Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Shivaprasad, H. L.; Williams, Brent L.; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Hornig, Mady; Street, Craig; Palacios, Gustavo; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Franca, Monique; Egholm, Michael; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian
Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds.
Williams, B L; Lipkin, W. I.
Borna disease virus infection of neonatal rats results in a characteristic behavioral syndrome and apoptosis of subsets of neurons in the hippocampus and cerebellum (neonatal Borna disease [NBD]). The cellular mechanisms leading to neurodevelopmental damage in NBD have not been fully elucidated. Insights into this model may have general implications for understanding the pathogenesis of virus-associated neurodevelopmental damage. Here we report the presence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stres...
Rott, R.; Herzog, S.; Fleischer, B.; Winokur, A.; Amsterdam, J.; Dyson, W.; Koprowski, H.
Borna disease virus causes a rare meningoencephalitis in horses and sheep and has been shown to produce behavioral effects in some species. The possibility that the Borna virus is associated with mental disorders in humans was evaluated by examining serum samples from 979 psychiatric patients and 200 normal volunteers for the presence of Borna virus-specific antibodies. Antibodies were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence focus assay. Antibodies to the virus were demonstrated in 16 of the patients but none of the normal volunteers. The patients with the positive serum samples were characterized by having histories of affective disorders, particularly of a cyclic nature. Further studies are needed to define the possible involvement of Borna virus in human psychiatric disturbances.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Borna disease virus is a neurotropic, non-cytolytic virus that has been widely employed in neuroscientific research. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with Borna disease viral infection. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying its mode of action remains unclear. METHODOLOGY: Human oligodendroglia cells infected with the human strain Borna disease virus Hu-H1 and non-infected matched control cells were cultured in vitro. At day 14 post-infection, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 28 independent intracellular samples from Borna disease virus-infected cells (n = 14 and matched control cells (n = 14. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was performed to demonstrate that the whole metabonomic patterns enabled discrimination between the two groups, and further statistical testing was applied to determine which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between the two groups. FINDINGS: Metabonomic profiling revealed perturbations in 23 metabolites, 19 of which were deemed individually significant: nine energy metabolites (α-glucose, acetate, choline, creatine, formate, myo-inositol, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, pyruvate, succinate and ten amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, valine. Partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated that the whole metabolic patterns enabled statistical discrimination between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Borna disease viral infection perturbs the metabonomic profiles of several metabolites in human oligodendroglia cells cultured in vitro. The findings suggest that Borna disease virus manipulates the host cell's metabolic network to support viral replication and proliferation.
Kramer, Katharina; Schaudien, Dirk; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Herzog, Sibylle; Richt, Juergen A.; Baumgaertner, Wolfgang; Herden, Christiane
Proinflammatory state of the brain increases the risk for seizure development. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV)-infection of mice with neuronal overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) was used to investigate the complex relationship between enhanced cytokine levels, neurotropic virus i
Full Text Available The biological cause of psychiatric illnesses continues to be under intense scrutiny. Among the various neurotropic viruses, Borna disease virus (BDV is another virus that preferentially targets the neurons of the limbic system and has been shown to be associated with behavioural abnormalities. Presence of various BDV markers, including viral RNA, in patients with affective and mood disorders have triggered ongoing debate worldwide regarding its aetiopathogenic relationship. This article analyses its current state of knowledge and recent advances in diagnosis in order to prove or refute the association of BDV in causation of human neuropsychiatric disorders. This emerging viral causative association of behavioural disorders, which seems to be inching closer, has implication not only for a paradigm shift in the treatment and management of neuropsychiatric illnesses but also has an important impact on the public health systems.
Borna disease virus is a non-cytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus. The virus has a wide range of infected hosts and its infection range is from birds, horses, primates to human, causing Borna disease. Borna disease is a fatal central nervous system disease, and its main performance is clinical, spiritual, behavioral abnormalities. Its epidemiological investigation, detection and treatment are particularly important.%目的 博尔纳病病毒是一种非细胞溶解性,嗜神经性核糖核酸病毒.该病毒具有广泛的感染宿主,感染范围从鸟类、马、灵长类等到人类,博尔纳病是一种致死性中枢神经系统疾病,临床上以精神、行为异常为主要表现.其流行病学调查、检测和治疗显得尤为重要.
Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the potential infectious agents involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Neurons and astrocytes are the main targets of BDV infection, but little is known about the roles of BDV infection in the biological effects of astrocytes. Here we reported that BDV inhibits the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in murine astrocytes induced by bacterial LPS and PMA. To determine which protein of BDV is responsible for the regulation of iNOS expression, we co-transfected murine astrocytes with reporter plasmid iNOS-luciferase and plasmid expressing individual BDV proteins. Results from analyses of reporter activities revealed that only the phosphoprotein (P) of BDV had an inhibitory effect on the activation of iNOS. In addition, P protein inhibits nitric oxide production through regulating iNOS expression. We also reported that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) binding element, AP-1 recognition site, and interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) on the iNOS promoter were involved in the repression of iNOS gene expression regulated by the P protein. Functional analysis indicated that sequences from amino acids 134 to 174 of the P protein are necessary for the regulation of iNOS. These data suggested that BDV may suppress signal transduction pathways, which resulted in the inhibition of iNOS activation in astrocytes
Liu, Xia [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Shanghai, School of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zhao, Libo [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Third People' s Hospital of Chongqing, 400014 (China); Yang, Yongtao [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Bornavirus Research Group affiliated to the Free University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huang, Hua [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Huang, Rongzhong [Department of Rehabilitative Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010 (China); Zhang, Liang [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); and others
Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.
Song, Wuqi [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Kao, Wenping [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhai, Aixia [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Zhang, Qingmeng [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhang, Fengmin, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China)
Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-α/β expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-β. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.
Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs
Nishino, Yoshii; Murakami, Masaru; Funaba, Masayuki
A previous study revealed that the expression of the Borna disease virus (BDV)-encoding phosphoprotein in glial cells was sufficient to induce neurobehavioral abnormalities resembling Borna disease. To evaluate the involvement of the TGF-β family in BDV-induced changes in cell responses by C6 glial cells, we examined the expression levels of the TGF-β family and effects of inhibiting the TGF-β family pathway in BDV-infected C6 (C6BV) cells. The expression of activin βA and BMP7 was markedly increased in BDV-infected cells. Expression of Smad7, a TGF-β family-inducible gene, was increased by BDV infection, and the expression was decreased by treatment with A-83-01 or LDN-193189, inhibitors of the TGF-β/activin or BMP pathway, respectively. These results suggest autocrine effects of activin A and BMP7 in C6BV cells. IGFBP-3 expression was also induced by BDV infection; it was below the detection limit in C6 cells. The expression level of IGFBP-3 was decreased by LDN-193189 in C6BV cells, suggesting that endogenous BMP activity is responsible for IGFBP-3 gene induction. Our results reveal the regulatory expression of genes related to the TGF-β family, and the role of the enhanced BMP pathway in modulating cell responses in BDV-infected glial cells. PMID:26482505
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a noncytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus that is known to cause neurological disturbances in various animal species. Our previous experiment demonstrated that neonate gerbils develop an acute fatal neurological disease following infection with BDV , Virology 282, 65-76). The study suggested that BDV directly causes functional damage of neuronal cells resulting in the lethal disorder in neonatal gerbils. To extend this finding, we examined whether BDV can induce neurological diseases in the absence of virus- and immune-mediated cell destruction, by using cyclosporine A (CsA)-treated neonatal gerbils. Although CsA completely suppressed specific antibody production and brain inflammation in the infected gerbil brains, the fatal neurological disorder was not inhibited by the treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CsA treatment significantly decreased brain levels of cytokines, except interleukin (IL)-1β, in the infected gerbils. These results suggested that BDV replication, as well as brain cytokines, at least IL-1β, rapidly induces fatal disturbances in gerbil brain. We demonstrate here that BDV exhibits a unique neuropathogenesis in neonatal gerbil that may be pathologically and immunologically different from those in two other established rodent models, rats and mice. With this novel rodent model of virus infection it should be possible not only to examine acute neurological disturbances without severe neuroanatomical and immunopathological alterations but also to analyze molecular and cellular damage by virus replication in the central nervous system
Full Text Available Borna disease virus (BDV is a neurotropic virus that produces neuropsychiatric dysfunction in a wide range of warm-blooded species. Several studies have associated BDV with human psychiatric illness, but the findings remain controversial. Although oligodendrocytes are a major glial component of brain white matter and play a pivotal role in neuronal cell function, BDV's effects on human oligodendrocytes have not been clarified. Here, the effects of two BDV strains, Hu-H1 (isolated from a bipolar patient and Strain V (a laboratory strain, on the proliferation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes were investigated. Three experimental cell lines were constructed: Hu-H1-infected oligodendroglioma (Hu-H1 cells, Strain V-infected oligodendroglioma (Strain V cells, and non-infected oligodendroglioma (control cells. BDV infection was assayed by BDV nucleoprotein (p40 immunofluorescence, cell proliferation was assayed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8, and cell cycle phases and apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometry. Expressions of the apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 were measured by Western blotting. p40 expression was confirmed in Hu-H1 and Strain V on and after day three post-infection. Strain V cells showed significantly greater cellular proliferation than Hu-H1 cells on and after day three post-infection. In Hu-H1 cells, Bax and Bcl-2 expression were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, on and after day three post-infection. In contrast, in Strain V cells, Bax and Bcl-2 expression were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, on and after day three post-infection. In conclusion, Hu-H1 inhibits cellular proliferation and promotes apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes via Bax upregulation and Bcl-2 downregulation. In contrast, Strain V promotes cellular proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes via Bax downregulation and Bcl-2 upregulation. The effects of the Hu-H1 strain (isolated from a bipolar
Full Text Available Proinflammatory state of the brain increases the risk for seizure development. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV-infection of mice with neuronal overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF was used to investigate the complex relationship between enhanced cytokine levels, neurotropic virus infection and reaction pattern of brain cells focusing on its role for seizure induction. Viral antigen and glial markers were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Different levels of TNF in the CNS were provided by the use of heterozygous and homozygous TNF overexpressing mice. Transgenic TNF, total TNF (native and transgenic, TNF-receptor (TNFR1, TNFR2, IL-1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-receptor subunit 2B (NR2B mRNA values were measured by real time RT-PCR. BDV-infection of TNF-transgenic mice resulted in non-purulent meningoencephalitis accompanied by epileptic seizures with a higher frequency in homozygous animals. This correlated with lower weight gain, stronger degree and progression of encephalitis and early, strong microglia activation in the TNF-transgenic mice, most obviously in homozygous animals. Activation of astroglia could be more intense and associated with an unusual hypertrophy in the transgenic mice. BDV-antigen distribution and infectivity in the CNS was comparable in TNF-transgenic and wild-type animals. Transgenic TNF mRNA-expression was restricted to forebrain regions as the transgene construct comprised the promoter of NMDA-receptor subunit2B and induced up-regulation of native TNF mRNA. Total TNF mRNA levels did not increase significantly after BDV-infection in the brain of transgenic mice but TNFR1, TNFR2 and IL-1 mRNA values, mainly in the TNF overexpressing brain areas. NR2B mRNA levels were not influenced by transgene expression or BDV-infection. Neuronal TNF-overexpression combined with BDV-infection leads to cytokine up-regulation, CNS inflammation and glial cell activation and confirmed the presensitizing effect of elevated
Full Text Available Borna disease virus (BDV persists in the central nervous systems of a wide variety of vertebrates and causes behavioral disorders. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with BDV infection. However, the pathophysiological effects of different viral strains remain largely unknown. Rat cortical neurons infected with human strain BDV Hu-H1, laboratory BDV Strain V, and non-infected control (CON cells were cultured in vitro. At day 12 post-infection, a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 35 independent intracellular samples from Hu-H1-infected cells (n = 12, Strain V-infected cells (n = 12, and CON cells (n = 11. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was performed to demonstrate discrimination between the three groups. Further statistical testing determined which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between groups. PLS-DA demonstrated that the whole metabolic pattern enabled statistical discrimination between groups. We identified 31 differential metabolites in the Hu-H1 and CON groups (21 decreased and 10 increased in Hu-H1 relative to CON, 35 differential metabolites in the Strain V and CON groups (30 decreased and 5 increased in Strain V relative to CON, and 21 differential metabolites in the Hu-H1 and Strain V groups (8 decreased and 13 increased in Hu-H1 relative to Strain V. Comparative metabonomic profiling revealed divergent perturbations in key energy and amino acid metabolites between natural strain Hu-H1 and laboratory Strain V of BDV. The two BDV strains differentially alter metabolic pathways of rat cortical neurons in vitro. Their systematic classification provides a valuable template for improved BDV strain definition in future studies.
姚能云; 徐平; 郭振元
目的 探讨临床病毒性脑炎(viral encephalitis,VE)患者与博尔纳病病毒(Borna disease virus,BDV)感染的关系,分析BDV感染的病毒性脑炎患者临床特征.方法 用荧光定量巢式逆转录聚合酶链反应(FQ-nRT-PCR)方法检测病毒性脑炎患者及非感染性疾病施行蛛网膜下腔阻滞麻醉的手术患者脑脊液单个核细胞(cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cell,CSFMC)中BDV p24基因片段,同时用β-肌动蛋白(β-actin)作为内参照,脑脊液(CSF)阳性标本基因测序分析并总结出临床特征.结果 32例病毒性脑炎脑脊液标本BDV p24基因片段检出率为12.5%(4/32),拷贝数＞102/μl.对其中一份CSF阳性标本测序后,与BDV标准病毒株Ⅴ和马源的BDV病毒株H1766序列比较同源性分别为95.35%和98.84%.在4个位点出现基因突变(nt1649 T→C、nt1656 G→A、nt1670 C→T、nt1676 C→T).该目的基因片段与马源的BDV病毒株亲缘关系最近.阳性脑炎患者主要以精神行为异常为临床特征.结论 贵州省遵义市部分病毒性脑炎的发生与BDV感染有关,主要以精神行为异常为临床特征.%Objective To explore the relationship between viral encephalitis(VE)and Borna disease virus(BDV)infection,and discuss the clinical features of viral encephalitis patients infected by BDV.Methods The p24 gene fragment of BDV in cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cells(CSFMC)from 32 patients with viral encephaliris and 34 healthy individuals were examined by fluorescence quantitative nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(FQ-nRT-PCR),in which, β-actin was used as internal reference. The clinical manifestations of patients with positive BDV p24 were watched. And the gene sequence,homology and amino acid sequence of positive products were analyzed. Results The positive rate(4/32,12.5%)of BDV p24 in CSFMC of patients with viral encephalitis was significantly higher than that of healthy individuals(0/34,0%),P＜0.05,and the numbers of copies of
Lierz, Michael; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Honkavuori, Kirsi; Gruber, Achim D.; Olias, Philipp; Abdelwhab, Elsayed M; Kohls, Andrea; Lipkin, Ian W; Briese, Thomas; Hauck, Ruediger
Abstract Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a fatal infectious disease of birds that primarily affects psittacine birds. Although a causative agent has not been formally demonstrated, the leading candidate is a novel avian Borna virus (ABV) detected in post-mortem tissue samples of psittacids with PDD from the USA, Israel and recently Germany. Here we describe the presence of ABV in a parrot with PDD as well as in clinically normal birds exposed to birds with PDD. In two AB...
钱钧; 李小光; 包丽丽; 宋武琦; 翟爱霞; 陈小贝; 李玉军; 车洋; 张凤民
目的 建立检测博尔纳病病毒(BDV)RNA的3'RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA ends)方法.方法 根据已知的BDV p40基因序列设计上游引物sp1;提取BDV(H1766株)持续感染OL细胞的总RNA,用引物sp1和oligo dT进行3'RACE扩增,将PCR产物克隆到pGEM-T载体并转化到大肠埃希菌中,制备阳性菌落的目的质粒,进行序列测定和同源性比对;同时对检测BDV RNA的3'RACE方法的特异性和敏感性进行分析.结果 建立了检测BDV RNA的3'RACE技术;所获得的BDV p40基因的3'末端扩增产物的核苷酸序列与已知BDV(H1766株)p40基因的核苷酸序列同源性为100%;本方法对BDV RNA(mRNA)具有特异性,但对BDV p40基因重组质粒无扩增结果;并且可以检测到O.04 ng以上含量的BDV感染细胞的总RNA.结论 检测BDV RNA的3'RACE技术可以排除实验室污染造成的BDV基因扩增的假阳性,并可用于进一步分析BDV基因序列的特点以及评价BDV相关基因的表达情况.
CHEN Xiao; XIE Peng; XU Ping; PENG Dan; ZHU Dan; ZENG Zhi-lei
Objective:It intended to examine whether there is BDV infection in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China and investigate the correlation between BDV infection and tumom of central nervous system.Methods:Nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(nRT-PCR)and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(FQ-PCR)was used to detect the BDV p24 fragments in 60 samples of human tumor tissues of central nervous system and 14 normal brain tissues.Results:The study indicated the positive rate of the BDV p24 fragment in human tumor tissues of the central nervous system (6.67%)was higher than that in normal brain tissues(0),but no statistical significance(P>0.05).Concluswn:It suggests that the BDV infection is present in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China.while the sample size wa.sn't large enough and we could not certify the possible correlation between BDV infection and cenfral nervous system tumors.
田纯见; 唐羿; 周小明; 常彦磊; 吴晓薇; 朱道中; 王宏; 罗琼; 林志雄; 赵吟; 罗长保; 鱼海琼; 刘志玲; 陈茹
利用腺胃扩张症(PDD)患病鹦鹉腺胃RT-PCR阳性病料,接种猪睾丸(ST)传代细胞,分离禽波纳病毒(ABV),建立实时RT-LAMP检测方法.将阳性病料接种ST细胞单层传代,出现细胞圆缩、脱落,ABV基质蛋白(M)基因扩增产物出现预计大小351 bp条带,测序后进化树分析显示为ABV5基因型.针对M基因设计ID37、ID30、ID19、ID6和ID1共5组引物,后3组引物RT-LAMP呈阳性反应.利用钙黄绿素建立实时RT-LAMP,分别在36(ID30)、38(ID37)和49(ID19)min出现扩增反应曲线,60 min内扩增达到峰值.对各种临床样品检测与RT-PCR结果一致,新城疫等类症病毒未见阳性反应,显示较高的特异性 ;对细胞培养物检测10-1～10-5为阳性,比较RT-PCR敏感性提高约100倍.RT-LAMP检测方法的建立为PDD防制提供新的检测方法,也是波纳病公共卫生研究有益的参考.%In this study an avian bornavirus (ABV) strain was isolated from sick parrots with proventricular dilatation disease(PDD). The virus grew in swine testicular (ST) cell monolayer with granulating, shrinking, rounding and falling off although classical Borna disease virus strains replicate very efficiently in cultured mammalian cells in which persistent, noncytolytic infections was readily established. Viruses were successfully isolated and demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis from the proventricular glands of parrot "glass 363" and "color" with confirmed PDD. The 351 bp product of the expected size bands of matrix protein (M) gene was cloned, the sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the isolated virus belonging to genotype ABV5. Five sets of M gene RT-LAMP primers ID1, ID6, ID19, ID30 and ID37 were designed using DNAStar and PrimerExplorer V5. 0 (network) and later three set reactions showed positive color reaction with specific electrophoretic bands. The amplification curves of of real-time RT-LAMP using fluorescent indicator calcein were shown in 36 (ID30), 38 (ID37
Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard
The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.
Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary
Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.
杨利玲; 雷以会; 徐平
Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;
Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...
Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Brojer, Caroline; Dietz, Hans Henrik;
diseases (canine distemper, Borna disease, Louping ill, West Nile virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Aleutian disease), tests for protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi), bacteria (general culture, listeria, Clamydophila psittaci), and intracerebral inoculation...
Tuch, Boris, 1946-
Põnevik "Bourne'i ultimaatum", kolmas film Robert Ludlumi Bourne'i saaga ainetel : režissöör Paul Greengrass : stsenaristid Tony Gilroy, Scott Z. Burns, George Nolfi : peaosas Matt Damon : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007
Williams, Brent L.; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian
Infection of newborn Lewis rats with Borna disease virus (neonatal Borna disease [NBD]) results in cerebellar damage without the cellular inflammation associated with infections in later life. Purkinje cell (PC) damage has been reported for several models of early-life viral infection, including NBD; however, the time course and distribution of PC pathology have not been investigated rigorously. This study examined the spatiotemporal relationship between PC death and zonal organization in NBD...
... ePublications > Our ePublications > Lung disease fact sheet ePublications Lung disease fact sheet This information in Spanish (en ... disease? More information on lung disease What is lung disease? Lung disease refers to disorders that affect ...
... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...
... Content Article Body What is Kawasaki disease? Kawasaki disease is a serious and perplexing disease, the cause of which is ... influenza) with aspirin has been linked with a serious disease called Reye syndrome. Always consult your pediatrician before ...
Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that ... higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some ...
... is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's can affect any area from the mouth to the anus. It often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease ...
... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Heart Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Heart Disease Print A A ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the cardiovascular ...
Notifiable diseases ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Last updated May 4, 2015. Available at: wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss . Accessed September 9, 2015.
... Causes Lyme disease is caused by bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi ( B burgdorferi ). Blacklegged ticks and other species of ... Names Borreliosis; Bannwarth syndrome Images Lyme disease organism, Borrelia burgdorferi Tick, deer engorged on the skin Lyme disease - ...
... lung disease Have a weak immune system Legionnaires' disease is serious and can be life-threatening. However, most people recover with antibiotic treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
... body. Sandhoff disease is a severe form of Tay-Sachs disease, the incidence of which had been particularly ... gene therapy seen in an animal model of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases for use in humans. NIH ...
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of ...
... Wilson disease. Health care providers do not use brain imaging tests to diagnose Wilson disease, though certain findings ... testing. [ Top ] Clinical Trials The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other ...
... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Farber's Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Ceramidase Deficiency Table of Contents ( ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Farber's Disease? Farber’s disease, also known as Farber's lipogranulomatosis, describes ...
Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Full Text Available Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc.
... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Newcastle disease (ND), referred to as Exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the U. S., is an acute viral disease of domestic poultry and many other bird species and a recognized worldwide problem. Occurrence of END is due to an infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and is a ...
... re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...
Weil, M L
Lyme disease, caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the illness: early disease includes erthyma migrans, early disseminated disease includes multiple erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies and carditis; late disease is primarily arthritis. The symptoms and signs of infection resolve in the vast majority of patients after appropriate treatment with antimicr...
Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and ...
Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...
Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...
Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...
Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...
... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...
Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder in which you do not have enough of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. ... It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...
Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...
Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. It can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ... together over several days. Some people with Meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is ...
Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You ... extra copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...
... Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Among US Adults, examines the relationship between consuming too much added sugar and the risk of heart disease death. When it Comes to Blood Pressure, Make Control ...
... or fungal infections Hemorrhage into the adrenal glands Tumors Risk factors for the autoimmune type of Addison disease include other autoimmune diseases : Swelling (inflammation) of the thyroid gland that often results in reduced thyroid function ( chronic ...
... are otherwise healthy. But for some people fifth disease cause serious health complications. People with weakened immune systems caused ... transplants, or HIV infection are at risk for serious complications from fifth disease. It can cause chronic anemia that requires medical ...
... with a weakened immune system, CMV can cause serious disease, such as retinitis, which can lead to blindness. ... weakened immune system in order to prevent a serious disease from developing as a result of CMV. Antiviral ...
... Some examples of CAM are herbal products, chiropractic , acupuncture , and hypnosis . If you have an autoimmune disease, ... Toll-Free: 877-226-4267 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, HHS Phone: ...
... disease early before it causes damage to the intestine. But because it's easy to confuse the symptoms with other intestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease , or lactose intolerance , teens with ...
... Fibrosis Research Identifies Key Hurdle in Quest for Cystic Fibrosis Treatment More Research News Clinical Trials Clinical trials offer ... people and opportunities to help researchers find better treatments in the ... Fibrosis Graves' Disease Hashimoto's Disease Human Growth Hormone and ...
Huntington chorea ... Huntington disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4. The defect causes a part of ... 10 to 28 times. But in persons with Huntington disease, it is repeated 36 to 120 times. ...
... descriptions of some of the more common autoinflammatory diseases. The Immune System Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) Neonatal Onset Multisystem ... and monocytes to destroy harmful substances. In autoinflammatory diseases, this innate immune system causes inflammation for unknown reasons. It reacts, ...
... Myocarditis Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pericarditis Peripheral Vascular Disease Rheumatic Fever Sick Sinus Syndrome Silent Ischemia Stroke Sudden Cardiac Arrest Vulnerable Plaque Valve Disease | Share Related terms: heart valves, valve insufficiency, valve regurgitation, valve stenosis, valvular ...
... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...
... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...
... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...
... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...
... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...
... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are ... cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how many mitochondria ...
... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...
... Diverticulitis - inflammation or infection of pouches in the colon Irritable bowel syndrome - an uncomfortable condition causing abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...
... common name for one of the several illnesses caused by Legionnaires' disease bacteria (LDB). Legionnaires' disease is an infection of the ... Legion Convention in Philadelphia. L. pneumophila had undoubtedly caused previous ... disease bacteria (LDB). L. pneumophila is a gram-negative rod ...
Maksim Valer'evich Zamergrad
frequently diagnosed late and patients do not receive timely therapy. The paper gives current diagnostic criteria for Meniere's disease. Approaches to treating the disease in its attack and an interattack interval are discussed. Emphasis is laid on the role of vestibular rehabilitation in increasing the quality of life in patients with Meniere's disease.
Vaden, Shelly L
Glomerular diseases are a leading cause of chronic kidney disease in dogs but seem to be less common in cats. Glomerular diseases are diverse, and a renal biopsy is needed to determine the specific glomerular disease that is present in any animal. Familial glomerulopathies occur in many breeds of dogs. However, most dogs with glomerular disease have acquired glomerular injury that is either immune-complex mediated or due to systemic factors, both of which are believed to be the result of a disease process elsewhere in the body (i.e., neoplastic, infectious, and noninfectious inflammatory disorders). A thorough clinical evaluation is indicated in all dogs suspected of having glomerular disease and should include an extensive evaluation for potential predisposing disorders. Nonspecific management of dogs with glomerular disease can be divided into 3 major categories: (1) treatment of potential predisposing disorders, (2) management of proteinuria, and (3) management of uremia and other complications of glomerular disease and chronic kidney disease. Specific management of specific glomerular diseases has not been fully studied in dogs. However, it may be reasonable to consider immunosuppressive therapy in dogs that have developed a form of glomerulonephritis secondary to a steroid-responsive disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus) or have immune-mediated lesions that have been documented in renal biopsy specimens. Appropriate patient monitoring during therapy is important for maximizing patient care. The prognosis for dogs and cats with glomerular disease is variable and probably dependent on a combination of factors. The purpose of this article is to discuss the general diagnosis and management of dogs with glomerular disease. PMID:21782143
Schachter, Armand S.; Davis, Kenneth L.
Alzheimer's disease is one of the most devastating brain disorders of elderly humans. It is an undertreated and under-recognized disease that is becoming a major public health problem. The last decade has witnessed a steadily increasing effort directed at discovering the etiology of the disease and developing pharmacological treatment. Recent developments include improved clinical diagnostic guidelines and improved treatment of both cognitive disturbance and behavioral problems. Symptomatic t...
Full Text Available Celiac disease is a multysystemic autoimmune disease induced by gluten in wheat, barley and rye. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, high prevalence (1%, widely heterogeneous expression and frequent association with other autoimmune diseases, selective deficit of IgA and Down, Turner and Williams syndrome. The basis of the disease and the key finding in its diagnostics is symptomatic or asymptomatic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa which resolves by gluten-free diet. Therefore, the basis of the treatment involves elimination diet, so that the disorder, if timely recognized and adequately treated, also characterizes excellent prognosis.
Green, Peter H R; Jabri, Bana
Coeliac disease is a genetically-determined chronic inflammatory intestinal disease induced by an environmental precipitant, gluten. Patients with the disease might have mainly non-gastrointestinal symptoms, and as a result patients present to various medical practitioners. Epidemiological studies have shown that coeliac disease is very common and affects about one in 250 people. The disease is associated with an increased rate of osteoporosis, infertility, autoimmune diseases, and malignant disease, especially lymphomas. The mechanism of the intestinal immune-mediated response is not completely clear, but involves an HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 restricted T-cell immune reaction in the lamina propria as well as an immune reaction in the intestinal epithelium. An important component of the disease is the intraepithelial lymphocyte that might become clonally expanded in refractory sprue and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. Study of the mechanism of the immune response in coeliac disease could provide insight into the mechanism of inflammatory and autoimmune responses and lead to innovations in treatment. PMID:12907013
Esin, R G; Isayeva, Yu N; Gorobets, E A; Tokareva, N V; Esin, O R
Moya-moya is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by the progressive occlusion of cerebral vessels with partial switching off the circle of Willis and arteries that feed it. The article provides a review of literature, modern diagnostic criteria and a description of a single clinical case. The onset of the disease in this patient was characterized by headache and speech disorders.An analysis of speech disorders showed that they were systemic. They were registered at all language levels (phonetic, lexical,morphological, syntactic). A long diagnostic search may be explained by clinical manifestations that are atypical for other cerebrovascular diseases and by the rarity of the disease. PMID:27386589
Full Text Available Celiac disease is a small intestine disease caused by the immunological response to gluten, a component of wheat, rye and barley. The worldwide prevalence of celiac disease ranges between 0.2% and 2.2 %. The clinical features of celiac disease includes diarrhea, steatorrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain and weight loss. The asymptomatic type of celiac disease is characterized by soft or normally shaped stool, weakness, lassitude and moderate weight loss. In children, celiac disease usually arises between the first and the third year of age, with diarrhea, flatulence and low weight. The malabsorption in small intestine causes many extaintestinal manifestations, such us anemia, bone abnormalities, hemorrhage and neuropathy. Celiac disease is diagnosed by histological examination of tissue samples taken by duodenum due gastroscopy and by the detection of certain antibodies in blood (anti-GL-IgG, anti-GL-IgA, ΕΜΑ-IgA και anti-tTg-IgA. The only therapeutic approach to celiac disease is a gluten-free diet and, if it is necessary, the administration of iron, folic acid, calcium and vitamins (K, B12. The prognosis of celiac disease is excellent, if there is an early diagnosis and the patient keeps for life a gluten free diet.
Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1:270 in Finland to 1:5000 in North America. Since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. Furthermore, severe inflammation of the small bowel can be present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis should be made early since celiac disease causes growth retardation in untreated children and atypical symptoms like infertility or neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy with jejunal biopsy. In addition, tissue-transglutaminase antibodies are important to confirm the diagnosis since there are other diseases which can mimic celiac disease. The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown but is thought to be primarily immune mediated (tissue-transglutaminase autoantigen; often the disease is inherited. Management consists in life long withdrawal of dietary gluten, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement. However, complete normalization of histology can take years.
Calne, D B
Consideration is given to how and why categories of ill health are divided into diseases. Aetiology is a fundamental criterion for the delineation of individual diseases. The same clinical and pathological picture may have many different causes; for example meningococcal meningitis and pneumococcal meningitis are distinct diseases that may display the same symptoms and signs. On the other hand, a single aetiology may lead to quite separate clinical and pathological phenomena; for example, neu...
Full Text Available A rare case of Hartnup disease is presented - the patient being an 11 year old school girl suffering from a typically pellagroid rash in the absence of any other signs of malnutrition. No accompanying neurological or psychiatric features are seen, but electro-encephalography revealed abnormal baseline activity. Investigations and management are detailed and the literature on Hartnup disease reviewed.
Jerajani Hemangi; Amladi Sangeeta; Kohli Malavika; Parekh Roopali
A rare case of Hartnup disease is presented - the patient being an 11 year old school girl suffering from a typically pellagroid rash in the absence of any other signs of malnutrition. No accompanying neurological or psychiatric features are seen, but electro-encephalography revealed abnormal baseline activity. Investigations and management are detailed and the literature on Hartnup disease reviewed.
... 000 adults age 65 years and older. Pneumococcal disease can cause serious illness and lifelong complications. Pneumococcal meningitis can cause hearing loss, seizures, blindness, and paralysis. Serious heart problems are ... its worst forms, pneumococcal disease kills one in every four to five people ...
... eye rash similar to that found in Lyme disease, which is caused by bacteria transmitted by the deer tick. Although researchers know that the lone star tick transmits the infectious agent that causes STARI, they ... both bacterial diseases. Babesiosis is caused by parasites carried by deer ...
Padberg, George Waltherus Adrianus Maria
The purpose of this study is to discuss several aspects of facioscapulohumeral disease, also called "autosomal dominant facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy" or "Landouzy-Dejerine type of muscular dystrophy" or "Landouzy-Dejerine' s disease" . We consider this disorder well defined and recognizabl
... she sends a report to the gastroenterologist for review. Read more in Upper GI Endoscopy at www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov. How is Whipple disease treated? The health care provider prescribes antibiotics to destroy the T. whipplei bacteria and treat Whipple disease. Health care providers choose ...
Sozen, Yunus V.; Tozun, Remzi; Berkman, Mahmut; Akalin, Yilmaz; Kara, Ayhan Nedim
Scurvy that is so rare nowadays is clinically and radiologically very well defined. Two cases brought to our clinic in 1979 and 1980 are presented because ths disease process was so far advanced and because the clinical ond especsally radiological manifesations of the disease were so typical. The radiological and clinical characteristics of scurvy are elucidated because of these two cases.
Full Text Available Celiac disease also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy is characterized by intestinal mucosal damage and malabsorption from dietary intake of wheat, rye or barley. Symptoms may appear with introduction of cereal in the first 3 years of life. A second peak in symptoms occurs in adults during the third or forth decade and even as late as eight decade of life. The prevalence of this disease is approximately 1 in 250 adults. The disease is more prevalent in Ireland as high as 1 in 120 adults. The disorder occurs in Arab, Hispanics, Israeli Jews, Iranian and European but is rare in Chinese and African American. To have celiac disease the patient should have the celiac disease genetic markers as HLA DQ 2 and HLA DQ 8. Patient with celiac disease may have 95 per cent for DQ 2 and the rest is by DQ 8. Someone may have the genetic marker and never develops the disease. In general 50 percent with markers may develop celiac disease. To develop the disease the gene needs to become activated. This may happen with a viral or bacterial infection, a surgery, delivery, accident, or psychological stress. After activation of gene cause the tight junction to opens with the release of Zonulin This results in passage of gluten through the tight junction and formation of multiple antibodies and autoimmune disease. This also allows entrance of other proteins and development of multiple food allergies. As a result is shortening, flattening of intestinal villi resulting in food, vitamins and minerals malabsorption.
Vasconcelos, Carlos; Kallenberg, Cees; Shoenfeld, Yehuda
Refractory disease (RD) definition has different meanings but it is dynamic, according to knowledge and the availability of new drugs. It should be differentiated from severe disease and damage definitions and it must take into account duration of adequate therapy and compliance of the patient. It c
Crohn\\'s disease is a disorder mediated by T lymphocytes which arises in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of a breakdown in the regulatory constraints on mucosal immune responses to enteric bacteria. Regulation of immune reactivity to enteric antigens has improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of Crohn\\'s disease, and has expanded therapeutic options for patients with this disorder. Disease heterogeneity is probable, with various underlying defects associated with a similar pathophysiological outcome. Although most conventional drug treatments are directed at modification of host response, therapeutic manipulation of the enteric flora is becoming a realistic option.
Nickell, Larry T; Schucany, William G; Opatowsky, Michael J
Kummell disease, or avascular necrosis of a vertebral body, presents as vertebral osteonecrosis typically affecting a thoracic vertebra with compression deformity, intravertebral vacuum cleft, and exaggerated kyphosis weeks to months after a minor traumatic injury. This rare disease is increasing in prevalence secondary to an aging population and the associated rise in osteoporosis. Treatment with vertebroplasty or surgical decompression and fusion is often required. We present a classic case of Kummell disease to illustrate the salient features of the condition, with associated imaging findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
... about 5 to 10 percent of people with Parkinson's have "early-onset" disease which begins before the age of 50. Early-onset forms of Parkinson's are often inherited, though not always, and some ...
... most cases, people only take this medication for short periods of time since it can increase the chance of developing megacolon. Bowel Rest Sometimes Crohn's disease symptoms are severe and a person may need to ...
... weakness progressing to respiratory weakness and death from respiratory failure after a course lasting several years. The heart ... the age of one year from either cardiorespiratory failure or respiratory infection. For individuals with late onset Pompe disease, ...
... 25 years and access publications (since 1985) and patents resulting from NIH funding. PubMed is a free ... http://www.nidcr.nih.gov National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Website: http://www. ...
To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)
Insect control with insecticides and houses that are less likely to have high insect populations will help control the spread of the disease. Blood banks in Central and South America screen donors for ...
Senile dementia - Alzheimer type (SDAT); SDAT; Dementia - Alzheimer ... The exact cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) is not known. Research shows that certain changes in the brain lead to AD. You are more likely ...
... results from physical activities and sports that involve running and jumping, especially those that take place on hard surfaces, such as track, basketball, soccer, and gymnastics. Sever's disease also can result from ...
Cortes, J; Martínez, B; Montini, C; Barraza, P; Reyes, A
We described a case of Kawasaki's disease in a chilean girl, one year and 5 months old of age, who presented the oral characteristics, cutaneous and systemic manifestation of the condition, that is not very common for the dentist but that it is necessary to know due to the heart complications and the mortality associated with the disease, and it is necessary that the dentist recognize early this condition.
2010380 Evaluation non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and its influence on ability of daily living. WANG Rongfei(王荣飞),et al. Dept Neurol,1st Hosp,Guangzhou Med Coll,Guangzhou 510000. Chin J Neurol 2010;43(4):273-276. Objective To evaluate the non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD),and its influence on ability of daily living (ADL) in PD
Holtmeier, Wolfgang; Caspary, Wolfgang F
Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for cli...
Holtmeier Wolfgang; Caspary Wolfgang F
Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalenc...
2008069 The application of Montreal classification in inflammatory bowel disease. YANG Chuanhua(杨川华), et al. Renji Hosp, Shanghai Instit, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Med Coll, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(1):7-10. Objective To investigate the clinical features of Crohn′s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) according to the Montreal classification. Methods The clinical data of 110 cases of CD or UC were reviewed. The age at
2008119 Therapeutic effect of neuropeptide PACAP27 on Parkinson′s disease in mice. WANG Gang(王刚), et al.Dept Neurol & Neurol Instit, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Med Sch, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Neurol 2007;40(12):837-841. Objective To investigate the effects of different doses of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the functional and morphological outcome in a mice model of Parkinson′s disease (PD) re
930186 The diagnostic value of MRI on neuro-muscular disease.CHEN Qingtang(陈清棠),etal.Dept Neurol,1st Hosp,Beijing Med Univ,100034.Chin J Neurol & Psychiat 1992;25(5):267-269.The article concentrated on the study ofskeletal muscles of four extremities in 12 casesof different kinds of neuromuscular diseases and4 volunteers with MRI.The results revealed:MRI could clearly display individual muscle,muscle groups or abnormal muscles morphologi-
... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions HIV & Rheumatic Diseases HIV and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Rheumatic diseases related ... knows he or she has HIV. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...
... genetic terms used on this page. Learning About Crohn's Disease What is Crohn's disease? What are the symptoms ... disease Additional Resources for Crohn's Disease What is Crohn's disease? Crohn's disease, an idiopathic (of unknown cause), chronic ...
Suzuki Kurokawa, M; Suzuki, N
Behcet's disease (BD) is a systemic disorder of recurrent acute inflammation, characterized by major symptoms of oral aphthous ulcers, uveitis, skin lesions and genital ulcers. Involvement of intestines, vessels, and central nervous system (CNS) sometimes leads to a poor prognosis. Patients with BD are known to distribute along the ancient Silk Road. The incidence is relatively higher from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean area as roughly 1-10 patients in 10,000 people, whereas only 1-2 patients in 1,000,000 people in UK and North America. Although etiology of the disease is still unknown, high prevalence of HLA-B51, increased expression of heat shock protein 60 and Th1 dominant immune responses in the patients are considered important in its pathogenesis. Non-infectious neutrophil activation and infection with Streptococcus sanguis and herpes simplex virus would also be associated. Because BD lacks any pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory findings, the diagnosis relies largely upon the criteria proposed by the International Study Group for Behcet's disease in 1990. In Japan, the diagnosis was also made according to the Japanese criteria revised in 1987. Recently, the Behcet's Disease Research Committee of Japan again revised the Japanese criteria in 2003 to avoid overdiagnosis. The new Japanese criteria are introduced in this review. Differential diagnosis excluding Sweet's disease, pemphigus, erythema nodosum and Crohn's disease is important, and positive laboratory data for pathergy test, prick test for dead Streptococci and HLA-B51 are emphasized to make appropriate diagnosis in these criteria. Pathological findings of the disease-affected site such as erythematous nodosum is also stressed. Treatment for the disease has been chosen according to the clinical symptoms. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids and colchicine are basically introduced. Recently, effects of interferon-alpha/beta, anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody
... if they have a history of: Abnormal cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease (coronary artery disease) High blood pressure ( hypertension ) Kidney disease involving hemodialysis Smoking Stroke ( cerebrovascular disease )
930497 Ectopic expression and the significanceof HLA—class II antigens in the myocardium ofpatients with dilated cardiomyopathy.LI Yunyou(李运友),et al.lst Affili Hosp,Nanjing MedCoil,Nanjing,210029.Chin J Cardiol 1993;21(1):15—16.Expression of HLA—class II antigens(DQ,DP)in the myocardium of patients with differentheart diseases and normal controls was studiedwith indirect immunofluorescence(IIF).Thepositive rates in different groups were observedas follows:dilated cardiomyopathy(DCM,12/13,+++),rheumatic heart disease(2/4,++),congenital heart diseases(1/14,+),left a-trial myxoma(0/1)and normal controls(1/8,
Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Jensen, Michael Dam; Reimer, Maria Christina;
This national clinical guideline approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology describes the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease (CD) in adults. CD is a chronic immunemediated enteropathy of the small intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing proteins, w......, which are found in wheat, rye, and barley. The disease prevalence is 0.5-1.0%, but CD remains under-diagnosed. The diagnosis relies on the demonstration of lymphocyte infiltration, crypt hyperplasia, and villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies. Serology, malabsorption, biochemical markers...... the small intestinal mucosa and absorption. Adherence to a GFD usually requires dietary advice from a clinical dietician. The monitoring of antibody levels and malabsorption markers is crucial during follow-up and allows for early treatment of disease complications. Important complications include...
Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Jensen, Michael Dam; Reimer, Maria Christina;
the small intestinal mucosa and absorption. Adherence to a GFD usually requires dietary advice from a clinical dietician. The monitoring of antibody levels and malabsorption markers is crucial during follow-up and allows for early treatment of disease complications. Important complications include......This national clinical guideline approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology describes the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease (CD) in adults. CD is a chronic immunemediated enteropathy of the small intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing proteins...
Astradsson, Arnar; Aziz, Tipu Z
INTRODUCTION: The mean age of onset of Parkinson's disease is about 65 years, with a median time of 9 years between diagnosis and death. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of fetal cell or stem cell......-derived therapy in people with Parkinson's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to September 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from...
Full Text Available The introduction, implementation, successes and failures of multidrug therapy (MDT in all Hansen's disease endemic countries are discussed in this paper. The high efficacy of leprosy treatment with MDT and the global reduction of prevalence led the World Health Organization, in 1991, to establish the goal of elimination of Hansen's disease (less than 1 patient per 10,000 inhabitants to be accomplished by the year 2000. Brazil, Nepal and East Timor are among the few countries that didn't reach the elimination goal by the year 2000 or even 2005. The implications of these aspects are highlighted in this paper. Current data from endemic and previously endemic countries that carry a regular leprosy control programme show that the important fall in prevalence was not followed by the reduction of the incidence. This means that transmission of Mycobacterium leprae is still an issue. It is reasonable to conclude that we are still far from the most important goal of Hansen's disease control: the interruption of transmission and reduction of incidence. It is necessary to emphasize to health managers the need of keeping Hansen's disease control activities to better develop control programmes in the future. The recent international proposal to interrupt the transmission of leprosy by the year 2020 seems to unrealistic and it is discussed in this paper. The possibility of epidemiological impact related to the human immunodeficiency virus/Hansen's disease coinfection is also considered.
... second most common disorder of this type after Alzheimer's disease. It progresses slowly as small clusters of ... vitamin D deficiency in the development of Parkinson's. Vitamin D, which can enter ... K, Richards MB, Meng C, Priestley B, Fernandez HH, Cambi F, Umbach DM, Blair A, ...
Russo, Ricardo A G; Katsicas, María M
The monogenic autoinflammatory diseases are rare, genetic disorders resulting in constitutive innate immune defects leading to excessive response to danger signals, spontaneous activation of inflammatory mediators or loss of inhibitory regulators. During the past 15 years, a growing number of monogenic inflammatory diseases have been described and their respective responsible genes identified. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the regulatory pathways of inflammation and are mostly expressed in cells of the innate immune system. Although a group of patients exhibit episodic systemic inflammation (periodic fevers), these disorders are mediated by continuous overproduction and release of pro-inflammatory mediators, notably IL-1β, and are best considered as autoinflammatory diseases rather than periodic fevers. The most common autoinflammatory diseases are familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency/hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome (MKD/HIDS) and the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Clinical features often include fever, cutaneous rash, serosal involvement and acute phase reactants. Autoantibodies are usually absent but may accompany certain syndromes. Diagnosis remains clinical and is based on the different phenotypic features. Genetic diagnosis is of utmost importance, but must be performed judiciously and interpreted cautiously. Treatment with biologic agents that block proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-1, has proved to be dramatically effective in many patients. Still, in many cases of autoinflammation no genetic abnormalities are detected and treatment remains suboptimal, raising the question of novel pathogenic mutations in unexplored genes and pathways. PMID:27295706
... to probe the cause and progression of such circuit defects in HD. Scientists are also using stem cells to study disease mechanisms and test potential therapeutic drugs. The NINDS-funded PREDICT-HD study seeks to identify biomarkers (biological changes that can be used to predict, diagnose, ...
2009250 Effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on depression in patients with parkinson’s disease. WANG Xuelian(王学廉),et al.Dept Neurosurg,Tangdu Hosp,4th Milit Med Univ,Xi’an,710038.Chin J Nerv Ment Dis,2009;35(2):88-92.
2010400 The genetic characterization of VP1 region of Coxsackie virus A10 isolated from hand, foot and mouth disease cases in Shandong Province of China.YANG He(杨赫), et al.Instit Epidemiol & Health Statistic, Sch Public Health, Shandong Univ, Jinan 250012.Chin J Infect Dis
... nih.gov/research/parkinsonsweb/index.htm NIH Patient Recruitment for Parkinson's Disease Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical ... 800-655-2273 Fax: 408-734-8522 Parkinson's Resource Organization ... Health and Human Services, Education, May 22, 2002. September 1999 Parkinson's ...
2.1 Viral disease2003263 Isolation, identification and sequence analyses of dengue virus type 2 strain GD19/2001. REN Rui-wen(任瑞文), et al. Milit Med Instit Guangzhou Milit District, Guangzhou 510507. Chin J Epidemiol 2003; 24 (4):288-290. Objective:To identify the virus isolated from patients
Rivera, E; Assiri, A; Guandalini, S
Celiac disease, with a prevalence around 1% of the general population, is the most common genetically-induced food intolerance in the world. Triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, this enteropathy may appear at any age, and is characterized by a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms. Among them, gastrointestinal presentations include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or failure to thrive in children; but extra-intestinal manifestations are also common, and actually appear to be on the rise. They include a large variety of ailments, such as dermatitis Herpetiformis, anemia, short stature, osteoporosis, arthritis, neurologic problems, unexplained elevation of transaminases, and even female infertility. For the clinician interested in oral diseases, celiac disease can lead to delayed tooth eruption, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent oral aphthae. Diagnosing celiac disease requires therefore a high degree of suspicion followed by a very sensitive screening test: serum levels of the autoantibody anti-tissue transglutaminase. A positive subject will then be confirmed by an intestinal biopsy, and will then be put on a strict gluten-free diet, that in most cases will bring a marked improvement of symptoms. Newer forms of treatment which in the future will probably be available to the non-responsive patients are currently being actively pursued. PMID:23496382
... embarrassing (like bad breath) to the serious — like pain and tooth loss (which is both embarrassing and serious!). What ... also feed the acids that eat into your tooth enamel. If you have braces, ... certain medicines increase the risk of gum disease. Running yourself ...
... impairment of respiratory and kidney function. In Leigh’s disease, genetic mutations in mitochondrial DNA interfere with the energy sources that run cells in an area of the brain that plays a role in motor movements. The primary function of mitochondria is to convert the energy in glucose and ...
3.1 Viral disease2003162 The clinical and epidemiological analysis on 46 patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever in Huainan areas. WANG Kexia(王克霞). Sch Med, An-hui Univ Sci & Tehnol, Huainan 232001. Chin J En-demiol 2003;22(1):48-50.
Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; Law, Ian; Jønch, Aia;
In this open-label pilot study, the authors evaluated the effect of memantine on the distribution of brain glucose metabolism in four Huntington's disease (HD) patients as determined by serial 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose [F(18)]FDG-PET scans over a period of 3-4 months (90-129 days, with one patient...
2.1 Viral disease2004002 M gene sequence analyses on Guangdong SARS CoV isolates. ZHOU Huiqiong (周惠琼), et al. Dis Contr & Prev Center, Guangdong Prov, Guangzhou 510300. Chin J Microbiol Immunol 2003; 23 (12) : 923 -925.Objective:To analyze the variation of M gene by sequenc-
3.1 Viral disease2004310 One-step simultaneous detection of G-genotype of human group a rotaviruses by multiplex RT-PCR. TANG Shaowen (唐少文) , et al. Dept Epidemiol, Tongji Med Coll Huozhong Univ Sci & Technol, Wuhan 430030. Chin J Lab Med 2004; 27 (4):234-236
When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...
Abelardo Q-C Araujo
Full Text Available Prion diseases are neurodegenerative illnesses due to the accumulation of small infectious pathogens containing protein but apparently lacking nucleic acid, which have long incubation periods and progress inexorably once clinical symptoms appear. Prions are uniquely resistant to a number of normal decontaminating procedures. The prionopathies [Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD and its variants, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS syndrome and fatal familial insomnia (FFI] result from accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein in the brains of normal animals on both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The accumulation of this protein or fragments of it in neurons leads to apoptosis and cell death. There is a strong link between mutations in the gene encoding the normal prion protein in humans (PRNP - located on the short arm of chromosome 20 – and forms of prion disease with a familial predisposition (familial CJD, GSS, FFI. Clinically a prionopathy should be suspected in any case of a fast progressing dementia with ataxia, myoclonus, or in individuals with pathological insomnia associated with dysautonomia. Magnetic resonance imaging, identification of the 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, tonsil biopsy and genetic studies have been used for in vivo diagnosis circumventing the need of brain biopsy. Histopathology, however, remains the only conclusive method to reach a confident diagnosis. Unfortunately, despite numerous treatment efforts, prionopathies remain short-lasting and fatal diseases.
3.1 Viral disease2007149 Study on platelet β3 integrin expression levels and their relationships with disease severity in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.GAO Maicang(高麦仓), et al. Dept Infect Dis, 1st Affili Hosp, Sch Med, Xi′an Jiaotong Univ , Xi′an 710061. Chin J Infect Dis 2007;25(3):152-153. Objective To investigate the relationship between the expression level of platelet membrane glycoprotein 133(GP Ⅲa, CD61) and the severity of disease in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS). Methods One hundred and four patients with HFRS and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. The percentage of CD61 positive platelets and the mean fluorescence intensities (MFI) of platelet membrane glycoprotein β3 were determined by flow cytometry (FCM). The 104 patients studied were divided into three groups based on their expression levels of platelet membrane glycoprotein β3 at oliguric phase. Clinical data and laboratory parameters in different groups were compared and analyzed. Results The expression levels of CD61 in patients with HFRS were significantly higher than those in control group, although no significant difference in the percentage of CD61 positive platelets between patients with HFRS and controls was detected. The MFI of CD61 expression in patients with HFRS at fever phase, oliguric phase and polyuric phase was 19. 75±2.57, 17.46±1.48 and 15. 55±0.60, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in control group (3. 20±0.12). The expression level of CD61 in patients with HFRS at oliguric phase was negatively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin(r=-0.637 and -0. 695. respectively) and positively correlated with white blood cell count, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase(r= 0.945, 0. 904, 0.956 and 0. 891, respectively). When the patients were compared according to the expression levels of CD61, it was indicated that the higher the expression level of CD61, the
Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune disorder,induced by the intake of gluten proteins present in wheat, barley and rye. Contrary to common belief,this disorder is a protean systemic disease, rather than merely a pure digestive alteration. CD is closely associated with genes that code HLA-Ⅱ antigens, mainly of DQ2 and DQ8 classes. Previously, it was considered to be a rare childhood disorder, but is actually considered a frequent condition, present at any age, which may have multiple complications. Tissue transglutaminase-2(tTG), appears to be an important component of this disease, both, in its pathogenesis and diagnosis. Active CD is characterized by intestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms, villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia, and strongly positive tTG auto-antibodies. The duodenal biopsy is considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosis, but its practice has significant limitations in its interpretation, especially in adults. Occasionally, it results in a false-negative because of patchy mucosal changes and the presence of mucosal villous atrophy is often more severe in the proximal jejunum, usually not reached by endoscopic biopsies. CD is associated with increased rates of several diseases, such as iron deficiency anemia, osteoporosis, dermatitis herpetiformis,several neurologic and endocrine diseases, persistent chronic hypertransami-nasemia of unknown origin,various types of cancer and other autoimmune disorders.Treatment of CD dictates a strict, life-long gluten-free diet, which results in remission for most individuals,although its effect on some associated extraintestinal manifestations remains to be established.
Germain Dominique P
Full Text Available Abstract Fabry disease (FD is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal α-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual α-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain, cutaneous (angiokeratoma, renal (proteinuria, kidney failure, cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked α-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human α-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with
930445 A report on investigation of an outbreakof legionnaires’disease in a hotel in Beijing.DENG Changying(邓长英),et al.Beijing ArmedForce General Hosp,Beijing,100027.Chin J Epi-demiol 1993;14(2):78—79.During the period from February to March,1992,an outbreak of upper respiratory infection(influenza—like syndrome)took place in a hotelin Beijing.An epidemiological investigation andbacteriological examination were carried out inthis hotel.The results showed that it was anoutbreak of Legionnaires’disease caused by Le-gionella pneumophila serogroup 10(Lpl0).Theincidence was 13.51%(5/37).This is the firstreport on Lp10 infection in China.
Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John
Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients. PMID:18318880
Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary heart ...
... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area "Chronic Lyme Disease" What is "chronic Lyme disease?" Lyme disease is an infection caused by ... J Med 357:1422-30, 2008). How is Lyme disease treated? For early Lyme disease, a short ...
930031 Experimental studies on lung lesionsof rabbits caused by streptomyces thermohy-groscopicus.LIU Fang(刘仿),et al.Dept Mi-crobiol,Hubei Med Coll,Xianning Branch,437100.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(4):207—208.Imitating the natural way of infection ofFarmer’s lung disease,we succeeded in inducingChina Medical Abstracts(Internal Medicine)
4.1 Viral disease2003021 Analysis on the epidemiologic features of Dengue fever in Guangdong province, 1990 - 2000. LUO Huiming(罗会明), et al. Dis Contr & Prev Center Guangdong Prov, Guangzhou 510300. Chin J Epi-demiol 2002;23(6):427-430.Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of Dengue fever in Guangdong province in 1990 - 2000, and to develop the strategy for
Central nervous system infections represents a group of life-threatening diseases that present a formidable challenge to physicians. Despite the development of effective antimicrobial agents and modern surgical techniques, significant mortality and morbidity with CNS infections persist. Since the introduction of computed tomography, there is evidence of a marked decrease in mortality among patients with brain abscesses, although the morbidity has not changed significantly. CT correlation with pathology of the various CNS infections may aid in earlier diagnosis and bring about further disease in morbidity and mortality. Infections reach the brain or meninges mainly by two routes: (1) hematogenous dissemination from a distant infective focus to the meninges, corticomedullary junction, and choroid plexus; (2) direct extension by bony erosion for an adjacent focus of suppuration (otitis, mastoidits, sinusitis), by transmission along anaostomotic veins from the face, scalp, and orbits, and by transmission along cranial nerves following neurosurgery or traumatic craniocerebral wounds. Certain external factors serve to enhance the risk of intracranial infections, such as radiation; immunosuppressive or steroid therapy; cyanotic congenital heart disease; systemic illness such as diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or cirrhosis; leukemia, lymphoma, or agammaglobulinemia; severe body stress; midline bony fusion defects; surgical or traumatic craniocerebral injury; and pulmonary or other systemic infections
Loudianos, G; Gitlin, J D
Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting from the absence or dysfunction of a copper transporting P-type ATPase encoded on chromosome 13. This ATPase is expressed in hepatocytes where it is localized to the trans-Golgi network and transports copper into the secretory pathway for incorporation into ceruloplasmin and excretion into the bile. Under physiologic circumstances, biliary excretion represents the sole mechanism for copper excretion, and thus affected individuals have progressive copper accumulation in the liver. When the capacity for hepatic storage is exceeded, cell death ensues with copper release into the plasma, hemolysis, and tissue deposition. Presentation in childhood may include chronic hepatitis, asymptomatic cirrhosis, or acute liver failure. In young adults, neuropsychiatric symptoms predominate and include dystonia, tremor, personality changes, and cognitive impairments secondary to copper accumulation in the central nervous system. The laboratory diagnosis of Wilson's disease is confirmed by decreased serum ceruloplasmin, increased urinary copper content, and elevated hepatic copper concentration. Molecular genetic analysis is complex as more than 100 unique mutations have been identified and most individuals are compound heterozygotes. Copper chelation with penicillamine is an effective therapy in most patients and hepatic transplantation is curative in individuals presenting with irreversible liver failure. Elucidation of the molecular genetic basis of Wilson's disease has permitted new insights into the mechanisms of cellular copper homeostasis.
Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.
Marylou V. Solbrig; Adrian, Russell; Wechsler, Steven L.; Koob, George F.
Opioid systems in hippocampus regulate excitability and kappa opioids have a role in anticonvulsant protection, but their mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. We examined the ability of opioid and nonopioid agents with overlapping ionic mechanisms and actions similar to kappa opioid agonists, to block seizures in rat models of encephalitis due to Borna Disease virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1. Naltrindole, a delta antagonist and thus a kappa opioid sparing agent, (10 mg/kg s...
Die Huntington''sche Krankheit (Huntington''s disease, HD) ist eine tödliche neurodegenerative Erkrankung mit einem extensiven Verlust von Neuronen im Striatum. Die Ursache für HD ist eine genetische Mutation, bei der eine CAG-Wiederholungssequenz verlängert wird. Im resultierenden Protein, das Huntingtin (htt) genannt wurde, diese Mutation führt zur Missfaltung und Aggregation von htt. Ich habe untersucht ob die Bildung von htt-Aggregaten die Transkription von Genen dass sie von HD-asso...
Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles
Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is. PMID:27603894
2.1 Viral disease 2006009 Correlation analysis of type A influenza virus genetic variation characteristic with survival selective pressure ZHOU xiao -ming(周晓明 ) ,et al. Sch Pub Health,Fudan Univ. Shanghai 200032. China J Infect Dis 2005;23(4) :221 -224 Objective:To study the relationship betweer. type A influenza virus genetic variation with survival selective pressure to find possible vaccine conserved antigen target. Methods:Seven strains of same HA (Hemagglutinin) serotype, regional and isolation time closely related type A influenza virus were selected with full HA gene coding sequence , Blast2 program was used to calculate the param-
Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René
Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704
... Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:May 20,2016 View an animation of ... call 9-1-1. Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease Major risk factors that can't be changed ...
Isomoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Yasuhito
Morton's disease refers to neuralgia at the web space of the toes with a pseudo-neuroma. It commonly occurs in the third web space of the foot in middle-aged and older women. The pseudo-neuroma is thought to be a secondary change after entrapment or repeated microtrauma. Patients complain of forefoot pain while walking. Typically, symptoms are caused by tight high-heeled shoes. The physical examination includes palpation of the web spaces and Mulder's test. Weight bearing foot radiographs are used to evaluate the deformity of the foot, especially at metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. MRI is useful for differential diagnosis of pseudo-neuroma, MTP joint arthritis, and interdigital bursitis. Conservative treatments are shoe modification, use of orthotic insoles, and injection of corticosteroids and local anesthesia. The injections are useful not only for the treatment but also for diagnosis of Morton's disease. If the local injection is not temporally effective, surgical treatment is not indicated. If the conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is indicated. The most common surgery is excision of the pseudo-neuroma. The surgery is usually performed using a dorsal approach. PMID:25475032
De-Paula, Vanessa J; Radanovic, Marcia; Diniz, Breno S; Forlenza, Orestes V
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with well-defined pathophysiological mechanisms, mostly affecting medial temporal lobe and associative neocortical structures. Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles represent the pathological hallmarks of AD, and are respectively related to the accumulation of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) in brain tissues, and to cytoskeletal changes that arise from the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated Tau protein in neurons. According to the amyloid hypothesis of AD, the overproduction of Aβ is a consequence of the disruption of homeostatic processes that regulate the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Genetic, age-related and environmental factors contribute to a metabolic shift favoring the amyloidogenic processing of APP in detriment of the physiological, secretory pathway. Aβ peptides are generated by the successive cleavage of APP by beta-secretase (BACE-1) and gamma-secretase, which has been recently characterized as part of the presenilin complex. Among several beta-amyloid isoforms that bear subtle differences depending on the number of C-terminal amino acids, Aβ (1-42) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. The neurotoxic potential of the Aβ peptide results from its biochemical properties that favor aggregation into insoluble oligomers and protofibrils. These further originate fibrillary Aβ species that accumulate into senile and neuritic plaques. These processes, along with a reduction of Aβ clearance from the brain, leads to the extracellular accumulation of Aβ, and the subsequent activation of neurotoxic cascades that ultimately lead to cytoskeletal changes, neuronal dysfunction and cellular death. Intracerebral amyloidosis develops in AD patients in an age-dependent manner, but recent evidence indicate that it may be observed in some subjects as early as in the third or fourth decades of life, with increasing magnitude in late middle age
... Browse Related Terms Progression of Liver Disease , Family History of Liver Disease , Liver Wellness , Liver Failure , Liver Biopsy Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > The Progression ...
The author presents his personal choice of practical relevant papers of pancreatic diseases from 2014 to 2015. Nutritional factors and hypertriglycidemia are discussed as causes of acute pancreatitis. Tools to avoid post-ERCP(endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) pancreatitis are described and the natural course of fluid collections and pseudocysts is demonstrated. The value of secretin-MRCP(magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is illustrated. Data help to choose the minimally effective prednisolone dose in autoimmune pancreatitis. The increased prevalence of fractures in patients with chronic pancreatitis highlights the necessity of screening for bone density loss. The association of vitamin D intake with pancreatic cancer is described. The probability of cancer in IPNM is shown and innovative surgical concepts to reduce the loss of pancreatic function are presented. Finally neoadjuvant concepts for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are highlighted. PMID:27329710
... Tricuspid Valve Disease Cardiac Rhythm Disturbances Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Heart abnormalities that are ... Transplantation End-stage Lung Disease Adult Lung Transplantation Pediatric Lung ... Aortic Aneurysm Mitral Valve Disease Overview The mitral valve is ...
... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Mad Cow Disease Print A ... likely are people to get it? What Is Mad Cow Disease? Mad cow disease is an incurable, fatal brain ...
... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...
... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...
... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...
... and response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease Outbreak News (DONs) Latest DONs 26 August 2016 Middle East ... Disease outbreaks by country RSS feeds Disease outbreak news Announcement: WHO to change the way it reports ...
... Celiac Disease › Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease It is estimated that up to 20% of ... continuing to ingest gluten. Causes of Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease Continuing Gluten Ingestion The most common reason for ...
... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... percent, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...
Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lyme Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Lyme Disease Print A ... Pacific Northwest, and the northern Midwest states. About Lyme Disease Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium ...
Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong
Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first r...
Belletti, Gerardo A; Savio, Verónica; Minoldo, Daniel; Caminos, Susana; Yorio, Marcelo A
A 66 years female, who was since last year under astenia, arthralgias, pimply lesions in spread plates and tests showing eritrosedimentation over 100 mm, anemi, leucocitosis with neutrofilia, policlonal hypergammaglobulinemia, slight proteinuria and IgE on 900. This patient was sporadically treated with corticoids. When made the medical consult had lost 34lb., was under anorexy, as well as dyspepsia. Hemoglobyn 6.9 gr/dl, leucocytes 20000/mm3, neutrofils at 90%, proteinogram the same as former, with hypoalbuminemia. She was taking prednisona, 16 mg/day. When examined showed depress of conscience, astenia, and dermic lesions already quoted. 4 cm nonpainful right axillary adenopaty adhered to deep planes. Medulogram with increased iron, hyperegenerative. Ganglionar biopsia: linfoid hyperplasic process linked to inmune response. Toracoabdominal tomography with adenomegalia in torax and retroperitoneo. Skin biopsia: neutrofilic vasculitis. The patient suspends the 16 mg of prednisona and fever as well as generalized adenopatias come up. After laying aside other ethiologies, and understanding as Castleman Multicentric disease, it is started to supply prednisona 1 mg/kg of weight with a clinical and biochemical fast and outstanding response. After 7 months it was progressively suspended the esteroids and 60 days later, the process fall back; for that, corticoids are restarted, with a good evolution. The illness of Castleman although it is not very frequent, it should be considered as differential diagnosis in those clinical cases that are accompanied with important general commitment, linphadenopaties and respons to steroid therapy.
Nakashima, Tsutomu; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Arroll, Megan A; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Foster, Carol A; Manzoor, Nauman F; Megerian, Cliff A; Naganawa, Shinji; Young, Yi-Ho
Meniere's disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear that causes vertigo attacks, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus and aural fullness. The aetiology of MD is multifactorial. A characteristic sign of MD is endolymphatic hydrops (EH), a disorder in which excessive endolymph accumulates in the inner ear and causes damage to the ganglion cells. In most patients, the clinical symptoms of MD present after considerable accumulation of endolymph has occurred. However, some patients develop symptoms in the early stages of EH. The reason for the variability in the symptomatology is unknown and the relationship between EH and the clinical symptoms of MD requires further study. The diagnosis of MD is based on clinical symptoms but can be complemented with functional inner ear tests, including audiometry, vestibular-evoked myogenic potential testing, caloric testing, electrocochleography or head impulse tests. MRI has been optimized to directly visualize EH in the cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals, and its use is shifting from the research setting to the clinic. The management of MD is mainly aimed at the relief of acute attacks of vertigo and the prevention of recurrent attacks. Therapeutic options are based on empirical evidence and include the management of risk factors and a conservative approach as the first line of treatment. When medical treatment is unable to suppress vertigo attacks, intratympanic gentamicin therapy or endolymphatic sac decompression surgery is usually considered. This Primer covers the pathophysiology, symptomatology, diagnosis, management, quality of life and prevention of MD. PMID:27170253
Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain
Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact. PMID:27678355
Full Text Available Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease may be associated with systemic diseases. This paper reviewed the published data about the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and respiratory diseases, focusing on studies conducted in the Brazilian population. Only a few studies were found in the literature focusing on Brazilians (3 concerning cardiovascular disease, 7 about pregnancy outcomes, 9 about diabetes and one regarding pneumonia. Although the majority of them observed an association between periodontitis and systemic conditions, a causal relationship still needs to be demonstrated. Further studies, particularly interventional well-designed investigations, with larger sample sizes, need to be conducted in Brazilian populations.
Weidlich, Patrícia; Cimões, Renata; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes; Oppermann, Rui Vicente
Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease may be associated with systemic diseases. This paper reviewed the published data about the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and respiratory diseases, focusing on studies conducted in the Brazilian population. Only a few studies were found in the literature focusing on Brazilians (3 concerning cardiovascular disease, 7 about pregnancy outcomes, 9 about diabetes and one regarding pneumonia). Although the majority of them observed an association between periodontitis and systemic conditions, a causal relationship still needs to be demonstrated. Further studies, particularly interventional well-designed investigations, with larger sample sizes, need to be conducted in Brazilian populations. PMID:19838549
Watson, Stanley W.
Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.
Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program -- www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation -- www.kidney.org National ...
Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease
... in Sickle Cell Disease New supplement from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describes the state of sickle cell disease related care in the United States. Read Supplement Â» ... are affected by sickle cell disease. More WEBINAR ...
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sickle Cell Disease? Español The term sickle cell disease (SCD) ... common forms of SCD. Some Forms of Sickle Cell Disease Hemoglobin SS Hemoglobin SC Hemoglobin Sβ 0 thalassemia ...
... Background Information > Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Using computers to prepare ... Content Area Predicting the potential spread of an infectious disease requires much more than simply connecting cities on ...
... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular heartbeats, called ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...
... Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Alan ... hormone. Why does hypothyroidism increase your risk for heart disease? Both thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) are related ...
Diet - heart disease ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead to heart disease, including high cholesterol , high blood pressure, and obesity ...
... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...
... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...
... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet See a list of all ... can I get more information? What are motor neuron diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...
... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease What are my kidneys and ... urine until releasing it through urination. How can diabetes affect my kidneys? Too much glucose , also called ...
Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to the ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a deer ...
... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Alzheimer's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Alzheimer's Disease? Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related, ...
... of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Celiac Disease Many kids have sensitivities to certain foods, and ... protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Pediatric Celiac Disease If your child has celiac disease, consuming gluten ...
Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...
Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a ...
... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. If ... lead to a disease called COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD prevents proper airflow in and out of ...
Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads to ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may come ...
Sood, Vikrant; Rawat, Dinesh; Khanna, Rajeev; Alam, Seema
Wilson disease and cholestatic liver diseases may present as a diagnostic dilemma if standard guidelines incorporating markers of copper overload are followed. We hereby present a series of four cases of sclerosing cholangitis masquerading as Wilson disease. True Wilson disease cases had significantly lower ceruloplasmin (6 vs. 16 mg/dL) and higher 24-hour urinary copper (322.3 vs. 74.5 μg/day) as compared to mimickers. Initial low serum ceruloplasmin levels normalized in mimickers on follow up, and this may used as a diagnostic indicator. Standard Wilson disease diagnostic criteria thus need further modification especially in developing countries to help avoid mismanagement.
Potential causes of abnormal liver function tests include viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, hereditary diseases, hepatobiliary malignancies or infection, gallstones and drug-induced liver injury. Moreover, the liver may be involved in systemic diseases that mainly affect other organs. Therefore, in patients without etiology of liver injury by screening serology and diagnostic imaging, but who have systemic diseases, the abnormal liver function test results might be caused by the systemic disease. In most of these patients, the systemic disease should be treated primarily. However, some patients with systemic disease and severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure require intensive treatments of the liver.
... Dermatomyositis Inclusion-body myositis Diseases of Neuromuscular Junction Myasthenia gravis Lambert-Eaton (myasthenic) syndrome Congenital myasthenic syndromes Diseases of Peripheral Nerve Charcot-Marie- ...
... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...
Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine
by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...... and their disease relationships from the reported TDDB database. The resulting human EDN takes into consideration the level of evidence of the toxicant-disease relationships allowing including some degrees of significance in the disease-disease associations. Such network can be used to identify uncharacterized...... connections between diseases. Examples are discussed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Additionally, this computational model allows to confirm already know chemical-disease links (e.g. bisphenol A and behavioral disorders) and also to reveal unexpected associations between chemicals and diseases (e.g. chlordane...
Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) begins with damage to the lining and ... causing coronary microvascular disease (MVD). Coronary MVD is heart disease that affects the heart's tiny arteries. The cause ...
Ochoa Palominos, Alejandra; Ibáñez Samaniego, Luis; Catalina Rodríguez, María-Vega; Pajares Díaz, José; Clemente Ricote, Gerardo
Wilson's disease is a hereditary autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism,characterized by copper accumulation in the liver and brain. This rare entity, which has a broad clinical spectrum, is often difficult to diagnose and should therefore always be suspected in patients with liver disease of unclear cause. We describe two types of manifestation of liver disease in two patients; the first developed fulminant hepatic failure requiring urgent liver transplantation and the second showed advanced chronic liver disease and received standard medical treatment. The objective of this clinical observation is to analyze the diagnosis of Wilson's disease in two patients with distinct onset, illustrating the broad clinical spectrum of the disease, and its treatment.
Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M.; Philip H Jones; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J.; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J.M.; Radford, Alan D
This second Small Animal Disease Surveillance report focuses on syndromic surveillance of i) respiratory disease in veterinary practice and ii) feline calicivirus (FCV) based on laboratory diagnosis, in a large veterinary-visiting pet population of the UK between January 2014 and December 2015. Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7%, 2.3% and 2.5% of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively. In dogs, the most frequent respiratory sign reported was coughing (71.1% of ...
Fabri, Gisele M C; Savioli, Cynthia; Siqueira, José T; Campos, Lucia M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Silva, Clovis A
Gingivitis and periodontitis are immunoinflammatory periodontal diseases characterized by chronic localized infections usually associated with insidious inflammation This narrative review discusses periodontal diseases and mechanisms influencing the immune response and autoimmunity in pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD), particularly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Gingivitis was more frequently observed in these diseases compared to health controls, whereas periodontitis was a rare finding. In JIA patients, gingivitis and periodontitis were related to mechanical factors, chronic arthritis with functional disability, dysregulation of the immunoinflammatory response, diet and drugs, mainly corticosteroids and cyclosporine. In C-SLE, gingivitis was associated with longer disease period, high doses of corticosteroids, B-cell hyperactivation and immunoglobulin G elevation. There are scarce data on periodontal diseases in JDM population, and a unique gingival pattern, characterized by gingival erythema, capillary dilation and bush-loop formation, was observed in active patients. In conclusion, gingivitis was the most common periodontal disease in PRD. The observed association with disease activity reinforces the need for future studies to determine if resolution of this complication will influence disease course or severity.
Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J
Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, disease. PMID:27479950
Sağlam, Ebru; SARUHAN, Nesrin; Çanakçı, Cenk Fatih
Some maternal immunological changes due to pregnancy increases susceptibility to infections. Periodontal disease, the main cause is plaque, is a common disease which is seen multifactorial and varying severity. There are many clinical criteria for diagnosis of periodontal disease. Correlation between pregnancy and periodontal inflammation is known for many years. Periodontal disease affects pregnant’s systemic condition and also has negative effects on fetus. Periodontal disease increases the...
Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong
Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531
... Addison disease Down syndrome Intestinal cancer Intestinal lymphoma Lactose intolerance Thyroid disease Type 1 diabetes Symptoms The symptoms ... unchanged) Diarrhea , either constant or off and on Lactose intolerance (common when the person is diagnosed, often goes ...
Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...
Resources - Parkinson disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Parkinson disease : The Michael J. Fox Foundation -- www.michaeljfox.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...
Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...
... of great accomplishments. It is passed on from generation to generation in families worldwide. Males generally inherit the disease ... on the picture above. Spinal Bulbar Muscular Atrophy , X-linked Spinal Bulbar Muscular Atrophy, SBMA, neuromuscular disease, ...
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...
Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It causes too much of a fatty substance to build up in the ... mental and physical problems. Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first few ...
... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...
Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...
... the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology ... NE, et al. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic ... of coronary heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, et ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. Changing ...
... Mouse Models Of Huntington's Disease 1998 News Release Learning About Huntington's Disease What do we know about ... and treatment information. Hosted by the Dolan DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Huntington's Outreach ...
... Disease Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Page Content On this page: ... responds by decreasing TSH production. [ Top ] How does pregnancy normally affect thyroid function? Two pregnancy-related hormones— ...
... part of a funeral ritual) Scrapie (found in sheep) Other very rare inherited human diseases, such as ... markers that sometimes occur with the disease CT scan of the brain Electroencephalogram (EEG) MRI of the ...
... TDP43-related Dementia 2013 Andrew Watt Characterisation of Tau Imaging Ligands for Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias 2010 Marco Prado The Prion Protein as a Therapeutic Target in Alzheimer's Disease 2007 ...
... TDP43-related Dementia 2013 Andrew Watt Characterisation of Tau Imaging Ligands for Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias 2010 Marco Prado The Prion Protein as a Therapeutic Target in Alzheimer's Disease 2007 ...
Fibrocystic breast disease; Mammary dysplasia; Diffuse cystic mastopathy; Benign breast disease; Glandular breast changes ... made in the ovaries may make a woman's breasts feel swollen, lumpy, or painful before or during ...
... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...
... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Disease Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... True or False: Only African Americans get sickle cell disease. A True B False 2. True or ...
... Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are types ... children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in children. It usually causes gum ...
Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It causes too much of a fatty substance to build ... cells, causing mental and physical problems. Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first ...
Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...
... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Lyme Disease Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Lyme disease tests are used to determine if a person ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many of many ...
Karen A Diefenbach; Christopher K Breuer
Inflammatory bowel disease is an important cause of gastrointestinal pathology in children and adolescents.The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is increasing; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of the presentation of this disease in the pediatric population. Laboratory tests, radiology studies,and endoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and differentiating between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Once diagnosed,the goal of medical management is to induce remission of disease while minimizing the side effects of the medication. Specific attention needs to be paid to achieving normal growth in this susceptible population.Surgical management is usually indicated for failure of medical management, complication, or malignancy.Algorithms for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease are presented.The specific psychosocial issues facing these patients are also discussed in this review as are the future goals of research in the complex problem of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.
Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited). The 2 inherited forms of PKD are autosomal dominant ...
... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) KidsHealth > For Teens > Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Print ... healthy teens can have GERD, too. What Is GERD? Gastroesophageal (pronounced: gas-tro-ih-sah-fuh-JEE- ...
... National HelpLine Educational Publications Online Seminars Parkinson's News Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want ... resources & more. Order Free Materials Today What is Parkinson’s Disease? Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and ...
Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder. Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes, vision ... during a medical procedure Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ...
... Lyme disease FAQ Health care providers Educational materials Data and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in the northeast and upper Midwest. Lyme Disease Data File To facilitate the public health and research ...
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...
Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...
... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...
In recent years, emerging diseases were defined as being infectious, acquiring high incidence, often suddenly, or being a threat or an unexpected phenomenon. This study discusses the hallmarks of emerging diseases, describing the existence of noninfectious emerging diseases, and elaborating on the advantages of defining noninfectious diseases as emerging ones. From the discussion of various mental health disorders, nutritional deficiencies, external injuries and violence outcomes, work injuries and occupational health, and diseases due to environmental factors, the conclusion is drawn that a wide variety of noninfectious diseases can be defined as emergent. Noninfectious emerging diseases need to be identified in order to improve their control and management. A new definition of "emergent disease" is proposed, one that emphasizes the pathways of emergence and conceptual traits, rather than descriptive features.
Ertuğrul H. Aydemir
This group of diseases are characterised with the aggravated types of stress releasing behaviors like scratching, picking, squeezing, and sucking. Lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis, neurotic excoriations, trichotillomani, and onychotillomani are the diseases in this group. Depression, anxiety, and obsesif compulsive disease are the main underlying psychologic diseases. They need a skillfull psychiatric approach in addition to dermatologic treatment, and should be treated with patien...
Ertuğrul H. Aydemir
Full Text Available This group of diseases are characterised with the aggravated types of stress releasing behaviors like scratching, picking, squeezing, and sucking. Lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis, neurotic excoriations, trichotillomani, and onychotillomani are the diseases in this group. Depression, anxiety, and obsesif compulsive disease are the main underlying psychologic diseases. They need a skillfull psychiatric approach in addition to dermatologic treatment, and should be treated with patience in a long duration.
Fargion, Silvia; Mattioli, Michela; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Fiorelli, Gemino
A mild to moderate iron excess is found in patients with liver diseases apparently unrelated to genetic hemochromatosis. Iron appears to affect the natural history of hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by leading to a more severe fibrosis and thus aiding the evolution to cirrhosis.Ahigher frequency of mutations of the HFE gene, the gene responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis, is found in patients with liver diseases a...
Motulsky, Arno G
Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.
Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E
Twenty-five patients with functional bowel disease were given fructose, sorbitol, fructose-sorbitol mixtures, and sucrose. The occurrence of malabsorption was evaluated by means of hydrogen breath tests and the gastrointestinal symptoms, if any, were recorded. One patient could not be evaluated...... with functional bowel disease. The findings may have direct influence on the dietary guidance given to a major group of patients with functional bowel disease and may make it possible to define separate entities in this disease complex....
Walsh, K; Bennett, G
There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a role in the pathogenesis of the anxiety. The anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease patients appear to be clustered in th...
... suggest that these genes are also involved in early-onset Parkinson's disease (diagnosed before the age of 30) or ... LRRK2 causes Parkinson's Disease [interscience.wiley.com] Hereditary Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease Caused by Mutations in PINK1 [sciencemag.org] ...
Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Rasmussen, AK;
Fabry disease is a rare, multiorgan disease. The most serious complications involve the kidney, brain and heart. This study aims to assess the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using agalsidase-beta in children with Fabry disease. We carried out a nationwide, descriptive and observational...
Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard
More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the underestimat
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations ＆ Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...
... States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and it happens slowly over time. It's the ...
... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Menopause and Heart Disease Updated:Apr 18,2016 Heart disease risk rises for everyone as they age, but ... women is seen about 10 years after menopause. Heart disease is the leading killer of women . Estrogen Levels ...
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart disease (CHD), you can take steps to control its ... the section of this article titled "How Is Heart Disease Treated?" You also can visit the Health Topics ...
... heart disease risk factors causes coronary MVD. Although death rates from heart disease have dropped in the last 30 years, they ... stopped her "dead in her tracks." Jennifer reminds us how heart disease takes too many of our moms, sisters, and ...
... What are Crohn's & Colitis? > What is Crohn’s Disease? Crohn’s Disease is a Chronic Condition By understanding your body ... live a full and rewarding life What is Crohn’s Disease? Email Print + Share Named after Dr. Burrill B. ...
Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille
A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...
... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... It's the major reason people have heart attacks. Heart diseases that affect women more than men include Coronary ...
This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas dise...
... HeartsÂ® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend ... HeartsÂ® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke File Formats Help: How do ...
... these diseases are so common in children. Contagious diseases are often caused by the spread of bacteria (such as in scarlet fever) or viruses (such as in chickenpox, measles, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and quite a few others) in droplets of ...
Engelen, B.G.M. van; Kalkman, J.S.; Schillings, M.L.; Werf, S.P. van der; Bleijenberg, G.; Zwarts, M.J.
Chronic fatigue is a symptom of diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's and cerebrovascular disease. Fatigue can also be present in people with no demonstrable somatic disease. If certain criteria are met, chronic-fatigue syndrome may be diagnosed in these cases. Fatigue is a multi-
Walter Oleschko Arruda
Full Text Available According to the definition of disease, epilepsy shall not be considered neither a symptom nor a syndrome. Epilepsy is a generic term for a group of diseases characterized by seizures. It implies a state quite distinct from health. Therefore it seems worthy to keep epilepsy as such in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD.
... damages the vertebrae or other parts of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such as meningitis and polio Inflammatory diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal ...
Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian
Individual disease outbreaks have killed many thousands of animals on numerous occasions. Tens of thousands of migratory birds have died in single die-offs with as many as 1,000 birds succumbing in 1 day. In mammals, individual disease outbreaks have killed hundreds to thousands of animals with, for example, hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer, distemper in raccoon, Errington's disease in muskrat, and sylvatic plague in wild rodents. The ability to successfully combat such explosive situations is highly dependent n the readiness of field personnel to deal with them. Because many disease agents can spread though wildlife populations very fast, advance preparation is essential in preventing infected animals from spreading disease to additional species and locations. Carefully though-out disease contingency plans should be developed as practical working documents for field personnel and updated as necessary. Such well-designed plans can prove invaluable in minimizing wildlife losses and costs associated with disease control activities. Although requirements for disease control operations vary and must be tailored to each situation, all disease contingency planning involved general concepts and basic biological information. This chapter, intended as a practical guide, identifies the major activities and needs of disease control operations, and relates them to disease contingency planning.
... sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary condition (which means it runs ... or blocks blood and oxygen reaching nearby tissues. Sickle cell disease ... the whites of the eyes) Anemia (the decreased ability of the blood to carry ...
... Usually the cause is staphylococcal (staph), but sometimes streptococcus (strep) can cause it, too. It is most ... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease ...
... links) LRRK2-Related Parkinson Disease Parkin Type of Early-Onset Parkinson Disease Parkinson Disease Overview PINK1 Type of Young- ... Parkinson disease 5 Parkinson disease 6, autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 7 Parkinson disease 8, autosomal dominant Parkinson ...
Newberg, Andrew B; Serruya, Mijail; Wintering, Nancy; Moss, Aleezé Sattar; Reibel, Diane; Monti, Daniel A
Neurodegenerative diseases pose a significant problem for the healthcare system, doctors, and patients. With an aging population, more and more individuals are developing neurodegenerative diseases and there are few treatment options at the present time. Meditation techniques present an interesting potential adjuvant treatment for patients with neurodegenerative diseases and have the advantage of being inexpensive, and easy to teach and perform. There is increasing research evidence to support the application of meditation techniques to help improve cognition and memory in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the current data on meditation, memory, and attention, and the potential applications of meditation techniques in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.
Full Text Available H00061 Prion diseases; Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD); Gerstmann-Straussler diseas...e (GSD); Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSSD); Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) Prion diseases, also t...ermed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that... affect humans and a number of other animal species. The etiology of these diseases...vely folded protein, PrPC. Neurodegenerative disease hsa05020 Prion diseases PRNP (mutation) [HSA:5621] [KO:
Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K
During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275
Ch'ng, Chin Lye; Jones, M Keston; Kingham, Jeremy G C
Celiac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy is relatively common in western populations with prevalence around 1%. With the recent availability of sensitive and specific serological testing, many patients who are either asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms can be shown to have CD. Patients with CD have modest increases in risks of malignancy and mortality compared to controls. The mortality among CD patients who comply poorly with a gluten-free diet is greater than in compliant patients. The pattern of presentation of CD has altered over the past three decades. Many cases are now detected in adulthood during investigation of problems as diverse as anemia, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, unexplained neurological syndromes, infertility and chronic hypertransaminasemia of uncertain cause. Among autoimmune disorders, increased prevalence of CD has been found in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune liver diseases and inflammatory bowel disease. Prevalence of CD was noted to be 1% to 19% in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 2% to 5% in autoimmune thyroid disorders and 3% to 7% in primary biliary cirrhosis in prospective studies. Conversely, there is also an increased prevalence of immune based disorders among patients with CD. The pathogenesis of co-existent autoimmune thyroid disease and CD is not known, but these conditions share similar HLA haplotypes and are associated with the gene encoding cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4. Screening high risk patients for CD, such as those with autoimmune diseases, is a reasonable strategy given the increased prevalence. Treatment of CD with a gluten-free diet should reduce the recognized complications of this disease and provide benefits in both general health and perhaps life expectancy. It also improves glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and enhances the absorption of medications for associated hypothyroidism and osteoporosis. It
Flavia Angélica Ferreira Francisco
Full Text Available Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt–Hogg–Dubé; other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management.
Ferreira Francisco, Flavia Angélica; Soares Souza, Arthur; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson
Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt-Hogg-Dubé); other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management. PMID:26621970
Aldrin V. Gomes
Full Text Available The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (−8C/G is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit.
Cronin, C C
Whether there is an association between coeliac disease and epilepsy is uncertain. Recently, a syndrome of coeliac disease, occipital lobe epilepsy and cerebral calcification has been described, mostly in Italy. We measured the prevalence of coeliac disease in patients attending a seizure clinic, and investigated whether cerebral calcification occurred in patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy. Screening for coeliac disease was by IgA endomysial antibody, measured by indirect immunofluorescence using sections of human umbilical cord. Of 177 patients screened, four patients were positive. All had small-bowel histology typical of coeliac disease. The overall frequency of coeliac disease in this mixed patient sample was 1 in 44. In a control group of 488 pregnant patients, two serum samples were positive (1 in 244). Sixteen patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy, who had previously attended this hospital, were identified. No patient had cerebral calcification on CT scanning. Coeliac disease appears to occur with increased frequency in patients with epilepsy, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Cerebral calcification is not a feature of our patients with epilepsy and coeliac disease, and may be an ethnically-or geographically-restricted finding.
Full Text Available terion to establish the diagnosis. Congenital disorder; Eye disease; Hematologic disease; Skin and connective tissue disea...se; Nervous system disease TINF2 [HSA:26277] [KO:K11112] Dyskeratos
... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Mad Cow Disease Print A ... Contagious? What Is Being Done About It About Mad Cow Disease Mad cow disease has been in the headlines ...
... as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or, more commonly, "mad cow disease." Another example of an acquired human prion disease ... forms of prion disease , including kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, are not inherited. Related Information What does it ...
... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...
Full Text Available infections in patients with underlying diseases. Infectious disease Brevundimonas vesicularis Brevundimonas...d-stage renal disease Autoimmune diseases Vancomycin [ATC: J01XA01] Ceftazidime [ATC:J01DD02] Levofloxacin [
... links) Health Topic: Degenerative Nerve Diseases Health Topic: Tay-Sachs Disease Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 ... UK) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association Genetic Testing Registry (1 ...
Liver Disease Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you have liver disease, you are at risk for pulmonary ... to the liver without cirrhosis. How does liver disease relate to pulmonary hypertension? Liver disease can cause what is known ...
Genetic components of disease resistance have been described in most of important diseases in human as well as in laboratory and livestock animals. However the basic mechanisms have been established in a few examples only. The reasons herefore are the mostly polygenic inheritance of disease resistance traits, the missing of suitable animal models and the dominance of environmental effects like infection pressure, immune status, and stressors, limiting the view on responsible gene variants. Ethical and practical aspects may further hinder research on disease resistance in certain species. Livestock animals play a crucial role in disease resistance research, because of distinct genetic diversity within and between breeds, because of an often distinct metabolic congruency with humans, and aiming towards the improvement of hygiene and economy of production and animal welfare. The following sections will review disease resistance in livestock animals and their practical implications, completed by examples of our own research activities.
Sanz, Joaquín; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir
Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. Most epidemic models however assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a meta-population system or a network of contacts). The latter is in part a consequence of our still limited knowledge about the interdependency of the many mechanisms and factors involved in disease spreading. In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can only be addressed if we go beyond the scheme one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we study a model that allows describing the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases and apply it to a paradigmatic case of disease-disease interaction: the interaction between AIDS and Tuberculosis. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and also compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dyn...
Oezsarlak, O. E-mail: email@example.com; Schepens, E.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W. van; Vanhoenacker, F.; Schepper, A.M. de; Martin, J.J
This article presents the actual classification of neuromuscular diseases based on present expansion of our knowledge and understanding due to genetic developments. It summarizes the genetic and clinical presentations of each disorder together with CT findings, which we studied in a large group of patients with neuromuscular diseases. The muscular dystrophies as the largest and most common group of hereditary muscle diseases will be highlighted by giving detailed information about the role of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis. The radiological features of neuromuscular diseases are atrophy, hypertrophy, pseudohypertrophy and fatty infiltration of muscles on a selective basis. Although the patterns and distribution of involvement are characteristic in some of the diseases, the definition of the type of disease based on CT scan only is not always possible.
Katerina M. Antoniou
Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases are a group of diffuse parenchymal lung disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Knowledge achieved in recent years has resulted in the publication of the new classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, according to which there are three groups: major, rare and unclassified. The novelty of the new classification comes from the fact that difficult to classify entities can be treated according to the disease behaviour classification. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most lethal amongst the interstitial lung diseases and presents high heterogeneity in clinical behaviour. A number of biomarkers have been proposed in order to predict the course of the disease and group patients with the same characteristics in clinical trials. Early diagnosis and disease stratification is also important in the field of other interstitial lung diseases.
Vissing, John; Lukacs, Zoltan; Straub, Volker
to identify late-onset Pompe disease often leads to false-negative results and subsequent delays in identification and treatment of the disorder. Serum creatine kinase level can be normal or only mildly elevated in late-onset Pompe disease and is not very helpful alone to suggest the diagnosis......, but in combination with proximal and axial weakness it may raise the suspicion for Pompe disease. A simple blood-based assay to measure the level of α-glucosidase activity is the optimal initial test for confirming or excluding Pompe disease. A timely and accurate diagnosis of late-onset Pompe disease likely...... will improve patient outcomes as care standards including enzyme replacement therapy can be applied and complications can be anticipated. Increased awareness of the clinical phenotype of Pompe disease is therefore warranted to expedite diagnostic screening for this condition with blood-based enzymatic assays....
Peter A. McCullough
@@ Cardiorenal disease The modern day,worldwide epidemics of obesity and hypertension (HTN) are central drivers of a secondary epidemic of type 2 diabetes with combined chronic kidney disease (CKD)and cardiovascular disease (CVD).1 Approximately half of those with diabetes will develop CKD.2 Conversely,half of all cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are due to diabetic nephropathy.With the aging of the general population and cardiovascular care shifting towards the elderly,an understanding of why decreasing levels of renal function act as a major adverse prognostic factor after a variety of cardiac events is imperative.The heart and kidney are inextricably linked via hemodynamic and neurohumoral function (Fig.1).Considerable evidence shows that CKD accelerates atherosclerosis,myocardial disease,valvular disease,and promotes an array of cardiac arrhythmias.3
Full Text Available H00059 Huntington's disease (HD) Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant n...p53 mediates mitochondrial dysfunction. Neurodegenerative disease hsa05016 Huntington's disea...se HTT; huntingtin (CAG repeat expansion) [HSA:3064] [KO:K04533] Tiagabine [DR:D08588] Disease class: polyglutamine disea...fi E, Underwood BR, Rubinsztein DC Huntington's disease: from pathology and genetics to potential therapies....isms mediating pathological plasticity in Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem 100:874-
Full Text Available H00075 Refsum disease; Heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis Refsum disease (RD) ...ponsible for some, but not all, cases of Refsum's disease. Peroxisomal PHYH import occurs via PEX7 which is ...genes can be found. Neurodegenerative disease; Inherited metabolic disease; Peroxisomal disease hsa04146(526...5191] [KO:K13341] Phytanic acid from diet Phytanic acid [CPD:C01607] Disease clas...s: leukodystrophy; phytanic acid storage disease Affected region: cerebellum Microscopic lesion: accumulatio
Naidu, Murali N.; Trang, Alfred C.; Salky, Barry A.
Crohn's disease represents a challenging operative dilemma. The nature of the disease increases the technical complexity of operations, their morbidity, and the likelihood of multiple operations. In this setting, the advantages of laparoscopic surgery, including shorter hospital stays, less adhesion formation, fewer wound complications, and faster recovery of bowel function, are particularly beneficial to the patient. Patients with Crohn's disease requiring operations in the elective and semi...
Morphet, John AM
One million people over the age of 20 suffer from congenital heart disease in the United States. These adult patients can slip through the cracks of our medical system; many are too old to be cared for in most pediatric institutions by pediatric cardiologists and, unfortunately, most adult cardiologists are not trained in congenital heart disease. Therefore, it is important to identify the common lesions in adult congenital heart disease and how they should be managed. Acyanotic congenital he...
Levison, Matthew E
Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis). PMID:26350315
Straub, Rainer H.; Schradin, Carsten
It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history sta...
The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health. Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/2/2010.
Shelton, Andrew A.
An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...
Maxwell, Gemma; Archibald, Neil; Turnbull, Doug
Sweet's syndrome, or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is a multisystem, inflammatory disease characterised by tender skin lesions and neutrophilic infiltration of various organs, including the nervous system. A rare condition, neuro-Sweet's can present with a wide variety of neurological symptoms dependent on the region of the CNS affected. Here we present a case of neuro-Sweet's disease in association with Crohn's disease. PMID:22450461
Nilgün Atakan; Sibel Doğan
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by plaques with shiny white desquamation on the skin. It affects 1 to 3% of different ethnic populations. The disease significantly lowers the quality of life for the patients as the lesions appear on visible regions such as the scalp, face and extremities causing pruritus and extensive use of topical agents with a poor rate of recovery and the disease has a recurrent course with frequent attacks. Psoriasis was previously assu...
S Kowsarian; Farzaneh; F Jamshidiha
Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become ...
Naoko C. Kojo
This paper examines the theory of Dutch disease and its implications for practical policy questions. Dutch disease is a term that is well-known to economists and development practitioners. But it is also a concept that is often conflated with "resource curse" and misinterpreted as a "disease" that necessarily causes adverse impacts on the economy. The paper points out that many of the seem...
White, Dennis J
Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized labor...
Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... so that you know how meals and activities affect your level OTHER WAYS TO PROTECT YOUR KIDNEYS ...
Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo
This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...
Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.
Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease. Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease. The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures. Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients
XU Xue-feng; DU Li-zhong
Objective To review the role of epigenetic regulation in neonatal diseases and better understand Barker's "fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis".Data sources The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from the articles published in Medline/PubMed between January 1953 and December 2009.Study selection Articles associated with epigenetics and neonatal diseases were selected.Results There is a wealth of epidemiological evidence that lower birth weight is strongly correlated with an increased risk of adult diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This phenomenon of fetal origins of adult disease is strongly associated with fetal insults to epigenetic modifications of genes. A potential role of epigenetic modifications in congenital disorders, transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) have been studied.Conclusions Acknowledgment of the role of these epigenetic modifications in neonatal diseases would be conducive to better understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases, and provide new insight for improved treatment and prevention of later adult diseases.
... Image Library Digestive Disease, Nutrition, and Weight-control Materials Healthy eating, physical activity, and weight control materials available from NIDDK's Weight-control Information Network(WIN) ...
Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...
Acosta, Lealani Mae Y
Although humans have long valued creativity, the generation of such innovation is still incompletely understood. Looking at the healthy brain, researchers have localized certain parts for a basic understanding of these mechanisms. By researching the brain affected by neurological disease, scientists have observed unique manifestations of creativity, such as in frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and parkinsonian spectrum disorders, and stroke, which help clarify these creative underpinnings. Incorporating both healthy and disease models of cerebral functioning, neurological and neuroscientific research from recent years has built on established theories and expanded current knowledge. PMID:24938215
Pulst, Stefan M
A survey conducted in Canada examined the prevalence of perceived genetic discrimination against patients with Huntington disease. The respondents reported discrimination not only by insurance or mortgage companies, but also in family and social contexts. Discrimination was more frequently attributed to family history than to genetic test results. PMID:19794509
Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P
Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448
Barnes, Peter J; Burney, Peter G J; Silverman, Edwin K; Celli, Bartolome R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wouters, Emiel F M
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease with high global morbidity and mortality. COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airway obstruction, which is confirmed by spirometry, and includes obstruction of the small airways (chronic obstructive bronchiolitis) and emphysema, which lead to air trapping and shortness of breath in response to physical exertion. The most common risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking, but other environmental factors, such as exposure to indoor air pollutants - especially in developing countries - might influence COPD risk. Not all smokers develop COPD and the reasons for disease susceptibility in these individuals have not been fully elucidated. Although the mechanisms underlying COPD remain poorly understood, the disease is associated with chronic inflammation that is usually corticosteroid resistant. In addition, COPD involves accelerated ageing of the lungs and an abnormal repair mechanism that might be driven by oxidative stress. Acute exacerbations, which are mainly triggered by viral or bacterial infections, are important as they are linked to a poor prognosis. The mainstay of the management of stable disease is the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, whereas corticosteroids are beneficial primarily in patients who have coexisting features of asthma, such as eosinophilic inflammation and more reversibility of airway obstruction. Apart from smoking cessation, no treatments reduce disease progression. More research is needed to better understand disease mechanisms and to develop new treatments that reduce disease activity and progression. PMID:27189863
Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel
There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467
... treated before serious illness from copper poisoning develops. Wilson disease affects approximately one in 30,000 people worldwide. The genetic defect causes excessive copper accumulation in the liver or brain. Read More Membership Wilson Disease Association Membership As a member, you have ...
Hansen, Louise Houlberg; Mikkelsen, Søren
Purpose. Correct prehospital diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) may accelerate and improve the treatment. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of prehospital diagnoses of ischemic heart diseases assigned by physicians. Methods. The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark...
Heart disease is the leading killer of Americans. But it kills more women than men. The American Heart Association says heart disease and other cardiovascular (心血管的) disorders kill about five hundred thousand women a year. That is more than the next seven causes of death combined.
Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone populations
... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...
In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the number one killer in the United States - heart disease and stroke. Created: 9/3/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 3/6/2014.
Greve, Tanja Maria; Kamp, Søren; Jemec, Gregor B E
Accurate documentation of disease severity is a prerequisite for clinical research and the practice of evidence-based medicine. The quantification of skin diseases such as psoriasis currently relies heavily on clinical scores. Although these clinical scoring methods are well established and very ...
This leaflet gives information on Koi herpesvirus disease (KHV). KHV is caused by koi herpesvirus (or cyprinid herpesvirus-3) a double stranded DNA virus of the family Herpesviridae. KHV is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC and is notifiable in Ireland according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.
Heart disease and depression often go hand-in-hand. You are are more likely to feel sad or depressed after a heart attack ... heart disease. The good news is that treating depression may help improve both your mental and physical ...
Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...
Pfützer, Roland H; Kruis, Wolfgang
Diverticular disease is a common condition in Western countries and the incidence and prevalence of the disease is increasing. The pathogenetic factors involved include structural changes in the gut that increase with age, a diet low in fibre and rich in meat, changes in intestinal motility, the concept of enteric neuropathy and an underlying genetic background. Current treatment strategies are hampered by insufficient options to stratify patients according to individual risk. One of the main reasons is the lack of an all-encompassing classification system of diverticular disease. In response, the German Society for Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (DGVS) has proposed a classification system as part of its new guideline for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. The classification system includes five main types of disease: asymptomatic diverticulosis, acute uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis, as well as chronic diverticular disease and diverticular bleeding. Here, we review prevention and treatment strategies stratified by these five main types of disease, from prevention of the first attack of diverticulitis to the management of chronic complications and diverticular bleeding.
... Treated? Living With Lou Gehrig's Disease en español Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica What Is Lou Gehrig's Disease? Lou ... elimination to figure out the answer to a multiple-choice question on a test.) One of the ...
Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel
There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.
Barabas, Gabor, Ed.
This special edition explores the serious genetic disorder, Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND), which is characterized by severe dystonia, spasticity, speech impairment, renal disease, varying degrees of cognitive deficit, and, especially, compulsive self-injury. The information provided is based on experience at the Matheny School and Hospital (New…
... needs. Over time, celiac disease can cause anemia, infertility, weak and brittle bones, an itchy skin rash, and other health problems. Fast Facts Celiac disease is an immune disorder in which people can't eat gluten or use items with gluten in them. Celiac ...
Celiac disease affects about 1% of the European and North American population. The classical clinical presentation is with symptoms of malabsorption. Serologic studies demonstrate that most celiac patients present with oligosymptomatic (silent), latent, potential, and extraintestinal forms. The disease is defined as an immune-mediated systemic disorder of genetically disposed individuals (HLA-DQ2/8) induced by the alcohol-soluble fractions of cereals and characterized by gluten-dependent symptoms, celiac-specific antibodies (against tissue transglutaminase 2), and a Marsh 2-3 enteropathy. In the last 60 years, a strict and lifelong gluten-free diet has been demonstrated to be effective and safe, preventing most potential complications of the disease, including autoimmune disease, osteoporosis, infertility, prematurity, and malignancy. Among patients with celiac disease, the toxicity of oats seems to be less than wheat, barley, and rye. The introduction of oats into the diet of patients with celiac disease should increase taste, fiber content, diversity, compliance with the diet, and quality of life. The clinical studies provide limited results in favor of a general harmlessness of oats for celiac disease patients. Patients with celiac disease who consume oats (20-25 g/d for children, 50-70 g/d for adults) need proper follow-up. PMID:21939908
... ACG on Facebook About ACG ACG Store ACG Patient Education & Resource Center Home GI Health and Disease Recursos en Español What is a Gastroenterologist? Podcasts and Videos GI Health Centers Colorectal Cancer Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity © ...
Safavi Naiyni SA
Full Text Available A 16 year old woman with Tangier disease in palatine tonsils is reported. She has recurrent sore throat. In physical examination the palatine tonsils are hypertrophied and has very yellowish points. The facial skin is yellowish but the skin of another areas of body is normal. After tonsillectomy the pathologist report Tangier disease in palatine tonsils
Kammermeier, Jochen; Morris, Mary-Anne; Garrick, Vikki; Furman, Mark; Rodrigues, Astor; Russell, Richard K
Crohn's disease (CD) is rapidly increasing in children so an up to date knowledge of diagnosis, investigation and management is essential. Exclusive enteral nutrition is the first line treatment for active disease. The vast majority of children will need immunosuppressant treatment and around 20% will need treatment with biologics. Recent guidelines have helped make best use of available therapies.
Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady
Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.
Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by plaques with shiny white desquamation on the skin. It affects 1 to 3% of different ethnic populations. The disease significantly lowers the quality of life for the patients as the lesions appear on visible regions such as the scalp, face and extremities causing pruritus and extensive use of topical agents with a poor rate of recovery and the disease has a recurrent course with frequent attacks. Psoriasis was previously assumed to be a cutaneous disease resulting from epidermal cell hyperproliferation for a long time. However, studies conducted on the etiopathogenesis of the disease revealed that psoriasis is a chronic autoinflammatory disease which is caused by immune system dysregulation. Recently, the frequent association of psoriasis with other autoinflammatory diseases, comorbidities and complications which indeed shorten life expectancy concluded that psoriasis is a systemic disease and created a major difference in its treatment and follow-up modalities. In this review, the comorbidities, which are shown to be related to systemic inflammation and which also share a common pathogenesis with psoriasis, will be discussed. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 119-22
A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...
Rapin, Nicolas; Mosekilde, Erik; Lund, Ole
Autoimmune diseases damage host tissue, which, in turn, may trigger a stronger immune response. Systems characterized by such positive feedback loops can display co-existing stable steady states. In a mathematical model of autoimmune disease, one steady state may correspond to the healthy state...
... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Lyme Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Lyme Disease Print A A A Text Size What's ... Fight the Bite en español La enfermedad de Lyme In the spring and summer, you might hear ...
... the HelpLine Upcoming Events Parkinson's News PD ExpertBriefing : Parkinson’s Disease: Financial, Legal and Medical Planning Tips for Care ... loved one with Parkinson's plan for the future? Parkinson’s disease can require you to plan for both long- ...
Shaman, J. L.
Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.
Pietro Invernizzi; Ian R Mackay
The liver was one of the earliest recognized sites among autoimmune diseases yet autoimmune hepatitis,primary biliary cirrhosis,primary sclerosing cholangitis,and their overlap forms,are still problematic in diagnosis and causation.The contributions herein comprise 'pairs of articles' on clinical characteristics,and concepts of etiopathogenesis,for each of the above diseases,together with childhood autoimmune liver disease,overlaps,interpretations of diagnostic serology,and liver transplantation.This issue is timely,since we are witnessing an ever increasing applicability of immunology to a wide variety of chronic diseases,hepatic and non-hepatic,in both developed and developing countries.The 11 invited expert review articles capture the changing features over recent years of the autoimmune liver diseases,the underlying immunomolecular mechanisms of development,the potent albeit still unexplained genetic influences,the expanding repertoire of immunoserological diagnostic markers,and the increasingly effective therapeutic possibilities.
Alexander J. S. Choi
Full Text Available Autophagy provides a mechanism for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. During starvation, autophagy exerts a homeostatic function that promotes cell survival by recycling metabolic precursors. Additionally, autophagy can interact with other vital processes such as programmed cell death, inflammation, and adaptive immune mechanisms, and thereby potentially influence disease pathogenesis. Macrophages deficient in autophagic proteins display enhanced caspase-1-dependent proinflammatory cytokine production and the activation of the inflammasome. Autophagy provides a functional role in infectious diseases and sepsis by promoting intracellular bacterial clearance. Mutations in autophagy-related genes, leading to loss of autophagic function, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Furthermore, autophagy-dependent mechanisms have been proposed in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases that involve inflammation, including cystic fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Strategies aimed at modulating autophagy may lead to therapeutic interventions for diseases associated with inflammation.
Janice M Leung
Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.
Basant K. Puri
Full Text Available Neurological involvement in Lyme disease has been reported to include meningitis, cranial neuropathy and radiculoneuritis. While it is known that in some cases of asceptic meningitis patients may develop hyperosmia, the association between hyperosmia and Lyme disease has not previously been studied. Objective To carry out the first systematic study to ascertain whether hyperosmia is also a feature of Lyme disease. Method A questionnaire regarding abnormal sensory sensitivity in respect of the sense of smell was administered to 16 serologically positive Lyme disease patients and to 18 control subjects. Results The two groups were matched in respect of age, sex and body mass. None of the 34 subjects was suffering from migraine. Eight (50% of the Lyme patients and none (0% of the controls suffered from hyperosmia (p=0.0007. Conclusion This first systematic controlled study showed that Lyme disease is associated with hyperosmia.
Beau, Isabelle; Mehrpour, Maryam; Codogno, Patrice
The autophagosome is a double-membrane bound compartment that initiates macroautophagy, a degradative pathway for cytoplasmic material terminating in the lysosomal compartment. The discovery of ATG genes involved in the formation of autophagosomes has greatly increased our understanding of the molecular basis of macroautophagy, and its role in cell function. Macroautophagy plays a pivotal role in cell fitness by removing obsolete organelles and protein aggregates. Its stimulation is an adaptive response to stressful situations, such as nutrient deprivation, intended to maintain a level of ATP compatible with cell survival. Macroautophagy is central for organ homeostasis, embryonic development, and longevity. Malfunctioning autophagy is observed in many human diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac and muscular diseases, infectious and inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and obesity. Discovering potential drug therapies that can be used to modulate macroautophagy is a major challenge, and likely to enhance the therapeutic arsenal against many human diseases. PMID:21256243
Ferguson, A; Ziegler, K; Strobel, S
Coeliac disease is a permanent condition of gluten intolerance associated with characteristic gluten-sensitive changes in the jejunal mucosa. In Edinburgh and the Lothians Region of Scotland, the prevalence of the disease is one in 1637 (61/100,000) with considerable variation in age, and sex-specific prevalence and incidence. Several lines of evidence indicate an immunologic basis for the gluten-sensitive enteropathy in coeliac disease. Animal models of intestinal T cell-mediated reactions in the gut have shown pathologic features similar to those of coeliac disease. These include changes in villus and crypt architecture with crypt hyperplasia, and increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes and of intraepithelial lymphocyte mitosis. Experimental CMI reactions also influence differentiation of goblet cells and expression of Ia antigen on epithelial cells, but these factors have not yet been reported for the coeliac mucosa. In addition to this circumstantial evidence, based on animal work, other factors which suggest that CMI reactions rather than antibodies are relevant to coeliac disease include the findings of antigliadin antibodies in a proportion of normal individuals, patients without gastrointestinal disease (seen in hospital), and patients with jejunal Crohn's disease. In addition, there is a well documented patient with adult onset primary hypogammaglobulinaemia and coeliac disease. The underlying pathogenesis in coeliac disease can be envisaged as failure of the normal inhibition of immune responses to this particular food antigen in the gut. Manipulation of immunoregulatory mechanisms would provide a new approach to treatment or cure of this disease and of other food protein-sensitive enteropathies. PMID:6391293
This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infe...
Lundin, Knut E. A.; Wijmenga, Cisca
Coeliac disease is a treatable, gluten-induced disease that often occurs concurrently with other autoimmune diseases. In genetic studies since 2007, a partial genetic overlap between these diseases has been revealed and further insights into the pathophysiology of coeliac disease and autoimmunity ha
Ch’ng, Chin Lye; Jones, M Keston; Kingham, Jeremy G. C.
Celiac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy is relatively common in western populations with prevalence around 1%. With the recent availability of sensitive and specific serological testing, many patients who are either asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms can be shown to have CD. Patients with CD have modest increases in risks of malignancy and mortality compared to controls. The mortality among CD patients who comply poorly with a gluten-free diet is greater than in compliant patien...
John S. Ramsdell
Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
Mohammad Hassan Emami; Mostafa Raisi; Jaleh Amini; Hamed Daghaghzadeh
AIM: To investigate some possible etiologies of achalasia by screening patients with achalasia for some autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease.METHODS: We examined 30 known cases of achalasia (20 females, 10 males). Their age ranged 15-70 years.All of them were referred to our institute for treatment.Their sera were evaluated to detect some possible associations with rheumatoid disease, thyroid disease,inflammatory process, anemia, etc.RESULTS: Seven out of 30 patients (23%) had thyroid disease including four patients with hypothyroidism (13.3%), two patients with hyperthyroidism (6.6%),and one had only thyroid nodule but was in euthyroid state (3.3%). Two of these hypothyroid patients had no related clinical symptoms (subclinical) and two had clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism. There were no correlations between the intensity of thyroid diseases and the severity of achalasia symptoms.CONCLUSION: The etiology of achalasia is unknown although autoimmunity has been implicated and is supported by several studies. Thyroid disease presents concomitantly with achalasia in about one fourth of our patients who may have a common etiology.
Grover Harpreet Singh
Full Text Available Periodontitis is the result of complex interrelationships between infectious agents and host factors. Environmental, acquired, and genetic risk factors modify the expression of disease and may, therefore, affect the onset or progression of periodontitis. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of present review is to consider the association between smoking and periodontal diseases.
Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.
Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...
Disorders of sleep are an integral part of neurodegenerative diseases and include insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness that may be manifested as persistent somnolence or sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive and central sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome. The origin of these sleep disorders is multifactorial including degeneration of the brain areas that modulate sleep, the symptoms of the disease, and the effect of medications. Treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be individualized and includes behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, melatonin, hypnotics, waking-promoting agents, and continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26972029
R Balfour Sarto; William J Sandborn
@@ Very few medical textbooks have so thoroughly dominated,and even defined a field, as has Inflammatory Bowel Diseases by Joe Kirsner. Originally co-edited with Roy Shorter of Mayo Clinic, this book, beginning with its first edition in 1975, encapsulated the science and art of caring for patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Thus it is with considerable respect, and indeed some awe and trepidation,that we eagerly embraced the opportunity to assume the editorship of this preeminent textbook and the obligation to transition it to reflect the changing, increasingly complex pathophysiology and treatment of these diseases.
Sánchez Bocanegra, Carlos Luis
Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) is a portal web where contains videos from Youtube including all details from 12 channels of Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) es un portal web que contiene los vídeos de Youtube incluyendo todos los detalles de 12 canales de Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) és un portal web que conté els vídeos de Youtube i que inclou tots els detalls de 12 Canals de Youtube.
Goetz, Danielle M; Singh, Shipra
Respiratory system involvement in cystic fibrosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene throughout the sinopulmonary tract result in recurrent infections with a variety of organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Lung disease occurs earlier in life than once thought and ideal methods of monitoring lung function, decline, or improvement with therapy are debated. Treatment of sinopulmonary disease may include physiotherapy, mucus-modifying and antiinflammatory agents, antimicrobials, and surgery. In the new era of personalized medicine, CFTR correctors and potentiators may change the course of disease. PMID:27469180
Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a degenerative central nervous system (CNS disease caused by infection of prion protein (PrP, with clinical features including short course, rapid development and 100% mortality. This article aims to discuss the pathogenesis, histopathological features, clinical manifestations, electroencephalogram (EEG findings, imaging data and treatment progress of this disease based on literature review. Cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein detection, EEG and MRI are three important methods to make an early diagnosis on patients with suspected CJD, such as elderly patients with rapidly progressive dementia (RPD and young patients with mental symptoms involving multiple systems (MS.
Jessica Seebald, BS
Full Text Available Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease is an occlusive, nonatherosclerotic, inflammatory vasculitis that causes ischemia in small and medium vessels. Most commonly, Buerger disease is diagnosed in 40- to 45-year-old men with a heavy smoking history. Our case exemplifies the most common presentation, diagnosis, and treatment in a 53-year-old male smoker who presents with arm pain and dusky cool fingers. A Buerger diagnosis requires exclusion of autoimmune, diabetic, and embolic causes. The only recognized treatment for this disease is smoking cessation.
Compared to lower limb arterial diseases, upper limb arterial diseases look rare, heterogeneous with various etiologies and a rather vague clinical picture, but with a negligible risk of amputation. Almost all types of arterial diseases can be present in the upper limb, but the anatomical and hemodynamic conditions particular to the upper limb often confuse the issue. Thus, atherosclerosis affects mainly the subclavian artery in its proximal segment where the potential of collateral pathway is high making the symptomatic forms not very frequent whereas the prevalence of subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion is relatively high. The clinical examination and the etiologies are discussed according to the clinical, anatomical and hemodynamic context.
I Gusti Ayu Mahaprani Danastri
Full Text Available Crohn disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC is an chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Colecctively, they are called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, and about 1,5 millions people in America suffering from UC and CD. The cause of UC and CD is unknown, but the expert believe that UC and CD are caused by a disturbed immune response in someone who has a genetic predisposition. UC and CD have a significant recurrency and remission rate. Surgery in UC is a curative treatment for colon’s disease and a potentially colon’s malignancy, but it is not a curative treatment for CD.
Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health
Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.
Full Text Available Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, relapsing uveitis, mucocutaneous, articular, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and vascular manifestations. Rheumatologic manifestations may also occur in Behcet's disease, and arthritis and arthralgia are the most common musculoskeletal findings followed by enthesopathy, avascular necrosis, myalgia, and myositis. Although the main pathology of Behcet's disease has been known to be the underlying vasculitis, the etiology and exact pathogenesis of the disease are still unclear. Musculoskeletal findings of Behcet's disease, the relationship between Behcet's disease and spondyloarthropathy disease complex, and the status of bone metabolism in patients with Behcet's disease were discussed in this paper.
Petersen, Donald H.; And Others
This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of four sections on plant disease recognition and control. The titles of these four sections are: (1) Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits; (2) Diseases of Vegetable Crops; (3) Diseases of Crops; and (4) Diseases of Tree Nuts. The first section discusses…
Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally (the other being enteric disease). The economic impact of respiratory disease is both direct, from the production losses caused by primary disease and indirect from preve...
John, Vanchit; Alqallaf, Hawra; De Bedout, Tatiana
A link between periodontal disease and various systemic diseases has been investigated for several years. Interest in unearthing such a link has grown as the health care profession is looking for a better understanding of disease processes and their relationships to periodontal and other oral diseases. The article aims to provide recent information on the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic diseases such as; cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and reproductive system related abnormalities. PMID:26939411
... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry ... infection does not make cats sick. However, the scratch or bite of an infected cat can cause ...
Sinclair, Nicholas R.; Laub, Donald R
Thromboangiitis Obliterans is a non-atherosclerotic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, which has a strong association with tobacco. We present current concepts on the pathophysiology and diagnosis, as well as a review in treatments.
Full Text Available Wilson disease (WD is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene that encodes a P-type copper ATPase, ATP7B. In WD, a mutated dysfunctional ATP7B leads to a progressive accumulation of Cu in the liver and brain. Clinically, WND shows considerable phenotypic variability including fulminant hepatic failure, hemolysis, chronic liver disease, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis, and neuro-psychiatric disease with or without hepatic involvement. An 18 -year-old female patient who has the diagnosis of Wilson s disease was referred from outside center for genetic counseling. The mutations p.M1169T was identified in the homozygous form. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 345-352
... are here: Related Information Ankylosing Spondylitis, Q&A Bursitis and Tendinitis, Q&A Fibromyalgia, Q&A Gout, ... are more common among women. Other Rheumatic Diseases Bursitis. A condition involving inflammation of the bursae (small, ...
... diseases caused by roundworms result from poor personal hygiene. Contributing factors may include Lack of a clean water supply Inadequate sanitation measures Crowded living conditions combined with a lack of access to health care and low levels of education ...
... other progressive neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s or Huntington’s disease. However, CJD causes unique changes in brain tissue ... arise from a mutation, or change, in the gene that controls formation of the normal prion protein. ...
... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Diseases Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... a health practitioner will usually order to detect thyroid dysfunction is a test for thyroid stimulating hormone ( ...
... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...
... Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers ... Other symptoms of kidney disease include loss of sleep, poor appetite, upset stomach, weakness, and difficulty concentrating. ...
Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...
Moscoso J, Felipe; Quera P, Rodrigo
The prevalence of Celiac disease in the general population is approximately 1% and remains undiagnosed in a significant proportion of individuals. Its clinical presentation includes the classical malabsorption syndrome, unspecific and extra-intestinal manifestations, and silent celiac disease. The serologic diagnosis has an elevated sensitivity and specificity and, at least in adult population, it must be confirmed by biopsy in every case. Diagnosis in subjects already on gluten free diet includes HLA typing and gluten challenge with posterior serologic and histologic evaluation. The core of the treatment is the gluten free diet, which must be supervised by an expert nutritionist. Monitoring must be performed with serology beginning at 3-6 months, and with histology two years after the diagnosis, unless the clinical response is poor. Poor disease control is associated with complications such as lymphoma and small bowel adenocarcinoma. In the future, it is likely that new pharmacologic therapies will be available for the management of celiac disease. PMID:27092676
... to Mitochondrial Disease FAQ's MitoFirst Handbook More Information Mito 101 Symposium Archives Get Connected Find an Event Adult Advisory Council Team Ask The Mito Doc Grand Rounds Kids & Teens Medical Child Abuse ...
... Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular Surgery. Vasc Med . 2011;16:35-77. PMID: 23281092 ... disease. In: Cronenwett JL, Johnston KW, eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...
... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...
... Awareness Bracelet $40.00 BDSRA Bag $5.00 Golf Balls (Set of Three) $10.00 Choose Your ... Research and News Past Grant Awards BDSRA Conference Learn About Clinical Trials Advocacy Batten Disease Advocacy and ...
... blood sugar level. Certain genes may play a role in congenital heart disease. Many family members may be affected. Talk to your provider about genetic counseling and screening if you have a family history ...
Björkhem, Ingemar; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Leoni, Valerio;
Oxysterols are important for cholesterol homeostasis in the brain and may be affected in neurodegenerative diseases. The levels of the brain-derived oxysterol 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OH) have been reported to be markedly reduced in the circulation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) (Lee...... et al., Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11 (2009) 407-420). The finding is surprising in view of the fact that other neurodegenerative diseases are associated with relatively modest effects on the circulating levels of 24S-OH. We determined the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of 24S-OH and 27......-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH) in patients with PD with different disease duration using a highly accurate method based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. All the patients had plasma levels of the different oxysterols within the normal range. When analyzing CSF, 10% of the PD patients were found to have levels of 24...
... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Apr 18,2016 Understand the risks of inflammation. Although it is not proven that inflammation causes ...
... are capable of transmitting other tick-borne diseases. Dog Tick In some regions, dog ticks are common vectors for Rocky Mountain Spotted ... these materials for a modest fee. A Spanish language brochure is also available. It should be noted ...
Heneka, Michael T.; Carson, Monica J.; El Khoury, Joseph; Landreth, Gary E.; Brosseron, Frederic; Feinstein, Douglas L.; Jacobs, Andreas H.; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Vitorica, Javier; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Herrup, Karl; Frautschy, Sally A.; Finsen, Bente; Brown, Guy C.; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Yamanaka, Koji; Koistinaho, Jari; Latz, Eicke; Halle, Annett; Petzold, Gabor C.; Town, Terrence; Morgan, Dave; Shinohara, Mari L.; Perry, V. Hugh; Holmes, Clive; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Brooks, David J.; Hunot, Stephane; Joseph, Bertrand; Deigendesch, Nikolaus; Garaschuk, Olga; Boddeke, Erik; Dinarello, Charles A.; Breitner, John C.; Cole, Greg M.; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Kummer, Markus P.
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigg
Jeferson Freitas Toregeani
Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disease (AD is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. It expresses inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP and can provoke arterial wall thickening, which can be evaluated using Doppler ultrasound. Risk factors associated with AD include diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking. More recently, periodontal disease (PD has been identified as a factor related to AD. Periodontal disease has a high prevalence in the global population and the inflammatory process and bacterial activity at the periodontium appear to increase the risk of AD. Encouraging good oral hygiene can reduce expression of inflammatory markers of AD. A review of literature on PD, AD and inflammatory markers and the interrelationships between the two diseases was conducted using data published in articles indexed on the PUBMED, SCIELO and BIREME databases.
Altekruse, S F; Cohen, M L; Swerdlow, D L
The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. Recently described pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the epidemic strain of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium Definitive Type 104 (which is resistant to at least five antimicrobial drugs), have become important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles. Emergence in foodborne diseases is driven by the same forces as emergence in other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics, human behavior, industry, and technology; the shift toward a global economy; microbial adaptation; and the breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne diseases will require more sensitive and rapid surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and effective prevention and control. PMID:9284372
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels and abnormalities of lipid metabolism due to absence or decreased level of insulin. It affects all the body organs and their functions either directly or indirectly. Every dentist should have a basic understanding of the etiopathogenesis, oral and systemic manifestations of this disease. The periodontal diseases are a consequence of extension of the gingival inflammation into the underlying supporting structures of the periodontium, initiated by the presence of plaque and its products on the surfaces of the teeth and the adjoining structures. The progression of periodontal disease is influenced by variety of factors like microorganisms, host response, systemic background, and genetic makeup of the host. Amongst them, diabetes mellitus tops the list. Diabetes and periodontitis influence the clinical outcome of each other and control of both influences the clinical improvement of each.
... well.” 11 Managing Advanced Parkinson Disease DENTAL CARE Oral hygiene should remain an important part of the daily routine in order to prevent serious dental problems and the development of other illnesses. The ...
... forms of gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis and Periodontitis In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily. Gingivitis can usually be reversed with daily brushing and ...
Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann
Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071
... including diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and cys tic kidney diseases. Participants in clinical trials can play ... Life Options Rehabilitation Resource Center c/o Medical Education Institute, Inc. 414 D’Onofrio Drive, Suite 200 ...
... Newly Diagnosed Patients There are over 6,000 genetic disorders that can be passed down through the ... mission to help prevent, manage and treat inherited genetic diseases. View our latest News Brief here . You ...
Heneka, Michael T; Carson, Monica J; Khoury, Joseph El;
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and tr...
... Care Online Health Resources For Health Professionals Competency & Curricular Resources Genetics 101 Genomic Medicine and Health Care ... but often have a more slowly progressive disease process and the extent of brain involvement is quite ...
Kottler, R.E.; Freson, M. (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Radiology)
Radiology is of considerable value in all forms of inflammatory bowel disease to establish its presence and extent, and to differentiate lesions. The most common inflammatory bowel diseases are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Crohn's disease may occur anywhere in the disgestive tract, but is most common in the terminal ileum. Since there is no practical endoscopic method of examining the small bowel, barium studies of the latter are most important. Modern radiological techniques, especially the double contrast barium enema, show excellent correlation between the macroscopic changes and the radiological features. Radiology alone does not provide the answers and the radiological features must be interpreted in conjunction with clinical investigation.
... blood sample and sending it to a lab. Blood smear This test is used to look for parasites ... found in the blood. By looking at a blood smear under a microscope, parasitic diseases such as filariasis, ...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this contingency plan is reduce waterfowl losses from disease, primarily avian botulism, along the eastern shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. This...
You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...
Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that involves overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). Hallmarks of the condition are bulging eyes (exophthalmos), heat intolerance, increased energy, difficulty sleeping, diarrhea, and anxiety.
Discusses disease and genetic disorders as evolutionary mechanisms. Emphasizes the archeological evidence from past human populations and societies, mentioning albinism, scurvy, sleeping sickness, bone conditions, various host-parasite relationships, rickets, sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and influenza. (CS)
... depending on the cause. Importantly, each person responds differently to treatment, so close monitoring during treatment is important. More Interstitial Lung Disease ... a Question Learn About Clinical Trials Find a Doctor Find Departments ...
Pregnancy induces immunologic changes that may differentially impact rheumatic disorders. The effects of pregnancy on rheumatic diseases vary by condition. The systemic rheumatic illnesses commonly complicating pregnancy are systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), scleroderma.
Ter Haar, Nienke; Lachmann, Helen; Özen, Seza;
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response to treatment of autoinflammatory diseases from an international registry and an up-to-date literature review. METHODS: The response to treatment was studied in a web-based registry in which clinical information on anonymised patients with autoinflammatory...... diseases was collected retrospectively as part of the Eurofever initiative. Participating hospitals included paediatric rheumatology centres of the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trial Organisation network and adult centres with a specific interest in autoinflammatory diseases. The following...... diseases were included: familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), pyogenic arthritis pustulosis acne (PAPA) syndrome, deficiency of interleukin-1...
... Lifestyle changes also help. These include a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, being physically active, and quitting smoking. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Straw, Nigel; Lonsdale, David [Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom)
This paper summaries the findings of surveys of pests and diseases carried out at pure and mixed plots of willow and poplar varieties twice a year during each growing season. The main causes of damage recorded were leaf rust, defoliation by insects, and leaf disease, distortion and chlorosis as well as frost damage, aphid infestation, and shoot dieback. Leaf rust for willow and poplar clones are plotted, and details of leaf rust and defoliation in pure and mixed plots are tabulated.
2008429 The predictive factors and unfavourable prognostic factors of interstitial lung disease in patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis. WANG Peizhen(王培珍), et al. Dept Rheumatol & Immunol, Changhai Hosp, Milit Med Univ, Shanghai 200433. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;31(6):417-420. Objective To analyze the predictive factors and the unfavourable prognostic factors of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with polymyositis
Full Text Available Major advances have been achieved over the two last decades in the field of genetic cardiovascular diseases, not only through increased recognition and understanding of underlying molecular defects but also through rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Genetic counseling and organization of cardiac family screening has become part of the medical management of these diseases, and these should be performed systematically unless an acquired cause has been diagnosed...
It is shown that roentgenological examination plays an important role in diagnosis of central nervous system diseases in children. The methods of roentgenological examinations are divided into 3 groups: roentgenography without contrast media (conventional roentgenography), roentgenography with artificial contrasting of liquor space (ventriculopneumoencelography, myelography) and contrasting of brain and spinal blood vessels (angiography). Conventional contrastless roentgenography of skull and vertebral column occupies leadership in diagnosis of brain neoplasms and some vascular diseases
This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDCâs response efforts. Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/8/2014.
Mhyre, Timothy R.; Boyd, James T.; Hamill, Robert W.; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common age-related motoric neurodegenerative disease initially described in the 1800’s by James Parkinson as the ‘Shaking Palsy’. Loss of the neurotransmitter dopamine was recognized as underlying the pathophysiology of the motor dysfunction; subsequently discovery of dopamine replacement therapies brought substantial symptomatic benefit to PD patients. However, these therapies do not fully treat the clinical syndrome nor do they alter the natural history ...
Mota, Amanda Nascimento Cavalleiro de Macedo; Piñeiro-Maceira, Juan; Alves, Maria de Fatima Guimarães Scotelaro; Tarazona, Mónica Jidid Mateus
Pigmented Bowen's disease is rare, though more prevalent in men. It presents as a well-delineated plaque in areas unexposed to sun. There are reports of association with seborrheic keratosis, solar lentigo or exuberant pigmentation of genital and intertriginous regions. A specific dermoscopy finding is the presence of brown or gray dots in regular arrangement and coiled or dotted vessels. Thus, we aim to raise awareness of the diagnosis of pigmented Bowen's disease in pigmented lesions.
Uc, Ergun Y.; Rizzo, Matthew
The proportion of elderly in the general population is rising, resulting in greater numbers of drivers with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). These neurodegenerative disorders impair cognition, visual perception, and motor function, leading to reduced driver fitness and greater crash risk. Yet medical diagnosis or age alone is not reliable enough to predict driver safety or crashes, or revoke the driving privileges of these drivers. Dri...
Pia Allegri; Roberto Rissotto; Herbort, Carl P.; Ugo Murialdo
A number of inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and idiopathic disorders affect the eye and the central nervous system (CNS) concurrently or at different time frames. These conditions pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinician since they may present with similar ocular and neurological manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe major neurological syndromes including multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi- Harada disease, other autoimmune syndromes, and several infectious diseases...
Flavia Angélica Ferreira Francisco; Arthur Soares Souza; Gláucia Zanetti; Edson Marchiori
Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and a...
Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin
This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.
2005198 Study on the relationship of plasma fib-rinogen, platelet aggregation rate ad peripheral arterial occlusive disease. WANG Jie(王洁), et al. Dept Emerg, Gene Hosp Chin People’s Armed Police Forces, Beijing 100039. Chin J Epidemiol, 2005; 26 (1):1-4. Objective: To detect the relationship of plasma fibrinogen, platelet aggregation rate and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) in the elderly.
Dayama, Pankaj; Sampath, Kameshwaran
Early detection of outbreak of a disease may help in timely and effective public health interventions. Our motivation for this work is to assist EHD planning officer to analyze the incidence data and based on it declare whether there is an outbreak or not. In this paper, we develop ensemble of multiple techniques for detecting dengue disease outbreak. These techniques are applied to dengue incidence data from Singapore and results are summarized.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular disease (CVD), which sits under the chronic disease umbrella, is the number one cause of death globally. Over time, we have witnessed different trends that have influenced the prevalence of CVD. One of the ways of decreasing CVD and its social costs and global fatalities is through influencing preventable CVD risk factors. Though many risk factors such as age and gender are not preventable, there are several effective behaviours...
Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells.
VERKHRATSKY, ALEXEI; Rodríguez, José J.; Parpura, Vladimir
Astroglia encompass a subset of versatile glial cells that fulfill a major homeostatic role in the mammalian brain. Since any brain disease results from failure in brain homeostasis, astroglial cells are involved in many, if not all, aspects of neurological and/or psychiatric disorders. In this article, the roles of astrocytes as homeostatic cells in healthy and diseased brains are surveyed. These cells can mount the defence response to the insult of the brain, astrogliosis, when and where th...
Kimura's disease is a rare disorder which predominantly involves the head and neck region can cause eosinophilia in peripheral blood. It has been treated with steroids, surgical excision, irradiation, cryotherapy, and laser. The sessions have a tendency to recur after steroid and surgery. We reviewed 2 patients with Kimura's disease who recurred, because they were resistant steroid therapy and surgery, and treated successfully conventional radiation therapy
Matsen, Egil; Torvik, Ragnar
Growth models of the Dutch disease, such as those of Krugman (1987), Matsuyama (1992), Sachs and Warner (1995) and Gylfason et al. (1999), explain why resource abundance may reduce growth. However, the literature also raises a new question: if the use of resource wealth hurts productivity growth, how should such wealth be optimally managed? This question forms the topic of the present paper, in which we extend the growth literature on the Dutch disease from a positive to a normative setting. ...
Bens Pardamean; Anindito; Anjela Djoeang; Nana Tobing
The study designed an information system model for Disease Management (DisMan) that met the specifications and needs of a consumer electronics manufacturer. The diseases monitored by this study were diabetes, hypertension and tuberculosis. Data were collected through interviews with the companyâs human resources department and occupational health provider. As for the model, literature and online research were conducted to collect health standards and information system standards on existing D...
Barry J Byrne; Falk, Darin J.; Pacak, Christina A; Nayak, Sushrusha; Herzog, Roland W; Elder, Melissa E.; Collins, Shelley W.; Conlon, Thomas J.; Clement, Nathalie; Cleaver, Brian D.; Cloutier, Denise A.; Porvasnik, Stacy L; Islam, Saleem; ElMallah, Mai K; Martin, Anatole
Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive metabolic myopathy caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase and results in cellular lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen accumulation. A wide spectrum of disease exists from hypotonia and severe cardiac hypertrophy in the first few months of life due to severe mutations to a milder form with the onset of symptoms in adulthood. In either condition, the involvement of several systems leads to progressive weakness and disabilit...
Van Damme, H
Carotid artery disease (CAD) become a commonly seen disease in general medical practice, due to the general population aging. Stroke, one of the most frequent complications of CAD and represents the third cause of death in Western countries. The leading cause of stroke in CAD is atheroembolism rather than flow-reduction. This paper reviewed imaging techniques, medical treatment and esepecially carotid endarterectomy (from point of view of indications, surgical technique and results) and caro...
You, Jie; Huang, Sha; Huang, Gui-Qian; Zhu, Gui-Qi; Ma, Rui-Min; Liu, Wen-yue; Shi, Ke-Qing; Guo, Gui-Long; Chen, Yong-Ping; Braddock, Martin; Zheng, Ming-Hua
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the relationship between NAFLD and the prognosis of CRC remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates in patients with CRC and the secondary objective was to compare clinicopathologic variables which were stratified by NAFLD. We performed a large cohort study of 1314 patien...
Motor neurone disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown aetiology. Progressive motor weakness and bulbar dysfunction lead to premature death, usually from respiratory failure. Confirming the diagnosis may initially be difficult until the full clinical features are manifest. For all forms of the disease there is a significant differential diagnosis to consider, including treatable conditions, and therefore specialist neurological opinion ...
Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.
Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and represent an additional burden for adolescents. The interaction between chronic disorders and various development issues is complex and two-way: the disease may affect development, and development may affect the disease. Developmental, psychosocial and family factors are of great importance in the treatment of adolescents with chronic disorders. Chronic disorders affect all aspects of adolescent life, including relations with peers, school, nutrition, learning, traveling, entertainment, choice of occupation, plans for the future. Physicians should keep in mind that chronic diseases and their treatment represent only one aspect of person's life. Adolescents with chronic diseases have other needs as well, personal priorities, social roles and they expect these needs to be recognized and respected. Adolescent health care should be adjusted to the life style of adolescents.
Gubler, D J
Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467
Eulália Maria Martins da SILVA
Full Text Available Introduction: With the population aging, the number of chronic and degenerative illnesses, own of the old age, it will appear more frequently. Objective: The objective of this study was to do a literature revision in order to approach the illnesses that more they attack the patients of the third age (from the chronic diseases even the degenerative chronic diseases. Para that, a description will be accomplished as the concept and the signs and symptoms of the illnesses observed more frequently in the senior patients that will be depression, stress, loss of the memory, aterosclerose, osteoporosis, arthritis reumatóide and disorder temporomandibular, arterial hypertension, vascular diseases, heart diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, urinary incontinence, hearing and visual disturbances, disease of Parkinson and still the disease of Alzheimer. Conclusion: Based on the literature revision, we ended that, not only the professionals of the health, as well as all those that work with the seniors in general, they should have the concern of treating him with larger attention, patience and perseverance, to the point of to minimize the limitations that each one presents.
Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M; Jones, Philip H; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J M; Radford, Alan D
Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7 per cent, 2.3 per cent and 2.5 per cent of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively, between January 2014 and December 2015Coughing was the most frequent respiratory sign reported in dogs (71.1 per cent of consultations); in cats it was sneezing (42.6 per cent)Mean percentage of samples testing positive for feline calicivirus (FCV) was 30.1 per cent in 2014 and 27.9 per cent in 2015January was the month with the highest percentage of FCV-positive samples in both 2014 and 2015. PMID:27056810
Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C
Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may
Fliers, E.; Wiersinga, W.M.; Eskes, S.A.
This thesis focuses on some aspects of thyroid disease: prevention of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), diagnosis of related conditions as autoimmune hypophysitis in autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease), and treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT).
... of Diabetes Educators JDRF American Heart Association MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this ...
Full Text Available -borne infection. Ehrlichia ewingii has been identified as a cause of human disease in addition to formerly ...known pathogenic Ehrlichia species. Infectious disease Ehrlichia ewingii 16S rRNA [KO:K01977] Other diseases
Full Text Available xia with isolated vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused...evels of vitamin E. Inherited metabolic disease; Neurodegenerative disease TTPA [HSA:7274] Vitamin E [DR:D02
About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles ...
... disease and stroke prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about ... well-being. Does menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) prevent heart disease? Once you reach menopause, your ovaries stop making ...
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) can cause serious complications. However, if you ... changes and medicines, go to "How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?" Work closely with your doctor to control ...
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Diabetic heart disease (DHD) increases the likelihood of earlier and more ... also tend to have less success from certain heart disease treatments, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and ...
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...
... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...
Full Text Available H00694 Dent disease, including: Dent disease 1; Dent disease 2; X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis...ction, including low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis
... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Having diabetes or prediabetes ... can help prevent future health problems. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disorder of metabolismthe way our ...
... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Lyme Disease and the Heart Peter J. Krause and Linda ... in a few cases. Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Disease The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has ...
Full Text Available s multiplex, hepatosplenomegaly, and hydrops fetails. Inherited metabolic disease; Lysosomal storage disease...egies in the management of lysosomal storage diseases. Semin Pediatr Neurol 15:119-26 (2008) ...
Full Text Available and Central and South America. Immunization is the most important method of prevention of yellow fever but vaccine...eactions, neurotropic disease, and viscerotropic disease. Infectious disease Yellow fever virus [VGNM:NC_002031] Yellow fever vaccine
... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program Caring and Curing Since 1894 A genetic ... Florida Hawaii Louisiana New York Texas The National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program The National Hansen's Disease Program is ...
Full Text Available age disease (ISSD); Sialuria, Finnish type / Salla disease (SD); Sialuria, French type Salla disease (SD) and infantil...excessive lysosomal storage of free sialic acid. ISSD has a severe phenotype with infantile onset, while the
... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...
Full Text Available animal scratches and bites. Human bartonellosis is a group of diseases with a rap...idly increasing clinical spectrum. At least six Bartonella species are responsible for human diseases as well as zoonotic diseases
Full Text Available H00088 Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), including the following four diseases...SS, Gershwin ME. Current perspectives on primary immunodeficiency diseases. Clin ..., Wedgwood J. Primary immunodeficiency diseases: an update from the International Union of Immunological Soc
Full Text Available Head louse infestation is one of the most frequently occurring parasitic diseases... They are major vectors of diseases such as typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. Infectious disease Pe
Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...
... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Preventing tick bites On people On pets ... and symptoms What you need to know about Lyme carditis Lyme Disease Rashes and Look-alikes Diagnosis ...
... sickle cell disease, go to the Health Topics Sickle Cell Anemia article. Living With and Managing Sickle Cell Disease ( ... the most severe form of sickle cell disease, sickle cell anemia, Tiffany has lived with the symptoms and complications ...
... sickle cell disease, go to the Health Topics Sickle Cell Anemia article. Living With and Managing Sickle Cell Disease ( ... the most severe form of sickle cell disease, sickle cell anemia, Tiffany has lived with the symptoms and complications ...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on infectious disease Seroprevalence of six infectious diseases among adults in ...
Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian
Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts. Phylogenetic analyses placed goose isolates in an independent cluster, and more notably, important regulatory sequences present in Borna disease virus but lacking in psittacine ABVs were present in goose isolates. PMID:21900161
Full Text Available Introduction Celiac disease (nontropical sprue, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, chronic intestinal malabsorption disorder is caused by gluten intolerance. This hereditary disorder is caused by sensitivity to gliadin. Because the body's own immune system causes the damage, celiac disease is considered to be an autoimmune disorder. However, it is also classified as a disease of malabsorption because nutrients are not absorbed. When people with celiac disease eat foods containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging the small intestine. Specifically, tiny finger-like protrusions, called villi, on the lining of the small intestine are lost. The diagnosis is suspected on the basis of symptoms and signs, enhanced by laboratory and x-ray studies, and confirmed by biopsy revealing flat mucosa and subsequent clinical and histologic improvement on a gluten-free diet. Gluten must be excluded from diet. Supplementary vitamins, minerals and hematinics may be given depending on deficiency. Case report This is a case report of a 23-year old female patient with a mineralization defect (osteomalacia and secondary osteoporosis caused by long-time unrecognized celiac disease. The patient had many symptoms: short stature, steatorrhea, anemia, weight loss and chronic bone pain. Laboratory and x-ray studies and jejunal biopsy revealed a chronic intestinal malabsorption disorder caused by gluten intolerance. Gluten-free diet and supplementary vitamins, minerals and hematinics were included with apparent clinical remission. Discussion and Conclusion Some people with celiac disease may not have symptoms. The undamaged part of their small intestine is able to absorb enough nutrients to prevent symptoms. However, people without symptoms are still at risk for complications of celiac disease. Biopsy of the small intestine is the best way to diagnose celiac disease. Decreased bone density (osteoporosis and osteomalacia is a serious problem for celiacs. If calcium
Full Text Available H00541 Uromodulin-associated kidney diseases, including: Medullary cystic kidney disea...se 2; Familial juvenile hyperuremic nephropathy (HNFJ); Glomerulocystic kidney disease Uromodulin-associated kidney disea...ses are autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney diseases caused by mutations in the cil...iary protein uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein), which is exclusively produced in the kidney. Kidney disea...y of uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein): from tubulointerstitial nephropathy to chronic kidney disease. Kidn
Full Text Available H00819 Stargardt disease (STGD); Fundus flavimaculatus Stargardt disease (STGD) is ...sing STGD, including ABCA4, ELOVL4, PROM1, and CNGB3. Nervous system disease; Eye disease hsa02010(24) ABC t...K06532] ICD-10: H35.5 MeSH: C580470 OMIM: 248200 600110 603786 PMID:12789571 Koenekoop RK The gene for Stargardt disea...se severe progressive autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy presenting as Stargardt disease. Mol Vis 15:638
Damborg, Frank; Engell, Vilhelm; Nielsen, Jan;
The genetic/environmental etiology of Scheuermann's disease is unclear. We estimated the heritability of the disease using an etiological model adjusted for sex and time of diagnosis, and examined whether the prevalence of Scheuermann's disease was constant over time.......The genetic/environmental etiology of Scheuermann's disease is unclear. We estimated the heritability of the disease using an etiological model adjusted for sex and time of diagnosis, and examined whether the prevalence of Scheuermann's disease was constant over time....
Full Text Available red that Danon disease is not a glycogen storage disease because the disease is caused by the primary defici...yopathy. Semin Pediatr Neurol 13:90-5 (2006) PMID:18377432 Yang Z, Vatta M Danon disease as a cause...H00150 Danon disease; X-linked vacuolar cardiomyopathy and myopathy Danon disease i...s an X-linked disorder caused by deficiency of lysosomal-associated membrane protein Lamp2 and resulting in
Full Text Available H00136 Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC), including: Niemann-Pick disease type C1; Niemann-Pick disea...se type C2 Niemann-Pick disease type C is an autosomal recessive lysosomal lipid storage d...isorder caused by a defect of NPC1 or NPC2 involved in cholesterol trafficking. The disease is characterized...oluble lysosomal protein known to bind cholesterol. Inherited metabolic disease; Nervous system disease; Lysosomal storage disea...O:K12385] (NPC2) NPC2 [HSA:10577] [KO:K13443] Cholesterol [CPD:C00187] Niemann-Pick disease, type D is now t
Castleman Disease; Castleman's Disease; Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymph Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymph Node Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymphoid Hyperplasia; GLNH; Hyperplasia; Giant Lymph Node
Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W
Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature. PMID:15585192
Pulmonary vaso-occlusive disease ... common among children and young adults. As the disease gets worse, it causes narrowed pulmonary veins, pulmonary artery hypertension , and congestion and swelling ...
Full Text Available Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD, also know as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a benign disorder characterized histologically by necrotic foci surrounded by histiocytic aggregates, and with the absence of neutrophils. KFD was recognized in Japan, where it was first described in 1972. The disease is most commonly affecting young women. The cause of the disease is unknown, and its exact pathogenesis has not yet been clarified. Many investigators have postulated viral etiology of KFD, connecting it with Epstein Barr virus, human herpes simplex virus 6 parvo B 19, but also with toxoplasmic infection. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is usually manifested with lymphadenopathy and high fever, and is associated with lymphopenia splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly with abnormal liver function tests arthralgia, and weight loss. The disease has the tendency of spontaneous remission, with mean duration of three months. Single recurrent episodes of KFD have been reported with many years’ pauses between the episodes. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease may reflect systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and self-limited SLE-like conditions. Final diagnosis could only be established on the basis of typical morphological changes in the lymph node, and lymph node biopsy is needed for establishing the diagnosis. Lymphadenopathy in a patient with fever of the unknown origin could provide a clue to the diagnosis of lymphoma, tuberculosis, metastatic carcinoma, toxoplasmosis and infectious mononucleosis. As KFD does not have any classical clinical features and laboratory characteristics, it may lead to diagnostic confusion and erroneous treatment. We described a case of KFD, and suggested that this disease should be considered as a possible cause of fever of the unknown origin with lymphadenopathy.
... Wasting Disease (CWD) Prion Diseases Relationship with BSE (Mad Cow Disease) Evidence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir There ... Jakob Disease (CJD) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) File Formats Help: How ...
Barak, Yoram; Achiron, Anat
Happiness is an emotional state reflecting positive feelings and satisfaction with life, which, as an outcome in disease states or as an end point in clinical trials, is a neglected concept in most therapeutic areas. In neurological disease, happiness is important as it can be diminished either as a direct result of damage to neuronal tissue or as a reaction to a poor prognosis. The monitoring and maintenance of happiness and wellbeing have historically been considered to be peripheral to medicine. However, as happiness interacts with the patient's physical health, it is an important parameter to assess alongside all aspects of any given disease. Happiness provides a reliable overview of the patient's general status over and above standard parameters for quality of life, and is more wide-ranging than the narrow measures of disease activity or treatment efficacy that are the focus of most clinical trials. In many studies, happiness has been associated with health and success in most areas of life, including performance at work, sporting achievement and social functioning. For approximately a decade, previously studied aspects of psychology have been grouped under the label of positive psychology (PoP). Principles of this discipline are now being used to guide some treatments in neurological and psychiatric diseases. PoP aims to define patient wellbeing in scientific terms and to increase understanding of happiness, meaning in life, resilience and character strengths, as well as to determine how this knowledge can be applied clinically to promote health. Some evidence has emerged recently suggesting that improvements in patient status can result from interventions to improve the patient's level of happiness in diseases, including epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke. Several effective approaches to increase happiness employ activities to engage and stimulate patients who might otherwise be unoccupied and isolated. In
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Castleman disease or giant lymph node hyperplasia is a rare disorder of the lymphoid tissue, usually occurring in the mediastinum. We report a case of localized peripancreatic plasma cell type Castleman disease, which is an unusual site. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old woman with a history of mild epigastric pain radiating to the back for the previous year was admitted and her physical examination was normal. A raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and hypergammaglobulinemia were found. Abdominal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a homogeneously hypoechoic solid mass having a smooth-surface, 6 cm in diameter, located between the head of the pancreas, the lower margin of the antrum and the left lobe of the liver. The mass was totally excised surgically with repair of the pancreas capsule. Histopathological examination of the tumor showed plasma-cell type Castleman disease. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware that Castleman disease may involve peripancreatic tissue which leads to difficulties in arriving at a differential diagnosis. Surgical excision is both a diagnostic and a curative method for management of the disease.
Pedro Cena Rivero
Full Text Available The Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD is a genetic disease which is characterized by the gradual emergence of cystic lesions in the kidneys, which replace the renal parenchyma causing deterioration of its function to stage 5. The PKD is one of the causes of Chronic Kidney Disease on renal replacement therapy (RRT. The Polycystic Kidney Disease has two patterns of inheritance: autosomal dominant pattern and the autosomal recessive pattern. The dominant form is more common but less severe than autosomal recessive form. PKD is known that is caused by mutations in several loci of the human genome. The autosomal dominant form can be caused by mutations in two different genes (PKD1 and PKD2, unlike the autosomal recessive form only has a causal gene (PKHD1. At present the international scientific community efforts toward deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of this entity for the purpose of developing therapeutic alternatives that avoid the appearance of cysts or progression of those already in place. The aim is to systematize the available scientific knowledge about Polycystic Kidney Disease and provide a source of consultation update on clinical characteristics and therapeutic options for patients with PKD
Full Text Available Neisseria meningitides is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis. The epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease varies in different countries and regions. This review summarizes the available data from China describing the burden of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroups, and vaccination programs. Meningococcal serogroup A (MenA was predominant for several decades in China. However, since 2000, invasive meningococcal disease caused by MenC, MenW, or MenB has increased. MenC, belonging to a hyperinvasive clonal sequence type ST-4821 (CC4821, emerged in Anhui Province and was subsequently disseminated over two-thirds of all Chinese provinces. Serogroup W (CC11 is endemic and causes death. Serogroup B (CC4821 originated from serogroup C (CC4821 via a capsular switching mechanism. Polysaccharide A and C meningococcal vaccines have been introduced into national routine immunization programs and have effectively reduced invasive meningococcal disease. However, the vaccination strategy must be revised based on the epidemic trends in meningococcal disease in China.
Pearce, J M S
The advance of medical semantics is, in general, towards causation. As knowledge increases, the common consequence is the re-definition of disease. This starts with symptoms then a disorder of structure or function, abnormalities of images, genetics or biochemistry, the ultimate aim being a specific aetiological mechanism which replaces broader descriptions. But medical terminology of diseases, diagnoses and syndromes is inherently imprecise. Careless nomenclature causes confused dialogue and communication. Symptoms of uncertain cause are commonly lumped together and given a new 'diagnostic' label which also may confuse and produce false concepts that stultify further thought and research. Such medicalisation of non-specific aggregations of symptoms should be avoided. The defining characteristics of diseases and diagnoses should be validated and agreed. The pragmatic diagnoses of 'symptom of unknown cause' or 'non-disease' are preferable to falsely labelling patients with obscure or non-existent diseases. "I tried to unveil the stillness of existence through a counteracting murmur of words, and, above all, I confused things with their names: that is belief." Jean-Paul Sartre (The Words, 1964). PMID:21385966
Full Text Available Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become apparent several years after exposure to the particles. However, for certain types of dusts, e.g., silicone dioxide crystal and beryllium, heavy exposure within a short period can cause an acute disease. Pulmonary involvement in asbestosis is usually in the lower lobes. On the contrary, in silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis, the upper lobes are involved predominantly. For imaging evaluation of pneumoconiosis, high-resolution computed tomography (CT is superior to conventional chest x-ray. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan are helpful in those with suspected tumoral lesions. In this essay, we reviewed the imaging aspects of inhalational lung disease.
Pearce, J M S
The advance of medical semantics is, in general, towards causation. As knowledge increases, the common consequence is the re-definition of disease. This starts with symptoms then a disorder of structure or function, abnormalities of images, genetics or biochemistry, the ultimate aim being a specific aetiological mechanism which replaces broader descriptions. But medical terminology of diseases, diagnoses and syndromes is inherently imprecise. Careless nomenclature causes confused dialogue and communication. Symptoms of uncertain cause are commonly lumped together and given a new 'diagnostic' label which also may confuse and produce false concepts that stultify further thought and research. Such medicalisation of non-specific aggregations of symptoms should be avoided. The defining characteristics of diseases and diagnoses should be validated and agreed. The pragmatic diagnoses of 'symptom of unknown cause' or 'non-disease' are preferable to falsely labelling patients with obscure or non-existent diseases. "I tried to unveil the stillness of existence through a counteracting murmur of words, and, above all, I confused things with their names: that is belief." Jean-Paul Sartre (The Words, 1964).
Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige
Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for
Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes. PMID:25817504
The genetic information encoded in the DNA sequence provides a blueprint of the entire organism. The epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation and histone modifications, determine how and when this information is made available and define the specific gene transcription pattern of a given cell. Epigenetic modifications determine the functional differences of genetically identical cells in multicellular organisms and are important factors in various processes from embryonic development to learning and memory consolidation. DNA methylation patterns are altered by environmental conditions and some alterations are preserved through mitosis and meiosis. Thus, DNA methylation can mediate environmental impact on health and disease, contributes to the severity of diseases and probably contributes to the effects and side effects of drugs. In addition to the classical monogenic epigenetic diseases such as Prader-Willi syndrome and Rett syndrome, recent data point to an epigenetic component also in sporadic neuro-psychiatric disorders. PMID:27299943
Tordjeman, N; Monnier, J C; Hautefeuille, P; Ducloy, J C; Dufour, P; Jean-Lechner, P; Janin, A
Gaucher's disease is rare in association with pregnancy (we have only found 53 cases of women with this disease who had at least one pregnancy since 1945). A review of literature on this subject and this one case confirms that it is unlikely that the disease will progress as far as the symptomatology is concerned and that there are unlikely to be obstetric or fetal complications. All the same there are certain complications that can occur as the haematological state is concerned (thrombocytopenia, coagulation defects such as bleeding, particularly post-partum from the genital organs). Mechanical difficulties may occur because of the greatly enlarged spleen. Pregnancy is not contra-indicated but it is a high risk pregnancy that has to watched very carefully with ultrasound and great attention to the obstetric and biological condition. PMID:1822493
Full Text Available Abstract Cushing’s disease, or pituitary ACTH dependent Cushing’s syndrome, is a rare disease responsible for increased morbidity and mortality. Signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism are usually non specific: obesity, signs of protein wasting, increased blood pressure, variable levels of hirsutism. Diagnosis is frequently difficult, and requires a strict algorithm. First-line treatment is based on transsphenoidal surgery, which cures 80% of ACTH-secreting microadenomas. The rate of remission is lower in macroadenomas. Other therapeutic modalities including anticortisolic drugs, radiation techniques or bilateral adrenalectomy will thus be necessary to avoid long-term risks (metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease of hypercortisolism. This review summarizes potential pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic approaches, and therapies.
HAEMORRHOIDAL DISEASE: Stage orientated treatment of haemorrhoidal disease using conservative and operative measures provides high healing rates with low complication- and recurrence rates. ANAL FISSURE: Muscle relaxing ointments (Nitrates, Ca-channel-blocker) are the treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure. In cases of insufficiency fissurectomy provides high healing rates. ABSCESS AND ANAL FISTULA: Anal fistulae are treated with respect of their involvement of the anal sphincters. Distal fistulae are completely excised reaching high healing rates, proximal fistulae are treated using local flap procedures with healing rates reaching 50 to 80%. ANAL INCONTINENCE: Treatment of anal incontinence is depending on the severity and on the etiology of the disease. The following procedures are used: conservative: improving consistency, physical exercises, electrostimulation Biofeedback-Training surgical: Sphincterreconstruction, Pre-anal Repair, Post-anal Repair, Total Pelvic Floor Repair, Dynamic Graciloplasty, Artificial Anal Sphincter, Sacralnervestimulation, Stoma