-programmed control in which the swing direction and movement time (MT are set prior to the initiation of the action but can take different values from swing-to-swing. This programming process utilizes both advance information (pitch history and count and optical information picked-up very early in the ball's flight (ball time to contact TTC and rotation direction. The pre-programmed value of MT is used to determine a critical value of TTC for swing initiation. Finally, because a baseball swing is an action that is occasionally interrupted online (i.e., a “check swing”, I will discuss experiments that examine when this pre-programmed action can be stopped and the sources of optical information that trigger stopping.

  17. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration.

  18. Shoulder muscle firing patterns during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffet, M W; Jobe, F W; Pink, M M; Brault, J; Mathiyakom, W

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the activity of eight shoulder muscles during the windmill fast-pitch softball throw. Ten collegiate female pitchers were analyzed with intramuscular electromyography, high-speed cinematography, and motion analysis. The supraspinatus muscle fired maximally during arm elevation from the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, centralizing the humeral head within the glenoid. The posterior deltoid and teres minor muscles acted maximally from the 3 to 12 o'clock position phase to continue arm elevation and externally rotate the humerus. The pectoralis major muscle accelerated the arm from the 12 o'clock position to ball release phase. The serratus anterior muscle characteristically acted to position the scapula for optimal glenohumeral congruency, and the subscapularis muscle functioned as an internal rotator and to protect the anterior capsule. Although the windmill softball pitch is overtly different from the baseball pitch, several surprising similarities were revealed. The serratus anterior and pectoralis major muscles work in synchrony and seem to have similar functions in both pitches. Although the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are both posterior cuff muscles, they are characteristically uncoupled during the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, with the infraspinatus muscle acting more independently below 90 degrees. Subscapularis muscle activity seems important in dynamic anterior glenohumeral stabilization and as an internal rotator in both the baseball and softball throws.

  19. Effect of stride length on overarm throwing delivery: Part II: An angular momentum response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2016-04-01

    This is the second component of a two-part series investigating 3D momentum profiles specific to overhand throwing, where altering stride reportedly influences throwing mechanics resulting in significantly different physiologic outcomes and linear momentum profiles. Using a randomized cross-over design, nineteen pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to pitch two simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An 8-camera motion capture system (240Hz) integrated with two force plates (960Hz) and radar gun tracked each overhand throw. Segmental angular momentums were summed yielding throwing arm and total body momentums, from which compensation ratio's (relative contribution between the two) were derived. Pairwise comparisons at hallmark events and phases identified significantly different angular momentum profiles, in particular total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios (P⩽0.05) as a result of manipulating stride length. Sagittal, frontal, and transverse angular momentums were affected by stride length changes. Transverse magnitudes showed greatest effects for total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios. Since the trunk is the main contributor to linear and angular momentum, longer strides appear to better regulate transverse trunk momentum in double support, whereas shorter strides show increased momentum prior to throwing arm acceleration.

  20. Statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in professional baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander; Stanley, H Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that that level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power-law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find universal power laws in the distributions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence of performance enhancement in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is consistent with the findings of the Mi...

  1. Spectral control of laser accelerated ions via deuterium vapour deposition onto cryogenically cooled targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graeme

    2016-10-01

    A widely perceived criticism of the best understood laser driven ion acceleration mechanism, TNSA, is that the energy spectra routinely obtained are Maxwellian in nature, and are non-ideal for some of the long term envisaged applications of a laser accelerated ion source such as ion driven fast ignition or hadrontherapy. We, however, demonstrate a novel method to accelerate a quasi-monoenergetic deuterium beam in the TNSA regime of ion acceleration. This is made possible by recent developments in cryogenic targetry at the Central Laser Facility, and is achieved by cooling a gold target to approximately 7-8 K and introducing overcoats of isotopic deuterium layers on top of the hydrogen contaminant layer present on the original target. The presence of a lower charge to mass ion on top of the high charge to mass hydrogen, alters the sheath dynamics during the acceleration such that the high energy portion of the deuterium beam exhibits a full width at half maximum energy spread of δɛ / ɛ 0.3-0.5. Experimental results and multidimensional numerical modelling will be presented describing this effect. Further than this, experimental results show that the accelerated deuterium beam is found to significantly enhance the number of neutrons produced when fielded in a pitcher/catcher configuration, and provides avenues for investigation on the production of a high brightness neutron source.

  2. The effect of different boiling and filtering devices on the concentration of disinfection by-products in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Villanueva, Cristina M; Goñi, Fernando; Rantakokko, Panu; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are ubiquitous contaminants in tap drinking water with the potential to produce adverse health effects. Filtering and boiling tap water can lead to changes in the DBP concentrations and modify the exposure through ingestion. Changes in the concentration of 4 individual trihalomethanes (THM4) (chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)), MX, and bromate were tested when boiling and filtering high bromine-containing tap water from Barcelona. For filtering, we used a pitcher-type filter and a household reverse osmosis filter; for boiling, an electric kettle, a saucepan, and a microwave were used. Samples were taken before and after each treatment to determine the change in the DBP concentration. pH, conductivity, and free/total chlorine were also measured. A large decrease of THM4 (from 48% to 97%) and MX concentrations was observed for all experiments. Bromine-containing trihalomethanes were mostly eliminated when filtering while chloroform when boiling. There was a large decrease in the concentration of bromate with reverse osmosis, but there was a little effect in the other experiments. These findings suggest that the exposure to THM4 and MX through ingestion is reduced when using these household appliances, while the decrease of bromate is device dependent. This needs to be considered in the exposure assessment of the epidemiological studies.

  3. The Effect of Different Boiling and Filtering Devices on the Concentration of Disinfection By-Products in Tap Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Carrasco-Turigas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection by-products (DBPs are ubiquitous contaminants in tap drinking water with the potential to produce adverse health effects. Filtering and boiling tap water can lead to changes in the DBP concentrations and modify the exposure through ingestion. Changes in the concentration of 4 individual trihalomethanes (THM4 (chloroform (TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM, dibromochloromethane (DBCM, and bromoform (TBM, MX, and bromate were tested when boiling and filtering high bromine-containing tap water from Barcelona. For filtering, we used a pitcher-type filter and a household reverse osmosis filter; for boiling, an electric kettle, a saucepan, and a microwave were used. Samples were taken before and after each treatment to determine the change in the DBP concentration. pH, conductivity, and free/total chlorine were also measured. A large decrease of THM4 (from 48% to 97% and MX concentrations was observed for all experiments. Bromine-containing trihalomethanes were mostly eliminated when filtering while chloroform when boiling. There was a large decrease in the concentration of bromate with reverse osmosis, but there was a little effect in the other experiments. These findings suggest that the exposure to THM4 and MX through ingestion is reduced when using these household appliances, while the decrease of bromate is device dependent. This needs to be considered in the exposure assessment of the epidemiological studies.

  4. An examination of slo-pitch pitching trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tom; Gervais, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Many slo-pitch coaches and players believe that generating spin on a ball can affect its trajectory. The influence of air resistance on a ball that is thrown at a moderate speed and spin is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of spin on the ball's trajectory in slo-pitch pitching using both experimental results and ball flight simulations. Fourteen pitchers participated in the study, each of whom threw five backspin and topspin pitches each. Data were collected using standard three-dimensional videography. The horizontal velocity, vertical velocity, angular velocity, release height, and horizontal displacement of the backspin pitches were significantly higher than those of the topspin pitches. The ball flight simulations were developed to examine the influence of the ball spin, and it was concluded that the spin of the ball had a significant effect on the ball's vertical and horizontal displacements. Furthermore, our results suggest that a backspin pitch that reaches the maximum height allowable and lands in the front edge of the strike zone has the steepest slope. The present results add to our understanding of projectile motion and aerodynamics.

  5. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors.

  6. Energy efficiency in a drive system of induction motors; Eficiencia energetica em um sistema de acionamento de motores de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Kawaphara, Mario Kiyoshi; Apolonio, Roberto; Annunciacao, Luiz de; Silva, Thiago Vieira da; Sao Jose, Bernardo Dias [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Industrial consumers are interested in reducing their monthly expenditure on electricity. Tackling the waste of electrical energy means improving the way you use it, without giving up the comfort and the advantages it provides. Means to reduce consumption, but without compromising safety, quality of product or process or production capacity. In this context, this study presents the results obtained by measurements in a drive system for elevator type pitchers in the laboratory by conventional means and by electronic devices, which simulates a system of operation of a grain transportation industry. We monitored voltages, currents, active power, active power consumption of the system triggered by the conventional method by starting directly and, through microprocessor controls with frequency converter and analyzed the power efficiency obtained with the two processes drive. This study aims at a possible reduction in electricity consumption for active power and active power demand for the automated activation with the frequency inverter. In a broader analysis, conservation of power ends up benefiting society in general, because its effects are felt in different ways. Encourage the reduction or even elimination of new investment to build power plants and power grids, reduce prices of products and services, and ensure availability of electricity supply and service to new consumers. (author)

  7. Biceps Tenodesis for Type II SLAP Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayrose, Gregory A; Karas, Spero G; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Tears of the superior glenoid labrum are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, especially in overhead athletes such as pitchers, swimmers, and volleyball players. Type II SLAP lesions have been the most clinically important superior labral pathology, and the management of this lesion has been a very controversial topic. Currently, there are no high level studies in the literature to guide treatment. While the few level 3 and level 4 evidence studies that are available following arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions all report reasonable overall patient satisfaction, persistent postoperative pain is common and associated with a low return to pre-injury level of sports participation. There has been a recent school of thought that biceps tenodesis, which maintains the length-tension relationship of the long head of biceps, should be the procedure of choice for patients with isolated type II SLAP lesions. The current paper reviews the role biceps tenodesis plays in the management of type II SLAP tears.

  8. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home-run prowess in professional baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-09-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find similar power laws in the density functions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is corroborated by the findings of the Mitchell Report (2007), a two-year investigation into the use of illegal steroids in Major League Baseball, which recently revealed that over 5 percent of Major League Baseball players tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in an anonymous 2003 survey.

  9. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Goff Gilbert

    2012-09-01

    browni. Ur. nepenthes and Ur. pandani and one subspecies (Ae. vigilax vansomerenae are considered as endemic. Two illustrated identification keys, one for adult females and the other for larval stages, are presented. Conclusions The knowledge of the culicidian fauna in the Seychelles has been notably updated. The number of mosquito species is relatively large with regards to land surface and distances to continental Africa, although the anophelines are totally lacking. The complex natural history of mosquitoes in the Seychelles provides examples of both vicariance- and dispersal-mediated divergences. They present superb examples for theoretical and applied island biology.

  10. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  11. Wild and Valuable? Tourist Values for Orang-utan Conservation in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K Zander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluffy, orange and endearing, orang-utans have won the hearts of people all over the world. However, all sub-species are endangered in the wild with the Bornean orang-utan population having declined by more than 50% over the past 60 years. Fewer than 2,000 wild orang-utans remain in Sarawak with nearly all truly wild ones confined to a remote site on the Indonesian border. Yet each year thousands of tourists and local Sarawak people see orang-utans semi-wild in a reserve or captive in a rehabilitation centre. We investigated the attitudes of such tourists towards the conservation of the remaining wild populations by means of questionnaires, including a choice experiment. Sixty percent of the respondents were, in principle, willing to pay to ensure survival of a wild orang-utan population. International tourists tended to regard wild survival as being more important than having a high probability of seeing orang-utans personally-indeed they preferred wild orang-utans to be hard to find. Malaysian tourists were more inclined to favour investment in the small number of captive or semi-wild animals. Using conservative judgements of the difference between stated and real willingness-to-pay, we estimated that about USD 6.6 million per year could be made available to wild orang-utan conservation from voluntary contributions by visitors to the semi-wild animals. We also estimated that the 40% of visitors to these facilities who come to Sarawak primarily because of the apes, bring between USD 13 and USD 23 million into the local economy each year through their expenditure on local businesses, about 0.6% of the income earned by Sarawak from timber products. Our results suggest that far fewer would come if there were no wild orang-utans in Sarawak. Thus the value of wild orang-utans in Sarawak can be delivered through the captive facilities but the economic benefits from orang-utans require both captive and wild orang-utans.

  12. Biomass burning drives atmospheric nutrient redistribution within forested peatlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; Curran, Lisa M.; Pittman, Alice M.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Steele, Bethel G.; Ratnasari, Dessy; Mujiman; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2016-08-01

    Biomass burning plays a critical role not only in atmospheric emissions, but also in the deposition and redistribution of biologically important nutrients within tropical landscapes. We quantified the influence of fire on biogeochemical fluxes of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) in a 12 ha forested peatland in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Total (inorganic + organic) N, {{{{NO}}}3}- -N, {{{{NH}}}4}+ -N, total P, {{{{PO}}}4}3- -P, and {{{{SO}}}4}2- -S fluxes were measured in throughfall and bulk rainfall weekly from July 2013 to September 2014. To identify fire events, we used concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) and MODIS Active Fire Product counts within 20 and 100 km radius buffers surrounding the site. Dominant sources of throughfall nutrient deposition were explored using cluster and back-trajectory analysis. Our findings show that this Bornean peatland receives some of the highest P (7.9 kg {{{{PO}}}4}3- -P ha-1yr-1) and S (42 kg {{{{SO}}}4}2- -S ha-1yr-1) deposition reported globally, and that N deposition (8.7 kg inorganic N ha-1yr-1) exceeds critical load limits suggested for tropical forests. Six major dry periods and associated fire events occurred during the study. Seventy-eight percent of fires within 20 km and 40% within 100 km of the site were detected within oil palm plantation leases (industrial agriculture) on peatlands. These fires had a disproportionate impact on below-canopy nutrient fluxes. Post-fire throughfall events contributed >30% of the total inorganic N ({{{{NO}}}3}- -N + {{{{NH}}}4}+ -N) and {{{{PO}}}4}3- -P flux to peatland soils during the study period. Our results indicate that biomass burning associated with agricultural peat fires is a major source of N, P, and S in throughfall and could rival industrial pollution as an input to these systems during major fire years. Given the sheer magnitude of fluxes reported here, fire-related redistribution of nutrients may have significant fertilizing or acidifying effects on

  13. Applicability of optical scanner method for fine root dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tomonori; Ohashi, Mizue; Makita, Naoki; Khoon Kho, Lip; Katayama, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2016-04-01

    Fine root dynamics is one of the important components in forest carbon cycling, as ~60 % of tree photosynthetic production can be allocated to root growth and metabolic activities. Various techniques have been developed for monitoring fine root biomass, production, mortality in order to understand carbon pools and fluxes resulting from fine roots dynamics. The minirhizotron method is now a widely used technique, in which a transparent tube is inserted into the soil and researchers count an increase and decrease of roots along the tube using images taken by a minirhizotron camera or minirhizotron video camera inside the tube. This method allows us to observe root behavior directly without destruction, but has several weaknesses; e.g., the difficulty of scaling up the results to stand level because of the small observation windows. Also, most of the image analysis are performed manually, which may yield insufficient quantitative and objective data. Recently, scanner method has been proposed, which can produce much bigger-size images (A4-size) with lower cost than those of the minirhizotron methods. However, laborious and time-consuming image analysis still limits the applicability of this method. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a new protocol for scanner image analysis to extract root behavior in soil. We evaluated applicability of this method in two ways; 1) the impact of different observers including root-study professionals, semi- and non-professionals on the detected results of root dynamics such as abundance, growth, and decomposition, and 2) the impact of window size on the results using a random sampling basis exercise. We applied our new protocol to analyze temporal changes of root behavior from sequential scanner images derived from a Bornean tropical forests. The results detected by the six observers showed considerable concordance in temporal changes in the abundance and the growth of fine roots but less in the decomposition. We also examined

  14. Bathroom Buddies: Countering your Clockwise Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. M.; Stegman, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    Which way does your bathtub, toilet, sink, or other favorite plumbing basin drain? Popular television shows perpetuate the fact that water spins the opposite direction in the southern hemisphere, and sometimes even explicitly point to the Coriolis effect (or Earth's rotation) as the cause. Skeptics disagree: "No way. Water doesn't obey your rules: it goes where it wants...like me, babe." [1]. Fact: Cyclones rotate clockwise in the southern hemisphere and hurricanes counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere. But does your hemisphere also determine the direction water spirals down your toilet? In the ideal scenario of water draining out a sink (i.e. a defect-free, perfectly-leveled basin in which water has remained undisturbed for sufficient enough time to quiet any background motions or eddies) --- then yes, maybe it is possible. However, in everyday life, not even the most decadent of bathtubs provide us a large enough lengthscale to observe the Coriolis effect on the direction which water spirals towards the drain. Thus, we are left confronting the possibility that something heard on television isn't true. But is just "telling" students, friends, or strangers in bars enough to debunk this urban myth? Rather, we offer a practical demonstration involving a friend from the opposite hemisphere (if not one in existence, then find one on the internet!), a bathroom, a funnel, a bucket, some food coloring, a camera, a pitcher and some equations and scalings for extra credit and fun. 1) Simpson, B., "Bart vs. Australia", Season 6, Episode 119, 1995.

  15. Comparison of reintroduction and enhancement effects on metapopulation viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Metapopulation viability depends upon a balance of extinction and colonization of local habitats by a species. Mechanisms that can affect this balance include physical characteristics related to natural processes (e.g. succession) as well as anthropogenic actions. Plant restorations can help to produce favorable metapopulation dynamics and consequently increase viability; however, to date no studies confirm this is true. Population viability analysis (PVA) allows for the use of empirical data to generate theoretical future projections in the form of median time to extinction and probability of extinction. In turn, PVAs can inform and aid the development of conservation, recovery, and management plans. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) is a dune endemic that exhibited metapopulation dynamics. We projected viability of three natural and two restored populations with demographic data spanning 15–23 years to determine the degree the addition of reintroduced population affects metapopulation viability. The models were validated by comparing observed and projected abundances and adjusting parameters associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity to improve model performance. Our chosen model correctly predicted yearly population abundance for 60% of the population-years. Using that model, 50-year projections showed that the addition of reintroductions increases metapopulation viability. The reintroduction that simulated population performance in early-successional habitats had the maximum benefit. In situ enhancements of existing populations proved to be equally effective. This study shows that restorations can facilitate and improve metapopulation viability of species dependent on metapopulation dynamics for survival with long-term persistence of C. pitcheri in Indiana likely to depend on continued active management.

  16. MRI Abnormalities Are Common In Little League Player’s Elbows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Andrew T.; Roocroft, Joanna Helena; Bastrom, Tracey P.; Kruk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Youth baseball is extremely popular, but it has been associated with elbow pain and pathology. The purpose of this study was to examine pre- and post-season Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) changes in Little League baseball players and correlate these findings with the players’ throwing history and physical exams. Methods: A prospective study of Little League players age 10 -13 years was performed. Players were recruited prior to the start of the season and underwent bilateral elbow MRI. All players underwent a physical exam and responded to a questionnaire addressing their playing history and arm pain. At the end of the season, the players underwent repeat physical exam and MRI of their throwing arm. MRIs were read by two blinded radiologists. During the season, player statistics including innings played and pitch counts were recorded. Physical exam findings and players statistics were compared between subjects with and without MRI changes utilizing chi-square and ANOVA techniques. Results: Twenty-six players were enrolled. On pre-season MRI, nine players (35%) had 12 positive MRI findings; edema of the medial epicondyle (ME) apophysis (7), fragmentation of ME (2), and edema of the sublime tubercle (3). The two factors associated with a positive MRI were year round play (47% vs 11%, phistory of pain was also associated with year round play and a private coach (p0.10). Descriptively, 60% of self-reported pitchers/catchers had post season MRI findings versus 40% of other field positions (p=0.3). Conclusion: Pre-season and post-season MRI abnormalities of the medial elbow are common in Little League baseball players. While Little League pitching guidelines are intended to decrease overuse injuries, our data indicate that further refinement of these guidelines addressing year round play, pain and private coaching should be considered.

  17. How to win the blame game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D G

    2001-01-01

    At some companies, people are all too quick to point fingers, leaving employees more concerned about avoiding blame than about achieving results. Such organizations, ruled by "CYA," have given blame a bum rap. David Baldwin, a former Major League pitcher, says blame can be a powerful and constructive force. It can be an effective teaching tool that helps people avoid repeating their mistakes. When used judiciously--and sparingly--blame can also prod people to put forth their best efforts, while maintaining both their confidence and their focus on goals. Indeed, blame can have a very positive effect when it's done for the right reasons. The key, then, is the way that blame is managed, which can influence how people make decisions and perform their jobs and ultimately affect the culture and character of an organization. In the course of his research on how Major League Baseball managers make decisions, Baldwin became fascinated by the subject of blame--what functions it serves and how it's best managed. His observations led him to identify five rules of blame, which, he says, apply to any organization, whether it's the LA Dodgers, General Motors, or a small start-up. First, know when to blame--and when not to. Second, blame in private and praise in public. Third, realize that the absence of blame can be far worse than its presence. Fourth, manage misguided blame. And fifth, be aware that confidence is the first casualty of blame. Managers who follow these rules will use blame in the most positive and effective ways possible, Baldwin says. Without these rules, blame becomes an ever-more difficult balancing act: Too much erodes people's confidence, while too little hinders them from reaching their full potential.

  18. Muscle activation patterns of the upper and lower extremity during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary A; Keeley, David W

    2011-06-01

    Fast-pitch softball has become an increasingly popular sport for female athletes. There has been little research examining the windmill softball pitch in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the muscle activation patterns of 3 upper extremity muscles (biceps, triceps, and rhomboids [scapular stabilizers]) and 2 lower extremity muscles (gluteus maximus and medius) during the 5 phases of the windmill softball pitch. Data describing muscle activation were collected on 7 postpubescent softball pitchers (age 17.7 ± 2.6 years; height 169 ± 5.4 cm; mass 69.1 ± 5.4 kg). Surface electromyographic data were collected using a Myopac Jr 10-channel amplifier (RUN Technologies Scientific Systems, Laguna Hills, CA, USA) synchronized with The MotionMonitor™ motion capture system (Innovative Sports Training Inc, Chicago IL, USA) and presented as a percent of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Gluteus maximus activity reached (196.3% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]), whereas gluteus medius activity was consistent during the single leg support of phase 3 (101.2% MVIC). Biceps brachii activity was greatest during phase 4 of the pitching motion. Triceps brachii activation was consistently >150% MVIC throughout the entire pitching motion, whereas the scapular stabilizers were most active during phase 2 (170.1% MVIC). The results of this study indicate the extent to which muscles are activated during the windmill softball pitch, and this knowledge can lead to the development of proper preventative and rehabilitative muscle strengthening programs. In addition, clinicians will be able to incorporate strengthening exercises that mimic the timing of maximal muscle activation most used during the windmill pitching phases.

  19. Glenoid labrum tears related to the long head of the biceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J R; Carson, W G; McLeod, W D

    1985-01-01

    Tears of the glenoid labrum were observed in 73 baseball pitchers and other throwing athletes who underwent arthroscopic examination of the dominant shoulder. Most of the tears were located over the anterosuperior portion of the glenoid labrum near the origin of the tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle into the glenoid. At arthroscopy, the tendon of the long head of the biceps appeared to originate through and be continuous with the superior portion of the glenoid labrum. In many cases it appeared to have pulled the anterosuperior portion of the labrum off the glenoid. This observation was verified at arthroscopy by viewing the origin of the biceps tendon into the glenoid labrum as the muscle was electrically stimulated. With stimulation of the muscle, the tendinous portion became quite taut, particularly near its attachment to the glenoid labrum, and actually lifted the labrum off the glenoid. Three-dimensional high-speed cinematography with computer analysis revealed that the moment acting about the elbow joint to extend the joint through an arc of about 50 degrees was in excess of 600 inch-pounds. The extremely high velocity of elbow extension which is generated must be decelerated through the final 30 degrees of elbow extension. Of the muscles of the arm that provide the large deceleration forces in the follow-through phase of throwing, only the biceps brachii traverses both the elbow joint and the shoulder joint. Additional forces are generated in the biceps tendon in its function as a "shunt" muscle to stabilize the glenohumeral joint during the throwing act.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The Effect of the Number of Carries on Injury Risk and Subsequent Season’s Performance Among Running Backs in the National Football League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Belk, John W.; McCarty, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent years, several studies have correlated pitch count with an increased risk for injury among baseball pitchers. However, no studies have attempted to draw a similar conclusion based on number of carries by running backs (RBs) in football. Purpose: To determine whether there is a correlation between number of carries by RBs in the National Football League (NFL) and risk of injury or worsened performance in the subsequent season. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The ESPN NFL statistics archives were searched from the 2004 through 2014 regular seasons. During each season, data were collected on RBs with 150 to 250 carries (group A) and 300+ carries (group B). The following data were collected for each player and compared between groups: number of carries and mean yards per carry during the regular season of interest and the subsequent season, number of games missed due to injury during the season of interest and the subsequent season, and the specific injuries resulting in missed playing time during the subsequent season. Matched-pair t tests were used to compare changes within each group from one season to the next in terms of number of carries, mean yards per carry, and games missed due to injury. Results: During the seasons studied, a total of 275 RBs were included (group A, 212; group B, 63). In group A, 140 RBs (66%) missed at least 1 game the subsequent season due to injury, compared with 31 RBs (49%) in group B (P = .016). In fact, players in group B missed significantly fewer games due to injury during the season of interest (P injury or worsened performance during the subsequent season. These RBs may be generally less injury prone compared with other NFL RBs. PMID:28321427

  1. Introduction pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. Sestras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pages and Table of Contents Research ArticlesInsulin Requirements in Relation to Insulin Pump Indications in Type 1 DiabetesPDFGabriela GHIMPEŢEANU,\tSilvia Ş. IANCU,\tGabriela ROMAN,\tAnca M. ALIONESCU259-263Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial IsolatesPDFKamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU,\tFola Jose AWARUN264-268A Murine Effort Model for Studying the Influence of Trichinella on Muscular Activity of MicePDFIonut MARIAN,\tCălin Mircea GHERMAN,\tAndrei Daniel MIHALCA269-271Prevalence and Antibiogram of Generic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactam-Resistant Enterobacteria in Healthy PigsPDFIfeoma Chinyere UGWU,\tMadubuike Umunna ANYANWU,\tChidozie Clifford UGWU,\tOgbonna Wilfred UGWUANYI272-280Index of Relative Importance of the Dietary Proportions of Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus in Semi-Arid RegionPDFTana P. MEWADA281-288Bioaccumulation Potentials of Momordica charantia L. Medicinal Plant Grown in Lead Polluted Soil under Organic Fertilizer AmendmentPDFOjo Michael OSENI,\tOmotola Esther DADA,\tAdekunle Ajayi ADELUSI289-294Induced Chitinase and Chitosanase Activities in Turmeric Plants by Application of β-D-Glucan NanoparticlesPDFSathiyanarayanan ANUSUYA,\tMuthukrishnan SATHIYABAMA295-298Present or Absent? About a Threatened Fern, Asplenium adulterinum Milde, in South-Eastern Carpathians (RomaniaPDFAttila BARTÓK,\tIrina IRIMIA299-307Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in TurkeyPDFMehmet TEKİN,\tGülden YILMAZ308-312Propagation of Threatened Nepenthes khasiana: Methods and PrecautionsPDFJibankumar S. KHURAIJAM,\tRup K. ROY313-315Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed PrimingPDFSeyed Ata SIADAT,\tSeyed Amir MOOSAVI,\tMehran SHARAFIZADEH316-321The Effect of Halopriming and Salicylic Acid on the Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum under Different Cadmium

  2. “El cántaro” o la creatividad de lo vacuo en la poesía de José Ángel Valente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo Rodríguez, José Andrés

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Through the commentary of “the pitcher”, one of the most important poems of Poemas a Lázaro (1960, studies the importance of androginia in Valente’s poetry and poetic. Taking the symbol from pitcher-song, Valente develops a sustained poetic theory in two fundamental concepts: negation and inmanencia. Both concepts lead to a poetry characterized by the fusion of semantic opposites like necessary step in the search of the poetic center. By all this, the impact in the Valente’s poetry of the opposition between essence/existence, realism/nominalism and relevance of the musical canon within the poetry of the orensano is analyzed. In this philosophical context, poetic and mystical, the poetry of Valente with the Taoism and the theory of the relativity of Einstein through a text of Ortega and Gasset is compared.A través del comentario de “El cántaro”, uno de los poemas más importantes del Valente de Poemas a Lázaro (1960, se estudia la importancia de la androginia en la poesía y en la poética valentianas. Tomando el símbolo del cántaro-canto, Valente desarrolla una teoría poética sustentada en dos conceptos fundamentales: negación e inmanencia. Ambos conceptos conducen a una poesía caracterizada por la fusión de contrarios semánticos como paso necesario en la búsqueda del centro poético. Por todo esto, se analiza el impacto en la poesía de Valente de la oposición esencialismo/existencialismo, realismo/nominalismo y la relevancia de los cánones musicales dentro de la poesía del orensano. En este contexto filosófico, poético y místico, se compara la poesía de Valente con el taoísmo y con la teoría de la relatividad de Einstein a través de un ensayo de Ortega y Gasset.

  3. Mesozoic high-K granitic rocks from the eastern Dabie Mountains, Central China and their geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Chunjing

    2001-01-01

    , Tectonics, 1995, 14: 994-1006.[13]Harris, N. B. W., Pearce, J. A., Tindle, A. G., Geochemical characteristics of collision-zone magmatism, in Coward Colli-sion Tectonics (eds. Coward, M. P., Ries, A. G.), London: Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., 1986, 19: 67-81.[14]Pitcher, W. S., The Nature and Origin of Granite, London: Champman & Hall, 1993, 270-291.

  4. Eminence-based medicine versus evidence-based medicine: level V evidence in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Ganley, Theodore J; Kapur, Rahul; Kelly, John; Sennett, Brian J; Bernstein, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Through extensive survey analysis, we investigated expert opinion in sports medicine. The study had 3 purposes: to provide clinical guidance for cases in which the correct action is not necessarily apparent, to examine expert opinion itself, and to delineate areas of future study. A total of 500 members of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine evaluated a set of 25 statements on unresolved issues in sports medicine. The following 10 statements were deemed false: "It's okay for 12-year-old pitchers to throw curve balls; it's the pitch count that matters"; "Resistance training ('weight lifting') should be avoided until physeal closure"; "Jogging during pregnancy is to be avoided"; "At an athletic event, if sideline coverage is offered by an emergency medical technician and athletic trainer, there is little additional benefit from having a physician present"; "Contact sport athletes who sustain a second concussion should be excluded from contact sports permanently"; "The utility of pre-season medical screening is derived from the history; as such, student-athletes should complete a questionnaire, with physical examination reserved for only those with a positive relevant history"; "Femoroacetabular impingement is a myth-the designation of anatomic variation as disease"; "An AC (acromioclavicular) separation in a contact athlete should not be treated surgically if the athlete won't give up the sport; it will fail"; "Ankle taping induces weakness and atrophy of the dynamic stabilizers of the ankle"; "Only autografts should be used in ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) surgery, as allografts have an unnecessary high failure rate in clinical practice." One statement was accepted as true: "Surgery to treat anterior (patello-femoral) knee pain in a patient with normal patellar mechanics and stability is contraindicated." In short, expert opinion may be a helpful adjunct to clinical practice. Expert opinion

  5. Effect of age on anthropometric and physical performance measures in professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Vazquez, Jose; Krause, Matthew C; Gillett, Javair; Pichardo, Napoleon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players. Baseball players (n = 1,157) from several professional baseball organizations were categorized into 7 cohorts based upon age. All adolescent athletes were categorized as age group 1 (AG1), whereas the next 5 groups (AG2-AG6) consisted of players 20-22, 23-25, 26-28, 29-31, and 31-34 years, respectively. The final group (AG7) comprised athletes ≥35 years. All performance assessments were part of the athlete's normal preseason training camp testing routine. Field assessments were used to analyze lower-body power, speed, agility, grip strength, and body composition. The players were heaviest between the ages of 29 and 31 (AG5), and their body mass in that age group was 10.1% (p = 0.004) greater than that of AG1. A 7.0% increase (p = 0.000) in lean body mass occurred between AG1 and AG5. No differences in 10-yd sprint times or agility were seen across any age group or position. A 2.0 seconds (p = 0.001) slower run time for the 300-yd shuttle was seen between AG4 and AG5 for all positions combined. Elevations in grip strength were seen at AG4 compared with AG1 (p = 0.001) and AG2 (p = 0.007) for all positions combined. No other differences were noted. Lower-body power was increased for all positions combined from AG1 to AG3 (p = 0.007). This pattern was similar to that observed in position players, but a 12.4% decrease (p = 0.024) in VJMP was seen between AG7 and AG5 in pitchers. Results of this study indicate that lower-body power is maintained in baseball players until the age of 29-31, whereas speed, agility, and grip strength are maintained in players able to play past the age of 35 years. Age-related differences observed in this study suggest that athletes focus on their strength and conditioning programs to extend the length of their professional careers.

  6. Clinical Measures of Shoulder Mobility in the Professional Baseball Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downar, Jacquelyn M; Sauers, Eric L

    2005-03-01

    Context: Professional baseball players must achieve a delicate balance between shoulder mobility and stability to attain optimal sports performance. The sport-specific demands of repetitive overhead throwing may result in an altered mobility-stability relationship.Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of shoulder mobility in professional baseball players in order to examine differences between the throwing and the nonthrowing shoulders and to describe chronic adaptations to throwing.Design: Descriptive.Setting: The athletic training room at Maryvale Baseball Park, Phoenix, AZ.Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven professional baseball players (20 pitchers, 7 position players; age = 20 +/- 1.6 years, height = 190.5 +/- 4.8 cm, mass = 91.6 +/- 9.6 kg) with no previous history of shoulder or elbow injury.Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded scapular upward rotation at 4 levels of humeral elevation in the scapular plane (rest, 60 degrees , 90 degrees , 120 degrees ); posterior shoulder tightness; and passive, isolated glenohumeral joint internal and external range of motion.Results: Scapular upward rotation was significantly greater in the throwing shoulder (14.2 +/- 6.5 degrees ) than in the nonthrowing shoulder (10.6 +/- 6.1 degrees ) at 90 degrees of humeral elevation (P = .04). We observed no statistically significant difference in posterior shoulder tightness between the throwing (30.2 +/- 4.6 cm) and the nonthrowing (28.0 +/- 4.8 cm) shoulder (P = .09). In addition, the throwing shoulder exhibited a statistically significant decrease in isolated glenohumeral internal rotation (56.6 +/- 12.5 degrees ) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder (68.6 +/- 12.6 degrees ) (P = .001), with a concomitant increase in isolated glenohumeral external rotation (throwing = 108.9 +/- 9.0 degrees , nonthrowing = 101.9 +/- 5.9 degrees , P = .0014). An analysis of the total arc of motion (internal rotation + external rotation) revealed no statistically significant

  7. More Than Meets the Eye: The Merging of Perceptual and Conceptual Knowledge in the Anterior Temporal Face Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Collins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of research has supported the existence of a small face sensitive region in the ventral anterior temporal lobe (ATL, referred to here as the anterior temporal face area. The contribution of this region in the greater face-processing network remains poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the relative sensitivity of this region to perceptual as well as conceptual information about people and objects. We contrasted the sensitivity of this region to that of two highly-studied face-sensitive regions, the fusiform face area and the occipital face area, as well as a control region in early visual cortex. Our findings revealed that multivoxel activity patterns in the anterior temporal face area contain information about facial identity, as well as conceptual attributes such as one’s occupation. The sensitivity of this region to the conceptual attributes of people was greater than that of posterior face processing regions. In addition, the anterior temporal face area overlaps with voxels that contain information about the conceptual attributes of concrete objects, supporting a generalized role of the ventral ATLs in the identification and conceptual processing of multiple stimulus classes.1IntroductionOver a decade of neuroimaging work has characterized the neural basis of face perception and identified several nodes that preferentially respond to faces relative to other objects (Haxby, Hoffman, & Gobbini, 2000; Nancy Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006. Most of this work has focused on the fusiform face area (FFA and the occipital face area (OFA (Kanwisher, McDermott, & Chun, 1997; Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006; Pitcher, Walsh, Yovel, & Duchaine, 2007, however an emerging literature has implicated an anterior temporal face area, on the ventral surface of the right anterior temporal lobes (vATLs in or near perirhinal cortex, in facial processing (Avidan et al., 2013; Pinsk et al., 2009; Rajimehr, Young, & Tootell, 2009; Tsao

  8. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sitor Situmorang, Toba na Sae; Sejarah lembaga sosial politik abad XIII-XX (Johann Angerler Raul Pertierra, Science, technology, and everyday culture in the Philippines (Greg Bankoff Françoise Gérard and François Ruf (eds, Agriculture in crisis; People, commodities and natural resources in Indonesia, 1996-2000 (Peter Boomgaard Kennet Sillander, Acting authoritatively; How authority is expressed through social action among the Bentian of Indonesian Borneo (Aurora Donzelli Kathleen M. Nadeau, Liberation theology in the Philippines; Faith in a revolution (Gareth Fisher Roy Ellen, On the edge of the Banda Zone; Past and present in the social organization of a Moluccan trading network (Gregory Forth Roy Ellen, On the edge of the Banda Zone; Past and present in the social organization of a Moluccan trading network (J.M. Gullick I.H.N. Evans, Bornean diaries, 1938-1942 (Fiona Harris S. Margana, Kraton Surakarta dan Yogyakarta 1769-1874 (Mason C. Hoadley Henry Frei, Guns of February; Ordinary Japanese soldiers’ views of the Malayan campaign and the fall of Singapore 1941-42 (Russell Jones Gerrit Knaap and Heather Sutherland, Monsoon traders; Ships, skippers and commodities in eighteenth-century Makassar (J. Thomas Lindblad David W. Fraser and Barbara G. Fraser, Mantles of merit; Chin textiles from Myanmar, India and Bangladesh (Sandra A. Niessen Kees Snoek, E. du Perron; Het leven van een smalle mens (Frank Okker Arthur J. Dommen, The Indochinese experience of the French and the Americans; Nationalism and communism in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam (Vatthana Pholsena J.H.M.C. Boelaars and A.C. Blom, Mono Koame; ‘Wij denken ook’ (Anton Ploeg James J. Fox and Dionisio Babo Soares (eds, Out of the ashes; Destruction and reconstruction of East Timor (Johanna van Reenen Anke Niehof and Firman Lubis (eds, Two is enough; Family planning in Indonesia under the New Order 1968-1998 (Elisabeth Schr

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Jon Fraenkel; The manipulation of custom; From uprising to intervention in the Solomon Islands (Jaap Timmer Clive Moore; Happy isles in crisis; The historical causes for a failing state in Solomon Islands, 1998-2004 (Jaap Timmer Peter Burns; The Leiden legacy; Concepts of law in Indonesia (Bryan S. Turner Terry Crowley; Bislama reference grammar (Kees Versteegh REVIEW ESSAY Matthew Isaac Cohen; Transnational and postcolonial gamelan Lisa Gold; Music in Bali Margaret J. Kartomi; The Gamelan Digul and the prison camp musician who built it; An Australian link with the Indonesian revolution Marc Perlman; Unplayed melodies; Javanese gamelan and the genesis of music theory Ted Solís (ed.; Performing ethnomusicology; Teaching and representation in world music ensembles Henry Spiller; Gamelan; The traditional sounds of Indonesia Andrew N. Weintraub; Power plays; Wayang golek theater of West Java REVIEW ESSAY Victor T. King; People and nature in Borneo Tim Bending; Penan histories; Contentious narratives in upriver Sarawak Rajindra K. Puri; Deadly dances in the Bornean rainforest; Hunting knowledge of the Penan Benalui, 2005 Reed L. Wadley (ed.; Histories of the Borneo environment; Economic, political and social dimensions of change and continuity In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde no. 162 (2006, no: 4, Leiden

  10. 基于线粒体CO Ⅰ基因的闪蛱蝶亚科系统发育关系研究%Phylogeny of Apaturinae Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase ⅠGene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 曹天文; 张睿; 郭亚平; 段毅豪; 马恩波

    2007-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of genera in the subfamily Apaturinae were examined using mtDNA sequence data from 1,471 bp of cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ (COI). The mitochondrial COI gene from a total of 16 species in 11 genera were sequenced to obtain mtDNA data, along with those of 4 species obtained from GenBank, to construct the MP and the NJ trees using Athyma jina, Penthema adelma, Polyura nepenthes, and Charaxes bernardus as outgroups. The transitions at the third codon positions of the COI data set were found saturated, but they were retained for analysis, because they contain the majority of the phylogenetic information. The impacts of equal weight assumptions for all characters in the parsimonious analysis were assessed by potential alternations in clades in response to different transition/transversion weighting schemes. The results indicated four distinct major groups in Apaturinae. Moreover, several well supported and stable clades were found in the Apaturinae. The study also identified undetermined taxon groups whose positions were weakly supported and were subject to changes under different weighting schemes. Within the Apaturinae, the clustering results are approximately identical to the classical morphological classification. The mtDNA data suggest the genus Mimathyma as a monophyletic group. Lelecella limenitoides and Dilipa fenestra have close relationship with very strong support in all phylogenetic trees. It also supports the taxonomic revision of removing several species from Apatura to other genera, namely Mimathyma schrenckii, M. chevana, M. nycteis, Chitoria subcaerulea, C. fasciola, C. pallas, and Helcyra subalba.%测定了重要林业害虫闪蛱蝶亚科Apaturinae 11属17种蝶类的线粒体细胞色素氧化酶Ⅰ的部分序列,并结合由GenBank下载的该亚科4种蝶类的相应序列进行分析,探讨了闪蛱蝶亚科各属间的系统发育关系.以玉杵带蛱蝶Athyma jina,白斑眼蝶Penthema adelma

  11. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    playing baseball, playing period of baseball, number of training hours per week, and history of elbow pain. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression models and presented as odds ratio (OR) and profile likelihood 95% confidence interval (CI) values. Results: The mean age that players were introduced to baseball was 6.6 ±1.1 years; the mean duration of play baseball was 2.7 ±1.1 years; and the proportion of players with elbow pain when throwing was 24.1%. There were 138 (10.8%) pitchers, 114 (8.9%) catchers, 524 (41.2%) infielders, and 499 (39.1%) outfielders. The initial ultrasonographic screening revealed an irregularity of the subchondral bone in 33 players (2.6%). Of the 33 players, all the players agreed to undergo radiography. Of them, 23 players were confirmed OCD. These results showed that cumulative incidence of OCD was 1.8%. Univariate analysis showed that OCD occurrence was significantly associated with age of 11-12 years (pbaseball, number of training hours per week, playing position, and history of elbow pain were not significantly associated with OCD. Multivariate analysis showed that age of 11-12 years (OR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.10-18.97) was risk factors significantly associated with OCD. Experimental year was not significantly associated with OCD occurrence. Conclusion: It is expected that 1.8% of youth baseball players have OCD each year. The age of 11 and 12, increased training hours per week are risk factors for OCD.

  12. The Succession to the General Manager: the Western Theory and china's Practice%总经理继任:西方的理论和我国的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新春; 苏晓华

    2001-01-01

    英文文献对企业执行总裁或总经理的更替有不同的表达方式,如CEO继任(CEO Sucession),“交接权杖”(passing the baton),CEO变迁(CEO transition)或CEO更替(CEO turnover)等。本文将这些表达同一意思的概念总称为总经理继任。因为CEO是对一个企业的组织和战略、计划、绩效以及反应环境变化负最终责任的人(Dalton和Kesner,1985),并被认为是企业权力中心中最具影响的人物,控制和指挥着企业组织向其目标迈进(Brady和Helmick,1994),甚至CEO个人的成败也会被看作是公司的成败(Kesner和dSebora,1994),因此,总经理继任被认为是企业最重大的战略决策问题之一。总经理在什么情况下会被继任、继任如何进行以及继任者的特征,都对企业发展至关重要。继任事件影响到企业的各个层面:对于公司内部人来说,CEO继任可看作是最具影响力的管理变动。对于那些如股东、供应商、顾客、公众和政府等外部利益相关者来说,他们会将继任事件看作是关于企业将来发展的一个信号(Beatty和Zajac,1987)。因而,继任直接决定了企业的经济和政策环境(Kesner和Sebora,1994),同时也深刻地影响到企业的绩效,因为总经理继任问题的重要性,西方自20世纪60年代开始形成一个专门化的研究领域,但直到70年代,建立在实证研究基础上的理论框架才初具雏形。80年代以来, 这一领域的研究得到迅速发展,一些综述评论性文献(如Kesner and Sebora,1994;Pitcher,Chreim and Kistalvi,2000)则标志着这个领域的阶段性成熟,但由于继任问题内在的复杂性以及在测量上的困难,直到今天,在理论和方法上都存在很大的争论和困境,不少经验研究因此缺乏一般意义的解释力。但无论如何都不可否认,这是一个在理论和实践上有着鲜活生命力的研究领域。

  13. Integrative Role Of Cinematography In Biomechanics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicke, Ronald F.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1982-02-01

    implemented at UCLA is the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) method. DLT was developed from a close-range stereo-photogrammetry method to a technique flexible and accurate for 16 mm film applications in biomechanics. The DLT method has been used to document the three-dimensional kinematics of the ball, hand, forearm, and upper arm segments of pitchers during high velocity baseball throwing. The animal research which has incorporated cinematography has focused on both normal locomotor kinematics and kinetics, as well as spinalized locomotion, to assess neural control mechanisms which regulate gait. In addition, a new technique has been developed which allows the recording of in vivo tendon forces in an animal during unrestrained locomotion; via cinematography, movements of the limbs can be correlated with both myoelectric activity and tendon forces to analyze dynamics of muscle contractions during walking, running, and jumping. An additional area in which cinematography has proven useful is in the measurement of the architectural and structural deformations and strains which occur in skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments. These experiments have been done both in situ and in vitro, and have included both normal functional ranges of the tissues and incidences of mechanical failure or ruptures. The use of photographic techniques in these experiments is advantageous because the tissue changes can be documented without attaching mechanical apparatus to the tissue which can introduce artifacts. Although high speed cinematography does not solve all the data collection and recording needs in an integrated approach to biomechanics, it nevertheless forms an important constituent in a comprehensive research program. The positive attributes of high speed film records outweigh the laborious and tedious data reduction techniques which are frequently necessary to achieve high quality data.

  14. EDITORIAL: Where next with global environmental scenarios? Where next with global environmental scenarios?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian; Pulver, Simone; Van Deveer, Stacy; Garb, Yaakov

    2008-12-01

    -oriented scenario exercises also generate scenario products, but such products are recognized as meaningful mostly (or only) in the social context in which they were developed. It should be noted that those seeking to understand the functions, implications and utility of scenarios can approach analysis of scenarios and their impacts from either perspective—focusing attention on product outcomes and influence or assessing procedural and contextual dynamics and implications. Papers in this issue examine various aspects of scenario products, scenario processes and their interactions, with specific reference to global environmental change scenarios. Hulme and Dessai (2008) use the product-process distinction as a starting point for developing a framework to evaluate the success of scenario exercises. They identify 'prediction success', 'decision success' and 'learning success' as three evaluation metrics for scenarios, with the first two most relevant to scenario products and the last emphasizing procedural aspects of scenarios. They suggest that viewing scenarios primarily as products implies examining how closely actual outcomes have matched envisioned outcomes, while viewing them primarily as processes suggests evaluating the extent to which scenarios engaged participants and enabled their learning. O'Neill and Nakicenovic (2008) focus on Hulme and Dessai's evaluation metric, learning. Based on a review of six scenario/assessment exercises, they ask if and how scenario products have incorporated comparative assessments of results in order to enable cumulative learning across scenario efforts. The authors conclude that, although participating modelling teams have benefited greatly from the process of scenario activities and applied that learning to other scenario exercises in which they engage, learning from comparative assessments of scenario products has been rather limited; the latter due to the limited time and resources invested in comparative analysis. Pitcher (2009) speaks

  15. Revision of the Oriental subfamily Heteropteryginae Kirby, 1896, with a re-arrangement of the family Heteropterygidae and the descriptions of five new species of Haaniella Kirby, 1904. (Phasmatodea: Areolatae: Heteropterygidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Brock, Paul D; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2016-09-01

    of females. The echinata species-group contains three exceptionally Bornean species, which are characterized by the long and apically pointed subgenital plate of females, which clearly projects beyond the epiproct, as well as the sub-basal lateral tooth of the anal segment of males. The muelleri species-group is sister to the remainder two species-groups.        Heteropteryx Gray, 1853 is a monotypical genus and only contains the type-species H. dilatata (Parkinson, 1798), which is found throughout Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Sumatra and Northeastern Borneo. This genus differs from Haaniella by the strongly conically elevated head, which posteriorly projects over the anterior margin of the pronotum, females being bright green or yellow in colour with plain and translucent pink alae and having distinct spines on the abdominal tergites, and males having a strongly shortened mesothorax and dull pink alae.        Lectotypes are designated for Haaniella parva Günther, 1944, Heteropteryx echinata Redtenbacher, 1906, Heteropteryx saussurei Redtenbacher, 1906 and Heteropteryx scabra Redtenbacher, 1906 to guarantee stability of these names.        Information on the habitats, host-plants, biology, life cycle, parasitism and captive breeding of the species of Heteropteryginae is presented and a list summarising all taxonomic changes presented herein.

  16. Emplacement mechanism of Linglong granitoid complex, Shandong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN; Tianfeng

    2001-01-01

    , Wang Bincheng, Xu Jinfang et al., Geochemical background research of lead isotopic for regional rock in Eastern Shandong, Collection of Geology and Seeking Mineral Deposits (in Chinese with English abstract), 1994, 9(1): 65-77.[11]Berger, A. R., Pitcher, W. S., The structure in granitoid rocks: A review on the granitic structure, Proceedings of the Geologist Association, 1972, 81(part 3): 421-461.[12]Shaw, H. R., Fracture mechanism of magma transport from the mantle to the surface, in Physics of Magmatic Process (ed. Hargraves. R. B.), Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980, 201-264.[13]Ramsay, J. G., Emplacement mechanics of the Chindamora Batholith, Zimbabwe, J. Structural Geology, 1981, 3: 93-105.[14]Castrol, A., On granitoid emplacement and related structure: A review, Geol. Rundsch., 1987, 76: 101-124.[15]Apperson, K. D., Stress fields of the overriding plate at convergent margins and beneath active volcanic areas, Science, 1991, 254: 670-678.[16]Tikoff, B., Teyssier, C., Crustal-scale, an echelon-shear tensional bridge: A possible solution to the batholithic room problem, Geology, 1992, 20: 927-930.[17]Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Shandong Province, Regional Geology of Shandong Province (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1991, 595.[18]Miao Laicheng, Luo Zhenkuan, Guan Kan et al., The implication of the SHRIMP U-Pb age in zircon to the petrogenesis of the Linglong granite, East Shandong Province, Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 14(2): 198-206.[19]Bathal, R. S., Magnetic anisotropy of rocks, Earth Science Review, 1971, 7: 227-253.[20]Hrouda, F., Magnetic anisotropy of rocks and its application in geology and geophysics, Geophysical Survey, 1982, 5: 37-82.[21]Rochette, P., Jackson, M., Aubourg, C., Rock magnetism and the interpretation of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, Reviews of Geophysics, 1992, 30(3): 209-226.[22

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Tegel, Inga Schellenberg, Falko M Schappacher, Rainer Pöttgen, Joachim Deisenhofer, Axel Günther, Florian Schrettle, Alois Loidl and Dirk Johrendt The superconductor KxSr1-xFe2As2: normal state and superconducting properties B Lv, M Gooch, B Lorenz, F Chen, A M Guloy and C W Chu Effect of 3d transition metal doping on the superconductivity in quaternary fluoroarsenide CaFeAsF Satoru Matsuishi, Yasunori Inoue, Takatoshi Nomura, Youichi Kamihara, Masahiro Hirano and Hideo Hosono Influence of the rare-earth element on the effects of the structural and magnetic phase transitions in CeFeAsO, PrFeAsO and NdFeAsO Michael A McGuire, Raphaël P Hermann, Athena S Sefat, Brian C Sales, Rongying Jin, David Mandrus, Fernande Grandjean and Gary J Long Heat capacity measurements on FeAs-based compounds: a thermodynamic probe of electronic and magnetic states P J Baker, S R Giblin, F L Pratt, R H Liu, G Wu, X H Chen, M J Pitcher, D R Parker, S J Clarke and S J Blundell Spin fluctuations, interband coupling and unconventional pairing in iron-based superconductors Zi-Jian Yao, Jian-Xin Li and Z D Wang Superconductivity induced by Ni doping in BaFe2As2 single crystals L J Li, Y K Luo, Q B Wang, H Chen, Z Ren, Q Tao, Y K Li, X Lin, M He, Z W Zhu, G H Cao and Z A Xu Metamagnetic transition in EuFe2As2 single crystals Shuai Jiang, Yongkang Luo, Zhi Ren, Zengwei Zhu, Cao Wang, Xiangfan Xu, Qian Tao, Guanghan Cao and Zhu'an Xu Pressure dependence of the thermoelectric power of the iron-based high-Tc superconductor SmFeAsO0.85 N Kang, P Auban-Senzier, C R Pasquier, Z A Ren, J Yang, G C Che and Z X Zhao Superconductivity in some heavy rare-earth iron arsenide REFeAsO1-δ (RE = Ho, Y, Dy and Tb) compounds Jie Yang, Xiao-Li Shen, Wei Lu, Wei Yi, Zheng-Cai Li, Zhi-An Ren, Guang-Can Che, Xiao-Li Dong, Li-Ling Sun, Fang Zhou and Zhong-Xian Zhao The delicate electronic and magnetic structure of the LaFePnO system (Pn = pnicogen) S Lebègue, Z P Yin and W E Pickett