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Sample records for borna disease virus

  1. Detection of Serum Antibodies to Borna Disease Virus in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, R.; Herzog, S.; Fleischer, B.; Winokur, A.; Amsterdam, J.; Dyson, W.; Koprowski, H.

    1985-05-01

    Borna disease virus causes a rare meningoencephalitis in horses and sheep and has been shown to produce behavioral effects in some species. The possibility that the Borna virus is associated with mental disorders in humans was evaluated by examining serum samples from 979 psychiatric patients and 200 normal volunteers for the presence of Borna virus-specific antibodies. Antibodies were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence focus assay. Antibodies to the virus were demonstrated in 16 of the patients but none of the normal volunteers. The patients with the positive serum samples were characterized by having histories of affective disorders, particularly of a cyclic nature. Further studies are needed to define the possible involvement of Borna virus in human psychiatric disturbances.

  2. Borna disease virus infection perturbs energy metabolites and amino acids in cultured human oligodendroglia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongzhong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Borna disease virus is a neurotropic, non-cytolytic virus that has been widely employed in neuroscientific research. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with Borna disease viral infection. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying its mode of action remains unclear. METHODOLOGY: Human oligodendroglia cells infected with the human strain Borna disease virus Hu-H1 and non-infected matched control cells were cultured in vitro. At day 14 post-infection, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 28 independent intracellular samples from Borna disease virus-infected cells (n = 14 and matched control cells (n = 14. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was performed to demonstrate that the whole metabonomic patterns enabled discrimination between the two groups, and further statistical testing was applied to determine which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between the two groups. FINDINGS: Metabonomic profiling revealed perturbations in 23 metabolites, 19 of which were deemed individually significant: nine energy metabolites (α-glucose, acetate, choline, creatine, formate, myo-inositol, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, pyruvate, succinate and ten amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, valine. Partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated that the whole metabolic patterns enabled statistical discrimination between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Borna disease viral infection perturbs the metabonomic profiles of several metabolites in human oligodendroglia cells cultured in vitro. The findings suggest that Borna disease virus manipulates the host cell's metabolic network to support viral replication and proliferation.

  3. Structural Analyses of Borna Disease Virus Nucleoprotein- Phosphoprotein and Nucleoprotein- RNA Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hock, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Borna Disease Virus (BDV) ist ein Vertreter der Bornaviridae in der Ordnung Mononegavirales (MNV). Unter denjenigen Viren dieser Ordnung, die Tiere infizieren, ist es bezüglich seiner Replikation und Transkription im Nukleus, einzigartig. BDV ist nicht zytolytisch, strikt neurotrop und verursacht Erkrankungen des zentralen Nervensystems (ZNS) bei einer großen Anzahl von Vertebraten, insbesondere beim Pferd. Der aktive BDV ...

  4. Detection of Borna Disease Virus (BDV in Patients with First Episode of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Soltani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a complex widespread neuropsychiatric disorder. This illness encompasses a complex debilitating mental disorder causing illusion, delusion, disturbed relationship, low motivation and decline of emotion. Viral infection of the brain including Borna Disease Virus (BDV may play a role in transient or permanent neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This role of Borna virus has not been resolved outright yet, and based on published papers investigation examining the role of this virus in schizophrenia is in progress worldwide.Method: In this study, Nested Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested RT-PCR was used for detection of BDV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs of a group of patients experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia. The results were compared with a normal group.Results: In our study, no BDV-positive was found in PBMCs of the case group. Out of 40 participants of control group one was positive for P24 gene of BDV. This result are similar to several published papers about this topic.Conclusion: An etiological relationship between Bornavirus and schizophrenia was not found in this study. More investigations are warranted to illustrate the probable relationship between bornavirus infection and schizophrenia.

  5. Borna disease virus phosphoprotein modulates epigenetic signaling in neurons to control viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaud, Emilie M; Szelechowski, Marion; Bétourné, Alexandre; Foret, Charlotte; Thouard, Anne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Malnou, Cécile E

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the modalities of interaction of neurotropic viruses with their target cells represents a major challenge that may improve our knowledge of many human neurological disorders for which viral origin is suspected. Borna disease virus (BDV) represents an ideal model to analyze the molecular mechanisms of viral persistence in neurons and its consequences for neuronal homeostasis. It is now established that BDV ensures its long-term maintenance in infected cells through a stable interaction of viral components with the host cell chromatin, in particular, with core histones. This has led to our hypothesis that such an interaction may trigger epigenetic changes in the host cell. Here, we focused on histone acetylation, which plays key roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, notably for neurons. We performed a comparative analysis of histone acetylation patterns of neurons infected or not infected by BDV, which revealed that infection decreases histone acetylation on selected lysine residues. We showed that the BDV phosphoprotein (P) is responsible for these perturbations, even when it is expressed alone independently of the viral context, and that this action depends on its phosphorylation by protein kinase C. We also demonstrated that BDV P inhibits cellular histone acetyltransferase activities. Finally, by pharmacologically manipulating cellular acetylation levels, we observed that inhibiting cellular acetyl transferases reduces viral replication in cell culture. Our findings reveal that manipulation of cellular epigenetics by BDV could be a means to modulate viral replication and thus illustrate a fascinating example of virus-host cell interaction. Persistent DNA viruses often subvert the mechanisms that regulate cellular chromatin dynamics, thereby benefitting from the resulting epigenetic changes to create a favorable milieu for their latent and persistent states. Here, we reasoned that Borna disease virus (BDV), the only RNA virus known to

  6. Astrocytes play a key role in activation of microglia by persistent Borna disease virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauder Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV infection of the rat brain is associated with microglial activation and damage to certain neuronal populations. Since persistent BDV infection of neurons is nonlytic in vitro, activated microglia have been suggested to be responsible for neuronal cell death in vivo. However, the mechanisms of activation of microglia in neonatally BDV-infected rat brains remain unclear. Our previous studies have shown that activation of microglia by BDV in culture requires the presence of astrocytes as neither the virus nor BDV-infected neurons alone activate microglia. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms whereby astrocytes can contribute to activation of microglia in neuron-glia-microglia mixed cultures. We found that persistent infection of neuronal cells leads to activation of uninfected astrocytes as measured by elevated expression of RANTES. Activation of astrocytes then produces activation of microglia as evidenced by increased formation of round-shaped, MHCI-, MHCII- and IL-6-positive microglia cells. Our analysis of possible molecular mechanisms of activation of astrocytes and/or microglia in culture indicates that the mediators of activation may be soluble heat-resistant, low molecular weight factors. The findings indicate that astrocytes may mediate activation of microglia by BDV-infected neurons. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that microglia activation in the absence of neuronal damage may represent initial steps in the gradual neurodegeneration observed in brains of neonatally BDV-infected rats.

  7. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wuqi; Kao, Wenping; Zhai, Aixia; Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun; Zhang, Qingmeng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fengmin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-α/β expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-β. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway

  8. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wuqi [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Kao, Wenping [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhai, Aixia [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Zhang, Qingmeng [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhang, Fengmin, E-mail: fengminzhang@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-α/β expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-β. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.

  9. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs

  10. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

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    Liu, Xia [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Shanghai, School of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zhao, Libo [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Third People' s Hospital of Chongqing, 400014 (China); Yang, Yongtao [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Bornavirus Research Group affiliated to the Free University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huang, Hua [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Huang, Rongzhong [Department of Rehabilitative Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010 (China); Zhang, Liang [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  11. Expression and role of the TGF-β family in glial cells infected with Borna disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Yoshii; Murakami, Masaru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-02-01

    A previous study revealed that the expression of the Borna disease virus (BDV)-encoding phosphoprotein in glial cells was sufficient to induce neurobehavioral abnormalities resembling Borna disease. To evaluate the involvement of the TGF-β family in BDV-induced changes in cell responses by C6 glial cells, we examined the expression levels of the TGF-β family and effects of inhibiting the TGF-β family pathway in BDV-infected C6 (C6BV) cells. The expression of activin βA and BMP7 was markedly increased in BDV-infected cells. Expression of Smad7, a TGF-β family-inducible gene, was increased by BDV infection, and the expression was decreased by treatment with A-83-01 or LDN-193189, inhibitors of the TGF-β/activin or BMP pathway, respectively. These results suggest autocrine effects of activin A and BMP7 in C6BV cells. IGFBP-3 expression was also induced by BDV infection; it was below the detection limit in C6 cells. The expression level of IGFBP-3 was decreased by LDN-193189 in C6BV cells, suggesting that endogenous BMP activity is responsible for IGFBP-3 gene induction. Our results reveal the regulatory expression of genes related to the TGF-β family, and the role of the enhanced BMP pathway in modulating cell responses in BDV-infected glial cells. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistent human Borna disease virus infection modifies the acetylome of human oligodendroglia cells towards higher energy and transporter levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xia; Liu, Siwen; Bode, Liv; Liu, Chengyu; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Li, Dan; Lei, Yang; Peng, Xiaojun; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus persistently infecting mammalian hosts including humans. Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a key protein post-translational modification (PTM). The unexpectedly broad regulatory scope of Kac let us to profile the entire acetylome upon BDV infection. Methods: The acetylome was profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Results: We identified and quantified 791 Kac sites in 473 Kac proteins in human BDV Hu-H1-infected and non-infected oligodendroglial (OL) cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that BDV infection alters the acetylation of metabolic proteins, membrane-associated proteins and transmembrane transporter activity, and affects the acetylation of several lysine acetyltransferases (KAT). Conclusions: Upon BDV persistence the OL acetylome is manipulated towards higher energy and transporter levels necessary for shuttling BDV proteins to and from nuclear replication sites. - Highlights: • We used SILAC-based proteomics to analyze the acetylome of BDV infected OL cells. • We quantified 791Kac sites in 473 proteins. • Bioinformatic analysis revealed altered acetylation of metabolic proteins et al. • BDV manipulates the OL acetylome towards higher energy and transporter levels. • BDV infection is associated with enriched phosphate-associated metabolic processes.

  13. Persistent human Borna disease virus infection modifies the acetylome of human oligodendroglia cells towards higher energy and transporter levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai 200063 (China); Liu, Siwen [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhang, Liang [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Xiao [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Li, Dan [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Lei, Yang [Department of Internal Medicine, University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Peng, Xiaojun [Jingjie PTM BioLab (Hangzhou) Co. Ltd, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Cheng, Zhongyi [Advanced Institute of Translational Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); and others

    2015-11-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus persistently infecting mammalian hosts including humans. Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a key protein post-translational modification (PTM). The unexpectedly broad regulatory scope of Kac let us to profile the entire acetylome upon BDV infection. Methods: The acetylome was profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Results: We identified and quantified 791 Kac sites in 473 Kac proteins in human BDV Hu-H1-infected and non-infected oligodendroglial (OL) cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that BDV infection alters the acetylation of metabolic proteins, membrane-associated proteins and transmembrane transporter activity, and affects the acetylation of several lysine acetyltransferases (KAT). Conclusions: Upon BDV persistence the OL acetylome is manipulated towards higher energy and transporter levels necessary for shuttling BDV proteins to and from nuclear replication sites. - Highlights: • We used SILAC-based proteomics to analyze the acetylome of BDV infected OL cells. • We quantified 791Kac sites in 473 proteins. • Bioinformatic analysis revealed altered acetylation of metabolic proteins et al. • BDV manipulates the OL acetylome towards higher energy and transporter levels. • BDV infection is associated with enriched phosphate-associated metabolic processes.

  14. Demonstration of continuously seropositive population against Borna disease virus in Misaki feral horses, a Japanese strain: a four-year follow-up study from 1998 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Sawada, Takashi; Rivero, Juan C; Horii, Yoichiro

    2002-05-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV)-specific antibodies were monitored in Misaki feral horses annually for 4 years using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Among 130 horses examined, 35 (26.9%) with an ECLIA count above 1000 once or more were judged as BDV seropositive. Throughout the study period, p24 antibodies were more frequent than p40 antibodies in almost all positive animals. Among the 35 seropositive horses, the ECLIA count was consistently high in 12 cases. Eleven horses seroconverted from negative to positive and 7 underwent reversal. The count in the remaining 95 horses (73.1%) remained low for 4 years and these animals were judged as seronegative.

  15. Synthetic peptide-based electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for anti-Borna disease virus p40 and p24 antibodies in rat and horse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Sawada, T; Yamane, S; Haga, S; Ikeda, K; Igata-Yi, R; Yoshiki, K; Matsuoka, M; Okabe, H; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y; Waltrip, R W; Carbone, K M

    2001-07-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic pathogen that infects a wide variety of vertebrates. We have developed a new electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for the detection of antibodies to BDV, using three synthetic peptides corresponding to the amino acid residues 3-20 and 338-358 of p40 and 59-79 of p24 peptide of BDV. Using the ECLIA, we examined serum samples for the presence of anti-BDV antibodies in 20 rats (experimentally BDV-infected and uninfected) and 38 horses (13 US horses, experimentally infected and uninfected, and 25 Japanese horses, feral and domestic). The ECLIA, performed in a double-blind manner, detected anti-BDV antibodies in rats with a history of BDV infection, giving results that were in agreement with indirect immunofluorescence assay and/or Western blot (WB) analysis. The ECLIA also correctly identified all three experimentally infected horses and four domestic American horses that were seropositive for BDV antibodies by WB. Among the Japanese horses, at least two out of 10 feral and six out of 15 domestic horses were seropositive for BDV. In most of these cases, the specificity of immunoreactivity was verified by blocking with soluble p40 and p24 peptides.

  16. Dual function of the nuclear export signal of the Borna disease virus nucleoprotein in nuclear export activity and binding to viral phosphoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Mako; Sakai, Madoka; Makino, Akiko; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2017-07-11

    Borna disease virus (BoDV), which has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, causes persistent infection in the cell nucleus. The nuclear export signal (NES) of the viral nucleoprotein (N) consisting of leucine at positions 128 and 131 and isoleucine at positions 133 and 136 overlaps with one of two predicted binding sites for the viral phosphoprotein (P). A previous study demonstrated that higher expression of BoDV-P inhibits nuclear export of N; however, the function of N NES in the interaction with P remains unclear. We examined the subcellular localization, viral polymerase activity, and P-binding ability of BoDV-N NES mutants. We also characterized a recombinant BoDV (rBoDV) harboring an NES mutation of N. BoDV-N with four alanine-substitutions in the leucine and isoleucine residues of the NES impaired its cytoplasmic localization and abolished polymerase activity and P-binding ability. Although an alanine-substitution at position 131 markedly enhanced viral polymerase activity as determined by a minigenome assay, rBoDV harboring this mutation showed expression of viral RNAs and proteins relative to that of wild-type rBoDV. Our results demonstrate that BoDV-N NES has a dual function in BoDV replication, i.e., nuclear export of N and an interaction with P, affecting viral polymerase activity in the nucleus.

  17. GC-MS-Based Metabonomic Profiling Displayed Differing Effects of Borna Disease Virus Natural Strain Hu-H1 and Laboratory Strain V Infection in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwen; Bode, Liv; Zhang, Lujun; He, Peng; Huang, Rongzhong; Sun, Lin; Chen, Shigang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Yujie; Zhou, Jingjing; Fu, Yuying; Zhu, Dan; Xie, Peng

    2015-08-17

    Borna disease virus (BDV) persists in the central nervous systems of a wide variety of vertebrates and causes behavioral disorders. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with BDV infection. However, the pathophysiological effects of different viral strains remain largely unknown. Rat cortical neurons infected with human strain BDV Hu-H1, laboratory BDV Strain V, and non-infected control (CON) cells were cultured in vitro. At day 12 post-infection, a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 35 independent intracellular samples from Hu-H1-infected cells (n = 12), Strain V-infected cells (n = 12), and CON cells (n = 11). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to demonstrate discrimination between the three groups. Further statistical testing determined which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between groups. PLS-DA demonstrated that the whole metabolic pattern enabled statistical discrimination between groups. We identified 31 differential metabolites in the Hu-H1 and CON groups (21 decreased and 10 increased in Hu-H1 relative to CON), 35 differential metabolites in the Strain V and CON groups (30 decreased and 5 increased in Strain V relative to CON), and 21 differential metabolites in the Hu-H1 and Strain V groups (8 decreased and 13 increased in Hu-H1 relative to Strain V). Comparative metabonomic profiling revealed divergent perturbations in key energy and amino acid metabolites between natural strain Hu-H1 and laboratory Strain V of BDV. The two BDV strains differentially alter metabolic pathways of rat cortical neurons in vitro. Their systematic classification provides a valuable template for improved BDV strain definition in future studies.

  18. The influence of Borna disease viral infection on dairy cow reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Katsuro; Ando, Tatsuya; Koiwa, Masateru

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the influence of Borna disease virus (BDV) infection on the clinical state of dairy cows. Sera from 149 cows were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting detect antibodies to the BDV-nucleoprotein antigen. Among 149 investigated cows, 25 (16.8%) showed a positive reaction to BDV antigen. No significant difference existed in milk production or medical history between seropositive and seronegative cows. Although the estrus cycle appeared normal even in the seropositive cows, the frequency of artificial insemination and calving-to-conception intervals significantly increased in seropositive cows. Therefore, fertilization failure was recognized in the BDV-antibody positive cows.

  19. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): Borna disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Borna disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also...... prevention and control rules referred to in Article 9(1) is not applicable, as well as which animal species can be considered to be listed for Borna disease according to Article 8(3) of the AHL.......Borna disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Borna disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Borna disease according to disease prevention...

  20. mosaic virus disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . variabilis densities on the susceptible cultivar. Implications of these results for the control ofAfrican cassava mosaic virus disease are discussed. Key Words: Aleurotrachelus socialis, Trialeurodes variabilis, cowpea, maize, intercropping. yield.

  1. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. The ... Ebola virus infection are made using the following diagnostic methods: antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ...

  2. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  3. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  4. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  5. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  6. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  7. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  8. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  9. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, María Cecilia; Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Terebiznik, Mauricio R; Colombo, María Isabel; Delgui, Laura Ruth

    2018-03-14

    Birnaviruses are unconventional members of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses group that are characterized by the lack of a transcriptionally active inner core. Instead, the birnaviral particles organize their genome in ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) composed by dsRNA segments, the dsRNA-binding VP3 protein, and the viral encoded RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). This and other structural features suggests that birnaviruses may follow a completely different replication program from that followed by members of the Reoviridae family, supporting the hypothesis that birnaviruses are the evolutionary link between single-stranded positive RNA (+ssRNA) and dsRNA viruses. Here, we demonstrated that the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), a prototypical member of the Birnaviridae family, hijacks endosomal membranes of infected cells through the interaction of viral protein, VP3, with the phospholipids on the cytosolic leaflet of these compartments for replication. Employing a mutagenesis approach, we demonstrated that VP3 domain PATCH 2 (P2) mediates the association of VP3 with the endosomal membranes. To determine the role of VP3 P2 in the context of virus replication cycle, we used avian cells stably overexpressing VP3 P2 for IBDV infection. Importantly, the intra- and extra-cellular virus yields, as well as the intracellular levels of VP2 viral capsid protein, significantly diminished in VP3 P2 stably overexpressing cells. Altogether, our results indicate that the association of VP3 with endosomes has a relevant role in IBDV replication cycle. This report provides direct experimental evidence for membranous compartments such as endosomes being required by a dsRNA virus for its replication. The results also support the previously proposed role of birnaviruses as an evolutionary link between +ssRNA and dsRNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD, also called Gumboro disease) is an acute, highly contagious immunosuppressive disease that affects

  10. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  11. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  13. Viruses: Bystanders of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Titiksha; Lamba, Arundeep Kaur; Faraz, Farrukh; Tandon, Shruti

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial etiology of periodontal disease is an established fact today. However, despite advances in the field of pharmacology with advent of newer and better antibiotics prevalence of the disease could not be abated. Moreover, unpredictable remissions and indefinite pattern in a single host force us to go back to the exact etiology of the disease. Present is a short review highlighting the role and plausible mechanisms by which viruses can affect the development of periodontal disease. This broadens our concept and will help establish a better treatment protocol for periodontal disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    C C Azodo; P Erhabor

    2015-01-01

    The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understandin...

  15. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Azodo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understanding of roles of viruses in periodontal diseases will facilitate the provision of effective periodontal disease prevention and treatment.

  16. Viruses: agents of coral disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Burchett, S G; Dale, A L; Davies, P; Davy, J E; Muncke, C; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wilson, W H

    2006-03-23

    The potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals Pavona danai, Acropora formosa and Stylophora pistillata and zoanthids Zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. Heat-shocked P. danai, A. formosa and Zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (VLPs) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; VLPs were also seen around heat-shocked freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) from P. danai and S. pistillata. The most commonly seen VLPs were tail-less, hexagonal and about 40 to 50 nm in diameter, though a diverse range of other VLP morphotypes (e.g. rounded, rod-shaped, droplet-shaped, filamentous) were also present around corals. When VLPs around heat-shocked FIZ from S. pistillata were added to non-stressed FIZ from this coral, they resulted in cell lysis, suggesting that an infectious agent was present; however, analysis with transmission electron microscopy provided no clear evidence of viral infection. The release of diverse VLPs was again apparent when flow cytometry was used to enumerate release by heat-stressed A. formosa nubbins. Our data support the infection of reef corals by viruses, though we cannot yet determine the precise origin (i.e. coral, zooxanthellae and/or surface microbes) of the VLPs seen. Furthermore, genome sequence data are required to establish the presence of viruses unequivocally.

  17. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Borna disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also...... prevention and control rules referred to in Article 9(1) is not applicable, as well as which animal species can be considered to be listed for Borna disease according to Article 8(3) of the AHL.......Borna disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Borna disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Borna disease according to disease prevention...

  18. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aujeszky's disease virus, baby hamster kidney cells, cell culture, disposable bioreactor, virus titre. Abstract. A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) production. Growth kinetics of ...

  19. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community. © RSNA, 2014.

  20. Control of virus diseases in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Zambrano, José L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases caused by viruses are found throughout the maize-growing regions of the world and can cause significant losses for producers. In this review, virus diseases of maize and the pathogens that cause them are discussed. Factors leading to the spread of disease and measures for disease control are reviewed, as is our current knowledge of the genetics of virus resistance in this important crop.

  1. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  2. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  5. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  6. Control of virus diseases in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production.

  7. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease: Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAO Lei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  8. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  9. Does this patient have Ebola virus disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Tattevin , Pierre; Durante-Mangoni , Emanuele; Massaquoi , Moses

    2014-01-01

    International audience; (beginning of the introduction) Ebola virus is one of the most virulent human pathogens. Since 1976, Ebola virus disease (EVD) has caused more than 20 outbreaks in Africa, with case fatality rates of 30%-90%, in the absence of any approved treatment or vaccination [1].

  10. Virus Pathogenity of Newcastle Disease in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is one of the highly infectious diseases in poultry industry. Newcastle disease causes high morbidity and mortality in birds, then it causes significant loss for poultry industry. This disease is caused by Avian paramyxovirus-1, included in the genus of Avulavirus and family of Paramyxoviridae. This virus has six prior proteins and two non structural proteins that evolving its genom. Those proteins are Nucleocapsid protein (N, Phosphoprotein (P, Matrix protein (M, Fusion protein (F, Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN and Large polymerase protein (L and two non structural proteins iVe and W protein which are produced during the transcriptation process of P gen on editing process. Each of the protein has a specific role that responsible for the virulence of the virus. The previous result showed that HN and F proteins have significant contribution in the virulence and spreading of ND virus in the hosts. Virulence of ND virus primarily is determined by the cleavage site of F protein, but the recent research showed that the cleavage site motiv of F0 protein is not the only factor to determine the virulence of ND virus. Besides F protein, other proteins also contribute patern to the virulence of ND virus. ND virus can infect more than 200 species of birds, but the severity level of the disease varies depending on the host and strain of ND virus. Chicken has the highest pathogenicity index compared to other birds. Generally, the immunity system in chicken against infection of ND virus is similar to the immunity system of other birds. Cell mediated and humoral immunity responses play an important role in overcome ND virus.

  11. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of viruses on airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Johnston

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There is strong epidemiological evidence that respiratory viral infections are associated with 80–85% of asthma exacerbations in children. There is less evidence in adults, but the available data suggest viruses are associated with around two-thirds to three-quarters of exacerbations in adults. These associations include severe exacerbations requiring hospitalisation. The most common viruses detected in these studies were rhinoviruses, accounting for two-thirds of viruses detected. Asthmatics have increased susceptibility to respiratory virus infection and have recently been shown to have profoundly defective interferon-beta responses to virus infection, resulting in increased virus replication. Atypical bacterial infections are also associated with chronic asthma and asthma exacerbations and a recent study indicates antibiotic therapy active against atypical bacteria is effective in treatment of exacerbations. Recent data also indicates asthmatics are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, suggesting they may also have impaired antibacterial immunity. Research is urgently required to determine whether augmenting anti-infective immunity is beneficial in the treatment/prevention of asthma exacerbations. More recent data also implicates viruses in the majority of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies are also required investigating anti-infective host defence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  13. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine...

  14. DENGUE VIRUS VIRULENCE AND DISEASES SEVERITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommalikit, Olarn; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2015-01-01

    The dengue virus is the causative agent of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild acute febrile illness to classical dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). DHF and DSS are the potentially fatal forms of dengue virus infection, which has become an intractable public health problem in many countries. The pathogeneses of DHF/ DSS are not clearly understood. One hypothesis concerning virus virulence and the immune enhancement hypothesis has been debated. Although dengue disease severity has been associated with evidence of genetic differences in dengue strains, virus virulence has been difficult to measure because of the lack of in vivo and in vitro models of the disease.

  15. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  17. Ebola virus disease: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Rajak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate (up to 90% accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.

  18. A Pregnant Patient With Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Pineda, Denis; Lamin, Manjo; Leung, Anders; Corbett, Cindi; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-12-01

    Limited data suggest Ebola virus disease during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. A 34-year-old woman, gravida 4 para 3, at 36 weeks of gestation was admitted to an Ebola treatment unit in Sierra Leone with Ebola virus disease confirmed by laboratory testing of maternal blood for Ebola RNA. She complained of headache, cough, and arthralgia for 7 days but was afebrile. Eleven days later, intrauterine fetal death was diagnosed; the following day, maternal blood was negative for Ebola viral RNA. Labor was induced and resulted in the vaginal delivery of a stillborn fetus. The mother recovered. Her vaginal secretions (on the day of induction), a placenta fragment, umbilical cord, and neonatal buccal swabs were positive for Ebola RNA. No exposed health care workers were infected. This case illustrates that pregnant women can survive infection with Ebola virus disease and be cared for and delivered without infection of their health care workers.

  19. Coinfecting viruses as determinants of HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid

    2009-02-01

    The human body constitutes a balanced ecosystem of its own cells together with various microbes ("host-microbe ecosystem"). The transmission of HIV-1 and the progression of HIV disease in such an ecosystem are accompanied by de novo infection by other microbes or by activation of microbes that were present in the host in homeostatic equilibrium before HIV-1 infection. In recent years, data have accumulated on the interactions of these coinfecting microbes-viruses in particular-with HIV. Coinfecting viruses generate negative and positive signals that suppress or upregulate HIV-1. We suggest that the signals generated by these viruses may largely affect HIV transmission, pathogenesis, and evolution. The study of the mechanisms of HIV interaction with coinfecting viruses may indicate strategies to suppress positive signals, enhance negative signals, and lead to the development of new and original anti-HIV therapies.

  20. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine...

  1. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Felicity; Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J C G; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A; Gibb, Diana M; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children.

  2. Food and feeding behaviour of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters from Borna Reservoir of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas balasaheb Sakhare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The food analysis of 80 specimens of Oreochromis mossambicus collected from Borna Reservoir of Maharashtra, India revealed that the food of juveniles mainly consisted of rotifers (35%, followed by copepods (30%, Chlorophyceae (20%, Bacillariophyceae (10% and aquatic insects (5%. While the food items recorded in the gut of adults were Chlorophyceae (40%, followed by Bacillariophyceae (30%, rotifers (15%, copepods (10% and aquatic insects (5%. During present study it was found that the juveniles of O. mossamobicus mainly feed on zooplankton, and adults on phytoplankton. Intense feeding was noticed during summer season and juveniles were the active feeders.

  3. Care of the child with Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Carl O; Uyeki, Timothy M; Christian, Michael D; King, Mary A; Braner, Dana A V; Kanter, Robert K; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    To provide clinicians with practical considerations for care of children with Ebola virus disease in resource-rich settings. Review of the published medical literature, World Health Organization and government documents, and expert opinion. There are limited data regarding Ebola virus disease in children; however, reported case-fatality proportions in children are high. Ebola virus may affect immune regulation and endothelial function differently in children than adults. Considerations for care of children with Ebola virus disease are presented. Ebola virus disease is a severe multisystem disease with high mortality in children and adults. Hospitals and clinicians must prepare to provide care for patients with Ebola virus disease before such patients present for care, with particular attention to rigorous infection control to limit secondary cases. Although there is no proven specific treatment for Ebola virus disease, meticulous supportive care offers patients the best chance of survival.

  4. The evolution of Ebola virus disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałas, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents general information regarding descriptive epidemiology of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Some observations have shown the decrease in case fatality ratio after several generations of patient-to-patient passage. An increase in the frequency of EVD outbreaks across decades was also noticed. The knowledge about the past outbreaks may provide crucial information about the evolution of EVD epidemic, which may be useful for future preventions.

  5. An overview of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadanali, Ayten; Karagoz, Gul

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. Ebola virus (EBOV) is transmitted through contact with blood or body fluids of a person who contracted or died from EVD, contaminated objects like needles and infected animals or bush meat. EVD has an incubation period of 2 to 21 days, and the infection has an acute onset without any carrier status. Currently, there is no standard treatment for EVD, so it is important to avoid infection or further spreading of the virus. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. Its treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Clinicians should consider the possibility of EVD in persons with travel or exposure history with the incubation period presenting constitutional symptoms in order to promptly identify diseased patients, and prevent further spreading of the disease.

  6. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  7. Ebola virus disease: Essential clinical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafallah, Mahmoud Tawfik; Aboshady, Omar Ali; Moawed, Shaban Ahmed; Ramadan, Menna Said

    2017-01-01

    Since its initial outbreak in 1976, Ebola virus disease (EVD) has affected thousands of people, causing severe illness with high mortality rates. In the absence of a vaccine or effective specific treatment, as well as the lack of early diagnostic and detective methods, the EVD outbreak has generated a significant worldwide health concern. Insufficient health-care system resources, deficient infection control measures, and the shortage of appropriate personal protective equipment acted as amplifiers of the outbreak extension, especially in poorly resourced and unprepared communities. Operating on the frontlines, health-care workers must be familiar, not only with the identification of the disease, but also with the ability to protect themselves and initiate the appropriate response. This review seeks to provide essential information required to identify and manage the disease, with an emphasis on pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. We conducted a literature search in MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar using the following keywords: “Ebola, Ebola virus disease, Hemorrhagic Fever, Outbreak.” We included all types of publications. To augment our study, we searched the reference lists of identified reviews. PMID:28791241

  8. Ebola virus disease outbreak: what's going on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    The current West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in March, 2014, and after months of slow, fragmented responses, the EVD has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern. The early diagnosis of the disease is difficult without laboratory testing, because its symptoms can be seen in many other infections. In the wake of international agencies advices, the Italian Ministry of Health, on October 1, 2014, released to the Healthcare Professional Workers (HPWs) the Protocol about the management of cases and contacts within the national territory. Due to the increasing number of humanitarian groups and HPWs involved in the field, the probability to have new cases of contamination is higher than ever. Proven specific treatments against EVD are not yet available, however, a variety of compounds have been under testing. The most effective are select monoclonal antibodies that have a high neutralizing potential against epitopes of Ebola Virus. For facing the matter, it is important a comprehensive approach according to the recommendations proposed by the international agencies because no single institution or country has all the capacities to respond to a new and emerging infectious disease.

  9. Global phylogenetic analysis of contemporary aleutian mink disease viruses (AMDVs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Pia; Hagberg, E. E.; Chriél, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease has major economic consequences on the mink farming industry worldwide, as it causes a disease that affects both the fur quality and the health and welfare of the mink. The virus causing this disease is a single-stranded DNA virus of the genus Amdoparvovirus belonging to the...

  10. Reaction of sweetpotato clones to virus disease and their yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD) caused by dual infection of sweetpotato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and sweetpotato featherly mottle virus (SPFMV) is a major constraint to sweetpotato production in Uganda, whose infestation often necessitates instituting control measures. Although among the available control ...

  11. genetics of resistance to groundnut rosette virus disease abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2014-02-03

    Feb 3, 2014 ... Groundnut rosette virus disease is caused by synergyistic interaction of three viral agents, namely, groundnut rosette virus (GRV), its satelitte RNA (Sat RNA) and groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV). GRAV plays an important role in aiding aphid transmission, alongside the other two viral components.

  12. Virus diseases in lettuce in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce is frequently attacked by several viruses causing disease epidemics and considerable yield losses along the Mediterranean basin. Aphids are key pests and the major vectors of plant viruses in lettuce fields. Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is probably the most important because it is seed-transmitted in addition to be transmissible by many aphid species that alight on the crop. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is another virus that causes severe damage since the introduction of its major vector, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. In regions with heavy and humid soils, Lettuce Mirafiori big-vein virus (LMBVV) can also produce major yield losses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Successful delivery of RRT in Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael J; Kraft, Colleen; Mehta, Aneesh K; Varkey, Jay B; Lyon, G Marshall; Crozier, Ian; Ströher, Ute; Ribner, Bruce S; Franch, Harold A

    2015-01-01

    AKI has been observed in cases of Ebola virus disease. We describe the protocol for the first known successful delivery of RRT with subsequent renal recovery in a patient with Ebola virus disease treated at Emory University Hospital, in Atlanta, Georgia. Providing RRT in Ebola virus disease is complex and requires meticulous attention to safety for the patient, healthcare workers, and the community. We specifically describe measures to decrease the risk of transmission of Ebola virus disease and report pilot data demonstrating no detectable Ebola virus genetic material in the spent RRT effluent waste. This article also proposes clinical practice guidelines for acute RRT in Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  15. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD, caused by one of the Ebola virus strains is an acute, serious illness which is often fatal when untreated. EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease. It first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.1,2 On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO was notified of an outbreak of EVD in Guinea. On August 8, WHO declared the epidemic to be a ‘Public health emergency of international concern’.3 The current 2014 outbreak in West Africa is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak.1 It is to be noticed that the most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources and these countries recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability.1 The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Till date five species have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The recent outbreak belongs to the Zaire species which is the most lethal one, with an average case fatality rate of 78%.1,4 Till 6 December 2014, total 17,834 suspected cases and 6,678 deaths had been reported; however, WHO has said that these numbers may be vastly underestimated.5 The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the most likely candidate species.1,2,6 Ebola can be transmitted to human through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, etc. Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or

  16. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Groof

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  17. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Karen A.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bavari, Sina; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Filoviruses are the etiological agents of two human illnesses: Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus disease. Until 2013, medical countermeasure development against these afflictions was limited to only a few research institutes worldwide as both infections were considered exotic due to very low case numbers. Together with the high case-fatality rate of both diseases, evaluation of any candidate countermeasure in properly controlled clinical trials seemed impossible. However, in 2013, Ebola virus was identified as the etiological agent of a large disease outbreak in Western Africa including almost 30,000 infections and more than 11,000 deaths, including case exportations to Europe and North America. These large case numbers resulted in medical countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public-health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate vaccines against Ebola virus disease, with a focus on those that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:27160784

  18. hand hygiene practices post ebola virus disease outbreak

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... INTRODUCTION. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an infectious viral disease characterized by a high case-fatality rate which may be as high as 90%.1,2 Ebola virus may be acquired during contact with blood or body fluids of an infected animal, commonly monkeys or fruit bats.2 Once human infection occurs ...

  19. Seroprevalence of Marek's Disease Virus antibody in some poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports a survey of Marek's disease virus (MDV) antibody done in 21 selected poultry flocks in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states of southwestern Nigeria. A total of 315 serum samples were examined using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Marek's disease virus antibody was present in ...

  20. traits and resistance to maize streak virus disease in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize Streak virus (MSV) disease is a major disease in many parts of Africa, and is the most important viral pathogen of maize in Kenya. A study was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the agronomic performance and maize streak virus (MSV) resistance of maize (Zea mays L.) three-way crosses developed in Kenya. Twenty ...

  1. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  2. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  3. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P.; Castón, José R.; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particl...

  4. Marek's disease virus induced transient paralysis--a closer look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  5. Occurrence of Six Honeybee Viruses in Diseased Austrian Apiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Olga; Bakonyi, Tamás; Derakhshifar, Irmgard; Köglberger, Hemma; Nowotny, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV) were investigated in 90 Austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Infestation with parasites was also recorded. The samples originated from all parts of Austria. The most prevalent virus was DWV, present in 91% of samples, followed by ABPV, SBV, and BQCV (68%, 49%, and 30%, respectively). CBPV was detected in 10% of colonies, while KBV was not present in any sample. In most samples, more than one virus was identified. The distribution pattern of ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, and SBV varied considerably in the different geographic regions investigated, while DWV was widespread in all Austrian federal states. In bees that showed dark coloring and disorientation, CBPV was always detected. Simultaneous infections of DWV and ABPV were most frequently observed in colonies suffering from weakness, depopulation, and sudden collapse. Bees obtained from apparently healthy colonies within the same apiaries showed a similar distribution pattern of viruses; however, the relative virus load was 10 to 126 times lower than in bees from diseased colonies. A limited number of bee samples from surrounding central European countries (Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia) were also tested for the presence of the above viruses. Variances were found in the distribution of BQCV and SBV. PMID:16597939

  6. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities against Newcastle disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial and antiviral activities against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from marine algae isolated from Qusier and Marsa-Alam Seashore (Red Sea), Egypt. ... and two filamentous fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum) and against the Newcastle sense Virus (NDV)-(Paramyxoviridae) which is responsible ...

  7. genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    improvement of yield and quality attributes. Cultivar Munyeera displayed the highest level of SPVD resistance followed by New Kawogo and Polyster as exhibited by relative area under disease progress curves following natural field infection and graft inoculation with SPVD causing viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus ...

  8. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus | Zhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus receptors are simplistically defined as cell surface molecules that mediate binding (attachment, adsorption) and/or trigger membrane fusion or entry through other processes. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) entry into host cells occurs by recognition of specific cellular receptor(s) with viral envelope glycoprotein, ...

  9. Interference of Infectious Bursal Diseases (IBD) Virus and Vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar gel ...

  10. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-09-24

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus.

  11. Foot and mouth disease virus transmission among vaccinated pigs after exposure to virus shedding pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Dekker, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a transmission experiment that enabled quantification of the effectiveness of vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus in groups of pigs. Previous experiments showed that intradermal injection of pigs with FMD virus 14 days after vaccination was not

  12. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  13. [Several features of Aujeszky disease virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinova, A; Motovski, A

    1976-01-01

    Clinical, virological, and morphological investigations were carried out on a total of 36 rabbits experimentally infected with five strains of the Aujeszky's disease virus. Those of the test animals that were infected with strain K did not die or died showing no clinical manifestations; those infected with strains K1. B, and TB showed nervous disturbances and died strongly scratching the site of injection. The animals infected with strain KB exhibited respiratory disturbances showing no death cases. Histopathologically, nonpurulent meningoencephalitis of the central nervous system was established in all animals. The rabbits infected with strain K (resistant to trypsin and temperature changes) and those infected with strain KB these lesions were more slightly expressed. The lungs of the affected animals showed interstitial intralobular phenomonia of a lympho-histiocytic type as a reactive necroses in the liver and spleen. In the case of K1, B, and TB infections no changes in the lungs and spleen were noticed, however, the liver was analogously affected. Results showed that those of those of the strains that were with lower virulence did not cause the clinical picture of scratching; such strains proved neurotropic and even strongly pheumotropic. It is concluded that the clinical and morphologic aspects observed in experimentally infected rabbits can be referred to in diagnosing the causative agent, differentiating strains that are slightly pathogenic from strains that are pathogenic.

  14. Inactivation of Aujeszky's disease virus in slurry at various temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette

    1991-01-01

    Survival of Aujeszky's disease virus in pig slurry was investigated during anaerobic storage at 5, 20, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55°C using 100-ml laboratory models simulating the conditions in slurry tanks during winter and summer seasons and during anaerobic digestion in batch reactors. The inactivation...... rate was found to increase with increasing temperature. Virus was inactivated at 5 and 20°C in 15 weeks and 2 weeks, respectively. At 35°C (mesophilic conditions) the virus was inactivated in 5 hours and at 55°C (thermophilic conditions) no virus could be detected after 10 minutes....

  15. Serological survey of infectious bursal diseases virus antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Columba livia) and 30 from Nigerian laughing doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) were screened for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Three (20%) samples from cattle ...

  16. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  17. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  18. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria | Dongo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD) is one of the major diseases affecting cocoa production in West Africa, especially Ghana. The lack of any published article on the continued presence or absence of this viral disease has necessitated this investigation. Cocoa leaf samples from plants showing symptoms of leaf ...

  19. Assay for Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, lymphocidal disease that has been a threat to poultry production in Nigeria and a major disease problem of poultry producing areas of the world. A serological detection of antibodies to the virus was conducted on 300 sera samples derived from local chickens slaughtered at Sheik ...

  20. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD) is one of the major diseases affecting cocoa production in. West Africa, especially Ghana. The lack of any published article on the continued presence or absence of this viral disease has necessitated this investigation. Cocoa leaf samples from plants showing.

  1. Travel to tropical areas: Zika virus disease

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2016-01-01

    Transmitted by the bite of a certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes), the Zika virus is spreading quickly in tropical areas of Central America, the Caribbean and South America.   Although no specific treatment nor vaccine is currently available, the most effective preventive measures are those focused on avoiding mosquito bites. There are no travel restrictions in place at present. However it is recommended that pregnant women defer travel plans to countries affected by the Zika virus. For further information on symptoms and prevention measures, please click on the Zika virus link or contact the Medical Service.

  2. Acute viral hemorrhage disease: A summary on new viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  3. Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equipment - posters 6. Can Ebola be transmitted sexually? Sexual transmission of the Ebola virus, from males to females, ... and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and ...

  4. Avian influenza A virus and Newcastle disease virus mono- and co-infections in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main features of avian influenza viruses (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1, the possibilities for isolation and identification in laboratory conditions, methods of diagnostics, main hosts, clinical signs and virus shedding are reviewed in chronological order. The other part of the review explains the mechanisms and interactions in cases of co-infection of AIV and APMV-1, either between them or with other pathogens in various indicator systems – cell cultures, chick embryos or birds. The emphasis is placed on quantitative data on the virus present mainly in the first ten days following experimental infection of birds, the periods of virus carrier ship and shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes, diagnostic challenges

  5. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Marek’s disease virus evolution in specific MHC haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The clinical nature of Marek’s disease has changed over the last five decades. The pathogenicity of the Marek’s disease virus (MDV) has evolved from the relatively mild strains (mMDV) observed in the 1960s to the more severe strains labeled very virulent plus (vv+MDV) currently observed in today’s o...

  7. Perception and prevention practices against Ebola Virus Disease by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The expanding bushmeat market in Africa contributes to the transmission of zoonotic disease which may lead to global pandemic. Example is Nigeria where the first outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), which originated from an imported case, was reported in July, 2014. Hence, the study tried to understand the ...

  8. genetics of resistance to groundnut rosette virus disease abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Groundnut Rosette Virus disease (GRD) has long been regarded a major limiting biotic constraint to groundnut production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The disease is caused by a complex of three viral components that interact in a synergistic fashion resulting into severe crop losses. A study was conducted to better ...

  9. Genetics of resistance to groundnut rosette virus disease. | Kayondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnut Rosette Virus disease (GRD) has long been regarded a major limiting biotic constraint to groundnut production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The disease is caused by a complex of three viral components that interact in a synergistic fashion resulting into severe crop losses. A study was conducted to better ...

  10. Haematology of infectious bursal disease virus infected chickens on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herbal spice proven to posses antimicrobial and immunostimulating properties which could be useful in the control of endemic diseases of poultry such as infectious bursal disease (IBD). Its effect on IBD virus infection was therefore investigated via haematological assessment. One hundred and ...

  11. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. The vaccine was developed from local isolates for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian cattle. All the vaccine inputs tested were sterile and the high mean titre levels of ...

  12. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in sera and eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-03-07

    Mar 7, 2016 ... The seroprevalence and maternal antibody profiles to Newcastle disease virus infection of guinea fowls were studied using ..... gallisepticum. Avian diseases, 28 (4): 877-883. Sa'idu L, Tekdek LB & Abdu PA (2004). Prevalence of ND antibodies in domestic and semi domestic birds in Zaria, Nigeria.

  13. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R

    2011-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the huma...

  14. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  15. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus among local chickens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major constraints to poultry in most developing countries. It is a highly contagious and fatal disease caused by a virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. In other to evaluate the evidence of ND among village chicken, an epidemiological survey was carried out between September and ...

  16. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

  17. Protective efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Minmin; Ge, Jinying; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Weiye; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-01-01

    Background Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes severe losses to the animal husbandry industry. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of VSV (rL-VSV-G) was constructed and its pathogenicity and immune protective efficacy in mouse were evaluated. Results In pathogenicity evaluation test, the analysis of the viral distribution in mouse organs and body weight change showed that rL-VSV-G was safe in mice. In immune protection assay, the reco...

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.J.; Kim, L.M.; Ip, Hon S.; Afonso, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins revealed that the highest rate of change occurred at the fusion protein. All proteins were under strong purifying (negative) selection; the fusion protein displayed the highest number of amino acids under positive selection. Regardless of the phylogenetic grouping or the level of virulence, the cleavage site motif was highly conserved implying that mutations at this site that result in changes of virulence may not be favored. The coding sequence of the fusion gene and the genomes of viruses from wild birds displayed higher yearly rates of change in virulent viruses than in viruses of low virulence, suggesting that an increase in virulence may accelerate the rate of NDV evolution. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Real-Time Evolution of Zika Virus Disease Outbreak, Roatán, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Trevor; Roy-Burman, Arup; Tuholske, Cascade; Busch, Michael P; Bakkour, Sonia; Stone, Mars; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Gao, Kui; Coleman, Jayleen; Bloch, Evan M

    2017-08-01

    A Zika virus disease outbreak occurred in Roatán, Honduras, during September 2015-July 2016. Blood samples and clinical information were obtained from 183 patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue virus infection. A total of 79 patients were positive for Zika virus, 13 for chikungunya virus, and 6 for dengue virus.

  20. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Advances in vaccine research against economically important viral diseases of food animals: Infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic analysis of resistance to six virus diseases in a multiple virus-resistant maize inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Jose Luis; Jones, Mark W; Brenner, Eric; Francis, David M; Tomas, Adriana; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2014-04-01

    Novel and previously known resistance loci for six phylogenetically diverse viruses were tightly clustered on chromosomes 2, 3, 6 and 10 in the multiply virus-resistant maize inbred line, Oh1VI. Virus diseases in maize can cause severe yield reductions that threaten crop production and food supplies in some regions of the world. Genetic resistance to different viruses has been characterized in maize populations in diverse environments using different screening techniques, and resistance loci have been mapped to all maize chromosomes. The maize inbred line, Oh1VI, is resistant to at least ten viruses, including viruses in five different families. To determine the genes and inheritance mechanisms responsible for the multiple virus resistance in this line, F1 hybrids, F2 progeny and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross of Oh1VI and the virus-susceptible inbred line Oh28 were evaluated. Progeny were screened for their responses to Maize dwarf mosaic virus, Sugarcane mosaic virus, Wheat streak mosaic virus, Maize chlorotic dwarf virus, Maize fine streak virus, and Maize mosaic virus. Depending on the virus, dominant, recessive, or additive gene effects were responsible for the resistance observed in F1 plants. One to three gene models explained the observed segregation of resistance in the F2 generation for all six viruses. Composite interval mapping in the RIL population identified 17 resistance QTLs associated with the six viruses. Of these, 15 were clustered in specific regions of chr. 2, 3, 6, and 10. It is unknown whether these QTL clusters contain single or multiple virus resistance genes, but the coupling phase linkage of genes conferring resistance to multiple virus diseases in this population could facilitate breeding efforts to develop multi-virus resistant crops.

  3. Virus mutations and their impact on vaccination against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, A; Mamache, B; Tombari, W; Ghram, A

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease (also known as Gumboro disease) is an immunosuppressive viral disease specific to chickens. In spite of all the information amassed on the antigenic and immunological characteristics of the virus, the disease has not yet been brought fully under control. It is still prevalent in properly vaccinated flocks carrying specific antibodies at levels normally high enough to prevent the disease. Common causes apart, failure of vaccination against infectious bursal disease is associated mainly with early vaccination in flocks of unknown immune status and with the evolution of viruses circulating in the field, leading to antigenic drift and a sharp rise in pathogenicity. Various highly sensitive molecular techniques have clarified the viral determinants of antigenicity and pathogenicity of the infectious bursal disease virus. However, these markers are not universally recognised and tend to be considered as evolutionary markers. Antigenic variants of the infectious bursal disease virus possess modified neutralising epitopes that allow them to evade the action of maternally-derived or vaccine-induced antibodies. Autogenous or multivalent vaccines are required to control antigenic variants in areas where classical and variant virus strains coexist. Pathotypic variants (very virulent viruses) remain antigenically related to classical viruses. The difficulty in controlling pathotypic variants is linked to the difficulty of eliciting an early immune response, because of the risk of the vaccine virus being neutralised by maternal antibodies. Mathematical calculation of the optimal vaccination time and the use of vaccines resistant to maternally-derived antibodies have improved the control of very virulent viruses. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  4. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsiani, S M; Graham, G C; Moore, P R; Jansen, C C; Van Den Hurk, A F; Moore, F A J; Simmons, R J; Craig, S B

    2011-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have all been characterised by acute respiratory and neurological manifestations, with high levels of morbidity and mortality in the affected horses and humans. The modes of transmission of HeV remain largely unknown. Although fruit bats have been identified as natural hosts of the virus, direct bat-horse, bat-human or human-human transmission has not been reported. Human infection can occur via exposure to infectious urine, saliva or nasopharyngeal fluid from horses. The treatment options and efficacy are very limited and no vaccine exists. Reports on the outbreaks of HeV in Australia are collated in this review and the available data on the biology, transmission and detection of the pathogen are summarized and discussed.

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  6. Ebola virus disease. Short history, long impact

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Teófila Vicente-Herrero; Ángel Arturo López-González; Mª Victoria Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre; Luisa M. Capdevila-García; Jesús Terradillos-García; Encarna Aguilar-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Ebola Virus infection is at present times a growing worldwide concern, although its history goes back to 1967, with subsequent outbreaks in 1979, 1980 and 1987, all of them by contact in workers in affected areas. The concern of the scientific community about this issue is partially reflected in publications included in MEDLINE (PUBMED database) and in which, taking as a keyword in the search box “Ebola virus”, 2.151 publications are found, belonging 984 of them to the last 5 years (45.7%) an...

  7. Zika virus disease: a public health emergency of international concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Kelly

    The emergence of Zika virus disease (ZIKV) in the Americas, mainly Brazil, has required the World Health Organization to take action to halt the spread of the virus by implementing preventive measures. This has resulted in increased surveillance of the virus and its potential complications. In the UK, cases of ZIKV have been reported in returning travellers. With the importance of this disease increasing, it is vital that nurses and other health professionals take the time to learn about ZIKV in order to pass on this knowledge to patients, enabling them to make informed choices about travel to affected areas. This article will discuss the ZIKV, its complications and what to advise travellers, including pregnant women, to prevent transmission and spread.

  8. Viruses in recreational water-borne disease outbreaks: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R G; Jones, E L; Gerba, C P

    2009-12-01

    Viruses are believed to be a significant cause of recreationally associated water-borne disease. However, they have been difficult to document because of the wide variety of illnesses that they cause and the limitations in previous detection methods. Noroviruses are believed to be the single largest cause of outbreaks, which have been documented in the published literature 45% (n = 25), followed by adenovirus (24%), echovirus (18%), hepatitis A virus (7%) and coxsackieviruses (5%). Just under half of the outbreaks occurred in swimming pools (49%), while the second largest outbreak occurred in lakes or ponds (40%). The number of reported outbreaks associated with noroviruses has increased significantly in recent years probably because of better methods for virus detection. Inadequate disinfection was related to 69% (n = 18) of swimming pool outbreaks. A lack of required reporting and nonuniform water quality and chlorination/disinfection standards continues to contribute to water-borne recreational disease outbreaks.

  9. Ebola Virus Disease in Pregnancy: Clinical, Histopathologic, and Immunohistochemical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; de la Rosa Vázquez, Olimpia; Bausch, Daniel G; Schafer, Ilana J; Paddock, Christopher D; Nyakio, Jean Paul; Lame, Papys; Bergeron, Eric; McCollum, Andrea M; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Bollweg, Brigid C; Prieto, Miriam Alía; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nichol, Stuart T; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E; Zaki, Sherif R

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs. In the Gulu case, ebolavirus antigen localized to malarial parasite pigment-laden macrophages. These data suggest that trophoblast infection may be a mechanism of transplacental ebolavirus transmission. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in Village Poultry in Yobe State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  11. Molecular screening and isolation of Newcastle disease virus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular screening and isolation of Newcastle disease virus from live poultry markets and chickens from commercial poultry farms in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  12. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A serological survey to detect the presence of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in village poultry was conducted in 17 villages of Yobe State, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of NDV using haemaggluttination inhibition test. Ten households were sampled from each village.

  13. Field investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of FMD virus serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2 among Nigerian cattle was determined using Complement Fixation (CF) and Serum Neutralization (SN) Tests in 2000 cattle sera obtained from nine northern states. The disease prevalence by CF and SN were 46.79% and 53.15% respectively. These figures were ...

  14. genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR TUBER YIELD, QUALITY, AND VIRUS DISEASE. COMPLEX TRAITS IN UGANDA SWEETPOTATO GERMPLASM. E. GASURA, A.B. MASHINGAIDZE1 and S.B. MUKASA. Department of Crop Science, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda. 1Department of Crop Science, ...

  15. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  16. Hand hygiene practices post ebola virus disease outbreak in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly contagious viral infection that requires a high risk perception and practice of good hand hygiene by regular hand washing or use of hand sanitizers for infection control at all time. The declaration of Nigeria as an Ebola-free country by the World Health Organization on the ...

  17. West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic: The Africa Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe acute viral illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, myalgia, malaise, and severe headache, followed by vomiting and diarrhea and, in some instances, bleeding. The 2014 West Africa outbreak is the largest in history, affecting ...

  18. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  19. Expression of VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) YL strain in Northeast of China, under control of the ats1A promoter from Rubisco small subunit genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, was introduced into the transfer deoxyribonucleic acid (T-DNA) region of plant transfer vector pCAMBIA1300 and transferred to ...

  20. Serological Detection of Infectious Bursa Disease Virus Antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection and distribution of infectious Bursa disease (IBD) virus antibody among local species of birds was investigated in 4,655 sera sample using Agar Gel precipitation test (AGPT). The results showed that local chickens had the highest distribution with 446 (9.58%) followed by ducks 218 (4.68%), guinea fowl 131 ...

  1. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant...

  2. Serological Detection of Infectious Bursa Disease Virus Antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, 3Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture,. Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria. (Received: 02:03:2016; Accepted: 04:07:16). Abstract. The detection and distribution of infectious Bursa disease (IBD) virus antibody among local ... administration of the vaccines resulting to.

  3. Social vulnerability and Ebola virus disease in rural Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick; Melvin L. Warren; Susan Charnley; Christie M. Stegall

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate...

  4. Detection of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) in naturally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the identification of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The technique was applied on bursa of Fabricius of infected chicken. Some of these bursae have been kept in the freezer for 16years under conditions of regular electric power ...

  5. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... envelope glycoprotein, which comprises the initial and key step of infection. Infection can be inhibited by blockage of ... Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the genus Avibirnavirus of the family ..... Assessment of genetic, antigenic and pathotypic criteria for the characterization of IBDV strains.

  6. Impregnation and storage of Newcastle disease virus on to filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stored and subsequently detected by RT PCR. This method might be safely used for storage and transportation of NDV samples to the designated laboratories for molecular studies without the need for cooling. Keywords: Allantoic fluid, chicken embryo fibroblast, Newcastle diseases virus, polymerase chain reaction, RNA ...

  7. Field investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    determined using Complement Fixation (CF) and Serum Neutralization (SN) Tests in 2000 cattle sera .... Table 1: Overall results of Foot and Mouth Disease distribution in the northern zones. Zones Location No. of animal No. animal No. of calf No. of adult Virus. States involved affected dead dead. Type. Adamawa. 136. 70.

  8. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Iaquinto, G

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.......Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  9. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks Report to...Congressional Requesters May 2017 GAO-17-445 United States Government Accountability Office United States Government Accountability Office...Highlights of GAO-17-445, a report to congressional requesters. May 2017 EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of

  10. Ebola virus disease - pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Piatek, Anna; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    On March 2014 the WHO notified the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea, and infection quickly spread to another West African countries including Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. Current outbreak is the largest in the history, since discovery of the virus in 1976. Imported cases and infection among healthcare workers in Europe and United States have elucidated necessity of better education of medical staff. Clinicians must be familiar with clinical picture of EVD, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, as rapid diagnosis and prompt introduction of supportive therapy can have a significant impact on the survival.

  11. Hot topics in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maximillian S; Patel, Sanjay; Openshaw, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The 7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium took place in Hotel Blijdorp, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The series has been running since 1996; this meeting took place after a 3-year gap, and was attended by approximately 200 clinicians, scientists and industry representatives from all over the world. The conference covered all aspects of respiratory syncytial virus disease, including virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, immunology, vaccines, antivirals and other therapeutic approaches. Reviews by invited keynote speakers were accompanied by oral and poster presentations, with ample opportunity for discussion of unpublished work. This article summarizes a small selection of hot topics from the meeting, focused on pathogenesis, therapeutics and vaccine development.

  12. [Immune response of pigs to Aujeszky disease virus and swine influenza virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarov, G; Khristov, S

    1978-01-01

    Explored was the possibility of simultaneous vaccination of pigs against the Aujeszky's disease virus and the swine influenza virus. Used were strain MK-25 against the former and strain 3sb against the latter. It was found that at the simultaneous subcutaneous or oral treatment with the two antigens equally effective immunity was built as in the case of vaccination with each one of them used alone. No antagonism was established between the two antigens during the time of immunity building in the body.

  13. OUTBREAK OF ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Tsankova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an arbovirus from Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Like most of the viruses which belong to the Flavivirus genus, it replicates in and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Unlike other arbovirus infections including dengue and chikungunya, Zika virus causes a relatively mild disease. The most common symptoms of ZIKV are mild fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, asthenia, abdominal pain, oedema, lymphadenopathy, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and cutaneous maculopapular rash, which last for several days to a week. Although 80% of the cases with ZIKV are asymptomatic, severe complications such as microcephalia and GBS may be observed. This explains why ZIKV is more dangerous that it was thought to be and why it rapidly evolves in unexpected challenge for the international and national public health authorities.

  14. Ebola virus disease. Short history, long impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teófila Vicente-Herrero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus infection is at present times a growing worldwide concern, although its history goes back to 1967, with subsequent outbreaks in 1979, 1980 and 1987, all of them by contact in workers in affected areas. The concern of the scientific community about this issue is partially reflected in publications included in MEDLINE (PUBMED database and in which, taking as a keyword in the search box “Ebola virus”, 2.151 publications are found, belonging 984 of them to the last 5 years (45.7% and 527 of these publications (53.5% to the years 2014-2015. The earliest publication dates back to 1977, attaching no listed authors either reference abstract, and the most recent to January of current year 2015. This means Ebola infection is a global problem and that concern the international scientific community. A review of some of the studies published in this matter, considered of interest and discussed by the authors, is performed in this work.

  15. Molecular characterisation of lumpy skin disease virus and sheeppox virus based on P32 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.A.Rashid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV and sheeppox virus (SPV have a considerable economic impact on the cattle and small ruminant industry. They are listed in group A of contagious disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. This study addressed molecular characterisation of first LSDV outbreak and an endemic SPV in Kurdistan region of Iraq based on P32 gene. The results indicated that P32 gene can be successfully used for diagnosis of LSDV. The phylogenic and molecular analysis showed that there may be a new LSDV isolate circulating in Kurdistan which uniquely shared the same characteristic amino acid sequence with SPV and GPV, leucine at amino acid position 51 in P32 gene as well as few genetically distinct SPV causing pox disease in Kurdistan sheep. This study provided sequence information of P32 gene for several LSDV isolates, which positively affects the epidemiological study of Capripoxvirus

  16. Bowen's Disease Associated With Two Human Papilloma Virus Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Hojat; Gharaei Nejad, Kaveh; Azimi, Seyyede Zeinab; Rafiei, Rana; Mesbah, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Bowen's disease (BD) is an epidermal in-situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Most Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV)-positive lesions in Bowen's disease are localized to the genital region or distal extremities (periungual sites) in which HPV type-16 is frequently detected. Patient was a 64-year-old construction worker for whom we detected 2 erythematous psoriasiform reticular scaly plaques on peri-umbilical and medial knee. Biopsy established the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and polymerase chain reaction assay showed HPV-6, -18 co-infection. Patient was referred for surgical excision.

  17. [Zika virus infection or the future of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio Sallent, Lluís; Roure Díez, Sílvia; Fernández Rivas, Gema

    2016-10-07

    Zika virus belongs to the Flaviridae, an extended phylogenetic family containing dengue or yellow fever, viruses whose shared main vector are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The virus originally came from Central African simian reservoirs and, from there, expanded rapidly across the Pacific to South America. The disease is an example of exantematic fever usually mild. Mortality is very low and mainly limited to secondary Guillain-Barré or fetal microcephaly cases. Diagnostic confirmation requires a RT-PCR in blood up to the 5th day from the onset or in urine up to the 10-14th day. Specific IgM are identifiable from the 5th symptomatic day. Clinically, a suspected case should comply with: a) a journey to epidemic areas; b) a clinically compatible appearance with fever and skin rash, and c) a generally normal blood count/basic biochemistry. There is some evidence that causally relates Zika virus infection with fetal microcephaly. While waiting for definitive data, all pregnant women coming from Central or South America should be tested for Zika virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Zika and Spondweni Viruses: Historic Evidence of Misidentification, Misdiagnosis and Serious Clinical Disease Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    1 Zika and Spondweni viruses : Historic evidence of misidentification, misdiagnosis, and serious clinical disease manifestations Andrew D...serogroup (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) consists of two members: Zika 3 and Spondweni viruses . Both viruses have been historically misidentified...UNCLASSIFIED 3 Perspective 24 25 Viruses within the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, are notorious for their serological 26 cross-reactivity

  19. Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, J; Kanno, T; Tsuchiya, Y; Mitsubayashi, S; Seki, R

    2000-01-01

    The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.

  20. Newcastle disease virus outbreaks: vaccine mismatch or inadequate application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortmans, Jos C F M; Peeters, Ben P H; Koch, Guus

    2012-11-09

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, and may cause devastating losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Its causative agent is Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1. Many countries maintain a stringent vaccination policy against ND, but there are indications that ND outbreaks can still occur despite intensive vaccination. It has been argued that this may be due to antigenic divergence between the vaccine strains and circulating field strains. Here we present the complete genome sequence of a highly virulent genotype VII virus (NL/93) obtained from vaccinated poultry during an outbreak of ND in the Netherlands in 1992-1993. Using this strain, we investigated whether the identified genetic evolution of NDV is accompanied by antigenic evolution. In this study we show that a live vaccine that is antigenically adapted to match the genotype VII NL/93 outbreak strain does not provide increased protection compared to a classic genotype II live vaccine. When challenged with the NL/93 strain, chickens vaccinated with a classic vaccine were completely protected against clinical disease and mortality and virus shedding was significantly reduced, even with a supposedly suboptimal vaccine dose. These results suggest that it is not antigenic variation but rather poor flock immunity due to inadequate vaccination practices that may be responsible for outbreaks and spreading of virulent NDV field strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  2. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...

  3. Ebola Virus Disease: Essential Public Health Principles for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  4. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  5. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  6. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control.

  7. The Pathogenesis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseler, Laura; Chertow, Daniel S; Johnson, Karl M; Feldmann, Heinz; Morens, David M

    2017-01-24

    For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control. Growing understanding of ebolavirus pathogenetic mechanisms and important new clinical observations of the disease course provide fresh clues about prevention and treatment approaches. Although viral cytopathology and immune-mediated cell damage in ebolavirus disease often result in severe compromise of multiple organs, tissue repair and organ function recovery can be expected if patients receive supportive care with fluids and electrolytes; maintenance of oxygenation and tissue perfusion; and respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular support. Major challenges for managing future Ebola epidemics include establishment of early and aggressive epidemic control and earlier and better patient care and treatment in remote, resource-poor areas where Ebola typically reemerges. In addition, it will be important to further develop Ebola vaccines and to adopt policies for their use in epidemic and pre-epidemic situations.

  8. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase...

  9. Microculture system for detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R E; Brown, J; Gratzek, J B; Kleven, S H; Scott, T A

    1974-05-01

    A microculture system utilizing cytopathic effect (CPE) and hemadsorption (HAd) end points was effective in determining the level of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies. The microculture system was of comparable sensitivity to the plaque reduction test for the detection of NDV antibodies. The standards by which the CPE and HAd microculture tests would be considered reproducible were defined. The results indicate that the CPE and HAd microculture tests are reproducible within one twofold dilution.

  10. Clinical presentation and management of severe Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T Eoin; von Saint André-von Arnim, Amélie

    2014-11-01

    Clinicians caring for patients infected with Ebola virus must be familiar not only with screening and infection control measures but also with management of severe disease. By integrating experience from several Ebola epidemics with best practices for managing critical illness, this report focuses on the clinical presentation and management of severely ill infants, children, and adults with Ebola virus disease. Fever, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia are the most common symptoms of the 2014 West African outbreak. Profound fluid losses from the gastrointestinal tract result in volume depletion, metabolic abnormalities (including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypocalcemia), shock, and organ failure. Overt hemorrhage occurs infrequently. The case fatality rate in West Africa is at least 70%, and individuals with respiratory, neurological, or hemorrhagic symptoms have a higher risk of death. There is no proven antiviral agent to treat Ebola virus disease, although several experimental treatments may be considered. Even in the absence of antiviral therapies, intensive supportive care has the potential to markedly blunt the high case fatality rate reported to date. Optimal treatment requires conscientious correction of fluid and electrolyte losses. Additional management considerations include searching for coinfection or superinfection; treatment of shock (with intravenous fluids and vasoactive agents), acute kidney injury (with renal replacement therapy), and respiratory failure (with invasive mechanical ventilation); provision of nutrition support, pain and anxiety control, and psychosocial support; and the use of strategies to reduce complications of critical illness. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be appropriate in certain circumstances, but extracorporeal life support is not advised. Among other ethical issues, patients' medical needs must be carefully weighed against healthcare worker safety and infection control concerns. However, meticulous attention

  11. RNA Viruses that Cause Hemorrhagic, Encephalitic, and Febrile Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    commercial priority. Further, fund- - The views of the authors do not purport to reflect ing for studying many of these viruses is the position of the...tion of headache, meningismus, vertigo , mated 200,000 cases occurred with 598 re- confusion, hallucinations, and recrudes- ported deaths. Most cases...latter. Patients surviving this disease require several weeks for conva- Clinical Features lescence, and paroxysmal and orthostatic hypotension

  12. Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera and egg yolk samples. Protective serum antibody titres of ≥3 (log2) were recorded in 5.3% of the naturally exposed, indigenous village hens. Antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus in the yolks were higher than in their sera (230.08 ± 40.05; 1.56 ± 0.74 for ...

  13. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.

  14. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.

  15. Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, John R; Padmanabhan, Sriranjani P; Greenough, Thomas C; Sacra, Richard; Ellison, Richard T; Madoff, Lawrence C; Droms, Rebecca J; Hinkle, David M; Asdourian, George K; Finberg, Robert W; Stroher, Ute; Uyeki, Timothy M; Cerón, Olga M

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of probable Zaire Ebola virus-related ophthalmologic complications in a physician from the United States who contracted Ebola virus disease in Liberia. Uveitis, immune activation, and nonspecific increase in antibody titers developed during convalescence. This case highlights immune phenomena that could complicate management of Ebola virus disease-related uveitis during convalescence.

  16. Classification of infectious bursal disease virus into genogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Linda O; Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes infectious bursal disease (IBD), an immunosuppressive disease of poultry. The current classification scheme of IBDV is confusing because it is based on antigenic types (variant and classical) as well as pathotypes. Many of the amino acid changes differentiating these various classifications are found in a hypervariable region of the capsid protein VP2 (hvVP2), the major host protective antigen. Data from this study were used to propose a new classification scheme for IBDV based solely on genogroups identified from phylogenetic analysis of the hvVP2 of strains worldwide. Seven major genogroups were identified, some of which are geographically restricted and others that have global dispersion, such as genogroup 1. Genogroup 2 viruses are predominately distributed in North America, while genogroup 3 viruses are most often identified on other continents. Additionally, we have identified a population of genogroup 3 vvIBDV isolates that have an amino acid change from alanine to threonine at position 222 while maintaining other residues conserved in this genogroup (I242, I256 and I294). A222T is an important mutation because amino acid 222 is located in the first of four surface loops of hvVP2. A similar shift from proline to threonine at 222 is believed to play a role in the significant antigenic change of the genogroup 2 IBDV strains, suggesting that antigenic drift may be occurring in genogroup 3, possibly in response to antigenic pressure from vaccination.

  17. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the infectious bronchitis virus S1 gene protects chickens against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Sun, Junfeng; Qi, Tianming; Zhao, Wen; Han, Zongxi; Yang, Xiaopu; Liu, Shengwang

    2017-04-25

    The recombinant LaSota strain expressing a chimeric IBV S1 gene (rLaSota-S1) was constructed with the S1 gene of the LX4 type IBV ck/CH/LDL/091022. The expression of the S1 protein was detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. The rLaSota-S1 strain was slightly attenuated, and its growth dynamics were similar to that of the parental LaSota strain. Vaccination of specific pathogen-free chickens with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced NDV hemagglutination inhibition antibodies, and it protected chickens from challenge with virulent NDV. In addition, vaccination with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced IBV-specific IgG antibodies and cellular immunity; however, a single vaccination provided partial protection with reduced virus shedding. Better protection efficiency was observed after a booster vaccination, which resulted in higher antibody titers, significantly fewer disease symptoms, and reduced virus replication and shedding. Our results suggest that the rLaSota-S1 strain is a bivalent vaccine candidate against both NDV and IBV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Infectious Bursal disease virus: ribonucleoprotein complexes of a double-stranded RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Daniel; Saugar, Irene; Rejas, María Teresa; Carrascosa, José L; Rodríguez, José F; Castón, José R

    2009-02-27

    Genome-binding proteins with scaffolding and/or regulatory functions are common in living organisms and include histones in eukaryotic cells, histone-like proteins in some double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, and the nucleocapsid proteins of single-stranded RNA viruses. dsRNA viruses nevertheless lack these ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and are characterized by sharing an icosahedral T=2 core involved in the metabolism and insulation of the dsRNA genome. The birnaviruses, with a bipartite dsRNA genome, constitute a well-established exception and have a single-shelled T=13 capsid only. Moreover, as in many negative single-stranded RNA viruses, the genomic dsRNA is bound to a nucleocapsid protein (VP3) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VPg). We used electron microscopy and functional analysis to characterize these RNP complexes of infectious bursal disease virus, the best characterized member of the Birnaviridae family. Mild disruption of viral particles revealed that VP3, the most abundant core protein, present at approximately 450 copies per virion, is found in filamentous material tightly associated with the dsRNA. We developed a method to purify RNP and VPg-dsRNA complexes. Analysis of these complexes showed that they are linear molecules containing a constant amount of protein. Sensitivity assays to nucleases indicated that VP3 renders the genomic dsRNA less accessible for RNase III without introducing genome compaction. Additionally, we found that these RNP complexes are functionally competent for RNA synthesis in a capsid-independent manner, in contrast to most dsRNA viruses.

  19. Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Brojer, Caroline; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    2004-01-01

    diseases (canine distemper, Borna disease, Louping ill, West Nile virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Aleutian disease), tests for protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi), bacteria (general culture, listeria, Clamydophila psittaci), and intracerebral inoculation...

  20. Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease: Progress and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjuan Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD represents one of the deadliest diseases in the world, with a fatality rate of over 70% and absence of effective vaccine and treatment. Rapid and specific diagnosis of EVD is essential for isolation, treatment of patients, and prevention of outbreak spread. Although many assays for EVD diagnosis have been reported, there is still an urgent requirement for practical assays for use in resource-limited areas, like Africa. Here we summarize the progresses of EVD diagnostic techniques.

  1. Sugarcane mosaic virus: The causal agent of mosaic disease on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... necrosis are seen in sorghum plants that represent virus infection. Several distinct sorghum infecting viruses including Johnson grass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize. Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV), Sorghum Mosaic Virus. (SrMV) and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV) causes mosaic symptoms and red necrotic ...

  2. Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tim J. G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care. The unprecedented scope of the 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic spurred tremendous innovation in this arena, and a variety of new diagnostic platforms that have the potential both to immediately improve ongoing surveillance efforts in West Africa and to transform future outbreak responses have reached the field. In this review, we describe the evolution of Ebola virus disease diagnostic testing and efforts to deploy field diagnostic laboratories in prior outbreaks. We then explore the diagnostic challenges pervading the 2014-2015 epidemic and provide a comprehensive examination of novel diagnostic tests that are likely to address some of these challenges moving forward. PMID:27413095

  3. Analysis of the dengue disease model with two virus strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Kusumo, F.; Aini, A. N.; Ridwan, M.

    2014-02-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are the disease caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted to the human by infected female mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in more than 100 countries over the world. Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes which are closely related to each other antigenically. A person who infected by the dengue virus will never be infected again by the same serotype, but he looses immunity from the three other serotypes. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protective immunity against to others. Here we assume that there are two serotypes exist in the population. Someone who has recovered from one serotype become susceptible to the other serotype and can be reinfected. In this paper we analyze the model of dengue fever with two infections from the different serotype by linear analysis. Then we study the effect of vaccination to the model. In numerical simulation, we use Runge-Kutta order 4 to integrate the solution of the system.

  4. The association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in Ontario feedlot calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Bohac, J G

    1986-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. A total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). Titer...

  5. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  6. Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

  7. Study of Ebola Virus Disease Survivors in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Chughtai, Morad; Loua, Tokpagnan Oscar; Pe Kolie, Jean; Camara, Hadja Fatou Sikhe; Ishfaq, Muhammad Fawad; N'Dour, Cheikh Tidane; Beavogui, Kezely

    2015-10-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding health consequences of Ebola virus disease among survivors. We surveyed 105 Ebola virus disease survivors postdischarge from an Ebola treatment unit in Guinea using a standard data collection form. Patients rated recovery as the percentage of improvement in functional status, where 0% represents "unable to perform" and 100% represents "able to perform at prior level." The mean ± standard deviation time interval between hospital discharge and administration of questionnaire was 103.5 ± 47.9 days in 105 survivors. Anorexia was reported by 103 patients, with varying severity levels: mild (n = 33), moderate (n = 65), or severe (n = 5). Reported pain according to site was chest (30.7%), joint (86.7%), muscle (26.7%), and back (45.7%), among others. Recovery in functional status was graded as mild (10%-30%) (n = 2 [1.9%]), moderate (40%-70%) (n = 52 [50.0%]), and excellent (80%-100%) (n = 50 [48.1%]). Severity of arthralgia (R(2) = 0.09; P = .008) was directly associated with lower recovery in functional status in multivariate analysis. Ebola virus disease survivors frequently reported anorexia and arthralgia. Severity of arthralgia was related to lower functional recovery. There may be a role for focused screening and intervention for symptoms identified in this study of survivors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  9. Airborne virus sampling: Efficiencies of samplers and their detection limits for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger “AGI-30”, OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. [b]Materials and Method[/b]. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers’ physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. [b]Results.[/b] Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96% and the MD8 (100% were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%. Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23% was significantly lower than 100% (P < 0.01, indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log[sub]10[/sub] 50% egg infective dose (EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the AGI-30, 2.5 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log[sub]10[/sub] EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 °C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air

  10. Maternal Zika Virus Disease Severity, Virus Load, Prior Dengue Antibodies, and Their Relationship to Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Umme-Aiman; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Moreira, Maria Lopes; de Sequeira, Patricia Carvalho; Junior, Jose Paulo Pereira; de Araujo Zin, Andrea; Cherry, James; Gabaglia, Claudia Raja; Gaw, Stephanie L; Adachi, Kristina; Tsui, Irena; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Nogueira, Rita Ribeiro; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Brasil, Patricia

    2017-09-15

    Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) syndrome is a newly identified condition resulting from infection during pregnancy. We analyzed outcome data from a mother-infant cohort in Rio de Janeiro in order to assess whether clinical severity of maternal ZIKV infection was associated with maternal virus load, prior dengue antibodies, or abnormal pregnancy/infant outcomes. A clinical severity assessment tool was developed based on duration of fever, severity of rash, multisystem involvement, and duration of symptoms during ZIKV infection. ZIKV-RNA load was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycles in blood/ urine. Dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were measured at baseline. Adverse outcomes were defined as fetal loss or a live infant with grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings. Regression models were used to study potential associations. 131 ZIKV-PCR positive pregnant women were scored for clinical disease severity, 6 (4.6%) had mild disease, 98 (74.8%) had moderate disease, and 27 (20.6%) severe manifestations of ZIKV infection. There were 58 (46.4%) abnormal outcomes with 9 fetal losses (7.2%) in 125 pregnancies. No associations were found between: disease severity and abnormal outcomes (P = .961; odds ratio [OR]: 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.796-1.270); disease severity and viral load (P = .994); viral load and adverse outcomes (P = .667; OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.922-1.135); or existence of prior dengue antibodies (88% subjects) with severity score, ZIKV-RNA load or adverse outcomes (P = .667; OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.255-2.397). Congenital ZIKV syndrome does not appear to be associated with maternal disease severity, ZIKV-RNA load at time of infection or existence of prior dengue antibodies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2013-06-28

    ISSAP) of 3.70, as well as, for diseased ... based testing at 12 months after planting revealed the presence of ACMV in all the accessions while ... Key words: Mosaic virus diseases, dry matter, starch yield, PCR, disease incidence.

  12. CDC Safety Training Course for Ebola Virus Disease Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Rupa; Sobel, Jeremy; Piper, Catherine; Gould, Deborah; Bhadelia, Nahid; Dott, Mary; Fiore, Anthony; Fischer, William A; Frawley, Mary Jo; Griffin, Patricia M; Hamilton, Douglas; Mahon, Barbara; Pillai, Satish K; Veltus, Emily F; Tauxe, Robert; Jhung, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Response to sudden epidemic infectious disease emergencies can demand intensive and specialized training, as demonstrated in 2014 when Ebola virus disease (EVD) rapidly spread throughout West Africa. The medical community quickly became overwhelmed because of limited staff, supplies, and Ebola treatment units (ETUs). Because a mechanism to rapidly increase trained healthcare workers was needed, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented an introductory EVD safety training course to prepare US healthcare workers to work in West Africa ETUs. The goal was to teach principles and practices of safely providing patient care and was delivered through lectures, small-group breakout sessions, and practical exercises. During September 2014-March 2015, a total of 570 participants were trained during 16 course sessions. This course quickly increased the number of clinicians who could provide care in West Africa ETUs, showing the feasibility of rapidly developing and implementing training in response to a public health emergency.

  13. Chikungunya virus: epidemiology, replication, disease mechanisms, and prospective intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laurie A.; Dermody, Terence S.

    2017-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a reemerging arbovirus, causes a crippling musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in humans characterized by fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, rash, and headache. CHIKV is transmitted by Aedes species of mosquitoes and is capable of an epidemic, urban transmission cycle with high rates of infection. Since 2004, CHIKV has spread to new areas, causing disease on a global scale, and the potential for CHIKV epidemics remains high. Although CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease and significant economic burden in affected areas, no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies are available. In this Review, we describe CHIKV epidemiology, replication cycle, pathogenesis and host immune responses, and prospects for effective vaccines and highlight important questions for future research. PMID:28248203

  14. Ebola virus disease and social media: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Duke, Carmen Hope; Finch, Kathryn Cameron; Snook, Kassandra Renee; Tseng, Pei-Ling; Hernandez, Ana Cristina; Gambhir, Manoj; Fu, King-Wa; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2016-12-01

    We systematically reviewed existing research pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media, especially to identify the research questions and the methods used to collect and analyze social media. We searched 6 databases for research articles pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media. We extracted the data using a standardized form. We evaluated the quality of the included articles. Twelve articles were included in the main analysis: 7 from Twitter with 1 also including Weibo, 1 from Facebook, 3 from YouTube, and 1 from Instagram and Flickr. All the studies were cross-sectional. Eleven of the 12 articles studied ≥ 1of these 3 elements of social media and their relationships: themes or topics of social media contents, meta-data of social media posts (such as frequency of original posts and reposts, and impressions) and characteristics of the social media accounts that made these posts (such as whether they are individuals or institutions). One article studied how news videos influenced Twitter traffic. Twitter content analysis methods included text mining (n = 3) and manual coding (n = 1). Two studies involved mathematical modeling. All 3 YouTube studies and the Instagram/Flickr study used manual coding of videos and images, respectively. Published Ebola virus disease-related social media research focused on Twitter and YouTube. The utility of social media research to public health practitioners is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N J; Samuel, A R

    2003-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important veterinary pathogen due to its highly infectious nature, ability to cause persistent infections and long term effects on the condition and productivity of the many animal species it affects. Countries which have the disease have many trade restrictions placed upon them. In the last 15 years there have been significant advances in the understanding of FMD epidemiology. These have largely been due to the application of the molecular biological techniques of polymerase chain-reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing. In the World Reference Laboratory for FMD (Pirbright, UK), a large sequence database has been built up. This database has been used to aid in the global tracing of virus movements. It has been possible to genetically group many FMDV's based on their geographic origin and this has led to their being referred to as topotypes. The implications of this are that inter-regional spread of viruses can often be easily recognised and any evolutionary changes which subsequently occur can be monitored. Using these techniques, for the first time, we have been able to unequivocally show the recent pandemic spread of a FMDV type O strain through the whole of Asia and into Africa and Europe. This type of surveillance will become increasingly important as further globalisation of markets occurs. An increased understanding of how FMDV strains move between geographic regions will play a pivotal role in the development of future disease control strategies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of Aujeszky's disease virus in tissues of infected pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Qvist, P; Meyling, A; Hoff-Jørgensen, R

    1990-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of Aujeszky's disease virus antigen in tissue extracts and in nasal swabs. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is based on two different monoclonal antibodies with specificity for the gII glycoprotein of Aujeszky's disease virus. Viral antigen was detected in 81 of 93 tissue extracts prepared from virus-infected organs. Fifteen outbreaks of Aujeszky's disease were analyzed in this study, and they were all identified by the...

  17. Infection with Aleutian disease virus-like virus in a captive striped skunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Schumacher, Juergen; Thomas, Kathy V; McCain, Stephanie L; Ramsay, Edward C; James, Evan W; Wise, Annabel G; Maes, Roger K; Reel, Danielle

    2008-03-01

    A 5-month-old captive female striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) was evaluated because of lethargy, signs of depression, azotemia, and erythema of the skin around the eyes. Antemortem diagnostic tests revealed renal disease but failed to identify an etiologic agent. A diagnosis of severe nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis was made on the basis of results of histologic examination of renal biopsy specimens. The skunk was administered isotonic fluids SC daily and later every other day because of the handling-related stress. Because of the skunk's deteriorating condition, it was euthanized after 24 days of supportive care. Aleutian disease was diagnosed on the basis of positive results of a PCR assay that targeted the DNA from Aleutian disease virus (ADV); positive results for ADV were also obtained by use of plasma counterimmunoelectrophoresis and an ELISA. Genetic sequencing of the 365-base pair PCR product revealed 90% sequence identity with mink ADV. In the skunk of this report, infection with a skunk-specific parvovirus resulted in clinical signs and pathologic changes similar to those associated with ADV infection in mink. For skunks with signs of renal failure, differential diagnoses should include parvovirus infection. In confirmed cases of infection with this ADV-like virus, appropriate quarantine and biosecurity measures should be in place to prevent spread to other susceptible animals within a zoological collection.

  18. Industry-Wide Surveillance of Marek's Disease Virus on Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David A; Cairns, Christopher; Jones, Matthew J; Bell, Andrew S; Salathé, Rahel M; Baigent, Susan J; Nair, Venugopal K; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F

    2017-06-01

    Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. We conducted a 3-yr surveillance study to assess the prevalence of Marek's disease virus on commercial poultry farms, determine the effect of various factors on virus prevalence, and document virus dynamics in broiler chicken houses over short (weeks) and long (years) timescales. We extracted DNA from dust samples collected from commercial chicken and egg production facilities in Pennsylvania, USA. Quantitative PCR was used to assess wild-type virus detectability and concentration. Using data from 1018 dust samples with Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects models, we determined the factors that correlated with virus prevalence across farms. Maximum likelihood and autocorrelation function estimation on 3727 additional dust samples were used to document and characterize virus concentrations within houses over time. Overall, wild-type virus was detectable at least once on 36 of 104 farms at rates that varied substantially between farms. Virus was detected in one of three broiler-breeder operations (companies), four of five broiler operations, and three of five egg layer operations. Marek's disease virus detectability differed by production type, bird age, day of the year, operation (company), farm, house, flock, and sample. Operation (company) was the most important factor, accounting for between 12% and 63.4% of the variation in virus detectability. Within individual houses, virus concentration often dropped below detectable levels and reemerged later. These data characterize Marek's disease virus dynamics, which are potentially important to the evolution of the virus.

  19. Optimization of Newcastle disease virus production in T-flask | Arifin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the production of lentogenic Asplin F strain of Newcastle disease virus by using cell culture method was studied. Experiments were carried out in T-flasks to investigate the effects of serum concentration in the culture medium during virus replication phase and multiplicity of infection (MOI) on ND virus ...

  20. Control of plant virus diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: the possibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant viruses and virus diseases have been studied for more than 100 years and much attention has been given to their control. However, this has been difficult to achieve because of the lack of any effective means of curing virus-infected plants. Chemotherapy, thermotherapy and meristem-tip culture can be successful, but ...

  1. Development of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Viruses Expressing the Glycoprotein (G) of Avian Metapneumovirus as Bivalent Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, B or C, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses were slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintaine...

  2. Mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) has a characteristic tropism in terms of primary, secondary, and persistent infection and vesicular lesion sites. The virus targets specific tissues for primary replication. From these tissues, the virus spreads via the blood stream to a few preferred secondary in...

  3. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  4. Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with Brincidofovir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Dunning

    Full Text Available The nucleotide analogue brincidofovir was developed to prevent and treat infections caused by double-stranded DNA viruses. Based on in vitro data suggesting an antiviral effect against Ebola virus, brincidofovir was included in the World Health Organisation list of agents that should be prioritised for clinical evaluation in patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD during the West African epidemic.In this single-arm phase 2 trial conducted in Liberia, patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD (two months of age or older, enrolment bodyweight ≥50 kg received oral brincidofovir 200 mg as a loading dose on day 0, followed by 100 mg brincidofovir on days 3, 7, 10, and 14. Bodyweight-adjusted dosing was used for patients weighing <50 kg at enrolment. The primary outcome was survival at Day 14 after the first dose of brincidofovir. Four patients were enrolled between 01 January 2015 and 31 January 2015. The trial was stopped following the decision by the manufacturer to terminate their program of development of brincidofovir for EVD. No Serious Adverse Reactions or Suspected Unexpected Serious Adverse Reactions were identified. All enrolled subjects died of an illness consistent with EVD.Due to the small sample size it was not possible to determine the efficacy of brincidofovir for the treatment of EVD. The premature termination of the trial highlights the need to establish better practices for preclinical in-vitro and animal screening of therapeutics for potentially emerging epidemic infectious diseases prior to their use in patients.Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201411000939962.

  5. Macroscopic and Microscopic Changes in Turkey Embryos Infected with Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD; Gumboro Disease) Virus

    OpenAIRE

    BEYTUT, Enver

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of turkey embryos to the chicken isolate of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and to investigate the morphologic changes occured particularly in bursa of Fabricius (BF) and some visceral organs. In the study, 178 embryonated turkey eggs and 28th passage of the virus from chicken embryo were used. Doses of 0.1 ml from the viral suspension were inoculated into yolk sac (YS) and allantoic cavity (AC), respectively on 13th and 15...

  6. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  7. Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

    1983-01-01

    Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7.

  8. Novel surveillance methods for the control of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, C F; Youkee, D; Brown, C S

    2017-05-01

    The unprecedented scale of the 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak was in a large part due to failings in surveillance: contacts of confirmed cases were not systematically identified, monitored and diagnosed early, and new cases appearing in previously unaffected communities were similarly not rapidly identified, diagnosed and isolated. Over the course of this epidemic, traditional surveillance methods were strengthened and novel methods introduced. The wealth of experience gained, and the systems introduced in West Africa, should be used in future EVD outbreaks, as well as for other communicable diseases in the region and beyond. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Role of Exosomal VP40 in Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleet, Michelle L; DeMarino, Catherine; Lepene, Benjamin; Aman, M Javad; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2017-04-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause a devastating hemorrhagic disease, leading to death in a short period of time. After infection, the resulting EBOV disease results in high levels of circulating cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, and bystander lymphocyte apoptosis in humans and nonhuman primates. The VP40 matrix protein of EBOV is essential for viral assembly and budding from the host cell. Recent data have shown that VP40 exists in the extracellular environment, including in exosomes, and exosomal VP40 can impact the viability of recipient immune cells, including myeloid and T cells, through the regulation of the RNAi and endosomal sorting complexes required for transport pathways. In this study, we discuss the latest findings of the impact of exosomal VP40 on immune cells in vitro and its potential implications for pathogenesis in vivo.

  10. Lassa fever, Marburg and Ebola virus diseases and other exotic diseases: is there a risk to Canada?

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    There are seven exotic diseases of concern; three of these, the most unpredictable and least understood, are Lassa fever, Marburg virus disease and Ebola virus disease. In this article the epidemiologic aspects of these diseases are discussed, with particular emphasis on exportation from their indigenous areas in Africa and on the occurrence of secondary cases. Any of these conditions could be brought into Canada either by aeromedical evacuation or inadvertently. Between 1972 and 1978 there w...

  11. Overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoopes JM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Holck Draborg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation.

  13. Lateral Flow Immunoassays for Ebola Virus Disease Detection in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jill C; Pettitt, James; George, Josiah S; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Taweh, Fahn M; Bateman, Stacey L; Bennett, Richard S; Norris, Sarah L; Spinnler, David A; Pimentel, Guillermo; Sahr, Phillip K; Bolay, Fatorma K; Schoepp, Randal J

    2016-10-15

     Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs) are point-of-care diagnostic assays that are designed for single use outside a formal laboratory, with in-home pregnancy tests the best-known example of these tests. Although the LFI has some limitations over more-complex immunoassay procedures, such as reduced sensitivity and the potential for false-positive results when using complex sample matrices, the assay has the benefits of a rapid time to result and ease of use. These benefits make it an attractive option for obtaining rapid results in an austere environment. In an outbreak of any magnitude, a field-based rapid diagnostic assay would allow proper patient transport and for safe burials to be conducted without the delay caused by transport of samples between remote villages and testing facilities. Use of such point-of-care instruments in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa would have distinct advantages in control and prevention of local outbreaks, but proper understanding of the technology and interpretation of results are important.  In this study, a LFI, originally developed by the Naval Medical Research Center for Ebola virus environmental testing, was evaluated for its ability to detect the virus in clinical samples in Liberia. Clinical blood and plasma samples and post mortem oral swabs submitted to the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, the National Public Health Reference Laboratory for EVD testing, were tested and compared to results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), using assays targeting Ebola virus glycoprotein and nucleoprotein.  The LFI findings correlated well with those of the real-time RT-PCR assays used as benchmarks.  Rapid antigen-detection tests such as LFIs are attractive alternatives to traditional immunoassays but have reduced sensitivity and specificity, resulting in increases in false-positive and false-negative results. An understanding of the strengths, weaknesses

  14. Resurgence of Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea Linked to a Survivor With Virus Persistence in Seminal Fluid for More Than 500 Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Boubacar; Sissoko, Daouda; Loman, Nicholas J.; Bah, Hadja Aïssatou; Bah, Hawa; Worrell, Mary Claire; Conde, lya Saidou; Sacko, Ramata; Mesfin, Samuel; Loua, Angelo; Kalonda, Jacques Katomba; Erondu, Ngozi A.; Dahl, Benjamin A.; Handrick, Susann; Goodfellow, Ian; Meredith, Luke W.; Cotten, Matthew; Jah, Umaru; Guetiya Wadoum, Raoul Emeric; Rollin, Pierre; Magassouba, N'Faly; Malvy, Denis; Anglaret, Xavier; Carroll, Miles W.; Aylward, Raymond Bruce; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Formenty, Pierre; Keïta, Sakoba; Günther, Stephan; Rambaut, Andrew; Duraffour, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    We report on an Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivor who showed Ebola virus in seminal fluid 531 days after onset of disease. The persisting virus was sexually transmitted in February 2016, about 470 days after onset of symptoms, and caused a new cluster of EVD in Guinea and Liberia. PMID:27585800

  15. Prognostic Analysis of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. However, factors affecting the survival of the disease remain unclear. Here, we investigated the prognostic factors of Ebola virus disease (EVD through various statistical models.Sixty three laboratory-confirmed EVD patients with relatively complete clinical profiles were included in the study. All the patients were recruited at Jui Government Hospital, Sierra Leone between October 1st, 2014 and January 18th, 2015. We first investigated whether a single clinical presentation would be correlated with the survival of EVD. Log-rank test demonstrated that patients with viral load higher than 10(6 copies/ml presented significantly shorter survival time than those whose viral load were lower than 10(6 copies/ml (P = 0.005. Also, using Pearson chi-square test, we identified that chest pain, coma, and viral load (>10(6 copies/ml were significantly associated with poor survival of EVD patients. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of multiple variables on the survival of EVD by Cox proportional hazards model. Interestingly, results revealed that patient's age, symptom of confusion, and viral load were the significantly associated with the survival of EVD cases (P = 0.017, P = 0.002, and P = 0.027, respectively.These results suggest that age, chest pain, coma, confusion and viral load are associated with the prognosis of EVD, in which viral load could be one of the most important factors for the survival of the disease.

  16. Renal disease in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K J; Levy, J K; Edinboro, C H; Vaden, S L; Tompkins, M B

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection. To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats. Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected). A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment. Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25). Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  18. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  19. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  20. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    Full Text Available The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect, and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect. Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  1. The AIDS dilemma: drug diseases blamed on a passenger virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesberg, P; Rasnick, D

    1998-01-01

    Almost two decades of unprecedented efforts in research costing US taxpayers over $50 billion have failed to defeat Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and have failed to explain the chronology and epidemiology of AIDS in America and Europe. The failure to cure AIDS is so complete that the largest American AIDS foundation is even exploiting it for fundraising: 'Latest AIDS statistics-0,000,000 cured. Support a cure, support AMFAR.' The scientific basis of all these unsuccessful efforts has been the hypothesis that AIDS is caused by a sexually transmitted virus, termed Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and that this viral immunodeficiency manifests in 30 previously known microbial and non-microbial AIDS diseases. In order to develop a hypothesis that explains AIDS we have considered ten relevant facts that American and European AIDS patients have, and do not have, in common: (1) AIDS is not contagious. For example, not even one health care worker has contracted AIDS from over 800,000 AIDS patients in America and Europe. (2) AIDS is highly non-random with regard to sex (86% male); sexual persuasion (over 60% homosexual); and age (85% are 25-49 years old). (3) From its beginning in 1980, the AIDS epidemic progressed non-exponentially, just like lifestyle diseases. (4) The epidemic is fragmented into distinct subepidemics with exclusive AIDS-defining diseases. For example, only homosexual males have Kaposi's sarcoma. (5) Patients do not have any one of 30 AIDS-defining diseases, nor even immunodeficiency, in common. For example, Kaposi's sarcoma, dementia, and weight loss may occur without immunodeficiency. Thus, there is no AIDS-specific disease. (6) AIDS patients have antibody against HIV in common only by definition-not by natural coincidence. AIDS-defining diseases of HIV-free patients are called by their old names. (7) Recreational drug use is a common denominator for over 95% of all American and European AIDS patients, including male homosexuals. (8

  2. Clinical Features and Outcome of Ebola Virus Disease in Pediatric Patients: A Retrospective Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjær, Mads; Rudolf, Frauke; Mishra, Sharmistha; Young, Alyssa; Storgaard, Merete

    2017-03-01

    Clinical and outcome data on pediatric Ebola virus disease are limited. We report a case-series of 33 pediatric patients with Ebola virus disease in a single Ebola Treatment Center in 2014-2015. The case-fatality rate was 42%, with the majority of deaths occurring within 10 days of admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  4. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize streak virus disease is an important disease of maize in Kenya. In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to maize streak virus in maize populations of S4 families from the cross of one resistant MAL13 and one susceptible MAL9 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance was ...

  5. Antigenic structure of the capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...

  6. A systems view and lessons from the ongoing Ebola Virus disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the on-going (2014) Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa from a systems perspective; and draws out lessons for West Africa in general and Ghana in particular. Keywords: Ebola Virus Disease, West Africa , Ghana , Systems , Prevention and Control ...

  7. Clinical Features and Outcome of Ebola Virus Disease in Pediatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Rudolf, Frauke; Mishra, Sharmistha

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and outcome data on pediatric Ebola virus disease are limited. We report a case-series of 33 pediatric patients with Ebola virus disease in a single Ebola Treatment Center in 2014-2015. The case-fatality rate was 42%, with the majority of deaths occurring within 10 days of admission....

  8. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  9. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976–2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04395.001 PMID:25201877

  10. Protective efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minmin; Ge, Jinying; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Weiye; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-02-24

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes severe losses to the animal husbandry industry. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of VSV (rL-VSV-G) was constructed and its pathogenicity and immune protective efficacy in mouse were evaluated. In pathogenicity evaluation test, the analysis of the viral distribution in mouse organs and body weight change showed that rL-VSV-G was safe in mice. In immune protection assay, the recombinant rL-VSV-G triggered a high titer of neutralizing antibodies against VSV. After challenge, the wild-type (wt) VSV viral load in mouse organs was lower in rL-VSV-G group than that in rLaSota groups. wt VSV was not detected in the blood, liver, or kidneys of mice, whereas it was found in these tissues in control groups. The mice body weight had no significant change after challenge in the rL-VSV-G group. Additionally, suckling mice produced from female mice immunized with rL-VSV-G were partially protected from wt VSV challenge. These results demonstrated that rL-VSV-G may be a suitable candidate vaccine against vesicular stomatitis (VS).

  11. Nuevos virus asociados con gastroenteritis New viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace un resumen de las características comunes y específicas de los diversos virus asociados con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con énfasis en la importancia que tienen en la génesis de este síndrome y en el hecho de que la mayoría de los casos, aunque sean severos, pueden ser manejados adecuadamente mediante el reemplazo de líquidos y electrolitos.

    A synopsis of the common and specific features of the various viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease is presented; emphasis Is made on their importance as etiologic agents of this syndrome and on the fact that most cases, even If they are severe, can be appropriately treated by fluid and electrolyte replacement.

  12. Multiple Virus Infections and the Characteristics of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Diseased Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

  13. Neurological Complications and Sequelae of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billioux, Bridgette Jeanne

    2017-05-01

    The recent 2014-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has led to many discoveries regarding Ebola. Although neurological symptoms during EVD had been previously described, many reports since this outbreak have made clear that EVD can lead to neurological issues. This article will review the various neurological manifestations of EVD. Recently, many neurological symptoms have been described during acute EVD, including altered mental status, seizures, and meningoencephalitis, among others; survivors of EVD also may develop neurological sequelae, such as persistent headache and memory loss and can exhibit abnormalities on neurological exam. Additionally, it is now evident that in rare cases, survivors may experience relapses of EVD months after recovery, including the central nervous system (CNS). EVD can result in many clinical neurological manifestations, both acutely and after recovery. Research is ongoing to further clarify the nature of Ebola in the CNS.

  14. Defective interfering particles in monolayer-propagated Newcastle disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, J.M.; Simon, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) serially passaged in chick embryo fibroblasts (M-NDV) gives rise to defective interfering (NDV-DI) particles, while NDV passaged in embryonated eggs (E-NDV) does not. Co-infection with these particles and infectious virions results in a 99 percent reduction in yield. Interference is not due to interferon or to prevention of absorption of infectious virions and is specific for NDV. The particles mediating interference sediment at the same velocity as infectious virions. The accumulation of NDV-DI particles in monolayers but not in eggs may be a consequence of the fact that M-NDV virions are larger and probably contain more RNA, or it may reflect differences in NDV replicative processes in eggs and monolayers, or both

  15. Planning and response to Ebola virus disease: An integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip W; Boulter, Kathleen C; Hewlett, Angela L; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Beam, Elizabeth J; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John-Martin J; Schwedhelm, Michelle M

    2015-05-01

    The care of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) requires the application of critical care medicine principles under conditions of stringent infection control precautions. The care of patients with EVD requires a number of elements in terms of physical layout, personal protective apparel, and other equipment. Provision of care is demanding in terms of depth of staff and training. The key to safely providing such care is a system that brings many valuable skills to the table, and allows communication between these individuals. We present our approach to leadership structure and function--a variation of incident command--in providing care to 3 patients with EVD. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Implications of Ebola virus disease on wildlife conservation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbetade, Adeniyi Olugbenga; Sonibare, Adekayode Olanrewaju; Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Jayeola, Omotola Abiola; Otesile, Ebenezer Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    The recent Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in some West African countries spanning from late 2013 and currently on as of 13th March, 2015 is the most widespread and fatal with human mortality that has surpassed all previous outbreaks. The outbreak has had its toll on conservation of endangered species. This portends danger for the wild fauna of the country if proactive measures are not taken to prepare grounds for evidence-based assertions concerning the involvement of wild species. To this end, there is an urgent need for sweeping census of reserves, national parks and wetlands. As well as the creation of a system involving reportage by sectors like the industries (extractive and construction) including persons and organisations involved with wildlife related activities. This documentation of die offs and unusual events to collaborating institutions, will help in monitoring trends which hitherto would have gone unnoticed. The importance of bats and primates in agriculture and public health via consumption of vermin insects and seed dispersal cannot be over-emphasized. There is the need for caution on the tendencies to destroy indicator species which could be silent pointers to emerging or re-emerging health and environmental issues. Wildlife resources are still reliably useful and caution is advised in the use of blanket destructive policies like fumigation of caves, indiscriminate culling and poisoned baits to destroy supposedly Ebola Disease Virus wildlife reservoirs. This paper highlights the immediate conservation problems and likely future implications of Ebola saga in Nigeria. It tries to identify the gaps in wildlife researches and makes recommendations for probable workable conservation strategies.

  17. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanturf, John A; Goodrick, Scott L; Warren, Melvin L; Charnley, Susan; Stegall, Christie M

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere.

  18. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Adokiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains

  19. Properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea L. in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, T A; Taiwo, M A; Thottappilly, G A; Shoyinka, S A; Proll, E; Rabenstein, F

    1998-06-01

    A sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in Amuwo Odofin, Tejuoso, and Abule Ado, Lagos, Nigeria. The virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae families. It failed to infect several other species of the Aizoaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Tiliaceae families. The virus was transmitted in a non-persistent manner by Aphis spiraecola and Toxoptera citricidus but not by eight other aphid species tested. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds of C. argentae varieties. The viral coat protein had a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of about 30.2 K. Electron microscopy of purified virus preparations revealed flexuous rod shaped particles of about 750 nm in length. Serological studies were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and Western blot analysis. The virus reacted positively with an universal potyvirus group monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and MoAb P-3-3H8 raised against peanut stripe potyvirus. It also reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against several potyviruses including asparagus virus-1 (AV-1), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), plum pox virus (PPV), soybean mosaic virus (SoyMV), lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and beet mosaic virus (BMV) in at least one of the serological assays used. On the basis of host range, mode of transmission, and available literature data, the celosia virus seems to be different from potyviruses previously reported to infect vegetables in Nigeria. The name celosia mosaic virus (CIMV) has been proposed for this virus.

  20. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique, 2011 to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapaco, L.P.; Monjane, I.V.A.; Nhamusso, A.E.; Viljoen, G.J; Dundon, W.G.; Achá, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from eleven Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all eleven isolates was 112RRRKRF117 indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994 to 1995 and 2005. The characterization of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique. (author)

  2. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and look-alike disease viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P

    2007-07-26

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  3. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  4. Viraemia and Ebola virus secretion in survivors of Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward; Hunt, Luke; Ross, J C Gareth; Nissen, Nina Marie; Curran, Tanya; Badhan, Anjna; Sutherland, Katherine A; Richards, Jade; Lee, James S; Allen, Samuel H; Laird, Steven; Blackman, Mandy; Collacott, Ian; Parker, Paul A; Walbridge, Andrew; Phillips, Rebecca; Sellu, Sia Jammie; Dama, Agnes; Sheriff, Alpha Karim; Zombo, Joseph; Ngegba, Doris; Wurie, Alieh H; Checchi, Francesco; Brooks, Timothy J

    2016-09-01

    In survivors of Ebola virus disease, clinical sequelae including uveitis, arthralgia, and fatigue are common and necessitate systematic follow-up. However, the infection risk to health-care providers is poorly defined. Here we report Ebola virus RT-PCR data for body site and fluid samples from a large cohort of Ebola virus survivors at clinic follow-up. In this cross-sectional cohort study, consecutive survivors of Ebola virus disease attending Kerry Town survivor clinic (Freetown, Sierra Leone), who had been discharged from the Kerry Town Ebola treatment unit, were invited to participate. We collected and tested axillary, blood, conjunctival, forehead, mouth, rectal, semen, urine, and vaginal specimens for presence of Ebola virus using RT-PCR. We regarded samples to be positive for Ebola virus disease if the cycle threshold was 40 or lower. We collected demographic data from survivors of their age, sex, time since discharge from the treatment unit, and length of acute admission in the Ebola treatment unit using anonymised standard forms. Between April 2, and June 16, 2015, of 151 survivors of Ebola virus disease invited to participate, 112 (74%) provided consent. The median age of participants was 21·5 years (IQR 14-31·5) with 34 (30%) participants younger than 16 years. 50 (45%) of 112 participants were male. We tested a total of 555 specimens: 103 from the axilla, 93 from blood, 92 from conjunctiva, 54 from forehead, 105 from mouth, 17 from the rectum, one from semen, 69 from urine, and 21 from the vagina. The median time from Ebola treatment unit discharge to specimen collection was 142 days (IQR 127-159). 15 participants had a total of 74 swabs taken less than 100 days from discharge. The semen sample from one participant tested positive for Ebola virus at 114 days after discharge from the treatment unit; specimens taken from the axilla, blood, conjunctiva, forehead, mouth, rectum, and urine of the same participant tested negative. All specimens from the

  5. Alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Alvela-Suárez, Lucía; Chamorro, Antonio-Javier; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Laso, Francisco-Javier; Marcos, Miguel

    2016-01-28

    Alcohol consumption and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have a synergic hepatotoxic effect, and the coexistence of these factors increases the risk of advanced liver disease. The main mechanisms of this effect are increased viral replication and altered immune response, although genetic predisposition may also play an important role. Traditionally, HCV prevalence has been considered to be higher (up to 50%) in alcoholic patients than in the general population. However, the presence of advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or intravenous drug use (IDU) may have confounded the results of previous studies, and the real prevalence of HCV infection in alcoholic patients without ALD or prior IDU has been shown to be lower. Due to the toxic combined effect of HCV and alcohol, patients with HCV infection should be screened for excessive ethanol intake. Patients starting treatment for HCV infection should be specifically advised to stop or reduce alcohol consumption because of its potential impact on treatment efficacy and adherence and may benefit from additional support during antiviral therapy. This recommendation might be extended to all currently recommended drugs for HCV treatment. Patients with alcohol dependence and HCV infection, can be treated with acamprosate, nalmefene, topiramate, and disulfiram, although baclofen is the only drug specifically tested for this purpose in patients with ALD and/or HCV infection.

  6. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and other forms of JC virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bruce J; Davies, Nicholas W S; Cinque, Paola; Clifford, David B; Nath, Avindra

    2010-12-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the brain caused by the JC virus (JCV). PML usually occurs via reactivation of JCV when an immune system becomes compromised. A diagnosis of PML is normally made on the basis of distinguishing neurological features at presentation, characteristic brain MRI changes and the presence of JCV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. PML has a 3 month mortality rate of 20-50%, so prompt intervention is essential. Currently, reconstitution of the immune system affords the best prognosis for this condition. When PML is first suspected, and where possible, immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory therapy should be suspended or reduced. If PML is associated with a protein therapy that has a long half-life the use of plasma exchange to accelerate the removal of the drug from the circulation may aid the restoration of immune system function. Rapid improvements in immune function, however, might lead to transient worsening of the disease. In this Review, we critically appraise the controversies surrounding JCV infection, and provide practical management guidelines for PML.

  7. Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganga, Gaël D; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Berthet, Nicolas; Kebela Ilunga, Benoît; Kabange, Felix; Mbala Kingebeni, Placide; Mondonge, Vital; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques T; Bertherat, Eric; Briand, Sylvie; Cabore, Joseph; Epelboin, Alain; Formenty, Pierre; Kobinger, Gary; González-Angulo, Licé; Labouba, Ingrid; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Dye, Christopher; Leroy, Eric M

    2014-11-27

    The seventh reported outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the equatorial African country of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) began on July 26, 2014, as another large EVD epidemic continued to spread in West Africa. Simultaneous reports of EVD in equatorial and West Africa raised the question of whether the two outbreaks were linked. We obtained data from patients in the DRC, using the standard World Health Organization clinical-investigation form for viral hemorrhagic fevers. Patients were classified as having suspected, probable, or confirmed EVD or a non-EVD illness. Blood samples were obtained for polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnosis, viral isolation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The outbreak began in Inkanamongo village in the vicinity of Boende town in Équateur province and has been confined to that province. A total of 69 suspected, probable, or confirmed cases were reported between July 26 and October 7, 2014, including 8 cases among health care workers, with 49 deaths. As of October 7, there have been approximately six generations of cases of EVD since the outbreak began. The reported weekly case incidence peaked in the weeks of August 17 and 24 and has since fallen sharply. Genome sequencing revealed Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) as the cause of this outbreak. A coding-complete genome sequence of EBOV that was isolated during this outbreak showed 99.2% identity with the most closely related variant from the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit in the DRC and 96.8% identity to EBOV variants that are currently circulating in West Africa. The current EVD outbreak in the DRC has clinical and epidemiologic characteristics that are similar to those of previous EVD outbreaks in equatorial Africa. The causal agent is a local EBOV variant, and this outbreak has a zoonotic origin different from that in the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. (Funded by the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville and others.).

  8. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-06

    Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a lNDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultaneously or sequentially three days apart. No clinical signs were observed in chickens co-infected with the lNDV and LPAIV or in chickens infected with the viruses individually. However, the pattern of virus shed was different with co-infected chickens, which excreted lower titers of lNDV and LPAIV at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (dpi) and higher titers at subsequent time points. All turkeys inoculated with the LPAIV, whether or not they were exposed to lNDV, presented mild clinical signs. Co-infection effects were more pronounced in turkeys than in chickens with reduction in the number of birds shedding virus and in virus titers, especially when LPAIV was followed by lNDV. In conclusion, co-infection of chickens or turkeys with lNDV and LPAIV affected the replication dynamics of these viruses but did not affect clinical signs. The effect on virus replication was different depending on the species and on the time of infection. These results suggest that infection with a heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated, which decreases with time.

  9. A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Isolation of lumpy skin disease virus from cattle in and around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Lumpy Skin Disease was found to be a serious disease in the study area. So, further investigation is needed on identification of the causative agents and Molecular characterization of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus and risk factors of the disease in South Wollo Zone. Keywords: Cattle, Dessie and Kombolcha, LSD, LSDV, ...

  11. Pathotyping of a Newcastle disease virus isolated from peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarani, K; Muthusamy, S; Tirumurugaan, K G; Sakthivelan, S M; Kumanan, K

    2010-03-01

    This report describes Newcastle disease in peacock and the isolation and characterization of the virus. The virus had an intracerbral pathogenicity index of 1.71 and mean death time of 47 h. The isolate had multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site sequence ((110)GGRRQRRFIG(119)) with a phenylalanine at residue 117. Biological and molecular characterization revealed that the virus is velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in genotype II.

  12. A Multiplex Real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Bluetongue Virus and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serogroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes disease in domestic and wild ruminants resulting in significant economic loss. The closely related Epizootic hemorrhagic diseases virus (EHDV) has been associated with bluetongue-like disease in cattle. Although US EHDV strains have not been experimentally proven to cau...

  13. Assessing the Diversity of Rodent-Borne Viruses: Exploring of High-Throughput Sequencing and Classical Amplification/Sequencing Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Stephan; Straková, Petra; Drexler, Jan F; Jacob, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are distributed throughout the world and interact with humans in many ways. They provide vital ecosystem services, some species are useful models in biomedical research and some are held as pet animals. However, many rodent species can have adverse effects such as damage to crops and stored produce, and they are of health concern because of the transmission of pathogens to humans and livestock. The first rodent viruses were discovered by isolation approaches and resulted in break-through knowledge in immunology, molecular and cell biology, and cancer research. In addition to rodent-specific viruses, rodent-borne viruses are causing a large number of zoonotic diseases. Most prominent examples are reemerging outbreaks of human hemorrhagic fever disease cases caused by arena- and hantaviruses. In addition, rodents are reservoirs for vector-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia spp., and may carry human pathogenic agents, but likely are not involved in their transmission to human. In our days, next-generation sequencing or high-throughput sequencing (HTS) is revolutionizing the speed of the discovery of novel viruses, but other molecular approaches, such as generic RT-PCR/PCR and rolling circle amplification techniques, contribute significantly to the rapidly ongoing process. However, the current knowledge still represents only the tip of the iceberg, when comparing the known human viruses to those known for rodents, the mammalian taxon with the largest species number. The diagnostic potential of HTS-based metagenomic approaches is illustrated by their use in the discovery and complete genome determination of novel borna- and adenoviruses as causative disease agents in squirrels. In conclusion, HTS, in combination with conventional RT-PCR/PCR-based approaches, resulted in a drastically increased knowledge of the diversity of rodent viruses. Future improvements of the used workflows, including bioinformatics analysis, will further

  14. Rome consensus conference - statement; human papilloma virus diseases in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a very resistant, ubiquitous virus that can survive in the environment without a host. The decision to analyse HPV-related diseases in males was due to the broad dissemination of the virus, and, above all, by the need to stress the importance of primary and secondary prevention measures (currently available for women exclusively). The objective of the Consensus Conference was to make evidence-based recommendations that were designed to facilitate the adoption of a standard approach in clinical practice in Italy. Methods The Sponsoring Panel put a series of questions to the members of the Scientific Committee who prepared a summary of the currently available information, relevant for each question, after the review and grading of the existing scientific literature. The summaries were presented to a Jury, also called multidisciplinary Consensus Panel, who drafted a series of recommendations. Results The prevalence of HPV in males ranges between 1.3–72.9%;. The prevalence curve in males is much higher than that in females and does not tend to decline with age. Women appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV genotypes associated with a high oncogenic risk, whereas in males the probability of acquiring low- or high-risk genotypes is similar. The HPV-related diseases that affect males are anogenital warts and cancers of the penis, anus and oropharynx. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV has proved to be effective in preventing external genital lesions in males aged 16–26 years in 90.4%; (95%; CI: 69.2–98.1) of cases. It has also proved to be effective in preventing precancerous anal lesions in 77.5%; (95%; CI: 39.6–93.3) of cases in a per-protocol analysis and in 91.7%; (95%; CI: 44.6–99.8) of cases in a post-hoc analysis. Early ecological studies demonstrate reduction of genital warts in vaccinated females and some herd immunity in males when vaccine coverage is high, although males who have sex with males

  15. [Several issues on the epidemiology of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guiyang; Su, Yingying; Wang, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus belongs to Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus. In response to the current cluster of congenital malformations (microcephaly) and other neurological complications (Guillain-Barré Syndrome) that could be linked to Zika virus infection, WHO declares that Zika virus is of global public health importance. Data sources were from peer review articles and WHO documents. The sources of Zika virus infection would include patients, people with asymptomatic infections and primates. The infectious period of Zika virus remains unclear. However, according to the period that RNA of Zika virus can be positively detected in blood, saliva, urine or semen, we can presume that the communicable period may last for 2 months or even longer. Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Presumptive vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission have been reported. More evidence indicated the existence of a cause-effect relationship between Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly/Guillain-Barre syndrome. Strategies include successful control the amount of mosquitoes and minimize the contacts between mosquitoes and human beings could effectively prevent the Zika virus transmission. Other preventive measures as cutting off vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission should also be adopted. The epidemiology of Zika virus remains uncertain which calls for further research.

  16. Whole genome analysis of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus identified limited genome constellations and preferential reassortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Cooper, Elyse; Klumper, Pat; Simonson, Randy R; Hause, Ben M

    2014-02-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a Culicoides transmitted orbivirus that causes haemorrhagic disease in wild and domestic ruminants. A collection of 44 EHDV isolated from 2008 to 2012 was fully sequenced and analysed phylogenetically. Serotype 2 viruses were the dominant serotype all years except 2012 when serotype 6 viruses represented 63 % of the isolates. High genetic similarity (>94 % identity) between serotype 1 and 2 virus VP1, VP3, VP4, VP6, NS1, NS2 and NS3 segments prevented identification of reassortment events for these segments. Additionally, there was little genetic diversity (>96 % identity) within serotypes for VP2, VP5 and VP7. Preferential reassortment within the homologous serotype was observed for VP2, VP5 and VP7 segments for type 1 and type 2 viruses. In contrast, type 6 viruses were all reassortants containing VP2 and VP5 derived from an exotic type 6 with the remaining segments most similar to type 2 viruses. These results suggest that reassortment between type 1 and type 2 viruses requires conservation of the VP2, VP5 and VP7 segment constellation while type 6 viruses only require VP2 and VP5 and are restricted to type 2-lineage VP7. As type 6 VP2 and VP5 segments were exclusively identified in viruses with type 2-derived VP7, these results suggest functional complementation between type 2 and type 6 VP7 proteins.

  17. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV. The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE. The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50. The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM. At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.

  18. Control of plant virus diseases in cool-season grain legume crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G; van Leur, Joop A G; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    Cool-season grain legume crops become infected with a wide range of viruses, many of which cause serious diseases and major yield losses. This review starts by discussing which viruses are important in the principal cool-season grain legume crops in different parts of the world, the losses they cause and their economic impacts in relation to control. It then describes the main types of control measures available: host resistance, phytosanitary measures, cultural measures, chemical control, and biological control. Examples are provided of successful deployment of the different types of measures to control virus epidemics in cool-season grain legume crops. Next it emphasizes the need for integrated approaches to control because single control measures used alone rarely suffice to adequately reduce virus-induced yield losses in these crops. Development of effective integrated disease management (IDM) strategies depends on an interdisciplinary team approach to (i) understand the ecological and climatic factors which lead to damaging virus epidemics and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of individual control measures. In addition to using virus-resistant cultivars, other IDM components include sowing virus-tested seed stocks, selecting cultivars with low seed transmission rates, using diverse phytosanitary or cultural practices that minimize the virus source or reduce its spread, and using selective pesticides in an environmentally responsible way. The review finishes by briefly discussing the implications of climate change in increasing problems associated with control and the opportunities to control virus diseases more effectively through new technologies.

  19. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived ...

  20. Genetic susceptibility to and presence of endogenous avian leukosis viruses impose no significant impact on survival days of chickens challenged with very virulent plus Marek's disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicks of distinct genotypes at the tumor virus B locus (TVB) in combination with presence or absence of endogenous avian leukosis virus ev21 gene in their genomes were examined for survival day patterns after challenge with very virulent plus Marek’s disease virus (vv+MDV) in three consecutive tria...

  1. Knowledge of Ebola virus disease among a university population: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Shehzadi, Naureen; Hussain, Khalid; Saleem, Fahad; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Asif, Nauman; Yousaf, Maria; Rafique, Maham; Bedar, Rushda; Tariq, Sonia; AbuBakar, Usman; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of a Pakistani university population (students and employees) regarding Ebola virus disease. A total of 2,200 individuals were approached and 1,647 were enrolled in the study. We observed that the vast majority of study participants (91.8%) had inadequate knowledge of Ebola virus disease (knowledge score ≤ 12). Our findings highlight the need to increase the knowledge of Ebola virus disease by using multidimensional approach involving awareness campaigns, print, electronic, and social media. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Belsham, Graham J

    2018-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is responsible for one of the most economically important infectious diseases of livestock. The virus spreads very easily and continues to affect many countries (mainly in Africa and Asia). The risks associated with the introduction of FMDV result in major...... frequently arise (e.g. with modified antigenicity). Using nucleotide sequencing technologies, this rapid evolution of the viral genome can be followed. This allows the tracing of virus transmission pathways within an outbreak of disease if (near) full-length genome sequences can be generated. Furthermore...

  3. Evaluation of Convalescent Plasma for Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Johan; Edwards, Tansy; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Semple, Malcolm G; Gallian, Pierre; Baize, Sylvain; Horby, Peter W; Raoul, Hervé; Magassouba, N'Faly; Antierens, Annick; Lomas, Carolyn; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou A; Fransen, Katrien; Buyze, Jozefien; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Tiberghien, Pierre; Claeys, Yves; De Crop, Maaike; Lynen, Lutgarde; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Smith, Peter G; Delamou, Alexandre; De Weggheleire, Anja; Haba, Nyankoye

    2016-01-07

    In the wake of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in several African countries, the World Health Organization prioritized the evaluation of treatment with convalescent plasma derived from patients who have recovered from the disease. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of EVD in Guinea. In this nonrandomized, comparative study, 99 patients of various ages (including pregnant women) with confirmed EVD received two consecutive transfusions of 200 to 250 ml of ABO-compatible convalescent plasma, with each unit of plasma obtained from a separate convalescent donor. The transfusions were initiated on the day of diagnosis or up to 2 days later. The level of neutralizing antibodies against Ebola virus in the plasma was unknown at the time of administration. The control group was 418 patients who had been treated at the same center during the previous 5 months. The primary outcome was the risk of death during the period from 3 to 16 days after diagnosis with adjustments for age and the baseline cycle-threshold value on polymerase-chain-reaction assay; patients who had died before day 3 were excluded. The clinically important difference was defined as an absolute reduction in mortality of 20 percentage points in the convalescent-plasma group as compared with the control group. A total of 84 patients who were treated with plasma were included in the primary analysis. At baseline, the convalescent-plasma group had slightly higher cycle-threshold values and a shorter duration of symptoms than did the control group, along with a higher frequency of eye redness and difficulty in swallowing. From day 3 to day 16 after diagnosis, the risk of death was 31% in the convalescent-plasma group and 38% in the control group (risk difference, -7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -18 to 4). The difference was reduced after adjustment for age and cycle-threshold value (adjusted risk difference, -3 percentage points; 95

  4. Incidence of Viral Diseases and Occurrence of Three Unreported Viruses in Yams in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Hwan Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2012 to 2014, a survey for the presence of viral diseases in yam plants was carried out in a field of the Institute for Bioresources Research in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. A total of 88 leaf samples were collected and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using specific primer sets. Eighty-one samples were positive for Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2, Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus (ChYNMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Japanese yam mosaic virus (JYMV, and Yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV, whereas Yam mosaic virus (YMV was not detected. Additionally, seven samples were negative for all viruses. Several samples exhibited mixed (double and triple infections. Three viruses (CMV, JYMV, and YMMV were detected for the first time in yam plants in Korea. A BLAST search showed that three viruses shared nucleotide identities with CMV-Ca (98%, JYMV-O2 (91%, and YMMV-TG_NH_1 (86%. Thus, our findings confirmed that yam plants cultivated in Korea were infected with multiple viruses with three of these viruses reported for the first time in Korea.

  5. Critical Care for Multiple Organ Failure Secondary to Ebola Virus Disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Johnson, Daniel W; Weinstein, Gary L; Connor, Michael J; Crozier, Ian; Liddell, Allison M; Franch, Harold A; Wall, Bruce R; Kalil, Andre C; Feldman, Mark; Lisco, Steven J; Sevransky, Jonathan E

    2015-10-01

    This report describes three patients with Ebola virus disease who were treated in the United States and developed for severe critical illness and multiple organ failure secondary to Ebola virus infection. The patients received mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, invasive monitoring, vasopressor support, and investigational therapies for Ebola virus disease. Patient medical records from three tertiary care centers (Emory University Hospital, University of Nebraska Medical Center, and Texas Health Presbyterian Dallas Hospital). Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. In the severe form, patients with Ebola virus disease may require life-sustaining therapy, including mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. In conjunction with other reported cases, this series suggests that respiratory and renal failure may occur in severe Ebola virus disease, especially in patients burdened with high viral loads. Ebola virus disease complicated by multiple organ failure can be survivable with the application of advanced life support measures. This collective, multicenter experience is presented with the hope that it may inform future treatment of patients with Ebola virus disease requiring critical care treatment.

  6. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (l NDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a l NDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultan...

  7. Preventive malaria treatment for contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease in the context of the west Africa 2014-15 Ebola virus disease response: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carias, Cristina; Greening, Bradford; Campbell, Caresse G; Meltzer, Martin I; Hamel, Mary J

    2016-04-01

    After the detection of an Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa in 2014, one of the elements of the response was to contact trace and isolate patients in specialised Ebola treatment units (ETUs) at onset of fever. We aimed to assess the economic feasibility of administering preventive malaria treatment to all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease, to prevent the onset of febrile malaria and subsequent admission to ETUs. We used a decision tree model to analyse the costs of preventive malaria treatment (artemisinin-based combination treatment [ACT]) for all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease (in terms of administration and averted ETU-stay costs) and benefits (in terms of averted ETU admissions) in west Africa, from a health-care provider perspective. The period of analyses was 1 year, which is roughly similar to the duration of the 2014-15 west Africa Ebola outbreak response. We calculated the intervention's cost per ETU admission averted (average cost-effectiveness ratio) by season (wet and dry), country (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea), and age of contact (Ebola virus disease was cost saving for contacts of all ages in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, in both seasons, from a health-care provider perspective. In the wet season, preventive malaria treatment was estimated to reduce the probability of a contact being admitted to an ETU by a maximum of 36% (in Guinea, for contacts aged Ebola virus disease should be considered by public health officials when addressing Ebola virus disease outbreaks in countries and seasons where malaria reaches high levels of transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia-1 under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenutt, C.; Gonzales, J.L.; Paton, D.J.; Gloster, J.; Nelson, N.; Sanders, C.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.

  10. Influenza A (H10N7) Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brand, Judith M A; Wohlsein, Peter; Herfst, Sander; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Seehusen, Frauke; Puff, Christina; Richard, Mathilde; Siebert, Ursula; Lehnert, Kristina; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Fouchier, Ron A M; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Herbst, Werner; Koopmans, Marion; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7) in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). This epidemic

  11. Attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by engineered viral polymerase fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3Dpol) catalyzes viral RNA synthesis. The 3Dpol is a low fidelity enzyme incapable of proofreading which results in a high mutation frequencies that allow the virus to rapidly adapt to different environments. In this study...

  12. Experimental trials with V 4 HR and LaSota Newcastle disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental trials with V 4 HR and LaSota Newcastle disease virus vaccines administered to chicks via eye drop, drinking water and commercial feed Essais experimentaux avec des vaccins V 4 HR et LaSota contre le virus de la maladie de newcastle administres a l'aide des gouttes pour les yeux, de l'eau potable et des ...

  13. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  14. Immune Evasion During Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Infection of Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. In acute viral infections, this involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induc...

  15. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  16. Modifications to the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A peptide; influence on polyprotein processing and virus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Jonas; Belsham, Graham J

    2018-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has a positive-sense ssRNA genome that includes a single, large, open reading frame encoding a polyprotein. The co-translational "cleavage" of this polyprotein at the 2A/2B junction is mediated by the 2A peptide (18 residues in length) using a non-proteolytic m...

  17. Potential for large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Camacho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in affected regions. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of 5th September 2014. To develop a better understanding of Ebola transmission dynamics, we revisited data from the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo. By fitting a mathematical model to time series stratified by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we were able to estimate several epidemiological quantities that have previously proved challenging to measure, including the contribution of hospital and community infection to transmission. We found evidence that transmission decreased considerably before the closure of the hospital, suggesting that the decline of the outbreak was most likely the result of changes in host behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the person-to-person reproduction number was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.92–2.11 in the early part of the outbreak. Using stochastic simulations we demonstrate that the same epidemiological conditions that were present in 1976 could have generated a large outbreak purely by chance. At the same time, the relatively high person-to-person basic reproduction number suggests that Ebola would have been difficult to control through hospital-based infection control measures alone.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus association with peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  19. Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Cárdenas-Mondragón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD. However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129, and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers. Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5, while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1. Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  20. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  1. Data on the irradiation of liquid manure artificially infected with foot-and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Solyom, F.; Felkai, V.; Oroszlany, P.

    1976-01-01

    Research on the application of an ionizing radiation treatment to liquid manure infected with Foot- and Mouth disease virus is described. Virus suspensions diluted with a phosphate buffer solution showed a considerable decrease of virulence already at an exposure to 0.4 - 0.8 Mrad at low initial titre. 1.2 Mrad proved to be effective also against high concentrations of the virus. However, with liquid manure used as diluent, a certain protective effect was noted against the destructive influence of radiation on the virus. (author)

  2. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  3. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, K L; Moorman, A C; O'Sullivan, M J; Sperling, R; Koestler, M E; Soto, I; Rice, R; Brodman, M; Yasin, S; Droese, A; Zhang, D; Schwartz, D A; Byers, R H

    2000-04-01

    To examine the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Forty-four HIV-infected women and 163 HIV noninfected women diagnosed with PID by standard case definition were evaluated by using clinical severity scores, transabdominal sonograms, and endometrial biopsies. After testing for bacterial infections, patients were prescribed antibiotics as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Symptoms of PID and analgesic use before enrollment did not differ by HIV serostatus. More HIV-infected women had received antibiotics before enrollment (40.9% versus 27.2%, P =.08), a factor associated with milder signs regardless of serostatus. More HIV-infected women had sonographically diagnosed adnexal masses at enrollment (45.8% versus 27.1%, P =.08), a difference that yielded higher median severity scores (17.5 of 42 points versus 15 of 42 points, P =.07). However, those differences were not significant at the P <.05 level. Mycoplasma (50% versus 22%, P <.05) and streptococcus species (34% versus 17%, P <.05) were isolated more commonly from biopsies of HIV-infected women. Within 30 days after enrollment, HIV-infected women generally responded as well to therapy as HIV-noninfected women did, regardless of initial CD4 T-lymphocyte percentage. Among women with acute PID, HIV infection was associated with more sonographically diagnosed adnexal masses. Clinical response to CDC-recommended antibiotics did not differ appreciably by serostatus. Mycoplasmas and streptococci were isolated more commonly from HIV-infected women, but those organisms also might be associated with PID in immunocompetent women.

  4. Emergency Department Processes for the Evaluation and Management of Persons Under Investigation for Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadman, Michael C; Schwedhelm, Shelly S; Watson, Suzanne; Swanhorst, John; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John J; Iwen, Peter C; Hayes, A Kim; Needham, Susie; Johnson, Daniel W; Kalin, Daniel J; Zeger, Wesley G; Muelleman, Robert L

    2015-09-01

    Due to the recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, patients with epidemiologic risk for Ebola virus disease and symptoms consistent with Ebola virus disease are presenting to emergency departments (EDs) and clinics in the United States. These individuals, identified as a person under investigation for Ebola virus disease, are initially screened using a molecular assay for Ebola virus. If this initial test is negative and the person under investigation has been symptomatic for Ebola virus disease or some other etiology, may require further investigation to direct appropriate therapy. ED administrators, physicians, and nurses proposed processes to provide care that is consistent with other ED patients. Biocontainment unit administrators, industrial hygienists, laboratory directors, physicians, and other medical personnel examined the ED processes and offered biocontainment unit personal protective equipment and process strategies designed to ensure safety for providers and patients. ED processes for the safe and timely evaluation and management of the person under investigation for Ebola virus disease are presented with the ultimate goals of protecting providers and ensuring a consistent level of care while confirmatory testing is pending. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cassava brown streak disease in Rwanda, the associated viruses and disease phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munganyinka, E; Ateka, E M; Kihurani, A W; Kanyange, M C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Ndunguru, J

    2018-02-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was first observed on cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) in Rwanda in 2009. In 2014 eight major cassava-growing districts in the country were surveyed to determine the distribution and variability of symptom phenotypes associated with CBSD, and the genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses. Distribution of the CBSD symptom phenotypes and their combinations varied greatly between districts, cultivars and their associated viruses. The symptoms on leaf alone recorded the highest (32.2%) incidence, followed by roots (25.7%), leaf + stem (20.3%), leaf + root (10.4%), leaf + stem + root (5.2%), stem + root (3.7%), and stem (2.5%) symptoms. Analysis by RT-PCR showed that single infections of Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) were most common (74.2% of total infections) and associated with all the seven phenotypes studied. Single infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) were predominant (15.3% of total infections) in CBSD-affected plants showing symptoms on stems alone. Mixed infections (CBSV + UCBSV) comprised 10.5% of total infections and predominated in the combinations of leaf + stem + root phenotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and the estimates of evolutionary divergence, using partial sequences (210 nt) of the coat protein gene, revealed that in Rwanda there is one type of CBSV and an indication of diverse UCBSV. This study is the first to report the occurrence and distribution of both CBSV and UCBSV based on molecular techniques in Rwanda.

  6. Human papilloma virus and lupus: the virus, the vaccine and the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Yahel; Calabrò, Michele; Kanduc, Darja; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a well known, widespread autoimmune disease, involving multiple organ systems, with a multifaceted, widely unmapped etiopathogenesis. Recently, a new aspect of morbidity has been described among SLE patients: infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). We set out to review data regarding the intricate relationship between the two and attempt to determine whether HPV may pose as a contributing factor to the development of SLE. We relate to epidemiological, molecular and clinical data. We have found evidence in all these fields suggesting HPV to be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE: increased prevalence of HPV infection among SLE patients; vast molecular homology between viral peptides and human proteins associated with SLE; several reports of SLE development post-HPV vaccination. Our findings suggest a possible involvement of HPV infection in the induction of SLE, via a mechanism of immune cross-reaction due to molecular homology. We review clinical, epidemiological and molecular data suggesting involvement of HPV infection in the pathogenesis of SLE. We suggest that these findings may justify the development of new HPV vaccines containing viral peptides that bear no homology to the human proteome, in order to avoid possible adverse immune cross-reactivity.

  7. Media coverage of the Ebola virus disease in four widelycirculated Nigerian newspapers: lessons from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Smith

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the World Health Organization (WHO declared Nigeria Ebola free on the 20th October 2014, continual reportage of the Ebola disease for effective awareness,prevention and control of the virus is recommended.

  8. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  9. Hepatitis C virus: risk factors and disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grady, B.P.X.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA virus and was first identified in 1989 as a cause for transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis. Transmission of HCV occurs predominantly via blood-to-blood contact. After acute infection about 75% of those infected progress to a persistent

  10. Sugarcane mosaic virus: The causal agent of mosaic disease on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The virus specifically was reacted in Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) and Dot Immunobinding Assay (DIBA). Also relative molecular mass of virus coat protein was calculated using a densitometer via sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) ...

  11. Hepatitis C virus infection in chronic liver disease in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this cross-sectional seroprevalence study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) (anti-HCV) in patients with cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic active hepatitis (CAH) attending a referral hospital in a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-endemic area in South Africa One ...

  12. Severe outbreak of disease in the southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) associated with border disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Lopez-Olvera, Jorge Ramon; Rosell, Rosa; Vidal, Enric; Hurtado, Ana; Juste, Ramon; Pumarola, Marti; Lavin, Santiago

    2007-02-25

    An outbreak of a previously unreported disease affecting southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the central Pyrenees (NE Spain) was recorded in 2001 and 2002. There was a marked temporal distribution, most animals being found between February and June. After the outbreak, the population was found to have decreased by about 42%, most probably due to the disease. We examined 20 affected chamois. Clinical manifestations included depression, weakness and movement difficulties in all cases. Three chamois presented abnormal behaviour, with absence of flight reaction, and 16 showed different degrees of alopecia with skin hyperpigmentation. At necropsy cachexia was observed in all animals, four chamois had abscesses in different parts of the body, four had pneumonia, one had an extensive subcutaneous infection on the head and neck and one had severe orchitis. Microscopic lesions were found in the brain, mainly edema, gliosis, espongiosis, cariorrexis and neuronal multifocal necrosis. A perivascular mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate was present in three of them. Skin lesions included marked follicular atrophy, mild to moderate epidermal hyperplasia with orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and follicular hyperkeratosis, and hypermelanosis. In 13 chamois there were haemosiderin deposits in the spleen, and in three individuals kidney "cloissone" was observed. Intraeritrocitic parasites were detected either by direct observation or PCR in 8 of 17 chamois. A pestivirus was isolated and detected by RT-PCR from 12 of 13 affected chamois and antigenic characterized as border disease virus by monoclonal antibodies. This is the first time a border disease virus has been associated with an outbreak of a high-mortality disease in a wild species.

  13. Some Surface-Active Agents and Their Virucidal Effect on Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellowes, O. N.

    1965-01-01

    Selected cationic and anionic surface-active compounds were tested to determine their virucidal effect on the foot-and-mouth disease virus, type O, strain M11, propagated in primary calf kidney cells. The chemical inactivation of the virus was tested with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0% concentrations of the selected compounds. Virus controls with pH adjusted to cover the expected range of the mixtures of the chemicals and virus were also tested. The absence of virus from the mixtures of chemical and virus after reaction at 28 C for 2 hr was assayed by inoculating suckling mice with the mixtures. One cationic compound, alkyl methyl isoquinilinium chloride, showed considerable antiviral activity due largely to pH effect. The use of the surface-active agents investigated in this study, in the presence of organic material, would not be recommended as virucides. PMID:4286396

  14. Influence of the Leader protein coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus on virus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Leader (L) protein is produced in two forms, Lab and Lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. It has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the Lab coding...... on the nature and extent of the residual Leader protein sequences and on the host cell system used. FMDVs precisely lacking Lb and with the Lab initiation codon modified may represent safer seed viruses for vaccine production....

  15. Hepatitis C virus viremia increases the incidence of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel; Lundgren, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined.......Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined....

  16. Impact of Ultraviolet-Blocking Plastic Films on Insect Vectors of Virus Diseases Infesting Crisp Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Desani, Beatriz M.; Biurrun, R.; Moreno, Aránzazu; Nebreda, Miguel; Fereres, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films are being used as a photoselective barrier to control insect vectors and associated virus diseases in different horticultural crops. A 2-year experiment was carried out in northeastern Spain (Navarra) to evaluate the impact of a UV-blocking film (AD-IR AV) on the population density of insect pests and the spread of insect-transmitted virus diseases associated with head lettuce [Lactuca sativa (L.)]. Results showed that the UV-absorbing plastic film did...

  17. Ebola virus disease control in West Africa: an ecological, one health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Egbetade, Adeniyi Olugbenga; Fagbo, Shamsudeen

    2015-01-01

    The 2013-2015 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa had similar nuances with the 1976 outbreaks in Central Africa; both were caused by the Zaire Ebola Virus strain and originated from rural forested communities. The definitive reservoir host of Ebola virus still remains unknown till date. However, from ecological perspective, it is known that the virus first emerged from forest ecotypes interfacing with human activities. As at March 2015, the outbreak has claimed over 9000 lives, which is unprecedented. Though it remains unproved, the primary sources of infection for past and present outbreaks are forest dwelling, human-hunted fauna. Understanding the ecological factors at play in these forest ecotypes where wild fauna interface with human and causing pathogen spill over is important. A broad based One Health approach incorporating these ecological concepts in the control of Ebola Virus Disease can effectively ameliorate or forestall infection now and in the future.

  18. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette

    2012-01-01

    compared the pathogenicity of different FMDVs in young pigs. In total 32 pigs, 7-weeks-old, were exposed to virus, either by direct inoculation or through contact with inoculated pigs, using cell culture adapted (O1K B64), chimeric (O1K/A-TUR and O1K/O-UKG) or field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) viruses. The O1K...... B64 virus and the two chimeric viruses are identical to each other except for the capsid coding region. Animals exposed to O1K B64 did not exhibit signs of disease, while pigs exposed to each of the other viruses showed typical clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). All pigs infected...... coding sequences are determinants of FMDV pathogenicity in pigs....

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Host Immune Response in the Skin of Chickens Infected with Marek's Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus, a highly cell-associated oncogenic 'alpha-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of a T cell lymphoma and neuropathic disease called Marek’s disease. The skin is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virions are produced and shed into the environment. Stud...

  20. Marek’s disease virus-induced transient cecal tonsil atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. MD is characterized by bursal/th...

  1. Marek’s disease virus induces transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by an immunosupperessive alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include bursal/thymic atrophy and neurological disorders. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the largest lymphoid aggregates of avia...

  2. Neurologic disease in feline immunodeficiency virus infection: disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for NeuroAIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Christopher

    2017-12-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes immunosuppression through virus-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion in feline species. FIV infection is complicated by virus-induced disease in the nervous system. FIV enters the brain soon after primary infection and is detected as FIV-encoded RNA, DNA, and proteins in microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes. FIV infection activates neuroinflammatory pathways including cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and ROS with accompanying neuronal injury and loss. Neurobehavioral deficits during FIV infection are manifested as impaired motor and cognitive functions. Several treatment strategies have emerged from studies of FIV neuropathogenesis including the therapeutic benefits of antiretroviral therapies, other protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory, and neurotrophic compounds. Recently, insulin's antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects were investigated in models of lentivirus brain infection. Insulin suppressed HIV-1 replication in human microglia as well as FIV replication of lymphocytes. Insulin treatment diminished cytokine and chemokine activation in HIV-infected microglia while also protecting neurons from HIV-1 Vpr protein-mediated neurotoxicity. Intranasal (IN) insulin delivery for 6 weeks suppressed FIV expression in the brains of treated cats. IN insulin also reduced neuroinflammation and protected neurons in the hippocampus, striatum, and neocortex of FIV-infected animals. These morphological and molecular effects of IN insulin were confirmed by neurobehavioral studies that showed IN insulin-treated FIV-infected animals displayed improved motor and cognitive performance compared to sham-treated FIV-infected animals. Thus, FIV infection of the nervous system provides a valuable comparative in vivo model for discovering and evaluating disease mechanisms as well as developing therapeutic strategies for NeuroAIDS in humans.

  3. Korean infection control nurses' knowledge and awareness of infection control against Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung M; Choi, Jeong S

    2017-07-01

    To assess the level of knowledge and awareness of Ebola virus disease infection control among infection control nurses and to identify a correlation between these factors. The data were collected from 125 infection control nurses by using a self-report questionnaire. The data were collected on sociodemographic and hospital characteristics, as well as the level of knowledge and awareness of Ebola virus disease infection control. The respondents' mean level of knowledge (correct-answer rate) was 87.7% and their mean level of awareness was 3.86 (1 = "not important at all" to 4 = "very important"). Knowledge of Ebola virus disease infection control was significantly higher among those nurses who had received some Ebola virus disease education. There was a significant positive correlation between the level of knowledge and the level of awareness. The development of effective education and training systems is necessary to improve infection control nurses' knowledge and awareness of Ebola virus disease infection control. Moreover, each hospital should build effective and systematic Ebola virus disease infection control strategies. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. Clinical features of patients isolated for suspected Ebola virus disease at Connaught Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Marta; Walker, Naomi F; Baker, Peter; Haroon, Shamil; Brown, Colin S; Youkee, Daniel; Studd, Neil; Kessete, Quaanan; Maini, Rishma; Boyles, Tom; Hanciles, Eva; Wurie, Alie; Kamara, Thaim B; Johnson, Oliver; Leather, Andrew J M

    2015-09-01

    The size of the west African Ebola virus disease outbreak led to the urgent establishment of Ebola holding unit facilities for isolation and diagnostic testing of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease. Following the onset of the outbreak in Sierra Leone, patients presenting to Connaught Hospital in Freetown were screened for suspected Ebola virus disease on arrival and, if necessary, were admitted to the on-site Ebola holding unit. Since demand for beds in this unit greatly exceeded capacity, we aimed to improve the selection of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease for admission by identifying presenting clinical characteristics that were predictive of a confirmed diagnosis. In this retrospective cohort study, we recorded the presenting clinical characteristics of suspected Ebola virus disease cases admitted to Connaught Hospital's Ebola holding unit. Patients were subsequently classified as confirmed Ebola virus disease cases or non-cases according to the result of Ebola virus reverse-transcriptase PCR (EBOV RT-PCR) testing. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio of every clinical characteristic were calculated, to estimate the diagnostic accuracy and predictive value of each clinical characteristic for confirmed Ebola virus disease. Between May 29, 2014, and Dec 8, 2014, 850 patients with suspected Ebola virus disease were admitted to the holding unit, of whom 724 had an EBOV RT-PCR result recorded and were included in the analysis. In 464 (64%) of these patients, a diagnosis of Ebola virus disease was confirmed. Fever or history of fever (n=599, 83%), intense fatigue or weakness (n=495, 68%), vomiting or nausea (n=365, 50%), and diarrhoea (n=294, 41%) were the most common presenting symptoms in suspected cases. Presentation with intense fatigue, confusion, conjunctivitis, hiccups, diarrhea, or vomiting was associated with increased likelihood of confirmed Ebola virus disease. Three or

  5. Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Venteo, A.

    1999-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological...... in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coil using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most....... Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques...

  6. Identify, isolate, inform: Background and considerations for Ebola virus disease preparedness in U.S. ambulatory care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chea, Nora; Perz, Joseph F; Srinivasan, Arjun; Laufer, Alison S; Pollack, Lori A

    2015-11-01

    Public health activities to identify and monitor persons at risk for Ebola virus disease in the United States include directing persons at risk to assessment facilities that are prepared to safely evaluate for Ebola virus disease. Although it is unlikely that a person with Ebola virus disease will unexpectedly present to a nonemergency ambulatory care facility, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have provided guidance for this setting that can be summarized as identify, isolate, and inform. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Predicting Subnational Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic Dynamics from Sociodemographic Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Valeri

    Full Text Available The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in West Africa has spread wider than any previous human EVD epidemic. While individual-level risk factors that contribute to the spread of EVD have been studied, the population-level attributes of subnational regions associated with outbreak severity have not yet been considered.To investigate the area-level predictors of EVD dynamics, we integrated time series data on cumulative reported cases of EVD from the World Health Organization and covariate data from the Demographic and Health Surveys. We first estimated the early growth rates of epidemics in each second-level administrative district (ADM2 in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia using exponential, logistic and polynomial growth models. We then evaluated how these growth rates, as well as epidemic size within ADM2s, were ecologically associated with several demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the ADM2, using bivariate correlations and multivariable regression models.The polynomial growth model appeared to best fit the ADM2 epidemic curves, displaying the lowest residual standard error. Each outcome was associated with various regional characteristics in bivariate models, however in stepwise multivariable models only mean education levels were consistently associated with a worse local epidemic.By combining two common methods-estimation of epidemic parameters using mathematical models, and estimation of associations using ecological regression models-we identified some factors predicting rapid and severe EVD epidemics in West African subnational regions. While care should be taken interpreting such results as anything more than correlational, we suggest that our approach of using data sources that were publicly available in advance of the epidemic or in real-time provides an analytic framework that may assist countries in understanding the dynamics of future outbreaks as they occur.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus, a putative cytorhabdovirus infecting taro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Colleen M; Bejerman, Nicolas; Li, Ming; James, Anthony P; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Pearson, Michael N; Revill, Peter A; Harding, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    We report the first genome sequence of a Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus (CBDaV) derived from bobone-affected taro [Colocasia esculenta L. Schott] from Solomon Islands. The negative-strand RNA genome is 12,193 nt long, with six major open reading frames (ORFs) with the arrangement 3'-N-P-P3-M-G-L-5'. Typical of all rhabdoviruses, the 3' leader and 5' trailer sequences show complementarity to each other. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CBDaV is a member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, supporting previous reports of virus particles within the cytoplasm of bobone-infected taro cells. The availability of the CBDaV genome sequence now makes it possible to assess the role of this virus in bobone, and possibly alomae disease of taro and confirm that this sequence is that of Colocasia bobone disease virus (CBDV).

  9. Knowledge of Zika virus disease among reproductive-age women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GC Michael

    ZVD) because of international travel and the presence of Zika-virus-carrying mosquitoes in the country. A paucity of studies exists concerning knowledge of ZVD among at- risk populations. Thus, the necessity for assessment of knowledge of ...

  10. Knowledge of Zika virus disease among reproductive-age women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZVD) because of international travel and the presence of Zika-virus-carrying mosquitoes in the country. A paucity of studies exists concerning knowledge of ZVD among atrisk populations. Thus, the necessity for assessment of knowledge of ...

  11. Critical Role of Airway Macrophages in Modulating Disease Severity during Influenza Virus Infection of Mice ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Michelle D.; Pickett, Danielle L.; van Rooijen, Nico; Brooks, Andrew G.; Reading, Patrick C.

    2010-01-01

    Airway macrophages provide a first line of host defense against a range of airborne pathogens, including influenza virus. In this study, we show that influenza viruses differ markedly in their abilities to infect murine macrophages in vitro and that infection of macrophages is nonproductive and no infectious virus is released. Virus strain BJx109 (H3N2) infected macrophages with high efficiency and was associated with mild disease following intranasal infection of mice. In contrast, virus strain PR8 (H1N1) was poor in its ability to infect macrophages and highly virulent for mice. Depletion of airway macrophages by clodronate-loaded liposomes led to the development of severe viral pneumonia in BJx109-infected mice but did not modulate disease severity in PR8-infected mice. The severe disease observed in macrophage-depleted mice infected with BJx109 was associated with exacerbated virus replication in the airways, leading to severe airway inflammation, pulmonary edema, and vascular leakage, indicative of lung injury. Thymic atrophy, lymphopenia, and dysregulated cytokine and chemokine production were additional systemic manifestations associated with severe disease. Thus, airway macrophages play a critical role in limiting lung injury and associated disease caused by BJx109. Furthermore, the inability of PR8 to infect airway macrophages may be a critical factor contributing to its virulence for mice. PMID:20504924

  12. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome'). The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.

  13. Complete genome sequence of a velogenic Newcastle disease virus isolated in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalón, Angel E; Mariano-Matías, Andrea; Vásquez-Márquez, Alejandra; Morales-Garzón, Andrés; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V; Ortega-García, Roberto; Lucio-Decanini, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    In Mexico, the number of cases of the highly virulent Newcastle disease virus is increasing. In 2005, an outbreak of Newcastle disease occurred on an egg laying hen farm in the state of Puebla despite vaccination with the LaSota strain. Farmers experienced a major drop in egg production as a consequence of a field challenge virus. In this study, we characterize the virus, APMV1/chicken/Mexico/P05/2005, responsible for the outbreak. The virus is categorized as a velogenic virus with an intracranial pathogenicity index of 1.99 and a chicken embryo mean death time of 36 h. The complete genome length of the virus was sequenced as consisting of 15,192 bp. In addition, phylogenetic analysis classified the virus as a member of the class II, genotype V. The highly pathogenic nature of the virus has been linked to the amino acid sequence at the fusion protein cleavage site, which contains multiple basic amino acids (RRQKR↓F).

  14. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    408(6812), 605-609 (2000). 50. Barnes E, Folgori A, Capone S et al . Novel adenovirus-based vaccines induce broad and sustained T cell responses to...ebola/ebola- situation-reports. (2016). 4. Yang ZY, Duckers HJ, Sullivan NJ et al . Identification of the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the main viral...Marburg virus infections. J Infect Dis, 204 Suppl 3, S1075-1081 (2011). 11. Clarke DK, Nasar F, Lee M et al . Synergistic attenuation of vesicular

  15. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  16. Relationship of viruses and viroids with apricot “viruela” disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel RUBIO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 34 apricot orchards in south-eastern Spain planted with the Spanish cultivar ‘Búlida’ and showing “viruela” symptoms were studied for 2 years. Leaf and fruit samples from four trees in each orchard, either with or without “viruela” symptoms, were collected and analysed by multiplex RT-PCR for the detection of American plum line pattern virus (APLPV, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Apricot latent virus (ApLV, Plum bark necrosis and stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV, Plum pox virus (PPV, Prune dwarf virus (PDV, and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV. In addition, molecular hybridization assays were performed for the detection of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd. All fruits showing “viruela” symptoms were infected with ACLSV and HSVd, suggesting that these pathogens may be responsible for “viruela” disease. Other viruses including PNRSV, PBNSPaV, ApLV, PDV, ApMV and PPV, were detected to a lesser degree. Detection of ACLSV and HSVd in samples without symptoms could be explained by the influence of environmental conditions and/or the physiological stage of fruits on the expression of symptoms.

  17. Haggling over viruses: the downside risks of securitizing infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    This article analyses how the 'securitization' of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) contributed to the rise of a protracted international virus-sharing dispute between developing and developed countries. As fear about the threat of a possible human H5N1 pandemic spread across the world, many governments scrambled to stockpile anti-viral medications and vaccines, albeit in a context where there was insufficient global supply to meet such a rapid surge in demand. Realizing that they were the likely 'losers' in this international race, some developing countries began to openly question the benefits of maintaining existing forms of international health cooperation, especially the common practice of sharing national virus samples with the rest of the international community. Given that such virus samples were also crucial to the high-level pandemic preparedness efforts of the West, the Indonesian government in particular felt emboldened to use international access to its H5N1 virus samples as a diplomatic 'bargaining chip' for negotiating better access to vaccines and other benefits for developing countries. The securitized global response to H5N1 thus ended up unexpectedly entangling the long-standing international virus-sharing mechanism within a wider set of political disputes, as well as prompting governments to subject existing virus-sharing arrangements to much narrower calculations of national interest. In the years ahead, those risks to international health cooperation must be balanced with the policy attractions of the global health security agenda.

  18. A No-Notice Drill of Hospital Preparedness in Responding to Ebola Virus Disease in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Min; Chien, Li-Jung; Tseng, Shu-Hui; Kuo, Steve H S

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976, but the outbreak of Ebola virus disease that began in Guinea, West Africa, in December 2013 shocked the world. It is the largest and most severe epidemic of Ebola virus disease to date. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed that inadequate implementation of the policy of acquiring travel history led to a delay in identifying the first imported Ebola virus disease case. The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control developed a no-notice drill that used a simulated patient to assess hospitals' emergency preparedness capacity in responding to Ebola virus disease. Despite the fact that regular inspection shows that more than 90% of regional hospitals and medical centers inquired about patients' travel history, occupation, contact history, and cluster information, the no-notice drill revealed that more than 40% of regional hospitals and medical centers failed to ask emergency room patients about these factors. Therefore, to assist in inquiries about travel history, occupation, contact history, and cluster information in emergency triage and outpatient settings, the Taiwan CDC revised the criteria for hospital infection control inspection. It requested that hospitals issue appropriate reminders and implement process control mechanisms to block diagnostic processes in instances in which healthcare workers do not inquire about travel history, occupation, contact history, and cluster information. Furthermore, the Taiwan CDC will continue no-notice inspections in order to strengthen hospitals' infection control measures and reduce the risk of infectious disease transmission in the healthcare system.

  19. Emerging sexually transmitted viral infections: 1. Review of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Rachel J; Manavi, Kaveh

    2017-11-01

    This is the first in a series of articles reviewing four viral infections, Ebola virus, Zika virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 1 and hepatitis C virus, with an emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of their sexual transmission. With current day speed and ease of travel it is important for staff in sexual healthcare services to know and understand these infections when patients present to them and also to be able to advise those travelling to endemic regions. Following the recent resurgence in West Africa, this first article looks at Ebola virus disease (EVD). EVD has a high mortality rate and, of note, has been detected in the semen of those who have cleared the virus from their blood and have clinically recovered from the disease. As the result of emerging data, the WHO now recommends safe sex practices for all male survivors of EVD for 12 months after the onset of the disease or after having had two consecutive negative tests of semen specimens for the virus. This review provides an up-to-date summary of what is currently known about EVD and its implications for sexual health practice.

  20. Immune evasion during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golde, William T; Nfon, Charles K; Toka, Felix N

    2008-10-01

    The interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. In acute viral infections, this balance involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induction of clinical disease in cloven hoofed animals exposed to infection. Viral shedding is extensive before the equally rapid resolution of acute disease. This positive strand RNA virus is an extremely successful pathogen, due in part to the ability to interrupt the innate immune response. Previous reviews have described the inhibition of cellular innate responses in the infected cell both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present a review of virus inhibition of cells that are a source of antiviral function in swine. Particularly in the case of dendritic cells and natural killer cells, the virus has evolved mechanisms to interrupt the normal function of these important mediators of innate function, even though these cells are not infected by the virus. Understanding how this virus subverts the innate response will provide valuable information for the development of rapidly acting biotherapeutics to use in response to an outbreak of FMDV.

  1. Virus-host interactions and their roles in coral reef health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Payet, Jérôme P; Thurber, Andrew R; Correa, Adrienne M S

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs occur in nutrient-poor shallow waters, constitute biodiversity and productivity hotspots, and are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. This Review provides an introduction to coral reef virology and emphasizes the links between viruses, coral mortality and reef ecosystem decline. We describe the distinctive benthic-associated and water-column- associated viromes that are unique to coral reefs, which have received less attention than viruses in open-ocean systems. We hypothesize that viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes dynamically interact with their hosts in the water column and with scleractinian (stony) corals to influence microbial community dynamics, coral bleaching and disease, and reef biogeochemical cycling. Last, we outline how marine viruses are an integral part of the reef system and suggest that the influence of viruses on reef function is an essential component of these globally important environments.

  2. Genomic 3' terminal sequence comparison of three isolates of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, I D; Vlasak, R; Nowotny, N; Rodak, L; Carter, M J

    1992-05-15

    Comparison of sequence data is necessary in older to investigate virus origins, identify features common to virulent strains, and characterize genomic organization within virus families. A virulent caliciviral disease of rabbits recently emerged in China. We have sequenced 1100 bases from the 3' ends of two independent European isolates of this virus, and compared these with previously determined calicivirus sequences. Rabbit caliciviruses were closely related, despite the different countries in which isolation was made. This supports the rapid spread of a new virus across Europe. The capsid protein sequences of these rabbit viruses differ markedly from those determined for feline calicivirus, but a hypothetical 3' open reading frame is relatively well conserved between the caliciviruses of these two different hosts and argues for a functional role.

  3. Phenotype Variation in Human Immunodeficiency virus Type 1 Transmission and Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Cavarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  4. Association of rheumatoid arthritis and Rendu-Osler-Weber disease, complicated with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina V, Yimy F; Martinez, Jose Bernardo; Restrepo S, Jose Felix; Rondon Herrera, Federico; Iglesias Gamarra, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Rendu-Osler-Weber is a disease characterized by telangiectasis in several organs in the organism. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease, which has been reported associated with multiple pathologies, but there has no been, reported the association with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. In this paper, we reported patients who have the association of rheumatoid arthritis with Rendu-Osler-Weber and hepatitis C virus diseases

  5. Replication Capacity of Viruses from Acute Infection Drives HIV-1 Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhorst, Philippe; Combrinck, Carina; Ndabambi, Nonkululeko; Ismail, Sherazaan D; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose; Lacerda, Miguel; Samsunder, Natasha; Garrett, Nigel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Williamson, Carolyn

    2017-04-15

    The viral genotype has been shown to play an important role in HIV pathogenesis following transmission. However, the viral phenotypic properties that contribute to disease progression remain unclear. Most studies have been limited to the evaluation of Gag function in the context of a recombinant virus backbone. Using this approach, important biological information may be lost, making the evaluation of viruses obtained during acute infection, representing the transmitted virus, a more biologically relevant model. Here, we evaluate the roles of viral infectivity and the replication capacity of viruses from acute infection in disease progression in women who seroconverted in the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir microbicide trial. We show that viral replication capacity, but not viral infectivity, correlates with the set point viral load (Spearman r = 0.346; P = 0.045) and that replication capacity (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.52; P = 0.01) can predict CD4 decline independently of the viral load (HR = 2.9; P = 0.004) or protective HLA alleles (HR = 0.61; P = 0.36). We further demonstrate that Gag-Pro is not the main driver of this association, suggesting that additional properties of the transmitted virus play a role in disease progression. Finally, we find that although viruses from the tenofovir arm were 2-fold less infectious, they replicated at rates similar to those of viruses from the placebo arm. This indicates that the use of tenofovir gel did not select for viral variants with higher replication capacity. Overall, this study supports a strong influence of the replication capacity in acute infection on disease progression, potentially driven by interaction of multiple genes rather than a dominant role of the major structural gene gag IMPORTANCE HIV disease progression is known to differ between individuals, and defining which fraction of this variation can be attributed to the virus is important both clinically and epidemiologically. In this study, we show that the replication

  6. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccines against human and animal infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Houqiang; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in recombinant genetic engineering techniques have brought forward a leap in designing new vaccines in modern medicine. One attractive strategy is the application of reverse genetics technology to make recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) deliver protective antigens of pathogens. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that rNDV-vectored vaccines can induce quicker and better humoral and mucosal immune responses than conventional vaccines and are protective against pathogen challenges. With deeper understanding of NDV molecular biology, it is feasible to develop gene-modified rNDV vaccines accompanied by good safety, high efficacy, low toxicity and better immunogenicity. This review summarizes the development of reverse genetics technology in using NDV as a promising vaccine vector to design new vaccines for human and animal use.

  7. Evaluating the Efficacy of Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris Extracts Against Newcastle Disease Virus in Ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Seydabadi, Akram; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays natural products such as pure compounds and plant extract scan provide unlimited opportunities for new antiviral drugs. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most important viral diseases in poultry industry. Vaccination could provide protection against NDV outbreaks, but it is not sufficient because infections by NDVs have remained frequent around the world. The current research aimed to study Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris antiviral activity against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The antiviral activity of the plants was measured by the reduction assay of viral titer, and explained by inhibition percentage (IP). Inhibition percentage was determined as 10 (1.75), which indicated the ability of the extracts to reduce the viral potency by more than 56 folds. Both plants were found effective against Newcastle disease virus.

  8. Ebola virus disease: What clinicians in the United States need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, William A.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014 the World Health Organization was notified of an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the forest region of Guinea. Over the subsequent 8 months, this outbreak has become the most devastating Ebola epidemic in history with 21,296 infections and 8,429 deaths. The recent introduction of Ebola into noncontiguous countries including the United States from infected travelers highlights the importance of preparedness of all healthcare providers. Early identification and rapid isolation of patients suspected of being infected with Ebola virus is critical to limiting the spread of this virus. Additionally, enhanced understanding of Ebola case definitions, clinical presentation, treatment and infection control strategies will improve the ability of healthcare providers to safe care for patients with Ebola virus disease. PMID:26116335

  9. Derivation of chicken induced pluripotent stem cells tolerant to Newcastle disease virus-induced lysis through multiple rounds of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. ND is prevented by rigorous biocontainment and vaccination. One potential approach to prevent spread of the virus is production of birds that show innate resistance to NDV...

  10. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation with immunosuppressive therapy in rheumatic diseases: assessment and preventive strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, L H; Zein, N N; Vassilopoulos, D

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of the natural history and basic biology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has increased greatly in recent years. In view of this, the following are reviewed here: (a) recent advances in HBV biology pertinent to the rheumatic disease population; (b) the risks of HBV reactivation in patients with rheumatic disease undergoing immunosuppression; and (c) potential strategies to manage these risks.

  11. Evidence of circulation of the novel border disease virus genotype 8 in chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Claudio; Peletto, Simone; Cerutti, Francesco; Modesto, Paola; Robetto, Serena; Domenis, Lorenzo; Masoero, Loretta; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2017-02-01

    Evidence of association between the novel putative border disease virus genotype 8 (BDV-8) and fatal disease in an Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is reported. Diagnostically, we also demonstrated, as already previously reported, the failure of BDV-specific primers (PDB1 and PDB2) to detect BDV-8.

  12. Microbial Translocation Is Associated with Extensive Immune Activation in Dengue Virus Infected Patients with Severe Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.M. van de Weg (Cornelia A.M.); C.S. Pannuti (Cláudio); E.S. Affonso De Araujo (Evaldo); H.J. van den Ham; A.C. Andeweg (Arno); L.S.V. Boas (Lucy); A.C. Felix (Alvina); K.I. Carvalho (Karina); A.M. de Matos (Andreia); J.E. Levi (José); C.M. Romano (Camila); C.C. Centrone (Cristiane); C.L. de Lima Rodrigues (Celia); E. Luna (Expedito); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron); E.G. Kallas (Esper)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Severe dengue virus (DENV) disease is associated with extensive immune activation, characterized by a cytokine storm. Previously, elevated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in dengue were found to correlate with clinical disease severity. In the present cross-sectional study we

  13. Mushroom virus disease in the Netherlands : symptoms, etiology, electron microscopy, spread and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman-van Zaayen, A.

    1972-01-01

    During the 1960s, Dutch mushroom farmers suffered severe losses from an infectious disease. Three types of virus particles were associated with the disease: isometric particles 25 and 34 run in diameter and bacilliform particles 19 run wide and 50 nm long. Symptoms were highly variable.

  14. Marek’s disease virus induced transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bursal and thymic atrophy associated with Marek’s disease (MD) is well established and characterized, the effect of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection on lymphoid aggregates within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the two largest lympho...

  15. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associ...

  16. Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-19

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease.  Created: 8/19/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/19/2014.

  17. Quantification of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Transmission Rates Using Published Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, N.E.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Clercq, K.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and devastating disease affecting all species of cloven-hoofed animals. To understand the epidemiology of the causative virus and predict viral transmission dynamics, quantified transmission parameters are essential to decision makers and modellers

  18. The influence of major histocompatibility complex and vaccination with turkey herpesvirus on Marek's disease virus evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last five decades, the pathogenicity of the Marek’s disease virus (MDV) has evolved from the relatively mild strains (mMDV) observed in the 1960s to the more severe very-virulent-plus strains currently observed in today’s outbreaks. The use of vaccines to control Marek’s disease (MD), but n...

  19. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: molecular association with HIV and novel microbicides to prevent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suazo, Paula A; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-04-01

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses is one of the most ancient diseases described to affect humans. Infection with these viruses produces vexing effects to the host, which frequently recur. Infection with herpes simplex viruses is lifelong, and currently there is no vaccine or drug to prevent or cure infection. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection varies significantly depending on the geographical region and nears 20% worldwide. Importantly, HSV-2 is the first cause of genital ulcers in the planet. HSV-2 affects approximately 500 million people around the globe and significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as its shedding. Thus, controlling HSV-2 infection and spread is of public health concern. Here, we review the diseases produced by herpes simplex viruses, the factors that modulate HSV-2 infection, the relationship between HSV-2 and HIV and novel therapeutic and prophylactic microbicides/antivirals under development to prevent infection and pathological outcomes produced by this virus. We also review mutations associated with HSV-2 resistance to common antivirals.

  20. Persistence of foot-and mouth disease virus in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Belsham, Graham; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    experiments, investigating the host response to FMD infection in sheep and cattle. FMD infection in ruminants involves initial viral replication in pharyngeal epithelia, from where the virus spreads systemically via the lymphatic system. Characteristic vesicular lesions develop in the cornified stratified......-lingual injection or direct contact with inoculated animals. Animals are kept for approximately 2 to 4 months, and the progression of infection is monitored through samples of oropharyngeal fluid (probang samples) and serum, which are analysed for presence of live virus and development of antibodies. During...

  1. Quantification of foot and mouth disease virus excretion and transmission within groups of lambs with and without vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Dekker, A.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sheep are well known to be susceptible for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), but it is unknown whether the infection can spread and persist in a sheep population. We therefore quantified virus transmission by performing experiments with FMD virus strain O/NET/2001 in groups of lambs. We used six

  2. Virus Excretion from Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Carrier Cattle and Their Potential Role in Causing New Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, Aravindh Babu R; Mahapatra, Mana; Gubbins, Simon; Parida, Satya

    2015-01-01

    The role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) carrier cattle in causing new outbreaks is still a matter of debate and it is important to find out these carrier animals by post-outbreak serosurveillance to declare freedom from FMDV infection. In this study we explore the differences in viral shedding between carrier and non-carrier animals, quantify the transmission rate of FMDV infection from carriers to susceptible animals and identify potential viral determinants of viral persistence. We collected nasal and saliva samples from 32 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated FMDV carrier cattle and 48 vaccinated and 13 unvaccinated non-carrier cattle (total n=100) during the acute phase of infection (up to 28 days post-challenge) and then from limited number of animals up to a maximum 168 days post-challenge. We demonstrate that unvaccinated cattle excrete significantly higher levels of virus for longer periods compared with vaccinated cattle and this is independent of whether or not they subsequently become carriers. By introducing naïve cattle in to the FMDV carrier population we show the risk of new outbreaks is clearly very low in controlled conditions, although there could still be a potential threat of these carrier animals causing new outbreaks in the field situation. Finally, we compared the complete genome sequences of viruses from carrier cattle with the challenge virus and found no evidence for viral determinants of the carrier state.

  3. [Isolation of influenza virus A (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus), Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus), and Newcastle's disease virus (Paromyxoviridae, Avulavirus) on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island in the north-western area of the Caspian Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iashkulov, K B; Shchelkanov, M Iu; L'vov, S S; Dzhambinov, S D; Galkina, I V; Fediakina, I T; Bushkieva, B Ts; Morozova, T N; Kireev, D E; Akanina, D S; Litvin, K E; Usachev, E V; Prilipov, A G; Grebennikova, T V; Gromashevskiĭ, V L; Iamnikova, S S; Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; L'vov, D K

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the 2003 and 2006 environmental virological monitoring surveys on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island where a large breeding colony of sea gull (Laridae) is located. In the past several years, expansion of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) has enhanced the intensity of populational interactions. The investigators isolated 13 strains of influenza A virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus) subtype H13N1 (from sea gulls (n = 4), cormorants (n = 9) 1 strain of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) from a cormorantwith clinical symptoms of the disease, 3 strains of Newcastle disease virus (Paramyxoviridae, Avulavirus) from cormorants. RT-PCR revealed influenza A virus subtype H5 in 3.1% of the cloacal lavages from cormorants. Neutralization test indicated that sera from cormorants contained specific antibodies against West Nile (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) (15.0%), Sindbis (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) (5.0%), Dhori (10.0%), and Tahini (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) (5.0%); sera from herring gulls had antibodies against Dhori virus (16.7%); there were no specific antibodies to Inco (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) and mountain hare (Lepus timidus) (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) virus.

  4. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Ayala

    Full Text Available Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23, followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13. Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47 and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7. The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28 and Hitchner B1 (n = 19. Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife.

  5. Genetic characterization and evolutionary analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolated from domestic duck in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Satish; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Suk Chan; Choi, Kang-Seuk

    2016-03-15

    Domestic ducks are considered a potential reservoir of Newcastle disease virus. In the study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a domestic duck during surveillance in South Korea was characterized. The complete genome of the NDV isolate was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered in genotype I of Class II ND viruses, has highly phylogenetic similarity to NDV strains isolated from waterfowl in China, but was distant from the viruses isolated in chickens and vaccine strains used in South Korea. Pathogenicity experiment in chickens revealed it to be a lentogenic virus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the avirulent motif (112)GKQGRL(117) at the cleavage site and caused no apparent disease in chickens and ducks. With phylogeographic analysis based on fusion gene, we estimate the origin of an ancestral virus of the isolate and its sister strain located in China around 1998. It highlights the need of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of the pathogenic strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sonboli, Najla; Hart, Charles A.; Al-Aghbari, Nasher; Al-Ansi, Ahmed; Ashoor, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Factors increasing the severity of respiratory infections in developing countries are poorly described. We report factors associated with severe acute respiratory illness in Yemeni children (266 infected with respiratory syncytial virus and 66 with human metapneumovirus). Age, indoor air pollution, and incomplete vaccinations were risk factors and differed from those in industrialized countries. PMID:17073098

  7. Understanding the biological mechanisms of Zika virus disease ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will use advanced biomolecular, genomics and proteomics techniques to explain the molecular mechanisms by which the Zika virus infects and persists in the human body, how it affects the human reproductive and central nervous system, and how the risk of fetal abnormalities can be better predicted in infected ...

  8. Political Conflicts, State Collapse and Ebola Virus Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone as case studies, this paper examines the political factors that enabled the outbreak and prevalence of Ebola virus in West Africa. The data are generated from Ibrahim Index of African Governance, Human Development Report, World Development Indicators, and Corruption ...

  9. Optimization of Newcastle disease virus production in T-flask

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... cell culture systems such as the bioreactor. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cell line and virus strain. Established DF-1 cell line (ATCC-CRL-12203™) was purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Lentogenic. Asplin F strain of NDV was obtained from Malaysia Vaccine. Pharmaceuticals ...

  10. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1995) on the FMD type. A12 vaccine evaluation in guinea pigs and mice. The serum neutralization test result was in-line with the studies on the efficacy of inactivated monovalent type A22 FMD vaccine reported by Misra and Lai (1990). The results in this study on the use of guinea pigs for evaluating inactivated FMD virus ...

  11. The begomoviruses Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus and Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus with DNAbeta satellites cause yellow dwarf disease of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Sharma, P; Ikegami, M

    2008-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of two begomoviruses (Nara virus-1 and Nara virus-2), a satellite DNA (DNAbeta-Nara) and defective DNAs were obtained from honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) showing characteristic yellow vein mosaic symptoms in Nara Prefecture, Japan. One begomovirus (Ibaraki virus) and a satellite DNA (DNAbeta-Ibaraki) was isolated and cloned from honeysuckle plants exhibited typical yellowing of veins and small elliptical shaped enations along veins on the under side of the leaves in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The genome organization of the three viruses is the same as those of other Old World monopartite begomoviruses. Nara virus-1 had overall nucleotide sequence identity with Nara virus-2 of 94% and Ibaraki virus of 90%. DNAbeta-Nara had overall nucleotide sequence identity with DNAbeta-Ibaraki of 83%. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences with other begomoviruses revealed that Nara virus-1 and Nara virus-2 are strains of Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus (HYVMV), hence named as HYVMV-Nara1 and HYVMV-Nara2, whereas Ibaraki virus was a strain of Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus (TbLCJV), designated as TbLCJV-Hs[Iba]. HYVMV-Nara1 and HYVMV-Nara2 have hybrid genomes, which are likely to have formed recombination between HYVMV and TbLCJV. TbLCJV-Hs[Iba] or HYVMV-Nara2 could infect and cause yellowing, leaf crinkling and stunting symptoms when partial tandem dimeric constructs were agroinoculated on tomato plants. However, in the presence of DNAbeta, both TbLCJV-Hs[Iba] or HYVMV-Nara2 produced more severe stunting symptoms in tomato plants. Therefore, these viruses along with their satellites are causal agents of tomato yellow dwarf disease in Japan, and honeysuckle acts as a potential reservoir host. Previously available evidence indicated that DNAbeta elements do not contain iteron sequences of their helper viruses; hence this is the first evidence that DNAbeta satellites have the iteron of their helper virus.

  12. Generation of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing the Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoprotein gB or gD as Dual Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either unsafe or ineffective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious vaccines. Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of poultry. The NDV LaSota strain, a naturally occurring low-virulence NDV strain, has been routinely used as a live vaccine throughout the world. This chapter describes the generation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain-based recombinant viruses expressing glycoprotein B (gB) or glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV as dual vaccines against ND and ILT using reverse genetics technology.

  13. Detection Rate and Clinical Impact of Respiratory Viruses in Children with Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hye Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to survey the detection rate of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease (KD by using multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to investigate the clinical implications of the prevalence of respiratory viruses during the acute phase of KD. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; RT-PCR assays were carried out to screen for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, influenza virus A and B, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus OC43/229E and NL63, and enterovirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of 55 KD patients and 78 control subjects. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Virus detection rates in KD patients and control subjects were 32.7% and 30.8%, respectively (P=0.811. However, there was no significant association between the presence of any of the 15 viruses and the incidence of KD. Comparisons between the 18 patients with positive RT-PCR results and the other 37 KD patients revealed no significant differences in terms of clinical findings (including the prevalence of incomplete presentation of the disease and coronary artery diameter. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; A positive RT-PCR for currently epidemic respiratory viruses should not be used as an evidence against the diagnosis of KD. These viruses were not associated with the incomplete presentation of KD and coronary artery dilatation.

  14. Rapid Engineering of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine and Challenge Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Yong; Lee, Yeo-Joo; Kim, Rae-Hyung; Park, Jeong-Nam; Park, Min-Eun; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Joo-Hyung; Chu, Jia-Qi; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jung-Won; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Jong-Soo; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2017-08-15

    There are seven antigenically distinct serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), each of which has intratypic variants. In the present study, we have developed methods to efficiently generate promising vaccines against seven serotypes or subtypes. The capsid-encoding gene (P1) of the vaccine strain O1/Manisa/Turkey/69 was replaced with the amplified or synthetic genes from the O, A, Asia1, C, SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 serotypes. Viruses of the seven serotype were rescued successfully. Each chimeric FMDV with a replacement of P1 showed serotype-specific antigenicity and varied in terms of pathogenesis in pigs and mice. Vaccination of pigs with an experimental trivalent vaccine containing the inactivated recombinants based on the main serotypes O, A, and Asia1 effectively protected them from virus challenge. This technology could be a potential strategy for a customized vaccine with challenge tools to protect against epizootic disease caused by specific serotypes or subtypes of FMDV. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) causes significant economic losses. For vaccine preparation, the selection of vaccine strains was complicated by high antigenic variation. In the present study, we suggested an effective strategy to rapidly prepare and evaluate mass-produced customized vaccines against epidemic strains. The P1 gene encoding the structural proteins of the well-known vaccine virus was replaced by the synthetic or amplified genes of viruses of seven representative serotypes. These chimeric viruses generally replicated readily in cell culture and had a particle size similar to that of the original vaccine strain. Their antigenicity mirrored that of the original serotype from which their P1 gene was derived. Animal infection experiments revealed that the recombinants varied in terms of pathogenicity. This strategy will be a useful tool for rapidly generating customized FMD vaccines or challenge viruses for all serotypes, especially for FMD-free countries

  15. Development of human monoclonal antibodies against diseases caused by emerging and biodefense-related viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongyu; Dimitrov, Antony S; Chakraborti, Samitabh; Dimitrova, Dimana; Xiao, Xiaodong; Broder, Christopher C; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2006-02-01

    Polyclonal antibodies have a century-old history of being effective against some viruses; recently, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have also shown success. The humanized mAb Synagis (palivizumab), which is still the only mAb against a viral disease approved by the US FDA, has been widely used as a prophylactic measure against respiratory syncytial virus infections in neonates and immunocompromised individuals. The first fully human mAbs against two other paramyxoviruses, Hendra and Nipah virus, which can cause high (up to 75%) mortality, were recently developed; one of them, m101, showed exceptional potency against infectious virus. In an amazing pace of research, several potent human mAbs targeting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus S glycoprotein that can affect infections in animal models have been developed months after the virus was identified in 2003. A potent humanized mAb with therapeutic potential was recently developed against the West Nile virus. The progress in developing neutralizing human mAbs against Ebola, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, vaccinia and other emerging and biodefense-related viruses is slow. A major problem in the development of effective therapeutic agents against viruses, including therapeutic antibodies, is the viruses' heterogeneity and mutability. A related problem is the low binding affinity of crossreactive antibodies able to neutralize a variety of primary isolates. Combinations of mAbs or mAbs with other drugs, and/or the identification of potent new mAbs and their derivatives that target highly conserved viral structures, which are critical for virus entry into cells, are some of the possible solutions to these problems, and will continue to be a major focus of antiviral research.

  16. Recent advances in the development of vaccines for Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohimain, Elijah Ige

    2016-01-04

    Ebola virus is one of the most dangerous microorganisms in the world causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a zoonotic infection, which emerges and re-emerges in human populations. The 2014 outbreak was caused by the Zaire strain, which has a kill rate of up to 90%, though 40% was recorded in the current outbreak. The 2014 outbreak is larger than all 20 outbreaks that have occurred since 1976, when the virus was first discovered. It is the first time that the virus was sustained in urban centers and spread beyond Africa into Europe and USA. Thus far, over 22,000 cases have been reported with about 50% mortality in one year. There are currently no approved therapeutics and preventive vaccines against Ebola virus disease (EVD). Responding to the devastating effe1cts of the 2014 outbreak and the potential risk of global spread, has spurred research for the development of therapeutics and vaccines. This review is therefore aimed at presenting the progress of vaccine development. Results showed that conventional inactivated vaccines produced from EBOV by heat, formalin or gamma irradiation appear to be ineffective. However, novel vaccines production techniques have emerged leading to the production of candidate vaccines that have been demonstrated to be effective in preclinical trials using small animal and non-human primates (NHP) models. Some of the promising vaccines have undergone phase 1 clinical trials, which demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity. Many of the candidate vaccines are vector based such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Rabies Virus (RABV), Adenovirus (Ad), Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). Other platforms include virus like particle (VLP), DNA and subunit vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence-based guidelines for supportive care of patients with Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, François; Fowler, Robert A; Adhikari, Neill K; Murthy, Srinivas; Brett-Major, David M; Jacobs, Michael; Uyeki, Timothy M; Vallenas, Constanza; Norris, Susan L; Fischer, William A; Fletcher, Thomas E; Levine, Adam C; Reed, Paul; Bausch, Daniel G; Gove, Sandy; Hall, Andrew; Shepherd, Susan; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Lamah, Marie-Claude; Kamara, Rashida; Nakyeyune, Phiona; Soka, Moses J; Edwin, Ama; Hazzan, Afeez A; Jacob, Shevin T; Elkarsany, Mubarak Mustafa; Adachi, Takuya; Benhadj, Lynda; Clément, Christophe; Crozier, Ian; Garcia, Armando; Hoffman, Steven J; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2017-10-17

    The 2013-16 Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa was associated with unprecedented challenges in the provision of care to patients with Ebola virus disease, including absence of pre-existing isolation and treatment facilities, patients' reluctance to present for medical care, and limitations in the provision of supportive medical care. Case fatality rates in west Africa were initially greater than 70%, but decreased with improvements in supportive care. To inform optimal care in a future outbreak of Ebola virus disease, we employed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to develop evidence-based guidelines for the delivery of supportive care to patients admitted to Ebola treatment units. Key recommendations include administration of oral and, as necessary, intravenous hydration; systematic monitoring of vital signs and volume status; availability of key biochemical testing; adequate staffing ratios; and availability of analgesics, including opioids, for pain relief. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contact tracing following outbreak of Ebola virus disease in urban settings in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo Ibitola; Dalhat, Mahmood Muazu; Park, Meeyoung; Hall, Casey Daniel; Nguku, Patrick Mboya; Adewuyi, Peter Adebayo

    2017-01-01

    An outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurred in Nigeria between July and September 2014. Contact tracing commenced in Lagos, and extended to Port Harcourt and Enugu as the outbreak continued to spread. A total of 899 contacts were traced. Contact tracing enhanced immediate identification of symptomatic contacts, some of whom eventually became cases. Contact tracing could be challenging in urban cities. However, use of electronic technology, adequate logistics, and highly skilled personnel enhanced the tracing of contacts to facilitate the successful containment of the outbreak. Nigeria was certified to be Ebola free on 21st October 2014. Ebola virus surveillance needs to be maintained to ensure the disease has been contained and to prevent future outbreaks. This case study aims to help trainees to review concepts, apply skills, and address challenges for contact tracing based on the experience of the Nigerian Field Epidemiology Training Network during the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak.

  19. Multiple Origins of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 Outbreaks, 2003–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Zakharov, Valery; Scherbakov, Alexey; Zhang, Zhidong; Shang, You-Jun; Liu, Zai-Xin; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Sanyal, Aniket; Hemadri, Divakar; Tosh, Chakradhar; Rasool, Thaha J.; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Schumann, Kate R.; Beckham, Tammy R.; Linchongsubongkoch, Wilai; Ferris, Nigel P.; Roeder, Peter L.; Paton, David J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1, which caused outbreaks of disease in Asia during 2003–2007. Since 2004, the region affected by outbreaks of this serotype has increased from disease-endemic countries in southern Asia (Afghanistan, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan) northward to encompass Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, several regions of the People’s Republic of China, Mongolia, Eastern Russia, and North Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus capsid protein 1 (VP1) gene sequences demonstrated that the FMDV isolates responsible for these outbreaks belonged to 6 groups within the Asia 1 serotype. Some contemporary strains were genetically closely related to isolates collected historically from the region as far back as 25 years ago. Our analyses also indicated that some viruses have spread large distances between countries in Asia within a short time. PMID:19624919

  20. Multiple origins of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia 1 outbreaks, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarcher, Jean Francois; Knowles, Nick J; Zakharov, Valery; Scherbakov, Alexey; Zhang, Zhidong; Shang, You Jun; Liu, Zai Xin; Liu, Xiang Tao; Sanyal, Aniket; Hemadri, Divakar; Tosh, Chakradhar; Rasool, Thaha J; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Schumann, Kate R; Beckham, Tammy R; Linchongsubongkoch, Wilai; Ferris, Nigel P; Roeder, Peter L; Paton, David J

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1, which caused outbreaks of disease in Asia during 2003-2007. Since 2004, the region affected by outbreaks of this serotype has increased from disease-endemic countries in southern Asia (Afghanistan, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan) northward to encompass Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, several regions of the People's Republic of China, Mongolia, Eastern Russia, and North Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus capsid protein 1 (VP1) gene sequences demonstrated that the FMDV isolates responsible for these outbreaks belonged to 6 groups within the Asia 1 serotype. Some contemporary strains were genetically closely related to isolates collected historically from the region as far back as 25 years ago. Our analyses also indicated that some viruses have spread large distances between countries in Asia within a short time.

  1. Caring for critically ill patients with ebola virus disease. Perspectives from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Robert A; Fletcher, Thomas; Fischer, William A; Lamontagne, Francois; Jacob, Shevin; Brett-Major, David; Lawler, James V; Jacquerioz, Frederique A; Houlihan, Catherine; O'Dempsey, Tim; Ferri, Mauricio; Adachi, Takuya; Lamah, Marie-Claire; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Mayet, Thierry; Schieffelin, John; McLellan, Susan L; Senga, Mikiko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Clement, Christophe; Mardel, Simon; Vallenas Bejar De Villar, Rosa Constanza; Shindo, Nahoko; Bausch, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The largest ever Ebola virus disease outbreak is ravaging West Africa. The constellation of little public health infrastructure, low levels of health literacy, limited acute care and infection prevention and control resources, densely populated areas, and a highly transmissible and lethal viral infection have led to thousands of confirmed, probable, or suspected cases thus far. Ebola virus disease is characterized by a febrile severe illness with profound gastrointestinal manifestations and is complicated by intravascular volume depletion, shock, profound electrolyte abnormalities, and organ dysfunction. Despite no proven Ebola virus-specific medical therapies, the potential effect of supportive care is great for a condition with high baseline mortality and one usually occurring in resource-constrained settings. With more personnel, basic monitoring, and supportive treatment, many of the sickest patients with Ebola virus disease do not need to die. Ebola virus disease represents an illness ready for a paradigm shift in care delivery and outcomes, and the profession of critical care medicine can and should be instrumental in helping this happen.

  2. Longitudinal peripheral blood transcriptional analysis of a patient with severe Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, John C; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Kindrachuk, Jason; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Janosko, Krisztina B; Adams, Rick D; Herbert, Andrew S; James, Rebekah M; Stonier, Spencer W; Memoli, Matthew J; Dye, John M; Davey, Richard T; Chertow, Daniel S; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2017-04-12

    The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapies. We report a detailed study of host gene expression as measured by microarray in daily peripheral blood samples collected from a patient with severe Ebola virus disease. This individual was provided with supportive care without experimental therapies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from before onset of critical illness to recovery. Pearson analysis of daily gene expression signatures revealed marked gene expression changes in peripheral blood leukocytes that correlated with changes in serum and peripheral blood leukocytes, viral load, antibody responses, coagulopathy, multiple organ dysfunction, and then recovery. This study revealed marked shifts in immune and antiviral responses that preceded changes in medical condition, indicating that clearance of replicating Ebola virus from peripheral blood leukocytes is likely important for systemic viral clearance. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Human RNA "rumor" viruses: the search for novel human retroviruses in chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisset, Cécile; Weiss, Robin A; Griffiths, David J

    2008-03-01

    Retroviruses are an important group of pathogens that cause a variety of diseases in humans and animals. Four human retroviruses are currently known, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which causes AIDS, and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, which causes cancer and inflammatory disease. For many years, there have been sporadic reports of additional human retroviral infections, particularly in cancer and other chronic diseases. Unfortunately, many of these putative viruses remain unproven and controversial, and some retrovirologists have dismissed them as merely "human rumor viruses." Work in this field was last reviewed in depth in 1984, and since then, the molecular techniques available for identifying and characterizing retroviruses have improved enormously in sensitivity. The advent of PCR in particular has dramatically enhanced our ability to detect novel viral sequences in human tissues. However, DNA amplification techniques have also increased the potential for false-positive detection due to contamination. In addition, the presence of many families of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) within our DNA can obstruct attempts to identify and validate novel human retroviruses. Here, we aim to bring together the data on "novel" retroviral infections in humans by critically examining the evidence for those putative viruses that have been linked with disease and the likelihood that they represent genuine human infections. We provide a background to the field and a discussion of potential confounding factors along with some technical guidelines. In addition, some of the difficulties associated with obtaining formal proof of causation for common or ubiquitous agents such as HERVs are discussed.

  4. Effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch yield of five local accessions of cassava, “Ankrah”, “AW/17, “Tomfa”, “Dagarti” and “Tuaka” was evaluated. Tomfa showed the highest (95%) incidence of the disease, index of severity of symptoms for all plants (ISSAP) of 3.70, as well as, for diseased plants ...

  5. Multiple Origins of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 Outbreaks, 2003?2007

    OpenAIRE

    Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Knowles, Nick J.; Zakharov, Valery; Scherbakov, Alexey; Zhang, Zhidong; Shang, You-Jun; Liu, Zai-Xin; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Sanyal, Aniket; Hemadri, Divakar; Tosh, Chakradhar; Rasool, Thaha J.; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Schumann, Kate R.; Beckham, Tammy R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1, which caused outbreaks of disease in Asia during 2003?2007. Since 2004, the region affected by outbreaks of this serotype has increased from disease-endemic countries in southern Asia (Afghanistan, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan) northward to encompass Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, several regions of the People?s Republic of China, Mongolia, Eastern Russia, and North Korea. Phylogenetic anal...

  6. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with Newcastle Disease Virus and human Respiratory Syncytial Virus by a two-dimensional virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguera, Javier; Villar, Enrique; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel

    2014-10-13

    Although it is well documented that the initial attachment receptors for Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) are sialic acid-containing molecules and glycosaminoglycans respectively, the exact nature of the receptors for both viruses remains to be deciphered. Moreover, additional molecules at the host cell surface might be involved in the entry mechanism. With the aim of identifying the cellular proteins that interact with NDV and RSV at the cell surface, we performed a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA). Cell membrane lysates were separated by two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and electrotransferred to PVDF membranes, after which they were probed with high viral concentrations. NDV interacted with a Protein Disulfide Isomerase from chicken fibroblasts. In the case of RSV, we detected 15 reactive spots, which were identified as six different proteins, of which nucleolin was outstanding. We discuss the possible role of PDI and nucleolin in NDV and RSV entry, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. GRAPEVINE VIRUS DISEASES:ECONOMIC IMPACT AND CURRENT ADVANCES IN VIRAL PROSPECTION AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS FERNANDO BASSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grapevine (Vitis spp. is a major vegetative propagated fruit crop with high socioeconomic importance worldwide. It is susceptible to several graft-transmitted agents that cause several diseases and substantial crop losses, reducing fruit quality and plant vigor, and shorten the longevity of vines. The vegetative propagation and frequent exchanges of propagative material among countries contribute to spread these pathogens, favoring the emergence of complex diseases. Its perennial life cycle further accelerates the mixing and introduction of several viral agents into a single plant. Currently, approximately 65 viruses belonging to different families have been reported infecting grapevines, but not all cause economically relevant diseases. The grapevine leafroll, rugose wood complex, leaf degeneration and fleck diseases are the four main disorders having worldwide economic importance. In addition, new viral species and strains have been identified and associated with economically important constraints to grape production. In Brazilian vineyards, eighteen viruses, three viroids and two virus-like diseases had already their occurrence reported and were molecularly characterized. Here, we review the current knowledge of these viruses, report advances in their diagnosis and prospection of new species, and give indications about the management of the associated grapevine diseases.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Marek’s Disease Virus Serotype 1 Using Molecular Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risza Hartawan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marek’s disease is an important disease in the commercial poultry farm and causes significant economical loss. The disease is characterized by syndrome of paralysis and neoplastic formation in various organs and tissues in the host. The etiological agent is Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1. Eventhough the outbreaks in the field are well controlled by vaccination, several cases in the vaccinated flocks indicating virus evolution into more pathogenic strains. Therefore, monitoring of the disease circumstance in the field is indispensable for guiding better policies in disease controlling program. This paper describes several molecular methods that have been developed for identification and characterization of MDV-1. The identification and characterization of newly found virus strain in the field can be done by in vivo challenge test which is a conventional method especially to determine pathogenecity. However, this method requires several stages with time consuming procedures. The development of alternative methods for identification and characterization of MDV-1 viruses has been conducted mainly using molecular biology approach. Several molecular methods give satisfying result and have been implemented in both laboratory and field condition.

  9. Lassa fever, Marburg and Ebola virus diseases and other exotic diseases: is there a risk to Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, A J

    1979-01-20

    There are seven exotic diseases of concern; three of these, the most unpredictable and least understood, are Lassa fever, Marburg virus disease and Ebola virus disease. In this article the epidemiologic aspects of these diseases are discussed, with particular emphasis on exportation from their indigenous areas in Africa and on the occurrence of secondary cases. Any of these conditions could be brought into Canada either by aeromedical evacuation or inadvertently. Between 1972 and 1978 there were seven occasions when Canada could have been involved with handling cases of Lassa fever. The Government of Canada has purchased several containment bed and transit isolators. These units, with filtered air under negative pressure, accommodate infectious patients being transported and cared for without contaminating medical attendants or the environment.

  10. Zika virus disease: a current review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Muhammad; Azeem, Muhammad; Sarwar, Muhammad Rehan; Bashir, Arslan

    2016-12-01

    The massive pandemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading through South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and possibly the USA. It is the most recent of four surprising appearances of imperative arthropod-borne viral illnesses in the Western Hemisphere over the preceding 20 years. The objective of this narrative review is to summarize the existing knowledge about the epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, complications, replication, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment and prevention of ZIKV infection. We used electronic databases to identify relevant published data regarding ZIKV in BOOLEAN and MeSH searches. This review concludes that the ZIKV predominantly circulates in arboreal mosquitoes (e.g., Aedes africanus) and wild primates. It rarely causes severe infection in humans, even in extremely enzootic regions. Currently, we do not have any efficacious drugs against ZIKV infection. However, there are virus-specific therapeutic targets, which may lead to the development of targeted anti-ZIKV drugs.

  11. General introduction into the Ebola virus biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilińska, Barbara; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic of Ebola hemorrhagic fever which appeared in the countries of West Africa in 2014, is the largest outbreak which occurred so far. The virus causing this epidemic, Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV), along with four other species of Ebolaviruses is classified to the genus Ebolavirus in the family Filoviridae. ZEBOV is one of the most virulent pathogens among the viral haemorrhagic fevers, and case fatality rates up to 90% have been reported. Mortality is the result of multi-organ failure and severe bleeding complications. The aim of this review is to present the general characteristics of the virus and its biological properties, pathogenicity and epidemiology, with a focus on laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of these infections.

  12. Newcastle disease virus-based H5 influenza vaccine protects chickens from lethal challenge with a highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jingjiao; Lee, Jinhwa; Liu, Haixia; Mena, Ignacio; Davis, A. Sally; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Lang, Yuekun; Duff, Michael; Morozov, Igor; Li, Yuhao; Yang, Jianmei; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Juergen A.; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Since December 2014, Eurasian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses including H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 subtypes (called H5Nx viruses), which belong to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4, have been detected in U.S. wild birds. Subsequently, highly pathogenic H5N2 and H5N8 viruses have caused outbreaks in U.S. domestic poultry. Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to control influenza outbreaks and protect animal and public health. Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based influenza vaccines ha...

  13. Heterologous prime-boost immunization of Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccines protected broiler chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K

    2017-07-24

    Avian Influenza virus (AIV) is an important pathogen for both human and animal health. There is a great need to develop a safe and effective vaccine for AI infections in the field. Live-attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored AI vaccines have shown to be effective, but preexisting antibodies to the vaccine vector can affect the protective efficacy of the vaccine in the field. To improve the efficacy of AI vaccine, we generated a novel vectored vaccine by using a chimeric NDV vector that is serologically distant from NDV. In this study, the protective efficacy of our vaccines was evaluated by using H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/Vietnam/1203/2004, a prototype strain for vaccine development. The vaccine viruses were three chimeric NDVs expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) protein in combination with the neuraminidase (NA) protein, matrix 1 protein, or nonstructural 1 protein. Comparison of their protective efficacy between a single and prime-boost immunizations indicated that prime immunization of 1-day-old SPF chicks with our vaccine viruses followed by boosting with the conventional NDV vector strain LaSota expressing the HA protein provided complete protection of chickens against mortality, clinical signs and virus shedding. Further verification of our heterologous prime-boost immunization using commercial broiler chickens suggested that a sequential immunization of chickens with chimeric NDV vector expressing the HA and NA proteins following the boost with NDV vector expressing the HA protein can be a promising strategy for the field vaccination against HPAIVs and against highly virulent NDVs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Phylodynamics of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, John-Sebastian; Kovaliski, John; Duckworth, Janine A; Swain, Grace; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Holmes, Edward C

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Australia and New Zealand during the 1990s as a means of controlling feral rabbits is an important case study in viral emergence. Both epidemics are exceptional in that the founder viruses share an origin and the timing of their release is known, providing a unique opportunity to compare the evolution of a single virus in distinct naive populations. We examined the evolution and spread of RHDV in Australia and New Zealand through a genome-wide evolutionary analysis, including data from 28 newly sequenced RHDV field isolates. Following the release of the Australian inoculum strain into New Zealand, no subsequent mixing of the populations occurred, with viruses from both countries forming distinct groups. Strikingly, the rate of evolution in the capsid gene was higher in the Australian viruses than in those from New Zealand, most likely due to the presence of transient deleterious mutations in the former. However, estimates of both substitution rates and population dynamics were strongly sample dependent, such that small changes in sample composition had an important impact on evolutionary parameters. Phylogeographic analysis revealed a clear spatial structure in the Australian RHDV strains, with a major division between those viruses from western and eastern states. Importantly, RHDV sequences from the state where the virus was first released, South Australia, had the greatest diversity and were diffuse throughout both geographic lineages, such that this region was likely a source population for the subsequent spread of the virus across the country. Most studies of viral emergence lack detailed knowledge about which strains were founders for the outbreak or when these events occurred. Hence, the human-mediated introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Australia and New Zealand from known starting stocks provides a unique opportunity to understand viral evolution and emergence. Within

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease virus persists in the light zone of germinal centres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Juleff

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is one of the most contagious viruses of animals and is recognised as the most important constraint to international trade in animals and animal products. Two fundamental problems remain to be understood before more effective control measures can be put in place. These problems are the FMDV "carrier state" and the short duration of immunity after vaccination which contrasts with prolonged immunity after natural infection. Here we show by laser capture microdissection in combination with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical analysis and corroborate by in situ hybridization that FMDV locates rapidly to, and is maintained in, the light zone of germinal centres following primary infection of naïve cattle. We propose that maintenance of non-replicating FMDV in these sites represents a source of persisting infectious virus and also contributes to the generation of long-lasting antibody responses against neutralising epitopes of the virus.

  16. Differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and Bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, M.; Wernery, U.; Kinne, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two Bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A SAU 22/92. Five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. The inoculated sheep, which served...... as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of FMD and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. The presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for several days after inoculation. In contrast, the inoculated dromedary camels were not susceptible to FMDV...... type A infection. None of them showed clinical signs of FMD or developed viraemia or specific anti-FMDV antibodies despite the high dose of virus inoculated. All the contact sheep and contact dromedaries that were kept together with the inoculated camels remained virus-negative and did not seroconvert...

  17. Multi-platform ’Omics Analysis of Human Ebola Virus Disease Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisfeld, Amie J.; Halfmann, Peter J.; Wendler, Jason P.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Peralta, Zuleyma; Maemura, Tadashi; Walters, Kevin B.; Watanabe, Tokiko; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Yamashita, Makoto; Jacobs, Jon M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Casey, Cameron P.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Weitz, Karl K.; Shukla, Anil K.; Tian, Mingyuan; Neumann, Gabriele; Reed, Jennifer L.; van Bakel, Harm; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Waters, Katrina M.; N' jai, Alhaji; Sahr, Foday; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2017-12-01

    The pathogenesis of human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is complex. EVD is characterized by high levels of virus replication and dissemination, dysregulated immune responses, extensive virus- and host-mediated tissue damage, and disordered coagulation. To clarify how host responses contribute to EVD pathophysiology, we performed multi-platform ’omics analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma from EVD patients. Our results indicate that EVD molecular signatures overlap with those of sepsis, imply that pancreatic enzymes contribute to tissue damage in fatal EVD, and suggest that Ebola virus infection may induce aberrant neutrophils whose activity could explain hallmarks of fatal EVD. Moreover, integrated biomarker prediction identified putative biomarkers from different data platforms that differentiated survivors and fatalities early after infection. This work reveals insight into EVD pathogenesis, suggests an effective approach for biomarker identification, and provides an important community resource for further analysis of human EVD severity.

  18. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  19. The Heterologous Expression of the p22 RNA Silencing Suppressor of the Crinivirus Tomato Chlorosis Virus from Tobacco Rattle Virus and Potato Virus X Enhances Disease Severity but Does Not Complement Suppressor-Defective Mutant Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeo-Ríos, Yazmín; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Cañizares, M. Carmen

    2017-11-24

    To counteract host antiviral RNA silencing, plant viruses express suppressor proteins that function as pathogenicity enhancers. The genome of the Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) (genus Crinivirus , family Closteroviridae ) encodes an RNA silencing suppressor, the protein p22, that has been described as having one of the longest lasting local suppressor activities when assayed in Nicotiana benthamiana . Since suppression of RNA silencing and the ability to enhance disease severity are closely associated, we analyzed the effect of expressing p22 in heterologous viral contexts. Thus, we studied the effect of the expression of ToCV p22 from viral vectors Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Potato virus X (PVX), and from attenuated suppressor mutants in N. benthamiana plants. Our results show that although an exacerbation of disease symptoms leading to plant death was observed in the heterologous expression of ToCV p22 from both viruses, only in the case of TRV did increased viral accumulation occur. The heterologous expression of ToCV p22 could not complement suppressor-defective mutant viruses.

  20. Viruses: are they really culprits for periodontal disease? A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambili, Ranjith; Preeja, Chandran; Archana, Vilasan; Nisha, Krishnavilasam Jayakumary; Seba, Abraham; Reejamol, Mohammed Khasim

    2014-08-01

    Periodontal diseases are multifactorial, and many etiological agents are suggested to play a role in their etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors are also suggested to influence the progression of periodontal disease. Until recently, specific bacteria were considered the major pathogens for the disease. However, the occurrence of periodontal disease in some patient groups is still poorly understood, and the role of other initiating agents is being investigated. Evidence strongly suggests the presence of many strains of viruses in the periodontal environment, and possible mechanisms have also been suggested. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for other systemic diseases can also be better explained based on this viral etiology. In this review, we critically analyze the role of viruses in different periodontal diseases, and provide a categorical description of the underlying mechanisms. Clinical implications and future directions are also discussed. Evidence of a causal role of herpes viruses in periodontitis might revolutionize existing strategies to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Genetic control of yellow vein mosaic virus disease tolerance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PUSHPARANI SENJAM

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... related traits, namely (i) days to first appearance of YVMV disease (vein clearing of ... the selected lines were made in the following fashion dur- ..... okra for. YVMV disease related traits. Genetic components. (para meter). Crosses. M dh. I j l. Days to first appearance of. YVMV disease. BCO-1. ×. Lal. B hendi.

  2. Ebola virus disease: Biological and diagnostic evolution from 2014 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérens, A; Bigaillon, C; Delaune, D

    2018-03-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak observed in West Africa from March 2014 to June 2016 has led to many fundamental and applied research works. Knowledge of this virus has substantially increased. Treatment of many patients in epidemic countries and a few imported cases in developed countries led to developing new diagnostic methods and to adapt laboratory organization and biosafety precautions to perform conventional biological analyses. Clinical and biological monitoring of patients infected with Ebola virus disease helped to determine severity criteria and bad prognosis markers. It also contributed to showing the possibility of viral sanctuaries in patients and the risk of transmission after recovery. After a summary of recent knowledge of environmental and clinical viral persistence, we aimed to present new diagnostic methods and other biological tests that led to highlighting the pathophysiological consequences of Ebola virus disease and its prognostic markers. We also aimed to describe our lab experience in the care of Ebola virus-infected patients, especially technical and logistical changes between 2014 and 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M; Herrler, Georg

    2014-02-18

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this purpose, two culture systems for well-differentiated BAEC were used: the air-liquid interface (ALI) system, where filter-grown BAEC differentiate into a pseudostratified respiratory epithelium and precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) where BAEC are maintained in the original tissue organisation. Comparative infection studies demonstrated that entry and release of BPIV3 occurred specifically via the apical membrane with ciliated cells being the major target cells. By contrast, airway epithelial cells were largely resistant to infection by BHV-1. When the epithelial barrier was abolished by opening tight junctions or by injuring the cell monolayer, BHV-1 infected mainly basal cells. Respiratory epithelial cells were also refractory to infection by BRSV. However, this virus infected neither differentiated epithelial cells nor basal cells when the integrity of the epithelial barrier was destroyed. In contrast to cells of the airway epithelium, subepithelial cells were susceptible to infection by BRSV. Altogether, these results indicate that the three viruses of the same disease complex follow different strategies to interact with the airway epithelium. Possible entry mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins gB and gD protect chickens against ILTV and NDV challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2014-08-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FPV-vectored ILTV vaccines are less efficacious than live attenuated vaccines. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILTV vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants, based on the LaSota vaccine strain, expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of ILTV using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/ILTV-gB and rLS/ILTV-gD, were slightly attenuated in vivo yet retained growth dynamics, stability, and virus titers in vitro that were similar to those of the parental LaSota virus. Expression of ILTV gB and gD proteins in the recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred significant protection against virulent ILTV and velogenic NDV challenges. Immunization of commercial broilers with rLS/ILTV-gB provided a level of protection against clinical disease similar to that provided by the live attenuated commercial vaccines, with no decrease in body weight gains. The results of the study suggested that the rLS/ILTV-gB and -gD viruses are safe, stable, and effective bivalent vaccines that can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations. This paper describes the development and evaluation of novel bivalent vaccines against chicken infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and Newcastle disease (ND), two of the most economically important infectious

  5. Delayed vaccine virus replication in chickens vaccinated subcutaneously with an immune complex infectious bursal disease vaccine: Quantification of vaccine virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Iván, Judit; Velhner, Maja; Ursu, Krisztina; Germán, Péter; Mató, Tamás; Drén, Csaba Nick; Mészáros, János

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of the immune complex vaccine virus for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in tissue was examined and the viral loads of the organs were quantitatively compared. One-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) and maternally immune broiler chickens were injected subcutaneously with the vaccine. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected at various time intervals during the experiment to test for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-RNA by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase ...

  6. Current trends in the management of Ebola virus disease-an updated systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Sivanandy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus created a ripple of fear when its number of cases rose rapidly and drastically in recent years. Ebola infection is transmitted in humans when contact closely with blood, organs or other body fluids of infected animals or secretions. It is often mortal as it affects vascular system of the body, results in organ failure and serious internal bleeding. Hence, this review was aimed to summarize various essential aspects of Ebola virus disease and its management. A systematic review was carried out by collecting various literatures, published research articles, notes and other published date related to Ebola virus disease. Standard supporting care in a hospital setting such as replenishment of fluid and electrolytes, ventilation support, pain control and nutritional support is initiated to the patients to manage the symptoms and prevent any complications of Ebola disease since there are no Food and Drug Administrationapproved medications available. In terms of pharmacological drug therapy, favipiravir has been shown to be efficacious and safe in treating the Ebola virus disease. Nevertheless, there are some preventive measures as well to decrease the risk of getting the disease. Further, the review suggests the efficient control and prevention of Ebola epidemic require adequate political support from the government as well as the establishment of a robust public health infrastructure and medical reserve. Strengthening of contact tracing and quarantine policies are also important for the prevention of Ebola virus disease. There should be a well-designed disease surveillance system when a suspected case is reported. Given the elevated case-fatality rate and the absence of effective treatment, it is sensible to evade research ethics and develop the promising future of experimental vaccines. The collection of clinical and epidemiological information of Ebola should be vigorous and systematic in the endemic affected areas.

  7. Elucidation of the roles of Blackcurrant reversion virus and phytoplasma in the etiology of Full Blossom Disease in currants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Kubelková, Darina; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Špaková, Vlastimila; Petrzik, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 148, July (2009), s. 19 ISSN 1866-590X. [International Conference on Virus and other Graft Transmissible Diseases of Fruit Crops /21./. 05.07.2009-10.07.2009, Neustadt] R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91224 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : currant * Blackcurrant reversion virus * Full Blossom Disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Early occurrence of apoptosis in lymphoid tissues from chickens infected with strains of Newcastle disease virus of varying virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the causative agent of Newcastle disease, is a prevalent problem in the poultry industry and often the cause of severe economic loss. There are many strains of the virus and these have varying virulence. The most virulent strains cause systemic lesions of lymphoid ti...

  9. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 2C Is a Hexameric AAA+ Protein with a Coordinated ATP Hydrolysis Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Trevor; Cisnetto, Valentina; Bose, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus, causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed livestock. Like other picornaviruses, FMDV has a conserved 2C protein assigned to the superfamily 3 helicases a group of AAA+ ATPases that has a predicted N-termin...

  10. Infection and transmission of live recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines in Rock Pigeons, European House Sparrows, and Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    In China and Mexico, engineered recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains are used as live vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease and as vectors to express the avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene to control avian influenza in poultry. In this study, non-target species wer...

  11. Protecting trees against virus diseases in the 21st century: genetic engineering of Plum pox virus resistance - from concept to product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), was first recorded in Bulgaria during the early twentieth century. Since that first report, the disease has progressively spread throughout Europe where it has infected over 100 million stone fruit trees. From Europe, sharka disease spread to Asia, A...

  12. EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE: WHAT WE MUST KNOW (IN SPANISH)

    OpenAIRE

    Grupo de Investigación Unimol-Doctorado en Medicina Tropical

    2014-01-01

    La entidad conocida como ébola, recibe esa denominación por el nombre del río más cercano al distrito africano, donde se presentaron los primeros casos del brote en la década de los setenta del siglo XX (1). Esta zoonosis que está afectando a África y actualmente extendiéndose a otros continentes, llama la atención de las autoridades sanitarias a nivel mundial. Los virus pertenecen a la familia Filoviridae, género Ebolavirus (EBOV) y están divididos en las especies Bundib...

  13. Vaccines for emerging infectious diseases: Lessons from MERS coronavirus and Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-12-02

    The past decade and a half has been characterized by numerous emerging infectious diseases. With each new threat, there has been a call for rapid vaccine development. Pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the Zika virus represent either new viral entities or viruses emergent in new geographic locales and characterized by novel complications. Both serve as paradigms for the global spread that can accompany new pathogens. In this paper, we review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and Zika virus with respect to vaccine development. The challenges in vaccine development and the approach to clinical trial design to test vaccine candidates for disease entities with a changing epidemiology are discussed.

  14. Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic: What Can the World Learn and Not Learn from West Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available WITH over 4,500 deaths and counting, and new cases identified in two developed countries that are struggling and faltering in their handling of the epidemic, the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD epidemic is unlike any of its kind ever encountered. The ability of some poor, resource-limited, developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa to efficiently handle the epidemic within their shores provides some lessons learned for the global health community. Among others, the 2014 EVD epidemic teaches us that it is time to put the “P” back in public and population health around the world. The global health community must support a sustainable strategy to mitigate Ebola virus and other epidemics both within and outside their shores, even after the cameras are gone. Ebola virus must not be called the disease of the poor and developing world.

  15. Vaccines for emerging infectious diseases: Lessons from MERS coronavirus and Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The past decade and a half has been characterized by numerous emerging infectious diseases. With each new threat, there has been a call for rapid vaccine development. Pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the Zika virus represent either new viral entities or viruses emergent in new geographic locales and characterized by novel complications. Both serve as paradigms for the global spread that can accompany new pathogens. In this paper, we review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and Zika virus with respect to vaccine development. The challenges in vaccine development and the approach to clinical trial design to test vaccine candidates for disease entities with a changing epidemiology are discussed. PMID:28846484

  16. Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, V; Nebel, L; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Zanoni, R G; Schweizer, M

    2017-01-13

    In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection. In this work the cross-serum neutralisation test (SNT) procedure was adapted to the epidemiological situation in Switzerland by the use of three pestiviruses, i.e., strains representing the subgenotype BVDV-1a, BVDV-1h and BDSwiss-a, for adequate differentiation between BVDV and BDV. Thereby the BDV-seroprevalence in seropositive cattle in Switzerland was determined for the first time. Out of 1,555 seropositive blood samples taken from cattle in the frame of the surveillance program, a total of 104 samples (6.7%) reacted with significantly higher titers against BDV than BVDV. These samples originated from 65 farms and encompassed 15 different cantons with the highest BDV-seroprevalence found in Central Switzerland. On the base of epidemiological information collected by questionnaire in case- and control farms, common housing of cattle and sheep was identified as the most significant risk factor for BDV infection in cattle by logistic regression. This indicates that pestiviruses from sheep should be considered as a source of infection of domestic cattle and might well impede serological BVD surveillance.

  17. End-point disease investigation for virus strains of intermediate virulence as illustrated by flavivirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Willy W; Prow, Natalie A; Setoh, Yin X; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2016-02-01

    Viruses of intermediate virulence are defined as isolates causing an intermediate morbidity/mortality rate in a specific animal model system, involving specific host and inoculation parameters (e.g. dose and route). Therefore, variable disease phenotype may exist between animals that develop severe disease or die and those that are asymptomatic or survive after infection with these isolates. There may also be variability amongst animals within each of these subsets. Such potential variability may confound the use of time-point sacrifice experiments to investigate pathogenesis of this subset of virus strains, as uniformity in disease outcome is a fundamental assumption for time-course sacrifice experiments. In the current study, we examined the disease phenotype, neuropathology, neural infection and glial cell activity in moribund/dead and surviving Swiss white (CD-1) mice after intraperitoneal infection with various Australian flaviviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV) strains of intermediate virulence (WNVNSW2011 and WNVNSW2012), and highly virulent Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) isolates. We identified notable intragroup variation in the end-point disease in mice infected with either WNVNSW strain, but to a lesser extent in mice infected with MVEV strains. The variable outcomes associated with WNVNSW infection suggest that pathogenesis investigations using time-point sacrifice of WNVNSW-infected mice may not be the best approach, as the assumption of uniformity in outcomes is violated. Our study has therefore highlighted a previously unacknowledged challenge to investigating pathogenesis of virus isolates of intermediate virulence. We have also set a precedent for routine examination of the disease phenotype in moribund/dead and surviving mice during survival challenge experiments.

  18. [Serological detection of Brucella suis, influenza virus and Aujeszky's disease virus in backyard and small swine holders in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibarbora, Marina; Cappuccio, Javier A; Aznar, María N; Bessone, Fernando A; Piscitelli, Hernán; Pereda, Ariel J; Pérez, Daniel R

    Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina. Antibodies against H1 pandemic were detected in 80% of the farms while 11%, 11.7% and 6.0% of the producers were positive to influenza H3 cluster 2, AV and Bs, respectively. None of the producers was aware of the risk factors concerning the transmission of diseases from pigs to humans. A percentage of 47% of them buy pigs for breeding from other farmers and markets. With regard to biosecurity measures, only 16% of the farms had perimeter fences. The results of this study demonstrate that productive characterization and disease surveys are important to improve productivity and to reduce the risk of disease transmission among animals and humans. The study of sanitary status and risk factors is necessary for better control and eradication of diseases in backyard or small producers. More representative studies at country level should be carried out to detect the pathogensthat circulate and, with this knowledge, to implement prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Particle-to-PFU ratio of Ebola virus influences disease course and survival in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfson, Kendra J; Avena, Laura E; Beadles, Michael W; Staples, Hilary; Nunneley, Jerritt W; Ticer, Anysha; Dick, Edward J; Owston, Michael A; Reed, Christopher; Patterson, Jean L; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the role of Ebola virus (EBOV) specific infectivity in virulence. Filoviruses are highly lethal, enveloped, single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses that can cause hemorrhagic fever. No approved vaccines or therapies exist for filovirus infections, and infectious virus must be handled in maximum containment. Efficacy testing of countermeasures, in addition to investigations of pathogenicity and immune response, often requires a well-characterized animal model. For EBOV, an obstacle in performing accurate disease modeling is a poor understanding of what constitutes an infectious dose in animal models. One well-recognized consequence of viral passage in cell culture is a change in specific infectivity, often measured as a particle-to-PFU ratio. Here, we report that serial passages of EBOV in cell culture resulted in a decrease in particle-to-PFU ratio. Notably, this correlated with decreased potency in a lethal cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of infection; animals were infected with the same viral dose as determined by plaque assay, but animals that received more virus particles exhibited increased disease. This suggests that some particles are unable to form a plaque in a cell culture assay but are able to result in lethal disease in vivo. These results have a significant impact on how future studies are designed to model EBOV disease and test countermeasures. Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with a high case-fatality rate, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Specific infectivity can be considered the total number of viral particles per PFU, and its impact on disease is poorly understood. In stocks of most mammalian viruses, there are particles that are unable to complete an infectious cycle or unable to cause cell pathology in cultured cells. We asked if these particles cause disease in nonhuman primates by infecting monkeys with equal infectious doses of genetically identical stocks

  20. Social Pathways for Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Sierra Leone, and Some Implications for Containment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.; Amara, J.; Ferme, M.C.; Kamara, P.; Mokuwa, E.; Sheriff, A.I.; Suluku, R.; Voors, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through humanto- human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped,

  1. A multi-site assessment of knowledge of Ebola virus disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Nigeria may have been certified free from Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) by the World Health Organization, but not without its aftermath on many, especially among health workers who came in contact with the infected during the West African outbreak in 2014.This study was conducted among health workers in three ...

  2. Infection with concurrent multiple hepatitis C virus genotypes is associated with faster HIV disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asten, Liselotte; Prins, Maria

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the importance of hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotype in HIV disease progression. DESIGN: This study was conducted among 126 HIV/HCV co-infected drug users with a known interval of HIV seroconversion whose HCV genotype was known early in HIV infection. Both clinical progression

  3. Estimation of the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected sheep to cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Eble, P.L.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was

  4. Modelling the atmospheric dispersion of foot-and-mouth disease virus for emergency preparedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.H.; Jensen, C.O.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    A model system for simulating airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is described. The system includes a virus production model and the local- and mesoscale atmospheric dispersion model RIMPUFF linked to the LINCOM local-scale Row model. LINCOM is used to calculate the sub-grid scale Row...

  5. Rapid immunohistochemical diagnosis of tobacco mosaic virus disease by microwave-assisted plant sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnig, Günther; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscopy is a powerful method to diagnose viral diseases and to study the distribution of the viral agent within plant cells and tissues. Nevertheless, current protocols for the immunological detection of viral diseases with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in plants take between 3 and 6 days and are therefore not suited for rapid diagnosis of virus diseases in plants. In this study, we describe a method that allows rapid cytohistochemical detection of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaves of tobacco plants. With the help of microwave irradiation, sample preparation of the leaves was reduced to 90 min. After sample sectioning, virus particles were stained on the sections by immunogold labelling of the viral coat protein, which took 100 min. After investigation with the TEM, a clear visualization of TMV in tobacco cells was achieved altogether in about half a day. Comparison of gold particle density by image analysis revealed that samples prepared with the help of microwave irradiation yielded significantly higher gold particle density as samples prepared conventionally at room temperature. This study clearly demonstrates that microwave-assisted plant sample preparation in combination with cytohistochemical localization of viral coat protein is well suited for rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases in altogether about half a day by TEM. PMID:23580761

  6. Fight Ebola virus disease in Africa: a question related to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repetitive outbreaks of Ebola virus disease is a major public health problem in Africa. Indeed, since September 1976, date of its isolation and its first description in the north of the ex-Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo) and in the south Sudan, many African countries continue to live recurring episodes of epidemics ...

  7. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of Newcastle disease virus isolates from recent outbreaks in eastern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otim, Maxwell O.; Christensen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus isolates from chickens in eastern Uganda in 2001 were found to be velogenic by fusion protein cleavage site sequence analysis and biological characterization; the intracerebral pathogenicity index was 1.8. Analysis of their hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein gene sequences...... revealed a novel genotype unrelated to those that caused previous outbreaks....

  8. Serological Detection of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (Fmdv) Sat 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2 antibodies among Nigerian cattle was determined using complement fixation (CF) and neutralization tests (NT) in 2000 cattle sera obtained from nine northern states. The two serological tests were very specific and sensitive enough to ...

  9. AN MHC class I immune evasion gene of Marek's disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a widespread a-herpesvirus of chickens that causes T cell tumors. Acute, but not latent, MDV infection has previously been shown to lead to downregulation of cell-surface MHC class I (Virology 282:198–205 (2001)), but the gene(s) involved have not been identified. Here...

  10. The Viral Replication Complex Is Associated with the Virulence of Newcastle Disease Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortmans, J.C.F.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Koch, G.; Peeters, B.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus ([NDV] also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1) can be discriminated from low-virulence strains by the presence of multiple basic amino acid residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein. However, some NDV variants isolated from

  11. Epidemiological features and trends of Ebola virus disease in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligui Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a World Health Organization report, the epidemiological features of Ebola virus disease (EVD have changed significantly in West Africa. In this study, the new epidemiological features and prevalence trends for EVD in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are described. It was predicted that the Ebola outbreak would end in June 2015.

  12. Neuropsychological long-term sequelae of Ebola virus disease survivors - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötsch, Felix; Schnyder, Jenny; Goorhuis, Abraham; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2017-01-01

    The recent West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak had catastrophic impact on populations, health care systems and economies of the affected countries. Somatic symptoms have been reported to persist long beyond the acute infection. This review was conducted to provide an overview on neuro-

  13. Chronic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, and congenital malformations as risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Hjuler, Thomas; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how chronic conditions other than prematurity, heart disease, and Down syndrome affect the risk and severity of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We assess the risk and severity of RSV hospitalization in children with chronic conditions in this register-...

  14. The Carrier Rate of Newcastle Disease Virus in Pigeons in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two positive results were recorded for white pigeons, while only one black pigeon showed evidence of NDV. From this study, the carrier rate of NDV in pigeons in Owerri area of Imo State is estimated at 5% Keywords: Carrier Rate, Newcastle Disease Virus, Pigeons. Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences Vol. 14 (1) 2005: ...

  15. The Macroeconomic Impact of Ebola Virus Disease (Evd: A Contribution to the Empirics of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obukohwo Oba Efayena

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addressed the formulation of a macro model to capture the macroeconomic impact of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD. Previous studies has adopted various models such as the dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model, endogenous model and the LINKAGE model, but there is dire need to generate a step-by-step model which will comprehensively capture how the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD impacts on macroeconomic variables. Adopting the traditional neoclassical growth model, the model aggregated the various macroeconomic variables as well as captured the epidemic’s strain on each of these variables. The paper also empirically shows that the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has direct, indirect and deferred indirect cost implications for the economy. Using case studies of countries in Africa, the study evaluated how the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has affected the macroeconomic status of selected economies. The findings imply that there is dire need to control the spread of the deadly plague. The paper contribute immensely to empirical studies in the field of macroeconomics.

  16. Genetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... leader protease (Lpro) and capsid-coding sequences (P1) constitute approximately 3 kb of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We studied the phylogenetic relationship of 46 FMDV serotype A isolates of Indian origin collected during the period 1968–2005 and also eight vaccine strains using the neighbour-joining ...

  17. Detection of Multiple Serotypes of Foot-and Mouth Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five (75%) foot-and-mouth diseases virus (FMDV) isolates stored at the laboratory were reserotyped. The isolates were obtained from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) eland (Taurotragus orynx), pigs and cattle during the period from 1971- to 2001. Serotypes O, A, SAT1 and SAT2 were identified from the cattle ...

  18. Clinical management of ebola virus disease in the United States and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyeki, Timothy M.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Davey, Richard T.; Liddell, Allison M.; Wolf, Timo; Vetter, Pauline; Schmiedel, Stefan; Grünewald, Thomas; Jacobs, Michael; Arribas, Jose R.; Evans, Laura; Hewlett, Angela L.; Brantsaeter, Arne B.; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Rapp, Christophe; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Gutman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Available data on the characteristics of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and clinical management of EVD in settings outside West Africa, as well as the complications observed in those patients, are limited. METHODS We reviewed available clinical, laboratory, and virologic data

  19. The present and future disease burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with today's treatment paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razavi, H; Waked, I; Sarrazin, C

    2014-01-01

    The disease burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is expected to increase as the infected population ages. A modelling approach was used to estimate the total number of viremic infections, diagnosed, treated and new infections in 2013. In addition, the model was used to estimate the change in the total...

  20. Editorial: Zika Virus Disease (ZVD) and the Rio Olympics: Is it safe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: Zika Virus Disease (ZVD) and the Rio Olympics: Is it safe for athletes to go? Pierre J.T. de Villiers. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM.

  1. No between-pen transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van H.J.W.; Eblé, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Dekker, A.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) within groups of pigs, even when vaccinated, but only limited information is available on transmission between pens. Three new experiments were carried out in two replicates, which consisted of infectious pigs housed in a

  2. Monitoring chronic infection with a field strain of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) readily spread within farmed mink and causes chronic infections with significant impacts for welfare and economy. In the present study a currently circulating Danish AMDV strain was used to induce chronic experimental infection of farmed mink.PCR was used to det...

  3. Stability of Newcastle Disease Virus Strain V4-UPM Coated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection of village chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) is considered feasible through food-delivered vaccines. Vaccine virus strain V4-UPM coated on cassava granules with or without additive (2% gelatin) was tested for stability at room temperature (RT) for 8 weeks and 40oC for 12 hours at weekly and two hourly ...

  4. Vaccination against foot and mouth disease reduces virus transmission in groups of calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Dekker, A.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of vaccination during an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not to induce clinical protection, but to reduce virus transmission. Since no quantitative data were available on the effectiveness of vaccination in cattle, we investigated whether a single vaccination against FMD could

  5. Border disease virus shedding and detection in naturally infected Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Velarde, Roser; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2010-09-01

    Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations of the central and eastern Pyrenees have been affected by severe outbreaks associated with Border disease virus (BDV) since 2001. Eight Pyrenean chamois (7 males and 1 female) from 1 to 8 years of age with clinical signs consistent with BDV infection were studied. At necropsy, whole blood, tissue samples (skin, brain, prescapular lymph node, thyroid gland, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, small intestine, bone marrow, and testicle), urine, and nasal, oral, and rectal swabs were obtained. The fetus from a pregnant female was also studied. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the virus in all samples, and virus isolation was performed. Sera and tissue samples were positive to RT-PCR, and the virus was isolated from all chamois. The nasal, oral, and rectal swabs and urine samples were RT-PCR positive in 100%, 85.71%, 71.43%, and 100% of chamois, respectively, confirming the excretion of the virus via these 4 routes. In addition, sera were tested for BDV antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and seroneutralization techniques, with negative results. Sequence analysis of the 5' untranslated region in 7 of the chamois confirmed that the virus is grouped into the BDV-4 genotype, the same BDV previously described in Pyrenean chamois. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study of naturally infected Pyrenean chamois, providing evidence that infected animals shed BDV through nasal, oral, fecal, and urinary excretion routes.

  6. Comparison of the efficiency of different newcastle disease virus reverse genetics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijin; de Almeida, Renata Servan; Gil, Patricia; Albina, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Rescue of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses ((-)ssRNA virus), generally requires the handling of a large number of plasmids to provide the virus genome and essential components for gene expression and genome replication. This constraint probably renders reverse genetics of (-)ssRNA virus more complex and less efficient. Some authors have shown that the fewer the plasmids, the more efficient reverse genetics is for segmented RNA virus. However, it is not clear if the same applies for (-)ssRNA, such as Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To address this issue, six variants of NDV reverse genetic systems were established by cloning combinations of NP, P and L genes, mini-genome or full-genome in 4, 3, 2 and 1 plasmid. In terms of mini-genome and full-genome rescue, we showed that only the 2-plasmid system, assembling three support plasmids together, was able to improve the rescue efficiency over that of the conventional 4-plasmid system. These results may help establish and/or improve reverse genetics for other mononegaviruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nitric oxide induced by Indian ginseng root extract inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Bhaskar; Umapathi, Vijaypillai; Rastogi, Sunil Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Infectious Bursal Disease is a severe viral disease of chicken responsible for serious economic losses to poultry farmers. The causative agent, Infectious Bursal Disease virus, is inhibited by nitric oxide. Root extract of the Indian ginseng, Withania somnifera , inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in vitro. Also, Withania somnifera root extract is known to induce nitric oxide production in vitro. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine if the inhibitory activity of Withania somnifera against Infectious Bursal Disease virus was based on the production of nitric oxide. We show that besides other mechanisms, the inhibition of Infectious Bursal Disease virus by Withania somnifera involves the production of nitric oxide. Our results also highlight the paradoxical role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of Infectious Bursal Disease.

  8. Health workers perceptions and attitude about Ghana's preparedness towards preventing, containing, and managing Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Asampong, Emmanuel; Ansong, Joana; Robalo, Magda; Adanu, Richard M

    2017-04-12

    Ebola virus is highly infectious and the disease can be very fatal. The World Health Organization has declared the 2014-2015 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. In response to this, preparations were made in various health facilities and entry points across Ghana. This study explored health workers perceptions, and attitude about Ghana's preparedness towards preventing and containing Ebola Virus Disease. We conducted a qualitative study in five (5) of the ten (10) regions in Ghana. Five focus group discussions (N = 44) were conducted among nurses; one in each region. In addition, ten (10) health workers (2 in each region) who are members of regional Ebola Virus Disease task force were recruited and interviewed. In the Greater Accra, Volta and Western regions that have ports, six (6) port health officials: two in each of these regions were also interviewed. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts with the aid of NVivo 10 software. The results of this study showed that Ghanaian health workers perceived the screening at various ports as important and ongoing but felt that the screenings at in-land ports were being undermined by the use of unapproved routes. Training of health workers was also being carried out in all the regions, however, there was a general perception among 33 out of 44 nurses that majority of health workers have not received training on Ebola Virus Disease prevention and management. Logistical challenges were also reported as some health facilities did not have adequate Personal Protective Equipment. In facilities where equipment was available, they were stored in places which are not easily accessible to health workers at all times of the day. Human resource preparation was also perceived to be a challenge as health workers (38/44 of nurses) generally expressed fear and unwillingness to work in Ebola treatment

  9. Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle) disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaygude, V. S.; Sawale, G. K.; Chawak, M. M.; Bulbule, N. R.; Moregaonkar, S. D.; Gavhane, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015). After thorough gross examination,...

  10. Incidence, Distribution and Characteristics of Major Tomato Leaf Curl and Mosaic Virus Diseases in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ssekyewa, C

    2006-01-01

    In Uganda, about 3 million households consume tomato. However, tomato yields (10 ton/ ha) are low due to poor agronomic practices, lack of high yielding and disease resistant varieties, and pests (Varela, 1995; Hansen, 1990; Defrancq, 1989). Viral diseases are the third major cause of low tomato productivity in Uganda. Therefore, a survey was conducted; symptoms observed on tomato were categorized, and screened for both ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acid tomato viruses. Genetic identity fo...

  11. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, van M.; Bouma, A.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Katsma, E.; Hartog, L.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination

  12. Reaction of sweetpotato clones to virus disease and their yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although among the available control measures use of resistant and high yielding varieties is the cheapest and effective means of controlling the disease, reaction of several sweetpotato clones to the disease is largely unknown. A study was conducted in three geographical regions (Namulonge, Kachwekano, Bulegeni, ...

  13. Microbes and Viruses Are Bugging the Gut in Celiac Disease. Are They Friends or Foes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Lerner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The links between microorganisms/viruses and autoimmunity are complex and multidirectional. A huge number of studies demonstrated the triggering impact of microbes and viruses as the major environmental factors on the autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, growing evidences suggest that infectious agents can also play a protective role or even abrogate these processes. This protective crosstalk between microbes/viruses and us might represent a mutual beneficial equilibrium relationship between two cohabiting ecosystems. The protective pathways might involve post-translational modification of proteins, decreased intestinal permeability, Th1 to Th2 immune shift, induction of apoptosis, auto-aggressive cells relocation from the target organ, immunosuppressive extracellular vesicles and down regulation of auto-reactive cells by the microbial derived proteins. Our analysis demonstrates that the interaction of the microorganisms/viruses and celiac disease (CD is always a set of multidirectional processes. A deeper inquiry into the CD interplay with Herpes viruses and Helicobacter pylori demonstrates that the role of these infections, suggested to be potential CD protectors, is not as controversial as for the other infectious agents. The outcome of these interactions might be due to a balance between these multidirectional processes.

  14. Emergence of foot-and-mouth disease virus SAT 2 in Egypt during 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H A; Salem, S A H; Habashi, A R; Arafa, A A; Aggour, M G A; Salem, G H; Gaber, A S; Selem, O; Abdelkader, S H; Knowles, N J; Madi, M; Valdazo-González, B; Wadsworth, J; Hutchings, G H; Mioulet, V; Hammond, J M; King, D P

    2012-12-01

    The epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North Africa is complicated by the co-circulation of endemic FMD viruses (FMDV), as well as sporadic incursions of exotic viral strains from the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa. This report describes the molecular characterization of SAT 2 FMD viruses that have caused widespread field outbreaks of FMD in Egypt during February and March 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses from these outbreaks fell into two distinct lineages within the SAT 2 topotype VII, which were distinct from a contemporary SAT 2 lineage of the same toptype from Libya. These were the first FMD outbreaks due to this serotype in Egypt since 1950 and required the development of a tailored real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay that can be used in the laboratory to distinguish FMD viruses of these lineages from other endemic FMD viruses that might be present in North Africa. These data highlight the ease by which FMDV can cross international boundaries and emphasize the importance of deploying systems to continuously monitor the global epidemiology of this disease. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Microbes and Viruses Are Bugging the Gut in Celiac Disease. Are They Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Arleevskaya, Marina; Schmiedl, Andreas; Matthias, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    The links between microorganisms/viruses and autoimmunity are complex and multidirectional. A huge number of studies demonstrated the triggering impact of microbes and viruses as the major environmental factors on the autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, growing evidences suggest that infectious agents can also play a protective role or even abrogate these processes. This protective crosstalk between microbes/viruses and us might represent a mutual beneficial equilibrium relationship between two cohabiting ecosystems. The protective pathways might involve post-translational modification of proteins, decreased intestinal permeability, Th1 to Th2 immune shift, induction of apoptosis, auto-aggressive cells relocation from the target organ, immunosuppressive extracellular vesicles and down regulation of auto-reactive cells by the microbial derived proteins. Our analysis demonstrates that the interaction of the microorganisms/viruses and celiac disease (CD) is always a set of multidirectional processes. A deeper inquiry into the CD interplay with Herpes viruses and Helicobacter pylori demonstrates that the role of these infections, suggested to be potential CD protectors, is not as controversial as for the other infectious agents. The outcome of these interactions might be due to a balance between these multidirectional processes.

  16. Construction and characterization of 3A-epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Sun, Pu; Bai, Xingwen; Bao, Huifang; Lu, Zengjun; Fu, Yuanfang; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2015-04-01

    Nonstructural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids (aa) in most FMDVs examined to date. Specific deletion in the FMDV 3A protein has been associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in primary bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. However, the aa residues playing key roles in these processes are poorly understood. In this study, we constructed epitope-tagged FMDVs containing an 8 aa FLAG epitope, a 9 aa haemagglutinin (HA) epitope, and a 10 aa c-Myc epitope to substitute residues 94-101, 93-101, and 93-102 of 3A protein, respectively, using a recently developed O/SEA/Mya-98 FMDV infectious cDNA clone. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA), Western blot and sequence analysis showed that the epitope-tagged viruses stably maintained and expressed the foreign epitopes even after 10 serial passages in BHK-21 cells. The epitope-tagged viruses displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus in BHK-21 cells. However, the epitope-tagged viruses exhibited lower growth rates and smaller plaque size phenotypes than those of the parental virus in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells, but similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes to those of the recombinant viruses harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A. These results demonstrate that the decreased ability of FMDV to replicate in primary bovine cells was not associated with the length of 3A, and the genetic determinant thought to play key role in decreased ability to replicate in primary bovine cells could be reduced from 93-102 residues to 8 aa residues at positions 94-101 in 3A protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  18. Transmission dynamics of rabies virus in Thailand: Implications for disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puanghat Apirom

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Thailand, rabies remains a neglected disease with authorities continuing to rely on human death statistics while ignoring the financial burden resulting from an enormous increase in post-exposure prophylaxis. Past attempts to conduct a mass dog vaccination and sterilization program have been limited to Bangkok city and have not been successful. We have used molecular epidemiology to define geographic localization of rabies virus phylogroups and their pattern of spread in Thailand. Methods We analyzed 239 nucleoprotein gene sequences from animal and human brain samples collected from all over Thailand between 1998 and 2002. We then reconstructed a phylogenetic tree correlating these data with geographical information. Results All sequences formed a monophyletic tree of 2 distinct phylogroups, TH1 and TH2. Three subgroups were identified in the TH1 subgroup and were distributed in the middle region of the country. Eight subgroups of TH2 viruses were identified widely distributed throughout the country overlapping the TH1 territory. There was a correlation between human-dependent transportation routes and the distribution of virus. Conclusion Inter-regional migration paths of the viruses might be correlated with translocation of dogs associated with humans. Interconnecting factors between human socioeconomic and population density might determine the transmission dynamics of virus in a rural-to-urban polarity. The presence of 2 or more rabies virus groups in a location might be indicative of a gene flow, reflecting a translocation of dogs within such region and adjacent areas. Different approaches may be required for rabies control based on the homo- or heterogeneity of the virus. Areas containing homogeneous virus populations should be targeted first. Control of dog movement associated with humans is essential.

  19. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  20. Metagenomic characterization of the virome associated with bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle identified novel viruses and suggests an etiologic role for influenza D virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Namita; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Torres, Siddartha; Li, Feng; Hause, Ben M

    2016-08-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly disease affecting the cattle industry. The pathogenesis of BRD is complex and includes contributions from microbial pathogens as well as host, environmental and animal management factors. In this study, we utilized viral metagenomic sequencing to explore the virome of nasal swab samples obtained from feedlot cattle with acute BRD and asymptomatic pen-mates at six and four feedlots in Mexico and the USA, respectively, in April-October 2015. Twenty-one viruses were detected, with bovine rhinitis A (52.7 %) and B (23.7 %) virus, and bovine coronavirus (24.7 %) being the most commonly identified. The emerging influenza D virus (IDV) tended to be significantly associated (P=0.134; odds ratio=2.94) with disease, whereas viruses commonly associated with BRD such as bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus were detected less frequently. The detection of IDV was further confirmed using a real-time PCR assay. Nasal swabs from symptomatic animals had significantly more IDV RNA than those collected from healthy animals (P=0.04). In addition to known viruses, new genotypes of bovine rhinitis B virus and enterovirus E were identified and a newly proposed species of bocaparvovirus, Ungulate bocaparvovirus 6, was characterized. Ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 was also detected for the first time in North America to our knowledge. These results illustrate the complexity of the virome associated with BRD and highlight the need for further research into the contribution of other viruses to BRD pathogenesis.

  1. Perception and attitude towards Ebola Virus Disease among traditional healers in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu, K; Jegede, A S

    2015-09-01

    Nigeria experienced her first outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the second-half of 2014. Since its first occurrence in Zaire and Sudan in 1976, most studies on EVD were clinically based and were carried out using biomedical approaches. No empirical social science/behavioural-oriented study exists on the deadly EVD in Nigeria. This study examined the traditional healers' perception and attitude towards Ebola virus disease in Ibadan metropolis. Purposive sampling method was used to select a total of 23 traditional healers who specialized in different areas of traditional medicine (such as herbs selling, faith healing, divination, and general practice). In-depth interview (IDI) method was employed in the study. The study found some misconceptions about the disease while the dominant attitude among the healers was that of avoidance and caution on safety. The healers' interpretations of the disease rested on the culture and individual experiences. There is thus a need to take the local cultural perceptions of the Ebola Virus Disease into consideration when controlling the disease in the future.

  2. Rapidly progressive periodontal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaim, K.A.; Javed, F.; Askar, A.; Rasheed, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Severe periodontal inflammation with generalized dental plaque accumulation, spontaneous and severe gingival bleeding, fungal infection, and inter dental papillae necrosis are presented in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bite-wing radiographs revealed a generalized horizontal alveolar bone loss of 7-8 millimetres in both arches. Erythematous patches were noted on the gingival mucosa in both jaws. DNA testing was performed to identify the periodontopathogens. The patient had no signs or symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This case-report presents the massive periodontal destruction that occurred in a patient infected with HIV. Therefore, it is highly recommended that patients infected with HIV should be regularly monitored to aid in early detection and to provide proper management of periodontal inflammatory conditions to minimize its destruction. (author)

  3. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which is responsible for transmitting Zika virus. Photo Courtesy of: James Gathany, Centers for Disease Control and ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Photo Courtesy of NIH "You could have a Zika virus ...

  4. Potential for Low-Pathogenic Avian H7 Influenza A Viruses To Replicate and Cause Disease in a Mammalian Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Mark; Koçer, Zeynep A; Poulson, Rebecca L; Gabbard, Jon D; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Jones, Cheryl A; Friedman, Kimberly; Seiler, Jon; Danner, Angela; Kercher, Lisa; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C; Wentworth, David E; Krauss, Scott; Tompkins, Stephen M; Stallknecht, David E; Webster, Robert G

    2017-02-01

    H7 subtype influenza A viruses are widely distributed and have been responsible for human infections and numerous outbreaks in poultry with significant impact. Despite this, the disease-causing potential of the precursor low-pathogenic (LP) H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. Our objective was to assess the disease-causing potential of 30 LP H7 viruses isolated from wild avian species in the United States and Canada using the DBA/2J mouse model. Without prior mammalian adaptation, the majority of viruses, 27 (90%), caused mortality in mice. Of these, 17 (56.7%) caused 100% mortality and 24 were of pathogenicity similar to that of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9), which is highly pathogenic in mice. Viruses of duck origin were more pathogenic than those of shorebird origin, as 13 of 18 (72.2%) duck origin viruses caused 100% mortality while 4 of 12 (33.3%) shorebird origin viruses caused 100% mortality, despite there being no difference in mean lung viral titers between the groups. Replication beyond the respiratory tract was also evident, particularly in the heart and brain. Of the 16 viruses studied for fecal shedding, 11 were detected in fecal samples. These viruses exhibited a strong preference for avian-type α2,3-linked sialic acids; however, binding to mammalian-type α2,6-linked sialic acids was also detected. These findings indicate that LP avian H7 influenza A viruses are able to infect and cause disease in mammals without prior adaptation and therefore pose a potential public health risk. Low-pathogenic (LP) avian H7 influenza A viruses are widely distributed in the avian reservoir and are the precursors of numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in commercial poultry farms. However, unlike highly pathogenic H7 viruses, the disease-causing potential of LP H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. To address this, we studied 30 LP avian H7 viruses isolated from wild avian species in the

  5. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  6. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  7. Possible pathogenic nature of the recently discovered TT virus: does it play a role in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Peter; Perl, Andras; Poór, Gyula

    2006-11-01

    Pathogenesis of viral origin has long been suggested in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Beside the well-defined virus induced transient or chronic rheumatic diseases often resembling systemic autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, viruses can contribute to disease pathogenesis by several different pathomechanisms. TT virus is a recently discovered virus of extremely high genetic diversity which commonly infects humans. Despite accumulated evidence on the biological characteristics of TTV, its pathogenicity is still in question; many consider TTV as a harmless endosymbiont. The recent paper overviews the biology of TT virus and investigates the hypothesis that TTV might have a causative role in human diseases with special attention to the possibility that TTV might trigger autoimmunity in rheumatic disorders.

  8. A Systematic Review of Computational Drug Discovery, Development, and Repurposing for Ebola Virus Disease Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, James; Hudson, Matthew L; Schwartz, Diane; Samudrala, Ram

    2017-10-20

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a deadly global public health threat, with no currently approved treatments. Traditional drug discovery and development is too expensive and inefficient to react quickly to the threat. We review published research studies that utilize computational approaches to find or develop drugs that target the Ebola virus and synthesize its results. A variety of hypothesized and/or novel treatments are reported to have potential anti-Ebola activity. Approaches that utilize multi-targeting/polypharmacology have the most promise in treating EVD.

  9. A Systematic Review of Computational Drug Discovery, Development, and Repurposing for Ebola Virus Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Schuler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is a deadly global public health threat, with no currently approved treatments. Traditional drug discovery and development is too expensive and inefficient to react quickly to the threat. We review published research studies that utilize computational approaches to find or develop drugs that target the Ebola virus and synthesize its results. A variety of hypothesized and/or novel treatments are reported to have potential anti-Ebola activity. Approaches that utilize multi-targeting/polypharmacology have the most promise in treating EVD.

  10. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Replicon Particles Can Induce Rapid Protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Dias, Camila C. A.; Moraes, Mauro P.; Weiss, Marcelo; Perez-Martin, Eva; Owens, Gary; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt; de los Santos, Teresa; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that delivery of the porcine type I interferon gene (poIFN-α/β) with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (adenovirus 5 [Ad5]) can sterilely protect swine challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 1 day later. However, the need of relatively high doses of Ad5 limits the applicability of such a control strategy in the livestock industry. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) empty replicon particles (VRPs) can induce rapid protection of mice a...

  11. Ocular Manifestations of Ebola Virus Disease: An Ophthalmologist’s Guide to Prevent Infection and Panic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Maria Vingolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD—formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe hemorrhagic fever caused by lipid-enveloped, nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Ebolavirus. Case fatality rates may reach up to 76% of infected individuals, making this infection a deadly health problem in the sub-Saharan population. At the moment, there are still no indications on ophthalmological clinical signs and security suggestions for healthcare professionals (doctors and nurses or cooperative persons. This paper provides a short but complete guide to reduce infection risks.

  12. Ocular Manifestations of Ebola Virus Disease: An Ophthalmologist's Guide to Prevent Infection and Panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Fragiotta, Serena; Spadea, Leopoldo; Petti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD--formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) is a severe hemorrhagic fever caused by lipid-enveloped, nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Ebolavirus. Case fatality rates may reach up to 76% of infected individuals, making this infection a deadly health problem in the sub-Saharan population. At the moment, there are still no indications on ophthalmological clinical signs and security suggestions for healthcare professionals (doctors and nurses or cooperative persons). This paper provides a short but complete guide to reduce infection risks.

  13. Ocular Manifestations of Ebola Virus Disease: An Ophthalmologist's Guide to Prevent Infection and Panic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Fragiotta, Serena; Petti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD—formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) is a severe hemorrhagic fever caused by lipid-enveloped, nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Ebolavirus. Case fatality rates may reach up to 76% of infected individuals, making this infection a deadly health problem in the sub-Saharan population. At the moment, there are still no indications on ophthalmological clinical signs and security suggestions for healthcare professionals (doctors and nurses or cooperative persons). This paper provides a short but complete guide to reduce infection risks. PMID:26557674

  14. Pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi...

  15. Co-infection and disease severity of Ohio Maize dwarf mosaic virus and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two major maize viruses have been reported in the United States: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). These viruses co-occur in regions where maize is grown such that co-infections are likely. Co-infection of different strains of MCDV is also observed frequently...

  16. Ebola virus disease: caring for patients in Sierra Leone - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andertun, Sara; Hörnsten, Åsa; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Norwegian healthcare staffs' experiences of participating in care of patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. Ebola is one of the most feared viruses known. Ebola virus disease is highly contagious with high mortality. The few qualitative studies made on experiences among healthcare professionals have highlighted problems as lack of protective resources, insufficient personnel and risk of societal stigmatization. Descriptive study with qualitative approach. Individual narrative and focus group interviews were obtained during 2015 with eight nurses and one physician who had worked in Ebola care in Sierra Leone. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the two themes: 'Experiencing security by learning to manage risks'; and 'Developing courage and growth by facing personal fears'. Subthemes were: 'Relying on safeguard actions', 'Managing risk of contagion', 'Developing strategies for care despite risks', 'Constantly reminded of death', 'Successively defeating fears' and last, 'Increasing motivation through meaningfulness'. The participants described the reliance on training, organized effort, strict guidelines and equipment. They were respectful of the risk of transmission, made risk assessments, took responsibility, handled risky situations and were reminded of suffering and death. Despite challenges, the hazardous work with Ebola virus disease patients was experienced as meaningful which was an important motivator. Safe care was central in working with Ebola patients, but the care relation was challenged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Thermal inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus in extruded pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, S; Forster, J; Clive, S; Schley, D; Zuber, S; Schaaff, J; Corley, D

    2016-12-01

    The risk of importing foot and mouth disease, a highly contagious viral disease of livestock, severely restricts trade and investment opportunities in many developing countries where the virus is present. This study was designed to investigate the inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) by heat treatments used in extruded commercial pet food manufacture. If extrusion could be shown to reliably inactivate the virus, this could potentially facilitate trade for FMDV-endemic countries. The authors found that there was no detectable virus following: i) treatment of FMDVspiked meat slurry at 68°C for 300 s; ii) treatment of FMDV-spiked slurry and meal mix at 79°C for 10 or 30 s, or iii) treatment of homogenised bovine tongue epithelium, taken from an FMDV-infected animal, at 79°C for 10 s. This corresponds to an estimated 8 log10 reduction in titre (95% credible interval: 6 log10 -13 log10). Furthermore, the authors found that the pH of the slurry and meal mix was sufficient to inactivate FMDV in the absence of heat treatment. This demonstrates that heat treatments used in commercial pet food manufacture are able to substantially reduce the titre of FMDV in infected raw materials. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Targeting the Host Antiviral Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rodríguez Pulido

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is the causative agent of an acute vesicular disease affecting pigs, cattle and other domestic, and wild animals worldwide. The aim of the host interferon (IFN response is to limit viral replication and spread. Detection of the viral genome and products by specialized cellular sensors initiates a signaling cascade that leads to a rapid antiviral response involving the secretion of type I- and type III-IFNs and other antiviral cytokines with antiproliferative and immunomodulatory functions. During co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have acquired strategies to actively counteract host antiviral responses and the balance between innate response and viral antagonism may determine the outcome of disease and pathogenesis. FMDV proteases Lpro and 3C have been found to antagonize the host IFN response by a repertoire of mechanisms. Moreover, the putative role of other viral proteins in IFN antagonism is being recently unveiled, uncovering sophisticated immune evasion strategies different to those reported to date for other members of the Picornaviridae family. Here, we review the interplay between antiviral responses induced by FMDV infection and viral countermeasures to block them. Research on strategies used by viruses to modulate immunity will provide insights into the function of host pathways involved in defense against pathogens and will also lead to development of new therapeutic strategies to fight virus infections.

  19. Kinetic Analysis of Biomarkers in a Cohort of US Patients With Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Anita K.; Harmon, Jessica R.; Flietstra, Timothy D.; Campbell, Shelley; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Lyon, Marshall G.; Varkey, Jay B.; Ribner, Bruce S.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Iwen, Peter C.; Smith, Philip W.; Ahmed, Rafi; Nichol, Stuart T.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ebola virus (EBOV) infection causes a severe and often fatal disease. Despite the fact that more than 30 000 individuals have acquired Ebola virus disease (EVD), the medical and scientific community still does not have a clear understanding of the mechanisms by which EBOV causes such severe disease. Methods. In this study, 54 biomarkers in plasma samples serially collected from 7 patients with EVD were analyzed in an attempt to define the kinetics of inflammatory modulators. Two clinical disease groups were defined (moderate and severe) based on the need for clinical support. Biomarkers were evaluated for correlation with viremia and clinical disease in an effort to identify pathways that could be useful targets of therapeutic intervention. Results. Patients with severe disease had higher viremia than those with moderate disease. Several biomarkers of immune activation and control were significantly elevated in patients with moderate disease. A series of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly elevated in patients with severe disease. Conclusions. Biomarkers that were associated with severe EVD were proinflammatory and indicative of endothelial or coagulation cascade dysfunction, as has been seen historically in patients with fatal outcomes. In contrast, biomarkers that were associated with moderate EVD were suggestive of a strong interferon response and control of both innate and adaptive responses. Therefore, clinical interventions that modulate the phenotype and magnitude of immune activation may be beneficial in treating EVD. PMID:27353663

  20. Effects of introduced and indigenous viruses on native plants: exploring their disease causing potential at the agro-ecological interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stuart J; Coutts, Brenda A; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (viruses readily. To establish their potential to cause severe or mild systemic symptoms in different native plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host-virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface.

  1. Border Disease Virus: An Exceptional Driver of Chamois Populations Among Other Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Emmanuel; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Garel, Mathieu; Cabezón, Oscar; Velarde, Roser; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rosell, Rosa; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging infectious diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4) caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange, and BD outbreaks. BD-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations. PMID:26733943

  2. Computational Modelling and Optimal Control of Ebola Virus Disease with non-Linear Incidence Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaidza, I.; Makinde, O. D.; Okosun, O. K.

    2017-03-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has exposed the need to connect modellers and those with relevant data as pivotal to better understanding of how the disease spreads and quantifying the effects of possible interventions. In this paper, we model and analyse the Ebola virus disease with non-linear incidence rate. The epidemic model created is used to describe how the Ebola virus could potentially evolve in a population. We perform an uncertainty analysis of the basic reproductive number R 0 to quantify its sensitivity to other disease-related parameters. We also analyse the sensitivity of the final epidemic size to the time control interventions (education, vaccination, quarantine and safe handling) and provide the cost effective combination of the interventions.

  3. Emergence of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses during Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, Guinea, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Majumdar, Manasi; Kebe, Ousmane; Fall, Aichatou D; Kone, Moussa; Kande, Mouctar; Dabo, Moustapha; Sylla, Mohamed Salif; Sompare, Djenou; Howard, Wayne; Faye, Ousmane; Martin, Javier; Ndiaye, Kader

    2018-01-01

    During the 2014-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 13 type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were isolated from 6 polio patients and 7 healthy contacts. To clarify the genetic properties of cVDPVs and their emergence, we combined epidemiologic and virologic data for polio cases in Guinea. Deviation of public health resources to the Ebola outbreak disrupted polio vaccination programs and surveillance activities, which fueled the spread of neurovirulent VDPVs in an area of low vaccination coverage and immunity. Genetic properties of cVDPVs were consistent with their capacity to cause paralytic disease in humans and capacity for sustained person-to-person transmission. Circulation ceased when coverage of oral polio vaccine increased. A polio outbreak in the context of the Ebola virus disease outbreak highlights the need to consider risks for polio emergence and spread during complex emergencies and urges awareness of the challenges in polio surveillance, vaccination, and diagnosis.

  4. The SIR model of Zika virus disease outbreak in Brazil at year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aik, Lim Eng; Kiang, Lam Chee; Hong, Tan Wei; Abu, Mohd Syafarudy

    2017-05-01

    This research study demonstrates a numerical model intended for comprehension the spread of the year 2015 Zika virus disease utilizing the standard SIR framework. In modeling virulent disease dynamics, it is important to explore whether the illness spread could accomplish a pandemic level or it could be eradicated. Information from the year 2015 Zika virus disease event is utilized and Brazil where the event began is considered in this research study. A three dimensional nonlinear differential equation is formulated and solved numerically utilizing the Euler's method in MS excel. It is appeared from the research study that, with health intercessions of public, the viable regenerative number can be decreased making it feasible for the event to cease to exist. It is additionally indicated numerically that the pandemic can just cease to exist when there are no new infected people in the populace.

  5. Perspectives on West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Jessica R; Ervin, Elizabeth D; Towner, Jonathan S; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

    2016-06-01

    The variety of factors that contributed to the initial undetected spread of Ebola virus disease in West Africa during 2013-2016 and the difficulty controlling the outbreak once the etiology was identified highlight priorities for disease prevention, detection, and response. These factors include occurrence in a region recovering from civil instability and lacking experience with Ebola response; inadequate surveillance, recognition of suspected cases, and Ebola diagnosis; mobile populations and extensive urban transmission; and the community's insufficient general understanding about the disease. The magnitude of the outbreak was not attributable to a substantial change of the virus. Continued efforts during the outbreak and in preparation for future outbreak response should involve identifying the reservoir, improving in-country detection and response capacity, conducting survivor studies and supporting survivors, engaging in culturally appropriate public education and risk communication, building productive interagency relationships, and continuing support for basic research.

  6. Border Disease Virus: an exceptional driver of chamois populations among other threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eSerrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4 caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange and BDV outbreaks. BDV-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations.

  7. Human RNA “Rumor” Viruses: the Search for Novel Human Retroviruses in Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisset, Cécile; Weiss, Robin A.; Griffiths, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Retroviruses are an important group of pathogens that cause a variety of diseases in humans and animals. Four human retroviruses are currently known, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which causes AIDS, and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, which causes cancer and inflammatory disease. For many years, there have been sporadic reports of additional human retroviral infections, particularly in cancer and other chronic diseases. Unfortunately, many of these putative viruses remain unproven and controversial, and some retrovirologists have dismissed them as merely “human rumor viruses.” Work in this field was last reviewed in depth in 1984, and since then, the molecular techniques available for identifying and characterizing retroviruses have improved enormously in sensitivity. The advent of PCR in particular has dramatically enhanced our ability to detect novel viral sequences in human tissues. However, DNA amplification techniques have also increased the potential for false-positive detection due to contamination. In addition, the presence of many families of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) within our DNA can obstruct attempts to identify and validate novel human retroviruses. Here, we aim to bring together the data on “novel” retroviral infections in humans by critically examining the evidence for those putative viruses that have been linked with disease and the likelihood that they represent genuine human infections. We provide a background to the field and a discussion of potential confounding factors along with some technical guidelines. In addition, some of the difficulties associated with obtaining formal proof of causation for common or ubiquitous agents such as HERVs are discussed. PMID:18322038

  8. Further evidence of long distance airborne transmission of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Mortensen, S.; Bøtner, Anette

    1993-01-01

    In spite of the eradication of Aujeszky's disease in Denmark a single outbreak was recorded in December 1988 and another severe epizootic took place during the winter and spring of 1989/90. The epizootic occurred in nearly the same areas as the preceding epizootic during the winter of 1987....../88. Identification of the strains of virus involved eliminated the possibility that the latest epizootic was due to the persistence of virus in the pig population. Furthermore, as during the preceding epizootic, initial recordings of the new strains were found to coincide with periods with southerly winds....... It was concluded from circumstantial evidence that the concurrent introductions of virus to several farms played a major role during the epizootic....

  9. Azithromycin as treatment for cryptosporidiosis in human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadappu K

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis caused by the protozoa Cryptosporidium, is the common cause of diarrhoea in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS. AIM: To study the efficacy of short-term azithromycin in the management of cryptosporidiosis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All consecutive patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, who were positive for cryptosporidial oocysts were taken for this prospective randomised study. RESULT: Short-term azithromycin treatment for cryptosporidial diarrhoea in AIDS patients was associated with good clinical improvement but parasitological benefit was doubtful. All 13 patients, who had symptoms of cryptosporidiosis, symptomatically improved with 5 days of treatment with azithromycin and became asymptomatic after 7 days of antibiotic, but stool sample was positive for cryptosporidium even after 7 days of therapy. After 14 days of treatment with azithromycin in 13 patients, in five patients stool was free of cryptosporidial oocyst. The drug was well tolerated in all the patients. CONCLUSION: Short-term azithromycin can be used as a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic Cryptosporidiosis but not effective in eradicating Cryptosporidial infection.

  10. Further evidence of Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus but not of Lettuce big-vein associated virus with big-vein disease in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaya, Takahide; Fujii, Hiroya; Ishikawa, Koichi; Koganezawa, Hiroki

    2008-04-01

    Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV) and Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) are found in association with big-vein disease of lettuce. Discrimination between the two viruses is critical for elucidating the etiology of big-vein disease. Using specific antibodies to MLBVV and LBVaV for western blotting and exploiting differences between MLBVV and LBVaV in host reaction of cucumber and temperature dependence in lettuce, we separated the two viruses by transfering each virus from doubly infected lettuce plants to cucumber or lettuce plants. A virus-free fungal isolate was allowed to acquire the two viruses individually or together. To confirm the separation, zoospores from MLBVV-, LBVaV-, and dually infected lettuce plants were used for serial inoculations of lettuce seedlings 12 successive times. Lettuce seedlings were infected at each transfer either with MLBVV alone, LBVaV alone, or both viruses together, depending on the virus carried by the vector. Lettuce seedlings infected with MLBVV alone developed the big-vein symptoms, while those infected with LBVaV alone developed no symptoms. In field surveys, MLBVV was consistently detected in lettuce plants from big-vein-affected fields, whereas LBVaV was detected in lettuce plants not only from big-vein-affected fields but also from big-vein-free fields. LBVaV occurred widely at high rates in winter-spring lettuce-growing regions irrespective of the presence of MLBVV and, hence, of the presence of the big-vein disease.

  11. The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus)

    OpenAIRE

    Puggioni, Giantonella; Cavadini, Patrizia; Maestrale, Caterina; Scivoli, Rosario; Botti, Giuliana; Ligios, Ciriaco; Le Gall-Recul?, Ghislaine; Lavazza, Antonio; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Lagovirus is an emerging genus of Caliciviridae, which includes the Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) of hares that cause lethal hepatitis. In 2010, a new RHDV related virus (RHDV2) with a unique genetic and antigenic profile and lower virulence was identified in France in rabbits. Here we report the identification of RHDV2 as the cause in Sardinia of several outbreaks of acute hepatitis in rabbits and Cape hare (Lepus capens...

  12. Reconstruction of the Transmission History of RNA Virus Outbreaks Using Full Genome Sequences: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Bulgaria in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Polihronova, Lilyana; Alexandrov, Tsviatko

    2012-01-01

    Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios...... that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. In the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), these analyses provide important insights into the epidemiology of field outbreaks that can support disease control programmes. This study reconstructs...

  13. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle: Investigation of possible sites of virus replication and persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral infection of significant financial importance to the export and trade of agricultural products. The occurrence of persistently infected ‘‘carriers’’ of FMD-virus (FMDV) in ruminant species adds further complications to disease control....... There have been significant discrepancies in reports regarding the pathogenesis of FMDV infection in cattle with specific emphasis on the anatomical sites involved in early and persistent virus replication. In this study, collection of small biopsy samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of live animals...... was used to investigate the level of FMDV RNA present at this site at sequential time points during the infection. Results were compared to measurements of virus excretion in samples of oropharyngeal fluid collected at corresponding time points. Possible sites of virus persistence were investigated through...

  14. Ebola virus disease and pregnancy - A review of the current knowledge of Ebola virus pathogenesis, maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebell, Lisa M.; Oduyebo, Titilope; Riley, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa devastated local health systems and caused thousands of deaths. Historical reports from Zaire ebolavirus outbreaks suggested pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of severe illness and death, with mortality rates from 74-100%. In total, 111 cases of pregnant patients with EVD are reported in the literature, with an aggregate maternal mortality of 86%. Pregnancy-specific data published from the recent outbreak include four small descriptive cohort studies and five case reports. Despite limitations including reporting bias and small sample size, these studies suggest mortality in pregnant women may be lower than previously reported, with five of 13(39%) infected women dying. Optimal treatments for pregnant women, and differences in EVD course between pregnant women and non-pregnant individuals are major scientific gaps that have not yet been systematically addressed. Ebola virus may be transmitted from mother to baby in utero, during delivery, or through contact with maternal body fluids after birth including breast milk. EVD is almost universally fatal to the developing fetus, and limited fetal autopsy data prevent inferences on risk of birth defects. Decisions about delivery mode and other obstetric interventions should be individualized. WHO recommends close monitoring of survivors who later become pregnant, but does not recommend enhanced precautions at subsequent delivery. Though sexual transmission of Ebola virus has been documented, birth outcomes among survivors have not been published and will be important to appropriately counsel women on pregnancy outcomes and inform delivery precautions for healthcare providers. PMID:28398679

  15. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruder Mark G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. Methods To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4–16 days post feeding (dpf. Midges with a virus titer of ≥102.7 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14–16 dpf midges. Results From 4–16 dpf, 45% (156/350 of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>107 TCID50/ml were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10–16 dpf, 32% (35/109 of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥102.7 TCID50/midge. Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14–16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. Conclusion This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates

  16. Association of satellites with a mastrevirus in natural infection: complexity of Wheat dwarf India virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Jitesh; Singh, Sudhir P; Tuli, Rakesh

    2014-06-01

    (WDIV), isolated from two distant locations in India. This study reports the first identification of the satellites in a monocot plant. The satellites enhanced accumulation of WDIV and severity of disease symptoms. The satellites lowered the concentration of virus-specific small RNAs in wheat plants, indicating their silencing suppressor activity. The involvement of the satellites in symptom severity of the mastrevirus can have implications in the form of economic impact of the virus on crop yield. Understanding the role of the satellites in disease severity is important for developing disease management strategies. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Disease dynamics of honeybees with Varroa destructor as parasite and virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun; Blanco, Krystal; Davis, Talia; Wang, Ying; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria

    2016-05-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses carried by Varroa mites. In this paper, we propose a honeybee-mite-virus model that incorporates (1) parasitic interactions between honeybees and the Varroa mites; (2) five virus transmission terms between honeybees and mites at different stages of Varroa mites: from honeybees to honeybees, from adult honeybees to the phoretic mites, from brood to the reproductive mites, from the reproductive mites to brood, and from adult honeybees to the phoretic mites; and (3) Allee effects in the honeybee population generated by its internal organization such as division of labor. We provide completed local and global analysis for the full system and its subsystems. Our analytical and numerical results allow us have a better understanding of the synergistic effects of parasitism and virus infections on honeybee population dynamics and its persistence. Interesting findings from our work include: (a) due to Allee effects experienced by the honeybee population, initial conditions are essential for the survival of the colony. (b) Low adult honeybees to brood ratios have destabilizing effects on the system which generate fluctuating dynamics that lead to a catastrophic event where both honeybees and mites suddenly become extinct. This catastrophic event could be potentially linked to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) of honeybee colonies. (c) Virus infections may have stabilizing effects on the system, and parasitic mites could make disease more persistent. Our model illustrates how the synergy between the parasitic mites and virus infections consequently generates rich dynamics including multiple attractors where all species can coexist or go extinct depending on initial conditions. Our findings may provide important insights on honeybee viruses and parasites and how to best control them

  18. STUDIES ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE VIRUS OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Peter K.; Boëz, Louis

    1927-01-01

    The virus of foot-and-mouth disease exhibits a remarkable resistance to such bactericidal agents as the narcotic solvents (alcohol, ether, chloroform), or such antiseptics as phenol, bichloride of mercury, or cresol, as shown by tests made by others and ourselves. We have shown, however, that the resistance of the incitant to these chemicals is really masked. It is due to the fact that the reagents coagulate the proteins of the medium in which the virus is, as a rule, suspended. As a result the active agent is protected by the coagula which prevents direct contact with the chemicals. On the other hand, if advantage is taken of the periodic phenomenon attending such processes, and coagulation is prevented, the virus can then be brought under direct action of the antiseptics. Under these conditions, the incitant is more sensitive to destruction by the chemicals than is the living staphylococcus. As a corollary, the virus is destroyed as rapidly, or even more so, than are staphylococci by substances such as sodium hydrate (1 to 2 per cent solutions), or antiformin (1 per cent solution) which do not form coagula. We are therefore compelled to contradict the opinion that the extraordinary resistance to certain chemicals of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease, as it ordinarily occurs admixed with proteins, is an indication of its inanimate character. The results of a large series of experiments lead to the conclusion that of a number of antiseptics employed the sodium hydrate in 1 to 2 per cent solutions is an effective virucide. It is capable of killing the virus within 1 minute as shown by tests on cattle and guinea pigs. Furthermore, its effectiveness is not diminished even when the virulent material is admixed with cattle's urine, with manure, or with garden soil. The experimental evidence and the cheapness suggest its use in field practice as a disinfectant. PMID:19869292

  19. Depression of Vaccinal Immunity to Marek's Disease by Infection with Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yankun; Cui, Ning; Han, Ni; Wu, Jiayan; Cui, Zhizhong; Su, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Marek's disease (MD) has been occurring with increasing frequency in chickens in recent years. To our knowledge, however, there has been no report of the very virulent plus (vv+) MD virus (MDV) field isolate in China. Studies have shown that dual infection with immunosuppressive viruses such as chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) occurs frequently in chickens developing MD. In this study, we performed a designed set of in vivo experiments, which comprised five different groups of chickens, including the group of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens, the groups of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens infected with MDV or CIAV or both viruses (MDV and CIAV), and the group of MDV-challenged chickens. The effects of CIAV dual infection on the immunization of commercial MDV vaccine CVI988/Rispens were evaluated. The results show that infection of the SD15 strain of CIAV significantly reduced the weight and antibody titers to avian influenza virus (AIV)/Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inactivated vaccines of chickens immunized with the CVI988/Rispens, and resulted in the atrophy of thymus/bursa and the enlargement of spleen. The CVI988/Rispens vaccination conferred good immune protection for chickens challenged with 2000 PFU of the GX0101 strain of MDV. However, dual infection with SD15 significantly reduced the body weight, antibody titers induced by AIV/NDV inactivated vaccines and protective index of CVI988/Rispens, and resulted in the aggravation of the immunosuppression, mortality, and viremia of GX0101 in CVI988/Rispens-immunized/GX0101-challenged chickens. Overall, CIAV infection significantly reduced the protective effects of the CVI988/Rispens vaccine against MDV, implying that concurrent infection with CIAV may be a major contributor in the frequent attacks of MD in China in recent years.

  20. Signaling through RIG-I and type I interferon receptor: Immune activation by Newcastle disease virus in man versus immune evasion by Ebola virus (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmacher, Volker

    2015-07-01

    In this review, two types of RNA viruses are compared with regard to the type I interferon (IFN) response in order to obtain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immune activation or evasion. Upon human infection, both viruses exert either beneficial or detrimental effects. The Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a type strain for avian paramyxoviruses, while the Ebola virus (EBOV), is a virus affecting primates. During evolution, both viruses specifically adapted to their respective hosts, acquiring sophisticated viral escape mechanisms. Two types of receptors play an important role in the life cycle of these two viruses: cytoplasmic retinoic acid‑inducible gene I (RIG‑I) and membrane expressed type I IFN receptor (IFNAR). In mouse and human cells, NDV is a strong inducer of the type I IFN response. The early phase of this is initiated by signaling through RIG‑I and the late response by signaling through IFNAR. EBOV does not induce type I IFN responses in humans as it has viral proteins that specifically and strongly interfere with RIG‑I and IFNAR signaling, as well as immune activation. In this review, we discuss whether the beneficial effects of one virus can be exploited in the fight against the detrimental effects of the other.

  1. Characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains circulating in Turkey during 1996-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlak, Ü.; Özyörük, F.; Knowles, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Two genotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A were identified as the cause of disease outbreaks in Turkey during 1996-2004, while serotype O strains, identified during the same period, seem to represent an evolutionary continuum, and Asia1 strains were only rarely identified. The data...... genotypes. It is suggested that further studies to reveal the nature of the difference in epidemiological dynamics of type A and type O strains might lead to an understanding of the measures required to control foot-and-mouth disease in islands of persistent circulation....

  2. A New Face of Cardiac Emergencies: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabedze, Nqoba; Vachiat, Ahmed; Zachariah, Don; Manga, Pravin

    2018-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus epidemic is a major health challenge of the twenty-first century as the transition from infectious complications to noncommunicable disease becomes more evident. These patients may present to the emergency department with a variety of cardiovascular diseases, such as acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, pericardial disease, infective endocarditis, venothromboembolism, and other conditions. Increased awareness is needed among health care professionals to enhance adequate identification and promote prompt management of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of some Newcastle disease virus isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.1 strains were classified into genotype II that comprises non-pathogenic lentogenic NDV strains. The present genetic classification of NDV isolates of the Sudan provides valuable information on genotypes of NDV. Further molecular epidemiological investigations of the recent outbreaks of Newcastle disease in the Sudan ...

  4. Monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of Ebola virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moekotte, A. L.; Huson, M. A. M.; van der Ende, A. J.; Agnandji, S. T.; Huizenga, E.; Goorhuis, A.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    To date, the management of patients with suspected or confirmed Ebolavirus disease (EVD) depends on quarantine, symptomatic management and supportive care, as there are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use. However, accelerated by the recent large outbreak in West Africa,

  5. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groof, A.; Guelen, L.; Deijs, M.; Wal, van der Y.; Miyata, M.; Ng, K.S.; Grinsven, van L.; Simmelink, B.; Biermann, Y.; Grisez, L.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Ronde, de A.; Chang, S.F.; Schrier, C.; Hoek, L.

    2015-01-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained

  6. Understanding the biological mechanisms of Zika virus disease ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... as well as via sexual and mother-to-child transmission. It causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from symptom-free infections to mild, self-limiting symptoms, to severe infections requiring hospitalization. Additionally, Zika infection in pregnant women has been linked to microcephaly) and other brain abnormalities in ...

  7. Implementation of a study to examine the persistence of Ebola virus in the body fluids of Ebola virus disease survivors in Sierra Leone: Methodology and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Gibrilla Fadlu; McDonald, Suzanna L R; Marrinan, Jaclyn E; Sesay, Foday R; Ervin, Elizabeth; Thorson, Anna E; Xu, Wenbo; Ströher, Ute; Ongpin, Patricia; Abad, Neetu; Ariyarajah, Archchun; Malik, Tasneem; Liu, Hongtu; Ross, Christine; Durski, Kara N; Gaillard, Philippe; Morgan, Oliver; Formenty, Pierre; Knust, Barbara; Broutet, Nathalie; Sahr, Foday

    2017-09-01

    The 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus disease epidemic was unprecedented in terms of the number of cases and survivors. Prior to this epidemic there was limited data available on the persistence of Ebola virus in survivors' body fluids and the potential risk of transmission, including sexual transmission. Given the urgent need to determine the persistence of Ebola virus in survivors' body fluids, an observational cohort study was designed and implemented during the epidemic response operation in Sierra Leone. This publication describes study implementation methodology and the key lessons learned. Challenges encountered during implementation included unforeseen duration of follow-up, complexity of interpreting and communicating laboratory results to survivors, and the urgency of translating research findings into public health practice. Strong community engagement helped rapidly implement the study during the epidemic. The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase was initiated within five months of initial protocol discussions and assessed persistence of Ebola virus in semen of 100 adult men. The second phase assessed the persistence of virus in multiple body fluids (semen or vaginal fluid, menstrual blood, breast milk, and urine, rectal fluid, sweat, saliva, tears), of 120 men and 120 women. Data from this study informed national and global guidelines in real time and demonstrated the need to implement semen testing programs among Ebola virus disease survivors. The lessons learned and study tools developed accelerated the implementation of such programs in Ebola virus disease affected countries, and also informed studies examining persistence of Zika virus. Research is a vital component of the public health response to an epidemic of a poorly characterized disease. Adequate resources should be rapidly made available to answer critical research questions, in order to better inform response efforts.

  8. Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Dhaygude

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015. After thorough gross examination, the tissue samples were collected and processed for virus isolation and histopathological examination. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF embryonated eggs. Mean death time (MDT of embryos after inoculation and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI were used to judge velogenic nature of the virus. Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene of the viral genome. Results: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock of six different flocks of desi chicken were presented for postmortem examination to Department of Veterinary Pathology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai during 2014-2015. The gross and histopathological examination revealed lesions suggestive of viscerotropic velogenic form of the Newcastle disease (ND. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old embryonated eggs from SPF chicken. NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene. MDT of all the isolates was <60 h which indicated velogenic nature of the virus. ICPI of the isolates ranged between the 1.63 and 1.78. In four out of six outbreaks concurrent moderate to heavy infection of Ascardii galli in one flock and Railetina spp. in three flocks was also noted. In this study, viscerotropic velogenic form of ND was confirmed in all

  9. Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle) disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaygude, V S; Sawale, G K; Chawak, M M; Bulbule, N R; Moregaonkar, S D; Gavhane, D S

    2017-03-01

    Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015). After thorough gross examination, the tissue samples were collected and processed for virus isolation and histopathological examination. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated eggs. Mean death time (MDT) of embryos after inoculation and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) were used to judge velogenic nature of the virus. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated from six cases and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the partial fusion protein gene of the viral genome. A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of desi chicken were presented for postmortem examination to Department of Veterinary Pathology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai during 2014-2015. The gross and histopathological examination revealed lesions suggestive of viscerotropic velogenic form of the Newcastle disease (ND). The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old embryonated eggs from SPF chicken. NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene. MDT of all the isolates was <60 h which indicated velogenic nature of the virus. ICPI of the isolates ranged between the 1.63 and 1.78. In four out of six outbreaks concurrent moderate to heavy infection of Ascardii galli in one flock and Railetina spp. in three flocks was also noted. In this study, viscerotropic velogenic form of ND was confirmed in all six outbreaks by gross and microscopic

  10. Evolutionary analysis of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2002–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia

    2011-01-01

    of FMDV serotype A in the region. The A22/Iraq FMDV vaccine is antigenically distinct from the A-Iran05BAR-08 viruses. Mapping of the amino acid changes between the capsid proteins of the A22/Iraq vaccine strain and the A-Iran05BAR-08 viruses onto the A22/Iraq capsid structure identified candidate amino......Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Three different serotypes of the virus, namely O, A and Asia-1, are responsible for the outbreaks of this disease in these countries. In the present study, the nucleotide-coding sequences for the VP1 capsid protein (69 samples......) or for all four capsid proteins (P1, seven representative samples) of the serotype A FMD viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1-coding sequences from these countries collected between 2002 and 2009 revealed...

  11. Effects of Introduced and Indigenous Viruses on Native Plants: Exploring Their Disease Causing Potential at the Agro-Ecological Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stuart J.; Coutts, Brenda A.; Jones, Roger A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host–virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface. PMID:24621926

  12. Genetic 'budget' of viruses and the cost to the infected host: a theory on the relationship between the genetic capacity of viruses, immune evasion, persistence and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaston, T B; Lidbury, B A

    2001-02-01

    The nature of the pathogen-host relationship is recognized as being a dynamic coevolutionary process where the immune system has required ongoing adaptation and improvement to combat infection. Under survival pressure from sophisticated immune responses, adaptive processes for microbes, including viruses, have manifested as immune evasion strategies. This paper proposes a theory that virus immune evasion can be broadly classified into 'acquisition' or 'erroneous replication' strategies. Acquisition strategies are characteristic of large genome dsDNA viruses, which (i) replicate in the cell nucleus; (ii) have acquired host genes that can be used to directly manipulate responses to infection; (iii) are often latent for the lifetime of the host; and (iv) have little or no serious impact on health. Alternatively, erroneous replication strategies are characteristic of small genome RNA viruses, which are recognized as being the cause of many serious diseases in humans. It is proposed that this propensity for disease is due to the cytoplasmic site of replication and truncated temporal relationship with the host, which has limited or removed the evolutionary opportunity for RNA viruses to have acquired host genes. This has resulted in RNA viruses relying on error-prone replication strategies which, while allowing survival and persistence, are more likely to lead to disease due to the lack of direct viral control over potentially host-deleterious inflammatory and immune responses to infection.

  13. The viruses and virus diseases of cassava in Africa | Thresh | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epidemiology of African cassava mosaic has been studied in few of the very diverse agro-ecological zones in which the disease occurs and there is even less information on brown streak. These are serious constraints in attempts to develop effective control measures. Information is also lacking on possible interactions ...

  14. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease and corresponding biosafety considerations in the China Ebola Treatment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing; Fu, Wei-Ling; You, Jian-Ping; Mao, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD), caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), is a potent acute infectious disease with a high case-fatality rate. Etiological and serological EBOV detection methods, including techniques that involve the detection of the viral genome, virus-specific antigens and anti-virus antibodies, are standard laboratory diagnostic tests that facilitate confirmation or exclusion of EBOV infection. In addition, routine blood tests, liver and kidney function tests, electrolytes and coagulation tests and other diagnostic examinations are important for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of EVD. Because of the viral load in body fluids and secretions from EVD patients, all body fluids are highly contagious. As a result, biosafety control measures during the collection, transport and testing of clinical specimens obtained from individuals scheduled to undergo EBOV infection testing (including suspected, probable and confirmed cases) are crucial. This report has been generated following extensive work experience in the China Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) in Liberia and incorporates important information pertaining to relevant diagnostic standards, clinical significance, operational procedures, safety controls and other issues related to laboratory testing of EVD. Relevant opinions and suggestions are presented in this report to provide contextual awareness associated with the development of standards and/or guidelines related to EVD laboratory testing.

  15. ELISA for detection of variant rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus RHDV2 antigen in liver extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, K P; Podadera, A; Granda, V; Nicieza, I; Del Llano, D; González, R; de Los Toyos, J R; García Ocaña, M; Vázquez, F; Martín Alonso, J M; Prieto, J M; Parra, F; Casais, R

    2018-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spread of variant of the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) require new diagnostic tools to ensure that efficient control measures are adopted. In the present study, a specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of RHDV2 antigens in rabbit liver homogenates, based on the use of an RHDV2-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) 2D9 for antigen capture and an anti-RHDV2 goat polyclonal antibody (Pab), was developed. This ELISA was able to successfully detect RHDV2 and RHDV2 recombinant virions with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.22%). No cross-reactions were detected with RHDV G1 viruses while low cross-reactivity was detected with one of the RHDVa samples analyzed. The ELISA afforded good repeatability and had high analytical sensitivity as it was able to detect a dilution 1:163,640 (6.10ng/mL) of purified RHDV-N11 VLPs, which contained approximately 3.4×10 8 molecules/mL particles. The reliable discrimination between closely related viruses is crucial to understand the epidemiology and the interaction of co-existing pathogens. In the work described here we design and validate an ELISA for laboratory based, specific, sensitive and reliable detection of RHDVb/RHDV2. This ELISA is a valuable, specific virological tool for monitoring virus circulation, which will permit a better control of this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of a novel Canine distemper virus causing disease in wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jenny P; Miller, Debra L; Riley, Matthew C; Anis, Eman; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-09-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a common cause of a multisystemic disease in both domestic dogs and wildlife species, including raccoons and foxes. Outbreaks of CDV in domestic dogs in eastern Tennessee have occurred since 2012, and it was determined that these outbreaks resulted from a novel genotype of CDV. We hypothesized that this virus is also infecting area wildlife and may be a source of the virus for these outbreaks in dogs. From 2013 to 2014, autopsies were performed and tissues collected from raccoons (Procyon lotor; n = 50) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus; n = 8) for CDV testing. A real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to document the presence of CDV in tissue samples, and a portion of the virus was subsequently sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. A high percentage of wildlife, both with (86%) and without (55%) clinical signs, tested positive for CDV, with the majority (77%) testing positive for the novel genotype. Microscopic findings, including syncytia in the lungs and viral inclusion bodies in urothelium, astrocytes, neurons, and bronchiolar epithelium, were also consistent with canine distemper. Minimal inflammation in the central nervous system of affected animals was indicative of the acute neurologic form of the disease. Pneumonia and parasitism were also commonly found in CDV-infected animals. Based on these results, CDV appears to be prevalent in eastern Tennessee wildlife. Subclinical or clinically recovered shedders are a potential source of this novel genotype for domestic dogs, and this genotype is genetically distinct from vaccine strains. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Comparative molecular analysis of strains of the Aleutian Disease Virus isolated from farmed and wild mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczak, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Marek; Kostro, Krzysztof; Jezewska-Witkowska, Grazyna

    2017-09-21

    Aleutian Disease is a significant biological factor causing substantial losses in mink farming. The virus inducing the disease also infects wild populations which may constitute an asymptomatic reservoir. To compare genetic variants of the AMD virus occurring in wild and farmed mink populations, an analysis was performed on a fragment of the VP2 protein sequence of the virus infecting both populations, taken from different living environments. Genetic material was isolated from 11 farmed animals in which anti-AMDV antibodies had been detected and from 20 wild animals. The DNA obtained was amplified using primers specific for the fragment encoding the VP2 protein. The product obtained was sequenced and bioinformatic analysis was performed. Viral material was detected in 11 farmed and 7 free-living animals. Similarity of sequences averaged 99% within groups and 94% between groups. The sequencing results made it possible to identify characteristic changes for each group. In the isolates from the wild animals, the following changes were observed in the epitope region with respect to the reference sequence: C3704T, G3710A, T3722C, T3746C and A3749G. In the isolates from the farmed animals a G3779A transition was noted. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the variants infecting the two groups occupy separate branches of the phylogenetic tree. The variants of the virus infecting the two groups may have a common origin, but at present they constitute two separate groups, with characteristic differences making it possible to recognize their genotype.

  18. Herpes simplex virus type 1 in Alzheimer's disease: the enemy within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, Ruth F; Wozniak, Matthew A

    2008-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a modern scourge and is likely to become increasingly so in the future, with increasing longevity. The disease has been investigated for over one hundred years yet its causes and that of the neuropathological characteristics seen in AD brain are still completely unknown. Evidence for a major causative role of a common virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), acting in combination with a genetic factor - the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein gene, a known susceptibility factor - is presented here. The characteristics of the virus, some of which make it an especially likely candidate for this role, are described, as are the many precedents for the action of a genetic factor modulating outcome of infection. Various possible ways in which HSV1 might lead to development of AD, such as its up-regulation of various enzymes and in particular certain kinases, its effect on the cell cycle, on autophagy, and its inflammatory and oxidative effects are also discussed. It is concluded that there is strong evidence that the virus is indeed a major factor in AD and therefore there is a strong case for appropriate treatment, and possibly for prevention in the future.

  19. Telomeres and Telomerase: Role in Marek’s Disease Virus Pathogenesis, Integration and Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kheimar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the ends of vertebrate chromosomes from deterioration and consist of tandem nucleotide repeats (TTAGGGn that are associated with a number of proteins. Shortening of the telomeres occurs during genome replication, thereby limiting the replication potential of somatic cells. To counteract this shortening, vertebrates encode the telomerase complex that maintains telomere length in certain cell types via de novo addition of telomeric repeats. Several herpesviruses, including the highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus Marek’s disease virus (MDV, harbor telomeric repeats (TMR identical to the host telomere sequences at the ends of their linear genomes. These TMR facilitate the integration of the MDV genome into host telomeres during latency, allowing the virus to persist in the host for life. Integration into host telomeres is critical for disease and tumor induction by MDV, but also enables efficient reactivation of the integrated virus genome. In addition to the TMR, MDV also encodes a telomerase RNA subunit (vTR that shares 88% sequence identity with the telomerase RNA in chicken (chTR. vTR is highly expressed during all stages of the virus lifecycle, enhances telomerase activity and plays an important role in MDV-induced tumor formation. This review will focus on the recent advances in understanding the role of viral TMR and vTR in MDV pathogenesis, integration and tumorigenesis.

  20. Hepatitis C virus liver disease in women infected with contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is carried out by detection of antibodies to the virus (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA)) with confirmation by identification of HCV RNA genome in serum (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)). We describe the histological features on liver biopsy in 88 women with chronic HCV infection (serum positive on ELISA, RIBA and PCR) acquired from virus contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. For the majority of these patients the time interval from virus infection to presentation was between 17 and 18 years. We separately assessed necroinflammatory disease activity and architectural features on liver biopsy and applied a scoring system which permitted semi-quantitative documentation of abnormal features. Only three women showed liver biopsies within normal limits (+\\/-focal steatosis). The remaining 85 cases showed a predominantly mild or moderate degree of disease activity with interface hepatitis (56.8% of cases), spotty necrosis, apoptosis and focal inflammation (88.6% of cases) and portal inflammation (90.9% of cases). Confluent necrosis was an uncommon finding (2.3% of cases). Assessment of architectural features showed normal appearance in 35.2% of biopsies. The predominant architectural abnormality noted was portal tract fibrosis. Ten per cent of cases, however, showed significant fibrous band and\\/or nodule formation.