WorldWideScience

Sample records for boring

  1. Mind where you bore!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    With renewable energies on the up and up, geothermal heating is becoming increasingly popular. An ardent supporter of sustainable development, CERN welcomes this trend, even though it has certain risks for the Laboratory.   More and more people in Switzerland and France are switching to geothermal heating, with the result that more and more bore holes are being sunk for geothermal probes. Since, on average, such bore holes go down to depths of 100 m they can have an impact on CERN’s underground facilities, which are also located at approximately that depth. In the Canton of Geneva, all bore holes, whatever their depth, are subject to planning permission. Applications for planning permission are granted – or refused – only after consultation with the Ground survey department (GESDEC). In France, only bore holes below a depth of 100 m require planning permission. In theory, bore holes to lesser depths simply need to be declared to the DREAL (Dire...

  2. Tunnel boring machine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that characterization of Yucca Mountain for a potential repository requires construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Mechanical excavating methods have been proposed for construction of the ESF as they offer a number of advantages over drilling and blasting at the Yucca Mountain site, including; less ground disturbance and therefore a potential for less adverse effects on the integrity of the site, creation of a more stable excavation cross section requiring less ground support, and an inherently safer and cleaner working environment. The tunnel boring machine (TBM) provides a proven technology for excavating the welded and unwelded Yucca Mountain tuffs. The access ramps and main underground tunnels form the largest part of the ESF underground construction work, and have been designed for excavation by TBM

  3. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  4. Plasma armatures in large bore launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all experimental observations of plasma armatures in railguns have been madein bores less than 20 mm in diameter. A serious velocity limiting interaction with the bore walls has been identified. The plasma radiates to the bore walls at power levels of several GW/m2. The bore walls ablate and the ablated material enters the armature resulting in an apparent drag. In this paper, the authors examine the ablation induced drag as bore size is increased. Using a 3-D computational model they determine plasma temperature and pressure distributions. Bore wall ablation and drag are then computed. They find that plasma armature length and resistance increase only slowly with bore size. Radiant power densities do not change significantly and the deleterious affects of ablation induced drag decrease

  5. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  6. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  7. Number of Producible and Service Well Bores on Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of producible well bores by state as of the end of each fiscal year. A well bore is considered producible if the well bore is...

  8. Tribocorrosion challenges in tunnel boring machinery (TBM)

    OpenAIRE

    Espallargas Alvarez, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM) are used to bore tunnels, a specific area of interest for TBMs is their cutter heads, which is a massive steel structure with hardened steel disc cutters attached. The disc cutters can encounter all types of geology (i.e. from soft clays, slits, sands etc., to soft rock and extremely hard rock) and environments (i.e. dry, wet, seawater or chemical additives). These geologies and environments cause the disc cutters to be continuously exposed to degra...

  9. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Finnish radioactive waste disposal research three holes (the size of deposition holes) were bored in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto in Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string an the purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of charges in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. (refs.)

  10. Bore-auger servo-mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Bolotov, N.L.; Kiselev, Ye.I.; Opal' ko, L.L.; Podubniy, V.I.; Savich, N.S.; Tverezyy, Yu.F.

    1980-06-06

    A bore-auger servo-mechanism is proposed for a drilling machine. This unit consists of a drilling bit, an auger boring section with a screw-type surface, upper and lower cutting disks, mounted onto the supports between the main auger sections, and a linear auger section with lateral ties. In order to simplify construction, the upper cutting disk is equipped with its own auger bits, both below and above the disks, thus facilitating interaction with the screw-type surface of the auger sections.

  11. Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory : tunnel boring

    CERN Multimedia

    SSC Media Production

    1999-01-01

    This film will take you down into the tunnel, show you the technology involved in boring the tunnel, and show what the SSC fmeans to the U.S. in terms of scientific discovery, innovative collaborations with industry and stimulating the job base nation-wide.

  12. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different...

  13. Worcester's Blog – boring election: a myth?

    OpenAIRE

    Worcester, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The blogs are at it today, along with comment in some newspapers and on radio and TV, that – shock horror – only 51 per cent of the electorate say they find the election interesting, according to the findings of YouGov’s poll today. Another 43 per cent said they found it boring.

  14. Experimental hydrodynamic study of the Qiantang River tidal bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jing; PAN Cun-hong; KUANG Cui-ping; ZENG Jian; CHEN Gang

    2013-01-01

    To study the hydrodynamics of tidal bore,a physical modeling study is carried out in a rectangular flume with considerations of the tidal bore heights,the propagation speeds,the tidal current velocities,the front steepness,and the bore shapes.After the validation with the field observations,the experimental results are analyzed,and it is shown that:(1) the greater initial ebb velocity or the larger initial water depth impedes the tidal bore propagation,(2) the maximum bore height appears at an initial ebb velocity in the range of 0.5 m/s-1.5 m/s,(3) when the Froude number exceeds 1.2,an undular bore appears,after it exceeds 1.3,a breaking bore occurs,and after it exceeds 1.7,the bore is broken.

  15. The morphological diversity of Osedax worm borings (Annelidia: Siboglinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, ND; Glover, AG; Dahlgren, TG; Smith, CR; Fujiwara, Y.; Pradillion, F; Johnson, SB; Vrijenhoek, RC; Little, CTS

    2014-01-01

    Marine worms in the genus Osedax, have specialized ‘root’ tissues used to bore into the bones of decomposing vertebrate skeletons and obtain nutrition. We investigated the borings of nine Osedax species, using micro computed tomography to quantitatively describe the morphology of the borings and provide three-dimensional reconstructions of the space occupied by Osedax root tissues inside the bone. Each Osedax species displayed a consistent boring morphology in any given bone, but these differ...

  16. Catalog of worldwide tidal bore occurrences and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Lynch, David K.

    1988-01-01

    Documentation of tidal bore phenomena occurring throughout the world aids in defining the typical geographical setting of tidal bores and enables prediction of their occurrence in remote areas. Tidal bores are naturally occurring, tidally generated, solitary, moving water waves up to 6 meters in height that form upstream in estuaries with semidiurnal or nearly semidiurnal tide ranges exceeding 4 meters. Estuarine settings that have tidal bores typically include meandering fluvial systems with shallow gradients. Bores are well defined, having amplitudes greater than wind- or turbulence-caused waves, and may be undular or breaking. Formation of a bore is dependent on depth and velocity of the incoming tide and river outflow. Bores may occur in series (in several channels) or in succession (marking each tidal pulse). Tidal bores propagate up tidal estuaries a greater distance than the width of the estuary and most occur within 100 kilometers upstream of the estuary mouth. Because they are dynamic, bores cause difficulties in some shipping ports and are targets for eradication. Tidal bores are known to occur, or to have occurred in the recent past, in at least 67 localities in 16 countries at all latitudes, including every continent except Antarctica. Parts of Argentina, Canada, Central America, China, Mozambique, Madagascar, Northern Europe, North and South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.S.R. probably have additional undiscovered or unreported tidal bores. In Turnagain Arm estuary in Alaska, bores cause an abrupt increase in salinity, suspended sediment, surface character, and bottom pressure, a decrease in illumination of the water column, and a change in water temperature. Tidal bores occurring in Turnagain Arm, Alaska, have the

  17. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdiviez, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  18. The Bored Self in Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    of the bored self as a combination of unfilled aspirations and the sense of stagnation, leading to an arrested identity. Our contribution is to expand extant conceptualizations of employee interactions with identity regulation, in particular relating to identity work and identification. The findings provide......This article draws attention to reported experiences of boredom in knowledge work. Drawing on extensive qualitative data gathered at two management consultancy firms, we analyze these experiences as a particular interaction with identity regulation and work experiences. We conceptualize the reports...

  19. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  20. Investigation of a mesospheric bore event over northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A mesospheric bore event was observed using an OH all-sky airglow imager (ASAI at Xinglong (40.2° N, 117.4° E, in northern China, on the night of 8–9 January 2011. Simultaneous observations by a Doppler meteor radar, a broadband sodium lidar, and TIMED/SABER OH intensity and temperature measurements are used to investigate the characteristics and environment of the bore propagation and the possible relations with the Na density perturbations. The bore propagated from northeast to southwest and divided the sky into bright and dark halves. The calculations show that the bore has an average phase velocity of 68 m s−1. The crests following the bore have a horizontal wavelength of ~ 22 km. These parameters are consistent with the hydraulic jump theory proposed by Dewan and Picard, as well as the previous bore reports. Simultaneous wind measurements from the Doppler meteor radar at Shisanling (40.3° N, 116.2° E and temperature data from SABER on board the TIMED satellite are used to characterize the propagating environment of the bore. The result shows that a thermal-Doppler duct exists near the OH layer that supports the horizontal propagation of the bore. Simultaneous Na lidar observations at Yanqing (40.4° N, 116.0° E suggest that there is a downward displacement of Na density during the passage of the mesospheric bore event.

  1. Conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneton, Philippe; Filippini, Andrea Gilberto; Arpaia, Luca; Bonneton, Natalie; Ricchiuto, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increasing interest in tidal bore dynamics. However most studies have been focused on small-scale bore processes. The present paper describes the first quantitative study, at the estuary scale, of the conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries. When freshwater discharge and large-scale spatial variations of the estuary water depth can be neglected, tide propagation in such estuaries is controlled by three main dimensionless parameters: the nonlinearity parameter ε0 , the convergence ratio δ0 and the friction parameter ϕ0. In this paper we explore this dimensionless parameter space, in terms of tidal bore occurrence, from a database of 21 estuaries (8 tidal-bore estuaries and 13 non tidal-bore estuaries). The field data point out that tidal bores occur for convergence ratios close to the critical convergence δc. A new proposed definition of the friction parameter highlights a clear separation on the parameter plane (ϕ0,ε0) between tidal-bore estuaries and non tidal-bore estuaries. More specifically, we have established that tidal bores occur in convergent estuaries when the nonlinearity parameter is greater than a critical value, εc , which is an increasing function of the friction parameter ϕ0. This result has been confirmed by numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Saint Venant equations. The real-estuary observations and the numerical simulations also show that, contrary to what is generally assumed, tide amplification is not a necessary condition for tidal bore formation. The effect of freshwater discharge on tidal bore occurrence has been analyzed from the database acquired during three long-term campaigns carried out on the Gironde/Garonne estuary. We have shown that in the upper estuary the tidal bore intensity is mainly governed by the local dimensionless tide amplitude ε. The bore intensity is an increasing function of ε and this relationship does not depend on freshwater

  2. A novel surface-repairing technique for gun bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Bing; YU Xu-dong; WU Bin; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    A novel surface-repairing technique for gun bore was investigated, which was combined with the merits such as anti-erosion wear, damage-repairing, and etc. It was accomplished by adhering a special rare earth nanocom posite evenly to the micro-surface of gun bore. The effectiveness of this technique was approved by the target-firing using a domestic automatic rifle with chromium-coated bore. Its characteristics were discussed based on the surface analyses of the rifle bore by secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  3. Intraoperative wide bore nasogastric tube knotting: A rare incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Sethi, Surendra K; Khare, Arvind; Saini, Sudheendra

    2016-01-01

    Nasogastric tubes are commonly used in anesthetic practice for gastric decompression in surgical patients intraoperatively. The indications for its use are associated with a number of potential complications. Knotting of small-bore nasogastric tubes is usually common both during insertion and removal as compared to wide bore nasogastric tubes. Knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube is a rare complication and if occurs usually seen in long standing cases. We hereby report a case of incidental knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube that occurred intraoperatively.

  4. Nozzle assembly for an earth boring drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madigan, J. A.

    1985-09-24

    A nozzle assembly for an earth boring drill bit of the type adapted to receive drilling fluid under pressure and having a nozzle bore in the bottom thereof positioned closely adjacent the well bore bottom when the bit is in engagement therewith with the bore having inner and outer portions. The nozzle assembly comprises a generally cylindrical nozzle member of abrasion and erosion resistant material, selected from a plurality of such members, each being of the same outer diameter but having passaging therein of different cross-sectional area. The nozzle member is adapted to be fitted in the inner portion of the nozzle bore in sealing relationship therewith for forming a first seal for the nozzle assembly. The nozzle assembly further comprises a locknut, separate from the nozzle member, for detachbably securing the nozzle member in the nozzle bore, formed at least in part of an abrasion and erosion resistant material. The locknut has a threaded side wall engageable with the outer portion of the nozzle bore, and an aperture therethrough for enabling a stream of drilling fluid from the nozzle member to flow therethrough and being so configured in section as to receive a tool for turning the lockout to install it in and remove it from the nozzle bore.

  5. Structural Design of Linings for Bored Tunnels in Soft Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of bored tunnels in the Netherlands has raised the question how to design the tunnel structure in an efficient way. As a large part of the cost of a bore tunnel is related to the cost of the lining, it is important to design the lining in a cost-effective way. In the Netherlands it is c

  6. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  7. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  8. Tool support of boring circular grooves in the locking machine device

    OpenAIRE

    Хітров, Ігор Олександрович; Гевко, Ігор Богданович; Кучвара, Іван Миколайович; Фльонц, Ігор Володимирович

    2014-01-01

    Design and method of calculating boring head for boring circular grooves nodes axial locking are present. Technological scheme and cutting conditions of boring heads work in the inner holes of body details, which provides increasing of operational reliability, were proposed

  9. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  10. The evolution of a breaking mesospheric bore wave packet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, R. G.; Taylor, M. J.; Nielsen, K.; Jarvis, M. J.

    2011-10-01

    All-sky CCD observations of mesospheric gravity waves have been made from Halley Station Antarctica (75.5°S, 26.7°W) as part of a collaborative research program between British Antarctic Survey, U.K. and Utah State University, USA. A mesospheric bore event was observed in the nightglow emissions over a period of several hours on the 27th of May, 2001. Two dimensional S-Transform (ST) analysis is applied to the airglow images of this bore event. This local spectral technique allows one to calculate the wave parameters as a function of time and space. It is observed that the horizontal phase speed and wavelength decrease over time as the amplitude attenuates. Simultaneously with this wave event the background wind experiences a large acceleration in the direction of the wave propagation. Mesospheric bore theory calculations are used to estimate the bore duct depth and it is shown that as the wave packet evolves, the bore duct collapses (decreasing in its vertical extent). As the bore duct shrinks, the wave's group velocity decelerates, the amplitude attenuates, and the wave dissipates.

  11. Twin mesospheric bores observed over Brazilian equatorial region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A. F.; Paulino, I.; Taylor, M. J.; Fechine, J.; Takahashi, H.; Buriti, R. A.; Lima, L. M.; Wrasse, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Two consecutive mesospheric bores were observed simultaneously by two all-sky cameras on 19 December 2006. The observations were carried out in the northeast of Brazil at two different stations: São João do Cariri (36.5° W, 7.4° S) and Monteiro (37.1° W, 7.9° S), which are by about 85 km apart. The mesospheric bores were observed within an interval of ˜ 3 h in the NIR OH and OI557.7 nm airglow emissions. Both bores propagated to the east and showed similar characteristics. However, the first one exhibited a dark leading front with several trailing waves behind and progressed into a brighter airglow region, while the second bore, observed in the OH layer, was comprised of several bright waves propagating into a darker airglow region. This is the first paper to report events like these, called twin mesospheric bores. The background of the atmosphere during the occurrence of these events was studied by considering the temperature profiles from the TIMED/SABER satellite and wind from a meteor radar.

  12. Raise boring through an artificially-frozen overburden in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesner, E.

    1987-04-23

    The boring of ventilation shafts in solid ground by means of the raise-boring method has become standard procedure over the past twenty years. Also, raise boring through the permafrost has taken place, without any difficulties, at several mines in the Arctic. Thyssen Mining Construction of Canada Ltd. (TMCC) therefore felt that it would be a perfectly feasible proposition to bore through an artificially frozen overburden. In the autumn of 1984 the administration of the Pine Point mine invited tenders for the sinking of a small ventilation shaft; this was to have a diameter of 2.5 m and a depth of 60 m, going through 20 m of aquiferous overburden and 40 m of solid ground, on a site in a swampy area. The TMCC tender was for the artificial freezing of the overburden, prior to creating the ventilation shaft by raise boring. The shaft was successfully constructed according to the above method in the summer of 1985. The concrete lining was set with slide shuttering under the protection of the ice wall.

  13. Exploratory boring in Japan. ; Its history and recent topics. Chishitsu chosa boring. ; Sono rekishi to saikin no gijutsu no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Y. (Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Hosaka, M.

    1993-09-01

    This paper introduces latest trends in exploratory boring technologies. The freeze sampling method freezes ground beds consisting of sand, gravels, and Shirasu in the locations where they are, and samples good-quality samples without disturbances. The air bubble boring method injects a surfactant into compressed air, and utilizes foamed surfactant as a drilling fluid, the method being capable of sampling good-quality cores even from gravel and soft rock beds. The rotary sounding method estimates ground bed strength from drilling resistance generated at a tip bit during boring. The method provides high correlation of drilling velocity, rotation speed, and thrust with uniaxial compression strength. A spar-buoy boring scaffold has been developed for scaffolding in off-shore boring. This scaffold keeps its upright position by drawing a buoyant body into water to have the buoyancy work as vertically upward tension. The scaffold makes safe works possible even under a condition of water depth greater than 15 m and tidal current of 2 knots or faster. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  14. The evolution of a breaking mesospheric bore wave packet

    OpenAIRE

    Stockwell, R G.; Taylor, M. J.; Nielsen, K.; Jarvis, M J

    2011-01-01

    All-sky CCD observations of mesospheric gravity waves have been made from Halley Station Antarctica (75.5°S, 26.7°W) as part of a collaborative research program between British Antarctic Survey, U.K. and Utah State University, USA. A mesospheric bore event was observed in the nightglow emissions over a period of several hours on the 27th of May, 2001. Two dimensional S-Transform (ST) analysis is applied to the airglow images of this bore event. This local spectral technique allows one to calc...

  15. Physical Simulation for Large-Bore Copper Vapor Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU De-Li; WANG Run-Wen; TAO Yong-Xiang

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the electric circuit differential equations and the nonlinear partial differential equations of kinetics,a kinetic model for a series of large-bore copper-vapor lasers is carried out. Through the consistent computational results the radial kinetic parameters such as the stimulating electric field and the plasma electron temperature are presented. The factors, which evidently influence the output power and the beam quality of the large-bore copper-vapor laser, are the buffer gas pressure and the charging voltage.

  16. Melioidosis from contaminated bore water and successful UV sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobb, Evan; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Godoy, Daniel; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J

    2013-08-01

    Two cases of melioidosis at a residence in rural northern Australia were linked to the unchlorinated domestic bore (automated well) water supply, which was found to have a high concentration of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using multilocus sequence typing, clinical B. pseudomallei isolates from both cases were identical to an isolate from the bore water supply. A simple UV sterilizer reduced B. pseudomallei from the domestic water supply to undetectable levels. We have shown that UV treatment is highly effective for remediation of water contaminated with B. pseudomallei and recommend its consideration in households where individuals may be at heightened risk of contracting melioidosis.

  17. Acoustic Monitoring for Tunnel Boring in Soft Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinnen, G.

    2003-01-01

    The TBM, not a blind mole! This thesis deals with some aspects of seismic imaging of the soft soil in front of a Tunnel Boring Machine to help tunnel constructors ``see'' the subsurface they are approaching, instead of steering the TBM forward like a ``blind mole''. The Dutch shallow subsurface has

  18. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  19. CNLC Provides Well-Bore Technical Services Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ BRIEF INTRODUCTION of CNLC China National Logging Corporation (CNLC), a subsidiary of CNPC Services & Engineering Ltd.,which provides well bore technical services at international market solely on behalf of CNPC, is a specialized service company mainly engaged in: 1. Wire-line logging, mud logging, well testing,well completion, perforating and other relevant engineering services.

  20. Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.

  1. Ultrasonic inspection methods for small-bore applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nondestructive inspection of tubing and tube-to-tubesheet weldments in heat exchangers for reactor systems is necessary to ensure the high integrity essential for safe, reliable, continuously operating units. An ultrasonic inspection system has been developed for small-bore applications. The current system can be used to inspect tubing or weldments with bores as small as 10.1 mm (0.4 in.) for transversely or longitudinally oriented discontinuities; however, similar inspections are possible within even smaller bores. Since the probe head is rotated to provide inspection along a helical path, special ultrasonic signal connectors are employed. The miniature probe heads employed are designed for rapid exchange in the mechanical scanner. These probes use commercially available transducers and are capable of performing various ultrasonic inspections with both single and dual examination techniques. The inspection methods and equipment are discussed, along with results of calibration, recording, and correlation studies performed on laboratory-type specimens. Reference notches with depths representing 2 percent of the wall thickness were detected and recorded from the bore of 15.88 mm OD x 2.77 mm wall (0.625 x 0.109 in.) tubing

  2. Procedure for seismic evaluation and design of small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simplified methods for the seismic design of small bore piping in nuclear power plants have teen used for many years. Various number of designers have developed unique methods to treat the large number of class 2 and 3 small bore piping systems. This practice has led to a proliferation of methods which are not standardized in the industry. These methods are generally based on enveloping the results of rigorous dynamic or conservative static analysis and result in an excessive number of supports and unrealistically high support loadings. Experience and test data have become available which warranted taking another look at the present methods for analysis of small bore piping. A recently completed Electric Power Research Institute and NCIG (a utility group) activity developed a new procedure for the seismic design and evaluation of small bore piping which provides significant safety and cost benefits. The procedure streamlines the approach to inertial stresses, which is the main feature that achieves the new benefits. Criteria in the procedure for seismic anchor movement and support design are based analysis and focus the designer on credible failure mechanisms. A walkdown of the as-constructed piping system to identify and eliminate undesirable piping features such as adverse spatial interaction is required

  3. Determination of Muzzle Velocity Loss by Bore Wear Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-xin; WANG Gui-yu

    2007-01-01

    A method to determine muzzle velocity loss according to the actual measured bore wear pattern is proposed.Therefore, it is unnecessary to conduct live firing and other experiments for determination of muzzle velocity loss. It has been applied to a national military standard since July 1, 2004.

  4. Research on Valve Body Design of Large Bore Sodium Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Large bore sodium valve is one kind of key equipments of China Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR). It is installed in the pipeline before and behind SG units as a locking mechanism. Valve body which is used to bear pressure is the core of sodium valve design.

  5. Number of Well Bores Started (Spud) During the Fiscal Year on Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of well bores started (spudded), by state, during each fiscal year. "Spudding in," or to "spud" a well bore, means to begin...

  6. Technical Diagnostics of Tank Cannon Smooth Barrel Bore and Ramming Device

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Balla; Stanislav Prochazka; Robert Jankovych; Stanislav Beer; Zbynek Krist; Michal Kovarik

    2015-01-01

    The technical diagnostics of 125 mm tank cannon 2A46 smooth barrel and ramming devices are discussed respectively. Focuses on barrel diagnostics and suggests new procedures based on reconstructed BG20 Gun Barrel Bore Gauge System, measuring internal diameter of the barrel bore. The new system measures throughout the whole barrel bore the inner diameter not only at the beginning of barrel bore as it was usually measured before. Different nature of barrel wear was revealed between barrels firin...

  7. Study on influence of ground settlement in bored metro tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jiang-hua; ZHANG Zhi-hong

    2006-01-01

    At present the bored construction method is one of the main construction methods of metro and tunnel construction in China. The empirical estimated formulas of tunnel ground surface settlement using the bored construction method were obtained,combining the mechanical stimulant calculated result of tunnel model of different embedded depth, different cross section and different construction method and the actual measurement data of Beijing metro construction. According to the regressed analysis of calculated data, the calculated equations of ground surface settlement value and settlement range of tunnel section under the condition of different embedded depth, different cross section and different construction method were gained. Among them there are some empirical formulas can apply to the construction design ofmetro tunnel directly.

  8. Von der Finanzialisierung zurück zum Boring Banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to return to the seemingly boring, but stable banking of the Glass-Steagall era without the securitization of financial products? This article tries to answer this question by first consulting a number of theoretical approaches to finance: neoclassical economics, modern finance theory, Keynesianism, Marxism with some of its modern variants. They differ not only in terms of its desirability but also of its likelihood of being realized. Second, the articles explores the possibili...

  9. Application of water jet cutting for tunnel boring

    OpenAIRE

    Nygårdsvoll, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Water jet cutting has proven to be an effective technology for machining various materials, and providing a distinctive advantage over other cutting methods. Its application in the engineering industry is evolving and improving annually, and is one of the fastest growing machining processes. This thesis addresses the idea of applying water jet cutting technology as a new method for boring through rock in the construction of infrastructural tunnels. So far water jets have only b...

  10. Speed Regulator for Permanent Magnet DC Boring Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a variable-speed system for a loaded permanent magnet direct current boring machine (PMDCBM) is described in details. The voltage adjustment of PMDCBM is accomplished by means of solid state switch with a high gain Darlington transistor. The device designed possesses good variable speed characteristic and Iow loss at low speed. The speed can be regulated automatically to hold at an ideal value according to the load.

  11. Interaction between groundwater and TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) excavated tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Font Capó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    A number of problems, e.g. sudden inflows are encountered during tunneling under the piezometric level, especially when the excavation crosses high transmissivity areas. These inflows may drag materials when the tunnel crosses low competent layers, resulting in subsidence, chimney formation and collapses. Moreover, inflows can lead to a decrease in head level because of aquifer drainage. Tunnels can be drilled by a tunnel boring machine (TBM) to minimize inflows and groundwater impacts, restr...

  12. The propagation of internal undular bores over variable topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, R.; Yuan, C.

    2016-10-01

    In the coastal ocean, large amplitude, horizontally propagating internal wave trains are commonly observed. These are long nonlinear waves and can be modelled by equations of the Korteweg-de Vries type. Typically they occur in regions of variable bottom topography when the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation is an appropriate model. Of special interest is the situation when the coefficient of the quadratic nonlinear term changes sign at a certain critical point. This case has been widely studied for a solitary wave, which is extinguished at the critical point and replaced by a train of solitary waves of the opposite polarity to the incident wave, riding on a pedestal of the original polarity. Here we examine the same situation for an undular bore, represented by a modulated periodic wave train. Numerical simulations and some asymptotic analysis based on Whitham modulation equations show that the leading solitary waves in the undular bore are destroyed and replaced by a developing rarefaction wave supporting emerging solitary waves of the opposite polarity. In contrast the rear of the undular bore emerges with the same shape, but with reduced wave amplitudes, a shorter overall length scale and moves more slowly.

  13. Downhole temperature tool accurately measures well bore profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that an inexpensive temperature tool provides accurate temperatures measurements during drilling operations for better design of cement jobs, workovers, well stimulation, and well bore hydraulics. Valid temperature data during specific wellbore operations can improve initial job design, fluid testing, and slurry placement, ultimately enhancing well bore performance. This improvement applies to cement slurries, breaker activation for slurries, breaker activation for stimulation and profile control, and fluid rheological properties for all downhole operations. The temperature tool has been run standalone mounted inside drill pipe, on slick wire line and braided cable, and as a free-falltool. It has also been run piggyback on both directional surveys (slick line and free-fall) and standard logging runs. This temperature measuring system has been used extensively in field well bores to depths of 20,000 ft. The temperature tool is completely reusable in the field, ever similar to the standard directional survey tools used on may drilling rigs. The system includes a small, rugged, programmable temperature sensor, a standard body housing, various adapters for specific applications, and a personal computer (PC) interface

  14. In-Situ Test and Numerical Analysis of Bore Pressure on Sheet-Pile Groin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chang-jie; CAI Yuan-qiang; XUAN Wei-li; CHEN Hai-jun; SONG Yang

    2006-01-01

    An in-situ test of bore pressure on a sheet-pile groin is carried out to investigate the characteristics of the bore pressure of tide in the Qian-tang River. The histories of bore pressure and the rule of the distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin are obtained through the test, which shows that the bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin are varies with time and space. The peak value of bore pressure on sheet-pile groin at different heights occurs almost at the same time. The vertical distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin is linear above the still water level. The maximum bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin occurs at the still water level. Then a numerical method is also used to further study the characteristics of bore pressure. The standard κ-ε turbulence model and VOF (volume of fluid) method for surface tracking are used to simulate the bore against the sheet-pile groin. The numerical results show flow fields, the position of free surface and time history and spatial distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin. The numerical and test results show good agreement.

  15. Development of a seismic self-boring pressuremeter

    OpenAIRE

    Reiffsteck, Philippe; NGUYEN PHAM, Phuong Thao; REVERDY, G

    2008-01-01

    Development of a new self-boring pressuremeter has been the opportunity to insert geophone in the body of the probe. Placed in the shoe and the head of the probe, the geophones allow the determination of compression (P) and shear (S) wave velocities close to the cavity subjected to the expansion. To simplify the data acquisition, all hardware and software components are designed to run with a notebook computer connected to a signal conditioning system. The determination of P-wave and S-wave a...

  16. Estimation of the equilibrium formation temperature in the presence of bore fluid invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Nielsen, S.B.; Balling, N.

    2012-01-01

    . Allowing for bore fluid invasion in addition to a borehole of finite radius and contrasting thermal parameters, increases temperature estimates by 5 per cent (4–7 per cent) on average given that invasion is indicated and that the bore fluid is significantly colder than the formation. Indications of bore......Bottom hole temperatures (BHTs) measured during drilling operations are thermally disturbed by the drilling process. This paper presents a method, CSMI (Cylindrical Source Model with Invasion of bore mud filtrate), for estimating equilibrium formation temperatures with probability distributions...... possibility of invasion (advection) of mud filtrate into the formation. In a synthetic example, it is demonstrated that given bore fluid invasion and a low and high temperature of the bore mud and formation, respectively, the equilibrium formation temperature and the uncertainty hereon is underestimated by...

  17. Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor

  18. A new method for boring of non-circular holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai; HU De-jin

    2006-01-01

    A revolving electromagnetic actuation mechanism composed of an electromagnetic stator and an electromagnetic rotor has been developed for boring non-circular holes.The main component of the rotor is a flexure-hinged based flexible body.There are four pole-pair coils in the stator supplying actuation currents.The micro-displacement between the stator and rotor can be controlled by changing the currents applied in the pole-pair coils.Through linearization of the actuation force near the static action point,a linear relationship between the control current and the actuation force was established,and the synchronizing control method of the electromagnetic actuation mechanism is presented here.With two-factor analysis of the linearization error of the actuation force,the influences of control current and micro-displacement to the linearization error of the actuation force were studied.Then,the principle for designing the basic parameters of the magnetic actuation mechanism is put forward.The calibration of the mechanism indicates that the relationship between the micro-displacement of the rotor and the control current has linear characteristics in the required micro-displacement range.Simulation tests show that the turning radius of the rotor changes with the control current.The proposed mechanism can feasibly supply a controllable micro displacement to the boring bar.

  19. Control paraffin with well bore insulating gelled fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, M.H.; Young, D.B. (IITRI, Houston, TX (United States)); Black, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    A variety of techniques are used to treat paraffin, including scrapping, pigging, heating, insulating and solvent usage. Well bore insulating fluids control paraffin deposition in offshore wells by producing a high cloud point oil from a relatively cold reservoir. Produced hydrocarbons exhibit large pressure and temperature changes from the formation to the surface facilities. This changes their phase behavior and consequently their carrying capacity of the dissolved paraffins. Paraffins can drop out in the producing formation, subsurface pumps, tubing, flowline, separators and storage tanks. Paraffins can be low molecular weight n-alkanes (C20-C40) or high molecular weight iso-alkanes and cyclic alkanes. Heat convection through the annulus is the main mechanism by which produced fluids lose heat to surrounding formations. Consequently, selecting a well bore insulating fluid should not be based entirely on thermal conductivity of the fluid. Although their thermal conductivity is only 2.5% that of water, fluids like mineral oil or diesel could transfer as much heat as water under the same temperature gradient. Testing shows that the viscosity of the annular fluid is the key parameter that needs to be increased to minimize annular convective heat loses.

  20. Study of an Industrial FEM tool for line boring process of cylinder blocks

    OpenAIRE

    TABIBIAN, Shadan; Lorong, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to realize a simple simulation tool, in order to predict the form defect of cylinder block bore liners in the moment of rough boring process. In this study a simple static FEM model, based on the cylinder block geometry, is proposed to predict the form defect of the bore liners in the moment of process.The simulation results put forward that the clamping condition plays an import role in the bore distortion. Consequently, optimizing the clamping pressure and its local...

  1. Turbulent mixing and wave radiation in non-Boussinesq internal bores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borden, Zac; Koblitz, Tilman; Meiburg, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    ratio, defined as the ratio of the density of the lighter fluid to the heavier fluid, is greater than approximately one half. For smaller density ratios, undular waves generated at the bore's front dominate over the effects of turbulent mixing, and the expanding layer loses energy across the bore. Based...... on our results, we show that if one can predict the amount of energy radiated by bores through undular waves, it is possible to derive an accurate model for the propagation of non-Boussinesq bores. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4745478]...

  2. TRANSMISSION BEHAVIOR OF MUD-PRESSURE PULSE ALONG WELL BORE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-shan; LI Bo; YUE Yu-quan

    2007-01-01

    In oil and gas industry, mud-pulse telemetry has been widely used to obtain directional data, drilling parameters, formation evaluation data and safety data, etc. Generally, the drilling mud in most current models was considered to be a single-phase fluid through which the mud pulses travel, despite the fact that the drilling mud is composed of two or more phases. In this article, a multiphase flow formula was proposed to calculate the mud-pulse velocity as mud solids and free-gas content change, and a mathematical model was put forward to simulate the dynamic-transmission behavior of the mud-pressure pulse or waves. Compared to conventional methods, the present model provides more accurate mud-pulse attenuation, and the dynamic-transmission behavior of drilling-mud pulses along well bores can also be easily examined. The model is valuable in improving the existing mud-pulse systems and developing new drilling-mud pulse systems.

  3. An introduction to RAM analysis of EPB tunnel boring machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasel Amini Khoshalan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines (EPB - TBMs are favorably used in construction of tunnels in urban areas. These more expensive machines with high operational costs require an exclusive study and knowledge on these machine components and subsystems and their failure and downtimes for time planning, cost control and performance prediction with a high accuracy. Thus guidelines for reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM analysis of an EPB machine are completely expressed. Gathering and recording all daily failure and repair times and other maintenance tasks, dividing the machine into subsystems (including mechanical subsystem, electrical subsystem, hydraulic subsystem, pneumatic subsystem and water subsystem, graphical tests (trend test and correlation test, statistical tests and analysis are discussed in detail.

  4. Ten years of bored tunnels in the Netherlands: Part II: Structural issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; Bezuijen, A.

    2008-01-01

    In 1997 for the first time construction of bored tunnels in the Netherlands soft soil was undertaken. Before that date essentially only immersed tunnels and cut-and-cover tunnels were constructed in the Netherlands. The first two bored tunnels were Pilot Projects, the 2nd Heinenoord tunnel and the B

  5. Boring sponges (Porifera, Clionidae) collected during the "Tydeman" Canary Islands expedition Cancap-II, 1977

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.A.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND MATERIAL The boring sponges of the Canary Islands have never been studied in any detail, but the boring fauna of this archipelago cannot be expected to be very rich. All islands are volcanic and calcareous rocks are not common. Consequently, in most areas large shells and rhodophyte

  6. Ten Years of bored tunnels in the Netherlands: Part I: Geotechnical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; Bezuijen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years have passed since in 1997 for the first time construction of bored tunnels in the Netherlands soft soil was undertaken. Before that date essentially only immersed tunnels and cut-and-cover tunnels were constructed in the Netherlands. The first two bored tunnels were Pilot Projects, the 2nd

  7. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  8. Mixing and sediment resuspension associated with internal bores in a shallow bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Eiji; Homma, Hikaru; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu; Fringer, Oliver B.; Nagai, Takeyoshi; Kitade, Yujiro; Okayasu, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Observations of the run-up of internal bores in a shallow bay were made with a tow-yo instrument and mooring arrays with high spatial and temporal resolution. Shoreward propagating internal bores have been studied with laboratory experiments and numerical models, but few observational studies have shown the detailed structure of the run-up of internal bores induced by internal tides. Our observations showed that internal bores propagate along the slope, accompanied by strong turbulent mixing and strong sediment resuspension in a shallow bay. The isothermal displacement due to the bores reached 20 m vertically in a water depth of 40 m. Turbidity measurements showed suspended particles transported from the sloping bottom and offshore above the thermocline, forming an intermediate nepheloid layer (INL). At the head of the bore (dense water), a vortex accompanied by strong vertical motion induced strong vertical sediment resuspension and a steep isothermal displacement. The rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation reached 10-6 W kg-1 at the head of the wave. A nonhydrostatic numerical simulation in a two-dimensional domain reproduced fine features associated with the run-up of an internal bore and the vortex motion at its head.

  9. Continuous circulation apparatus for air drilling well bore operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, J.L.

    1982-02-16

    An apparatus is disclosed for maintaining a continuous supply of air pressure downhole during a well bore drilling operation, even during the addition of a pipe section to the drill string. It consists of a housing installed at the surface of the well at the position of the drilling equipment wherein the upper end of the drill string is separated from the drive mechanism in order that a new piece of drill pipe may be added to the drill string, a flapper or closure member pivotally secured within the housing normally held in an open position by the outer periphery of the drill string and spring urged in a direction toward the open end of the sleeve through which the drive mechanism passes when the drive mechanism has been backed off or removed for the addition of a section of pipe to the drill string, and a by-pass line in communication with the interior of the housing for directing air pressure from the air supply to the housing when the flapper member is in the closed position whereby the air pressure may be circulated downwardly through the drill string for maintaining the air circulation downhole during the entire drilling operation.

  10. Analytical and numerical analyses of hydrologic well-bore experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical approximate method and a finite-difference numerical model (based on the rate at which a borehole fills with water) were developed to estimate permeability of the Magenta Formation in southeastern New Mexico near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. The analytical treatment applies to certain simple geometries with idealized boundary conditions (constant properties, ground water compressibility negligible). Permissible geometries include water-collecting cylinders with large needle-like aspect ratios located beneath the water table. The analytical treatment clearly shows the sensitivity of inferences and conclusions to material properties and geometries. Much of the existing well-bore fill-rate data fall within the range of validity of this simplified analysis. Admission of compressibility effects into the generalized Darcy law, and a nondimensionalization of the equations identify the range of experimental conditions and material properties for which the approximations are invalid. In the numerical capability to complement this analytical treatment, numerous restrictions have been removed so that the code can treat complex geometries for a variety of boundary conditions and variable properties. The compressibility term that is excluded in the analytical treatment is maintained in these numerical solutions. The resulting equations are formally parabolicand can be solved by an implicit integrator with guaranteed stability. The two methods, applied to several different experimental situations, agree with each other. 9 figures, 3 tables

  11. EFFECT OF SPUTTERING PARAMETERS ON TANTALUM COATINGS FOR GUN BORE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantalum offers a number of attractive properties for gun bore coating applications, including a high melting temperature, high ductility, and an environmentally friendly deposition method. However, vapor-deposited tantalum can appear in both the characteristic body-centered-cubi...

  12. The research of the stud bolt bore checking equipment of the nuclear reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article introduces a kind of new equipment that can work under the environment of high radiation and can-automaticly check the main stud bolt bore. The technical parameters and key techniques of the checking equipment are presented. (authors)

  13. Simulation of Single Reed Instruments Oscillations Based on Modal Decomposition of Bore and Reed Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Fabrice; Kergomard, Jean; Vergez, Christophe; Deblevid, Aude; Guillemain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the sound production in a system made of a bore coupled with a reed valve. Extending previous work (Debut, 2004), the input impedance of the bore is projected on the modes of the air column. The acoustic pressure is therefore calculated as the sum of modal components. The airrrflow blown into the bore is modulated by reed motion, assuming the reed to be a single degree of freedom oscillator. Calculation of self-sustained oscillations controlled by time-varying mouth pressure and player's embouchure parameter is performed using ODE solvers. Results emphasize the par ticipation of the whole set of components in the mode locking process. Another impor tant feature is the mutual innnfluence of reed and bore resonance during growing blowing pressure transients, oscillation threshold being altered by the reed natural frequency and the reed damping. Steady-state oscillations are also investigated and compared with results given by harmonic balance method ...

  14. Ecology of the wood-boring bivalve Martesia striata (Pholadidae) in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yennawar, P.L.; Thakur, N.L.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Martesia striata is one of the dominant wood-boring organisms found in Indian waters. Incidence of this organism in the Zuari estuary (Goa) was evaluated by exposing wooden panels (Mangifera indica) to the marine environment between January 1996...

  15. Solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature railgun with non-conforming-to-prejudice bore profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Jerome Michael

    2012-12-04

    An improved railgun, railgun barrel, railgun projectile, and railgun system for accelerating a solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature projectile using a barrel having a bore that does not conform to a cross-sectional profile of the projectile, to contact and guide the projectile only by the rails in a low pressure bore volume so as to minimize damage, failure, and/or underperformance caused by plasma armatures, insulator ablation, and/or restrikes.

  16. Effect of fluid viscosity on wave propagation in a cylindrical bore in micropolar elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Deswal; Sushil K Tomar; Rajneesh Kumar

    2000-10-01

    Wave propagation in a cylindrical bore filled with viscous liquid and situated in a micropolar elastic medium of infinite extent is studied. Frequency equation for surface wave propagation near the surface of the cylindrical bore is obtained and the effect of viscosity and micropolarity on dispersion curves is observed. The earlier problems of Biot and of Banerji and Sengupta have been reduced as a special case of our problem.

  17. Improvement of machining accuracy in precision micro-boring system by forecasting compensatory control technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the design of a micro-boring servo system. A piezoelectric actuator is employed to compensate the deflection errors of the cutter in the radial direction to reduce the force-induced errors in the workpiece. In order to bore small and deep holes, the boring bar is designed with a new structure consisting of two concentric bars, one being used for error measuring and the other for error compensation. As a result, the size of the micro-boring bar is not af fected even after the piezoelectric actuator and strain gauges have been incorporated. The outer diameter of the boring bar used is 16 mm and the length to diameter ratio is greater than 9. A Forecasting Compensatory Control (FCC) technique is adopted in this system for error prediction and error compensation. The off-line forecasting compensatory control simulation and on-line cutting results have verified that the roundness form errors in the workpiece can be re duced up to 60 percent with the developed micro-boring servo system.

  18. Method Cement Post-grouting to Increase the Load Capacity for Bored Pile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Loc Nguyen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drilled shafts foundations are used as an indispensable solution for long span bridges in Vietnam. In order to increase the bearing capacity, aside from the increasing of the pile length and diameter, an interested way now is treatment of pile bases after concrete placement. This study is aimed at investigating the defect at the bottom of the bored pile from the sonic test. The injection of hight pressure of cement grout to the shaft and tip of the defected bored pile was conducted to increase the bearing capacity of pile. The bearing capacity of defected bored pile is calculated by the TCXD-205:1998 an finite element mothod. After post-grouting technique done, the soil investigation tests have been carried out to define the properties of treated soils. The analytic mothod, finite element method an load test also have been applied to determine the bearing capacity of treated bored pile. The results show that the post-grouting to the shaft and tip of pile can increase two times of bearing capacity of defected bored pile and about 20% compared to the normal bored pile.

  19. Improvement of the center boring device for the irradiated fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power ramp tests performed at JMTR in Oarai R and D Center are objected to study the safety margin of the high burnup fuels. One of the important parameters measured during this test is the center temperature of the fuel pellet. For this measurement, a thermocouple is installed into the hole bored at the pellet center by the center boring device, which can fix the fuel pellet with the frozen CO2 gas during its boring process. At the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) in Tokai R and D Center, several improvements were applied for the previous boring device to gain its performance and reliability. The major improvements are the change of the drill bit, modification of the boring process and the optimization of the remote operability. The mock-up test will be performed with the irradiated fuel pellet to confirm the benefit of improvement. This study was conducted under a contract with the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). (author)

  20. Torsional Guided Wave Inspection for the Small Bore Tubes using Magnetostrictive Transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetostrictive transducer was applied to investigate the guided wave propagation and the effect of outer supports of a small bore tube. The width of Ni strip for the static magnetic bias was optimized for the small bore tube. Because of the geometrical limitation of Ni strip, a F(1,1) mode vibration was accompanied with the main T(0,1) mode vibration. In the viewpoint of long range attenuation the L(0,1) mode vibration is better than the T(0,1) mode vibration for the case of the small bore tube and unwanted signals from the tube holders or pads were not able to eliminate or suppressed in this experiment. After the review of various wave structures and dispersion characteristics of the tube, the frequency and vibration mode could be optimized to reduce the reflections from those outer support structures.

  1. Armor Development from Decapitated Flash Flood Bores in Supply-Limited Flume Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, K.; Rhodes, R.; Johnson, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    In rivers assumed to have quasi-normal flow, three main processes have been used to explain bed surface armoring: i) selective entrainment and transport of smaller grains, ii) limited supply of smaller grain sizes, and iii) equal mobility of grains of different sizes, which develops through natural feedbacks such that larger, less mobile grains are enriched on the surface relative to smaller grains. Flash flood-dominated river channels in arid environments often completely lack surface armoring, yet it is unclear whether increased sediment supply or transport of all grain sizes prevents armor development. In order to examine armor development in an end-member case of non-normal flow, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments using flash flood bores. The flume is 33.5 m long, 0.5 m wide, 0.8 m tall, and capable of creating reproducible flood bores by raising a high-speed computerized lift gate and releasing impounded water. For each experiment, the gate was quickly lowered as soon as the flood bore traveled the length of the flume, 'decapitating' the bore from subsequent flow, to better isolate the effects of the bore alone on entrainment and transport. Sediment was not fed into the upstream end of the flume and only sourced from the gravel bed (2 mm to 40 mm), resulting in supply-limited experimental conditions. In response to repeated flood bores, the surface grain size distribution rapidly coarsened. We interpret that kinetic sieving was the dominant cause of surface armoring in these experiments. LiDAR scans of the bed topography from before and after each bore show increased surface roughness due to grain size changes, but small surface elevation changes due to relatively limited erosion. Digital gravelometry from photographs taken after each bore show increased armoring, while sediment transported out the downstream end of the flume tended to be as coarse or coarser than the bed surface. Travel distances of three sizes of RFID-tagged tracer clasts show

  2. In-bore setup and software for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Lasso, Andras; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-09-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 T MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with a Z-frame that gives a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allows the physician to perform MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right-left (RP) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm, respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP and superior-inferior axes were (0.8 ± 1.0)°, (1.7 ± 1.6)° and (0.0 ± 0.0)°, respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle-placement error was 3 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle-placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop setup and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet.

  3. In-bore setup and software for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 T MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with a Z-frame that gives a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allows the physician to perform MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right–left (RP) and anterior–posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm, respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP and superior–inferior axes were (0.8 ± 1.0)°, (1.7 ± 1.6)° and (0.0 ± 0.0)°, respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle-placement error was 3 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle-placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop setup and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet. (paper)

  4. Method Cement Post-grouting to Increase the Load Capacity for Bored Pile

    OpenAIRE

    Loc Nguyen; Lei Nie; Min Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Drilled shafts foundations are used as an indispensable solution for long span bridges in Vietnam. In order to increase the bearing capacity, aside from the increasing of the pile length and diameter, an interested way now is treatment of pile bases after concrete placement. This study is aimed at investigating the defect at the bottom of the bored pile from the sonic test. The injection of hight pressure of cement grout to the shaft and tip of the defected bored pile was conducted to increas...

  5. The particle simulation study of mechanism of laser boring in overdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of ultrahigh intensity laser with overdense plasma is studied using a 2.5D particle simulation code. A channel is formed due to the extremely large ponderomotive force associated with laser pulse. Strong self-generated magnetic fields produced by strong flow of high-energy electrons are observed. Three kinds of spatial profiles of laser intensity are used to investigate the effect of laser spatial profile on boring , and it is found that the boring effect is stronger when the radial gradient of laser intensity is bigger. Odd and even harmonics are found in reflected waves

  6. The Effects of Guide Pads on Bore Diameter Enlargement Magnitude in Deep Hole Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep hole machining accuracy plays a crucial role in product’s quality. The results of an investigation into the machining accuracy of deep drilling holes which highlights problems of bore diameter enlargement magnitude assessment are presented in this paper. Through the study of BTA deep drilling tool properties and mechanism, as well as the formation rule of deep hole surface, clarified the burnishing mechanism of guide pad in deep hole drilling, and obtained the directly relationship between surface formation rule and the guide pad. After drilling experimentrevealed the effect of guide pad on bore diameter enlargement magnitude.

  7. Equilibrium equations for nonlinear buckling analysis of drill-strings in 3D curved well-bores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the development of drilling technology, the oil/gas well has evolved from its early vertical straight form to the inclined, horizontal, plane curved, or even 3D curved well-bore. Understanding of the buck- ling behavior of a drill-string in a well-bore is crucial for the success of a drilling operation. Therefore, equilibrium equations for analyzing the buckling behavior of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are required. Based on Love’s equilibrium equations for a curved and twisted rod in space, a set of equi- librium equations for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are de- rived by introducing a radial constraint of the well-bore. The proposed formulae can account for the well curvature and tortuosity. Thus, it can be used to analyze the buckling behaviors of a drill-string constrained in a well-bore and subjected to axial compression, torsion at its upper end, and gravity simultaneously. It is worth noting that the existing equations in the literature for a drill-string in a straight and plane curved well-bore with a constant curvature are a special case of the proposed model. Thus, the present model can provide a theoretical basis for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string constrained in a 3D curved well-bore.

  8. Equilibrium equations for nonlinear buckling analysis of drill-strings in 3D curved well-bores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN MeiLan; GAN LiFei

    2009-01-01

    With the development of drilling technology, the oil/gas well has evolved from its early vertical straight form to the inclined, horizontal, plane curved, or even 3D curved well-bore. Understanding of the buck-ling behavior of a drill-string in a well-bore is crucial for the success of a drilling operation. Therefore, equilibrium equations for analyzing the buckling behavior of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are required. Based on Love's equilibrium equations for a curved and twisted rod in space, s set of equi-librium equations for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are de-rived by introducing a radial constraint of the well-bore. The proposed formulae can account for the well curvature and tortuosity. Thus, it can be used to analyze the buckling behaviors of a drill-string constrained in a well-bore and subjected to axial compression, torsion at its upper end, and gravity simultaneously. It is worth noting that the existing equations in the literature for a drill-string in a straight and plane curved well-bore with a constant curvature are a special case of the proposed model. Thus, the present model can provide s theoretical basis for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string constrained in a 3D curved well-bore.

  9. Technical Diagnostics of Tank Cannon Smooth Barrel Bore and Ramming Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Balla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The technical diagnostics of 125 mm tank cannon 2A46 smooth barrel and ramming devices are discussed respectively. Focuses on barrel diagnostics and suggests new procedures based on reconstructed BG20 Gun Barrel Bore Gauge System, measuring internal diameter of the barrel bore. The new system measures throughout the whole barrel bore the inner diameter not only at the beginning of barrel bore as it was usually measured before. Different nature of barrel wear was revealed between barrels firing sub-calibre and high explosive projectiles. A method for ramming device diagnostics is presented. An accurate method was proposed, determining projectile extraction force from barrel, as one of the main ramming device parameters for weapons that are used in all areas of armed forces. Results are based on experimental methods assessing the extraction forces from barrel after projectile loading. These tests were performed as a series of tests with consequent technical diagnostics according to the new Czech Defence Standards (derived from NATO standards. The results are presented as the new methodologies for diagnostics of 125 mm barrel 2A46 and ramming devices of tank T-72 for use by technical logistic units in the Czech Republic Armed Forces.

  10. Tunnelling in Soft Soil: Tunnel Boring Machine Operation and Soil Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festa, D.; Broere, W.; Bosch, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Constructing tunnels in soft soil with the use of Tunnel Boring Machines may induce settlements including soil movements ahead of the face, soil relaxation into the tail void, possible heave due to grouting, long lasting consolidation processes, and potentially several other mechanisms. A considerab

  11. Beam heat load measurements in the cold bore superconductive undulator in ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, S; Hagelstein, M; Zimmermann, F; Rossmanith, Robert; Kostka, Barbara; Mashkina, Elena; Steffens, Erhard; Bernhard, Axel; Wollmann, Daniel; Baumbach, Tilo

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the beam-induced heat load in the ANKA cold-bore superconductive undulator are summarized. The strength of the two dominating effects, resistive wall heating and heating by electron bombardment, depends on the beam parameters and the gap width.

  12. Monitoring pilot projects on bored tunnelling: the Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; De Boer, F.; Admiraal, J.B.M.; Van Jaarsveld, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    Two pilot projects for bored tunnelling in soft soil have been undertaken in the Netherlands. The monitoring was commissioned under the authority of the Centre for Underground Construction (COB). A description of the research related to the Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel will be

  13. EVALUATION OF RESERVOIR ROCK AND WELL BORE CEMENT ALTERATION WITH SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William k. O' Connor; Gilbert E Rush

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the alteration of reservoir rock and well bore cement at their interface, under supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}), was conducted at the laboratory-scale using simulated brine solutions at down-hole conditions. These studies were intended to identify potential leakage pathways for injected CO{sub 2} due to degradation of the well bore. Two distinct test series were conducted on core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin, IL, and the Grand Ronde basalt from the Pasco Basin, WA. LaFarge Class H well bore cement was used for both series. Reservoir rock/cement cores were immersed within a CO{sub 2}-saturated brine for up to 2000 hours at 35 degrees C and 100 atm CO{sub 2}. Results suggest that the impact of SCCO{sub 2} injection is reservoir-specific, being highly dependent on the reservoir brine and rock type. Brine pH can be significantly altered by CO{sub 2} injection, which in turn can dramatically impact the dissolution characteristics of the reservoir rock. Finally, well bore cement alteration was identified, particularly for fresh cast cement allowed to cure at SCCO{sub 2} conditions. However, this alteration was generally limited to an outer rind of carbonate and Ca-depleted cement which appeared to protect the majority of the cement core from further attack. These studies indicate that at the cement-rock interface, the annular space may be filled by carbonate which could act as an effective barrier against further CO{sub 2} migration along the well bore.

  14. Functionally adapted final machining for cylinder bores made of cast iron; Funktionsgerechte Endbearbeitung von Zylinderbohrungen aus Gusseisen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, G. [Gehring GmbH und Co. KG, Ostfildern (Germany); Fachhochschule Esslingen (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau; Abeln, T.; Klink, U. [Gehring GmbH und Co. KG, Ostfildern (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The cylinder bore is of interest for functional and production development processes. The cylinder bore of the piston stroke engine is the place of the highest friction efficiency and its topographical design is decisive for the oil consumption and the emission of modern motor-vehicles, a challenge for engine development and production engineers. Gehring GmbH and Co. KG, Ostfildern, Germany, is an experienced partner for the realization of efficient cylinder bores. On the basis of the tribological requirements present honing variants are described. (orig.)

  15. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changhai; Deng, Aihua; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng

    2016-08-01

    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  16. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  17. Non-intrusive measurement of inner bore temperature of small arms using integrated ultrasonic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, D.; Pimentel, R.; Lord, M.; Beauchesne, A.; Kruger, S. E.; Stowe, R.; Wong, F.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Management of thermal input to a small arms weapons system is a significant design and operational constraint. A collaborative project was initiated with the objective to measure non-intrusively the inner bore barrel temperature of a small arm during actual firing. The approach uses integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUTs) and the velocity temperature dependence of the longitudinal wave propagating through thickness. IUT is successfully implemented on a small arm at 3 locations and results from several firing tests are presented. The small but systematic increase in ultrasonic time delay of less than 1 ns after each firing shot is reliably measured, in agreement with a simple 1D model of heat conduction, and measured temperature rises are consistent with the thicknesses at the different locations. The evaluation of the peak inner bore temperatures using IUT and their validation using eroding surface thermocouples at the same locations in the barrel are discussed.

  18. On the derivation of a creep law from isothermal bore hole convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some analytical as well as numerical aspects relevant to the creep behaviour of cavity-like structures in salt domes are presented. Two finite element models are presented for the modelling of the bore hole configuration, both dealing with the problem of a correct choice of the amount of salts which must be taken into account. A numerical procedure is suggested to derive a material creep law from measured bore hole convergence. This procedure is applied on convergence measurement in the ASSE mine (Germany) leading to a secondary creep law (depsilon/dt)sup(c)=8.8x10-11sigmasup(5.5) (sigma in MPa, (depsilon/dt)sup(c) in days-1) which describes the transient convergence behaviour correctly. Some questions concerning the uniqueness of the derived creep law are discussed

  19. The Time and Cost Prediction of Tunnel Boring Machine in Tunnelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Making use of microsoft visual studio. net platform, the assistant decision-making system of tunnel boring machine in tunnelling has been built to predict the time and cost. Computation methods of the performance parameters have been discussed. New time and cost prediction models have been depicted. The multivariate linear regression has been used to make the parameters more precise, which are the key factor to affect the prediction near to the reality.

  20. A pulse forming network design for blocked-bore plasma armature experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, William J.; Barrett, B. D.; Nunnally, W. C.; Dillon, W. E.; Eubank, Eric L.

    1993-01-01

    The railgun diagnostic program now in progress requires a ramping current waveform with a continuously positive di/dt until peak current is delivered approximately 1 millisecond after circuit closure. This pulse forming network (PFN) is designed to power blocked-bore plasma armature studies being conducted on a section of the THUNDERBOLT prototype, SUVAC. The PFN design has an operating voltage range from 300 to 1400 volts and is capable of delivering peak currents up to 200 kA.

  1. The earliest giant Osprioneides borings from the Sandbian (late ordovician of Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    Full Text Available The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica. The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America.

  2. The earliest giant Osprioneides borings from the Sandbian (late ordovician) of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Mõtus, Mari-Ann

    2014-01-01

    The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica). The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America. PMID:24901511

  3. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  4. Boring sponges, an increasing threat for coral reefs affected by bleaching events

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, José L; Bautista, Eric; Nava, Héctor; Cruz-Barraza, José A; Chávez, Jesus A

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching is a stress response of corals induced by a variety of factors, but these events have become more frequent and intense in response to recent climate-change-related temperature anomalies. We tested the hypothesis that coral reefs affected by bleaching events are currently heavily infested by boring sponges, which are playing a significant role in the destruction of their physical structure. Seventeen reefs that cover the entire distributional range of corals along the Mexican P...

  5. Influence of Cylinder Bore Volume on Pressure Pulsations in a Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Keith Adam

    2014-01-01

    Suction pressure pulsations created when the suction valve opens are caused by unsteady mass flow through the valve exciting acoustic resonances in the suction plenum. These pressure pulsations influence valve dynamics, compressor performance and compressor noise. This paper will show the importance of including the cylinder bore volume in the flow path analysis in order to accurately calculate pressure pulsations. Pressure pulsations will be calculated using Finite Element Method (FEM) calcu...

  6. Electropolishing the bore of metal capillary tubes: A technique for adjusting the critical flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, J J; Ells, D R

    1979-12-01

    A technique has been developed for electropolishing the bore of metal capillary tubes. Although developed specifically for stainless-steel tubes, the technique should be directly applicable to other metals. Tubes with inside diameter as small as 0.20 mm and 110 mm long have been successfully electropolished. The electropolishing technique can be used to increase the critical flow of a capillary tube in a controllable way. PMID:18699437

  7. Fine-bore cannulas for peripheral intravenous nutrition: polyurethane or silicone?

    OpenAIRE

    Plusa, S. M.; Horsman, R.; Kendall-Smith, S.; Webster, N; Primrose, J N

    1998-01-01

    The peripheral intravenous route is being used more frequently for the administration of short- to medium-term parenteral nutritional support. Dedicated fine bore cannulas have significantly reduced the incidence of thrombophlebitis. Currently available cannulas are made of polyurethane or silicone. We present our experience with a 23G silicone cannula and a 22G polyurethane alternative. Fifty-four silicone cannulas were used with a median survival of only 3 days, compared with 7 days for 90 ...

  8. Studies on the reduction of nitrogen oxides emission in a large-bore diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Imperato, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    This experimental research studied different technologies for reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust gases, running with a large-bore medium-speed diesel research engine. NOx mainly form during combustion in local high temperature zones. This study considered primary methods, avoiding high combustion temperatures. In particular, the Miller cycle, which is a proven concept for NOx reduction, was deeply studied. This technology was applied by closing early the intake valves to create a f...

  9. Tunnelling in Soft Soil: Tunnel Boring Machine Operation and Soil Response

    OpenAIRE

    Festa, D.; Broere, W.; Bosch, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Constructing tunnels in soft soil with the use of Tunnel Boring Machines may induce settlements including soil movements ahead of the face, soil relaxation into the tail void, possible heave due to grouting, long lasting consolidation processes, and potentially several other mechanisms. A considerable amount of the total soil displacements seems correlated with the passage of the TBM-shield. Even so, the TBM-induced soil displacements have so far only been coarsely correlated to the total set...

  10. Magnetic design of large-bore superconducting quadrupoles for the AHF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir S Kashikhin et al.

    2002-08-13

    The Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), under study by LANL, utilizes large-bore superconducting quadrupole magnets to image protons for radiography of fast events. In this concept, 50-GeV proton bunches pass through a thick object and are imaged by a lens system that analyzes the scattered beam to determine object details. Twelve simultaneous views of the object are obtained using multiple beam lines. The lens system uses two types of quadrupoles: a large bore (48-cm beam aperture) for wide field of view imaging and a smaller bore (23 cm aperture) for higher resolution images. The gradients of the magnets are 10.14 T/m and 18.58 T/m with magnetic lengths of 4.3 m and 3.0 m, respectively. The magnets are sufficiently novel to present a design challenge. Evaluation and comparisons were made for various types of magnet design: shell and racetrack coils, cold and warm iron, as well as an active superconducting screen. Nb{sub 3}Sn cable was also considered as an alternative to avoid quenching under high beam-scattering conditions. The superconducting shield concept eliminates the iron core and greatly lessens the cryogenic energy needed for cool down. Several options are discussed and comparisons are made.

  11. Tri-bore PVDF hollow fibers with a super-hydrophobic coating for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kang-Jia

    2016-04-26

    Membranes with good mechanical strength, high vapor flux and outstanding anti-wetting properties are essential for membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this work, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tri-bore hollow fiber membranes with super-hydrophobicity are developed to achieve these desired properties. The tri-bore hollow fiber offers better mechanical strength than the conventional single-bore fiber. To improve its anti-wetting properties, Teflon® AF 2400 is coated on the membrane surface. The effects of coating on membrane morphology, performance and anti-wetting properties have been thoroughly investigated. With an optimal coating condition (0.025 wt% of Teflon® AF 2400, 30 s), a super-hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 151o is achieved. The resultant membrane shows an increase of 109% in liquid entry pressure (LEP) with a slight sacrifice of 21% in flux. Long term direct contact MD tests have confirmed that the Teflon® AF 2400 coated membrane has enhanced stability with an average flux of 21 kg m-2 h-1 and rejection of 99.99% at 60 °° C for desalination application.

  12. Development of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, James; Jensen, Brian

    2009-06-01

    Past fundamental work at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) U1a complex has been performed using explosively-driven flyer plates which provide high-pressure loading at the expense of some shock. In contrast, plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocity for impact experiments at NTS. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt. This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results of the qualification testing of the large-bore gun, the confinement system, and the explosively driven valve will be presented.

  13. Morphological and physiological adaptations of wood-boring beetle larvae in timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Chiappini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Beetles which develop boring tunnels inside and feed on seasoned wood present morphological and physiological adaptations related to the specific activities of their larvae in such a peculiar substrate. As far as protection of antiquarian goods made of wood is concerned, we are dealing mainly with three Coleoptera families, namely Lyctidae, Anobiidae, and Cerambycidae, which include species with wood-boring larvae. The adaptation to wood-boring and wood-feeding activities in beetle larvae was reached independently by phyletic lines not closely related, as a convergent evolution due to feeding behaviour. Among these adaptations, the following are examined with reference to the three families mentioned above. The conformation and activity of the larval mandibles and their possible correlations with the characteristics of the wood attacked are considered together with the presence of body structures for anchoring the larvae to the wood substrate inside the tunnel during the gnawing action. Intracellular endosymbiosis (endocytobiosis with yeasts or bacteria, capable of supplementing larval diets lacking in some essential nutrients, and its main features are summarized. Last, structural and functional characteristics are discussed as regards tracheal spiracles, provided with filter devices important for preventing intrusion of wood powder into tracheae from larval tunnels as well as useful for avoiding dehydration.

  14. Automatic orbital TIG-welding of small bore austenitic stainless steel tubes for nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, manual welding techniques have been employed for shop and site fabrication of small bore austenitic stainless steel tubes in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant of British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). This Paper describes an evaluation programme carried out to develop welding procedures for both 18Cr-13Ni-1Nb and 18Cr-10Ni low carbon stainless steel small bore tubing, the type of equipment used, and the modifications required for application to shop and site environments. (author)

  15. Small-bore chest tubes seem to perform better than larger tubes in treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Ringbæk, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and complications of surgical (large-bore) chest tube drainage with smaller and less invasive chest tubes in the treatment of non-traumatic pneumothorax (PT). ......The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and complications of surgical (large-bore) chest tube drainage with smaller and less invasive chest tubes in the treatment of non-traumatic pneumothorax (PT). ...

  16. Estimation of Tsunami Bore Forces on a Coastal Bridge Using an Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Mazinani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure to estimate tsunami wave forces on coastal bridges through a novel method based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM and laboratory experiments. This research included three water depths, ten wave heights, and four bridge models with a variety of girders providing a total of 120 cases. The research was designed and adapted to estimate tsunami bore forces including horizontal force, vertical uplift and overturning moment on a coastal bridge. The experiments were carried out on 1:40 scaled concrete bridge models in a wave flume with dimensions of 24 m × 1.5 m × 2 m. Two six-axis load cells and four pressure sensors were installed to the base plate to measure forces. In the numerical procedure, estimation and prediction results of the ELM model were compared with Genetic Programming (GP and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs models. The experimental results showed an improvement in predictive accuracy, and capability of generalization could be achieved by the ELM approach in comparison with GP and ANN. Moreover, results indicated that the ELM models developed could be used with confidence for further work on formulating novel model predictive strategy for tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge. The experimental results indicated that the new algorithm could produce good generalization performance in most cases and could learn thousands of times faster than conventional popular learning algorithms. Therefore, it can be conclusively obtained that utilization of ELM is certainly developing as an alternative approach to estimate the tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge.

  17. The CERL in-situ probe for boiler ferrule bore mensuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensuration of the bores of boiler feed control ferrules in-situ within the AGR boilers can be done using a Central Electricity Research Laboratories-designed probe and ancillary equipment. From these measurements it is possible to determine the loss coefficients of the ferrules with fair accuracy. These loss coefficients may differ from the intended values because of poor quality control during manufacture or because of erosion and oxide deposition in service. This Report describes the construction and operation of the equipment. (author)

  18. Measurements of an ion beam diameter extracted into air through a large-bore metal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Y.; Umigishi, M. [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women’s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Ogawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    To extract an ion beam into air, the technique using a single macro-capillary has been paid attention. We have expanded the bore of the metal capillary up to 500 μm∅ inlet diameter to increase the beam intensity and have measured the intensity distributions of the extracted 3 MeV proton beam. Furthermore, we have tilted the capillary angle and measured the intensity distributions of the ion beam. In this article, we will present the experimental results together with the simulation which takes the tilt angles of the capillary into account.

  19. Tidal bore and shock wave%涌潮与激波

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林炳尧; 潘存鸿

    2015-01-01

    100 years ago, the mathematical formulations of describingflows in shallow water and air were found to be the same sometimes, and there were quite a few similarities between tidal bore and shock wave. Consequently, research on tidal bore had a great leap forward. Later, differences between the two phenomena were thoroughly analyzed, uplifting the understanding of the tidal bore to a new level. In reviewing the process of tidal bore studies, we come to know that analog can be used as a tool at the initial stage of exploring a newfield or phenomenon; then the study can be pushed forward with the methods used inother disciplines; to a certain extent, comparison should be made timely between the known phenomenon and the new one, focusing on the particularities of the new one. Through seeking common ground and exploring differences, the understanding of a new phenomenon will be more comprehensive and thorough.%100年前,人们发现描述浅水和气体两种流动的方程有相同的形式,涌潮与激波有诸多类似性质,涌潮的研究因此获得很大进步。进一步研究后,逐渐了解两种现象的差别,于是,对两者的认识上升到新的阶段。回顾涌潮研究这段历程,了解到在探索新领域、新现象之初,可以用类比作为工具,借助于其他学科的方法推进对新现象的研究,到一定程度后,应该及时采用与已知现象相比较的方法,着重研究新现象的特殊性。通过“求同探异”,对新现象的认识必将更加全面、深入。

  20. RESEARCH ON THE DYNAMIC PROPERTY OF PIEZOELECTRIC MICRO DISPLACEMENT ACTUATOR FOR BORING ERROR COMPENSATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic property of piezoelectric micro displacement actuator (PMDA) is analyzed, especially the mechanical characteristic, lag phase property and hysteresis phenomenon. The influence factors of static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and the lag phase property are analyzed systematically. Three main influence factors of lag phase property are discovered. With comparison to mechanical Coulomb friction, a generalized model of nonlinear hysteresis of PMDA is advanced, based on the essential analysis of nonlinear phenomenon. Finally the application of PMDA in error compensation control system of boring is introduced. A good compensation result is achieved.

  1. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Duanduan; Wang Longfei; Zhang Lipeng

    2015-01-01

    Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capac...

  2. Wear and corrosion properties of steels used in Tunnel Boring Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Grødal, Christian Kreyberg

    2012-01-01

    In this master thesis experiments were conducted to determine the abrasion-corrosion properties of a steel designed for TBM tunnelling. This was done by three different tests, reciprocal ball-on-plate, rubber wheel and hyperbaric soil abrasion test. The reciprocal tests were done by rubbing steel balls onto rock obtained from a tunnel boring site in the Faroe Islands. The test were performed in dry conditions, in water from the same site as rock and a mixture of the water and a foam designed ...

  3. Design of HQ -- a High Field Large Bore Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for LARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felice, H.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A. K.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Kashikhin, V.; Schmalze, J.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Wanderer, P.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2008-08-17

    In support of the Large Hadron Collider luminosity upgrade, a large bore (120 mm) Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole with 15 T peak coil field is being developed within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). The 2-layer design with a 15 mm wide cable is aimed at pre-stress control, alignment and field quality while exploring the magnet performance limits in terms of gradient, forces and stresses. In addition, HQ will determine the magnetic, mechanical, and thermal margins of Nb{sub 3}Sn technology with respect to the requirements of the luminosity upgrade at the LHC.

  4. Bore formation, evolution and disintegration into solitons in shallow inhomogeneous channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-G. Caputo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of nonlinear surface waves in channels of smoothly variable in space cross section is studied theoretically and by means of numerical computations. The mathematical model describing wave evolution is based on the generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation with additional terms due to spatial inhomogeneity and energy dissipation. Specifically we consider channels of variable depth and width. The breaking of Riemann waves and the disintegration of hydraulic jumps into trains of solitons have been examined. The results obtained can be useful in particular for the understanding some peculiarities of bore (mascaret formation, viscous evolution and disintegration into solitons in inhomogeneous channels or rivers.

  5. Performance of 1 m long / 75 mm bore superconducting prototype coils for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two short prototypes of the new HERA superconducting dipole magnets with 75 mm inner bore have been built and tested in a bath cryostat. Both coils have reached the short sample current of the coil after a few training steps. The quench current depends linearly on the temperature between 4.0 and 5.0 K. The field quality of both coils is in general within specifications. There is no current dependence of the higher harmonics except for the well-known hysteresis due to persistent currents. (orig.)

  6. Development and testing of an active boring bar for increased chatter immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, J.; Barney, P.

    1997-12-01

    Recent advances in smart materials have renewed interest in the development of improved manufacturing processes featuring sensing, processing, and active control. In particular, vibration suppression in metal cutting has received much attention because of its potential for enhancing part quality while reducing the time and cost of production. Although active tool clamps have been recently demonstrated, they are often accompanied by interfacing issues that limit their applicability to specific machines. Under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program, the project titled {open_quotes}Smart Cutting Tools for Precision Manufacturing{close_quotes} developed an alternative approach to active vibration control in machining. Using the boring process as a vehicle for exploration, a commercially available tool was modified to incorporate PZT stack actuators for active suppression of its bending modes. Since the modified tool requires no specialized mounting hardware, it can be readily mounted on many machines. Cutting tests conducted on a horizontal lathe fitted with a hardened steel workpiece verify that the actively damped boring bar yields significant vibration reduction and improved surface finishes as compared to an unmodified tool.

  7. Analysis of Nonlinear Discrete Time Active Control System with Boring Chatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the design and analysis for nonlinear discrete time active control system with boring charter. It is shown that most analysis result for continuous time nonlinear system can be extended to the discrete time case. In previous studies, a method of nonlinear Model Following Control System (MFCS was proposed by Okubo (1985. In this study, the method of nonlinear MFCS will be extended to nonlinear discrete time system with boring charter. Nonlinear systems which are dealt in this study have the property of norm constraints ║ƒ (v (k║&le&alpha+&betaβ║v (k║&gamma, where &alpha&ge0, &beta&ge0, 0&le&gamma&le1. When 0&le&gamma&le1. It is easy to extend the method to discrete time systems. But in the case &gamma = 1 discrete time systems, the proof becomes difficult. In this case, a new criterion is proposed to ensure that internal states are stable. We expect that this method will provide a useful tool in areas related to stability analysis and design for nonlinear discrete time systems as well.

  8. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs: one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system’s trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach.

  9. Asymmetric gradient coil design for use in a short, open bore magnetic resonance imaging scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaohui; Liu, Feng; Li, Yu; Tang, Fangfang; Crozier, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    A conventional cylindrical whole-body MRI scanner has a long bore that may cause claustrophobia for some patients in addition to being inconvenient for healthcare workers accessing the patient. A short-bore scanner usually offers a small sized imaging area, which is impractical for imaging some body parts, such as the torso. This work proposes a novel asymmetric gradient coil design that offers a full-sized imaging area close to one end of the coil. In the new design, the primary and shielding coils are connected at one end whilst separated at the other, allowing the installation of the cooling system and shim trays. The proposed coils have a larger wire gap, higher efficiency, lower inductance, less resistance and a higher figure of merit than the non-connected coils. This half-connected coil structure not only improves the coils' electromagnetic performance, but also slightly attenuates acoustic radiation at most frequencies when compared to a non-connected gradient coil. It is also quieter in some frequency bands than a conventional symmetric gradient coil.

  10. Design of a Large Bore 60-T Pulse Magnet for Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESCH,B.; LI,L.; PERNAMBUCO-WISE,P.; ROVANG,DEAN C.; SCHNEIDER-MUNTAU,H.J.

    1999-09-23

    The design of a new pulsed magnet system for the generation of intense electron beams is presented. Determined by the required magnetic field profile along the axis, the magnet system consists of two coils (Coil No.1 and No.2) separated by a 32-mm axial gap. Each coil is energized independently. Both coils are internally reinforced with HIM Zylon fiber/epoxy composite. Coil No.1 made with AI-15 Glidcop wire has a bore of 110-mm diameter and is 200-mm long; it is energized by a 1.3-MJ, 13-kV capacitor bank. The magnetic field at the center of this coil is 30 T. Coil No.2 made with CuNb wire has a bore of 45 mm diameter, generates 60 T with a pulse duration of 60 ms, and is powered by a 4.0-MJ, 17.7-kV capacitor bank. We present design criteria, the coupling of the magnets, and the normal and the fault conditions during operation.

  11. Evaluation and improvement of economic efficiency in the sphere of bore-hole drilling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Natalia V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important requirements for the methods and technologies, especially in the extractive industry, is cost-effective use of resources. The amount of exploration and industrial bore-hole drilling for various purposes is increasing in today’s world. Since drilling is the main type of exploration, it is necessary to improve the technology and to reduce costs. The article discusses an alternative to the existing method of bore-hole drilling developed in Tomsk Polytechnic University on the basis of the discovery made by scientists of the University. Electric pulse drilling technology is an innovation with the estimated base of evidence. The technique consists of rock breaking without drilling in it. This technology is fundamentally different from the existing ones; therefore, its application requires modification and updating of all operation systems. High barriers to entry and introduction to the industry are specific to electric pulse drilling. The authors concluded that the technology of electric pulse drilling provides an alternative of production methods and tools, which allows finding the best option to reduce costs and thereby to increase resource efficiency of production or project.

  12. D Modelling of Tunnel Excavation Using Pressurized Tunnel Boring Machine in Overconsolidated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demagh, Rafik; Emeriault, Fabrice

    2013-06-01

    The construction of shallow tunnels in urban areas requires a prior assessment of their effects on the existing structures. In the case of shield tunnel boring machines (TBM), the various construction stages carried out constitute a highly three-dimensional problem of soil/structure interaction and are not easy to represent in a complete numerical simulation. Consequently, the tunnelling- induced soil movements are quite difficult to evaluate. A 3D simulation procedure, using a finite differences code, namely FLAC3D, taking into account, in an explicit manner, the main sources of movements in the soil mass is proposed in this paper. It is illustrated by the particular case of Toulouse Subway Line B for which experimental data are available and where the soil is saturated and highly overconsolidated. A comparison made between the numerical simulation results and the insitu measurements shows that the 3D procedure of simulation proposed is relevant, in particular regarding the adopted representation of the different operations performed by the tunnel boring machine (excavation, confining pressure, shield advancement, installation of the tunnel lining, grouting of the annular void, etc). Furthermore, a parametric study enabled a better understanding of the singular behaviour origin observed on the ground surface and within the solid soil mass, till now not mentioned in the literature.

  13. Boring but Important: A Self-Transcendent Purpose for Learning Fosters Academic Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David S.; Henderson, Marlone D.; D’Mello, Sidney; Paunesku, David; Walton, Gregory M.; Spitzer, Brian J.; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2015-01-01

    Many important learning tasks feel uninteresting and tedious to learners. This research proposed that promoting a prosocial, self-transcendent purpose could improve academic self-regulation on such tasks. This proposal was supported in four studies with over 2,000 adolescents and young adults. Study 1 documented a correlation between a self-transcendent purpose for learning and self-reported trait measures of academic self-regulation. Those with more of a purpose for learning also persisted longer on a boring task rather than giving in to a tempting alternative, and, many months later, were less likely to drop out of college. Study 2 addressed causality. It showed that a brief, one-time psychological intervention promoting a self-transcendent purpose for learning could improve high school science and math GPA over several months. Studies 3 and 4 were short-term experiments that explored possible mechanisms. They showed that the self-transcendent purpose manipulation could increase deeper learning behavior on tedious test review materials (Study 3), and sustain self-regulation over the course of an increasingly-boring task (Study 4). More self-oriented motives for learning—such as the desire to have an interesting or enjoyable career—did not, on their own, consistently produce these benefits (Studies 1 and 4). PMID:25222648

  14. Internal bores and gravity currents in a two-fluid system

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a unified theory of internal bores and gravity currents is presented within the framework of the one-dimensional two-layer shallow-water equations. The equations represent four basic physical laws: the theory is developed on the basis of these laws. Though the first three of the four basic laws are apparent, the forth basic law has been uncertain. This paper shows first that this forth basic law can be deduced from the law which is called in this paper the conservation law of circulation. It is then demonstrated that, within the framework of the equations, an internal bore is represented by a shock satisfying the shock conditions that follow from the four basic laws. A gravity current can also be treated within the framework of the equations if the front conditions, i.e. the boundary conditions to be imposed at the front of the current, are known. Basically, the front conditions for a gravity current also follow from the four basic laws. When the gravity current is advancing along a no-slip bou...

  15. Measurement of in-bore side loads and comparison to first maximum yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Carlucci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In-bore yaw of a projectile in a gun tube has been shown to result in range loss if the yaw is significant. An attempt was made to determine if relationships between in-bore yaw and projectile First Maximum Yaw (FMY were observable. Experiments were conducted in which pressure transducers were mounted near the muzzle of a 155 mm cannon in three sets of four. Each set formed a cruciform pattern to obtain a differential pressure across the projectile. These data were then integrated to form a picture of what the overall pressure distribution was along the side of the projectile. The pressure distribution was used to determine a magnitude and direction of the overturning moment acting on the projectile. This moment and its resulting angular acceleration were then compared to the actual first maximum yaw observed in the test. The degree of correlation was examined using various statistical techniques. Overall uncertainty in the projectile dynamics was between 20% and 40% of the mean values of FMY.

  16. Design of a Large-Bore 60-T Pulse Magnet for Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a new pulsed magnet system for the generation of intense electron beams is presented. Determined by the required magnetic field profile along the axis, the magnet system consists of two coils (Coil No.1 and No.2) separated by a 32-mm axial gap. Each coil is energized independently. Both coils are internally reinforced with HIM Zylon fiber/epoxy composite. Coil No.1 made with AI-15 Glidcop wire has a bore of 110-mm diameter and is 200-mm long; it is energized by a 1.3-MJ, 13-kV capacitor bank. The magnetic field at the center of this coil is 30 T. Coil No.2 made with CuNb wire has a bore of 45 mm diameter, generates 60 T with a pulse duration of 60 ms, and is powered by a 4.0-MJ, 17.7-kV capacitor bank. We present design criteria, the coupling of the magnets, and the normal and the fault conditions during operation

  17. Ultrabroadband Relay Imaged GRENOUILLE as a Time-Resolved Diagnostic for Relativistic Hole Boring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Craig; Bernstein, Aaron; Dyer, Gilliss; Ditmire, Todd

    2015-11-01

    In a highly intense laser-solid interaction, the surface of the resultant plasma is pushed into the interior of the target at a significant fraction of the speed of light as a result of the intense radiation pressure from the focused laser beam. This is known as hole boring. During the hole boring process laser interactions with electrons at the receding target surface generate light at frequency harmonics of the incident laser. The frequency shift of these harmonics is proportional to the velocity of the target surface. In previous experiments at the Texas Petawatt we observed red-shifts in the 351nm harmonic up to 513nm, corresponding to a recession velocity of 0.18c. We designed an ultra-broadband GRENOUILLE to conduct time resolved measurements of spectral shifting of second harmonic light over the duration of the incident laser pulse. This GRENOUILLE is relay imaged from the target plane to prevent spectral splitting, and is an all reflective design to reduce pulse broadening and chromatic aberrations. With an f/3.15 optic focusing into a thick BBO crystal, the system accepts wavelengths from 526nm to 766nm with 4.8nm spectral resolution and 5.6fs temporal resolution. This work was supported by NNSA cooperative agreement DE-NA0002008.

  18. Measurement of in-bore side loads and comparison to first maximum yaw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald E. CARLUCCI; Ryan DECKER; Julio VEGA; Douglas RAY

    2016-01-01

    In-bore yaw of a projectile in a gun tube has been shown to result in range loss if the yaw is significant. An attempt was made to determine if relationships between in-bore yaw and projectile First Maximum Yaw (FMY) were observable. Experiments were conducted in which pressure transducers were mounted near the muzzle of a 155 mm cannon in three sets of four. Each set formed a cruciform pattern to obtain a differential pressure across the projectile. These data were then integrated to form a picture of what the overall pressure distribution was along the side of the projectile. The pressure distribution was used to determine a magnitude and direction of the overturning moment acting on the projectile. This moment and its resulting angular acceleration were then compared to the actual first maximum yaw observed in the test. The degree of correlation was examined using various statistical techniques. Overall uncertainty in the projectile dynamics was between 20%and 40%of the mean values of FMY.

  19. Geotechnical maps for recommendation on bored pile capacity in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksun Horpibulsuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of geotechnical maps in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand based on the boring logs and in situ test results collected from public and private sector sources. The standard penetration number, N was used to identify the soil type. The soil deposits in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality are divided into three layers: medium-to-stiff silty clay with N 50. The medium-to-stiff silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.8 to 7.5 metres and an average N value of 14 with a relatively low standard deviation of 1.08. The first hard silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.2 to 3.0 metres and an average N value of 42 with a standard deviation of 1.37. For a practical application in foundation engineering in which the pile tips of the bored piles are located in the second hard stratum with N > 50, eight pile tip zones with approximated load capacity are recommended for pile lengths of 3-10 metres.

  20. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J M

    1997-07-01

    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  1. STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF DRILL STRINGS WITH INTERNAL FLOWS OF LIQUIDS IN THE CHANNELS OF HORIZONTAL BORE-HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrusenko E.N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with elaboration of new technologies of hydrocarbons extraction from shales, in the oil and gas industry, the great attention is payed to the problems of drilling inclined and horizontal bore-holes. The peculiarities of these bore-hole drivage consist in essential influence of friction and contact forces on proceeding of drilling processes. In this paper, the problem about bifurcational buckling and small bending vibration of a rotating drill string lying in the channel of a horizontal bore-hole is stated. With allowance made for friction forces and additional constraint reactions, differential equations are deduced, their eigen-value solutions describing stability and vibration of the drill string of finite and infinite lengths are received.

  2. Fluoride transport due to injection of reject water from RO process into the ground water through downstream bore well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, C Anand; Agarwal, Sourabh; Sujish, D; Rajan, K K

    2011-10-01

    Fluoride removal using Reverse Osmosis has appreciable amount of fluorine in the reject stream. Disposal of reject water to surface water further contaminates the water body. It is required to dispose of this reject into the environment with minimal pollution. So a study on disposal of fluoride contaminated reject inside the ground water through bore well is done through theoretical modelling using COMSOL multiphysics software. It has been established that the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water due to injection of fluoride contaminated reject through bore well depends on the injection rate of reject inside the bore well and not on the initial background concentration of fluoride in the ground water. It has been found that for reject injection rate of 30 m3/day the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water with respect to initial background concentration of fluoride is less than 10% at a distance above 600m from the injection source after 100 years. PMID:23505817

  3. A two-compartment phantom for VOI profile measurements in small-bore 31P MR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhoff, Babro; Stubgaard, Max; Stensgaard, Anders;

    1998-01-01

    A two-compartment gel phantom for VOI profile measurements in volume-selective 31P spectroscopy in small-bore units is presented. The phantom is cylindrical with two compartments divided by a very thin (30 microm) polyethene film. This thin film permits measurements with a minimum of susceptibility...... influences from the partition wall. The phantom was used for evaluation of the volume selection method ISIS (image-selected in vivo spectroscopy). The position of the phantom was fixed in the magnet during the measurements, while the volume of interest (VOI) was moved stepwise over the border. The signal...... from the two compartments was measured for each position and the data were evaluated following differentiation. We have found this phantom suitable for VOI profile measurements of ISIS in small-bore systems. The phantom forms a useful complement to recommended phantoms for small bore-spectroscopy...

  4. A two-compartment phantom for VOI profile measurements in small-bore 31P MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-compartment gel phantom for VOI profile measurements in volume-selective 31P spectroscopy in small-bore units is presented. The phantom is cylindrical with two compartments divided by a very thin (30 μm) polyethene film. This thin film permits measurements with a minimum of susceptibility influences from the partition wall. The phantom was used for evaluation of the volume selection method ISIS (image-selected in vivo spectroscopy). The position of the phantom was fixed in the magnet during the measurements, while the volume of interest (VOI) was moved stepwise over the border. The signal from the two compartments was measured for each position and the data were evaluated following differentiation. We have found this phantom suitable for VOI profile measurements of ISIS in small-bore systems. The phantom forms a useful complement to recommended phantoms for small bore-spectroscopy. (author)

  5. Reducing ion energy spread in hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration by using two-ion-species targets

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, S M; Sheng, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The generation of fast ion beams in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration by intense laser pulses has been studied for targets with different ion components. We find that the oscillation of the longitudinal electric field for accelerating ions can be effectively suppressed by using a two-ion-species target, because fast ions from a two-ion-species target are distributed into more bunches and each bunch bears less charge. Consequently, the energy spread of ion beams generated in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration can be greatly reduced down to 3.7% according to our numerical simulation.

  6. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.

  7. Active and passive migration in boring isopods Limnoria spp. (Crustacea, Peracarida) from kelp holdfasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leonardo; Thiel, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Many boring isopods inhabit positively buoyant substrata (wood and algae), which float after detachment, permitting passive migration of inhabitants. Based on observations from previous studies, it was hypothesized that juvenile, subadult and male isopods migrate actively, and will rapidly abandon substrata after detachment. In contrast, reproductive females and small offspring were predicted to remain in floating substrata and thus have a high probability to disperse passively via rafting. In order to test this hypothesis, a colonization and an emigration experiment were conducted with giant kelp ( Macrocystis integrifolia), the holdfasts of which are inhabited by boring isopods from the genus Limnoria. A survey of benthic substrata in the kelp forest confirmed that limnoriids inhabited the holdfasts and did not occur in holdfast-free samples. Results of the colonization experiment showed that all life history stages of the boring isopods immigrated into young, largely uncolonized holdfasts, and after 16 weeks all holdfasts were densely colonized. In the emigration experiment, all life history stages of the isopods rapidly abandoned the detached holdfasts — already 5 min after detachment only few individuals remained in the floating holdfasts. After this initial rapid emigration of isopods, little changes in isopod abundance occurred during the following 24 h, and at the end of the experiment some individuals of all life history stages still remained in the holdfasts. These results indicate that all life history stages of Limnoria participate in both active migration and passive dispersal. It is discussed that storm-related dynamics within kelp forests may contribute to intense mixing of local populations of these burrow-dwelling isopods, and that most immigrants to young holdfasts probably are individuals emigrating from old holdfasts detached during storm events. The fact that some individuals of all life history stages and both sexes remain in floating

  8. Lesson for the Calculation No Longer Boring%让计算课不再枯燥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯培崇

    2014-01-01

    Although calculation content is boring,but if we can stand on the perspective of the students to look at teaching,carefully adjust their own class,in calculation classes focus on creating close to the situation of life to arouse students’interests,pay attention to let students understand calculate.%计算内容虽然是枯燥的,但教师要能站在学生的角度去审视教学,精心调整自己的课堂,在计算课中注重创设贴近生活的情境以调动学生的兴趣,注重让学生明白算理。

  9. Dynamic nuclear polarization for magnetic resonance imaging. An in-bore approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummenacker, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, the development of an in-bore liquid state DNP polarizer for MRI applications operating in flow through mode at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T was described. After an introductory chapter 1 and a chapter 2 on the theoretical background, chapter 3 dealt chiefly with the challenge of performing liquid state DNP at a high magnetic field of 9.2 T. The feasibility of performing liquid state DNP at this field was demonstrated for various solvents, as well as for metabolites in solution. Chapter 4 then moved to the aim of this work, the application of liquid state DNP for MRI experiments. It introduced the rationale of our approach, the hardware that was developed and demonstrated its performance in a clinical MRI tomograph.

  10. Modeling of propellant flow and explosively-driven valve for the Large-Bore Powder Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kin

    2014-05-01

    The Large-Bore Powder Gun is being developed to provide impact experiments on physics samples at the Nevada Test Site. A confinement system is required to seal the target chamber from the gun system to keep it free of hazardous materials from the impact event. A key component of the confinement system is an explosively driven valve (EDV), which uses a small amount of explosive to drive an aluminum piston perpendicular to the barrel axis into a tapered hole. The objective of this study is to evaluate designs of the confinement system via computational simulations using models validated with prototype experiments. A novel approach is adopted for this work, in which an energy source developed based on interior ballistic calculations was implemented in a hydrocode, which in turn was used to model the propellant flow, EDV operation, and their interactions. This paper describes the models and some simulation results leading to a proposed confinement system design.

  11. Dosimetric impact of image artifact from a wide-bore CT scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Vincent; Podgorsak, Matthew B.; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Malhotra, Harish K.; Wang, Iris Z. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Traditional computed tomography (CT) units provide a maximum scan field-of-view (sFOV) diameter of 50 cm and a limited bore size, which cannot accommodate a large patient habitus or an extended simulation setup in radiation therapy (RT). Wide-bore CT scanners with increased bore size were developed to address these needs. Some scanners have the capacity to reconstruct the CT images at an extended FOV (eFOV), through data interpolation or extrapolation, using projection data acquired with a conventional sFOV. Objects that extend past the sFOV for eFOV reconstruction may generate image artifacts resulting from truncated projection data; this may distort CT numbers and structure contours in the region beyond the sFOV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of image artifacts from eFOV reconstruction with a wide-bore CT scanner in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning. Methods: Testing phantoms (i.e., a mini CT phantom with equivalent tissue inserts, a set of CT normal phantoms and anthropomorphic phantoms of the thorax and the pelvis) were used to evaluate eFOV artifacts. Reference baseline images of these phantoms were acquired with the phantom centrally positioned within the sFOV. For comparison, the phantoms were then shifted laterally and scanned partially outside the sFOV, but still within the eFOV. Treatment plans were generated for the thoracic and pelvic anthropomorphic phantoms utilizing the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) to study the potential effects of eFOV artifacts on dose calculations. All dose calculations of baseline and test treatment plans were carried out using the same MU. Results: Results show that both body contour and CT numbers are altered by image artifacts in eFOV reconstruction. CT number distortions of up to -356 HU for bone tissue and up to 323 HU for lung tissue were observed in the mini CT phantom. Results from the large body normal phantom, which is close to a clinical patient size, show

  12. Modeling of propellant flow and explosively-driven valve for the Large-Bore Powder Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large-Bore Powder Gun is being developed to provide impact experiments on physics samples at the Nevada Test Site. A confinement system is required to seal the target chamber from the gun system to keep it free of hazardous materials from the impact event. A key component of the confinement system is an explosively driven valve (EDV), which uses a small amount of explosive to drive an aluminum piston perpendicular to the barrel axis into a tapered hole. The objective of this study is to evaluate designs of the confinement system via computational simulations using models validated with prototype experiments. A novel approach is adopted for this work, in which an energy source developed based on interior ballistic calculations was implemented in a hydrocode, which in turn was used to model the propellant flow, EDV operation, and their interactions. This paper describes the models and some simulation results leading to a proposed confinement system design.

  13. Dynamic nuclear polarization for magnetic resonance imaging. An in-bore approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the development of an in-bore liquid state DNP polarizer for MRI applications operating in flow through mode at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T was described. After an introductory chapter 1 and a chapter 2 on the theoretical background, chapter 3 dealt chiefly with the challenge of performing liquid state DNP at a high magnetic field of 9.2 T. The feasibility of performing liquid state DNP at this field was demonstrated for various solvents, as well as for metabolites in solution. Chapter 4 then moved to the aim of this work, the application of liquid state DNP for MRI experiments. It introduced the rationale of our approach, the hardware that was developed and demonstrated its performance in a clinical MRI tomograph.

  14. Measurements of laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas using x-ray laser refractometry (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, R.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, K.A.; Kato, Y. [Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Murai, K. [DMP, ONRI, Ikeda, Osaka 563 (Japan); Weber, F.; Barbee, T.W.; DaSilva, L.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 19.6 nm laser x-ray laser grid-image refractometer (XRL-GIR) to diagnose laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas. The XRL-GIR was optimized to measure two-dimensional electron density perturbation on a scale of a few tens of {mu}m in underdense plasmas. Electron density profiles of laser-produced plasmas were obtained for 10{sup 20}{endash}10{sup 22}thinspcm{sup {minus}3} with the XRL-GIR and for 10{sup 19}{endash}10{sup 20}thinspcm{sup {minus}3} from an ultraviolet interferometer, the profiles of which were compared with those from hydrodynamic simulation. By using this XRL-GIR, we directly observed laser channeling into overdense plasmas accompanied by a bow shock wave showing a Mach cone ascribed to supersonic propagation of the channel front. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Design And Construction Of A 15 T, 120 MM Bore IR Quadrupole Magnet For LARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushing accelerator magnets beyond 10 T holds a promise of future upgrades to machines like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Nb3Sn conductor is at the present time the only practical superconductor capable of generating fields beyond 10 T. In support of the LHC Phase-II upgrade, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is developing a large bore (120 mm) IR quadrupole (HQ) capable of reaching 15 T at its conductor peak field and a peak gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K. While exploring the magnet performance limits in terms of gradient, forces and stresses the 1 m long two-layer coil will demonstrate additional features such as alignment and accelerator field quality. In this paper we summarize the design and report on the magnet construction progress.

  16. Study on the response of the full-bore conductance sensor for water cut measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ronghua; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai; Dai, Xuefei; Shan, Fujun; Xu, Wenfeng

    2009-02-01

    This paper has proposed a new structure of full-bore conductance sensor, which is designed for measuring water cut of the oil-water two-phase flow. The structure of the full-bore conductance sensor and the measurement principle are introduced in the paper. The mental ring-shaped electrode is mounted on the outside wall of the cylindrical insulation body. When the electrode is provided with constant current, according to the electrical theory, the electrode generates a voltage, the value of which is inversely proportional to the conductivity of fluid flowing between the sensor and the casing. The electrostatic field simulations of the sensor are accomplished by using ANSYS software. The results of the potential distribution simulation show that the potential decays quickly from the electrode along r direction (radial) and z direction (axial)to both sides, and the potential only distributes in a very narrow area near the electrode. A series of static experiments on the sensor are carried out in laboratory. The experiment results agree with the simulation results. In radial direction, the closer the rod is to the sensor, the more sensitive the sensor becomes and the greater the relative response becomes. In axial direction, the electrode only responds in a certain region on both sides of the electrode and decays rapidly from the electrode to both sides. And the salinity experiment is conducted in salt solution (3000 ppm), which shows that within the allowable range of experiment error, there is no effect of salinity on the sensor response. response.

  17. Bored pile construction%冲孔灌注桩施工要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明晓; 洪小灵

    2012-01-01

    Bored pile foundation as a mature technology,because of its simple installation,construction machinery import and the convenience,fast pile forming speed,quality and reliable,widely used.The bored pile construction process may produce problems in detail,for coastal mud layer too thick,too many boulder distribution of geological environment,the old city construction site is small,it may encounter problems,especially the pile press machine,the punching process emerged in the mud circulation plugging,probe stone underwater concrete,quality control,reasonable solutions and preventive measures.%冲孔灌注桩作为一种成熟的桩基工艺,因其施工机械安装简单、进出场地方便,成桩速度快、桩身质量可靠,得到广泛的应用。本文对冲孔灌注桩施工过程中可能产生的问题进行详细阐述,针对沿海淤泥层过厚,孤石分布偏多的地质环境,老城区施工场地偏小,就可能遇到的问题,特别是桩机走机、冲孔过程中出现的泥浆循环堵管、探头石、水下混凝土质量控制,提出合理的解决方法及预防措施。

  18. First record of a pontoniine shrimp (Caridea, Palaemonidae) in association with a boring bivalve of the genus Spengleria (Bivalvia, Euheterodonta, Gastrochaenidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, C.H.J.M.; Meij, van der S.E.T.

    2010-01-01

    During fieldwork in Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia, in 2007, a pontoniine shrimp, most likely belonging to the genus Anchistus, was collected from a coral boring bivalve of the genus Spengleria. This is the first record of a pontoniine shrimp living in association with a boring bivalve. As it pro

  19. Automotive engine cylinder block cylinder bore biaxial fine boring process%汽车发动机汽缸体缸孔双轴精镗加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖铁忠; 罗静; 龚文均; 詹捷; 赵勇

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to an automobile engine cylinder block cylinder bore processing equipment and process requirements , this project compared the development of the cylinder hole boring machining center and special machine in home and abroad, and it analyzed the pros and cons of the two cylinder processing production line which is used the most widely. It chose the "hybrid flexible automatic production line" that companies and machine manufacturers consider priorly, designed a special boring machine of cylinder hole machining, special fixtures and process. Through the trial of the machine and cylinder bore machining experiment, the result of the test shows that the precisions of the cylinder bore reached the design index. Eventually, this project was put into operation in an enterprise.%针对某汽车发动机缸体缸孔加工设备与工艺要求,对国内外缸孔镗削加工中心与专用机床发展情况进行了对比,分析了应用最广泛的两种缸体加工生产线的优劣,选择了汽车企业与机床厂商均优先考虑的“混合型柔性自动线”,设计了缸孔加工专用镗床、专用夹具及工艺.通过机床的试制与缸孔加工实验,测得缸孔各项精度均达到了设计指标,最终在某企业得以投产.

  20. Three-dimensional rail-current distribution near the armature of simple, square-bore, two-rail railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, J.H. (US Army (US))

    1991-01-01

    In this paper vector potential is solved as a three dimensional, boundary value problem for a conductor geometry consisting of square-bore railgun rails and a stationary armature. Conductors are infinitely conducting and perfect contact is assumed between rails and the armature. From the vector potential solution, surface current distribution is inferred.

  1. Genome Sequence of Fusarium Isolate MYA-4552 from the Midgut of Anoplophora glabripennis, an Invasive, Wood-Boring Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Erin D.; Geib, Scott M.; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John E.

    2016-01-01

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is a clade of environmentally ubiquitous fungi that includes plant, animal, and insect associates. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the undescribed species FSSC 6 (isolate MYA-4552), housed in the gut of the wood-boring cerambycid beetle Anoplophora glabripennis. PMID:27445364

  2. Cause Analysis for the Wall Thinning and Leakage of a Small Bore Piping Downstream of an Orifice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyeong Mo [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A number of components installed in the secondary system of nuclear power plants are exposed to aging mechanisms such as FAC (Flow-Accelerated Corrosion), Cavitation, Flashing, and LDIE (Liquid Droplet Impingement Erosion). Those aging mechanisms can lead to thinning of the components. In April 2013, one (1) inch small bore piping branched from the main steam line experienced leakage resulting from wall thinning in a 1,000 MWe Korean PWR nuclear power plant. During the normal operation, extracted steam from the main steam line goes to condenser through the small bore piping. The leak occurred in the downstream of an orifice. A control valve with vertical flow path was placed on in front of the orifice. This paper deals with UT (Ultrasonic Test) thickness data, SEM images, and numerical simulation results in order to analyze the extent of damage and the cause of leakage in the small bore piping. As a result, it is concluded that the main cause of the small bore pipe wall thinning is liquid droplet impingement erosion. Moreover, it is observed that the leak occurred at the reattachment point of the vortex flow in the downstream side of the orifice.

  3. Welding device for tubular piece fixed into a bore of a plate such as a steam generator tube plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device for welding a tube to the inside of a bore in a steam generator tube plate has a movable assembly connecting a welding head to a fixing arrangement fitted into an adjacent tube. The connecting arrangement allows relative displacement between the two connected elements of translation in a sideway direction and of rotation about two perpendicular axes

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF NOX CONTROL ON A COMPRESSION IGNITION LARGE BORE RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume II of the report is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a large-bore, compression-ignition reciprocating engine burning diesel fuel. The engine was tested during two operating modes: at baseline (normal operation), and with fuel injection re...

  5. Technology Based on Wall-Thinning Prediction and Numerical Analysis Techniques for Wall-Thinning Analysis of Small-Bore Carbon Steel Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In approximately fifty utilities, including KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power), CHECWORKS is used as a tool for predicting and managing the wall thinning of carbon steel piping; this wall thinning is caused by flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC). It is known that CHECWORKS is only applicable to predict the wall thinning of piping with large bores. When dealing with small-bore steel piping, FAC engineers measure the thickness of the susceptible area that is selected on the basis of the experience and judgment of the engineer. This paper proposes the application of CHECWORKS for the management of wall thinning of small-bore piping. Four small-bore pipelines of a domestic nuclear power plant were analyzed from the viewpoints of FAC and fluid dynamics by using CHECWORKS and FLUENT code. Depending on the engineer's skill, CHECWORKS can also be used for the management of wall thinning of small-bore piping

  6. Genesis of the central zone of the Nolans Bore rare earth element deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld, Louise; Spandler, Carl; Hussey, Kelvin

    2015-08-01

    The Nolans Bore rare earth element (REE) deposit consists of a network of fluorapatite-bearing veins and breccias hosted within Proterozoic granulites of the Reynolds Range, Central Australia. Mineralisation is divided into three zones (north, central, and south-east), with the north and south-east zones consisting of massive REE-bearing fluorapatite veins, with minor brecciation and carbonate infill. The central zone is distinctively different in mineralogy and structure; it features extensive brecciation, a high allanite content, and a large, epidote-rich enveloping alteration zone. The central zone is a reworking of the original solid apatite veins that formed during the Chewings Orogeny at ca. 1525 Ma. These original apatite veins are thought to derive from phosphate-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluid exsolved from as-yet unrecognised alkaline magmatic bodies at depth. We define four ore breccia types (BX1-4) in the central zone on the basis of detailed petrological and geochemical analysis of drillcore and thin sections. BX1 ore comprises fluorapatite with minor crackle brecciation with carbonate infill and resembles ore of the north and south-east zones. Breccia types BX2, BX3, and BX4 represent progressive stages of ore brecciation and development of calc-silicate mineral (amphibole, epidote, allanite, calcite) infill. Comparison of bulk ore sample geochemistry between breccia types indicates that REEs were not mobilised more than a few centimetres during hydrothermal alteration and brecciation. Instead, most of the REEs were partitioned from the original REE fluorapatite into newly formed allanite, REE-poor fluorapatite and minor REE carbonate in the breccias. Negative europium (Eu) anomalies in the breccia minerals are accounted for by a large positive Eu anomaly in epidote from the alteration zones surrounding the ore breccias. This observation provides a direct link between ore recrystallisation and brecciation, and the formation of the alteration halo in

  7. Implementation of virtual simulation with a wide-bore multislice helcalct scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Multislice large-bore CT scanners specifically designed for radiotherapy have very recently become available. The issues relating to these type of scanners in radiotherapy and the implementation of virtual simulation are therefore of much current interest. A GE LightSpeed RT 4-slice helical CT scanner with a 80 cm bore size was installed in the radiation oncology department of the Newcastle Mater Hospital. This replaced our only simulator, a conventional unit. Specific issues relating to the imaging performance, and virtual simulation process with the large-bore multislice scanner were studied to ensure an accurate radiotherapy process. The detector array fully samples a 50 cm diameter scan circle. The reconstructed diameter can be increased to 65 cm with partial sampling of the extra volume. The GE Advantage Sim (ASim) virtual simulation software was commissioned, with transfer of CT images and DICOM RT plans to the Pinnacle radiotherapy planning system (RTPS) for dose calculation. Some specific issues investigated were: 1) The image quality performance for image reconstruction with the 65 cm area compared to 50 cm was measured with a line-pair phantom. 2) The accuracy of CT numbers with lateral position was assessed with a commercial electron density phantom. 3) Couch lateral movement and sag during acquisition were measured with the couch weighted with 86 kg. 4) The accuracy of the transfer of plans from ASim to Pinnacle was verified with known plan geometries. Image resolution throughout the entire CT image was found to be significantly lower when scan reconstruction was performed with 65 cm scan circle compared to 50 cm. The 0.3, 0.38 and 0.5 1p/mm bars were clearly distinguishable with the 50 cm reconstruction compared to only the 0.3 1p/mm bars in the 65 cm reconstruction. 2) CT numbers varied significantly outside the 50 cm reconstructed area. 3) Couch lateral movement during scanning was within 1 mm. Couch sag was 4 mm at the imaging plane

  8. Characterization of Single-Cylinder Small-Bore 4-Stroke CIDI Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henein, N A

    2005-11-30

    Direct injection diesel engines power most of the heavy-duty vehicles. Due to their superior fuel economy, high power density and low carbon dioxide emissions, turbocharged, small bore, high speed, direct injection diesel engines are being considered to power light duty vehicles. Such vehicles have to meet stringent emission standards. However, it is difficult to meet these standards by modifying the in-cylinder thermodynamic and combustion processes to reduce engine-out emissions. After-treatment devices will be needed to achieve even lower emission targets required in the production engines to account for the anticipated deterioration after long periods of operation in the field. To reduce the size, mass and cost of the after-treatment devices, there is a need to reduce engine-out emissions and optimize both the engine and the aftertreatment devices as one integrated system. For example, the trade-off between engine-out NOx and PM, suggests that one of these species can be minimized in the engine, with a penalty in the other, which can be addressed efficiently in the after-treatment devices. Controlling engine-out emissions can be achieved by optimizing many engine design and operating parameters. The design parameters include, but are not limited to, the type of injection system: (CRS) Common Rail System, (HEUI ) Hydraulically Actuated and Electronically controlled Unit Injector, or (EUI) Electronic Unit Injector; engine compression ratio, combustion chamber design (bowl design), reentrance geometry, squish area and intake and exhaust ports design. With four-valve engines, the swirl ratio depends on the design of both the tangential and helical ports and their relative locations. For any specific engine design, the operating variables need also to be optimized. These include injection pressure, injection rate, injection duration and timing (pilot, main, and post injection), EGR ratio, and swirl ratio. The goal of the program is to gain a better understanding of

  9. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1997-02-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the M&O is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment.

  10. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the MandO is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment

  11. Small-bore pipe supports systematically load-rated by computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-bore pipe supports are used extensively in nuclear- and fossil-power plants. Standard designs have been systematically load-rated to qualify all structural components of the support for applied load, including the effects of support weight, friction, and local stress. The standards cover variations in member length, anchor bolt location, and attachment position within a prescribed zone on the baseplate. These standard small-borepipe supports were designed with the aid of a computer program specifically developed for this application. The program performs a stress analysis of each support using a unit load vector revolved in one-degree increments. To cover all possible attachment locations, the loading zone is defined by an arc with a 5-inch radius centered about the end of the support. Because the attachment follows the unit load as it moves from location to location, the attachment weight may be located anywhere within the prescribed zone. Since the unit load is revolved accompanied by a force of 0.3 lb applied normal to the unit load, the rated load includes the effect of friction. Each standard prequalified support is rated based on design criteria governing baseplates, welds, tube local stress, tube buckling, and support stiffness and frequency

  12. Progress in the development of an 88-mm bore 10 T $Nb_{3}$Sn dipole magnet

    CERN Document Server

    den Ouden, A; Kirby, G A; Taylor, T; Siegel, N; ten Kate, H H J

    2001-01-01

    A 10 T, 2-layer cos( theta )-dipole model magnet with an 88 mm clear bore utilizing an advanced powder-in-tube Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor is being developed for the LHC. A dedicated conductor development program has resulted in a well performing Rutherford cable containing strands that uniquely exhibit both an overall current density of 600 A/mm/sup 2/ @ 11 T and filaments with a diameter of 20 mu m. The resistance between crossing strands amounts to 30-70 mu Omega by insertion of a stainless steel core. After being exposed to a transverse pressure of 200 MPa identical cables show negligible permanent degradation of the critical current. The mechanical support structure is further optimized in order to reduce the peak stress in the mid-plane to below 130 MPa at full excitation and to control the pre-stress build-up during system assembly. Prior to the manufacturing of the final coils a dummy 2-layer pole is wound, heat- treated at 675 degrees C and vacuum resin impregnated. This paper presents the current status o...

  13. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  14. Triple-bore hollow fiber membrane contactor for liquid desiccant based air dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Bettahalli, N.M. Srivatsa

    2016-04-26

    Dehumidification is responsible for a large part of the energy consumption in cooling systems in high humidity environments worldwide. Improving efficiency is therefore essential. Liquid desiccants offer a promising solution for dehumidification, as desired levels of humidity removal could be easily regulated. The use of membrane contactors in combination with liquid desiccant is attractive for dehumidification because they prevent direct contact between the humid air and the desiccant, removing both the potential for desiccant carryover to the air and the potential for contamination of the liquid desiccant by dust and other airborne materials, as well as minimizing corrosion. However, the expected additional mass transport barrier of the membrane surface can lower the expected desiccation rate per unit of desiccant surface area. In this context, hollow fiber membranes present an attractive option for membrane liquid desiccant contactors because of their high surface area per unit volume. We demonstrate in this work the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based triple-bore hollow fiber membranes as liquid desiccant contactors, which are permeable to water vapor but impermeable to liquid water, for dehumidification of hot and humid air.

  15. A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, J.; Mayer, S.

    2013-04-01

    Large two-stroke diesel engines for marine propulsion offer several challenges to successful implementation of the laser diagnostic techniques applied extensively in smaller automotive engines. For this purpose a fully operational large-bore engine has been modified to allow flexible optical access, through 24 optical ports with clear diameters of 40 mm. By mounting the entire optical set-up directly to the engine, effects of the vigorous vibrations and thermal drifts on alignment can be minimized. Wide-angle observation and illumination, as well as relatively large aperture detection, is made possible through mounting of optical modules and relays inside optical ports. This allows positioning of the last optical element within 10 mm from the cylinder wall. Finally, the implementation on a multi-cylinder engine allows for flexible and independent operation of the optically accessible cylinder for testing purposes. The performance of the integrated optical engine and imaging system developed is demonstrated through laser Mie scattering imaging of fuel jet structures, from which information on liquid penetration and spray angles can be deduced. Double pulse laser-sheet imaging of native in-cylinder structures is also demonstrated, for the purpose of velocimetry.

  16. ZEDEX - A study of damage and disturbance from tunnel excavation by blasting and tunnel boring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, S. [Golder Associates, Maidenhead (United Kingdom); Olsson, Olle; Stenberg, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co., Figeholm (Sweden); Alheid, H.J. [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Falls, S. [Queens Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of the ZEDEX project were to understand the mechanical behaviour of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent and its dependence on excavation method. Excavation with normal smooth blasting, blasting with low shock explosives and tunnel boring were studied. The drifts are located at Aespoe at a depth of 420 m, the profiles are circular and 5 m in diameter. The results have shown that there is a damaged zone, close to the drift wall dominated by changes in rock properties which are irreversible, and that there is a disturbed zone beyond the damaged zone that is dominated by changes in stress state and mainly reversible. There is no distinct boundary between the two zones. The results from ZEDEX indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The extent of the damaged zone can be limited through application of appropriate excavation methods. By limiting the extent of the damaged zone it should also be feasible to block pathways in the damaged zone by plugs placed at strategic locations 68 refs, 92 figs, 31 tabs

  17. A Superconducting Magnet with Center Field of 10 T and φ100 mm Warm Bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋良; 严陆光; 赵宝志; 宋守森

    2006-01-01

    A conduction-cooled superconducting magnet with central field of 10T and warm bore of 100 mm was designed based on a Nb3Sn and two NbTi superconducting coils. At the first stage, the NbTi coils have been fabricated and tested. A two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler with the second-stage power in 1W, 4.2K is used to cool the magnet from room temperature to 4 K. The superconducting magnet with the same power supply has the operating current of 116A. The magnet can be rotated with a support frame to be operated with either horizontal or vertical position. A pair of Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting current leads was employed to reduce heat leakage into 4.2K level. The NbTi coils reachto the operating current of 120A without training effect to be observed during charging of the magnet during 40 minutes charging time and generate the center field of 6.5T. The training effect in the NbTi magnet directly cool-down by cryocooler and inter-winding support structure in magnet can be remarkably improved. The superconducting magnet has been stably operated for more than 275 hours with 6.5T. In this paper, the detailed design, fabrication, stress analysis and quench protection characteristics are presented.

  18. Simulation of rock fragmentation induced by a tunnel boring machine disk cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A constitutive model based on the Johnson–Cook material model and the extended Drucker–Prager strength criterion was implemented in LS-DYNA to simulate the rock failure process induced by a single disk cutter of a tunnel boring machine. The normal, rolling, and side forces were determined by numerical tests. The simulation results showed that the normal and rolling forces increased with increasing penetration while the side force changed little. The normal force also increased under the conditions of confining pressures. The damage region of rock and cutting forces were also obtained by simulation of two disk cutters acting in tandem with different cutting spacings. The optimum ratio of cutter spacing to penetration depth determined from numerical modeling agrees well with that obtained by linear cutting machine tests. The average normal and rolling forces acting on the first cutter are slightly greater than those acting on the second when the cutting disk spacing is relatively small. The numerical modeling was verified to accurately capture the fragmentation of rock induced by disk cutter.

  19. Safety assessment of a bored pile diaphragm in a medium-height dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mikhail Petrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of embankment dams of a new type: a rockfill dam with a clay-cement concrete diaphragm built by bored-pile method. The authors give the results of numerical modeling of a stress-strain state of 69 m high dam, where a diaphragm in the form of a slurry trench cutoff wall cuts the whole dam body and a23 m deep gravel-pebble foundation. The co-authors describe a dam design where the diaphragm is constructed in three lifts. The diaphragm lifts are connected by slabs made of clay-cement concrete or clay. Numerical modeling was carried out with the use of the author’s computer program with consideration of non-linearity of soils deformation. Analyses showed that clay-cement concrete of a slurry trench cutoff wall is in a favorable stress state, as clay-cement concrete by its deformation characteristics (E = 100 МPа is close to gravel-pebble soil. The diaphragm deflections turned to be small; therefore, tensile stresses will not occur in it. In the diaphragm the clay-cement concrete is in a state of triaxial compression, therefore, its strength will be higher than unconfined compression strength (1-2 МPа. It may be expected that its strength will be provided. The nodes of connection of the slurry trench cutoff wall lifts also demonstrate safe operation.

  20. Regressive approach for predicting bearing capacity of bored piles from cone penetration test data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad S. Alkroosh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the least square support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm was applied to predicting the bearing capacity of bored piles embedded in sand and mixed soils. Pile geometry and cone penetration test (CPT results were used as input variables for prediction of pile bearing capacity. The data used were collected from the existing literature and consisted of 50 case records. The application of LSSVM was carried out by dividing the data into three sets: a training set for learning the problem and obtaining a relationship between input variables and pile bearing capacity, and testing and validation sets for evaluation of the predictive and generalization ability of the obtained relationship. The predictions of pile bearing capacity by LSSVM were evaluated by comparing with experimental data and with those by traditional CPT-based methods and the gene expression programming (GEP model. It was found that the LSSVM performs well with coefficient of determination, mean, and standard deviation equivalent to 0.99, 1.03, and 0.08, respectively, for the testing set, and 1, 1.04, and 0.11, respectively, for the validation set. The low values of the calculated mean squared error and mean absolute error indicated that the LSSVM was accurate in predicting the pile bearing capacity. The results of comparison also showed that the proposed algorithm predicted the pile bearing capacity more accurately than the traditional methods including the GEP model.

  1. Arrival of the Robbins machine in LSS1 after completing the boring of the SPS tunnel.

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    A few months after the signature of the agreement giving the go-ahead for the expansion of CERN into French territory (see Bulletin no.24/2004), work began on the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Two years later, on 31 July 1974, the Robbins tunnel-boring machine excavating the SPS tunnel returned to its starting point (see photograph). It had excavated a tunnel with a circumference of 7 kilometres, at an average depth of 40 metres below the surface. The tunnel straddled the Franco-Swiss border, making the SPS the first cross-border accelerator. More than a thousand magnets were needed to equip the ring. The civil engineering and installation work was completed in record time after only four years. The SPS was equipped with a control system which was ahead of its time, consisting of 24 small control computers distributed in the tunnel and the control room and communicating by means of a high-rate data transmission system. The main control room housed only four consoles as opposed to the banks of electronic eq...

  2. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  3. Flexible but boring: medical students' perceptions of a career in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Nicole; McMenamin, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Australia will continue to face a general practitioner (GP) shortage unless a significant number of medical students make general practice their chosen career. Perceptions regarding general practice may influence career choices. Thus this study investigated what Australian medical students perceived to be the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a career in general practice via an anonymous online survey. Fifty-one students indicated general practice to be their first ranked career preference, 200 indicated a career other than general practice, and 106 were undecided. Two-hundred and two students reported having been on a GP placement, whereas 88 students had not. Flexibility, continuity of patient care and work-life balance were the three most common stated advantages to pursuing a career in general practice whereas general practice being boring, poorly paid, and of low prestige were the three most common disadvantages stated. Some disadvantages stated by those with a non-GP preference were not stated by those with a GP preference (e.g. lack of procedural skills, lack of career advancement opportunities). Students with more than 80 h of GP placement experience were more likely to list the advantages of work-life balance and a diversity of problems/illnesses/patients than those with no placement experience but were also more likely to list the disadvantage of low prestige. Negative stereotypes regarding general practice continue to exist which may influence students' career choices.

  4. Conductor development for a wide bore 10 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ model dipole magnet

    CERN Document Server

    den Ouden, A; ten Kate, H H J; Kirby, G A; Taylor, T M; Siegel, N

    2000-01-01

    An 87.8 mm bore single aperture 10 T Nb/sub 3/Sn model dipole magnet is under development as a next step in the realization of high-field Nb/sub 3/Sn dipole magnets. The magnet is a 2 layer cos( theta )- dipole model as an alternative for the proposed NbTi D1 beam separator magnets for the LHC. After completion of the general magnetic and mechanical design, all attention is focused on the manufacturing and cabling of a novel powder-in-tube Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor. This Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor is characterized by a high non- Cu J/sub c/ of 2680 A/mm/sup 2/ at 10 T with an effective filament size of about 20 mu m. Cabling should result in a Rutherford type of cable exhibiting a moderate J/sub c/ degradation due to the cabling process itself, a low transverse stress sensitivity and a controllable minimum value of R/sub c/. The conductor development program is presented and the results are evaluated. Progress on the actual realization of the coils is briefly described. (9 refs).

  5. Development of 5 T NbTi Superconducting Magnet with 160 mm Warm Bore for Magnetic Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; WU Yu; LI Shaolei

    2008-01-01

    A wide-bore 5 T NbTi superconducting magnet,for magnetic separator,with an operational current of 106 A is designed and fabricated. This magnet with a φ60 mm room temperature bore is installed in a vacuum cryostat and immersed in liquid helium.A two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler is used to maintain the cooling shield at 70 K and the condenser at 4 K in order to achieve the zero vaporization loss of liquid helium. The cooling power of the GM cryocooler is 1.5 W.In this paper,the design,heat leakage,stress analysis,quench protection characteristics and preliminary test results are presented.

  6. Performance of a 14-T CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford coil with a 300 mm wide cold bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Awaji, Satoshi; Hanai, Satoshi; Ioka, Shigeru; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tsubouchi, Hirokazu

    2016-08-01

    A large-bore 14-T CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford coil was developed for a 25 T cryogen-free superconducting magnet. The magnet consisted of a low-temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet of NbTi and Nb3Sn Rutherford coils, and a high-temperature superconducting magnet. The Nb3Sn Rutherford coil was fabricated by the react-and-wind method for the first time. The LTS magnet reached the designed operation current of 854 A without a training quench at a 1 h ramp rate. The central magnetic field generated by the LTS magnet was measured by a Hall sensor to be 14.0 T at 854 A in a 300 mm cold bore.

  7. An alternative to the traveling-wave approach for use in two-port descriptions of acoustic bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, Eric

    2002-12-01

    For more than a decade, the digital waveguide model for musical instruments has been improved through the simulation of cylindrical and conical bores. But several difficulties remain, such as instabilities due to growing exponentials which appear when two conical bores are connected with decreasing taper. In this paper, an alternative overcoming these difficulties is proposed and can be extended to shapes other than cylinders, cones, and hyperbolic horns. A two-port model with more general state variables than usual traveling waves works efficiently for any shape without discontinuities in cross section. The equations for connecting separate elements at discontinuities make this two-port model appropriate for use in time domain simulation of the physical behavior of the wind instrument and its interactions with the player. The potential of this new approach is illustrated by several detailed examples.

  8. Design of MEBT short Q-magnets with large bores using MAFIA for the JHP proton linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Kazuo; Kato, Takao; Ueno, Akira; Yamazaki, Yoshishige [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    A radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac and a drift-tube linac (DTL) are under development for the 1-GeV high-intensity proton linac of the JHP. The design of quadrupole magnets to be used in the medium-energy beam transport line (MEBT) from RFQ to DTL is described in this paper. Since the quadrupole magnets are short, being comparable to (1.4 to 2 times as long as) the bore diameter, the leakage flux along the beam axis is quite significant. Therefore, the multipole components of magnetic fields arising from the leakage flux should be minimized by choosing the pole-piece shape on the basis of the three-dimensional analysis. The integral of the field gradient along the beam axis could be flattened within 1x10{sup -3} from the beam center to the bore radius. (author).

  9. Design and experimental results of the Nb3Sn double insert for an 18 tesla, 100 mm free bore solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high field, large free bore (more than 100 mm at 4.2 K) solenoid for the LASA Lab of INFN-Milan is almost completed. The Nb3Sn insert, constituted by two coils independently supplied, is designed to provide a central field in excess of 18 tesla when immersed in the background field of 8 tesla when immersed in the background field of 8 tesla generated by a NbTi solenoid of 550 mm room temperature bore (this last solenoid already being in operation). The construction technique--W and R followed by vacuum impregnation--is described and the results of tests and measurements carried out on models wound with the real conductor (a NbSn/Cu Rutherford flat cable) are reported

  10. Intrinsic advantages of packed capillaries over narrow-bore columns in very high-pressure gradient liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin

    2016-06-17

    250μm×100mm fused silica glass capillaries were packed with 1.8μm high-strength silica (HSS) fully porous particles. They were prepared without bulky stainless steel endfittings and metal frits, which both generate significant sample dispersion. The isocratic efficiencies and gradient peak capacities of these prototype capillary columns were measured for small molecules (n-alkanophenones) using a home-made ultra-low dispersive micro-HPLC instrument. Their resolution power was compared to that of standard 2.1mm×100mm very high-pressure liquid chromatography (vHPLC) narrow-bore columns packed with the same particles. The results show that, for the same column efficiency (25000 plates) and gradient steepness (0.04min(-1)), the peak capacity of the 250μm i.d. capillary columns is systematically 15-20% higher than that of the 2.1mm i.d. narrow-bore columns. A validated model of gradient chromatography enabled one to predict accurately the observed peak capacities of the capillary columns for non-linear solvation strength retention behavior and under isothermal conditions. Thermodynamics applied to the eluent quantified the temperature difference for the thermal gradients in both capillary and narrow-bore columns. Experimental data revealed that the gradient peak capacity is more affected by viscous heating than the column efficiency. Unlike across 2.1mm i.d. columns, the changes in eluent composition across the 250μm i.d. columns during the gradient is rapidly relaxed by transverse dispersion. The combination of (1) the absence of viscous heating and (2) the high uniformity of the eluent composition across the diameter of capillary columns explains the intrinsic advantage of capillary over narrow-bore columns in gradient vHPLC.

  11. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Showler, Allan T.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar). The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop i...

  12. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  13. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  14. Respiratory-Gated MRgHIFU in Upper Abdomen Using an MR-Compatible In-Bore Digital Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Auboiroux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To demonstrate the technical feasibility and the potential interest of using a digital optical camera inside the MR magnet bore for monitoring the breathing cycle and subsequently gating the PRFS MR thermometry, MR-ARFI measurement, and MRgHIFU sonication in the upper abdomen. Materials and Methods. A digital camera was reengineered to remove its magnetic parts and was further equipped with a 7 m long USB cable. The system was electromagnetically shielded and operated inside the bore of a closed 3T clinical scanner. Suitable triggers were generated based on real-time motion analysis of the images produced by the camera (resolution 640×480 pixels, 30 fps. Respiratory-gated MR-ARFI prepared MRgHIFU ablation was performed in the kidney and liver of two sheep in vivo, under general anaesthesia and ventilator-driven forced breathing. Results. The optical device demonstrated very good MR compatibility. The current setup permitted the acquisition of motion artefact-free and high resolution MR 2D ARFI and multiplanar interleaved PRFS thermometry (average SNR 30 in liver and 56 in kidney. Microscopic histology indicated precise focal lesions with sharply delineated margins following the respiratory-gated HIFU sonications. Conclusion. The proof-of-concept for respiratory motion management in MRgHIFU using an in-bore digital camera has been validated in vivo.

  15. Deformation Compensation of Ram Components of Super-heavy-duty CNC Floor Type Boring and Milling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fenghe; QIAO Lijun; XU Yaoling

    2012-01-01

    Ram is a very important component of super-heavy-duty computer numerical control (CNC) floor type boring-milling machine,and deformation of ram is a significant source causing errors in machining process.To compensate the deformation error of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring-milling machine,based on force analysis theory,the law and compensation measures of deformation of ram are researched.Based on the principle of torque (force) balance of the ram components,the formulas of compensation forces and compensation torques are derived,the relations between compensation forces (compensation torques)and the stroke distance of the ram are given.According to theoretical analysis results and the structural characteristics of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring and milling machine of TK6932,rods compensation,hydrostatic pressure compensation and wire rope compensation measures are taken to compensate the deformation error of ram.The experiments and computer simulation results show that the straightness of the ram at its overhanging end meets the national machinery industry standards.

  16. Molecular phylogeny and shell microstructure of Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau et al. 1968, boring into mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae), in relation to other mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owada, M.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the evolution of the symbiosis between the boring mussel Fungiacava eilatensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) and its mushroom coral hosts (Scleractinia: Fungiidae), which requires phylogenetic reconstructions of both the Mytilidae and the Fungiidae, contributes to the understanding of the comple

  17. Characterization of the excavation disturbance caused by boring of the experimental full scale deposition holes in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three holes, the size of deposition holes, were bored in the research tunnel in Olkiluoto (in Finland) using a novel full-face boring technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the holes, measurements of surface roughness using a laser profilometer, rock mechanical determinations and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, the He-gas method and the 14C-polymethylmethacrylate (14C-PMMA) method

  18. Wear Analysis of Disc Cutters of Full Face Rock Tunnel Boring Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhaohuang; MENG Liang; SUN Fei

    2014-01-01

    Wear is a major factor of disc cutters’ failure. No current theory offers a standard for the prediction of disc cutter wear yet. In the field the wear prediction method commonly used is based on the excavation length of tunnel boring machine(TBM) to predict the disc cutter wear and its wear law, considering the location number of each disc cutter on the cutterhead(radius for installation); in theory, there is a prediction method of using arc wear coefficient. However, the preceding two methods have their own errors, with their accuracy being 40% or so and largely relying on the technicians’ experience. Therefore, radial wear coefficient, axial wear coefficient and trajectory wear coefficient are defined on the basis of the operating characteristics of TBM. With reference to the installation and characteristics of disc cutters, those coefficients are modified according to penetration, which gives rise to the presentation of comprehensive axial wear coefficient, comprehensive radial wear coefficient and comprehensive trajectory wear coefficient. Calculation and determination of wear coefficients are made with consideration of data from a segment of TBM project(excavation length 173 m). The resulting wear coefficient values, after modification, are adopted to predict the disc cutter wear in the follow-up segment of the TBM project(excavation length of 5621 m). The prediction results show that the disc cutter wear predicted with comprehensive radial wear coefficient and comprehensive trajectory wear coefficient are not only accurate(accuracy 16.12%) but also highly congruous, whereas there is a larger deviation in the prediction with comprehensive axial wear coefficient(accuracy 41%, which is in agreement with the prediction of disc cutters’ life in the field). This paper puts forth a new method concerning prediction of life span and wear of TBM disc cutters as well as timing for replacing disc cutters.

  19. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: X-ray tube imaging performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, John A.; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A. [Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation.

  20. Commissioning and quality control of a dedicated wide bore 3T MRI simulator for radiotherapy planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitang Xing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a practical approach to commissioning and quality assurance (QA of a dedicated wide-bore 3 Tesla (3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner for radiotherapy planning.Methods: A comprehensive commissioning protocol focusing on radiotherapy (RT specific requirements was developed and performed. RT specific tests included: uniformity characteristics of radio-frequency (RF coil, couch top attenuation, geometric distortion, laser and couch movement and an end-to-end radiotherapy treatment planning test. General tests for overall system performance and safety measurements were also performed.Results: The use of pre-scan based intensity correction increased the uniformity from 61.7% to 97% (body flexible coil, from 50% to 90% (large flexible coil and from 51% to 98% (small flexible coil. RT flat top couch decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by an average of 42%. The mean and maximum geometric distortion was found to be 1.25 mm and 4.08 mm for three dimensional (3D corrected image acquisition, 2.07 mm and 7.88 mm for two dimensional (2D corrected image acquisition over 500 mm × 375 mm × 252 mm field of view (FOV. The accuracy of the laser and couch movement was less than ±1 mm. The standard deviation of registration parameters for the end-to-end test was less than 0.41 mm. An on-going QA program was developed to monitor the system’s performance.Conclusion: A number of RT specific tests have been described for commissioning and subsequent performance monitoring of a dedicated MRI simulator (MRI-Sim. These tests have been important in establishing and maintaining its operation for RT planning.

  1. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: x-ray tube imaging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, John A; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J A

    2009-04-01

    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation. PMID:19472613

  2. Interpretation of Geological Correlation Borings 1, 2, 3 in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Geophysical Correlation Boring (GCB) Program was organized to provide a comprehensive correlation capability between geological core and advanced borehole geophysical data, surface high resolution reflection seismic information and, when available, borehole geochemical and cone penetrometer data. This report provides results and initial geological interpretations of borings one, two, and three (GCB-1, GCB-2, GCB-3) located within the Upper Three Runs Watershed (A/M Area) of the Savannah River Site.

  3. High-field open versus short-bore magnetic resonance imaging of the spine: a randomized controlled comparison of image quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Enders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to compare the image quality of spinal magnetic resonance (MR imaging performed on a high-field horizontal open versus a short-bore MR scanner in a randomized controlled study setup. METHODS: Altogether, 93 (80% women, mean age 53 consecutive patients underwent spine imaging after random assignement to a 1-T horizontal open MR scanner with a vertical magnetic field or a 1.5-T short-bore MR scanner. This patient subset was part of a larger cohort. Image quality was assessed by determining qualitative parameters, signal-to-noise (SNR and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR, and quantitative contour sharpness. RESULTS: The image quality parameters were higher for short-bore MR imaging. Regarding all sequences, the relative differences were 39% for the mean overall qualitative image quality, 53% for the mean SNR values, and 34-37% for the quantitative contour sharpness (P<0.0001. The CNR values were also higher for images obtained with the short-bore MR scanner. No sequence was of very poor (nondiagnostic image quality. Scanning times were significantly longer for examinations performed on the open MR scanner (mean: 32±22 min versus 20±9 min; P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized controlled comparison of spinal MR imaging with an open versus a short-bore scanner, short-bore MR imaging revealed considerably higher image quality with shorter scanning times. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00715806.

  4. The use of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) as a seismic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Chwatal, Werner; Radinger, Alexander; Brückl, Ewald

    2014-05-01

    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method uses the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) as the seismic source. The method has been developed to predict the geological situation from reflections ahead of the tunnel face without disturbing the tunneling. The vibrations of the TBM are continuously monitored near the drilling head (pilot signal) as well as the direct and reflected seismic wave field at borehole geophones (geophone signal) situated in the tunnel wall behind the TBM. During the processing these signals are correlated and result in excellent seismic traces comparable to conventional seismic methods. The interpretation of the reflections leads to a nearly daily prognosis about 100 m ahead of the TBM. This system was successfully implemented at three different construction sites in Austria and is currently operating at one further. The cutters on front of the TBM head are pressed against the tunnel face and split the rock during rotating which is called the chipping process. This cutting process generates seismic waves radiated into the rock mass and results also in vibrations of the TBM itself. On the one hand it is important to know the source mechanism of the TBM and the radiation pattern of the seismic waves in all directions. Until now this is not well understood. To investigate this 3C-geophones were installed at the surface above the tunnel axis at different construction sites. The obtained seismograms show the forward and backward radiated seismic wave field of the TBM, for the present without consideration of the influence of the free surface. We compare this data with modelled seismograms in which we use different possible source mechanism, like single force or force due to tensile cracks. First results are shown in the scope of this work. On the other hand it is essential to know how good the recorded pilot signal represents the entire chipping process. Due to technically reasons the pilot signal has been registered so far on the non-rotating part

  5. Electro-Pulse-Boring (EPB):Novel Super-Deep Drilling Technology for Low Cost Electricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans O.Schiegg; Arild Rdland; Guizhi Zhu; David A Yuen

    2015-01-01

    The inexhaustible heat deposit in great depths (5–10 km) is a scientific fact. Such deposit occurs around the globe. Thereby, everybody is enabled to generate autonomously clean and renew-able energy, ample electricity and heat. The economical exploration and exploitation of this super-deep geothermal heat deposit requires a novel drilling technique, because the currently only deep drilling method (Rotary) is limited to about 5 km, due to the rising costs, depending exponentially on depth. Electro-pulse-boring (EPB) is a valuable option to Rotary drilling. EPB, originally investigated in Russia, is ready to be developed for industrialization. The feasibility of EPB is proven by many boreholes drilled up to 200 m in granite (crystalline). Estimates show outstanding low costs for drilling by EPB: 100€/m for a borehole with a large diameter (Ø) such as 20"(50 cm), independent on depth and applicable likewise for sediments and crystalline rocks, such as granite. The current rate of pene-tration (ROP) of 3 m per hour is planned to be augmented up to 35 m per hour, and again, irrespec-tive whether in sedimentary or crystalline formations. Consequently, a 10 km deep borehole with Ø 50 cm will ultimately be drilled within 12 days. EPB will create new markets, such as: (i) EPB shallow drilling for geotechnics, energy piles, measures in order to mitigate natural hazards, etc., (ii) EPB deep drilling (3–5 km) for hydro-geothermics, exploration campaigns etc. and (iii) EPB super-deep drilling (5–10 km) for petro-geothermics, enabling the economic generation of electricity. The autonomous and unlimited supply with cost efficient electricity, besides ample heat, ensures reliably clean and renew-able energy, thus, high supply security. Such development will provide a substantial relief to cope with the global challenge to limit the climate change below 2 ºC. The diminution of fossil fuels, due to the energy transition in order to mitigate the climate change, implies

  6. Anatomical study on Myoforceps aristatus, an invasive boring bivalve in S.E. Brazilian coast (Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Myoforceps aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817, also known as Lithophaga aristata, have been recently collected in the coasts of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil; a species that bores shells of other mollusks. This occurrence has been interpreted as an invasion of this species, originally from the Caribbean. The distinguishing character of the species is the posterior extensions of the shell crossing with each other. Because specimens with this character have also been collected in the Pacific Ocean, they all have been considered a single species. However, it is possible that more than one species may be involved in such worldwide distribution. With the objective of providing full information based on Atlantic specimens, a complete anatomical description is provided, which can be used in comparative studies with specimens from other oceans. Additional distinctive features of M. aristatus are the complexity of the incurrent siphon, the kidney opening widely into the supra-branchial chamber (instead of via a nephropore, and the multi-lobed auricle.O bivalve Myoforceps aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817, também conhecido como Lithophaga aristata, tem sido recentemente coletado nas costas do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, Brasil; uma espécie que perfura conchas de outros moluscos. Esta ocorrência está sendo interpretada como uma invasão de uma espécie originada do Caribe. O caráter distintivo da espécie é a região posterior da concha, com extensões que se cruzam. Como espécimes com esta característica também têm sido coletados no oceano Pacífico, eles tem sido considerados como pertencentes à mesma espécie. Entretanto, é possível que mais de uma espécie possam estar envolvidas nesta suposta distribuição mundial. Com o objetivo de fornecer informação completa baseada em material do Atlântico, uma descrição anatômica completa é dada, a qual pode ser usada em estudos comparativos com espécimes de outros oceanos. As caracter

  7. Caldecott 4th bore tunnel project: influence of ground water flows and inflows triggered by tectonic fault zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhuber, G.; G. Neuhuber1, W. Klary1, A. Nitschke1, B. Thapa2, Chris Risden3, T. Crampton4, D. Zerga5

    2011-12-01

    The 4th Bore is a highway tunnel on California State Route 24 currently under construction. The 4th Bore is undertaken by the California State Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) and the Contra Costa County Transportation Commission (CCTC) to alleviate traffic congestion on SR24 connecting the cities of Oakland and Orinda in the San Francisco East Bay Area. The cost for the 4th Bore is estimated at $ 390.8 Mill. The 3,249 ft long 4th Bore tunnel will have excavated dimensions of approximately 40 ft height and 49 ft width. A total of 7 cross passages will run between the 3rd and the new 4th bore. Geology and Hydrogeology: The project is located in the Oakland Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The Caldecott Tunnels lie within the easterly assemblage of the Hayward fault zone province which consists of a sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks that accumulated in the interval between about 16 and 8.4 Ma (Miocene). The basal rocks of these Tertiary deposits consist of deep marine basin sediments of the Monterey Group. These rocks are overlain uncomfortably by an interbedded sequence of terrestrial sediments (Orinda Formation) and volcanic rocks (Moraga Formation). The Tertiary rocks have been folded into large amplitude, NW trending folds that are cut by N trending strike and slip faults. The SF Bay Region, which is crossed by 4 major faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras), is considered one of the more seismically active regions of the world. The active Hayward fault lies 0.9mi to the west of the Caldecott Tunnels and is the closest major fault to the project area. The tunnel is at the moment under top heading construction: West Portal (360ft) and East Portal (1,968.5ft). While major faults typically influence groundwater flow, characterization of such influences is extremely difficult because of the heterogeneity of the hydraulic systems and the different lithological parameters and influences. Four major inactive fault zones striking

  8. Wrong detection of ventricular fibrillation in an implantable cardioverter defibrillator caused by the movement near the MRI scanner bore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Eugenio; Censi, Federica; Triventi, Michele; Mancini, Matteo; Napolitano, Antonio; Genovese, Elisabetta; Cannata, Vittorio; Falsaperla, Rosaria; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The static magnetic field generated by MRI systems is highly non-homogenous and rapidly decreases when moving away from the bore of the scanner. Consequently, the movement around the MRI scanner is equivalent to an exposure to a time-varying magnetic field at very low frequency (few Hz). For patients with an implanted cardiac stimulators, such as an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the movements inside the MRI environment may thus induce voltages on the loop formed by the leads of the device, with the potential to affect the behavior of the stimulator. In particular, the ICD's detection algorithms may be affected by the induced voltage and may cause inappropriate sensing, arrhythmia detections, and eventually inappropriate ICD therapy.We performed in-vitro measurements on a saline-filled humanshaped phantom (male, 170 cm height), equipped with an MRconditional ICD able to transmit in real-time the detected cardiac activity (electrograms). A biventricular implant was reproduced and the ICD was programmed in standard operating conditions, but with the shock delivery disabled. The electrograms recorded in the atrial, left and right ventricle channels were monitored during rotational movements along the vertical axis, in close proximity of the bore. The phantom was also equipped with an accelerometer and a magnetic field probe to measure the angular velocity and the magnetic field variation during the experiment. Pacing inhibition, inappropriate detection of tachyarrhythmias and of ventricular fibrillation were observed. Pacing inhibition began at an angular velocity of about 7 rad/s, (dB/dt of about 2 T/s). Inappropriate detection of ventricular fibrillation occurred at about 8 rad/s (dB/dt of about 3 T/s). These findings highlight the need for a specific risk assessment of workers with MR-conditional ICDs, which takes into account also effects that are generally not considered relevant for patients, such as the movement around the scanner bore. PMID

  9. Design, Fabrication and Initial Testing of a Large Bore Single Aperture 1 m Long Superconducting Dipole Made with Phenolic Inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC magnet development programme, a large bore single aperture 1-meter long superconducting dipole has been built in collaboration with HOLEC. The magnet features a single layer coil wound using the LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic inserts, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. This paper presents the magnetic and mechanical design and optimisation of the magnet. We describe the coil winding and curing, and present the construction and assembly procedures. Finally we report on the mechanical behaviour during assembly and cooling, and present the magnet training behaviour.

  10. TEST RESULTS OF 60-cm BORE Nb3Sn TEST MODULE COIL (TMC-I) IN THE CLUSTER TEST FACILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, T; Shimamoto, S.; T. Hiyama; Tsuji, H; Takahashi, Y.; Nishi, M; Tada, E.; Yoshida, K; Okuno, K.; Koizurmi, K.; Kato, T.; Nakajima, H; Takahashi, O; Oshikiri, M.; Yasukochi, K.

    1984-01-01

    An extended test of a 60-cm-bore Nb3Sn coil (TMC-I), constructed as a development of superconducting toroidal coil in tokamak machine, has been carried out in the cluster test facility. A 192-cm-length (one turn) normal zone, nucleated by a heat-input in the innermost turn, is recovered to superconducting state at 6 kA and 10 T. For the manual dump with a decay time constant of 6.6 sec (B = 1.0 T/sec), no damage is found on the TMC-I. In addition, a out-of-plane force mode operation, using on...

  11. Pulsed ion sheath dynamics in a cylindrical bore for inner surface grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Jiu Li; Fan Song Hua; Yang Wu Bao; Yang Size

    2002-01-01

    Based on authors' recently proposed grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) technique for inner surface modification of materials with cylindrical geometry, the authors present the corresponding theoretical studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma ion sheath between the grid electrode and the target in a cylindrical bore. Typical results such as the ion sheath evolution, time-dependent ion density and time-integrated ion energy distribution at the target are calculated by solving Poisson's equation coupled with fluid equations for collisionless ions and Boltzmann assumption for electrons using finite difference methods. The calculated results can further verify the feasibility and superiority of this new technique

  12. 一种可调镗刀刀杆的设计与应用%An Adjustment Of The Design And Application Of The Boring Tool Arbor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祥; 徐俊; 于辉

    2012-01-01

    Hole boring is a common method in Machinery Manufacturing. Its main advantage lies in guaranteeing precision of a hole in a quite good manner. As for some parts, such as a box, there are many holes and holes with different apertures. In the process of boring operations, various specifications of boring knife are needed and knife adjusting time is added. The design of an adjustable boring arbor with cutter mainly includes coarse and precise adjustment of swallowtail pair, stepper motor pair, and worm -gear pair. After coarse and precise adjustment, shanks' length can be adjusted to realize boring operations of holes with different diameters and depths. Moreover, direction between linking shanks and shanks of boring knife could be changed to bore inner holes in different places. Adjustable boring arbor could further enlarge coverage of boring operations and possesses a high application Value.%镗孔是机械制造中常用的方法,主要优点在于能很好地保证孔的位置精度。对于有的零件如箱体等,孔多且孔径大多不同,在镗削加工时,就需要多种规格的镗刀,也增加了对刀时问。设计一种可调式镗刀刀杆,主要包括燕尾导轨副、丝杠螺母副和蜗轮蜗杆副的粗调与微调机构等部分,通过粗调和微调机构的工作,可以实现刀杆伸出长度的调整,完成对不同直径和深度孔的镗削加工。另外,还可以变换连接杆和镗刀杆的方位,镗削位置不同的内孔。进一步扩大镗削加工的范围,具有很高的应用价值。

  13. Electron contamination modeling and reduction in a 1 T open bore inline MRI-linac system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oborn, B. M. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Kolling, S. [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Metcalfe, P. E. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); Crozier, S. [School of Information Technology and Electric Engineering, University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Litzenberg, D. W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Keall, P. J. [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: A potential side effect of inline MRI-linac systems is electron contamination focusing causing a high skin dose. In this work, the authors reexamine this prediction for an open bore 1 T MRI system being constructed for the Australian MRI-Linac Program. The efficiency of an electron contamination deflector (ECD) in purging electron contamination from the linac head is modeled, as well as the impact of a helium gas region between the deflector and phantom surface for lowering the amount of air-generated contamination. Methods: Magnetic modeling of the 1 T MRI was used to generate 3D magnetic field maps both with and without the presence of an ECD located immediately below the MLC’s. Forty-seven different ECD designs were modeled and for each the magnetic field map was imported into Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations including the linac head, ECD, and a 30 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3} water phantom located at isocenter. For the first generation system, the x-ray source to isocenter distance (SID) will be 160 cm, resulting in an 81.2 cm long air gap from the base of the ECD to the phantom surface. The first 71.2 cm was modeled as air or helium gas, with the latter encased between two windows of 50 μm thick high density polyethlyene. 2D skin doses (at 70 μm depth) were calculated across the phantom surface at 1 × 1 mm{sup 2} resolution for 6 MV beams of field size of 5 × 5, 10 × 10, and 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}. Results: The skin dose was predicted to be of similar magnitude as the generic systems modeled in previous work, 230% to 1400% ofD {sub max} for 5 × 5 to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}, respectively. Inclusion of the ECD introduced a nonuniformity to the MRI imaging field that ranged from ∼20 to ∼140 ppm while the net force acting on the ECD ranged from ∼151 N to ∼1773 N. Various ECD designs were 100% efficient at purging the electron contamination into the ECD magnet banks; however, a small percentage were scattered back into the beam and continued to the phantom

  14. PLC Transformation of T68 Boring Lathe%T68镗床的 PLC 改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小春

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the transformation of T68 boring lathe with Mitsubishi FX1S series PLC ,and states the transfor‐ming scheme of the system ,meantime ,according to the working requirements and characteristics of T68 boring lathe ,the as‐signments of PLC input and output was confirmed .The defects of relay control circuits were improved ,and a ladder diagram was designed and spot adjustment was performed .%介绍了利用三菱FX1S系列PLC对T68镗床的改造,阐述了系统的改造方案,同时配合T68镗床的工作要求和特点,确定了 PLC的输入输出分配,改进了原有继电器控制电路的缺陷,设计出梯形图并进行现场调试。

  15. Application of High-Pressure Cold Spray for an Internal Bore Repair of a Navy Valve Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, C. A.; Carter, M. J.; Ozdemir, O. C.; Hrabe, R. H.; Hoiland, B.; Stamey, T. E.; Champagne, V. K.; Eden, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cold spray is a reduced temperature, supersonic thermal spray process that is increasingly being used to perform repairs on high-value components. In this case, a valve actuator internal bore sealing surface was repaired on an aluminum 6061 hydraulic valve body using high-pressure cold spray. Corrosion damage to non-critical surfaces was also repaired, allowing the part to be returned to service. A high-pressure cold spray system was used to deposit gas-atomized 6061 aluminum powder using helium. The internal bore surfaces were approximately 100 mm in diameter with a depth of nearly 200 mm, and were sprayed using a 45° nozzle 65 mm in length. Modeling predictions validated the approach, and were used to identify a favorable nozzle geometry and process window combination. The minimum required adhesion strength on critical surfaces was 69 MPa. The average adhesion strength was 71.4 MPa, with glue failures on ASTM C633 bond test specimens. The actuator subsequently passed all bench top service related testing, was qualified as an approved repair, and is now in service. This was a first of its kind repair for cold spray, and demonstrates that it is a viable repair technology and is ready for broader implementation.

  16. 镗床多功能刀架设计%Design of the Muitifunctional Tool Rest for the Boring Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹业宏; 安宁; 刘小鹏

    2012-01-01

    针对没有平旋盘的镗床在加工过程中无法调整镗刀的径向进给量问题,通过对径向进刀系统传动链的运动分析和计算,设计一种镗床多功能刀架.使用该刀架能在主轴旋转的同时,手动或自动调节镗刀的径向进给量.并采用Pro/E软件建立了刀架的三维模型.使用该刀架能极大地方便加工操作,提高机床的加工效率.%Aiming at the question that the radial feed rate unable adjusted during processing of boring mills without flat spin dish, on the basis of analyzing and calculating the movement of the drive chain of radial feeding system, a multifunctional tool rest was designed with which the radial feed rate of a boring cutter could be adjusted manually or automatically while the main axis was rotating. By using the Pro/E software, the three-dimension model was built. By this method, the operation process and machining efficiency of the machine tool are improved substantially.

  17. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  18. Analysis of hydrological trend for radioactivity content in bore-hole water samples using wavelet based denoising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wavelet transform based denoising methodology has been applied to detect the presence of any discernable trend in 137Cs and 90Sr activity levels in bore-hole water samples collected four times a year over a period of eight years, from 2002 to 2009, in the vicinity of typical nuclear facilities inside the restricted access zones. The conventional non-parametric methods viz., Mann–Kendall and Spearman rho, along with linear regression when applied for detecting the linear trend in the time series data do not yield results conclusive for trend detection with a confidence of 95% for most of the samples. The stationary wavelet based hard thresholding data pruning method with Haar as the analyzing wavelet was applied to remove the noise present in the same data. Results indicate that confidence interval of the established trend has significantly improved after pre-processing to more than 98% compared to the conventional non-parametric methods when applied to direct measurements. -- Highlights: ► Environmental trend analysis with wavelet pre-processing was carried out. ► Removal of local fluctuations to obtain the trend in a time series with various mother wavelets. ► Theoretical validation of the methodology with model outputs. ► Efficient detection of trend for 137Cs, 90Sr in bore-hole water samples improves the associated confidence interval to more than 98%. ► Wavelet based pre-processing reduces the indecisive nature of the detected trend

  19. Seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures revealed by X-ray computed tomography of boring cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshito; Komatsubara, Junko

    2016-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) allows us to visualize three-dimensional structures hidden in boring cores nondestructively. We applied medical X-ray CT to cores containing seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDSs) obtained from the Kanto region of Japan, where the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake occurred. The CT images obtained clearly revealed various types of the seismically induced SSDSs embedded in the cores: a propagating sand dyke bent complexly by the preexisting geological structure, deformed laminations of fluidized sandy layers, and two types of downward mass movement (ductile downward folding and brittle normal faulting) as compensation for upward sand transport through sand dykes. Two advanced image analysis techniques were applied to the sand dyke CT images for the first time. The GrowCut algorithm, a specific digital image segmentation technique that uses cellular automata, was used successfully to extract the three-dimensional complex sand dyke structures embedded in the sandy sediments, which would have been difficult to achieve using a conventional image processing technique. Local autocorrelation image analysis was performed to detect the flow pattern aligned along the sand dykes objectively. The results demonstrate that X-ray CT coupled with advanced digital image analysis techniques is a promising approach to studying the seismically induced SSDSs in boring cores.

  20. Distraction and task engagement: How interesting and boring information impact driving performance and subjective and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Maikala, Rammohan

    2017-01-01

    As more devices and services are integrated into vehicles, drivers face new opportunities to perform additional tasks while driving. While many studies have explored the detrimental effects of varying task demands on driving performance, there has been little attention devoted to tasks that vary in terms of personal interest or investment-a quality we liken to the concept of task engagement. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of task engagement on driving performance, subjective appraisals of performance and workload, and various physiological measurements. In this study, 31 participants (M = 37 yrs) completed three driving conditions in a driving simulator: listening to boring auditory material; listening to interesting material; and driving with no auditory material. Drivers were simultaneously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy, heart monitoring and eye tracking systems. Drivers exhibited less variability in lane keeping and headway maintenance for both auditory conditions; however, response times to critical braking events were longer in the interesting audio condition. Drivers also perceived the interesting material to be less demanding and less complex, although the material was objectively matched for difficulty. Drivers showed a reduced concentration of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin when listening to interesting material, compared to baseline and boring conditions, yet they exhibited superior recognition for this material. The practical implications, from a safety standpoint, are discussed.

  1. The Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) Measurement System to Measure the Quality of Physical Model of Bored Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibit, Denniswara; Handayani, Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    The crosshole sonic logging measurement to measure the quality of bored piles is presented in this paper. The development of crosshole measurement system on physical bored pile modeling was carried out. The diameter of the concrete model was around 1 m and the height of the model was 1 m. In the model two holes were constructed to simulate the crosshole measurement system in the field. The two holes were filled with water and then two transducers were lowered in the holes. The transducers were built from audio speaker and microphone and they were sealed by rubber material so that the transducers were water proof. The speaker transducer acted as transmitter and the microphone transducer acted as receiver. The acoustic wave transmitted from the speaker penetrated in the concrete material and received by receiver. By analyzing the waveform arrived at the receiver by means of datalogger we determine the condition the concrete pile i.e. whether there were cavities in the concrete etc.

  2. Influence of pressure conditions and back-filling materials on the durability of bore-hole ground loops; Lebensdauer von Erdwaermesonden in Bezug auf Druckverhaeltnisse und Hinterfuellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, R. [E. Rohner, Arnegg (Switzerland); Rybach, L.; Salton, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ), Institut fuer Geophysik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the influence of the relatively high pressures found in ground loops at depths of more than 200 metres and the effects caused by overloading the ground loops. The latter can cause the back-filling between the ground loop and the surrounding rock to freeze. The report describes tests carried out on 70-metre and 265-metre deep test bore-hole installations. The results of investigations into the influence of such pressure conditions on the materials of the ground loop and their service life are presented. The results are also compared with simulations using the FRACTure and EED calculation programmes. Details are given on the bore-holes with respect to their geology and construction. The report concludes that bore-hole ground loops can be considered as being very robust components with a long service life, provided they are designed and installed according to accepted professional standards.

  3. Test with different stress measurement methods in two orthogonal bore holes in Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Thomas; Stigsson, Martin [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    conclusions have been drawn, based on the stress measurements and deeper investigations: The following stress state is obtained at the target volume at about -455 m. The minimum horizontal stress is between 10 and 13 MPa, which is lower than the theoretical vertical stress. The maximum horizontal stress is 24 {+-}5 MPa, most likely within the upper range. The vertical stress is between 15 and 20 MPa, most probably is this value only local due to the presence of a nearby fracture. The local disturbance of the stress field in the rock mass, due to discontinuities has been demonstrated. This also indicates one of the problems with stress measurements in boreholes. In the area with significant anisotropic stress conditions all the tested methods were able to determine the orientation of the principal major horizontal stress within {+-} 10 deg. The microscopy investigations confirm two sets of microcracks in the overcored core. One set was parallel and near the bore hole bottom and one set was perpendicular to the bottom and located a bit away from the hole bottom. The results from the overcoring may be influenced by microcracks, causing additional non-elastic strains. Only the results from the DDGS seem to have been influenced, indicating that the hollow cylinder of a 3D stress cell may be less sensitive for stress induced sample disturbance than core samples from the 2D Door stopper cell. The determination of Young's modulus in a medium grained crystalline rock with heterogeneity may not be trivial using core samples. The results from the determination influence the calculated stresses. Hydraulic fracturing most likely measures the most correct value of the minimum horizontal stress, provided that the induced fracture is aligned with the borehole. If the rock behaves reasonable elastic the overcoring methods provide stress magnitudes with an uncertainty of 15-20%. It seems likely that the overcoring methods may overestimate the stress magnitudes at large depth, due to the

  4. The Nolans Bore rare-earth element-phosphorus-uranium mineral system: geology, origin and post-depositional modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, David L.; Maas, Roland; Cross, Andrew; Hussey, Kelvin J.; Mernagh, Terrence P.; Fraser, Geoff; Champion, David C.

    2016-08-01

    Nolans Bore is a rare-earth element (REE)-U-P fluorapatite vein deposit hosted mostly by the ~1805 Ma Boothby Orthogneiss in the Aileron Province, Northern Territory, Australia. The fluorapatite veins are complex, with two stages: (1) massive to granular fluorapatite with inclusions of REE silicates, phosphates and (fluoro)carbonates, and (2) calcite-allanite with accessory REE-bearing phosphate and (fluoro)carbonate minerals that vein and brecciate the earlier stage. The veins are locally accompanied by narrow skarn-like (garnet-diopside-amphibole) wall rock alteration zones. SHRIMP Th-Pb analyses of allanite yielded an age of 1525 ± 18 Ma, interpreted as the minimum age of mineralisation. The maximum age is provided by a ~1550 Ma SHRIMP U-Pb age for a pegmatite that predates the fluorapatite veins. Other isotopic systems yielded ages from ~1443 to ~345 Ma, implying significant post-depositional isotopic disturbance. Calculation of initial ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr at 1525 Ma and stable isotope data are consistent with an enriched mantle or lower crust source, although post-depositional disturbance is likely. Processes leading to formation of Nolans Bore began with north-dipping subduction along the south margin of the Aileron Province at 1820-1750 Ma, producing a metasomatised, volatile-rich, lithospheric mantle wedge. About 200 million years later, near the end of the Chewings Orogeny, this reservoir and/or the lower crust sourced alkaline low-degree partial melts which passed into the mid- and upper-crust. Fluids derived from these melts, which may have included phosphatic melts, eventually deposited the Nolans Bore fluorapatite veins due to fluid-rock interaction, cooling, depressurisation and/or fluid mixing. Owing to its size and high concentration of Th (2500 ppm), in situ radiogenic heating caused significant recrystallisation and isotopic resetting. The system finally cooled below 300 °C at ~370 Ma, possibly in response to unroofing during the Alice Springs

  5. Assembly And Test Of A 120 MM Bore 15 T Nb3Sn Quadrupole For The LHC Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been developing a 1-meter long, 120 mm bore Nb3Sn IR quadrupole magnet (HQ). With a design short sample gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K and a peak field approaching 15 T, one of the main challenges of this magnet is to provide appropriate mechanical support to the coils. Compared to the previous LARP Technology Quadrupole and Long Quadrupole magnets, the purpose of HQ is also to demonstrate accelerator quality features such as alignment and cooling. So far, 8 HQ coils have been fabricated and 4 of them have been assembled and tested in HQ01a. This paper presents the mechanical assembly and test results of HQ01a.

  6. A sparsely encrusted hardground with abundant Trypanites borings from the Llandovery of the Velise River, western Estonia (Baltica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Päärdu hardground from the Telychian (Rumba Formation of western Estonia is sparsely encrusted (0.4% of the studied surface by possible tabulate corals, sheet-like bryozoans and discoidal echinoderm holdfasts. Both the upper and cryptic sides of the hardground are intensely bioeroded by Trypanites borings. The taxonomic composition of the Päärdu hardground association is rather different from the characteristic Silurian association in being dominated by tabulate corals, while bryozoans and echinoderms played a minor role in the association. The Päärdu hardground is more sparsely encrusted than common for the Late Ordovician and Silurian hardgrounds, but this may be a characteristic feature of the hardgrounds of Baltica. The Päärdu hardground is important among the Silurian hardgrounds because it has unusually low encrustation combined with high bioerosion.

  7. Spectrum Gamma Ray bore hole logging while tripping with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Steinke, Stephan; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wefer, Gerold

    2013-04-01

    The robotic Sea Floor Drill Rig MARUM-MeBo developed at the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen was used to retrieve long sediment cores at two sites in the northern South China Sea. Both sites are located in about 1000 m water depth in southeasterly and southwesterly direction of the Pearl River mouth, respectively. South East Asian Monsoon variability controls terrigenous material transport by rivers into the South China Sea. The Pearl River is one of the largest rivers of the region that discharges into the northern South China Sea. The terrigenous fraction of marine sediments of the northern South China Sea therefore provides an excellent archive for reconstructing past variability of the South East Asian Monsoon system. In analogy to the drilling strategy within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program IODP multiple holes were drilled in order to generate continuous spliced records at both sites. Overall the MARUM-MeBo drilled 374 m during 5 deployments with a maximum drilling depth of 80.85 m and an average core recovery of 94 %. Here we present first results of bore hole logging conducted during 4 of the 5 deployments with a spectrum gamma ray (SGR) probe adapted for the use with MARUM-MeBo. This probe is an autonomous slim hole probe that is used in the logging while tripping mode. This method is especially favorable for remote controlled drilling and logging operation. The probe is equipped with its own energy source and data storage. The probe is lowered into the drill string after the target wire-line coring depth is reached and after the last inner core barrel has been retrieved. When the probe has landed on the shoulder ring at the bottom of the hole, the drill string is pulled out and disassembled. The probe, while being raised with the drill string, continuously measures the geophysical properties of the in situ sediments and rocks. Since the bore hole is stabilized during the tripping process by the drill string

  8. CFD SIMULATION OF 3D FLOW IN LARGE-BORE AXIAL-FLOW PUMP WITH HALF-ELBOW SUCTION SUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fu-jun; LI Yao-jun; CONG Guo-hui; WANG Wen-e; WANG Hai-song

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations of 3D turbulent flow in a large-bore axial-flow pump coupled with half-elbow suction sump were performed by using CFD approach. The numerical model and velocity and pressure distributions in entire flow passage were presented. The obvious backflow in half-elbow suction sump and strong flow nonuniformity at suction sump outlet were observed, whereas these phenomena were not observed in existing studies performed for a separate suction sump by either experimental or numerical approach. This result indicates that the interaction between half-elbow suction sump and impeller has significant effect on the flow distribution in the pump passage. The change of pump efficiency caused by the interaction was discussed.

  9. Test results of HD2, a high field Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole with a 36 mm bore

    CERN Document Server

    Ferracin, P

    2009-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed the 1 m long Nb3Sn dipole magnet HD2. With tilted (flared) ends to avoid obstructing a 36 mm clear bore, HD2 represents a step towards the use of block-type coils in high-field accelerator magnets. The coil design has been optimized to minimize geometric harmonics and reduce the conductor peak field in the end region, resulting in an expected short sample dipole field of 15 T. The support structure is composed by an external aluminum shell pretensioned with pressurized bladders and interference keys, and by two stainless steel end plates compressing the coil ends through four aluminum axial rods. We report on magnet design, assembly, and test results, including training performance, quench locations, and strain gauge measurements

  10. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, paleomagnetism, and evolution of the Boring volcanic field, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Robert J.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Evarts, Russell C.; Conrey, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar investigations of a large suite of fine-grained basaltic rocks of the Boring volcanic field (BVF), Oregon and Washington (USA), yielded two primary results. (1) Using age control from paleomagnetic polarity, stratigraphy, and available plateau ages, 40Ar/39Ar recoil model ages are defined that provide reliable age results in the absence of an age plateau, even in cases of significant Ar redistribution. (2) Grouping of eruptive ages either by period of activity or by composition defines a broadly northward progression of BVF volcanism during latest Pliocene and Pleistocene time that reflects rates consistent with regional plate movements. Based on the frequency distribution of measured ages, periods of greatest volcanic activity within the BVF occurred 2.7–2.2 Ma, 1.7–0.5 Ma, and 350–50 ka. Grouped by eruptive episode, geographic distributions of samples define a series of northeast-southwest–trending strips whose centers migrate from south-southeast to north-northwest at an average rate of 9.3 ± 1.6 mm/yr. Volcanic activity in the western part of the BVF migrated more rapidly than that to the east, causing trends of eruptive episodes to progress in an irregular, clockwise sense. The K2O and CaO values of dated samples exhibit well-defined temporal trends, decreasing and increasing, respectively, with age of eruption. Divided into two groups by K2O, the centers of these two distributions define a northward migration rate similar to that determined from eruptive age groups. This age and compositional migration rate of Boring volcanism is similar to the clockwise rotation rate of the Oregon Coast Range with respect to North America, and might reflect localized extension on the trailing edge of that rotating crustal block.

  11. Development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.; King, T.L.; Manns, W.C.; Haywood, R.G. (Fusion Technology and Charged Particle Research Lab., Urbana, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The most effective known way of refueling a tokamak fusion reactor is to inject high-speed pellets composed of fusion fuel (i.e., isotopes of hydrogen) at a controlled rate and velocity. To effect such a fueling scheme, in particular for contemporary and future large tokamaks, pellet speeds as high as 10 km/s and injection rates as high a 10 Hz may very well be required. Also, to prevent the onset of plasma instabilities pellet sizes need to be maintained below 3 to 4 mm in diameter. These requirements, plus the fact that the yield strength of frozen hydrogen is extremely low ([approximately]2 atmospheres) make the task of developing in ideal pellet injection scheme a challenge. In an attempt to meet this challenge, a fuseless small-bore railgun has been under development at the University of Illinois during the past several years. Some of the unique features of this railgun system are: (1) it is a two-stage accelerator with the first stage consisting of a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas gun, and the second stage a railgun, (2) it is a fuseless railgun in that the plasma armature is formed by electrically breaking down the propellant gas immediately behind the pellet, (3) it is a smallbore railgun with the bore size in the range of a few millimeters in diameter. This report presents a brief review of some of the existing hydrogen pellet acceleration techniques, an overview of the University of Illinois railgun program, the results to date, and the future plan.

  12. Surgical Versus Percutaneous Femoral Access for Delivery of Large-Bore Cardiovascular Devices (from the PARTNER Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, James M; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Cohen, David J; Blackstone, Eugene H; Welt, Frederick G P; Davidson, Michael J; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Eng, Marvin H; Allen, Keith B; Xu, Ke; Lowry, Ashley M; Lei, Yang; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Brown, David L; Mack, Michael J; Webb, John G; Smith, Craig R; Leon, Martin B; Eisenhauer, Andrew C

    2016-05-15

    It is unclear if surgical exposure confers a risk advantage compared with a percutaneous approach for patients undergoing endovascular procedures requiring large-bore femoral artery access. From the randomized controlled Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve trials A and B and the continued access registries, a total of 1,416 patients received transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement, of which 857 underwent surgical, and 559 underwent percutaneous access. Thirty-day rates of major vascular complications and quality of life scores were assessed. Propensity matching was used to adjust for unmeasured confounders. Overall, there were 116 major vascular complications (8.2%). Complication rates decreased dramatically during the study period. In unadjusted analysis, major vascular complications were significantly less common in the percutaneous access group (35 [6.3%] vs 81 [9.5%] p = 0.032). However, among 292 propensity-matched pairs, there was no difference in major vascular complications (22 [7.5%] vs 28 [9.6%], p = 0.37). Percutaneous access was associated with fewer total in-hospital vascular complications (46 [16%] vs 66 [23%], p = 0.036), shorter median procedural duration (97 interquartile range [IQR 68 to 166] vs 121 [IQR 78 to 194] minutes, p length of stay (4 [IQR 2 to 8] vs 6 [IQR 3 to 10] days, p <0.0001). There were no significant differences in quality of life scores at 30 days. Surgical access for large-bore femoral access does not appear to confer any advantages over percutaneous access and may be associated with more minor vascular complications. PMID:27036077

  13. Development of small-bore, high-current-density railgun as testbed for study of plasma-materials interaction. Progress report for October 16, 2000 - May 13, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present document is a final technical report summarizing the progress made during 10/16/2000 - 05/13/2003 toward the development of a small-bore railgun with transaugmentation as a testbed for investigating plasma-materials interaction

  14. Quality assessment in in vivo NMR spectroscopy: V. Multicentre evaluation of prototype test objects and protocols for performance assessment in small bore MRS equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, F.A.; Canese, R; Podo, F;

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the results of multicentre studies aimed at designing, constructing, and evaluating prototype test objects for performance assessment in small-bore MRS systems, by utilizing the test protocols already proposed by the EEC COMAC-BME Concerted Action for clinical MRS equipment...

  15. 差动斜楔精密微调镗刀排的研究%The researches in differential wedge micro-adjustable boring tool row

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡运林

    2012-01-01

    采用差动螺距作为微调机构,成功地解决了镗刀直径的精确调节问题.采用差动螺距可以获得比一般螺距更高的微调精度.装置中采用斜楔机构主要实现换向,使差动螺杆的空间布置可以平行于镗杆轴线而不垂直于镗杆轴线,使整个装置安全性高、结构紧凑.装置中设置有两个刀杆安装位置,可以实现高效的镗刀排加工方式.刀杆接口采用莫氏锥实现联接,使刀具安装的通用性较大,可以安装镗刀、钻头、铣刀等多种刀具.%Using differential pitch as the fine-tuning component,it successfully solved the problem about which the precise adjusting boring tool diameter. The use of differential pitch can get a higher fine-tuning accuracy than the general. The devices use primarily wedge institutions to change direction, it makes the differential screw' s spatial arrangement been parallel to the axis of the boring bar and not arranged perpendicular to the axis of the boring bar, so that the whole device is safe and compact. The device has two arbor installation position.it can successfully efficiently complete processing by the method using the boring tool row. Arbor interface using morse taper to achieve connection, it makes the tool' s install had the high versatility, so you can install the boring tools, drills, milling cutters and other tools.

  16. An assessment of image distortion and CT number accuracy within a wide-bore CT extended field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeksma, B; Truant, D; Holloway, L; Arumugam, S

    2015-06-01

    Although wide bore computed tomography (CT) scanners provide increased space for patients, the scan field of view (sFOV) remains considerably smaller than the bore size. Consequently, patient anatomy which spans beyond the sFOV is truncated and the information is lost. As a solution, some manufacturers provide the capacity to reconstruct CT images from a partial dataset at an extended field of view (eFOV). To assess spatial distortion within this eFOV three phantoms were considered a 30 × 30 × 20 cm(3) slab of solid water, the Gammex electron density CT phantom and a female anthropomorphic phantom. For each phantom, scans were taken centrally within the sFOV as a reference image and with the phantom edge extended at 1 cm intervals from 0 to 5 cm beyond the sFOV into the eFOV. To assess CT number accuracy various tissue equivalent materials were scanned in the eFOV and resulting CT numbers were compared to inserts scanned within the sFOV. For all phantom geometries, objects within the eFOV were geometrically overestimated with elongation of phantom shapes into the eFOV. The percentage increase in size ranged from 0.22 to 15.94 % over all phantoms considered. The difference between eFOV and sFOV CT numbers was dependent upon insert density. The eFOV underestimated CT numbers in the range of -127 to -230 HU for soft tissue densities and -278 to -640 for bone densities. This trend reversed for low tissue densities with the CT numbers in the eFOV being overestimated by 100-130 HU for lung equivalent inserts. Initial correlation between eFOV and sFOV CT numbers was seen and a correction function was successfully applied to better estimate the CT number representative of that seen within the sFOV. PMID:26048719

  17. Observations of large-amplitude cross-shore internal bores near the shelf break, Santa Monica Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Two sets of moorings were deployed along a cross-shelf transect in central Santa Monica bay for four months in the winter of 1998-1999. Both sites had an array of instruments attached to tripods set on the seafloor to monitor currents over the entire water column, surface waves, near-bed temperature, water clarity and suspended sediment. A companion mooring had temperature sensors spaced approximately 10 m apart to measure temperature profiles between the surface and the seafloor. One array was deployed in 70 m of water at a site adjacent to the shelf break, just northwest of a major ocean outfall. The other was deployed on the mid shelf in 35 m of water approximately 6 km from the shelf break site. The subtidal currents in the region flowed parallel to the isobaths with fluctuating time scales around 10 days, a typical coastal-ocean pattern. However, during the falling phase of the barotropic spring tide, sets of large-amplitude, sheared cross-shore current pulses with a duration of 2-5 h were observed at the shelf break site. Currents in these pulses flowed exclusively offshore in a thin layer near the bed with amplitudes reaching 30-40 cm/s. Simultaneously, currents with amplitudes around 15-20 cm/s flowed exclusively onshore in the thicker layer between the offshore flow layer and the sea surface. The net offshore transport was about half the onshore transport. Near-surface isotherms were depressed 30-40 m. These pulses were likely internal bores generated by tidal currents. Bed stresses associated with these events exceeded 3 dynes/cm2. These amplitudes are large enough to resuspend and transport not only fine-grained material, but also medium to coarse sands from the shelf toward the slope. Consequently, the seafloor over the shelf break was swept clear of fine sediments. The data suggest that the internal bores dissipate and are reduced in amplitude as they propagate across this relatively narrow shelf. There is evidence that they reach the 35 m site, but

  18. Development of Neural Network Model for Predicting Peak Ground Acceleration Based on Microtremor Measurement and Soil Boring Test Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kerh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It may not be possible to collect adequate records of strong ground motions in a short period of time; hence microtremor survey is frequently conducted to reveal the stratum structure and earthquake characteristics at a specified construction site. This paper is therefore aimed at developing a neural network model, based on available microtremor measurement and on-site soil boring test data, for predicting peak ground acceleration at a site, in a science park of Taiwan. The four key parameters used as inputs for the model are soil values of the standard penetration test, the medium grain size, the safety factor against liquefaction, and the distance between soil depth and measuring station. The results show that a neural network model with four neurons in the hidden layer can achieve better performance than other models presently available. Also, a weight-based neural network model is developed to provide reliable prediction of peak ground acceleration at an unmeasured site based on data at three nearby measuring stations. The method employed in this paper provides a new way to treat this type of seismic-related problem, and it may be applicable to other areas of interest around the world.

  19. Ultra-wide bore 900 MHz high-resolution NMR at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, R.; Brey, W. W.; Shetty, K.; Gor'kov, P.; Saha, S.; Long, J. R.; Grant, S. C.; Chekmenev, E. Y.; Hu, J.; Gan, Z.; Sharma, M.; Zhang, F.; Logan, T. M.; Brüschweller, R.; Edison, A.; Blue, A.; Dixon, I. R.; Markiewicz, W. D.; Cross, T. A.

    2005-11-01

    Access to an ultra-wide bore (105 mm) 21.1 T magnet makes possible numerous advances in NMR spectroscopy and MR imaging, as well as novel applications. This magnet was developed, designed, manufactured and tested at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and on July 21, 2004 it was energized to 21.1 T. Commercial and unique homebuilt probes, along with a standard commercial NMR console have been installed and tested with many science applications to develop this spectrometer as a user facility. Solution NMR of membrane proteins with enhanced resolution, new pulse sequences for solid state NMR taking advantage of narrowed proton linewidths, and enhanced spatial resolution and contrast leading to improved animal imaging have been documented. In addition, it is demonstrated that spectroscopy of single site 17O labeled macromolecules in a hydrated lipid bilayer environment can be recorded in a remarkably short period of time. 17O spectra of aligned samples show the potential for using this data for orientational restraints and for characterizing unique details of cation binding properties to ion channels. The success of this NHMFL magnet illustrates the potential for using a similar magnet design as an outsert for high temperature superconducting insert coils to achieve an NMR magnet with a field >25 T.

  20. Performance characteristics of tunnel boring machine in basalt and pyroclastic rocks of Deccan traps – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasnna Jain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A 12.24 km long tunnel between Maroshi and Ruparel College is being excavated by tunnel boring machine (TBM to improve the water supply system of Greater Mumbai, India. In this paper, attempt has been made to establish the relationship between various litho-units of Deccan traps, stability of tunnel and TBM performances during the construction of 5.83 km long tunnel between Maroshi and Vakola. The Maroshi–Vakola tunnel passes under the Mumbai Airport and crosses both runways with an overburden cover of around 70 m. The tunneling work was carried out without disturbance to the ground. The rock types encountered during excavation are fine compacted basalt, porphyritic basalt, amygdaloidal basalt, pyroclastic rocks with layers of red boles and intertrappean beds consisting of various types of shales. Relations between rock mass properties, physico-mechanical properties, TBM specifications and the corresponding TBM performance were established. A number of support systems installed in the tunnel during excavation were also discussed. The aim of this paper is to establish, with appropriate accuracy, the nature of subsurface rock mass condition and to study how it will react to or behave during underground excavation by TBM. The experiences gained from this project will increase the ability to cope with unexpected ground conditions during tunneling using TBM.

  1. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  2. Measurement-based model of a wide-bore CT scanner for Monte Carlo dosimetric calculations with GMCTdospp software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzyński, Witold

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to create a model of a wide-bore Siemens Somatom Sensation Open CT scanner for use with GMCTdospp, which is an EGSnrc-based software tool dedicated for Monte Carlo calculations of dose in CT examinations. The method was based on matching spectrum and filtration to half value layer and dose profile, and thus was similar to the method of Turner et al. (Med. Phys. 36, pp. 2154-2164). Input data on unfiltered beam spectra were taken from two sources: the TASMIP model and IPEM Report 78. Two sources of HVL data were also used, namely measurements and documentation. Dose profile along the fan-beam was measured with Gafchromic RTQA-1010 (QA+) film. Two-component model of filtration was assumed: bow-tie filter made of aluminum with 0.5 mm thickness on central axis, and flat filter made of one of four materials: aluminum, graphite, lead, or titanium. Good agreement between calculations and measurements was obtained for models based on the measured values of HVL. Doses calculated with GMCTdospp differed from the doses measured with pencil ion chamber placed in PMMA phantom by less than 5%, and root mean square difference for four tube potentials and three positions in the phantom did not exceed 2.5%. The differences for models based on HVL values from documentation exceeded 10%. Models based on TASMIP spectra and IPEM78 spectra performed equally well. PMID:25028213

  3. 3D printed titanium micro-bore columns containing polymer monoliths for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul; Talebi, Mohammad; Deverell, Jeremy; Sandron, Sara; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Heery, Brendan; Thompson, Fletcher; Beirne, Stephen; Wallace, Gordon G; Paull, Brett

    2016-03-01

    The potential of 3D selective laser melting (SLM) technology to produce compact, temperature and pressure stable titanium alloy chromatographic columns is explored. A micro bore channel (0.9 mm I.D. × 600 mm long) was produced within a 5 × 30 × 30 mm titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) cuboid, in form of a double handed spiral. A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate) (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic stationary phase was thermally polymerised within the channel for application in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The prepared monolithic column was applied to the liquid chromatographic separation of intact proteins and peptides. Peak capacities of 69-76 (for 6-8 proteins respectively) were observed during isothermal separation of proteins at 44 °C which were further increased to 73-77 using a thermal step gradient with programmed temperature from 60 °C to 35 °C using an in-house built direct-contact heater/cooler platform based upon matching sized Peltier thermoelectric modules. Rapid temperature gradients were possible due to direct-contact between the planar metal column and the Peltier module, and the high thermal conductivity of the titanium column as compared to a similar stainless steel printed column. The separation of peptides released from a digestion of E.coli was also achieved in less than 35 min with ca. 40 distinguishable peaks at 210 nm.

  4. Performance characteristics of tunnel boring machine in basalt and pyroclastic rocks of Deccan traps-A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasnna Jain; A.K. Naithani; T.N. Singh

    2014-01-01

    A 12.24 km long tunnel between Maroshi and Ruparel College is being excavated by tunnel boring machine (TBM) to improve the water supply system of Greater Mumbai, India. In this paper, attempt has been made to establish the relationship between various litho-units of Deccan traps, stability of tunnel and TBM performances during the construction of 5.83 km long tunnel between Maroshi and Vakola. The Maroshi-Vakola tunnel passes under the Mumbai Airport and crosses both runways with an overburden cover of around 70 m. The tunneling work was carried out without disturbance to the ground. The rock types encountered during excavation are fine compacted basalt, porphyritic basalt, amygdaloidal basalt, pyroclastic rocks with layers of red boles and intertrappean beds consisting of various types of shales. Relations between rock mass properties, physico-mechanical properties, TBM specifications and the cor-responding TBM performance were established. A number of support systems installed in the tunnel during excavation were also discussed. The aim of this paper is to establish, with appropriate accuracy, the nature of subsurface rock mass condition and to study how it will react to or behave during under-ground excavation by TBM. The experiences gained from this project will increase the ability to cope with unexpected ground conditions during tunneling using TBM.

  5. 3D printed titanium micro-bore columns containing polymer monoliths for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul; Talebi, Mohammad; Deverell, Jeremy; Sandron, Sara; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Heery, Brendan; Thompson, Fletcher; Beirne, Stephen; Wallace, Gordon G; Paull, Brett

    2016-03-01

    The potential of 3D selective laser melting (SLM) technology to produce compact, temperature and pressure stable titanium alloy chromatographic columns is explored. A micro bore channel (0.9 mm I.D. × 600 mm long) was produced within a 5 × 30 × 30 mm titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) cuboid, in form of a double handed spiral. A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate) (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic stationary phase was thermally polymerised within the channel for application in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The prepared monolithic column was applied to the liquid chromatographic separation of intact proteins and peptides. Peak capacities of 69-76 (for 6-8 proteins respectively) were observed during isothermal separation of proteins at 44 °C which were further increased to 73-77 using a thermal step gradient with programmed temperature from 60 °C to 35 °C using an in-house built direct-contact heater/cooler platform based upon matching sized Peltier thermoelectric modules. Rapid temperature gradients were possible due to direct-contact between the planar metal column and the Peltier module, and the high thermal conductivity of the titanium column as compared to a similar stainless steel printed column. The separation of peptides released from a digestion of E.coli was also achieved in less than 35 min with ca. 40 distinguishable peaks at 210 nm. PMID:26873472

  6. Effect of bore fluid composition on microstructure and performance of a microporous hollow fibre membrane as a cation-exchange substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, R A; Mandal, I; Slater, N K H

    2015-05-15

    Micro-capillary film (MCF) membranes are effective platforms for bioseparations and viable alternatives to established packed bed and membrane substrates at the analytical and preparative chromatography scales. Single hollow fibre (HF) MCF membranes with varied microstructures were produced in order to evaluate the effect of the bore fluid composition used during hollow fibre extrusion on their structure and performance as cation-exchange adsorbers. Hollow fibres were fabricated from ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) copolymer through solution extrusion followed by nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) using bore fluids of differing composition (100wt.% N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), 100wt.% glycerol, 100wt.% water). All HFs displayed highly microporous and mesoporous microstructures, with distinct regions of pore size membrane performance as a result of inner surface porosity was established with a view to applying this parameter for the optimisation of multi-capillary MCF performance in future studies. PMID:25840664

  7. Novel insights into the tribology of hypereutectic AlSi cylinder bore surfaces; Neue Erkenntnisse zur Tribologie von uebereutektischen AlSi-Zylinderlaufflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienwiebel, M.; Scherge, M. [IAVF Antriebstechnik AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Aluminium alloys remain highly attractive for weight reduction measures. Yet the fundamental mechanisms on the nanometre scale which dominate friction and wear are still largely unexplored. Using state-of-the-art surface analytical tools scientists at IAVF Antriebstechnik AG have studied the cylinder bore surface of a hypereutectic AlSi crankcase. These investigations led to a new model that is able to explain a number of wear phenomena of AlSi materials. (orig.)

  8. SU-E-I-20: Comprehensive Quality Assurance Test of Second Generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT Simulator Based On AAPM TG-66 Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: AAPM radiation therapy committee task group No. 66 (TG-66) published a report which described a general approach to CT simulator QA. The report outlines the testing procedures and specifications for the evaluation of patient dose, radiation safety, electromechanical components, and image quality for a CT simulator. The purpose of this study is to thoroughly evaluate the performance of a second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator with 90 cm bore size (Toshiba, Nasu, JP) based on the TG-66 criteria. The testing procedures and results from this study provide baselines for a routine QA program. Methods: Different measurements and analysis were performed including CTDIvol measurements, alignment and orientation of gantry lasers, orientation of the tabletop with respect to the imaging plane, table movement and indexing accuracy, Scanogram location accuracy, high contrast spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity, CT number accuracy, mA linearity and mA reproducibility using a number of different phantoms and measuring devices, such as CTDI phantom, ACR image quality phantom, TG-66 laser QA phantom, pencil ion chamber (Fluke Victoreen) and electrometer (RTI Solidose 400). Results: The CTDI measurements were within 20% of the console displayed values. The alignment and orientation for both gantry laser and tabletop, as well as the table movement and indexing and scanogram location accuracy were within 2mm as specified in TG66. The spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity and CT number accuracy were all within ACR’s recommended limits. The mA linearity and reproducibility were both well below the TG66 threshold. Conclusion: The 90 cm bore size second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator that comes with 70 cm true FOV can consistently meet various clinical needs. The results demonstrated that this simulator complies with the TG-66 protocol in all aspects including electromechanical component

  9. Numerical simulation of bearing capacity of the bored pile in soft rock%软岩钻孔灌注桩承载力的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高长岭; 李荣峰; 柴建峰

    2012-01-01

    如何确定软岩地区钻孔灌注桩的承载力是一个复杂而又亟待解决的问题.本文以南京长江三桥软岩钻孔灌注桩为例,利用数值模拟法(FLAC3D模拟分析),模拟南京长江三桥软岩钻孔灌注桩逐级加载后的受力性状,根据得到的桩周土岩的应力场、位移场及破坏区的分布和扩展,确定软岩钻孔灌注桩的极限承载力.将数值模拟结果和自平衡测试结果进行比较,笔者发现两者吻合较好.%A method for determining the bearing capacity of bored piles in soft rock areas has been a complex problem that should be solved urgently. Taking the bored piles in soft rock of the third bridge over the Yangtze River in Nanjing as an example and using the numerical simulation method (FLAC3D simulation analysis), this paper simulated the force behavior of the bored piles in soft rock of the third bridge over the Yangtze River in Nanjing in the case of step stress test. Based on stress field, displacement field and the distribution and expansion of the failure zone obtained in the soil and rock around the pile, the authors determined the ultimate bearing capacity of the bored pile in soft rock. A comparison with the numerical simulation results and the self-balanced load test results shows that the numerical simulation result agrees well with the self-balanced load test result.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and shell microstructure of Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau et al. 1968, boring into mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae), in relation to other mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Owada, M; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the evolution of the symbiosis between the boring mussel Fungiacava eilatensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) and its mushroom coral hosts (Scleractinia: Fungiidae), which requires phylogenetic reconstructions of both the Mytilidae and the Fungiidae, contributes to the understanding of the complexity of coral reef ecosystems. Previously, Fungiacava was regarded as a genus that had descended from Leiosolenus or as belonging to the subfamily Crenellinae, but no phylogenetic support has been ...

  11. A new species and new records of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae of wood boring beetles from southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Sureshan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitising wood boring beetles, Cleonymus kamijoi, and two species of Pteromalidae, Trigonoderus pulcher Walker and male of Heydenia tuberculata Sureshan are reported for the first time from the southern Western Ghats, Kerala. The genus Trigonoderus Westwood is reported for the first time from India and the male of Heydenia tuberculata Sureshan is reported and described for the first time.

  12. SU-E-I-20: Comprehensive Quality Assurance Test of Second Generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT Simulator Based On AAPM TG-66 Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D [Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM radiation therapy committee task group No. 66 (TG-66) published a report which described a general approach to CT simulator QA. The report outlines the testing procedures and specifications for the evaluation of patient dose, radiation safety, electromechanical components, and image quality for a CT simulator. The purpose of this study is to thoroughly evaluate the performance of a second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator with 90 cm bore size (Toshiba, Nasu, JP) based on the TG-66 criteria. The testing procedures and results from this study provide baselines for a routine QA program. Methods: Different measurements and analysis were performed including CTDIvol measurements, alignment and orientation of gantry lasers, orientation of the tabletop with respect to the imaging plane, table movement and indexing accuracy, Scanogram location accuracy, high contrast spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity, CT number accuracy, mA linearity and mA reproducibility using a number of different phantoms and measuring devices, such as CTDI phantom, ACR image quality phantom, TG-66 laser QA phantom, pencil ion chamber (Fluke Victoreen) and electrometer (RTI Solidose 400). Results: The CTDI measurements were within 20% of the console displayed values. The alignment and orientation for both gantry laser and tabletop, as well as the table movement and indexing and scanogram location accuracy were within 2mm as specified in TG66. The spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity and CT number accuracy were all within ACR’s recommended limits. The mA linearity and reproducibility were both well below the TG66 threshold. Conclusion: The 90 cm bore size second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator that comes with 70 cm true FOV can consistently meet various clinical needs. The results demonstrated that this simulator complies with the TG-66 protocol in all aspects including electromechanical component

  13. Chemical and isotopic analysis of boron in uranium by mass spectrometry; Analyse chimique et isotopique du bore dans l'uranium par spectrometrie de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Nief, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A method is described for the determination by mass spectrometry of the concentration and the isotopic composition of small quantities of boron in uranium. The concentration range is between 10 and 100 ppm. The boron is extracted by distillation of methyl borate. The concentration is attained by isotopic dilution. Many precautions have to be taken to limit and correct contaminations. This method of analysis is applicable for at least 0.2 {mu}g of boron; the relative accuracy is about 2 per cent. (authors) [French] On decrit une methode de determination par spectrometrie de masse de la concentration et de la composition isotopique de faibles quantites de bore dans l'uranium. Le domaine de concentration est compris entre 10 et 100 ppm. L'extraction du bore s'effectue par distillation du borate de methyle. La concentration est atteinte par dilution isotopique. De nombreuses precautions doivent etre prises pour limiter et corriger les contaminations. L'analyse est possible a partir de 0,2 {mu}g de bore avec une precision relative de l'ordre de 2 pour cent. (auteurs)

  14. MR-guided radiofrequency ablation using a wide-bore 1.5-T MR system: clinical results of 213 treated liver lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the technical effectiveness, technical success and patient safety of MR-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver malignancies using a wide-bore 1.5-T MR system. In 110 patients, 56 primary liver lesions and 157 liver metastases were treated in 157 sessions using percutaneous RF ablation. Mean lesion diameter was 20 mm (range 4-54 mm). All planning, procedural and post-interventional control MR investigations were carried out using a wide-bore 1.5-T MR system. Technical success was assessed by a contrast-enhanced MR liver examination immediately after the intervention. Technique effectiveness was assessed by dynamic hepatic MR study 1 month post ablation; mean follow-up period was 24.2 months (range 5-44). Technical success and technique effectiveness were achieved in 210/213 lesions (98.6 %). In 18/210 lesions (8.6 %), local tumour progression occurred 4-28 months after therapy. Seven of these 18 lesions were treated in a second session achieving complete ablation, 6 other lesions were referred to surgery. Overall RF effectiveness rate was 199/213 (93.4 %); overall therapy success (including surgery) was 205/213 (96.2 %). Two major complications (1.3 %) (bleeding and infected biloma) and 14 (8.9 %) minor complications occurred subsequent to 157 interventions. Wide-bore MR-guided RF ablation is a safe and effective treatment option for liver lesions. (orig.)

  15. Fast Determination of Toxic Arsenic Species in Food Samples Using Narrow-bore High-Performance Liquid-Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Amanda; Marcinkowska, Monika; Ardini, Francisco; Grotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the speciation analysis of arsenic in food using narrow-bore high-performance liquid-chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) has been developed. Fast separation of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid was carried out in 7 min using an anion-exchange narrow-bore Nucleosil 100 SB column and 12 mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of pH 5.2 as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). A PFA-ST micronebulizer jointed to a cyclonic spray chamber was used for HPLC-ICP-MS coupling. Compared with standard-bore HPLC-ICP-MS, the new method has provided higher sensitivity, reduced mobile-phase consumption, a lower matrix plasma load and a shorter analysis time. The achieved instrumental limits of detection were in the 0.3 - 0.4 ng As mL(-1) range, and the precision was better than 3%. The arsenic compounds were efficiently (>80%) extracted from various food samples using a 1:5 methanol/water solution, with additional ultrasonic treatment for rice products. The applicability of this method was demonstrated by the analysis of several samples, such as seafood (fish, mussels, shrimps, edible algae) and rice-based products (Jasmine and Arborio rice, spaghetti, flour, crackers), including three certified reference materials. PMID:27506720

  16. Heavy metal contamination in bore water due to industrial pollution and polluted and non polluted sea water intrusion in Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli of South Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyasekar, C; Neelakantan, M A; Poongothai, S

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the pollution vulnerability of bore water in the coastal region of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi in the state of Tamilnadu, India. There are no industries in the Tirunelveli Coastal area whereas there are many industries in SIPCOT (State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamilnadu) Thoothukudi, and coastal area of Thoothukudi. Bore water from the SIPCOT, coastal area of Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli were collected periodically from July 2006 to May 2008 for this study. These samples were tested and analyzed to find the concentrations of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, calcium, copper, cadmium, mercury and lead. The toxic cadmium concentration was found in the range of 0.00-0.22 mg Kg⁻¹ at SIPCOT 2 in November 2007, mercury 0.00-0.024 mg Kg⁻¹ and lead 0.00-0.02 mg Kg⁻¹ in SIPCOT 2 in January 2008. The level of contamination is higher than the WHO limits of drinking water standards; but copper and aluminium content are within the limit. On the other hand, the samples taken from bores in Tirunelveli coastal area are non-polluted, and the analysis shows that all the metals are within the limits of WHO standard. PMID:21082162

  17. Production of the heat exchanger tubes, which will cool down the LHC magnets, and of the cold bore tubes, in which the proton beams will circulate, is due to be completed around the end of 2004. These essential components of the LHC magnets are receiving their finishing touches at CERN : cold bore tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Insulation of the cold bore tubes in which the LHC beams will circulate takes place in Building 927. In the background, Bruno Meunier checks the wrapping machine while, in the foreground, Olivier Vasseur removes the polyester wrapping that covers the tube's insulating layers.

  18. EBZ-220型掘进机回油冷却器的改造设计%Retrofit Design of Oil Return Cooler in EBZ-220 Tunnel-Boring Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫品

    2015-01-01

    Through the transformation design of the cooler of EBZ-220 type tunnel-boring machines, the cooling effect of the tunnel-boring machines is greatly improved, the efficiency of boring machine is increased, the failure rate of the tunnel-boring machines is reduced, longer service life is obtained.%通过对EBZ-220型掘进机冷却器的改造设计,大大改善了掘进机的冷却效果,提高了掘进机的使用效率,降低了掘进机故障率,使其效率更高,寿命更长。

  19. Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: Active magnetic shielding of x-ray tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, John A.; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A. [Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Hybrid closed bore x-ray/MRI systems are being developed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures by harnessing the complementary strengths of the x-ray and MRI modalities in a single interventional suite without requiring patient transfer between two rooms. These systems are composed of an x-ray C-arm in close proximity ({approx_equal}1 m) to an MRI scanner. The MRI magnetic fringe field can cause the electron beam in the x-ray tube to deflect. The deflection causes the x-ray field of view to shift position on the detector receptacle. This could result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Therefore, the electron beam deflection must be corrected. The authors developed an active magnetic shielding system that can correct for electron beam deflection to within an accuracy of 5% without truncating the field of view or increasing exposure to the patient. This system was able to automatically adjust to different field strengths as the external magnetic field acting on the x-ray tube was changed. Although a small torque was observed on the shielding coils of the active shielding system when they were placed in a magnetic field, this torque will not impact their performance if they are securely mounted on the x-ray tube and the C-arm. The heating of the coils of the shielding system for use in the clinic caused by electric current was found to be slow enough not to require a dedicated cooling system for one percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedure. However, a cooling system will be required if multiple procedures are performed in one session.

  20. Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: active magnetic shielding of x-ray tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, John A; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J A

    2009-05-01

    Hybrid closed bore x-ray/MRI systems are being developed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures by harnessing the complementary strengths of the x-ray and MRI modalities in a single interventional suite without requiring patient transfer between two rooms. These systems are composed of an x-ray C-arm in close proximity (approximately 1 m) to an MRI scanner. The MRI magnetic fringe field can cause the electron beam in the x-ray tube to deflect. The deflection causes the x-ray field of view to shift position on the detector receptacle. This could result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Therefore, the electron beam deflection must be corrected. The authors developed an active magnetic shielding system that can correct for electron beam deflection to within an accuracy of 5% without truncating the field of view or increasing exposure to the patient. This system was able to automatically adjust to different field strengths as the external magnetic field acting on the x-ray tube was changed. Although a small torque was observed on the shielding coils of the active shielding system when they were placed in a magnetic field, this torque will not impact their performance if they are securely mounted on the x-ray tube and the C-arm. The heating of the coils of the shielding system for use in the clinic caused by electric current was found to be slow enough not to require a dedicated cooling system for one percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedure. However, a cooling system will be required if multiple procedures are performed in one session. PMID:19544789

  1. Chatter Depression of Boring Rod Based on Friction Energy Dissipation%基于摩擦耗能原理的抑振镗杆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫俊霞; 区炳显

    2015-01-01

    讨论了摩擦耗能镗杆的原理,建立了有非线性库仑干摩擦环节的力学模型,并以摩擦参数为变化量,通过数值分析的方法考察了模型的吸振效果。研制了一种基于摩擦减振的新型镗杆,结合颤振发生的机理与切削稳定性理论,分析了不同摩擦条件下镗杆的抑振效果。将不同摩擦条件下的镗杆切削实验结果与理论模型仿真结果进行对比,发现在既定的摩擦阻尼器中,有滑动摩擦与粘接两个状态,而且存在一个最优正压力使得滑动摩擦消耗能量达到最大值又不处于粘接的状态,此时系统抑振效果达到最佳。切削实验发现基于摩擦减振原理的镗杆有良好的颤振抑制效果。%Principles of boring rod with friction energy dissipation were discussed,a mechanics model with nonlinear Coulomb dry friction link was established,and taking friction parameters as var-iables the vibration absorbing performance was studied through numerical analysis.A new type boring rod was developed based on friction damping principles,combining flutter mechanism and cutting sta-bility theory,vibration suppression effects of boring rod were analyzed under different friction condi-tions.Contrasting the results of cutting experiments with theoretical simulation,it has sliding friction state and adhesive state in established friction damper,and there is a positive pressure that makes en-ergy consumption by sliding friction to reache the maximum but the system is not in the adhesive state,at this time the system achieves the best vibration suppression effect.Cutting experiments show that the boring rod with friction damping has good effect of chatter suppression.periments show that the boring rod with friction damping has good effect of chatter suppression.

  2. Geometric accuracy in three-dimensional coordinates of Leksell stereotactic skull frame with wide-bore 1.5-T MRI compared with conventional 1.5-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Hisato; Komori, Masataka; Shibamoto, Yuta; Takikawa, Yukinori; Mori, Yoshimasa; Tsugawa, Takahiko

    2014-10-01

    The use of 1.5-tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a wide and simultaneously short bore enhances patient comfort compared with traditional 1.5-T MR imaging and is becoming increasingly available in stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning. However, the geometric accuracy seems unavoidably worse in wide-bore MR imaging than in conventional MR imaging. We assessed the geometric distortion of the stereotactic image attached on a Leksell skull frame in conventional and wide-bore 1.5-T MR imaging. Two kinds of acrylic phantoms were placed on the skull frame and were scanned using computed tomography (CT) and conventional and wide-bore 1.5-T MR imaging. The three-dimensional coordinates on both MR imaging were compared with those on CT. Deviations of measured coordinates at selected points (x = 50, 100, 150 mm; y = 50, 100, 150 mm) were indicated on different axial planes (z = 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 mm). The differences of coordinates were less than 1.0 mm in the entire treatable area for conventional MR imaging. With the large bore system, the differences of the coordinates were less than 1.0 mm around the center but substantially exceeded 1.0 mm in the peripheral regions. Further study is needed to increase the geometric accuracy of wide-bore MR imaging for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning.

  3. Use of a Tantalum Liner to Reduce Bore Erosion and Increase Muzzle Velocity in Two-Stage Light Gas Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2015-01-01

    velocity and reduce bore erosion.

  4. Study of milling-spindle sealing technology for floor milling and boring machine%落地铣镗床铣轴密封技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祥; 寸花英; 王全宝; 罗永俊

    2011-01-01

    以落地铣镗床为例,系统研究了机械式、迷宫式、干气密封3种铣轴密封技术,通过理论分析和实践验证,证明了密封技术的实用性和可靠性.%By taking floor milling and boring machine as an example, the paper has carried out systematic research of three kinds of milling-spindle seal technologies. It proves the viability and reliability of the seal technology through theoretical analysis and practice verification.

  5. Hvilken betydning har organisasjonskultur for måten integrerte operasjoner håndteres i Statoil? : en casestudie av enheten Boring og Brønn

    OpenAIRE

    Olden, Silje

    2012-01-01

    Denne masterutredningen tar for seg organisasjonskulturen innenfor enheten Boring og Brønn (D&W) og i hvilken betydning den har for måten Integrerte Operasjoner (heretter IO) håndteres i Statoil. I forskning som omhandler integrasjon blir dette definert som atskilte og uavhengige deler i én organisasjon som sammen utgjør en helhet (Barki & Pinsonneault, 2005). Tidligere studier av Statoil har funnet at hensyn til kultur er viktig når to ulike parter som Statoil og Hydro skal integreres til et...

  6. Beam induced heat loads on the beam-screens of the twin-bore magnets in the IRs of the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Iadarola, Giovanni; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The expected heat load induced on the beam screens has been evaluated for all the twin-bore magnets in the Insertion Regions (IRs) of the HL-LHC. The contribution from the impedance of the beam screen has been evaluated taking into account the presence of a longitudinal weld in the beam screen and the impact of the temperature and of the magnetic field on the resistivity of the surface. The contribution coming from electron cloud effects has been evaluated for different values of the Secondary Electron Yield of the surface based PyECLOUD build-up simulations.

  7. Piston pin noise. Quantification and assessment of the influence of pin and pin bore geometry; Kolbenbolzengeraeusch. Verfahren zur Quantifizierung und Einfluss der Nabengeometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkmann, M.; Tunsch, M.; Kuenzel, R. [Mahle International GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The irregular appearance of noise which is caused by the interaction of piston pin and piston pin boss is subjectively perceived as strongly annoying. For a gasoline engine with floating pin desing the effect of shock excitation related to pin and pin boss on airborne and structure-borne noise will be shown in dependency on water temperature and engine speed. The measurement procedure for detecting piston pin noise as well as the evaluation method for quantification in the time range will be described. Using examples the influence of different parameters on piston pin noise like pin fitting clearance and various pin bore geometries will be presented.

  8. A study on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Qiantang tidal bore based on field data%基于实测资料的钱塘江涌潮水动力学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢东风; 潘存鸿; 陆波; 叶小凡

    2012-01-01

    Based on the several field measurements of tidal bore on the Qiantang Estuary in recent years, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the tidal bore have been researched. The distributions of tidal levels, flood and ebb durations and current velocities along the river were influenced distinctly by the large sandbar of the estuary. During spring tide the vertical profiles of current velocities were parabolic at the bore arrival and this lasted for one hour, and then the vertical profiles turned to be logarithmic. During neap and middle tides, velocity vertical profiles were logarithmic at both flood and ebb tides. The vertical velocities were smaller by one order of magnitude than those of horizontal velocities, when the bore arrived, the vertical velocity increased obviously. The heights of the bore fronts have positive relationship with local tidal ranges. The Froude numbers at the bore arrival were calculated and the results showed that the Froude number could be used to justify the forms of the tidal bore. Furthermore, an analytic formula was built to analyze the gradient of the water surface of the bore front, by which the water surface changes during the tidal bore passing by were reproduced.%基于近年来钱塘江河口三次涌潮观测资料,系统分析了钱塘江涌潮的水动力学特性,计算了涌潮到达时刻的Froude数,结果显示可用Froude数判别涌潮形态,并建立了计算涌潮潮头陡度的解析公式,复演了涌潮到达时潮头陡度急剧增加的过程.研究表明:涌潮的沿程潮位、涨落潮历时和流速等特性受河口沙坎地形影响明显;流速的垂线分布大潮期间在潮到后一小时内以抛物线分布为主,其余时间以对数分布为主,而在中小潮时涨、落潮阶段均以对数分布为主;垂向流速比纵向流速小一个量级,当涌潮到达时刻急剧增大;潮头高度与当地潮差存在良好的正相关关系.

  9. Model of a 80 K liner vacuum system for the 4.2 K cold bore of the SSCL 20 TeV proton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss a model for an 80 K liner system for the beam tube vacuum of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The liner is a coaxial perforated tube fitting inside the ∼4.2 K bore tube of the SSC magnet cryostats. A liner of this type is useful for pumping the gas desorbed by synchrotron radiation out of the view of the radiation and for decoupling the beam current from the 4.2 K refrigeration plant capacity. Addition of cryosorber on the bore tube (e.g., charcoal) greatly increases the H2 sorption capacity compared to the bare metal surface, thus lengthening the time between beam tube warmups. The model equations are useful for estimating the performance of the beam tube vacuum and for defining the experimental information necessary to make a prediction. Some analysis is also presented for 4.2 K and 20 K liners and a simple 4.2 K beam tube without a liner

  10. Assessment of U(nat) and 226Ra level in bore well water adjoining the newly constructed uranium mill tailings pond at Turamdih

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of uranium ore leaves behind large quantity of low specific activity waste called tailings. In the absence of appropriate control measures such waste disposal may lead to contamination of adjoining ground water sources. Ten bore wells have been constructed across the earthen bund of the tailings pond to evaluate the migration characteristics of radionuclides and chemical toxicants. Present study is based on the monitoring results of significant radionuclides U(nat) and 226Ra of these bore well water during the last two years. The highest concentration of U(nat) and 226Ra was found 2.4 mg m-3 and 22.1 Bq m-3 respectively. These levels are comparable with the ground water sources situated in the vicinity of the tailings pond and adjacent areas within the same geological formation. The levels reflect the natural distribution of U(nat) and 226Ra in ground water sources of this region and impact of discharges at tailings pond has not been observed so far. The study reveal that the design features of tailings pond is able to restrict these radionuclides within the tailings pile. Moreover, the levels are well below the recommended standards of U(nat) and 226Ra for drinking water i.e. 60 mg m-3 and 300 Bq m-3. (author)

  11. Some problems on the research and development of the application of methane draining boring technology to prevent hazards in underground coal mines in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN Xuan-Thao; NGUYEN Tran-Tuan; TRAN Dinh-Kien

    2009-01-01

    Underground coal mining activities in the Quangninh coal basin (in the North of Vietnam) have been carried out at a depth of-130 m to -150 m, and in the near future this mining depth will become -300 m and -500 m. Together with the increasing coal output, the quantity of methane and other mine gases emitted from coal beds during mining activi-ties will grow bigger and bigger. According to the forecast of the coal mining industry, if mines go deeper downward, all underground coal mines in the Quangninh basin will be classified into the mine group with the dangerous level of methane bearings. Mine gas control and management operations with conventional ventilation are less effective and entail high expenses. One of the main solutions is to carry out short, medium and long boreholes for controlling and recovering methane and other mine gases from coal beds before mining activities. Efficiency of drilling activities for methane gas recovery from coal seams with horizontal bore holes at underground coal mines depends on many factors in-cluding the mine gas draining borehole layout at the roadways, gas content in the coal beds, technologies for mine gas draining boring activities, and so on. Methane gas exists in the coal beds under the adhesive state with stable physical and chemical bonds. In or-der to recover these gases, it is necessary to carry out boreholes and create artificial joints (collecting pits) in coal beds with the impulse method (hydraulic separation method).

  12. 钻孔灌注斜桩施工技术研究%Study on the Construction Technique of Bored Cast-in-situ Battered Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘术文

    2009-01-01

    相比普通钻孔灌注桩,钻孔灌注斜桩施工难度大,施工设备要求高.针对某港口工程特点及其所设计钢管钻孔灌注斜桩的施工要求,通过钻杌与钻具改造、施工工艺等一系列技术措施,保证了桩基础施工的顺利进行,相关的经验与方法值得类似工程借鉴.%Compared with that of ordinary cast-in-situ pile, the construction of bored cast-in-situ battered pile is more difficult and has a higher demand from the equipment. In the construction of bored cast-in-situ battered pile in a port project, the borer and drill used were transformed and special technical measures were adopted, which has ensured a smooth engineering progress. The experience can be consulted by similar engineering later.

  13. Vertical Lathe Rebuild and Turbine Guide Vane Bearing Hole Bored Together%立式车床改造与水轮机导叶轴孔同镗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴仁华

    2001-01-01

    我厂经过不断地探索实践,总结出了一套较完整的水轮机备品修复工艺。通过在立式车床上改装立式镗头后,成功地解决了水轮机顶盖、底环导叶轴孔同镗,因而提高了大修回装精度和速度,经济效益显著,对地处山区的水电厂有着推广的价值。%For Repair for spare parts of turbine,a series of more integrated repairing techniques are summarized by our plant through continuous research and practice .Vertical boring head is refitted on vertical lathe to bore turbine head cover and guide vane bearing hole on bottom ring together .In this way,precision and speed for back installation in general overhaul is improved and economic benefit is obvious.It is valuable to popularize this technique at power plants in a mountainous area.

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of seamless austenitic stainless steel tubes for the cold bores of the LHC main magnets

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 3 542 seamless austenitic stainless steel tubes of different types for the cold bores of the LHC main magnets. A call for tenders (IT-2525/LHC/LHC) was sent on 8 August 2000 to 24 firms in ten Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received two tenders from two firms in two Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm DMV (IT), the only bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of 3 542 seamless stainless steel tubes for the cold bores of the LHC main magnets for a total amount of 6 959 813 Swiss francs, subject to revision for contractual deliveries after 31 December 2002, with an option for the supply of up to 15% additional seamless stainless steel tubes for an amount of 1 043 972 Swiss francs, subject to revision for contractual deliveries after 31 December 2002, bringing the total amount to a maximum of 8 003 785 Swiss francs, subject to revision for contractual ...

  15. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH OF BORING BEHAVIOR OF STORED GRAIN INSECTS%储粮害虫钻孔行为初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚渭; 王艳; 刘晓农; 杜燕萍

    2001-01-01

    设计的测定储粮害虫钻孔行为的装置由8种不同孔径的孔筛小瓶组成,筛孔直径分别为1.5mm、1.3mm、1.2mm、1.1mm、1mm、0.9mm、0.8mm及0.6mm,采用该装置对玉米象、米象、赤拟谷盗、杂拟谷盗、长头谷盗、谷蠹及锯谷盗单一种群和复合种群钻孔行为习性进行测试。测试结果表明,单一种群条件下,玉米象、米象、谷蠹及长头谷盗钻孔指数分别为0.28、0.30、0.35及0.24,钻孔习性基本相似;杂拟谷盗和赤拟谷盗钻孔指数分别为0.77和0.9;锯谷盗活动性较强,钻孔指数为0.57。讨论了玉米象、赤拟谷盗、长头谷盗、锯谷盗及谷蠹复合种群各害虫种类的钻孔习性,与单一种群比较,玉米象和谷蠹钻孔指数增高,赤拟谷盗和锯谷盗钻孔指数降低,长头谷盗钻孔指数变动不大。%An equipment used for testing boring behavior of grain insects was composed of 8 types of sieves,and their diameters are 1.5mm,1.3mm,1.2mm,1.lmm,1.0mm,0.9mm,0.8mm and 0.6mm respectively. The results showed that on condition of single population, boring indexes were 0.28 to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky,0.30 to Sitophilus oryzae (L.), 0.35 to Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.),0.24 to Latheticus oryzae Waterhouse. Their boring habit is similar,and 0.77 to Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val,0.9 to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst),0.57 to Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Boring habits of Sitophilus zeamais Motschutsky,Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Latheticus oryzae Waterhouse, Oryzaephilus surinamensis ( L ) and Rhizopertha dominica (Fab) in the composite population condition were discussed, and compared with single population, boring indexes of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk and Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.) are increased,Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) are decreased, and Latheticus oryzae Waterhouse has no obvious change.

  16. Will they fit? Development of a measurement device to assess body habitus compatibility with MRI bore diameter for emergency trauma imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Amanda; Aresty, Adam; Chong, Suzanne; Brunsvold, Melissa; Evans, James R; Gillespie, R Brent; Napolitano, Lena M

    2012-04-01

    Excessive obesity poses a significant limitation to radiographic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly related to aperture or bore diameter due to the patient's girth. Determination of whether a patient will fit into the bore of the MRI scanner is currently accomplished using patient height, weight, and MRI technician experience. These simple methods have proven unreliable. We sought to develop a device and method which could accurately determine whether a patient would fit into the MRI scanner. We developed an MRI template prototype which was tested against the standard radiology methods in a pilot study (n = 6). We then performed a prospective validation study in adult human volunteers (n = 100) to assess the accuracy of the MRI template. We collected height, weight, shoulder and pelvis girth/diameter for each study participant to evaluate the body dimension measurements that would assist in determination of whether a patient would fit into the MRI scanner. Using the MRI template, we determined that 11 of the 100 study participants would not fit in the MRI scanner and 10 were confirmed to not fit into the MRI aperture [positive predictive value (PPV) 0.91 (0.58-0.99); negative predictive value (NPV) 1.00 (0.95-1.00), sensitivity 1.00 (0.69-1.00), specificity 0.99 (0.93-0.99), likelihood ratio positive test 90 (12.81-632), likelihood ratio negative test 0, accuracy 99%]. In comparison, the body measurement method did not perform as well [PPV 0.66 (0.34-0.90), NPV 0.97 (0.92-0.99), sensitivity 0.80 (0.44-0.97), specificity 0.95 (0.89-0.98), likelihood ratio positive test 17.97 (6.56-49.2), likelihood ratio negative test 0.209 (0.06-0.72), accuracy 94%]. This study confirmed that the use of an MRI template is an accurate tool in determining whether an obese patient can fit through the MRI bore and be accommodated in the MRI scanner.

  17. 桥梁钻孔灌注桩施工技术和质量控制%Bridge Bored Pile Construction Technology and Quality Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海朝

    2012-01-01

    公路桥梁领域广泛地应用钻孔灌注桩基础,因为此种基础具有成本低、适应性强、施工简便等优点.因为桥梁钻孔灌注桩的施工大部分是在水下进行的,所以灌注桩属于隐蔽工程,成形后不能进行开挖验收,施工过程中也无法观察.整个工程的质量和进度都会因为在施工中某个环节出现问题时而受到直接影响,严重的会造成不良的社会影响,给投资者带来巨大的经济损失.因此,要求基础施工队伍加强施工质量管理,落实施工技术措施,施工过程中每一个环节的质量要注意抓好,并且针对灌注桩的质量通病进行分析后,为便于有效地控制桩基施工质量,提前制订出施工质量标准、验收实施方案和每根桩的施工记录.%As bored pile foundation have the advantages such as low cost, strong adaptability, and easy construction etc., it is widely used in highway and bridge field. Because most of its construction is underwater, the construction of bored pile is concealed work, it can not be excavated and checked after forming, and it can not be inspected in construction. If the problem appeared in any of links, the quality and schedule of the whole project would be effected, even causes bad social influence, which brings large economic lost to investor. So we require worker to strengthen construction quality management, implement the construction technique measures, and control construction quality at each link. After analyzing the common failings of bored piles, the construction quality standards, acceptance implementation plan and construction record of every root pile should be pre-decided for easy to effectively control the quality of pile foundation construction.

  18. Apparatus for determining the position of the cutting head of a boring or mining machine. Einrichtung zur Erfassung der Position des Schraemkopfes einer Vortriebs- oder Gewinnungsmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberg, E.; Zitz, A.; Droescher, B.

    1988-02-03

    Apparatus for determining the position of the cutting head of a boring or mining machine, characterised by a sensor, which is oriented relative to the longitudinal axis of the drift and which may be mounted in a drift a transmitter for transmitting electromagnetic radiation in the wave-length range of 1 ..mu..m to 10 cm on the cutting head and/or on a cutting arm and a telemeter for determining the distance of at least one reference point on the cutting head and/or cutting arm from the sensor and preferably an indicator for indicating the position of the cutting head relative to a required profile to be cut.

  19. Production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using multifrequencies microwaves and active beam profile control on a large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure. The magnetic field configuration is constructed by a pair of magnets assembly, i.e., comb-shaped magnet which cylindrically surrounds the plasma chamber. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  20. 漕河渡槽钻孔灌注桩施工及处理措施%Construction and Treatment Measures of Bored Pile in Caohe River Aqueduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    There are 608 bored concrete piles (1.5 meter in the diameter) in Caohe aqueduct, the problems are inevitable in the construction, such as hole wall collapse, pipe blockage and steel reinforcement cage floating,etc. The article collects the problems often encountered in the construction of the pile foundation, and puts forward the preventive measures.%  中漕河渡槽共计采用608根直径1.5m混凝土灌注桩,施工过程中曾发生孔壁坍塌、导管堵塞、钢筋笼上浮等问题,本文对发生的问题和处理方法进行了汇总,提出了预防措施。

  1. Elastic Load Card Application and Innovation of Alternative Float Boring%弹性装卡与另类浮动镗削的创新应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠宝; 赵忠刚; 林国栋

    2012-01-01

    By comparison of two repair methods of machining cylinder hole, deals with elastic load card and operation techniques and benefits of alternative float boring, overcomes the usually fix the cylinder hole defects such as oval, dark-skinned, and improves efficiency, reduces skill requirements to the operations staff.%通过对已加工简体内孔的两种修复方法对比,论述了弹性装卡与另类浮动镗削的操作技巧和优点,克服了通常修复简体内孔的椭圆、黑皮等缺陷,并且提高了工效,降低了对操作员工的技能要求.

  2. Study of a transaugmented two-stage small circular-bore railgun for injection of hypervelocity hydrogen pellets as a fusion reactor refueling mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, M.W.; Anderson, M.A.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, J.; Kim, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Injection of hypervelocity hydrogen pellets has become widely accepted as the most effective means of refueling magnetically confined fusion reactors. Pellet velocities on the order of 10 km/s are desired and hydrogen pellet erosion during acceleration must be minimized. It is important to maintain uniform bore surfaces during repetitive shots, implying that, if a railgun is to be used to accelerate the pellets, damage to the sidewalls and rails of the railgun due to local heating must be limited. In order to reduce the amount of power dissipated within the bore and increase the propulsive force generated by the plasma-arc armature while minimizing losses due to pellet, rail, and sidewall ablation, the authors have employed a magnetic field transaugmentation mechanism consisting of a two-turn pulsed electromagnet. The two-stage gun consists of a light-gas gun which accelerates a 4- to 5-mg pellet to a speed around 1.2 km/s and injects it into the plasma-arc armature railgun. Currently, they have achieved a final output velocity for a hydrogen pellet of 2.11 km/s with a time-averaged acceleration of 4,850 km/s{sup 2} using a 58-cm railgun pulsed with a peak rail current of 9.2 kA and 28.0 kA of transaugmentation current. This paper will present a description of the hydrogen-pellet-injector railgun system, a discussion of the data on hydrogen pellet acceleration, and projections for future systems.

  3. Magnetic resonance-guided upper abdominal biopsies in a high-field wide-bore 3-T MRI system: feasibility, handling, and needle artefacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Langner, Soenke; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Puls, Ralf [Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, Department of Radiology, Greifswald (Germany); Evert, Matthias [Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, Department of Pathology, Greifswald (Germany); Kickhefel, Antje [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    To investigate the feasibility and handling of abdominal MRI-guided biopsies in a 3-T MRI system. Over a 1-year period, 50 biopsies were obtained in 47 patients with tumours of the upper abdominal organs guided by 3-T MRI with a large-bore diameter of 70 cm. Lesions in liver (47), spleen (1) and kidney (2) were biopsied with a coaxial technique using a 16-G biopsy needle guided by a T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient recalled echo volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (T1w-3D-GRE-VIBE) sequence. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, complication rate, interventional complexity, room/intervention time and needle artefacts were determined. A sensitivity of 0.93, specificity of 1.0 and accuracy of 0.94 were observed. Three patients required a rebiopsy. There was a minor complications rate of 13.6%, and no major complications were observed. Histopathology revealed 38 malignant lesions, and 3-month follow-up confirmed 9 benign lesions. Mean lesion diameter was 3.4 {+-} 3.1 cm (50% being smaller than 2 cm). Mean needle tract length was 10.8 {+-} 3.3 cm. Median room time was 42.0 {+-} 19.8 min and intervention time 9.3 {+-} 8.1 min. Needle artefact size was about 9-fold greater for perpendicular access versus access parallel to the main magnetic field. Biopsies of the upper abdomen can be performed with great technical success and easy handling because of the large-bore diameter. The MRI-guided biopsy needle had an acceptable susceptibility artefact at 3 T. However future research must aim to reduce the susceptibility effects of the biopsy systems. (orig.)

  4. 炮孔装药隔离器的研制与工程应用%RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING APPLICATION OF EXPLOSIVE- DEBRIS ISOLATOR IN BORE-HOLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷延军

    2011-01-01

    针对爆破传统装药工艺存在炸药浪费的问题,研制了碟盘形橡胶药碴隔离器和盆形塑料药碴隔离器.通过对金堆城露天矿含水和无水孔底装药过程及填塞过程中岩屑与乳化炸药混合模式的模拟试验研究及大量现场试验,获得一套具有自主知识产权的药碴隔离和装药工艺改进了技术.该技术改进了传统装药工艺,使炮孔底部残留岩屑和填塞用岩屑与炸药彻底隔离,避免了药碴混合造成炸药浪费,达到降低爆破成本的目的.%Due to wasting explosive in the traditional charge craft, a rubber explosion-debris isolator with dish shape and a plastic explosion-debris isolator with basin shape were researched and made. Through simulative and field experimental research to mixture mode of debris and emulsified explosion in charging and tamping under the bottom of bore-hole with water and without water conditions in the jind-uicheng open-pit mine, a improvement technique for explosion-debris isolation and charging craft, with independent intellectual property rights, was acquired. The technique improved traditional charge craft, isolated explosion from debris residue in the bottom of bore-hole and debris tamped, avoided waste of explosion due to mixing explosion and debris, and attained to the purpose of reducing blasting cost.

  5. Feasibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis on 1.0-T open-bore MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barendregt, Anouk M.; Nusman, Charlotte M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hemke, Robert; Lavini, Cristina; Maas, Mario [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Amiras, Dimitri [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Radiology Department, St. Mary' s Hospital, Paddington, London (United Kingdom); Kuijpers, Taco W. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of non-invasive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the knee of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and, further, to analyze the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) levels to distinguish synovium from effusion. Standard magnetic resonance imaging of the knee including post-contrast imaging was obtained in eight patients (mean age, 12 years 8 months, five females) using an open-bore magnetic resonance imaging system (1.0 T). In addition, axially acquired echo-planar DWI datasets (b-values 0, 50, and 600) were prospectively obtained and the diffusion images were post-processed into ADC{sub 50-600} maps. Two independent observers selected a region of interest (ROI) for both synovium and effusion using aligned post-contrast images as landmarks. Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare ADC synovium and ADC effusion. DWI was successfully obtained in all patients. When data of both observers was combined, ADC synovium was lower than ADC effusion in the ROI in seven out of eight patients (median, 1.92 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s vs. 2.40 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.006, respectively). Similar results were obtained when the two observers were analyzed separately (observer 1: p = 0.006, observer 2: p = 0.04). In this pilot study, on a patient-friendly 1.0-T open-bore MRI, we demonstrated that DWI may potentially be a feasible non-invasive imaging technique in children with JIA. We could differentiate synovium from effusion in seven out of eight patients based on the ADC of synovium and effusion. However, to select synovium and effusion on DWI, post-contrast images were still a necessity. (orig.)

  6. Kinematic change of the meniscus and the tibiofemoral joint space in asymptomatic volunteers using a wide bore 3T closed MRI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate kinematic changes in menisci and tibiofemoral joint spaces in extension and flexion using asymptomatic volunteers using a wide-bore 3-T closed MRI system. Twenty-two knees from asymptomatic volunteers were examined in knee extension and flexion using a 3-T MRI (sagittal 2D FSE T2-weighted sequence and sagittal 3D isotropic FSE proton density-weighted cube sequence). The meniscal positions, meniscal floating and flounce were evaluated. The widths of the medial and lateral tibiofemoral joint spaces and coronal tibiofemoral angles were measured. In the anteroposterior direction, meniscal extrusion was most frequently seen in the anterior horn of the medial menisci (100 %) in extensions (maximum 6.04 mm). Most of the menisci moved significantly to the posterior side from extension to flexion. The anteroposterior meniscal movement was the greatest for the anterior horn of the medial meniscus and least for the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. In the mediolateral direction, meniscal extrusion was seen in 52 % of the medial menisci in extensions (maximum 1.91 mm) and 29 % of lateral menisci in flexions (maximum 2.36 mm). From the extension to flexion, all medial and lateral menisci moved significantly to the lateral side. Meniscal floating was frequently observed in the posterior horn of medial menisci in extension. Meniscal flounce was frequently seen in lateral menisci in flexion with a widened lateral tibiofemoral joint space gap. The coronal tibiofemoral angle showed medial wedging in flexion, but not in extension. Wide-bore 3-T closed MRI revealed significant kinematic changes in the menisci and tibiofemoral joint spaces in asymptomatic volunteers. (orig.)

  7. MR-sequences for prostate cancer diagnostics: validation based on the PI-RADS scoring system and targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmoeller, Lars; Quentin, Michael; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, Christian; Hiester, Andreas; Rabenalt, Robert; Albers, Peter [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the accuracy of MR sequences [T2-, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (T2WI, DWI, and DCE) imaging] at 3T, based on the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) scoring system [Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS)] using MR-guided in-bore prostate biopsies as reference standard. In 235 consecutive patients [aged 65.7 ± 7.9 years; median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 8 ng/ml] with multiparametric prostate MRI (mp-MRI), 566 lesions were scored according to PI-RADS. Histology of all lesions was obtained by targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy. In 200 lesions, biopsy revealed prostate cancer (PCa). The area under the curve (AUC) for cancer detection was 0.70 (T2WI), 0.80 (DWI), and 0.74 (DCE). A combination of T2WI + DWI, T2WI + DCE, and DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81, 0.78, and 0.79. A summed PI-RADS score of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81. For higher grade PCa (primary Gleason pattern ≥ 4), the AUC was 0.85 for T2WI + DWI, 0.84 for T2WI + DCE, 0.86 for DWI + DCE, and 0.87 for T2WI + DWI + DCE. The AUC for T2WI + DWI + DCE for transitional-zone PCa was 0.73, and for the peripheral zone 0.88. Regarding higher-grade PCa, AUC for transitional-zone PCa was 0.88, and for peripheral zone 0.96. The combination of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved the highest test accuracy, especially in patients with higher-grade PCa. The use of ≤2 MR sequences led to lower AUC in higher-grade and peripheral-zone cancers. (orig.)

  8. Test-retest reliability of automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume measurements on a wide bore 3T MR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Marianna S.; Newman, David; Kasmai, Bahman; Greenwood, Richard; Malcolm, Paul N. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Norwich (United Kingdom); Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Karlsson, Anette; Borga, Magnus [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoeping (Sweden); Rosander, Johannes [Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Toms, Andoni P. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Norwich (United Kingdom); Radiology Academy, Cotman Centre, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    To measure the test-retest reproducibility of an automated system for quantifying whole body and compartmental muscle volumes using wide bore 3 T MRI. Thirty volunteers stratified by body mass index underwent whole body 3 T MRI, two-point Dixon sequences, on two separate occasions. Water-fat separation was performed, with automated segmentation of whole body, torso, upper and lower leg volumes, and manually segmented lower leg muscle volumes. Mean automated total body muscle volume was 19.32 L (SD9.1) and 19.28 L (SD9.12) for first and second acquisitions (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 1.0, 95 % level of agreement -0.32-0.2 L). ICC for all automated test-retest muscle volumes were almost perfect (0.99-1.0) with 95 % levels of agreement 1.8-6.6 % of mean volume. Automated muscle volume measurements correlate closely with manual quantification (right lower leg: manual 1.68 L (2SD0.6) compared to automated 1.64 L (2SD 0.6), left lower leg: manual 1.69 L (2SD 0.64) compared to automated 1.63 L (SD0.61), correlation coefficients for automated and manual segmentation were 0.94-0.96). Fully automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume quantification can be achieved rapidly on a 3 T wide bore system with very low margins of error, excellent test-retest reliability and excellent correlation to manual segmentation in the lower leg. (orig.)

  9. Test-retest reliability of automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume measurements on a wide bore 3T MR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the test-retest reproducibility of an automated system for quantifying whole body and compartmental muscle volumes using wide bore 3 T MRI. Thirty volunteers stratified by body mass index underwent whole body 3 T MRI, two-point Dixon sequences, on two separate occasions. Water-fat separation was performed, with automated segmentation of whole body, torso, upper and lower leg volumes, and manually segmented lower leg muscle volumes. Mean automated total body muscle volume was 19.32 L (SD9.1) and 19.28 L (SD9.12) for first and second acquisitions (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 1.0, 95 % level of agreement -0.32-0.2 L). ICC for all automated test-retest muscle volumes were almost perfect (0.99-1.0) with 95 % levels of agreement 1.8-6.6 % of mean volume. Automated muscle volume measurements correlate closely with manual quantification (right lower leg: manual 1.68 L (2SD0.6) compared to automated 1.64 L (2SD 0.6), left lower leg: manual 1.69 L (2SD 0.64) compared to automated 1.63 L (SD0.61), correlation coefficients for automated and manual segmentation were 0.94-0.96). Fully automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume quantification can be achieved rapidly on a 3 T wide bore system with very low margins of error, excellent test-retest reliability and excellent correlation to manual segmentation in the lower leg. (orig.)

  10. Kinematic change of the meniscus and the tibiofemoral joint space in asymptomatic volunteers using a wide bore 3T closed MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eugene; Kim, Yeo Ju; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Choong-gu, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jang Gyu [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dae Hyung [Inha University Hospital, Clinical Trail Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ryuh Sup [Inha University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate kinematic changes in menisci and tibiofemoral joint spaces in extension and flexion using asymptomatic volunteers using a wide-bore 3-T closed MRI system. Twenty-two knees from asymptomatic volunteers were examined in knee extension and flexion using a 3-T MRI (sagittal 2D FSE T2-weighted sequence and sagittal 3D isotropic FSE proton density-weighted cube sequence). The meniscal positions, meniscal floating and flounce were evaluated. The widths of the medial and lateral tibiofemoral joint spaces and coronal tibiofemoral angles were measured. In the anteroposterior direction, meniscal extrusion was most frequently seen in the anterior horn of the medial menisci (100 %) in extensions (maximum 6.04 mm). Most of the menisci moved significantly to the posterior side from extension to flexion. The anteroposterior meniscal movement was the greatest for the anterior horn of the medial meniscus and least for the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. In the mediolateral direction, meniscal extrusion was seen in 52 % of the medial menisci in extensions (maximum 1.91 mm) and 29 % of lateral menisci in flexions (maximum 2.36 mm). From the extension to flexion, all medial and lateral menisci moved significantly to the lateral side. Meniscal floating was frequently observed in the posterior horn of medial menisci in extension. Meniscal flounce was frequently seen in lateral menisci in flexion with a widened lateral tibiofemoral joint space gap. The coronal tibiofemoral angle showed medial wedging in flexion, but not in extension. Wide-bore 3-T closed MRI revealed significant kinematic changes in the menisci and tibiofemoral joint spaces in asymptomatic volunteers. (orig.)

  11. Feasibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis on 1.0-T open-bore MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the feasibility of non-invasive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the knee of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and, further, to analyze the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) levels to distinguish synovium from effusion. Standard magnetic resonance imaging of the knee including post-contrast imaging was obtained in eight patients (mean age, 12 years 8 months, five females) using an open-bore magnetic resonance imaging system (1.0 T). In addition, axially acquired echo-planar DWI datasets (b-values 0, 50, and 600) were prospectively obtained and the diffusion images were post-processed into ADC50-600 maps. Two independent observers selected a region of interest (ROI) for both synovium and effusion using aligned post-contrast images as landmarks. Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare ADC synovium and ADC effusion. DWI was successfully obtained in all patients. When data of both observers was combined, ADC synovium was lower than ADC effusion in the ROI in seven out of eight patients (median, 1.92 x 10-3 mm2/s vs. 2.40 x 10-3 mm2/s, p = 0.006, respectively). Similar results were obtained when the two observers were analyzed separately (observer 1: p = 0.006, observer 2: p = 0.04). In this pilot study, on a patient-friendly 1.0-T open-bore MRI, we demonstrated that DWI may potentially be a feasible non-invasive imaging technique in children with JIA. We could differentiate synovium from effusion in seven out of eight patients based on the ADC of synovium and effusion. However, to select synovium and effusion on DWI, post-contrast images were still a necessity. (orig.)

  12. Development of small-bore, high-current-density railgun as testbed for study of plasma-materials interaction. Progress report for October 16,2000 - May 13, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyekyoon [Kevin

    2003-05-14

    The present document is a final technical report summarizing the progress made during 10/16/2000 - 05/13/2003 toward the development of a small-bore railgun with transaugmentation as a testbed for investigating plasma-materials interaction.

  13. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide; Dosage de traces de bore dans le graphite, l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursier, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France); Hure, J.; Platzer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.) [French] Le probleme du dosage du bore dans les materiaux servant a la construction de reacteurs nucleaires se pose de la facon suivante: determiner a environ 0,1 ppm pres des quantites de bore de l'ordre de quelques dixiemes de ppm. Nous avons choisit la colorimetrie a la curcumine comme methode de dosage. Pour atteindre les teneurs indiquees, il est necessaire d'effectuer une separation prealable du bore et des materiaux de base, soit par extraction du fluoborate de tetraphenylarsonium dans le cas du dosage de bore dans l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium, soit par l'utilisation d'une resine echangeuse de cations dans le cas du graphite. (M.B.)

  14. A design for high precision boring auxiliary device with multi-station synchronous processing function%一种实现多工位同步加工的高精度镗孔辅助装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世雄

    2013-01-01

    Designs a boring auxiliary device specifically for floor-type boring machine in mechanical processing industry ,and de-scribes its working principle .In order to improve the machining accuracy of traditional floor-type boring machine and make it pro-duce better products,the high precision boring auxiliary device with multi-station simultaneous processing function referred has the features of high positioning accuracy ,the amount of feed readable ,simple operation & adjustment ,and etc.In addition,the device can be transformed according to the specific situation of machine tool to meet the special requirements of different equipments .%为提高传统型落地镗机床的加工精度,介绍一种针对落地镗床设计的镗孔辅助装置,并对其工作原理进行阐述。所设计的多工位同步加工的高精度镗孔辅助装置具有定位精度高、进刀量可读、操作及调整简单等特性。此外,该镗孔辅助装置可根据机床的具体情况进行相关改造,满足不同设备的特殊要求。

  15. Drilling mud additive for the release of jammed drill pipes in a well bore. Additiv for tilsetning til boreslam, eller for frigjoering av fastkjoerte boreroer i et borehull og anvendelse av additivet for disse formaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, d.E.; Mouten, R.J.; Moecek, C.J.

    1986-04-21

    The invention concerns a drilling mud additive to release jammed drill pipes in a well bore. The additive is a mixture of imideazolene/amide, diethanolamide, tall oil fatty acids, and a non-polluting/biodegradable - and non-fluorescent oil.

  16. The Design of a Fining Boring Machine for Three Kinds of Holes on the WD12 Cylinder%WD12气缸体三轴孔精镗机床的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海群; 李春燕

    2011-01-01

    为保证缸体曲轴孔、凸轮轴孔和惰轮孔的加工精度,设计了WD12气缸体三轴孔精镗机床,确定了单面卧式总体方案、加工示意图和电气动作循环表.曲轴孔和凸轮轴孔均是多档间断的长孔,其精度要求高.为提高镗杆的刚度,除尽量加粗镗杆、设置中间支承外,选择德国玛帕生产的直线镗杆和浮动接头及美国GATCO生产的滚动导向套保证精度.采用"一面两销"的定位方案和液压夹紧机构.并对镗模安装提出了具体的要求.设备经十个月的研制,得到用户的认可.%To ensure the accuracy of three kinds of holes of crankshaft, camshaft and idlers, a triaxial fine boring machine for the WD12 cylinder is designed. The singleside horizontal boring is determined which include the overall program machining sketch chart and electrical action cycle table The holes of crankshaft and camshaft are long with intermittent gap and high precision To improve the rigidity of boring bars,some methods are applied. They include making the boring bar thicker, adding the intermediate support,choosing the line boring bars and floating holders of Mapa, and selecting the precision rotary bushings of GATCO. Put to use the fixing scheme of "one plane and two pins" and hydraulic clamping facility and make a specific request of installation requirements of the boring mold in the machine. After ten months of research, the boring machine get user's acceptance

  17. In vivo open-bore MRI reveals region- and sub-arc-specific lengthening of the unloaded human posterior cruciate ligament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J King

    Full Text Available Open-bore MRI scanners allow joint soft tissue to be imaged over a large, uninterrupted range of flexion. Using an open-bore scanner, 3D para-sagittal images of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL were collected from seven healthy subjects in unloaded, recumbent knee extension and flexion. PCL length was measured from one 2D MRI slice partition per flexion angle, per subject. The anterior surface of the PCL lengthened significantly between extension and flexion (p<0.001. Conversely, the posterior surface did not. Changes were not due to the PCL moving relative to the 2D slice partition; measurements made from 3D reconstructions, which compensated for PCL movement, did not differ significantly from measurements made from 2D slice partitions. In a second experiment, videos of knee flexion were made by imaging two subjects at several flexion angles. Videos allowed soft tissue tracking; examples are included. In a third experiment, unloaded knees of seven healthy, recumbent subjects were imaged at extension and at 40°, 70°, 90°, 100°, 110° and 120° flexion. The distance between PCL attachments increased between extension and 100°, and then decreased (p<0.001. The anterior surface of the PCL lengthened over the flexion angles measured (p<0.01. The posterior surface of the PCL lengthened between extension and 40° and then shortened (p<0.001. Both attachment separation and anterior surface length increased dramatically between extension and 40°, but varied less afterwards. Results indicate that PCL dynamics differ between terminal extension and active function sub-arcs. Also, attachment separation cannot predict the lengthening of all parts of the PCL, nor can lengthening of one part of the PCL predict the lengthening of another part. A potential connection between lengthening and loading is discussed. We conclude that low-field MRI can assess ligament lengthening during flexion, and that the dynamics of the PCL for any given region and sub

  18. Development of Virtual Reality System of Shield Machine and Boring%盾构及掘进流程虚拟现实系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟锋; 李凤远; 陈启伟

    2012-01-01

    为进行盾构施工研究和降低盾构掘进现场培训给盾构施工相关人员带来的风险,采用数字样机结合虚拟现实技术以拓展传统的虚拟样机的概念,功能上具备虚拟装配、运动仿真、工作过程及各种标矢量场可视化的仿真能力,实现了盾构设备及施工场景的虚拟样机实例研究和实验室盾构操作、维护等培训。%The concept of the traditional virtual prototype of shield machine is enlarged by connecting the digital proto type with the virtual reality, so as to develop the virtual reality system of shield machine and boring. The virtual reality system developed has such functions as virtual assembly, movement simulation and visualized simulation of working pro cedure and scalars and vectors. The virtual reality system developed is helpful to the study and training in the shield tun neling technology.

  19. Development of a 40 mm bore magnet cross section with high field uniformity for the 6.6T SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSC requires a very uniform dipole field. A 40 mm bore diameter winding cross section has been developed which has computed multipole coefficients less than 1 x 10-6 of the dipole field at 10 mm radius for an operating field of 6.6T at 4.35 K. This cross section has 4 conductor blocks (3 wedges, 16 turns) per quadrant in the inner layer, and two blocks (1 wedge, 20 turns) in the outer layer. ''Partially keystoned'' cable is used; the inner cable has 23 strands of .0318 inch diameter wire; the outer cable has 30 strands of .0255 inch diameter wire. Model magnets have been constructed and the fields measured at room temperature and at liquid helium temperature up to fields exceeding 6.6T. Measured fields are compared to the predicted field. In addition, the as-built conductor positions in several magnets have been determined after cutting up the magnets. The predictions based on as-built configurations are computed and compared to measurements

  20. Scale-up protein separation on stainless steel wide bore toroidal columns in the type-J counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue Hugh; Hewitson, Peter; van den Heuvel, Remco N A M; Zhao, Yan; Siebers, Rick P G; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Sutherland, Ian

    2015-12-11

    Manufacturing high-value added biotech biopharmaceutical products (e.g. therapeutic proteins) requires quick-to-develop, GMP-compliant, easy-to-scale and cost effective preparatory chromatography technologies. In this work, we describe the construction and testing of a set of 5-mm inner diameter stainless steel toroidal columns for use on commercially available preparatory scale synchronous J-type counter-current chromatography (CCC) machinery. We used a 20.2m long column with an aqueous two-phase system containing 14% (w/w) PEG1000 and 14% (w/w) potassium phosphate at pH 7, and tested a sample loading of 5% column volume and a mobile phase flow rate of 20ml/min. We then satisfactorily demonstrated the potential for a weekly protein separation and preparation throughput of ca. 11g based on a normal weekly routine for separating a pair of model proteins by making five stacked injections on a single portion of stationary phase with no stripping. Compared to our previous 1.6mm bore PTFE toroidal column, the present columns enlarged the nominal column processing throughput by nearly 10. For an ideal model protein injection modality, we observed a scaling up factor of at least 21. The 2 scales of protein separation and purification steps were realized on the same commercial CCC device.

  1. Construction and test results of a compact 0.8 meter warm bore 1.5 Tesla high homogeneity superconducting magnet for MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    a superconducting magnet aimed at whole body MRI and spectroscopic studies was designed, constructed and tested. Magnet was wound with a 2 mm diameter NbTi/Cu multifilamentary composite conductor. The design field was B0 = 1.5 T, the design value for field homogeneity ΔB/B0 - 0.1 ppm over a 20 cm diameter spherical volume, and the design value for the field stability dB0/dt/B0 ≤ 0.1 ppm/h. During construction of the magnet, special emphasis was put into evaluating the winding accuracy which is attainable in practice. Dimensional measurements on the coil were compared with subsequent field measurements. The magnet was designed to be fully self-protective in the event of a quench. The quench calculations were verified by test quench measurements. The magnet was cooled by immersion in a 300 liter LHe-bath of an annular helium cryostat having an 0.8 m diameter GRP room temperature bore tube, with a 7 l/d LHE boil-off. In this paper constructional and design aspects are discussed and test results are given

  2. Effect of Chipping and Solarization on Emergence and Boring Activity of a Recently Introduced Ambrosia Beetle (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    Polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) has recently invaded southern California. The beetle, along with its associated fungi, Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp., and Acremonium sp., causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and box elder (Acer negundo L.). With the spread of the beetle through Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in California, there is increasing concern that felled trees and pruned branches infested with polyphagous shot hole borer should receive sanitation treatment to reduce the potential spread of the beetle from the movement of untreated wood. We tested two sanitation methods to reduce beetle populations, chipping with a commercial chipper and solarization by covering logs with clear or black plastic in full sun. Both chipping and solarization decreased beetle emergence and boring activity compared to untreated control logs. Chipping was most effective for chip sizes <5 cm. Solarization was most effective using clear polyethylene sheeting during hot summer months, particularly August, when daily maximum temperatures were ≥35°C. Beetles persisted for 2 mo or more when solarization was applied during the spring or fall. PMID:26470327

  3. The distribution and abundance of Sphaeroma terebrans, a wood-boring isopod of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) habitat within Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R.A.; Bell, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the distribution, abundance, and demography of a wood boring isopod, Sphaeroma terebrans Bate, 1866, within the prop roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., in eight sites within Tampa Bay, Florida. Sphaeroma terebrans in Tampa Bay displayed reproductive activity year-round and bay-wide synchrony in their density pattern. On average approximately 60% (range: 25%-86%) of the intertidal aerial roots surveyed were occupied by S. terebrans. Although infestation levels by S. terebrans in Tampa Bay were similar to that of more tropical regions, the distribution of S. terebrans was not continuous throughout the study sites. A substantially higher occurrence and density of S. terebrans was found in the northern compared to more southern study sites within the Bay. Additionally, some seemingly suitable areas of the bay (i.e., Pinellas Point, Skyway, Fort Desoto) were actually unoccupied on some dates. Although sites differed in the frequency with which roots were attacked, the density of burrows and isopods in an occupied root was similar, with most attacked roots containing 3-5 burrows. The results of a transplantation experiment indicated that neither abiotic factors nor substrate quality limit the burrowing capabilities or survival of adult S. terebrans in the areas where they are absent. Instead, dispersal limitation, linked with differential juvenile survival, most likely controls isopod distribution and abundance within Tampa Bay.

  4. On analysis of reasons for pile offsetting of bored piles and control measure%钻孔灌注桩桩位偏差的原因分析及控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀珠

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the reasons for the pile offsetting of the bored piles, points out the relative measures to ensure the construction quality to meet the regulation, so as to control the pile offsetting of the bored piles in an effective way, improve the engineering quality and to re- duce the economic losses.%摘要:对钻孔灌注桩桩位偏差的原因进行了分析,并提出了相关措施以保证施工质量符合规范要求,从而有效地控制钻孔灌注桩桩位偏差,提高工程质量,减少经济损失。

  5. A device for taking samples of scale from bore pipes used for collecting groundwater; Dispositivo para la toma de muestras de incrustaciones en tuberias de sondeos en la captacion de aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Rubio, J.; Ruano Magan, P. [Tecnologias y Servicios Agrarios, S. A. (Spain); Gonzalez Yelamos, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Rebollo Ferreiro, L. F. [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A study was made of the problem of corrosion/scale in water collection bore pipes, beginning with a review of the existing literature. This led to the conclusion that thorough knowledge of such phenomena requires taking samples from the walls of the pipes and filters to determine the physiocochemical and biological details. A new instrument, based on a previous appliance, has been developed for this purpose. It has a pair of arms and is capable of going down inside the well or bore hole, generally with a video camera attached. It has a cup on the end of each arm that can scrape the wall, catch the sample and protect it with a lid. A prototype has proved to be efficient at obtaining representative samples that can be analysed to determine the corrosion/scale processes. (Author) 9 refs.

  6. 缸孔珩磨表面微观质量评定方法的制定及应用%Establishment of Evaluation Method of Cylinder Bore Honing Surface Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 周跃钢; 王祖化; 彭科国; 李卫国

    2011-01-01

    Among the parameters which affect cylinder bore honing surface quality, parameters like profile bearing length ratio, ten point height of irregularities, profile waviness, valley mean spacing which affect engine cylinder bore cross hatch honing characteristic are selected, and different weights are allocated to those parameters according to different affect, this is used as a new method in the evaluation of cylinder bore honing surface quality. This method is tested in many commercial vehicle engine series, correctness and adaptability of this evaluation method are verified.%从诸多发动机缸孔珩磨表面微观质量的评价参数中,选择了影响发动机缸孔网纹珩磨特性的轮廓支撑长度率、微观不平度十点高度、轮廓波度、谷沟平均间距等参数,并根据各参数的影响程度制定了不同的权重,将其作为一种新的评定方法用于缸孔珩磨表面微观质量的的评定.在多种商用车系列发动机上进行了检测,验证了该评定方法的正确性和适用性.

  7. O-Cell桩基承载力试验法在大直径超长钻孔嵌岩桩的应用%O-Cell Load Test for Rock-Socket Bored Piles with Large Diameter and Extra Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚东; 李胜; 史炳峰

    2012-01-01

    结合某桥梁大直径超长钻孔嵌岩桩承载力测试的实践,介绍了O-Cell桩基承载力试验原理和单桩极限承载力确定方法,对于荷载箱位置的选取及超长嵌岩桩成孔成桩工艺进行分析并提出自己的看法,为类似工程提供参考.%Based on the cumulative evidence of O-cell load test for rock-socket bored piles with large diameter and extra length for a bridge project, this paper introduces the theory of O-cell load test and the method of confirming the load. The positioning of loading equipment and the technology of boring and casting of long length rock-socket bored pile are also discussed and some views of the author are proposed to provide reference for similar projects.

  8. Theoretical exploration and experimental investigation of abrasive flow machining of connecting rod large end bore%连杆大头孔磨料流加工的理论探讨及实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵立新; 赵培峰; 董志国; 张裕生; 轧刚

    2012-01-01

    针对H12V190Z柴油机连杆大头孔表面的磨料流加工方法进行了研究,利用CFD软件对其加工流场进行了模拟仿真,得到了流体磨料在流场中的压力和速度分布.结合工艺实验验证了经磨料流加工后连杆大头孔加工表面的粗糙度值有明显的减小,提高了连杆表面的质量,大大缩短了加工时间,提高了加工效率.%Abrasive flow machining method of connecting rod large end bore surface of H12V190Z diesel engine was studied by machining flow field simulation based on CFD software. The distributions of pressure and velocity in abrasive media flow field were obtained. Abrasive flow machining experiment results proved that, the surface roughness value of connecting rod large end bore was evidently reduced, the surface quality of connecting rod large end bore surface was improved, the machining time was shortened and efficiency was increased.

  9. 成都富水砂卵石地层盾构刀盘设计及应用%Design and Application of Cutterhead of Shield Boring in Water-rich Sandy Gravel Strata in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家年; 胡玉娟

    2014-01-01

    Problems,including serious cutterhead wearing,cutterhead clogging and ground surface settlement,occur during the EPB shield boring in water-rich sandy gravel strata in Chengdu.As a result,the design of the cutterhead is optimized in terms of cutterhead structure,cutter arrangement,anti-wearing protection and ground conditioning.The shield with the optimized cutterhead achieves long-distance boring and good ground surface settlement control effect.The paper can provide reference for the design of the cutterheads of shields boring in similar strata in the future.%针对成都富水砂卵石地层盾构施工过程中刀盘刀具磨损严重、结泥饼和地表沉降大等问题,从盾构刀盘结构设计、刀具配置、耐磨保护及刀盘碴土改良等方面入手,对刀盘进行了针对性地改良设计。改良后的盾构刀盘不仅实现了长距离掘进,而且也有效地控制了地表沉降,对类似地层盾构刀盘设计具有一定的指导和借鉴作用。

  10. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCL-K6: Calibration of coordinate measuring machine two-dimensional artifacts (ball & bore plates)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viliesid, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    all measurands of both artifacts. The results are shown on tables as well as in plots. The comparison was scheduled to start in January 2001 and span the circulation until December 2002. The circulation scheme was delayed for many reasons. It finally ended in September 2004. The following main conclusions may be drawn: The comparison was a valuable exercise and produced valid results as the artifacts proved to be stable throughout the comparison exercise. Therefore, the results obtained may be taken as a proof of the performance of the participants in CMM 2-D standards calibration as declared in their corresponding CMCs. Out of the twelve participants, ten were in good agreement for the Steel Ball Plate and nine for the Zerodur Bore Plate. The KCRV was determined from these values. The Birge ratios obtained for the measuring elements of both artifacts proved that there is consistency between the results obtained at the declared uncertainties of the participants. However, it would seem that the uncertainty declarations in general were rather conservative. The results on the Steel Ball Plate were slightly better than those on the Zerodur Bore Plate. As a conclusion, the participants are a little bit better at measuring steel artifacts than Zerodur ones. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  11. New Technology of Segments Connected for Bored Pile Reinforcement Cage%灌注桩钢筋笼分段连接新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振宁; 陈江涛

    2013-01-01

    介绍了北京地铁10号线亮马河站东南风道采用PBA工法施工,在小导洞内进行灌注桩施工过程中,因为场地条件不允许整体吊装钢筋笼,需要分段加工现场、吊装、组装;逐段连接时,传统的焊接技术速度慢、连接质量不稳定,工程中采用钢筋滚轧直螺纹接头进行快速连接的新技术,施工高效,质量可靠;成熟的工法和新技术相结合,往往会收到事半功倍的效果。%The ventilation drift located in southeast of Liangmahe station in Beijing Subway Line No. 10 was constructed by PBA construction method. On the construction process of bored pile in a small guide tunnel,the reinforcement cage can not be lifted totally because of the in-site conditions and need to be segmented, lifted and connected. The traditional welding technique for segments connection is slow and unstable. So the new technology of the steel rolling straight thread fittings for quick connecting was adopted and it had some advantages of construction efficiency and reliable quality. It will produce a multiplier effect on combining mature construction methods with new technology.

  12. TK42200 NC Boring and Milling Machine to Increase Transformation Tool%TK42200数控镗铣床增加刀库的改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范芳洪

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the TK42200 NC boring and milling machine to realize the automatic tool change, will increase in Machine Tool Retrofit techniques applied to the NC machine tool function expan-sion. Analysis of the method to control the tool change, proposed by NC and PLC combined control method of tool change, design the fixed cycle and the PLC control program NC changer. After debugging tool li-brary transformation can reliably tool change, tool change and product processing of experiment, the experi-mental results show that:the tool changing high repeat precision, the product quality, reducing the labor in-tensity of operators, by modifying the system variables to repair tool table the knife has the advantages of simple operation.%为了解决TK42200数控镗铣床实现自动换刀的问题,将在机床上增加刀库的改造技术应用到数控机床功能扩展中。开展了换刀控制方法的分析,提出了NC和PLC相结合共同控制换刀的方法,设计了NC换刀固定循环程序和PLC控制程序。刀库改造调试后能够稳定可靠地换刀,进行换刀和产品加工的实验,实验结果表明:换刀重复精度高,产品质量合格,减轻了操作人员劳动强度,通过修改系统变量来修复刀具表使刀库操作简单了。

  13. Feasibility study of simultaneous physical examination and dynamic MR imaging of medial collateral ligament knee injuries in a 1.5-T large-bore magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the feasibility of evaluating medial knee joint laxity with dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination in a large-bore 1.5-T system. The study included 10 patients (5 women, 5 men; mean age 35 years) with clinically diagnosed and categorized acute injuries of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). Intermittent valgus stress was applied separately to both the affected and the contralateral knee joint during dynamic MR imaging with a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence. The width of the medial joint space and the opening angle between the femoral condyles and the tibial plateau were measured. Results obtained from dynamic MR imaging of the affected knee were compared with morphological MCL changes on static MRI, to kinematics of the contralateral side and to the clinical grading of MCL injuries. On clinical examination, all patients had grade 2 MCL injuries except one, who had a grade 1 lesion. Using morphological MRI criteria, 9 grade II and 1 grade III injuries were seen. Mean medial joint space width and opening angles of all affected knees were 2.8 mm and 2.7 respectively, compared with 1.7 mm and 2.1 on the contralateral side. The Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated that the differences in width (P = 0.005) and opening angle (P = 0.037) between the affected and contralateral knees were significant. Dynamic MR imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination is feasible. Our results suggest that this technique might enable the imaging documentation of medial ligamentous knee instability. (orig.)

  14. Feasibility study of simultaneous physical examination and dynamic MR imaging of medial collateral ligament knee injuries in a 1.5-T large-bore magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studler, Ueli [Mount Sinai Hospital and University Health Network, University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); White, Lawrence M.; Deslandes, Melanie; Sussman, Marshall S. [Mount Sinai Hospital and University Health Network, University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Geddes, Christopher; Theodoropoulos, John [Mount Sinai Hospital and University Health Network, University of Toronto, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    To determine the feasibility of evaluating medial knee joint laxity with dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination in a large-bore 1.5-T system. The study included 10 patients (5 women, 5 men; mean age 35 years) with clinically diagnosed and categorized acute injuries of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). Intermittent valgus stress was applied separately to both the affected and the contralateral knee joint during dynamic MR imaging with a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence. The width of the medial joint space and the opening angle between the femoral condyles and the tibial plateau were measured. Results obtained from dynamic MR imaging of the affected knee were compared with morphological MCL changes on static MRI, to kinematics of the contralateral side and to the clinical grading of MCL injuries. On clinical examination, all patients had grade 2 MCL injuries except one, who had a grade 1 lesion. Using morphological MRI criteria, 9 grade II and 1 grade III injuries were seen. Mean medial joint space width and opening angles of all affected knees were 2.8 mm and 2.7 respectively, compared with 1.7 mm and 2.1 on the contralateral side. The Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated that the differences in width (P = 0.005) and opening angle (P = 0.037) between the affected and contralateral knees were significant. Dynamic MR imaging and simultaneous physical joint examination is feasible. Our results suggest that this technique might enable the imaging documentation of medial ligamentous knee instability. (orig.)

  15. 地下水位变化对盾构隧道的影响研究%Study on Influence of Water Level Fluctuation on Shield-bored Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春良; 王勇; 张巍

    2012-01-01

    A finite element model of shield-bored tunnel structure is established, so as to study the influence of water level fluctuation on shield-bored tunnel. The deformation of the tunnel and the ground under different water levels can be predicted and the displacement rules of the shield-bored tunnel under different water levels can be revealed by means of the model. The study results show that : 1 ) Rebound deformation will occur to the shallow soil layers at the ground sur- face when the water level rises. The rebound value of ground under which shield-bored tunnel exists is smaller than that of ground under which no shield-bored tunnel exists. 2) Vertical displacement of the tunnel structure and lateral dis- placement of the sidewall will happen when the ground water level rises from the invert to the crown. The higher the ground water level, the bigger the displacement value.%为研究地下水位变化对盾构隧道结构的影响,利用有限元理论,建立了地下水位变化时盾构隧道结构的有限元模型,该模型可预测出不同地下水位时盾构隧道及地面变形情况,揭示出不同水位时的盾构隧道在土中的位移变化规律。结果表明:地下水位发生变化会对盾构隧道产生一定的影响。地下水位上升会导致地表浅层土体发生回弹变形,并且下方有盾构隧道的地表的回弹值要比下方没有盾构隧道的地表的回弹值小;当地下水位从盾构隧道拱底处逐渐升高到中心处和拱顶处时,盾构隧道结构会出现竖向位移和边壁的侧向位移,并且水位越高,隧道的竖向位移和边壁的侧向位移越大。

  16. Cutting system arrangement method of hard rock boring machine%硬岩掘进机破碎机构布置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛君; 谢春雪; 梁晗; 黄华

    2013-01-01

      Hard rock roadheader is the key equipment in laneway constructions. In view of the traditional point-attack picks sever loss while breaking rocks, this paper put forward a shock and rolling breaking method which utilizes impact mechanism and a rolling mechanism to break rocks. This study analyzed the duration, the reliability and the driving efficiency on the cutter of the hard rock tunnel boring machine, and optimized the relations between the hard rock crushers using multi-disciplinary optimization method. In addition, this paper researched on factors that influence the layout of crushers which include global coordinating optimization as main factor, coordinating the optimization of parameters, the impact parameter, cutting force, cutting parameters and rock properties matching. The results of study show that the arrangement of the hard rock crusher was feasible, and it is optimal in energy consumption, tool wearing, driving efficiency and overall performance.%  针对传统镐齿破碎岩石的损耗严重,提出一种冲击滚压破碎方式。其结构采用冲击机构和滚压机构配合破碎岩石,考虑影响硬岩掘进机刀具的寿命、可靠性、掘进效率因素,采用多学科优化方法构建硬岩掘进机破碎机构布置关系,并以全局协调优化为主导,总体协调优化参数,对破碎机构的布置进行冲击参数、刀具受力、切削参数、围岩属性的匹配研究。研究结果表明:该硬岩掘进机破碎机构布置方法可行,降低了硬岩掘进机能量消耗、刀具的磨损,提高了掘进效率,使整机性能达到最优。

  17. Predictive power of the ESUR scoring system for prostate cancer diagnosis verified with targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The PI-RADS summed score (PSsum) demonstrated very good diagnostic values, especially for higher grade PCa. • Lesions with PSsum ≥13 represented prostate cancer in 88% and higher grade prostate cancer in 42%. • Sensitivity and NPV was nearly 100% for higher grade PCa detection using a cut-off limit of PSsum 10. • Peripheral zone lesions demonstrated better diagnostic value with the PSsum compared to transitional zone lesions. • Further improvement of the PI-RADS score is required to prevent unnecessary overdiagnosis. - Abstract: Purpose: This study evaluates the diagnostic value of the ESUR scoring system (PI-RADS) regarding prostate cancer detection using MR-guided in-bore biopsies (IB-GB) as the reference standard. Methods: 566 lesions in 235 consecutive patients (65.7 ± 7.9 years, PSA 9.9 ± 8.5 ng/ml) with a multiparametric (mp)-MRI (T2WI, DWI, DCE) of the prostate at 3 T were scored using the PI-RADS scoring system. PI-RADS single (PSsingle), summed (PSsum), and overall (PSoverall) scores were determined. All lesions were histologically verified by IB-GB. Results: Lesions with a PSsum below 9 contained no prostate cancer (PCa) with Gleason score (GS) ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. A PSsum of 13–15 (PSoverall V) resulted in 87.8% (n = 108) in PCa and in 42.3% (n = 52) in GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. Transition zone (TZ) lesions with a PSsum of 13–15 (PSoverall V) resulted in 76.3% (n = 36) in PCa and in 26.3% (n = 10) in GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7, whereas for peripheral zone (PZ) lesions cancer detection rate at this score was 92.9% (n = 79) and 49.4% (n = 42) for GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. Using a threshold of PSsum ≥ 10, sensitivity was 86.0%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 86.2%. For higher grade PCa sensitivity was 98.6%, and NPV was 99.5%. Conclusion: A PSsum below 9 excluded a higher grade PCa, whereas lesions with a PSsum ≥ 13 (PSoverall V) represented in 88% PCa, and in 42% higher grade PCa. The PSsum or PSoverall demonstrated a better diagnostic value

  18. Mécanisme de l'usure par polissage des cylindres de moteurs diesel Bore Polishing Wear Mechanism in Diesel Engine Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayard J. C.

    2006-11-01

    particulier, l'usure des segments ainsi que les débits de gaz de soufflage, sont plus faibles qu'avec une chemise normale. Enfin, le mécanisme de l'usure par polissage par abrasion douce à deux et à trois corps est parfaitement confirmé par une exploration micrographique et une microanalyse des surfaces polies. A fast and economical method for evaluating lubricants and fuels in relation to the bore polishing wear of super charged diesel-engine cylinders has been developed using a single-cylinder laboratory engine within the framework of an Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine - Institut Français du Pétrole (SNEA-lFP research agreement. This method bears the reference IFP-UP-4/80.It also serves to evaluate the deposit-forming and sticking tendency, ring wear and the oil-consumption tendency of lubricants. It is in good correlation with the CEC-Ford Tornado test and makes an excellent discrimination between the Coordinating European Council (CEC reference cils RL 47 and RL 48. The method is used for investigating the bore polishingwear mechanism by searching for the influence exerted by the principal parameters: (a Composition of the lubricant: the phenomenon is influenced by the base oil and its viscosity, by the amount of polymers improving the viscosity index and especially by the choice of detergent additives. As a first approximation and for homogeneous oil familles, polishing wear increases when the thermal stability of the oil decreases. (b Engine running: polishing increases very fart with the engine load after a certain threshold, and its evolution in time as observed by endoscopic rating shows a characteristic S shape as polishing begins on the thrust side and at the top of the cylinder. (c Composition of the fuel: the increase in the sulfur content of diesel fuel considerably decreases polishing wear caused by an oil reputed to be poorfrom this standpoint but has no effect on a goodoil. (d Surface finish of the cylinder: prepolishing the liner by extremely fine

  19. Tunnel boring machine collision with an ancient boulder beach during the excavation of the Barcelona city subway L10 line: a case of adverse geology and resulting engineering solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Filbà, Marta; Salvany Duran, Josep Maria; Jubany, Jordi; Carrasco, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a layer of hard boulders up to 1 m in size within the soft sediments of the Holocene Llobregat delta in the SW of Barcelona city caused the damage and stoppage of the EPB-type tunnel boring machine that excavated the subway L10 line. This layer constitutes a detrital deposit of exceptionally large grain size developed in the base of the delta. It originated as an alluvial fan in the northern margin of the delta during the last fall of the Mediterranean Sea level, at the end o...

  20. Bored pile in deep water of Xiluodu Jinshajiang Bridge and the cap construction%溪洛渡金沙江大桥深水钻孔桩及承台施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和小军

    2012-01-01

    通过对溪洛渡金沙江大桥的深水钻孔桩及承台施工,对工程的施工组织及施工工艺进行了总结和研究,达到了很好的施工效果,也便于施工类似工程时予以借鉴。%The paper summarizes and studies the engineering construction organization and construction technology by bored pile in deep water and cap construction of Xiluodu Jinshajiang Bridge, and achieves good construction effect, which will be some guidance for similar engineering construction.

  1. Test Research on Vertical Bearing Capacity of Bored Pile Reinforced by High Pressure Jet Grouting%旋喷加固灌注桩竖向抗压承载性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宝来

    2015-01-01

    In the reconstruction and restoration project , the ground treatment which improves the bearing capacity of bored pile can obtain much more economic benefit and engineering efficiency .However, relatively less research has been carried out on the combined application of ground treatment and bored pile .Based on the data of in-situ static load tests , the laws of load-displacement curve , internal force , and soil friction resistance of single pile were discussed .The test results show that the load transfer mechanism of bored piles is the same each other .The vertical bearing capacity of bored pile reinforced by high pressure jet grouting is significantly im-proved, and the displacement is less under the same load .The skin friction resistance is enhanced by high pres-sure jet grouting .The effect of high pressure jet grouting reinforcement to shallow soil is larger than that to deep soil, and the skin friction resistance of silty soil grows larger than that of clay soil .%城市建筑改造和修复工程发展迅速,钻孔灌注桩和地基处理的联合应用能有效地解决施工条件限制和承载力的要求,提高经济效益和工程效率。目前二者联合应用的实例和研究相对较少。通过现场试验,对高压旋喷地基处理前后相同规格的钻孔灌注桩进行荷载试验,对比分析旋喷处理前后灌注桩的荷载-沉降曲线、极限承载力及桩侧摩阻力分布等规律。结果表明,旋喷加固前后灌注桩竖向荷载传递规律相似;旋喷加固后灌注桩的竖向极限承载力提高,相同荷载下沉降降低;高压旋喷提高了土体侧摩阻力,旋喷对浅层土的加固效果高于深层土,对粉土侧摩阻力的提高效果要高于黏性土。

  2. The Influence of Plateau Honing Process Parameters on Cylinder Bore Surface Roughness%平台珩磨加工参数对缸孔表面粗糙度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓骎; 马戎; 张雪萍; 姚振强

    2015-01-01

    平台珩磨是目前被广泛应用的一种发动机缸孔精加工工艺,珩磨后缸孔的表面粗糙度直接影响缸孔的摩擦磨损性能.针对某型发动机缸孔的平台珩磨工艺,采用正交试验的方法研究平台珩磨转速、粗珩进给率、精珩时间对缸孔表面粗糙度的Abbott参数(波峰平均高度Rpk、波谷平均深度Rvk)和加工效率的影响规律.研究结果表明:珩磨转速对Rpk 、Rvk的影响最大,其次为精珩时间,粗珩进给率对其影响很小;而通过提高粗珩进给率,能够在不显著改变缸孔表面粗糙度的条件下,大幅度提升平台珩磨加工效率.%Plateau honing is a widely used method for the finishing of engine cylinder bores.Plateau honing forms the surface topography of cylinder bore which has a direct effect on the engine friction and wear performance.The influence of plateau honing process parameters (honing rotation speed,rough honing expansion speed,finish honing duration) on cylinder bore surface roughness parameters(peak roughness Rpk,valley roughness Rvk) and plateau honing efficiency is studied by means of orthogonal experiments.The result shows that honing rotation speed is the most principal influence factor on Rpk and Rvk;finish honing duration is the second most principal factor,and rough honing expansion speed does not have major influence on Rpk and Rvk.Plateau honing efficiency could be improved by increasing rough honing expansion speed without significantly changing the surface roughness of cylinder bores.

  3. Predictive power of the ESUR scoring system for prostate cancer diagnosis verified with targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmöller, L., E-mail: Lars.Schimmoeller@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Quentin, M., E-mail: Michael.Quentin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, C., E-mail: Cristian.Arsov@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Hiester, A., E-mail: Andreas.Hiester@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Kröpil, P., E-mail: Patric.Kroepil@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Rabenalt, R., E-mail: Robert.Rabenalt@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Albers, P., E-mail: urologie@uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Antoch, G., E-mail: Antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Blondin, D., E-mail: Dirk.Blondin@sk-mg.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The PI-RADS summed score (PS{sub sum}) demonstrated very good diagnostic values, especially for higher grade PCa. • Lesions with PS{sub sum} ≥13 represented prostate cancer in 88% and higher grade prostate cancer in 42%. • Sensitivity and NPV was nearly 100% for higher grade PCa detection using a cut-off limit of PS{sub sum} 10. • Peripheral zone lesions demonstrated better diagnostic value with the PS{sub sum} compared to transitional zone lesions. • Further improvement of the PI-RADS score is required to prevent unnecessary overdiagnosis. - Abstract: Purpose: This study evaluates the diagnostic value of the ESUR scoring system (PI-RADS) regarding prostate cancer detection using MR-guided in-bore biopsies (IB-GB) as the reference standard. Methods: 566 lesions in 235 consecutive patients (65.7 ± 7.9 years, PSA 9.9 ± 8.5 ng/ml) with a multiparametric (mp)-MRI (T2WI, DWI, DCE) of the prostate at 3 T were scored using the PI-RADS scoring system. PI-RADS single (PS{sub single}), summed (PS{sub sum}), and overall (PS{sub overall}) scores were determined. All lesions were histologically verified by IB-GB. Results: Lesions with a PS{sub sum} below 9 contained no prostate cancer (PCa) with Gleason score (GS) ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. A PS{sub sum} of 13–15 (PS{sub overall} V) resulted in 87.8% (n = 108) in PCa and in 42.3% (n = 52) in GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. Transition zone (TZ) lesions with a PS{sub sum} of 13–15 (PS{sub overall} V) resulted in 76.3% (n = 36) in PCa and in 26.3% (n = 10) in GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7, whereas for peripheral zone (PZ) lesions cancer detection rate at this score was 92.9% (n = 79) and 49.4% (n = 42) for GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. Using a threshold of PS{sub sum} ≥ 10, sensitivity was 86.0%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 86.2%. For higher grade PCa sensitivity was 98.6%, and NPV was 99.5%. Conclusion: A PS{sub sum} below 9 excluded a higher grade PCa, whereas lesions with a PS{sub sum} ≥ 13 (PS{sub overall} V) represented in 88

  4. 大直径钻孔灌注桩的竖向承载性能%Vertical bearing capacity of large-diameter bored pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘念武; 龚晓南; 俞峰

    2015-01-01

    T he self‐balancing test w as conducted on tw o 2 .2 m diameter drilled piles in order to analyze the bearing capacity of large diameter bored piles .The test results were compared with in‐situ test results . Results show that the change of load‐displacement of pile with post‐grouting is slower than pile without post‐grouting .The end resistance reached the limit state when pile tip displacements approached 20 mm (1% D ,D is the pile diameter) .The side resistance increased firstly and maintained a stable trend with the increase of pile‐soil relative displacement .The critical displacement was 1 .5‐3 .0 mm .Post‐grouting can improve the side resistance over a certain depth from the pile tip ,and the improvement in round gravel mixed pebble bed is 18 percent . Resistive loads up and dow n the side of the load cell is different and transformation coefficient is 0 .92 and 0 .91 , respectively . Side resistance and undrained vane‐shear strength has a linear relationship and has a better goodness of fit .The ultimate side resistance of round gravel mixed can be estimated by dynamic sounding (63 .5 kg) hits .%为了分析大直径钻孔灌注桩的承载性能,对2根直径分别为2.2m的钻孔灌注桩开展自平衡试验,将试验结果与原位测试结果进行对比分析.通过对测试结果的分析发现,注浆后荷载箱的向上及向下荷载‐位移曲线的变化更加缓慢,当桩端位移为20 mm(1% D ,其中 D为桩径)左右时,端阻达到极限状态,未注浆桩和注浆桩的极限端阻分别为2834、3561 kPa .桩身侧阻随着桩土相对位移的增大呈先增大后保持稳定的趋势,淤泥质粉土层、黏土夹粉砂层、圆砾混卵石层的侧阻在桩土相对位移为1.5~3.0mm时达到稳定.注浆能够提高桩端以上一定深度的桩身侧阻,圆砾混卵石层中侧阻的提高幅度约为18%.荷载箱上下的侧阻随位移的变化模式不同,未注浆桩

  5. Analysis on Engineering Accident Related to Rotary Bored Cast-in-situ Piles Built in Soft Soil Area%软土地区旋挖成孔灌注桩工程事故分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢雄亮

    2014-01-01

    本文针对软土地区某超高层建筑物旋挖成孔灌注桩的工程事故,采用钻芯法、声波透射法和单桩竖向抗压试验进行了详细的检测,分析了工程事故发生的原因,给出了相应的预防措施及对策,对软土地区旋挖成孔灌注桩的应用提供了有益的结果。%Aimed at the engineering accidents related to the rotary bored cast -in-situ pile and occurred in a certain super high -rise building in the soft soil area , this article carried out the detailed detection by using the core drilling method , acoustic transmission method and single pile vertical compression test , analyzed the causes of the engineering accident happened , and provided the corresponding pre-ventive methods and countermeasures and the useful results for the rotary bored cast -in-situ pile applications in the soft soil area .

  6. Total-body contrast-enhanced MRA on a short, wide-bore 1.5-T system: intra-individual comparison of Gd-BOPTA and Gd-DOTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-body contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) provides information of the entire vascular system according to a one-stop-shop approach. Short, wide-bore scanners have not yet been used for total-body CE-MRA, probably due to their restricted field of view in the z-direction. The purpose of this feasibility study is to introduce an image protocol for total-body MRA on a short, wide-bore system. The protocol includes five to six table-moving steps and two injection runs. Two pharmacologically different contrast materials (CM) were applied in ten healthy volunteers in view of possible CM-dependent influences on the protocol outcome (Gd-Bopta, Gd-Dota). Differences consisted of significantly higher CNR with Gd-Bopta with a mean of 73.8±38.7 versus 69.1±34.3 (p=0.008), significantly better arterial visualization values with Gd-Dota with a mean of 1.26±0.44 versus 1.53 ±0.73 (p=0.003) and a tendency to less venous overlay with Gd-Dota, mean 1.19 ± 0.44 and 1.34 ± 0.72, respectively (p=0.065) (two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs test). Overall 94% of the steps were valued as qualitatively excellent or good. The good results with both CM suggest a transfer to further patient evaluation. (orig.)

  7. Construction Techniques for the Treatment of the Collapse of Bored Holes for Large-Diameter Foundation Piles%大直径基桩坍孔处理施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤春颖

    2011-01-01

    新月铁路分离式立交桥21-1基桩紧邻电气化铁路,振动较大且砂土层较厚,在试桩过程中发生坍孔。分析工程具体情况,决定采用预制钢筋混凝土沉井护壁处理。介绍了沉井的设计、加工与下沉,大直径冲击钻成孔过程及相应的质量控制措施,处理后的基桩质量良好。可为类似工程处理提供有益借鉴。%Owing to the fact that the No. 21-1 foundation pile of the Xinyue Railway Separate Overpass is near an electrified railway, where the vibration is very strong and the sand layer is thick, the wall of the bored hole collapsed in the course of test-boring

  8. JS-50拖拉机后桥箱体镗孔工艺方案中定位误差的计算%Calculation of position error in housing bore hole process for JS-50 tractor rear body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佃菊

    2014-01-01

    以拖拉机后桥箱体加工工艺中的镗孔工序为例,分析零件的工艺结构特点、尺寸精度及加工技术要求,拟定了镗孔工序的工艺方案,并对该方案的定位误差进行分析计算。结果表明,一面两销定位方案难以满足所镗孔的精度要求,提出了采用消除间隙的方法,以提高定位精度。%This article takes the tractor rear body bore processing craft as the example, the analysis compo-nents craft unique feature, the size precision and the processing specification, drew up bored the working procedure craft.And carries on the analysis computation to this plan position error,finally indicated, the lo-calization way of one plane and two sells is difficulty in precision,pointed to increase the position precision by eliminationing gap.

  9. Honing Trajectory Reconstruction and Accuaacy Control for Automotive Engine Cylinder Bore%汽车发动机缸孔珩磨轨迹重构与精度控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高罗辉; 张雪萍; 姚振强

    2013-01-01

    This paper ascertains the relationship between the honing head's rotation angle in circumferential direction of the cylinder bore and motion parameters through the analysis and reconstruction of the honing abrasive trajectory. The motion parameters include rotational speed, reciprocating velocity, bottom stroke delays time, and up and down overshoot length. Thus the distribution of the abrasive trajectory is obtained. Based on the research, the paper establishes the corresponding relationship between the honing head motion parameters and the distribution of abrasive trajectory. Finally through the control of abrasive trajectory distribution, it provides a method to improve the cylinder bore honing accuracy.%通过对汽车发动机缸孔珩磨头的运动轨迹的跟踪分析与重构,确定了珩磨头旋转速度、往复运动速度、下端停留时间、上下越程等主要运动参数的变化对珩磨头周向相位角的影响规律,重构磨粒运动轨迹轮廓,建立珩磨关运动参数与磨粒轨迹分布的映射关系模型.基于该模型,探索了控制珩磨轨迹分布的均匀性的看法,改善了缸孔珩磨精度.

  10. 钻孔灌注桩用于公路软土地基施工研究%Bored piles used in the study of highway construction in soft soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉庆

    2015-01-01

    软土地基是公路施工常见通病,因软土层结构具有明显的脆弱性,对公路结构性能产生诸多功能性危害。新时期公路施工技术实现了优化转变,采用钻孔灌注桩处理软土地基问题取得良好效果,为公路现代化建设提供技术支撑。结合软土地基特点及其危害性,分析了软土路段公路主要病害形式,提出钻孔灌注桩用于软土地基处理的工艺方案。%Soft soil foundation in highway construction is the common disease, because of the soft soil layer structure has obvious vulnerability, many functional damage of highway structure performance. Optimization of highway construction technology to achieve the transformation in the new period, dealing with soft soil foundation using bored piles obtain good effect, provide technical support for the modernization of highway construction. Combining with the characteristics of soft soil foundation and its harmfulness, analyzes the main forms of these diseases, and soft soil road highway bored piles is put forward for the processing plan of soft soil foundation treatment.

  11. The internal force analysis of bored pile in soft soil area load condition%软土地区钻孔灌注桩受荷状态下的内力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成小程

    2014-01-01

    During the engineering practice of bored pile in soft soil area, pile stress is test by the static load test and reinforced stress meter test. The data is used to study distribution of pile axial force, side friction of pile, pile resistance and so on. The research provides reference for design, construction, detection of bored pile in soft soil area, also provides useful data for improvement of the pile speciifcations.%在软土地区钻孔灌注桩的工程实践中,采用静载试验、埋设钢筋应力计等手段对桩基受力进行了试验并进行了数据采集,通过对相关数据进行分析,得出了受荷状态下桩身轴力、桩侧阻力、桩端阻力等的分布规律,为钻孔灌注桩在软土地区的设计、施工、检测提供了参考,为桩基规范相关部分的完善提供依据。

  12. The Process Method of Manufacturing Long Holes in the Indexing Surface with Ordinary Boring Machine%用普通镗床加工分度曲面长孔的工艺方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦根喜; 秦超

    2013-01-01

    利用普通数显130/2镗铣床,将数字技术与普通技能相结合,计算节点、角度、角度偏移、数显表的内置分度圆功能;将刀位点坐标移位的进刀方法和小背吃刀量、高转速、大进给的工艺方法相结合,加工分度曲面长孔,实现了利用普通机床加工分度曲面长孔的技术创新.%By using ordinary boring machines 130/2 with digital displaying, combinedg digital technology with general skills, the node,angle,angle offset and the built-in reference circle of the digital display table were calculated. If the feed method of the coordinate displacement for the cutter location and small back engagement,high speed,the process method of roughing feed can be got together to process long holes in the indexing surface. It will realize technological innovation of manufacturing long holes in the indexing surface with ordinary boring machine.

  13. 大直径(超)长灌注桩竖向载荷试验研究%Study on large diameter and (super) long bored piles by using vertical loading tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张添文; 陈广才

    2013-01-01

    本文通过厦门某项目大直径(超)长灌注桩桩端有无注浆、不同持力层的对比静载试验以及基坑底大吨位(6000kN)抗拔试验,分析研究大直径(超)长灌注桩的竖向承载性能,得出以下结论和建议:抗压桩、抗拔桩均存在侧阻力时间效应因素的影响而降低桩侧摩阻力,当暴孔约9d,抗压桩桩侧摩阻力降低约23%,抗拔桩桩侧摩阻力降低约1/3;采用S-lgP法和经验参数法(结合静载试验)分离桩侧摩阻力和桩端阻力,表明大直径超长灌注桩即使是嵌岩桩通常也属于端承摩擦桩,侧摩阻力先于端阻力发挥,故应先满足桩身压屈变形,才能保证桩端阻力的发挥;不管是抗压桩还是抗拔桩,可优先考虑桩侧注浆,可较大幅度提高桩侧摩阻力,而不要盲目增加桩长或嵌岩深度;桩侧抗拔土阻力峰值对应的桩顶上拔量同样约为0.02D,当桩周土层为全风化岩—强风化岩时,抗拔系数约为0.60.%Based on the static loading tests with the post grouting or not for the cast-in-situ piles for a project in Xiamen with large diameter and (super) long bored piles,the contrast static loading tests on pile tip in different soils,and the uplift static loading tests in foundation pit with big load 6000kN,the vertical bearing performance of the large diameter and (super) long bored piles is analyzed on the basis of many groups of contrast vertical loading tests.The conclusions and suggestions are as follows:the pile side friction resistance of compressive pile or uplift pile is reduced because of the time effect; when the finished bore hole is in air for 9 days,the side friction resistance of compressive pile is reduced about 23%,and the uplift pile is reduced about 1/3 ; with the S-lgP method or the empirical coefficient method (combined with loading tests),the pile side friction and the pile tip resistance are separated,which shows that large diameter and super long bored piles usually belong to the end

  14. STATISTICS AND ANALYSIS ON BORE-HOLES OF LARGE-SCALED SOIL AND ROCK BLASTING PROJECT%大型土石方爆破工程的钻孔统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翼; 卢磊; 董金成

    2011-01-01

    In order to find the deviation of unit explosion consumption and blasting stone quantity of pre-meter between actual value and estimated value. Bore-holes statistics of a large-scaled cubic meter of earth and stone project in north china were carried out according to construction progress. The relation of hole-depth and blasting stone quantity of pre-meter was analyzed. It was found that high proportion of bore-holes less than 5m deep was main factor that induced comprehensive blasting stone quantity of pre-meter. So it can draw a conclusion that comprehensive blasting stone quantity of pre-meter can be increased effectively through optimization and combination and decreasing quantity of shallow bore-holes in the condition of given hole grid parameter and bench height to flat gradient bench blasting project. The conclusion points out direction for reducing cost of flat gradient bench blasting project.%为了找出炸药单耗和延米爆破方量的实际值与预算值之间的差别原因,对我国北方一大型土石方爆破工程的钻孔按施工进度进行了统计.并对孔深与延米爆破方量的关系进行了分析.研究发现小于5m深的炮孔数量的比例较大,是降低综合延米爆破方量的一大主要因素.因此得出,缓斜坡的台阶爆破工程中,在孔网参数和台阶高度一定的条件下,通过优化组合,减少浅孔的数量,可以有效地提高项目综合延米爆破方量,从而为缓斜坡台阶爆破降低项目成本指明了方向.

  15. Research on boring-milling machining center NC system based on PMAC%基于PMAC的镗铣加工中心数控系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建业; 李强

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the application of PMAC in horizontal boring-milling machining center, and builds an open numerical control system, including how to realize motor's synchronous control and the switching function of biaxial group. Under the environment of VC + + 6. 0 to establish the man-machine interface, and achieves its control and communication function.%简要介绍了PMAC在卧式镗铣加工中心上的应用,建立开放式的数控系统,包括实现电动机的同步控制,双轴组的切换功能.在VC++6.0环境下建立人机交互界面,并实现其控制与通信功能.

  16. On foundation consolidation mechanism and construction of post-grouting bored piles%后注浆灌注桩的地基加固机理及施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪婷

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the foundation consolidation mechanism and technical features of the post-grouting bored piles,surveys the post-grouting construction craft,and proves by the engineering practice that the technique has higher application and its construction quality is easily controlled with better social and economic benefits,so it has broader application and extension in China.%介绍了灌注桩后注浆的地基加固机理及其技术特性,概述了桩底后注浆技术的施工工艺,并通过工程实践证明:该技术实用性强,施工质量易控制,具有显著的经济和社会效益,且在我国有极大的应用与推广前景。

  17. Nouvelles générations de structures en diamant dopé au bore par technique de delta-dopage pour l'électronique de puissance : croissance par CVD et caractérisation

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Dans ce projet de thèse, qui s'appuie sur l'optimisation d'un réacteur de croissance du diamant et la construction d'un prototype, nous avons démontré l'épitaxie par étapes de couches de diamant, orientées (100), lourdement dopées au bore sur des couches de dopage plus faible dans le même processus, sans arrêter le plasma. Plus original, nous avons démontré la situation inverse. Nous présentons aussi des croissances assez lentes pour l'épitaxie de films d'épaisseur nanométriques avec de grand...

  18. Transformation of TPX619 Horizontal Digital Boring Electrical Control System on PLC%TPX619卧式数显镗床电气控制系统的PLC改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠翠; 龙斌

    2013-01-01

    Using PLC to reform the TPX619 horizontal digital display boring machine, giving the new electrical control circuit and program design of ladder diagram in the paper. The machine with new control system works stably,with less breakdown and higher efficiency.%)采用可编程控制器(PLC)对TPX619卧式数显镗床的电气控制系统进行改造,给出了改造后的电气控制电路及程序设计梯形图,改造后机床运行稳定,降低了故障率,提高了生产效率。

  19. 利津黄河大桥西塔大直径超深钻孔桩施工%The Construction Technology for Large Diameter Deep Bored Pile of West Tower Foundation of Lijin Huanghe River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路鹏程

    2001-01-01

    The Yellow River Bridge at Lijin is a double pylon cable-stayed PC bridge with a main span of 310 m. The height of pylon is 98 m. The foundation of the west pylon is composed of 28 φ1.5 m borde piles whose depths amounts to 115 m. These piles were constructed with normal circulation boring machines. The construction technology is presented in this paper.%利津黄河大桥为主跨310 m的双塔预应力混凝土斜拉桥,塔高98 m,其中西塔基础由28根直径1.5 m、长达115 m大直径钻孔桩组成。介绍了钻孔桩正循环钻孔的施工工艺。

  20. 采用浮镗与滚压相结合的工艺加工油缸内孔%Processing Internal Holes of Oil Cylinders through Combined Floating Boring and Rolling Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世韬; 李炫; 周聪

    2013-01-01

    In view of the problems that occur in the process of drilling internal oils of oil cylinders, a dedicated wide knife-based turning process is used instead of floating boring, with a rolling head for further processing, detailizing the process, making oil cylinder processing easier and more convenient, contributing to reliable quality and high processing efficiency.%  针对油缸内孔加工过程中出现的问题,设计了专用宽刀进行车削加工以代替浮镗加工,并采用滚压头对油缸内孔再次加工,细化了加工工艺,使油缸加工更加方便,质量可靠,加工效率高。

  1. Pile-soil interface shear model of super long bored pile and its FEM simulation%超长灌注桩桩-土界面剪切模型及其有限元模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫东; 李永辉; 吴江斌

    2012-01-01

    Super long bored piles are friction piles; thus establishing the appropriate pile-soil interface shear model is the key to reasonable and effective simulation analyze the load-movement characteristics of the pile. According to working trait of the super long bored pile shaft friction (r) with the increasing of pile-soil relative movement (w),ι-w relationships are divided into the hardening and the softening types. Furthermore, the mobilized patterns of the pile shaft friction are divided into three types: the full hardening mobilized pattern, full softening mobilized pattern and hardening-softening mixed mobilized pattern. Hardening type and softening type pile-soil interface shear models are established for super long bored pile. The pile-soil interface shear models are introduced into FEM software using subroutine FRIC of ABAQUS. Single pile simulation example shows that the interface shear models are implemented in ABAQUS successfully. FEM simulation of field test piles is carried out using the established pile-soil interface shear models. The simulation results are similar to the measured results. It is shown that the established pile-soil interface shear models and FEM simulation have the rationality and feasibility to calculate the load-movement behavior of super long bored pile.%由于超长灌注桩为摩擦型桩,建立合适的桩-土界面剪切模型将成为合理且有效地模拟分析其承载变形特性的关键.基于超长灌注桩桩侧摩阻力τ随桩-土相对位移w发挥性状,将τ-W关系定义为硬化和软化两种类型,进而将桩侧摩阻力发挥模式分为全硬化模式、全软化模式和混合模式.建立超长灌注桩桩-土界面剪切硬化模型和软化模型,运用ABAQUS二次开发子程序FRIC将建立的剪切模型嵌入有限元,实现剪切模型的有限元模拟,单桩算例表明,剪切模型在ABAQUS中实现是成功的.运用建立的桩-土界面剪切模型对现场试验试桩进行有限元模拟,

  2. Research on automatic boring-milling machine control system based on touch screen and PLC%基于触摸屏与PLC的自动镗铣床控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐凤莲; 陈晓男; 赵民; 许丽娟; 雷东亮

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we take the work principle of a boring-milling machine as the research object. Proposing a combination of PLC and touch screen for improving ordinary boring-milling machine control system. Designing a multi-window man-machine interface which is made by a touch screen. In its existing control panel operation, we added a new touch screen operation mode which machine operation and monitoring are more intuitive and convenient. This paper mainly introduces the PLC-touch screen control system principle and structure design of touch screen. Project example shows that the proposed scheme realizes various operation modes of machine tools and provides a touch screen monitoring method with low cost, and are practical.%以镗铣床的工作原理为研究对象,将PLC与触摸屏相结合,对普通镗铣床控制系统进行改进,并以触摸屏为人机界面,设计出多窗口操作画面.从而在保留原有控制面板操作的基础上增加了触摸屏的操作方式,使机床的操作和监控更为直观和方便.着重介绍了PLC-触摸屏控制系统的结构原理和触摸屏画面的设计.工程实例证明,该方案通过较低的成本实现了机床的多种操作方式和提供了触摸屏的监控方法,具有很强的可实施性.

  3. 后注浆灌注桩在某工程中的应用及经济分析%Application and Economic Analysis of Post-grouting Bored Concrete Pile in a Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 洪峰

    2011-01-01

    Combined with the actual construction the principle and application of post-pressure grouting technology in pile tip and pile lateral of reinforced concrete bored cast-in pilate piles are introduced.There are many factors affecting pile foundation selection for construction works.Through the cost analysis and evaluation on the pile foundation of the construction works, some economic indicators for the selection of pile foundation under the present productive force and price level are gained.Which will be beneficial to improve the cost effectiveness and rationality of selection of it.The base-grouting treatment technique of bored concrete pile can improve the bearing capacity, so the application of this kind of pile become broad useage day by day.%结合工程实例,介绍了钢筋混凝土钻孔灌注桩桩端桩侧后压浆技术的原理及应用。影响建筑工程桩基选型的因素很多,通过典型工程桩基的造价分析与评价,得出当前生产力和物价水平条件下桩基选型的若干经济指标.有助于提高建筑工程桩基选型的经济性及合理性水平。由于灌注桩后注浆处理技术可使承载力显著提高.因而这种桩基日益得到广泛应用。

  4. Numerical analysis of tension-free bored pile of wind turbine%风力发电机无张力灌注桩基础数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何杰; 潘霄; 陶铁铃

    2015-01-01

    The tension-free bored pile is a new type of wind turbine foundation, which is suitable for collapsible loess. The structural form of the foundation is optimized and the cost is saved compared with the conventional foundation. By combination of the design of wind turbine in Hongsibao wind farm, a FEM analysis model of the tension-free bored pile of wind turbine is estab-lished. The stress, displacement, stress and settlement of foundation are calculated under extreme condition, which provides ref-erence for the perfection of the structural design of wind turbine foundation.%无张力灌注桩基础是一种新型的风机基础型式,特别适用于湿陷性黄土的地质条件,相对于传统基础,优化了结构型式、降低了造价。结合红寺堡风电场风机基础设计,通过有限元分析的方法,建立无张力灌注桩风机基础的有限元分析模型,对极端工况下基础的应力、位移、地基应力与沉降等进行了计算分析,为完善风机基础结构设计提供了依据,可供同类地质条件下风机基础结构的优化设计参考借鉴。

  5. 基于模糊PID方法的盾构掘进姿态控制研究%Research on Shield Boring Attitude Control Based on Fuzzy PID Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚国芳; 洪开荣; 周天宇; 侯典清; 王林涛

    2014-01-01

    针对盾构掘进过程中姿态主要依赖操作人员施工经验手工调整、掘进轨迹精度主要依赖人员熟练性的情况,提出基于双闭环反馈自动控制盾构掘进轨迹的方法,通过主反馈实现掘进斜度的实时更新,局部反馈实现液压缸的速度控制。分析表明,局部反馈精度决定了预调偏差大小,在掘进轨迹控制中至为关键,因此以球铰支撑推进系统为例分析单环掘进前后液压缸的几何关系,推导左右推进液压缸速度关于掘进斜度、掘进速度的数学解析式,采用AMESim和MATLAB联合仿真工具搭建了推进速度控制的模糊PID模型,仿真分析非均载荷下推进液压缸的速度控制,并以盾构模拟推进试验台为例进行推进速度控制试验。结果表明:基于模糊PID控制策略的推进液压缸速度控制可实现较准确的盾构掘进轨迹,为盾构失准问题的进一步解决提供了理论基础和现实依据。%Considering the fact that the attitude of shield during the boring process is mainly controlled by manual adjustment according to personal experience and that the precision of shield boring trajectory mainly depends on personal proficiency,the authors propose the automatic shield attitude control method based on dual closed-loop feedback.The automatic shield attitude control method proposed contains a main-loop feedback that updates the tunneling trajectory and a local feedback that controls the velocity of the thrust cylinders.Succedent analysis shows that the local-feedback control is crucial.Therefore,the authors analyze the geometric relation of hydraulic cylinders before and after one-ring boring based on a spherical-hinge support thrust system,and deduce the mathematical expression of shield attitude and velocity of thrust cylinders on the left and right sides.The authors achieve the simulation of the velocity control system based on fuzzy PID by using AMEsim and MATLAB software

  6. Analysis of railgun in-bore magnetic field distribution at zero speed%静止条件下轨道炮膛内磁场分布特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷强; 张合; 李豪杰; 史云雷

    2016-01-01

    为了分析轨道炮静止条件下膛内磁场分布特性,建立了轨道炮二维计算模型,基于磁扩散方程与安培定律,得到导轨和电枢各区域电流密度值,并通过毕奥-萨伐尔定律对轨道炮电枢前端各考察点磁通密度进行理论计算,基于电磁感应法进行了膛内磁场测量实验,实验测量值与理论计算值基本一致,结果表明,膛内磁场大小主要由流经电枢和导轨的的电流决定,电枢前端中心轴线上各考察点,随着与电枢前端面距离的增大,磁通密度峰值呈衰减趋势,但衰减速度逐渐变小。研究结果有助于轨道炮膛内强磁场屏蔽与智能弹药设计。%In order to analysis the electromagnetic railgun in-bore magnetic field distribution characteristic at zero speed,a two-dimensional railgun computational model is built.Based on the magnetic diffusion equation and Ampere’s law,the current density in each part of the rail and armature is obtained.Through the Biot and Savart’s law,the magnetic flux density of the in-vestigated point which locates in front of the armature is calculated,Based on the electromagnetic induction method,the magnetic field measurement experiments are carried out.The experimental values are in agreement with the calculation values.The results show that the magnitude of the magnetic field is determined by the current flowing through the armature and rails.To the investi-gated points in the central axis in front of the armature,the magnetic flux density decreases with the increase of the distance from the investigated point to armature,but the decay rate is gradually smaller.The results are helpful for the in-bore magnetic field shielding and intelligent ammunition design.

  7. Analysis and design for structural stress of T320 floor boring apron%T320落地镗溜板箱结构应力分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨顺田; 杨天雄; 彭美武

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve rough machining problem of the above 300 tons large and super large components of mill,large,ultra-heavy boring and milling machine is required in urgentTherefore,T320 digital display type boring machine was developed in this contextThrough studying the machine column, the thermal equilibrium system as well as the inertia parameters matching and the spindle apron structure, the machine column was designed particularly into a closed cross-section of welded structures with the shock filler being injected into,which may change the traditional casting structural design;Then through cloud analysis on the contact state of the apron with columns and track,the structure was optimized;Temperature compensation system was adopted to ensure the heat balance of bearing system,and meet the extra requirements for rough machining large pieces ,which main design highlights the characteristics of large, heavy machine design.%为了解决300t以上特大型焊接件、特大型轧机的粗加工难题,急需大型、超重型落地铣镗床.T320数显落地镗就是在这种背景下研制的.通过对机床立柱、热平衡系统、惯量参数匹配与主轴溜板箱结构等内容的研究,特别是将机床立柱设计成封闭式截面的焊接结构,并在其结构内注入防震填料,改变了传统的铸件结构设计;再通过对溜板箱与立柱和轨道的接触状态云分析,对其结构进行优化;采用温度补偿系统保证轴承热系统平衡,满足了特大型件的粗加工要求,其主要设计思想彰显出大型、超重型机床设计的特色.

  8. Abnormal Phenomenon Analysis of Fins’Work in Bore for the Guided Proj ectile by Gun%制导炮弹尾翼膛内工作异常现象分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡灿伟; 张玉荣; 陶辰立; 周杰; 孙也尊

    2014-01-01

    To study mechanism of abnormal opening of the guided proj ectile ’s fins,the performance process of fins in bore was analyzed with the phenomenon that the guided proj ectile's fins were attrited and the air holes were ablated during many experiments.The ablation model of cylinder air hole was estab-lished in the effect of the high temperature and high pressure gunpowder gas and the law of diameter of air hole and pressure within the piston cylinder were obtained combining the ablation model with the one-di-mensional two-phase flow model.The calculation results show that the diameter of air hole is expanded continually in the ablative effect of gunpowder gas and the pressure of the piston cylinder is enlarged obvi-ously.The fins are opened during the gun bore in the cylinder piston role and collided with artillery rifling violently so that the fins can not work properly out of the muzzle.The results provide an important refer-ence value for designing and improving the cylinder-open fin of the guided proj ectile.%在某型制导炮弹试验过程中发生了多次尾翼片磨损、气缸气孔烧蚀现象,为分析尾翼张开异常的原因,研究了气缸张开式尾翼膛内工作过程,建立了高温高压火药气体作用下的气孔烧蚀模型,并与内弹道一维两相流模型进行了联立求解,得到了气孔直径、活塞气缸内压力的变化规律。仿真计算结果表明,受火药气体烧蚀作用的影响,气孔直径不断扩大,气缸压力明显增大,尾翼受到气缸内活塞的推动在炮膛内部张开,从而使尾翼片与膛线剧烈碰撞而使尾翼损坏,出炮口后尾翼无法正常工作。研究结果对该型制导弹药气缸张开式尾翼的设计和改进有重要参考价值。

  9. Borehole geophysics for delineating the geological structure in the Sakonishi prospect, the Hida area, Japan; Hida chiiki Sako nishi chiku ni okeru boring ko riyo butsuri tansa ni yoru chishitsu kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, H.; Hishida, H.; Yoshioka, K. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In order to discuss effectiveness of physical exploration in the Sakonishi prospect in the Hida area, physical exploration was carried out by utilizing bored wells. This area contains the Kamioka mine, one of the major base metal mines in Japan, where electrical exploration has been attempted several times in the past. No effective results have been obtained, however, because specific resistance contrast between mine beds and base rocks is too small, and the topography is too steep making site workability inferior. As part of the investigations on geological structures over wide areas, electrical logging (specific resistance and natural potential) was performed in fiscal 1995 and 1996 by utilizing the boreholes. Induced polarization logging was also conducted on the same boreholes. A traverse line on the ground with a length of 600 m and boreholes were used to execute specific resistance tomography. Clear extraction was possible on a fault structure which is thought related with limestone distribution and mine bed creation. However, it was not possible to identify upward continuity of zinc ores expected in the exploration. Because of not large a specific resistance contrast between zinc ores and base rocks, it is difficult to find mine bed locations only from the information on the specific resistance. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Rapid Construction Technology for a Shallow-buried Bored Tunnel in Sandy Pebble Stratum%砂卵石地层浅埋暗挖法快速施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘魁刚; 王文正; 裴书锋

    2011-01-01

    The running tunnel of phase three of the Beijing Subway Line 4 passes through a sandy pebble stratum, which creates construction risks of surrounding rock collapse, tunnel bottom swell, sand outflow and soil settlement above the roof. It also affects the road and bridge safety and results in difficult drilling and grouting. This paper addresses the optimization of the design and grouting parameters of small conduits and discusses the construction principles of "early covering, fine short tube, less disturbance, quick setting, abutment reinforcing and middle slotting" regarding the bored tunnel with a shallow overburden at the sandy pebble stratum. The construction technology of the bench method is introduced, which includes the key points of counter core soil excavation, small conduit grouting and locking anchor pipe, with a monthly advance rate of 60~70 m.%北京地铁四号线三期区间隧道穿越砂卵石地层,存在围岩易塌落、隧道底部起鼓和涌砂、顶板上方土体沉降,影响道路和桥梁安全等施工风险,并且不易钻孔注浆,工效较低.针对以上问题,改进了小导管设计参数和注浆参数,提出了砂卵石地层浅埋暗挖法“早封面、管细短、少扰动、快凝固、固拱脚、中拉槽”施工原则,施工效果较好,月进度达60~70 m.文章介绍了砂卵石地层台阶法施工工艺,提出了下台阶反核心土开挖,以及小导管注浆和锁脚锚管施工要点.

  11. Foundation Treatment Construction Technology of Landfill by Super Down Hole Dynamic Compaction Pile Combined with Bored Pile%SDDC桩结合灌注桩的垃圾填埋场地基处理施工技术∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛正君; 陶志怀; 魏荣誉; 韩小明

    2016-01-01

    由于垃圾填埋场地具有性质复杂、厚度变化大、强度较低、压缩系数大、腐蚀性和污染性强等特点,在服务期内和封顶后都会产生大幅度的沉降。结合西安某垃圾填埋场实例,探讨了孔内深层超强夯桩( SDDC桩)结合灌注桩在垃圾填埋场地基处理中的施工技术。实践证明,采用该技术在满足地基承载力的基础上,降低了工程造价、提高了工程质量,取得了良好的社会经济效益。%Due to some characteristics of the landfill such as the complex properties, big change in thickness, low strength, large compressibility, strong corrosion resistance and polluting, it will generate settlement by a large margin during the service period and after capping. This paper cites an example of a landfill site in Xi’ an, probing into the foundation treatment construction technology of landfill by super down hole dynamic compaction pile combined with bored pile. It has been proved in practice that using this technique can meet the bearing capacity of foundation soil, at the same time, it also can reduce the engineering cost, improve the engineering quality and achieve good social and economic benefits.

  12. Research of Factors Affecting Stabili ation of Hole Wall of Bored Pile%钻孔灌注桩孔壁稳定性的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中文

    2011-01-01

    以某大型桥梁近接工程为背景,采用专业岩土工程有限元软件Plaxis,对钻孔灌注桩孔壁稳定性的影响因素进行了数值分析研究.研究结果表明:若无邻近老桩基影响,孔径、孔深、泥浆相对密度、护筒深度及成孔时间是钻孔灌注桩孔壁稳定的主要影响因素;在邻近老桩基的影响下,护筒保护和护筒穿越土层的合理深度是可以将两邻近桩基相互影响降到最低的保证.以上研究结果的应用可提高钻孔效率,并可有效控制超近距离建(构)筑物桩基施工的破坏性影响,保证施工安全.%Based on a large bridge approaching construction, the numerical analysis of influencing factors of stabilization of hole wall was performed by using the geotechnical engineering finite element analytical software Plaxis. The research result indicates that (1) without considering the influence of adjacent old pile foundation, aperture, hole depth, specific gravity of slurry, protective barrel depth and hole forming time are key influencing factors which affect the stabilization of hole wall of bored pile; (2) considering the influence of adjacent old pile foundation, protective barrel and the proper depth of protective barrel are assurances which may reduce the interrelationship of new pile foundation and adjacent old pile foundation. The application of this research result can increase efficiency of drilling, effectively control the impact of two extremely close adjacent pile foundations, ensure construction safety.

  13. 超大直径泥水平衡盾构施工时建筑物保护技术研究%Study of Protecting Structure during Super-Diameter Slurry-Pressure Balanced Tunnel Boring Machine Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章林

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of earth subsidence during SPB-TBM construction is analysed, combined with the case of super diameter Slurry-Pressure Balanced Tunnel Boring Machine (SPB-TBM) work. Then, the technique for controlling subside nee of the structure when the super diameter SPB-TBM passes across underneath is studied from the aspects such as slurry pressure, slurry parameter and so on. In the end, by rational setting the pressure of shield cutting, high density of slurry circulation, pressure- quantity-controlling grouting model, the subsidence of the structure can be decreased, as well as inhomogeneous subsidence ratio can fit the bill.%通过分析泥水平衡盾构施工引起地表沉降的机理,并结合超大直径泥水平衡盾构施工实例,从切口压力、泥水指标控制及同步注浆管理等方面探讨超大直径泥水平衡盾构施工建筑物沉降的控制技术.结果表明,通过合理的设定盾构推进切口压力,重浆循环模式,采用“双控”同步注浆模式,有效地控制了建筑物沉降,并且房屋不均匀沉降系数满足房屋保护要求.

  14. SNG-log i boring ved Tinglev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Madsen, Peter Buch

    1999-01-01

    A 4-windows SNG-log has been run in a 185 m exploration borehole at Tinglev. A new method for examining the effect of borehole geometry on the measured gamma-spectra has been tested.......A 4-windows SNG-log has been run in a 185 m exploration borehole at Tinglev. A new method for examining the effect of borehole geometry on the measured gamma-spectra has been tested....

  15. Adaptronic tools for superfinishing of cylinder bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, Hans-Jürgen; Hochmuth, Carsten; Hoffmann, Michael; Praedicow, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Today in the production of internal combustion engines it is possible to make pistons as well as cylinders, for all practical purposes, perfectly round. The negative consequences of the subsequent assembly processes and operation of the engine is that the cylinders and pistons are deformed, resulting in a loss of power and an increase in fuel consumption. This problem can be solved by using an adaptronic tool, which can machine the cylinder to a predetermined nonround geometry, which will deform to the required geometry during assembly and operation of the engine. The article describes the actuatory effect of the tool in conjunction with its measuring and controlling algorithms. The adaptronic tool consists out the basic tool body and three axially-staggered floating cutter groups, these cutter groups consist out of guides, actuators and honing stones. The selective expansion of the tool is realised by 3 piezoelectric multilayer-actuators deployed in a series - parallel arrangement. It is also possible to superimpose actuator expansion on the conventional expansion. A process matrix is created during the processing of the required and actual contour data in a technology module. This is then transferred over an interface to the machine controller where it is finally processed and the setting values for the piezoelectric actuators are derived, after which an amplifier generates the appropriate actuator voltages. A slip ring system on the driveshaft is used to transfer the electricity to the actuators in the machining head. The functioning of the adaptronic form-honing tool and process were demonstrated with numerous experiments. The tool provides the required degrees of freedom to generate a contour that correspond to the inverse compound contour of assembled and operational engines.

  16. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    OpenAIRE

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James

    2010-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We ...

  17. Lapping and Polishing an Elliptical Bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggan, John J., Jr.; Meyer, Scott D.

    1987-01-01

    Numerically controlled milling machine modified to make head reciprocate. Modification accomplished by removal of original milling head from machine and by mounting vertical slide in its place. Vertical slide driven up and down by connecting rod bolted off-center to drive pulley. Pulley driven by belt from variable-speed electric motor. Milling-machine head then attached to vertical slide. Mechanism allowed independent control of reciprocating surface speed through variation of speed of electric motor.

  18. What Makes Jobs Monotonous and Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert P.

    Direct observations of the jobs of 370 workers were used to explain perceptions of monotony and feelings of boredom associated with work. Of the several observational measures of task characteristics that were constructed, the most efficient predictor of monotony and boredom was the number of times during a fixed period that the most…

  19. Research on the accuracy reliability of super-heavy computerized numerical control (CNC) boring-mill machine tools%超重型数控镗铣床精度可靠性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡占齐; 解亚飞; 刘金超

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the key technical problem in maintenance of heavy CNC machine tools, the concept of precision reliability and its forecasting module were proposed. The method is used especially to research the reliability of heavy machine tools for which samples are not adequate to carry out statistical methods of research. The spatial error module was established first for a type of super-heavy mill and boring machine tool based on multi-body kinematics. The effect of the wearing of the kinematic pair of machine tools on machining precision was then researched, and forecasting modules for the maintenance period and premature wearing of heavy CNC machine tools were developed. The method proposed can be used in calculating the maintenance period of heavy machine tools, analyzing the source of machining errors, and producing an optimal design of the total life of CNC machine tools. It can also be used for research of the reliability of similar products in a single piece or small batch.%针对重型数控机床可靠性研究中批量小、难以形成足够的统计样本数的特点,提出了精度可靠性的概念及其预测模型,旨在解决重型数控机床维护和维修的关键技术问题.应用多体运动学方法建立了某型号超重型落地铣镗床的空间误差模型,研究了机床运动副磨损量对加工精度的影响,进而得出了重型数控机床维护周期和初期磨损的预测模型.提出的方法可以用于重型数控机床维护周期的计算、机床加工过程中误差源的分析和基于全寿命周期的数控机床优化设计.该方法也可用于其他单件小批量产品的可靠性研究.

  20. 采用小直径TBM进行长大隧道导洞施工的讨论%Discussion on Construction of Pilots of Long and Large Cross-section Tunnels Bored by Small-diameter TBMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春

    2011-01-01

    介绍采用小直径开敞式TBM进行超前平导施工的意义、目的和国外采用小直径TBM进行超前导洞施工的实例;分析国内采用小直径开敞式TBM进行超前导洞施工的可行性;总结进行超前导涧施上时选择开敞式TBM的考虑因素.得出以下结论:利用小直径开敞式TBM进行长大隧道超前导涮施工,符合国家对基本建设的环保和安全的要求;当前的综合国力和施工技术水平也具备了相应的条件;选择小直径TBM时应考虑其特点,并满足"快速掘进、探明地质、支持正洞"的要求.%The significance and targets of pilot tunnels constructed by small-diameter open TBMs are presented, cases of pilot tunnels constructed by small-diameter open TBMs abroad are listed, the feasibility to build pilot tunnels by smalldiameter open TBMs is analyzed and factors to be considered in the selection of small-diameter open TBMs in the construction of pilot tunnels are summarized. Conclusions drawn are as follows: 1 ) The concept to build pilot tunnels by small-diameter open TBMs meets the requirements of the state for the infrastructure construction in terms of environment protection and safety; 2) The comprehensive national capability and the construction technologies have reached the relevant requirements; 3 ) The features of small-diameter open TBMs should be taken into full consideration and the requirements of rapid boring, geology probing and assistance to the main tunnel construction should be satisfied.

  1. 基于互联网的隧道掘进机故障筛选及预警系统开发%The Development of Tunnel Boring Machine Malfunction Screening and Early Warning System Based on Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迅博

    2015-01-01

    国内盾构机在施工时,在盾构机掘进过程中时常会遇到各种突发情况,然而报警信息无法及时传递到技术专家手中,这为盾构施工埋下了安全隐患。为解决这一困难,文章设计了一套基于互联网的隧道掘进机故障筛选及预警系统,能实现实时搜集多台盾构机施工中的报警信息,通过因特网汇集到远端服务器,利用故障筛选及预警系统,实时向技术专家,业主,监理发出预警短信。系统保障了施工人员及机械的安全,提高了管理效率节约了项目成本。%Domestic Shield in the construction,in the course of the shield tunneling machine often encounter a variety of emergency situations,but the alarms information can not be delivered in time to the hands of technical experts,which buried a security risk for the shield construction.To address this problem,design a tunnel boring machine malfunction screening and early warning system based on the Internet,can achieve real-time collection of multiple shield machine construction alarm information collection to the remote server through the Internet, the use of screening and early warning failure system, real-time early warning messages to technical experts,owners, supervision.The system protects the safety of construction workers and machinery,and the same time the system improves the management efifciency savings in project costs.

  2. SU-E-J-03: Characterization of the Precision and Accuracy of a New, Preclinical, MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound System for Image-Guided Interventions in Small-Bore, High-Field Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellens, N [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Farahani, K [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has many potential and realized applications including controlled heating and localized drug delivery. The development of many of these applications requires extensive preclinical work, much of it in small animal models. The goal of this study is to characterize the spatial targeting accuracy and reproducibility of a preclinical high field MRgFUS system for thermal ablation and drug delivery applications. Methods: The RK300 (FUS Instruments, Toronto, Canada) is a motorized, 2-axis FUS positioning system suitable for small bore (72 mm), high-field MRI systems. The accuracy of the system was assessed in three ways. First, the precision of the system was assessed by sonicating regular grids of 5 mm squares on polystyrene plates and comparing the resulting focal dimples to the intended pattern, thereby assessing the reproducibility and precision of the motion control alone. Second, the targeting accuracy was assessed by imaging a polystyrene plate with randomly drilled holes and replicating the hole pattern by sonicating the observed hole locations on intact polystyrene plates and comparing the results. Third, the practicallyrealizable accuracy and precision were assessed by comparing the locations of transcranial, FUS-induced blood-brain-barrier disruption (BBBD) (observed through Gadolinium enhancement) to the intended targets in a retrospective analysis of animals sonicated for other experiments. Results: The evenly-spaced grids indicated that the precision was 0.11 +/− 0.05 mm. When image-guidance was included by targeting random locations, the accuracy was 0.5 +/− 0.2 mm. The effective accuracy in the four rodent brains assessed was 0.8 +/− 0.6 mm. In all cases, the error appeared normally distributed (p<0.05) in both orthogonal axes, though the left/right error was systematically greater than the superior/inferior error. Conclusions: The targeting accuracy of this device is sub-millimeter, suitable for many

  3. Numerical Study on Waterproof Failure Mechanism of Elastic Sealing Gasket of Underwater Shield-bored Tunnel%水下盾构隧道弹性密封垫防水失效数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王湛

    2015-01-01

    In the paper,numerical simulation study is made on the waterproof failure mechanism of elastic sealing gaskets by means of ABAQUS program,with the design of the waterproof system of an underwater shield-bored tunnel as example.The finite element model used in the paper is compared with the previous simplified model,and the waterproof failure mechanism of elastic sealing gaskets in the case of joint opening and that in the case of joint staggering are analyzed respectively.Conclusions drawn are as follows:1 )In the case of joint opening,the water leakage mainly occurs at the contact surface between the sealing gaskets;2)In the case of joint staggering,the water leakage at the contact surface between the sealing gaskets turns into water leakage at the contact surface between the sealing gasket and the concrete segment as the staggering displacement grows.%结合某水下盾构隧道工程的防水设计,采用大型有限元软件 ABAQUS 对弹性密封垫的防水失效机理进行数值模拟研究。将本文有限元模型与前人简化模型进行了对比分析,并对接缝张开及接缝错开情况下的密封垫防水失效机理进行了分析。研究表明,在接缝张开的情况下,渗漏主要发生在密封垫间的接触面上;接缝错开的情况下,随错缝位移的增大,渗漏将由发生在密封垫接触面上而转变为发生在密封垫与混凝土间的接触面上。

  4. 天津厚地层超长钻孔灌注桩单桩承载特性研究%Research on vertical bearing capacity of single super-long bored pile in thick stratum of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯洪; 吴翔; 王继华; 曾云川; 赵春宏; 冯庆高

    2011-01-01

    The layers of a main tower construction site in Tianjin are mainly clay, silt and silt sand. Two groups of the super-long bored test piles with post pressure-grouting (a total of eight piles) are designed to take bearing behavior test using single pile vertical static load test of compression to master the engineering properties in the main tower construction site. Vibrating wire reinforcement meter and stratified settlement tube are installed to find out the pile side friction and the pile body layered settlement state. After the test, the results of the data analysis show that the pile side grouting can significantly improve the long pile side skin friction; pre-load pressure can enhance the flexibility of the super-long pile and reduce the settlement of the top of the pile in some degree. After unloaded stability, the test pile also has side resistance; the resistance of the upper segment is negative skin friction; and the lower segment is positive skin friction; and the pile body axial force causes the test pile to have some compression volume; that is an important part of the residual deformation.%天津市某主塔楼桩基选用后压浆超长钻孔灌注桩,为了掌握超长后压浆钻孔灌注桩在该地层的工程特性,共设计了2组(共8根)试桩进行单桩竖向抗压静载试验.试桩中安装了振弦式钢筋计和分层沉降管以反映桩侧摩阻力和桩身分层沉降状态.对试验数据进行对比分析和计算结果表明,桩侧注浆可以明显提高超长桩的侧摩阻力;采用预压加载可以增强超长桩的弹性,减少桩项的沉降;卸荷稳定后试桩具有桩侧阻力,桩身上段所受阻力为负摩阻力,下段为正摩阻力,同时具有的桩身轴力使试桩产生一定的压缩,其压缩量为残余变形量的重要组成部分.

  5. SU-E-J-03: Characterization of the Precision and Accuracy of a New, Preclinical, MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound System for Image-Guided Interventions in Small-Bore, High-Field Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has many potential and realized applications including controlled heating and localized drug delivery. The development of many of these applications requires extensive preclinical work, much of it in small animal models. The goal of this study is to characterize the spatial targeting accuracy and reproducibility of a preclinical high field MRgFUS system for thermal ablation and drug delivery applications. Methods: The RK300 (FUS Instruments, Toronto, Canada) is a motorized, 2-axis FUS positioning system suitable for small bore (72 mm), high-field MRI systems. The accuracy of the system was assessed in three ways. First, the precision of the system was assessed by sonicating regular grids of 5 mm squares on polystyrene plates and comparing the resulting focal dimples to the intended pattern, thereby assessing the reproducibility and precision of the motion control alone. Second, the targeting accuracy was assessed by imaging a polystyrene plate with randomly drilled holes and replicating the hole pattern by sonicating the observed hole locations on intact polystyrene plates and comparing the results. Third, the practicallyrealizable accuracy and precision were assessed by comparing the locations of transcranial, FUS-induced blood-brain-barrier disruption (BBBD) (observed through Gadolinium enhancement) to the intended targets in a retrospective analysis of animals sonicated for other experiments. Results: The evenly-spaced grids indicated that the precision was 0.11 +/− 0.05 mm. When image-guidance was included by targeting random locations, the accuracy was 0.5 +/− 0.2 mm. The effective accuracy in the four rodent brains assessed was 0.8 +/− 0.6 mm. In all cases, the error appeared normally distributed (p<0.05) in both orthogonal axes, though the left/right error was systematically greater than the superior/inferior error. Conclusions: The targeting accuracy of this device is sub-millimeter, suitable for many

  6. 数控落地铣镗床滑枕变形有限元分析及补偿∗%FEM Analysis and Compensation of the Ram Deformation of CNC Floor Type Boring Milling Machine Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余剑武; 桂林; 李民选; 罗嗣春; 张汉卫

    2015-01-01

    TK6920B型大型数控落地镗铣床由于滑枕自质量和主轴箱的重心偏移而导致滑枕变形,从而影响机床的加工精度。针对这一问题,提出使用挠曲线预应力加工法和液压拉杆法对滑枕变形进行补偿,为了减少实验次数和降低成本,本文使用Ansys WB有限元软件对滑枕变形分析和变形补偿效果进行预测。对滑枕变形量的仿真分析结果和实验测量结果进行了对比分析,结果表明,滑枕变形量的误差在5μm 以下,有限元分析结果是可靠的;补偿后的滑枕最大变形量为20μm左右,说明了补偿方法的补偿效果可以满足实际生产中加工精度的要求。%TK6920B CNC floor type boring and milling machine is a type of heavy duty machine tool, and it is easy to generate flexural deformation during the extension of its ram due to its weight and the gravitational off-center of the ram and the headstock,which affects the machining accuracy during process-ing.In order to solve this problem,the prestress flexural deflection machining method and hydraulic rod compensation method were proposed.Ansys WB software was applied to analyze and predict the ram flex-ural deformation and compensation effect so that it can cut down experiment cost.By comparing the meas-ured flexural deformation of the ram with the finite element method (FEM)simulation results,it shows that deformation error is controlled within 5μm,the FEM simulation results are reliable and the total ram deformation is about 20μm.It is proved that proposed compensation methods are also effective and can meet the requirements of machining.

  7. 12V柴油机机体精铣缸面、精镗气缸孔数控专机的结构设计与分析%Structural Design and Analysis for a Special CNC Machine for Precise Milling Head Face and Precise Boring Cylinder Hole of a V12 Diesel Engine Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏莉; 王建章

    2013-01-01

    介绍了12V柴油机机体精铣缸面、精镗气缸孔数控专机设计的关键技术及设计要点.设计中根据12V机体零件精铣缸面、精镗气缸孔的工序要求,有针对性地设计了机床的各个主要部件,解决了缸面平面度、缸套孔止口深度1100.05mm、底面0.3.~0.5.mm斜面、ф16300.25孔与止口的过渡圆角R0.50-0.2 mm、各缸止口与缸面的平行度、各缸孔与缸面的垂直度等加工中的瓶颈问题,确保零件工序精度及加工效率.%Key technologies and aspects involving in the design of a special CNC machine for precise milling head face and precise boring cylinder hole of a V12 diesel engine were explained.Based on the sequential requirements of the process for precision machining head face and bore,major components of a special CNC machine were designed,solving critical machining challenges such as engine blockhead flatness,parallelism between the blockhead and the flange of all cylinders,perpendicularity between cylinder bores and the blockhead,and at the same time providing an engine liner depth of 110+0.05 mm,an inclined bottom of 0.3 ° ~ 0.5 ° mm,and the transitional round of R0.50-0.2mm between the ф1630+0.25 hole and the flange.So required machining precisions and productivity are ensured.

  8. Evaluation of Vibration and Vibration Fatigue Life for Small Bore Pipe in Nuclear Power Plants%反应堆GGR系统辅助管系稳态振动评估与振动疲劳寿命分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆希; 薛飞; 龚明祥; 遆文新; 林磊; 刘鹏

    2011-01-01

    根据美国机械工程师标准(ASME-OM-S/G2000)规范及法国电力公司(EDF)标准振动评估方法,提出一套用于核电站小支管振动评估及振动疲劳寿命分析的方法,应用该方法对国内某核电站汽轮机润滑顶轴盘车(GGR)系统的辅助小支管振动问题进行评估研究,并计算了小支管系统的允许有效速度.根据振动速度的测量和计算结果进行敏感性评估;采用响应谱计算方法对管座处的应力水平进行计算,并与允许振动交变应力进行比较;采用瞬态动力学方法对管座处的应力时程响应进行计算,根据Miners线性损伤累积模型对管座的振动疲劳寿命进行评估.结果表明谱响应计算得到的振动交变应力幅值高于评估准则的振动交变应力允许值,该管线属于振动敏感管线;而通过瞬态振动寿命计算得到稳态振动疲劳寿命远远高于设计寿命,有较大的安全裕量.%The assessment method of the steady state vibration and vibration fatigue life of the small bore pipe in the supporting system of the nuclear power plants is proposed according to the ASME-OM3 and EDF evaluation methods. The GGR supporting pipe system vibration is evaluated with this method. The evaluation process includes the filtration of inborn sensitivity, visual inspection, vibration tests, allowable vibration effective velocity calculation and vibration stress calculation. With the allowable vibration effective velocity calculated and the vibration velocity calculated according to the acceleration data tested, the filtrations are performed. The vibration stress at the welding coat is calculated with the spectrum method and compared with the allowable value. The response of the stress is calculated with the transient dynamic method, with which the fatigue life is evaluated with the Miners linear accumulation model. The vibration stress calculated with the spectrum method exceeds the allowable value, while the fatigue life

  9. Analytic Study on the Damages of Wood-boring Isopod, Sphaeroma,to China Mangroves%中国红树林蛀木团水虱危害分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范航清; 刘文爱; 钟才荣; 倪翔

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]Damages to mangroves due to the presence of wood-boring isopod of Sphaeroma are newly found in China.Aiming to control the isopod disaster,this paper evalu-ates the status of isopod damages to China mangroves,analyzes the possible causes and puts forward some management tactics,and some scientific issues about massive occurrence of Sphaeroma in China are discussed.[Methods]Analyses were made on the information from field surveys conducted at three damaged mangrove sites in Hainan and Guangxi province,and the tests of isopod controls by calcium oxide killing and fish feeding.[Results]Field surveys re-vealed that areas of destructive mangroves in Dongzhaigang,Hainan increased at a mean contin-uous rate of 66.4% annually mangroves from 2010 to 2013.The major mangrove wood-boring isopods in China are Sphaeroma terebrans and Sphaeroma retrolaeve ,of which the former is the key species found in Dongzhaigang.All of the mangroves damaged by borers distribute in the sea regions suffering serious anthropogenic disturbance and contamination.The attack of borers focuses on the forests growing across the creeks delivering pollutants and at the habitats depositing pollutants.Mature mangrove forests, being high relatively and in late successional stage of zonality,are vulnerable to the damage. Mangrove species preferred by the borers can be ranked in an order: Bruguiera sexangula , Bruguiera gymnorrhiza > B.s.var .rhynchopetala ,Ceriops tagal > Avicennia marina , Kandelia obovata > Aegiceras corniculatum .Attributing to different tide amplitude,the height of above ground part of mangroves which the borers are able to attack is more than two times along China mainland coast than in Hainan Island.Laboratory test showed that 50% iso-pod individuals can be killed by calcium oxide at the weight concentration of 1 ∶ 1 to water through 90 minutes treatment.The feeding rate of fish,Bostrichthys sinensi ,on isopod is rela-tively stable at unit time,and 42 isopod individuals

  10. 基桩完整性检测的概率分析及质量动态评估%Probabilistic analysis of integrity inspection and dynamic evaluation of quality for bored piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志军; 郑俊杰; 边晓亚; 赵冬安

    2012-01-01

    Based on the probability theory, the probability distribution of integrity inspection for piles is analyzed, and the analysis shows that the results of sampling inspection relate to the general unqualified rate and the number of sampling inspection (NS/). Therefore the general unqualified rate is suggested to be the criterion to judge the quality of all the bored piles The prior distribution of the general qualified rate is deduced to follow the normal Beta distribution using the Bayesian method, and the posterior distribution also follows the Beta distribution according to the conjugate distribution theorem. The expectation and variance of the posterior distribution are studied, consequently. A conclusion is drawn that the posterior expectation is the weighted sum of the current sampling unqualified rate and the prior expectation, and the posterior variance is the current sampling unqualified rate and the prior variance. It is demonstrated through the analysis of the relation between the NSI and the weighted coefficients, and the posterior expectation and variance that the results of sampling inspection are sensitive to the NSI when the NSI is less than ten, but when NSI is greater than ten, especially, greater than twenty, the results of sampling inspection are insensitive to the NSI. Finally, a dynamic evaluation model of the general unqualified rate is established using the relation between the prior expectation and variance and the posterior expectation and variance. The results from the numerical example indicate that the general unqualified rate can be more accurately estimated using the dynamic evaluation model, which is significant in engineering practice.%基于概率理论,对基桩完整性检测的概率分布进行了详细的分析,分析表明抽检结果与总体不合格率和抽检桩数有关,因此建议将总体不合格率作为评价整批桩质量的标准。利用Bayesian方法推导出总体不合格率的先验分布服从标

  11. TK6516数控刨台式铣镗床X坐标丝杠定位误差的分析及补偿%Analysis and compensation for positioning error of X-axis ballscrew of TK6516 CNC planer-type boring and milling machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腊梅

    2011-01-01

    根据TK6516数控刨台式铣镗床在实际生产过程中的X坐标丝杠定位误差,采取理论与实践相结合的方法,对X向丝杠进行定位误差分析补偿,为同类机床的热误差补偿提供了理论和实践依据.%Based on positioning error of .X-axis ballscrew in the actual processes of TK6516 CNC planer-type boring and milling machine manufactured by Kunming Machine Tool Co. , Ltd. , and taken the method of combined theory and practice, the positioning error of .Y-axis ballscrew of the machine has been analyzed and compensated. Theory and practice foundations have been offered for the thermal error compensation of this kind machine.

  12. 沿海城市防洪工程水下钻孔灌注桩的质量控制要点浅析%Brief Analysis on Flood Control Project of Quality Control of Underwater Piles Bored Piles in Coastal City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛秀博; 谢利云

    2014-01-01

    近年来,我国沿海地区防洪能力逐渐得到加强,而防洪工程所处场地基础较差,根本无法满足防洪工程的要求,在这种天然地基上建造防洪堤,若处理不好,就可能发生局部破坏甚至整体滑动等失稳现象。结合浙江瑞安城市防洪堤三期工程,浅析在沿海地区复杂地质环境中进行水下钻孔灌注桩作业的施工要点及加强施工中质量控制的有效手段,提出保证成桩质量的措施,为类似工程地质条件钻孔灌注桩水下施工提供参考。%In recent years , flood control capacity has been strengthened gradually in coastal areas , ground basis on the flood control engineering is poor , which could not meet the requirements of flood control engineering.If the processes are not good to build a levee on the natural foundation , local damage and even whole sliding instability phenomenon may occur.Combined with the levee in phaseⅢproject in zhejiang ruian city , the key points of construction of underwater piles bored piles and ef-fective methods for quality control during construction are analyzed in complex geological environment of coastal city , and measures to ensure the piles quality are put forward , which can provide the refer-ence for the similar engineering geological conditions of underwater piles bored piles construction.

  13. 钻孔挤密桩处理强湿陷性黄土地基试验研究%Field tests on pre-bored compaction lime-soil pile (down-hole dynamic compaction method) to improve serious collapsible loess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志伟; 申汝涛

    2009-01-01

    挤密桩法用于处理湿陷性黄土地基,可有效地消除土的湿陷性和提高地基承载力.某拟建电厂工程针对强湿陷性黄土地基,采用钻孔挤密桩(DDC工法)复合地基的处理方法开展现场试验研究.通过采用载荷试验、标准贯入试验等原位测试方法,对桩间土、桩体及复合地基的承载性能、变形参数进行了评价和分析,重点进行了自然工况和浸水工况下的对比研究,对地基处理效果进行了综合评价.%The compaction method used to control the subsoil of collapsible loess can eliminate collapsibility and improve bearing capacity of loess effectively. For serious collapsible loess in a power plant to be constructed, pre-bored compaction lime-soil piles (down-hole dynamic compaction method) field test studies were carried out. After the construction of the test piles were finished, a lot of in-situ tests including plate loading test, standard penetration test, etc., were used to evaluate the bearing capacity of the soil between piles, the piles and the composite foundation, and to test the deformation parameters. Especially, comparative research between natural status and soaked status of composite foundation as well as comprehensive evaluation of effects of ground treatment were carried out.

  14. "It's Boring": Female Students' Experience of Studying ICT and Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Reena; Hall, Wendy; Grace, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    The declining number of women in computing is a cause for concern for those in education and the IT industry. A diverse workforce is necessary for there to be a creative balance in the IT industry. The reasons for this decline are varied and can be attributed to factors such as schooling, parental influences and the media. This article focuses on…

  15. A METHOD OF PROVIDING BURR-FREE BORES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    By thermal-based removal of material, for instance by way of laser drilling or laser ablation, the material is removed from the article (2) in form of steam or drops. The material is removed by being subjected to a short-term intense laser pulse (4) causing a generation of considerable pressure...... from vaporised and/or ionised material. As a result, vaporised melt material is sprayed to the sides or upwards along the sides of a drilled hole. These squirts can either damage the surface around the processed area or result in an upward burr. The method according to the invention provides...... an additional local steam/plasma pressure causing the ejected material to change direction in such a manner that the surface of the material is not damaged or a stricking burr is not formed. The local steam/plasma pressure can, for instance, be provided by an intense secondary laser beam being emitted downwards...

  16. Lymská borelióza u psa

    OpenAIRE

    Horáčková, Pavlína

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease) is a tick-borne disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. It affects canines, humans and other warm-blooded animals. It manifests itself mainly by physical disabilities and that of nervous system, skin and heart. Its occurence in the Czech Republic is relatively frequent as well as the incidence of the main carriers of ticks (Ixodes Ricinus). Among the major reservoirs of the disease agent are rodents, deer, pets. The greatest risk of infection oc...

  17. Repetitive, small-bore two-stage light gas gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A repetitive two-stage light gas gun for high-speed pellet injection has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In general, applications of the two-stage light gas gun have been limited to only single shots, with a finite time (at least minutes) needed for recovery and preparation for the next shot. The new device overcomes problems associated with repetitive operation, including rapidly evacuating the propellant gases, reloading the gun breech with a new projectile, returning the piston to its initial position, and refilling the first- and second-stage gas volumes to the appropriate pressure levels. In addition, some components are subjected to and must survive severe operating conditions, which include rapid cycling to high pressures and temperatures (up to thousands of bars and thousands of kelvins) and significant mechanical shocks. Small plastic projectiles (4-mm nominal size) and helium gas have been used in the prototype device, which was equipped with a 1-m-long pump tube and a 1-m-long gun barrel, to demonstrate repetitive operation (up to 1 Hz) at relatively high pellet velocities (up to 3000 m/s). The equipment is described, and experimental results are presented. 124 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Bewitched, Bothered, and Bored: Harry Potter, The Movie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Explores the Harry Potter phenomenon with college students in a university course. Compares the first book with the first movie. Presents an in-depth discussion of the movie and how it relates to the book. (SG)

  19. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  20. Boring and Sealing Rock with Directed Energy Millimeter-Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, P.; Einstein, H. H.; Oglesby, K.

    2015-12-01

    Millimeter-wave directed energy is being investigated to penetrate into deep crystalline basement rock formations to lower well costs and to melt rocks, metals, and other additives to seal wells for applications that include nuclear waste storage and geothermal energy. Laboratory tests have established that intense millimeter-wave (MMW) beams > 1 kW/cm2 can melt and/ or vaporize hard crystalline rocks. In principle this will make it possible to create open boreholes and a method to seal them with a glass/ceramic liner and plug formed from the original rock or with other materials. A 10 kW, 28 GHz commercial (CPI) gyrotron system with a launched beam diameter of about 32 mm was used to heat basalt, granite, limestone, and sandstone specimens to temperatures over 2500 °C to create melts and holes. A calibrated 137 GHz radiometer view, collinear with the heating beam, monitored real time peak rock temperature. A water load surrounding the rock test specimen primarily monitored unabsorbed power at 28 GHz. Power balance analysis of the laboratory observations shows that the temperature rise is limited by radiative heat loss, which would be expected to be trapped in a borehole. The analysis also indicates that the emissivity (absorption efficiency) in the radiated infrared range is lower than the emissivity at 28 GHz, giving the MMW frequency range an important advantage for rock melting. Strength tests on one granite type indicated that heating the rock initially weakens it, but with exposure to higher temperatures the resolidified black glassy product regains strength. Basalt was the easiest to melt and penetrate, if a melt leak path was provided, because of its low viscosity. Full beam holes up to about 50 mm diameter (diffraction increased beam size) were achieved through 30 mm thick basalt and granite specimens. Laboratory experiments to form a seal in an existing hole have also been carried out by melting rock and a simulated steel casing.

  1. Lonely or Bored: Children's Lived Experiences Reveal the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirova, Anna

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the growing body of research on loneliness, the relationship between the phenomena of loneliness and boredom has not been sufficiently addressed, especially in respect to children. The question, "How does the child's experience of boredom stand phenomenologically in relation to the experience of loneliness?" is explored from a…

  2. Green girls and bored boys? Adolescents' environmental consumer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2006-01-01

    An untraditional method of data construction - written essays - was used to study consumer socialisation processes related to 'green' consumerism. The study primarily aimed at exploring how adolescents perceive of environmental issues and learn about these issues in a family context. Results show...

  3. Average is boring: how similarity kills a meme's success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are exposed to different ideas, or memes, competing with each other for our attention. Previous research explained popularity and persistence heterogeneity of memes by assuming them in competition for limited attention resources, distributed in a heterogeneous social network. Little has been said about what characteristics make a specific meme more likely to be successful. We propose a similarity-based explanation: memes with higher similarity to other memes have a significant disadvantage in their potential popularity. We employ a meme similarity measure based on semantic text analysis and computer vision to prove that a meme is more likely to be successful and to thrive if its characteristics make it unique. Our results show that indeed successful memes are located in the periphery of the meme similarity space and that our similarity measure is a promising predictor of a meme success. PMID:25257730

  4. Comparing dynamic and static test results of bored piles

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Due to increasing time, cost and transportation difficulties, Irish contractors are seeking an alternative to conventional static pile load tests. As a result several firms have adopted dynamic testing techniques to supplement and in some cases to replace conventional static tests. In order to assess the reliability of the systems and to address the concerns of owners and consulting engineers, a database comprising 43 pairs of static and dynamic tests on piles from 24 sites aro...

  5. The Tensile Capacity Of Bored Piles In Frictional Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Andersen, Allan; Damkilde, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Three series of 10 piles each were installed in two different locations. The length of the piles varied from 2 to 6 m and the diameters were 14 and 25 cm. The piles were constructed above the groundwater table using continuous flight augers and the concrete was placed by gravity free fall....... The piles were tested to failure in axial uplift and the load-displacement relations were recorded....

  6. Research on Bored Bearing Characteristics in Xi’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lipeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the influence of different soil properties on pile foundation load-bearing characteristics, taking a section of railway in Xi’an and a bridge of Xi’an as test area, and by field static load test to study load transfer characteristics after the test piles under axial pressure, including the distribution of axial force, pile lateral friction, tip resistance traits, ultimate bearing capacity determine, and compare with the theory bearing capacity. Experimental results show that, adjacent soil properties change large, axial force and lateral friction mutation at the junction of corresponding soil layer. Silty clay in different parts is below ground, and its lateral friction plays much difference. Pile lateral friction plays an important role in bearing capacity, but the role of round gravel soil end bearing capacity to pile bearing capacity can’t be ignored. Tests calculate pile bearing capacity significantly larger than standardized formula calculation bearing capacity, which are respectively 55.35% and 119.1%. And give the similar project condition the suggested values of pile bearing capacity and soil friction, to provide reference for similar pile foundation design.

  7. Lattice dynamics of {alpha} boron and of boron carbide; Proprietes vibrationnelles du bore {alpha} et du carbure de bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vast, N

    1999-07-01

    The atomic structure and the lattice dynamics of {alpha} boron and of B{sub 4}C boron carbide have been studied by Density Functional Theory (D.F.T.) and Density Functional Perturbation Theory (D.F.P.T.). The bulk moduli of the unit-cell and of the icosahedron have been investigated, and the equation of state at zero temperature has been determined. In {alpha} boron, Raman diffusion and infrared absorption have been studied under pressure, and the theoretical and experimental Grueneisen coefficients have been compared. In boron carbide, inspection of the theoretical and experimental vibrational spectra has led to the determination of the atomic structure of B{sub 4}C. Finally, the effects of isotopic disorder have been modeled by an exact method beyond the mean-field approximation, and the effects onto the Raman lines has been investigated. The method has been applied to isotopic alloys of diamond and germanium. (author)

  8. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Kusunose, K.; Cho, A.; Tosha, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T.; Yamada, F. [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T. [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  9. 高硅铝合金无缸套发动机缸体缸孔珩磨加工数控机床关键技术研究%Research on Key Technologies of High-silicon Aluminum Alloy No-cylinder-liner Engine Block Cylinder Bore Honing CNC Machine Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余阿东; 王平俊; 李翔龙

    2016-01-01

    Based on high⁃silicon aluminum alloy no⁃cylinder⁃liner engine block bore materials grinding characteristics, a dual⁃spindle CNC honing machine tool was developed. In the machine tool, two⁃position two⁃spindle honing layout was used, it consisted of the following modules:spindle box, column, column glide, workpiece clamping table and so on. Spindle honing dual feed mechanism and honing oilstone double feed body were adopted. A closed loop control system based on motion control card was used. The system hardware platform was IPC and general industrial motion control card, based on the pneumatic differential pressure measuring honing online system, processing volume closed⁃loop control was achieved. The software platform was Windows system, VC++ development tool was used to program specialized processing procedures for the honing process.%基于高硅铝合金无缸套发动机缸体缸孔材料的磨削特点,开发了一种数控双主轴珩磨机床。该机床采用二工位双主轴的珩磨加工布局,由以下模块组成:主轴箱、立柱、立柱下滑台、工件装夹工作台等;采用主轴珩磨双进给机构及珩磨头油石双涨机构;采用基于运动控制卡的全闭环控制系统,系统硬件平台采用工控机和通用工业运动控制卡,运用基于差压式珩磨在线气动测量系统,实现加工量的闭环控制;软件平台采用Windows系统,采用VC++开发工具编制珩磨工艺加工程序。

  10. 基于有限元的超重型数控落地铣镗床静力学特性分析%Static behaviors analysis of super-heavy-duty CNC floor boring-milling machine based on finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凤和; 高东东; 王振宇

    2012-01-01

    以TK6932超重型数控落地铣镗床为研究对象,针对其可能存在局部强度和刚度不足的问题,利用有限元方法进行计算验证.首先,根据机床结构特点建立了机床整机的有限元模型,基于该模型对机床整机进行静力分析,计算了机床在20种工作位置时自重作用下的应力和变形,进一步对滑枕静刚度进行了计算,分析了滑枕变形与工作位置间的关系.有限元分析结果表明,机床各部分应力水平较低,最大应力20 MPa左右,满足强度要求,而滑枕行程在1000 ~2000 mm范围时其挠曲变形量超过了国家机械行业标准,必须进行变形补偿.%Take the TK6932 super-heavy-duty CNC floor boring-milling machine as research object, the possible intensity and rigidity insufficient of the local structure are analyzed by the finite element method in the paper. Firstly, the finite element model of the whole machine is established according to the structural characteristics of the machine tool. Then the static analysis of the machine is given based on the model. The stress and deformation of the machine tool under the self-weight in 20 specific positions are calculated at the same time. Furthermore, the static stiffness of the ram is calculated and the relationship between deformation and work position of the ram is analyzed. The results of the finite element analysis show that the stress level of the machine is low in every part of the model, and the maximum stress is a-bout 20 MPa, which meet the requirements of strength. However, with the stroke of the ram in the range of 1 000 mm to 2 000 mm, the deflections exceed the national standard of mechanical industry. In this case, the deformation of ram must be compensated.

  11. 地层水侵入对超临界CO2钻井井筒温度和压力的影响%Influences of formation water invasion on the well bore temperature and pressure in supercritical CO2 drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海柱; 沈忠厚; 李根生

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to study the influence of formation water invasion on the well bore temperature and pressure in SC-CO2 (supercritical CO2) drilling with coiled tubing, this paper builds up a weilbore flow model with formation water invasion in SC-CO2 drilling with coiled tubing, based on the comprehensive investigation of the influence of viscosity, density, thermal conductivity, isobaric heat capacity and Joule-Thompson coefficient of SC-CO2. The wellbore temperature and pressure distribution were calculated by the method of coupling among these parameters. The results show that the bigger the rate of invaded formation water and the bigger the density of mixed fluid,the bigger the convective heat transfer coefficient in the annulus. Because of the .Joule-Thompson cooling effect caused by nozzle throttling, the annulus mixture fluid density increased abruptly and the convective heat transfer coefficient decreased abruptly at the well depth of about 1 900 m (about 10 m to bottom hole). Meanwhile the wellbore fluid temperature increased with the invasion rate of formation water, and the same Joule-Thompson cooling effect caused the wellbore fluid temperature to decrease abruptly at the well depth of about 1 900 m. Moreover, the wellbore annulus pressure increased with the increasing of invaded formation water quantity, butthe amplitude is not obvious.%为了研究sC-CO(超临界CO)连续油管钻井过程中地层水侵入对井筒温度和压力的影响,在综合考虑CO流体的黏度、密度、导热系数、热容、焦耳-汤姆逊系数等参数影响的基础上,建立了SC-CO连续油管钻井地层水侵入井筒流动模型,并采用各参数相互耦合的方法对井筒温度和压力分布进行了计算.结果表明,地层水侵入速度越大其混合流体密度越高,环空混合流体对流换热系数越大,但由于喷嘴节流产生的焦耳-汤姆逊冷却效应,在井深约1 900 m处(离井底约10 m处)环空混合流体密度突然增大、对流

  12. On the Memories of Kashing Canals and of the Hangchow Bore ——Reading the Sketches Written by Charles K. Edmunds and Others A Century Ago%品运河古韵,观钱塘怒涛,寻浙江记忆——解读美国传教士晏文士等人百年前的钱江观潮游记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈弘

    2011-01-01

    "A Visit to the Hangchow Bore" in The Popular Science Monthly (1908) is one of Charles K. Edmunds' sketches written during his travels around China in early 20th century. It records in great details his observations of and reflections on what he saw along the canals between Shanghai and Haining, as well as the Hangchow Bore. Like other similar sketches by John Green and William R. Kahler during approximately the same period, it provides an objective reference to our understanding of the local culture in the regions of Jiaxing and Haining a century ago. Unfortunately these sketches were written either in English or in German, and in them there are many proper names and special terminology that need expli- cation. The present paper is an attempt in this direction.%美国传教士晏文士发表在《大众科学月刊》上的一篇海宁观潮连载文章,是他在中国各地旅行时细心观察和记录的成果之一。它详细记载了作者从上海至海宁的旅途见闻和在海宁观看钱江大潮的细节和感受。与同期的葛骆和葛利等其他两位外国人所写的钱江观潮游记一样,它为我们了解百年前的杭嘉湖地域文化提供了一个客观的参照。由于上述游记是用英文、德文等欧洲文字发表的,而且文章中有不少人名、地名和意思比较隐晦的专门术语,一般的读者难以看懂,需要有人对此加以翻译和解读。本文便是这样的一种尝试。

  13. Very deep borehole. Deutag's opinion on boring, canister emplacement and retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering feasibility study has been carried out to determine whether or not it is possible to drill the proposed Very Deep Borehole concept wells required by SKB for nuclear waste disposal. A conceptual well design has been proposed. All aspects of well design have been considered, including drilling tools, rig design, drilling fluids, casing design and annulus isolation. The proposed well design is for 1168.4 mm hole to be drilled to 500 m. A 1066.8 mm outer diameter (OD) casing will be run and cemented. A 1016 mm hole will be drilled to approximately 2000 m, where 914.4 mm OD casing will be run. This annulus will be sealed with bentonite slurry apart from the bottom 100 m which will be cemented. 838.2 mm hole will be drilled to a final depth of 4000 m, where 762 mm OD slotted casing will be run. All the hole sections will be drilled using a downhole hammer with foam as the drilling fluid medium. Prior to running each casing string, the hole will be displaced to mud to assist with casing running and cementing. The waste canisters will be run on a simple J-slot tool, with integral backup system in case the J-slot fails. The canisters will all be centralised. Canisters can be retrieved using the same tool as used to run them. Procedures are given for both running and retrieving. Logging and testing is recommended only in the exploratory wells, in a maximum hole size of 311.1 mm. This will require the drilling of pilot holes to enable logging and testing to take place. It is estimated that each well will take approximately 137 days to drill and case, at an estimated cost of 4.65 Meuro per well. This time and cost estimate does not include any logging, testing, pilot hole drilling or time taken to run the canisters. New technology developments to enhance the drilling process are required in recyclable foam systems, in hammer bit technology, and in the development of robust under-reamers. It is the authors conclusion that it is possible to drill the well with currently existing technology, although it represents one of the biggest challenges to be presented to the drilling industry

  14. Well-bore effects in the analysis of two-phase geothermal well tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.W.; Benson, S.; O' Sullivan, M.J.; Pruess, K.

    1981-01-01

    A method of designing and analyzing pressure transient well tests of two-phase (steam-water) reservoirs is given. Wellbore storage is taken into account and the duration of it is estimated. It is shown that the wellbore flow can completely dominate the downhole pressure signal such that large changes in the downhole pressure that might be expected because of changes in kinematic mobility are not seen. Changes in the flowing enthalpy from the reservoir can interact with the wellbore flow so that a temporary plateau in the downhole transient curve is measured. Application of graphical and non-graphical methods to determine reservoir parameters from drawdown tests is demonstrated.

  15. Zachsia zenkewitschi (Teredinidae), a Rare and Unusual Seagrass Boring Bivalve Revisited and Redescribed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipway, J R; O'Connor, R; Stein, D; Cragg, S M; Korshunova, T; Martynov, A; Haga, T; Distel, D L

    2016-01-01

    The sea-grass borer Zachsia zenkewitschi belongs to a group of economically and ecologically important bivalves, commonly referred to as shipworms. The sole recognized representative of the genus Zachsia, this species displays an unusual life history and reproductive strategy that is now understood to include: environmental sex determination of free swimming larvae, extreme sexual and size dimorphism between males and females, internal fertilization, maintenance of often large harems of male dwarfs within a specialized cavity of the female mantle, and complex maternal care of larvae in specialized brood pouches within the gill. It is also the only shipworm species known to burrow in sea grass rhizomes rather than terrestrial wood. Although Z. zenkewitschi is rare and little studied, understanding of its biology and anatomy has evolved substantially, rendering some aspects of its original description inaccurate. Moreover, no existing type specimens are known for this species. In light of these facts, we designate a neotype from among specimens recently collected at the type location, and undertake a re-description of this species, accounting for recent reinterpretation of its life history and functional anatomy. PMID:27171209

  16. [Technique and results of modified percutaneous bore wire osteosynthesis of the distal radius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habernek, H; Schmid, L

    1992-07-01

    A modified technique for percutaneous K-wire pinning of distal radius fractures is presented. With this method, three to four K-wires are introduced from the radial styloid process towards and through the dorsal, volar and ulnar proximal cortical wall, respectively. After the fracture fragments have been demonstrated to be stable, the wires are cut, bent over and fixed. Then a dorsal plaster splint is applied, which should be worn for 4-6 weeks, depending on whether or not there is a dorsal comminution zone. Fifty-five patients have been operated on by this method. At follow-up 6 months after the operation, no secondary dislocation, wire migration, infection, Sudeck syndrome or functional disturbance was seen. The advantage of this method is emphasized as compared with the usual, previously published method. PMID:1502573

  17. The Tunnel Boring Machine Advancements in Horizontal and Up-Hill Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Fuoco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nowadays high levels of experience have been acquired in the excavation of horizontal tunnels using TBM, especially as far as tunnels with small diameters (about 4 m wide are concerned. Less experience has been acquired in the excavation of tunnels under difficult alignment conditions, as in the case of steeply inclined excavations (up-hill tunnels. Approach: This study presented the results of studies which compare the production data collected for tunnels excavated with TBM in "normal" conditions (horizontal tunnel, with those derived from steeply inclined excavations (up-hill tunnels. Results: From an examination of the results obtained in the studied cases a net difference appears evident in terms of productivity between horizontal and up-hill excavations. Conclusion: Such net difference between horizontal and up-hill excavation productions can be attributed to the greater burdens of times necessary for the supply of materials and personnel, the regripping operations with fall preventer systems and, in general, the greater difficulties of carrying out ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of the machines in particularly difficult altrimetric conditions.

  18. Microwave emission from pulsed, relativistic e-beam diodes. I. The smooth-bore magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of intense magnetron oscillations in pulsed, field-emission diodes (approx.350 kV, 30 nsec) subjected to crossed externally applied fields (< or approx. =16 kG) are reported. The oscillations set in as soon as the magnetic field exceeds the critical field necessary for cutting off the diode current. The oscilations are diagnosed by the microwave emission which is studied in the range from 7 to 40 GHz. The radiation is emitted in broad frequency bands, it is strongly polarized, and can be tuned by the magnetic field; the power levels are typically 1 to 5 kW. The observations are consistent with the onset of the slipping stream instability in the Brillouin space charge flow of the electron cloud

  19. "I No Say You Say Is Boring": The Development of Pragmatic Competence in L2 Apology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuh-Fang

    2010-01-01

    While the number of studies on pragmatic development has been increasing since Kasper and Schmidt's call for more research into this under-researched area (e.g., [Barron, A., 2003. Acquisition in Interlanguage Pragmatics: Learning How to do Things with Words in a Study Abroad Context. Benhamins, Amsterdam; Achiba, M., 2003. Learning to Request in…

  20. Analysis of the Tunnel Boring Machine Advancement on the Bologna-Florence Railway Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cardu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The high-velocity railway link between Bologna and Firenze (Italy is today under construction and several tunnels have to be excavated for this purpose, some of these using TBMs. A small diameter tunnel, named Cunicolo ginori, was realized by TBM parallel to a large railway tunnel (Vaglia, at the distance of only 35 m. Approach: The Vaglia tunnel had been excavated by conventional methods and provided, thanks to a detailed survey and a systematic geotechnical monitoring (rock quality evaluation and convergence measurements the characterization data of the crossed rock mass; moreover the TBM performance data in Cunicolo ginori were continuously monitored. A tunnel stretch, 587 m long, was recorded and the analysis of the data from both surveys allowed to correlate the geomechanical parameters of the rock-mass to the TBM performances (net advancement rate, thrust, specific energy. Results: Based on this large amount of data a new system to predict the net TBM advancement rate for a tunnel in rock masses of known geological and geomechanical characteristics was then developed. Also the Utilization Coefficient (CU can be correlated to the rock quality Indices: The net advance rate and the utilization coefficient provide a mean to foresee the gross advancement rate and to evaluate the suitability of a machine for the excavation of a tunnel. Conclusion: In this study, an analysis had been carried out on about 587 m of a service tunnel, excavated by a TBM in a flysch formation.

  1. Design of concrete structures for durability. Example: Chloride penetration in the lining of a bored tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, A.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The present design method for durability of concrete is based on a set of rules that give no objective in-sight in the service life to expect from the concrete structure. An objective comparison between different durability measures is therefor not possible. Especially if the lack of durability can

  2. Design of concrete structures for durability ; Example : Chloride penetration in the lining of a bored tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, T.; Polder, R.; Vries, H. de

    1998-01-01

    To design concrete structures for durability, all relevant performances that the structure has to fulfill and that can be influenced by degradations have to be defined. The probability that a given performance must be delivered within a design service life should also be considered. One of the conse

  3. What to do when feeling bored? : Students' strategies for coping with boredom

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Ulrike; Götz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia Marie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore different strategies for coping with boredom. A questionnaire was developed targeting two dimensions of coping, namely approach versus avoidance oriented coping and cognitive versus behavioral oriented coping. First, based on the responses of 976 students (51% female) from grades 5 to 10, the structure of the coping with boredom scales was verified by confirmatory factor analysis. In a second step, 3 different boredom-coping groups were identified by late...

  4. Prediction of response and damaged length of a subsea pipeline after a full bore rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekh, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    The combination of oil and gas reservoirs in sea areas with high shipping traffic brings some challenges for engineers. One of these challenges is related to subsea pipeline systems specially where water depth is classified as shallow or intermediate. Due to large number of vessels passing the area with shallow water depth, interaction between anchors of these vessels and the offshore pipeline can occur. If a dragging anchor hits and subsequently hooks the pipeline, the pipeline could be rupt...

  5. Overview of Bore Tools Systems for divertor remote maintenance of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the radiation levels preventing direct, hands-on access to the machine components, maintenance work on ITER will eventually require the use of Remote Handling techniques. In particular, the replacement of components such as divertor and blanket modules will require the use of remote cutting, welding and Non Destructive Testing of water cooling pipes

  6. Laser-Hole Boring into Overdense Plasmas Measured with Soft X-Ray Laser Probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Kodama, R. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Tanaka, K. A. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Hashimoto, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Kato, Y. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Mima, K. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Weber, F. A. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Barbee, T. W. Jr. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Da Silva, L. B. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2000-03-13

    A laser self-focused channel formation into overdense plasmas was observed using a soft x-ray laser probe system with a grid image refractometry (GIR) technique. 1.053 {mu}m laser light with a 100 ps pulse duration was focused onto a preformed plasma at an intensity of 2x10{sup 17} W /cm{sup 2} . Cross sections of the channel were obtained which show a 30 {mu}m diameter in overdense plasmas. The channel width in the overdense region was kept narrow as a result of self-focusing. Conically diverging density ridges were also observed along the channel, indicating a Mach cone created by a shock wave due to the supersonic propagation of the channel front. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  7. Ballet Doesn't Have to Be Boring: Engaging Students in the Creative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, Helene

    2005-01-01

    For many years, the author has incorporated creative process into the way she teaches ballet class. The author shares the philosophical, practical, and artistic reasons for the creative process in ballet classes. She also shares the rationale and how this practice developed over time.

  8. Cloud hole-boring with long pulse CO sub 2 lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, G.P.; Webster, R.B.; York, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Chemically generated CO{sub 2} laser pulses at 10.6 {mu}m have been used to clear a 5 cm diameter hole through a stratus-like cloud in a laboratory cloud chamber. The results show that 100% clearing can be achieved. The mechanism is shown to be droplet shattering followed by evaporation. Under the conditions of the experiment, the channel closure is dominated by turbulent mixing and not droplet recondensation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  9. The Affects of Not Reading: Hating Characters, Being Bored, Feeling Stupid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Anna; Seaboyer, Judith; Kennedy, Rosanne; Barnett, Tully; Douglas, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article brings recent debates in literary studies regarding the practice of close reading into conversation with Derek Attridge's idea of "readerly hospitality" (2004) to diagnose the problem of students in undergraduate literary studies programme not completing set reading. We argue that the method of close reading depends on…

  10. Testing of the large bore single aperture 1-meter superconducting dipoles made with phenolic inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Dubbeldam, R L; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Taylor, T M; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W

    1998-01-01

    Two identical single aperture 1-metre superconducting dipoles have been built in collaboration with HMA Power Systems and tested at CERN. The 87.8 mm aperture magnets feature a single layer coil wound using LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic spacer type collars, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. The magnets are designed as models of the D1 separation dipole in the LHC experimental insertions, whose nominal field is 4.5 T at 4.5 K. In this report we present the test results of the two magnets at 4.3 K and 1.9 K.

  11. Very deep borehole. Deutag's opinion on boring, canister emplacement and retrievability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Tim [Well Engineering Partners BV, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    An engineering feasibility study has been carried out to determine whether or not it is possible to drill the proposed Very Deep Borehole concept wells required by SKB for nuclear waste disposal. A conceptual well design has been proposed. All aspects of well design have been considered, including drilling tools, rig design, drilling fluids, casing design and annulus isolation. The proposed well design is for 1168.4 mm hole to be drilled to 500 m. A 1066.8 mm outer diameter (OD) casing will be run and cemented. A 1016 mm hole will be drilled to approximately 2000 m, where 914.4 mm OD casing will be run. This annulus will be sealed with bentonite slurry apart from the bottom 100 m which will be cemented. 838.2 mm hole will be drilled to a final depth of 4000 m, where 762 mm OD slotted casing will be run. All the hole sections will be drilled using a downhole hammer with foam as the drilling fluid medium. Prior to running each casing string, the hole will be displaced to mud to assist with casing running and cementing. The waste canisters will be run on a simple J-slot tool, with integral backup system in case the J-slot fails. The canisters will all be centralised. Canisters can be retrieved using the same tool as used to run them. Procedures are given for both running and retrieving. Logging and testing is recommended only in the exploratory wells, in a maximum hole size of 311.1 mm. This will require the drilling of pilot holes to enable logging and testing to take place. It is estimated that each well will take approximately 137 days to drill and case, at an estimated cost of 4.65 Meuro per well. This time and cost estimate does not include any logging, testing, pilot hole drilling or time taken to run the canisters. New technology developments to enhance the drilling process are required in recyclable foam systems, in hammer bit technology, and in the development of robust under-reamers. It is the authors conclusion that it is possible to drill the well with currently existing technology, although it represents one of the biggest challenges to be presented to the drilling industry.

  12. [Suicidal gunshot to the nape from a small-bore rifle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderwald, Sybille; Mützel, Elisabeth; Graw, Matthias; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang; Peschel, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was found dead on the bed lying on his side in a pool of blood with a bullet entrance hole in the nape. Behind his body, a semi-automatic rifle Remington Nylon, cal. .22 LR, was detected. As the gunshot entrance site was rather unusual for suicide, a forensic autopsy was performed, which showed a contact shot to the nape with the bullet path running upward to the left frontal area. The man had been treated with citalopram for delusional depression, so that a suicidal act seemed plausible, and the autopsy and criminalistic findings were also compatible with this assumption. A remarkable fact of the present case is that a long firearm had been used. Reports on suicidal shots to the nape are comparatively rare in the medicolegal literature and usually refer to pistols or revolvers. PMID:18389862

  13. Zinc complexes as fluorescent chemosensors for nucleic acids: new perspectives for a "boring" element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenzi, Alessio; Lauria, Antonino; Almerico, Anna Maria; Barone, Giampaolo

    2015-02-28

    Zinc(II) complexes are effective and selective nucleic acid-binders and strongly fluorescent molecules in the low energy range, from the visible to the near infrared. These two properties have often been exploited to quantitatively detect nucleic acids in biological samples, in both in vitro and in vivo models. In particular, the fluorescent emission of several zinc(II) complexes is drastically enhanced or quenched by the binding to nucleic acids and/or upon visible light exposure, in a different fashion in bulk solution and when bound to DNA. The twofold objective of this perspective is (1) to review recent utilisations of zinc(II) complexes as selective fluorescent probes for nucleic acids and (2) to highlight their novel potential applications as diagnostic tools based on their photophysical properties.

  14. Method for constructing a lined underground cavity by underreaming, grouting, and boring through the grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.H.

    1971-02-02

    A method is described for constructing a lined underground cavity. The process includes the steps of securing a casing in a borehole by grouting, underreaming the casing, filling the underreamed region with additional grouting, and then drilling through and underreaming the added grouting, thereby forming a room having a lining formed of the grouting. By using a structurally strong grouting that is impervious to water, the resulting room is waterproof and is suitable for on-site storage of an atomic device and its associated equipment prior to an underground atomic event. Such cavities also have other uses; for example, the cavities may be made very deep and used for storage of various fluids such as natural gas storage. (5 claims)

  15. Aims and results of the bore-hole development project of the Mecsek Coal Mines (Hungary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project for the joint development of methodology and instrumentation was launched by the Mecsek Coal Mines in order to increase the efficiency of geophysical prospecting. Actual field examples are presented showing the detection of tectonic disturbances by radioactive logging methods from exploratory holes. Results of comparative measurements by means of scintillation and GM-tube detectors using various radiation sources (60Co, 241Am, 90Sr and 137Cs) are given in detail. (Sz.J.)

  16. Inspection of rotor bores, retaining rings and turbine discs utilizing UDRPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New construction in the U.S. utility industry is at a very low level. The average age of plants in increasing almost linearly with time, many units will pass nominal end of life in the next decade. Planned new construction now takes ten years to effect at a minimum. The need for more reliable inspection of high stress utility components is and will continue to be a subject of increased emphasis. Dynacon Systems Inc. has recently introduced into commercial service, a fully automated ultrasonic inspection instrumentation package designed to significantly increase the reliability of turbine/generator rotor shaft, LP disc and generator retaining ring inspections. The package is designed to automate to a very high degree, the entire analysis process, thus eliminating operator error sources. The automated process begins at the ultrasonic pulse generator and ends with the input to fracture mechanics analysis

  17. Florida’s primary results: a boring story with a sad ending for Senator Marco Rubio

    OpenAIRE

    Darlington, Rolda L.

    2016-01-01

    With 99 delegates, Florida is one of the most important states in this stage of the presidential primary season. Tuesday’s Republican primary saw Donald Trump win all but one of the Sunshine State’s 67 counties, and all of its delegates. Rolda L. Darlington writes that while the results were not surprising, they were devastating for the state’s US Senator Marco Rubio, who had been banking on a win there to stay in the presidential nomination race.

  18. Using a Bore Sight Camera as an AR&D Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR project will provide real time, relative six Degree of Freedom (6DoF) information to the crew of the ORION for docking. Our technical innovation...

  19. Using a Bore Sight Camera as an AR&D Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orion requires a rendezvous and docking sensor to provide relative navigation information during proximity operations and docking. In order to dock, the sensor must...

  20. A device for monitoring and calibrating bore hole sonic logging devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gufranov, M.G.

    1980-06-05

    The device contains a hollow standarized pipe. In order to increase the effectiveness and monitoring accuracy, part of the pipe is built with holes in its walls. The shape and placement of the holes is established depending on the necessary test ranges of the working characteristics of the devices, accounting for the diameter of the pipe and the measurement base of the device. The holes in the walls of the pipe are circular in shape and are placed uniformly in rows in accordance with set relationships.

  1. 46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (excluding stainless steel). 148.04-13 Section 148.04-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... stainless steel). (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of hazardous materials... steel). However, unmanned barges on which the article is stowed for or transported on a voyage...

  2. Improved design of hydroelectric projects : hydraulic roughness of TBM-bored tunnels. An experimental study.

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Filipek; Anna Kasprzyk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to link head loss coefficients in rough pipes to the physical roughness of the surface through measurements of head loss in fully turbulent flow. It is generally regarded that hydraulic roughness is some function of the height, spacing, density and nature of the physical roughness under consideration. Attempts have been made to link hydraulic roughness to physical roughness of an irregular surface. Those have, however, been incomplete and conducted at flow states...

  3. A 50 mm bore, 13 tesla superconducting magnet employing a prereacted multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the construction of two hybrid magnets, we intend to build up a third hybrid magnet which will produce about 30 T. A prereacted multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductor will be employed for the 12 T superconducting part of the hybrid. As a first step for the project, we have designed, constructed and tested a magnet which consists of 14 double-pancakes made of a prereacted multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductor and a back up coil made of a Nb-Ti conductor. The satisfactory results of the test on the magnet, in which we succeeded to produce 13.4 T, have given us very bright prospects for the 30 T hybrid magnet project

  4. A 50 mm BORE, 13 TESLA SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET EMPLOYING A PREREACTED MULTIFILAMENTARY Nb3Sn CONDUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Noto, K.; Watanabe, K; Muto, Y; M. Ikeda; Tanaka, Y.; Inoue, I; Ban, M

    1984-01-01

    Following the construction of two hybrid magnets, we intend to build up a third hybrid magnet which will produce about 30 T. A prereacted multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductor will be employed for the 12 T superconducting part of the hybrid. As a first step for the project, we have designed, constructed and tested a magnet which consists of 14 double-pancakes made of a prereacted multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductor and a back up coil made of a Nb-Ti conductor. The satisfactory results of the test on ...

  5. INFLUENCE OF WINE ACID ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WELL BORE CEMENT SLURRIES AND HARDENED CEMENT PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of commercial types of domestic cements for use in cementing the deep wells is a process by which Yugoslav oil industry tends to solve problems of completion of those wells independently. In order to design a domestic, cheep and effective retarder, tests of applicability of wine acid on cement slurries have been carried out. Besides examining the necessary wine acid content to achieve desirable Theological properties, the influence of this additive on properties of hardened cement samples has been tested too (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Study for effectiveness of rock mechanical model estimated from pilot boring survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Mizunami URL of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the study on engineering technology are ongoing. In this study, we tried to estimate the static elastic modulus from Rock Mass Rating (RMR) based on the results of laboratory test, core observation of the pilot borehole and geological survey on the shaft wall of main shaft in the URL. The static elastic modulus based on PS logging in a borehole as well. Then, the three dimensional numerical analysis using of the parameters carried out for the validity of the examination. The results show that the RMR may be applicable to estimate the mechanical parameters of strongly weathered rock mass which is widely distributed in JAPAN. (author)

  7. Why Kids Need to Be Bored: A Case Study of Self-Reflection and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James D.

    2006-01-01

    This case study involved 3 middle school students in an assessment of the influence of self-reflection on general academic performance. It was hypothesized that increased self-reflection would have a positive influence on academic performance as measured by grades on tests, writing assignments, and homework. The participants were ages 13.4, 13.5,…

  8. Mitigation of high-frequency pulsations, using Multi Bore Restriction Orifices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, L.J. van; Korst, H.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    In reciprocating fluid displacement systems, a trend toward high-speed machinery and application of stepless reverse-flow capacity control system is observed. Badly designed compression systems may cause excessive high-frequency noise and vibration levels, which are a risk from a structural integrit

  9. A 1 T, 0.33 m bore superconducting magnet operating with cryocoolers at 12 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der M.T.G.; Tax, R.B.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Klundert, van de L.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of small cryocoolers to cooling a superconducting magnet at 12 K has important advantages, especially for small and medium-size magnets. Simple construction and a helium-free magnet system were obtained. The demonstration magnet developed is a six-coil system with a volume of 75 L an

  10. Report of boring made in the South of Cerro Largo district (Cerro Largo) 1977-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work are within the framework and compiles the data obtained by means of the study of the perforations executed in the District Cerro Largo Sur of the detailed prospection of uranium minerals. This study was carried out by technicians of Geologic ex--Institute of Uruguay (IGU) - at the moment National Direction of Mining and Geology. (DINAMIGE). The works began at the beginning of 1977 and continued until 1978 July; The headquarters of the program of prospection of uranium was carried out by Ing. Hector Goso. In this report the conclusions drawn at the time of the detection of the works in the District already published, as well as the litologicos cuts of all the executed perforations are included

  11. Utilization of deep shaft for bore-hole disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Novi Han Repository is the only existing repository in Bulgaria for the disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. The disposal vault for spent sealed sources is not designed for disposal of powerful 137Cs and 60Co sources. Long-lived waste from nuclear applications is also not allowed for disposal at the Novi Han Repository. As an operator of the Novi Han Repository, the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) initiated a programme for assessment of the possible utilization of deep shaft Gabra for disposal of such waste. Results of the preliminary study are discussed. (author)

  12. Zachsia zenkewitschi (Teredinidae, a Rare and Unusual Seagrass Boring Bivalve Revisited and Redescribed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Shipway

    Full Text Available The sea-grass borer Zachsia zenkewitschi belongs to a group of economically and ecologically important bivalves, commonly referred to as shipworms. The sole recognized representative of the genus Zachsia, this species displays an unusual life history and reproductive strategy that is now understood to include: environmental sex determination of free swimming larvae, extreme sexual and size dimorphism between males and females, internal fertilization, maintenance of often large harems of male dwarfs within a specialized cavity of the female mantle, and complex maternal care of larvae in specialized brood pouches within the gill. It is also the only shipworm species known to burrow in sea grass rhizomes rather than terrestrial wood. Although Z. zenkewitschi is rare and little studied, understanding of its biology and anatomy has evolved substantially, rendering some aspects of its original description inaccurate. Moreover, no existing type specimens are known for this species. In light of these facts, we designate a neotype from among specimens recently collected at the type location, and undertake a re-description of this species, accounting for recent reinterpretation of its life history and functional anatomy.

  13. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    and particulate organic carbon (POC) values in cultures of the green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue-green alga Plectonema terebrans, in biomass and POC contribution of these two types of microalgae in shells were calculated....

  14. On board or bored stiff? How to run effective board meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Lisa H

    2003-01-01

    Boards of directors meet to resolve problems or make decisions. To get the most out of your practice's board meetings, know when and why you need to meet, who needs to attend, how to run the meeting effectively and whom you represent.

  15. Investigations on the geothermal state of the ICDP COSC-1 well bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Richard; Pascal, Christophe; Renner, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    In 2014 the first well of the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) ICDP project was drilled near Åre in west central Sweden. The well penetrates the Seve Nappe complex, a result of subduction/exhumation processes during the collision of Baltica and Laurentia ~ 400 Myrs ago (Gee et al. 2010). To gain a more detailed understanding of the geothermal state of fossil mountain belts and cratonic areas, it is necessary to study present-day heat transfer in the earth's crust in appropriate deep boreholes. Constraining the heat transfer requires temperature measurements in boreholes and determination of thermal properties of the rocks present. The specific object of our study is to derive a local thermal model providing the pristine thermal state and quantifying transient effects, i.e. paleoclimatic and convective effects, on the local geotherm. The outstanding core recovery (~ 100%) of the 2495.8 m (MD) deep well in combination with extensive wireline logging campaigns provide an exceptional basis for a broad range of core measurements and well log correlations. A total of 105 core samples, representing all major lithologies, were carefully selected for laboratory investigations, such as determining heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity. Density and thermal conductivity were determined for each of the 105 core samples under ambient pressure and unsaturated conditions. The thermal conductivity was measured using the optical scanning method (Popov et al. 1985) providing a first-order estimate of thermal properties along the cores' surfaces. Based on these preliminary measurements, a thermal conductivity profile was constructed, showing a steep increase towards the lower section of the well. For the first ~ 2000 m the average thermal conductivity amounts to 2.5±0.6 W/(m.K) and increases to 4.1±1 W/(m.K) in the lower section of the well. In addition, spectral gamma ray logs were used to determine the amount of radiogenic heat production (Rybach, 1988). The integrated heat production within the well is merely low and amounts to ~3.3 mW/m². Three temperature logs were measured about one week, one month, and one year after drilling. The observed gradual slowdown in temperature recovery suggests that the latest log was probably measured very close to thermal equilibrium. Furthermore, the latest temperature log appears to show a typical curvature reflecting sudden global warming at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Based on the latest temperature log an uncorrected average thermal gradient of ~21 °C/km is tentatively proposed. References: Gee, D. G.; Juhlin, C.; Pascal, C.; Robinson, P. (2010): Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC). In GFF 132 (1), pp. 29-44. Rybach, L. (1988): Determination of Heat Production Rate. In R. Haenel, L. Rybach, L. Stegena (Eds.): Handbook of terrestrial heat-flow density determination. Guidelines and recommendations of the International Heat Flow Commission, pp. 125-142. Popov, Y. A.; Berezin, V. V.; Semenov, V. G.; Korostelev V. M. (1985): Complex Detailed Investigations on the Thermal Properties of Rocks on the Basis of a Moving Point Source. In Izvestiya, Earth Physics 21 (1), pp. 64-70.

  16. Fast image reconstruction experiments using small-bore MRI for animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast image reconstruction experiments were done using a high-speed image processor utilizing a digital signal processor chip (TMS320C30, Texas Instruments Inc) and a 4.7 T MR imager for animals (Biospec 47/40, Bruker Medizintechnik Gmbh). An image refresh time of 3.2s for a 128 x 128 matrix image was achieved using a fast gradient-echo sequence with a TR/TE/flip-angle of 20ms/6ms/30deg. MR images of a phantom and a rat were obtained repetitively and recorded on videotape over a long period. This system shows great promise for interventional MRI and also for the study of non-phasic motion such as movements of the gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  17. Stduy on the machining precision of the boring spindle bracket for CNC floor-type milling-boring machine%数控落地铣镗床镗轴托架加工精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔凤有; 陈雪芳; 孔凡武; 李德刚

    2014-01-01

    数控落地铣镗床镗轴精度是影响机床精度的关键因素,而镗轴托架是影响镗轴轴向窜动精度的关键件.镗轴托架加工精度要求十分严格,两端轴承孔同轴度要求在0.01 mm以内,轴承孔内端面跳动要求在0.005 nun以内.从设计原理和加工工艺方面分析以确定加工方案,满足精度要求.

  18. Le diamant dopé au bore pour la bioélectronique: Biocompatibilité et Fonctionnalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce electrodes for bioelectronic applications, polycrystalline and homoepitaxial (100) and (111) boron doped diamond films were synthesized. Those films were grown by plasma enhanced CVD and characterized by cathodoluminescence, Raman, and SEM. First, diamond biocompatibility was studied according to different parameters (doping, roughness and crystalline orientation), through the culture of two different cell lines: fibroblasts and pre-osteoblasts. Biotin was locally grafted ...

  19. DRILL WEAR DURING THE BORING OF PARTICLE BOARD: A MULTI-FACTOR ANALYSIS INCLUDING EFFECTS OF MINERAL CONTAMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates and discusses multifactor non-linear, statistical dependencies of drill side-edges recession VBK and drill diameter recession DW on the cutting path length LC, the content of hard mineral contaminants CMC, the size of contaminant particles SMC, and the Mohs hardness MH. Significant influence of the cutting path LC, the content CMC of hard mineral contaminants (HMC, and the size of contaminant particles SMC was found, whereas the Mohs hardness MH of the contamination particles was less important.

  20. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF DYNAMICS IN BEARING SYSTEM OF DRILLING, MILLING AND BORING MACHINE WITH MONO-COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Vasilevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  FEM-analysis of dynamics in the bearing system of a heavy-duty machine tool has been carried out in the paper. This is a prospective variant for a large-size multi-purpose machine tool with a horizontal sliding ram. A saddle and a ram are moving vertically along a subtle mono-column. A rigid double-column is used in the existing analog machine tool. A static, modal and harmonic analysis of the bearing system with the mono-column has been made in the paper. It has been done with the help of FEM-simulation prior to fabrication of a prototype sample. Previously conducted calculations for the analog machine tool have shown good compatibility of FEM-calculation with experiments.Six common machine tool resonances have been revealed for the bearing system. Their oscillating cutting forces are actively exciting three-four resonance modes. Ranges of a flexure-torsion resonance (20–40 Hz and nose-diving resonances (70–90 Hz have been determined in the paper. The paper shows that the range of multi-wave resonances starts significantly higher from 140 Hz. These resonances are interconnected with bending oscillations of the ram and bucklings of the column walls which are matched with the oscillations. The paper demonstrates stability in resonance pattern. The torsional resonance of the column on the frequency of nearly 40 Hz is considered as the more dangerous one. Spindle rigidity goes down up to 3.8 Н/μm. It is possible to observe self-stabilization of the torsional resonance. Frequency of the torsional oscillations is practically unchangeable when there is a lifting or lowering down of the saddle and the ram. It is related to the migration of dynamical axis of torsion.Frequency-response characteristics of the bearing system have been constructed for various saddle positions on the column. Three frequency intervals that make it possible to carry out machining operation have been determined in the paper. The first interval is a static one. The machine tool with a mono-column comes short of the analog machine tool in this interval. The main reason of it is low static rigidity of the subtle column. The second interval is narrow and it is located between flexure-torsion and nose-diving resonances. The third interval is considered as the most efficient one. The interval contains a section of inter-range pause between general machine tool and multi-wave resonances. In this case it is possible to observe a significant increase of the dynamic rigidity on the spindle that compensates the column subtility. High potential of the dynamic rigidity has been revealed in the direction of the ram axis (>2000 Н/μm. The paper shows liability of the machine tool to displacement crossings during oscillations. Peculiar features of this effect have been discussed in the paper. The diagram with a mono-column is recommended for practical application. The main condition is a transition to high-speed drive within the framework of concept on high-speed machining. It is necessary to ensure rigidity of the axial feed drive system.

  1. Lymeská borelióza - projev a výskyt u psů

    OpenAIRE

    Leová, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis affects all warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans. Its incidence is increasing not only in the Czech Republic but also in other countries, except Antarctica and South America. The greatest risk of infection are sites with high and dense vegetation, as well as broadleaved or mixed forests. Agent of of this disease is a bacteria of the genus Borrelia. The main reservoirs of this disease are rodents, deer, pets and tick, which is also the carrier. Some sources claim tick as...

  2. From boring to scoring - a collaborative serious game for learning and practicing mathematical logic for computer science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas; Holz, Jan; Leonhardt, Thiemo; Schroeder, Ulrik; Brauner, Philipp; Ziefle, Martina

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we address the problem of low retention and high dropout rates of computer science university students in early semesters of the studies. Complex and high abstract mathematical learning materials have been identified as one reason for the dropout rate. In order to support the understanding and practicing of core mathematical concepts, we developed a game-based multitouch learning environment in which the need for a suitable learning environment for mathematical logic was combined with the ability to train cooperation and collaboration in a learning scenario. As application domain, the field of mathematical logic had been chosen. The development process was accomplished along three steps: First, ethnographic interviews were run with 12 students of computer science revealing typical problems with mathematical logic. Second, a multitouch learning environment was developed. The game consists of multiple learning and playing modes in which teams of students can collaborate or compete against each other. Finally, a twofold evaluation of the environment was carried out (user study and cognitive walk-through). Overall, the evaluation showed that the game environment was easy to use and rated as helpful: The chosen approach of a multiplayer game supporting competition, collaboration, and cooperation is perceived as motivating and "fun."

  3. Využitie sociálnych sietí pri nábore zamestnancov

    OpenAIRE

    Ondejková, Ľubomíra

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with social networks and their use in recruitment process. The aim is to assess whether social networks can become the main method for recruitment, to find out recruiters' opinion on the use of social networks and to compare these findings with the period of three years ago. Finally, also to characterize the selected social networks and to compare their applicability. The theoretical part is devoted to the introduction of human resource management and recruitment. I...

  4. Pornographie ist langweilig! Die „Lustmaschinen“ der Philosophie Pornography is Boring! Philosophical “Machines of Desire”

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Eitler

    2007-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie bietet eine überaus ambitionierte philosophische Erörterung der Problematik des modernen Subjekts und seiner Beziehung zur Pornographie. Svenja Flaßpöhler widmet sich in diesem Zusammenhang insbesondere dem Werk des Marquis de Sade und setzt dieses in Beziehung zur aufgeklärten Selbstreflexion einerseits und zum Pornofilm der Gegenwart anderseits.The study at hand is a very ambitious philosophical exposition on the modern subject in relation to pornography. It approache...

  5. Analysis of the temporal and spatial dependence of the eddy current fields in a 40-cm bore magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S; Hughes, D G; Liu, Q; Allen, P S

    1992-05-01

    Eddy current fields, generated in an animal-size superconducting NMR magnet by a nominally rectangular pulsed transverse gradient applied in the vertical direction, have been studied by measuring the offset frequency of the proton NMR signal obtained from a small spherical sample. Measurements were made, after various time delays, at nine different locations in the sample space. Analysis of the data shows that the time-dependent fields at all nine locations are quite well accounted for by the superposition of only four independent exponentially decaying components that have time constants in the range from 9 to 400 ms. Two of these were found to be caused by eddy currents generated in the magnet structure. They generate primarily linear gradients, though one of them also produces a B0 shift, indicating a significant asymmetry about the isocenter of the conducting structure in which the eddy current flows. The other two exponentially decaying components, which had very different time constants from the eddy currents and also initial amplitudes of the opposite sign, were generated by the preemphasis unit. This calls into question the procedure used to adjust the preemphasis unit and an alternative method is proposed.

  6. Quantitative discrimination between oil and water in drilled bore cores via fast-neutron resonance transmission radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Vartsky, D; Dangendorf, V; Israelashvili, I; Mor, I; Bar, D; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M; Breskin, A

    2016-01-01

    A novel method based on Fast Neutron Resonance Transmission Radiography is proposed for non-destructive, quantitative determination of the weight percentages of oil and water in cores taken from subterranean or underwater geological formations. The ability of the method to distinguish water from oil stems from the unambiguously-specific energy dependence of the neutron cross-sections for the principal elemental constituents. Monte-Carlo simulations and initial results of experimental investigations indicate that the technique may provide a rapid, accurate and non-destructive method for quantitative evaluation of core fluids in thick intact cores, including those of tight shales for which the use of conventional core analytical approaches appears to be questionable.

  7. Traveling Wave MRI at 21.1 T: Propagation below Cut-off for Ultrahigh Field Vertical Bore System

    CERN Document Server

    Tonyushkin, Alexey A; Grant, Samuel C; Kiruluta, Andrew JM

    2014-01-01

    At high magnetic field strengths (> 4 T), the propagation wave vector of the excitation field B1 can no longer be ignored as the wavelength becomes commensurate or smaller than the imaging field of view (FOV), particularly for high dielectric media. The emergence of this propagation wave vector renders the excitation field variant in both time and space. In this paper, the propagation of RF excitation waves in a high field vertical NMR system is demonstrated for the first time with an appropriate screened dielectric waveguide excited by a simple loop coil to enable below cutoff propagation for imaging in the far field. Uniquely, aqueous samples provide the high permittivity required to modify the cut-off requirements of this transmission system. Theory and simulations corroborate the observed propagating modes field patterns. The ease of construction and implementation of this setup permits use in a variety of high field systems. At a minimum, this design provides a larger FOV that is limited primarily by the...

  8. Bored boys, graffiti, and YouTube - tracing recent groundwater level changes in a Saudi Arabian cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Nils; Dirks, Heiko; Schulz, Stephan; Kempe, Stephan; Schüth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The Dahl Hith cave is located approximately 30 km southeast of Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. In the past decades, the groundwater table exposed inside the cave became subject to appreciable changes. After a decline due to agricultural water abstraction for irrigation purposes, the water table exhibited a rapid rise in the last few years. Considering that most of the aquifers of the country show a depletion of the largely fossil groundwater, the mentioned rise is quite unusual. The area does not host an observation well, i.e., reliable data on the piezometric changes is hitherto not available. Hence, two uncommon data sources were used to reconstruct the water level changes: (1) YouTube videos and (2) graffiti inscriptions. (1) The cave is frequently visited by locals and expats from Riyadh and many visitors are willing to share their cave adventures on YouTube. Identifying certain reference points in the uploaded videos (e.g. specific boulders, cave graffiti) and estimating their position relative to the water table allows for an approximate reconstruction of the recent groundwater rise. Information on the observation time is derived from the uploading date. Occasionally, also the exact date of the visit is provided as part of the footage description. (2) Some people documented their visit by graffiti inscriptions. These do not only serve as a marker in the videos, but also contain genuine data on historic water levels: if written on parts of the cave wall, which are only accessible from the water, they indicate the water level at the time of their creation. Fortunately, some graffiti also feature the date of the visit. In order to improve the reliability of the water level estimations, measurements conducted in the course of own site visits in the past few years were considered for the evaluation. Also photographs taken during these surveys helped to improve the quality of the water level reconstruction. The described "Youtube Approach" could be interpreted as a citizen science project with citizens being unaware of their participation. It illustrates the occasional need for creative solutions in data-scarce settings.

  9. Internal bore welding of 2/one quarter/Cr-1 Mo steel tube-to-tubesheet joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most critical weldments in the steam supply system for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor are those that join the steam generator tubes to the tube-sheets. A modified internal welding tip with a Ta 10% W collet as well as a fused quartz gas cup was used. The pressure differential between the inside and outside of tubular welds (determined with a water manometer) is critical in controlling weld bead geometry. 8 refs

  10. The perfect boring situation-Addressing the experience of monotony during crewed deep space missions through habitability design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peldszus, Regina; Dalke, Hilary; Pretlove, Stephen; Welch, Chris

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary orbital missions, workloads are so high and varied that crew may rarely experience stretches of monotony. However, in historical long duration missions, occurrences of monotony were, indeed, reported anecdotally by crew. Of the effective countermeasures that appear to be at hand, many rely on visual or logistical proximity to the Earth, and are not feasible in the remote context of an extended deep space mission scenario. There, particularly in- and outbound cruising stages would be characterised by longer, comparably uneventful periods of low workload, coupled with confinement and unchanging vehicle surroundings. While the challenge of monotony has been pointed out as an exploration-related research area, it has received less explicit attention from a habitation design perspective than other human behaviour and performance issues. The paper addresses this gap through a literature review of the theory and application of design-based mitigation strategies. It outlines models of emergence of monotony, situates the phenomenon in a remote mission context as a problem of sensory, social and spatio-temporal isolation, and discusses proposed countermeasures related to habitability. The scope of the literature is extended to primary sources in the form of a qualitative review of six onboard diaries from orbital and simulator missions, highlighting a range of habitat-related design themes. These are translated into the autonomous deep space setting with the overall rationale of integrating affordances into onboard habitation systems and placing emphasis on reinforcing positive situational characteristics.

  11. Quantitative discrimination between oil and water in drilled bore cores via fast-neutron resonance transmission radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Vartsky, D.; Goldberg, M B; Dangendorf, V.; Israelashvili, I.; Mor, I.; Bar, D.; Tittelmeier, K.; Weierganz, M.; Breskin, A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel method based on Fast Neutron Resonance Transmission Radiography is proposed for non-destructive, quantitative determination of the weight percentages of oil and water in cores taken from subterranean or underwater geological formations. The ability of the method to distinguish water from oil stems from the unambiguously-specific energy dependence of the neutron cross-sections for the principal elemental constituents. Monte-Carlo simulations and initial results of experimental investig...

  12. Pulsed Ion Sheath Dynamics in a Cylindrical Bore for Inner Surface Grid-Enhanced Plasma Source Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王久丽; 张谷令; 范松华; 杨武保; 杨思泽

    2002-01-01

    Based on our recently proposed grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) technique for innersurface modification of materials with cylindrical geometry, we present the corresponding theoretical studiesof the temporal evolution of the plasma ion sheath between the grid electrode and the target in a cylindricalbore. Typical results such as the ion sheath evolution, time-dependent ion density and time-integrated ion energydistribution at the target are calculated by solving Poisson's equation coupled with fluid equations for collisionlessions and Boltzmann assumption for electrons using finite difference methods. The calculated results can furtherverify the feasibility and superiority of this new technique.

  13. Pornographie ist langweilig! Die „Lustmaschinen“ der Philosophie Pornography is Boring! Philosophical “Machines of Desire”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Eitler

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Die vorliegende Studie bietet eine überaus ambitionierte philosophische Erörterung der Problematik des modernen Subjekts und seiner Beziehung zur Pornographie. Svenja Flaßpöhler widmet sich in diesem Zusammenhang insbesondere dem Werk des Marquis de Sade und setzt dieses in Beziehung zur aufgeklärten Selbstreflexion einerseits und zum Pornofilm der Gegenwart anderseits.The study at hand is a very ambitious philosophical exposition on the modern subject in relation to pornography. It approaches specifically the work of the Marquis de Sade and places it in relation to enlightened reflections on the self and to contemporary porno films.

  14. New records of Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau et al., 1968 (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) boring into Indonesian mushroom corals (Scleractinia, Fungiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Kleemann, K.

    2002-01-01

    New observations on endoparasites in mushroom corals at South Sulawesi and Bali resulted in eight coral host records of the mytilid bivalve Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau et al., 1968, bringing the total to 14. The host corals were observed in various habitats, most frequently on sandy substrates. The

  15. Lithophaga (Bivalvia, Mytilidae), including a new species, boring into mushroom corals (Scleractinia, Fungiidae) of South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, K.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2002-01-01

    Bivalve species of the mytilid genus Lithophaga, including a new one, are recorded from Indonesian mushroom corals (Scleractinia, Fungiidae). True associations with live hosts including L. laevigata, L. lessepsiana, L. lima, L. punctata spec. nov., and L. simplex, while specimens of L. malaccana and

  16. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 1. Hydraulic conditions adjacent to the well bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Thomas, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Temperature and formation resistivity logs obtained in borehole KP-1 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project indicate that the adjacent formation is characterized by several zones of distinctly different average temperature and water salinity. A series of hydraulic analyses and water sampling programs were conducted to rule out the possibility of local hydraulic effects associated with the presence of the borehole in the generation of these apparent groundwater zones. Hydraulic tests and sampling with the borehole cased to a depth of 710 m and open below that depth indicate that the deep aquifer contains seawater at a temperature nearly identical to that of the open ocean at the same depth. Various analyses give estimates of aquifer transmissivity of about 10-3 m2/s in the vicinity of the borehole. Isolation of this deeper aquifer from the overlying groundwater zones was investigated by perforating the casing at six locations and then measuring the changes in water level in the borehole, in the salinity of the fluid column, in the temperature profile of the fluid column, and in the rate of flow in the fluid column induced by the perforations. These results positively confirm that the zones of distinctly different formation properties indicated on the temperature and resistivity logs are not caused by flow in or around casing. Flow and fluid column salinity induced by the perforations also confirm significant differences between the hydraulic heads and geochemistry of the different groundwater zones inferred from the well logs.

  17. Computation of In-bore Velocity-time and Travel-time profiles from Breech Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Kankane

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes breech pressure measurement and also discusses the computation of velocity-time and travel-time profiles in the barrel from the instantaneous breech pressure values. The computed value of velocity at the shot out instant is obtained as the muzzle velocity. A close correlation is observed between the muzzle velocities measured by a radar and those computed from pressure-time data by this method.

  18. Thermal-Induced Errors Prediction and Compensation for a Coordinate Boring Machine Based on Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the CNC machine tools precision, a thermal error modeling for the motorized spindle was proposed based on time series analysis, considering the length of cutting tools and thermal declined angles, and the real-time error compensation was implemented. A five-point method was applied to measure radial thermal declinations and axial expansion of the spindle with eddy current sensors, solving the problem that the three-point measurement cannot obtain the radial thermal angle errors. Then the stationarity of the thermal error sequences was determined by the Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test Algorithm, and the autocorrelation/partial autocorrelation function was applied to identify the model pattern. By combining both Yule-Walker equations and information criteria, the order and parameters of the models were solved effectively, which improved the prediction accuracy and generalization ability. The results indicated that the prediction accuracy of the time series model could reach up to 90%. In addition, the axial maximum error decreased from 39.6 μm to 7 μm after error compensation, and the machining accuracy was improved by 89.7%. Moreover, the X/Y-direction accuracy can reach up to 77.4% and 86%, respectively, which demonstrated that the proposed methods of measurement, modeling, and compensation were effective.

  19. Regeneration of Rhizophora mangle in a Caribbean mangrove forest: interacting effects of canopy disturbance and a stem-boring beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Wayne P; Quek, Swee P; Mitchell, Betsy J

    2003-11-01

    Current theory predicts that in low-density, seed-limited plant populations, seed predation will be more important than competition in determining the number of individuals that reach maturity. However, when plant density is high, competition for microsites suitable for establishment and growth is expected to have a relatively greater effect. This dichotomous perspective does not account for situations in which the risk of seed predation differs inside versus outside recruitment microsites. We report the results of a field experiment and sampling studies that demonstrate such an interaction between microsite quality and the risk of propagule predation in mangrove forests on the Caribbean coast of Panama, where it appears to play a key role in shaping the demography and dynamics of the mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Rhizophora's water-borne propagules establish wherever they strand, but long-term sampling revealed that only those that do so in or near lightning-created canopy gaps survive and grow to maturity. These microsites afford better growth conditions than the surrounding understory and, as importantly, provide a refuge from predation by the scolytid beetle, Coccotrypes rhizophorae. This refuge effect was confirmed with a field experiment in which Rhizophora seedlings were planted at different positions relative to gap edges, from 5 m inside to 20 m outside the gap. Mortality due to beetle attack increased linearly from an average of 10% inside a gap to 72% at 20 m into the forest. The interaction between canopy disturbance and propagule predation may be having a large impact on the composition of our study forests. Being shade-tolerant, Rhizophora seedlings that escape or survive beetle attack can persist in the understory for years. However, the high rate of beetle-induced mortality effectively eliminates the contribution of advance regeneration by Rhizophora saplings to gap succession. This may explain why the shade-intolerant mangrove, Laguncularia racemosa, is able to co-dominate the canopy in low intertidal forests at our study sites. PMID:12920640

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF NOX CONTROL ON A SPARK-IGNITED LARGE BORE RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume I of the report gives emission results for a spark-ignited, largebore, reciprocating, internal-combustion engine operating both under baseline (normal) conditions, and with combustion modification controls to reduce NOx emissions to levels below the proposed new source per...

  1. Well bore Flow Treatment Used to Predict Radioactive Brine Releases to the Surface from Future Drilling Penetrations into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) mined geologic repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA.This site is designed for the permanent burial of transuranic radioactive waste generated by defense related activities.The waste produces gases when exposed to brine. This gas generation may result in increased pressures over time. Therefore, a future driller that unknowingly penetrates through the site may experience a blowout. This paper describes the methodology used to predict the resultant volumes of contaminated brine released

  2. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. The improvements of tongs for boring lute hole of rear-axle housing%后桥壳镗琵琶孔夹具的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲力戈

    2005-01-01

    原汽车后桥壳镗琵琶孔夹具的两端顶尖只能对单一尺寸的后桥壳进行定位,现对原夹具顶尖进行改进设计,改为组合式顶尖,加工不同型号的后桥壳时,可随时更换与之对应的顶尖,简单、灵活、方便、适用范围广.

  4. 深长钻孔掩护抽放技术的应用%Application of the deep and length-bore shield drainage technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一名

    2015-01-01

    岳城煤矿在掘进巷道进行深长钻孔掩护抽放技术探索,经过2年多的应用实践,取得了较好效果,掘进顺槽取得了单掘进尺480 m以上的应用成果,解决了高瓦斯矿井单掘效率低的问题,为高瓦斯矿井掘进巷道瓦斯治理积累了宝贵的经验.%Yuecheng coal mine explore the deep drilling shield drainage technology in heading, by practiced for more than two years, the technology achieved good effect, achieved the effect that the excavation footage is more than 480m per month, solved the low efficiency problem in high gas mine, accumulated valuable experience for the gas governance of high gas coal mine during excavating.

  5. Automated analyser for monitoring the contents of hydrocarbons in gas emitted from exploratory bore-holes in the gas and oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Namieśnik; Wojciech Chrzanowski; Paweł Żwan; Wacław Janicki

    2003-01-01

    An automated analyser for total hydrocarbon contents and hydrocarbon composition (from methane to pentanes) was constructed and tested in both laboratory and field exploitation. It used two-channel analysis: continuous measurements of total hydrocarbon contents and periodic (90 or 150 s) composition analysis after separation of hydrocarbons on a gas chromatographic column. Flame ionization detectors were used in both channels. A simple 16-bit analogue-to-digital converter was used (4.8, pract...

  6. The Improved Design for Transmission Gear Box in TX6922 Boring Mill%TX6922镗铣床主传动箱改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东元

    2010-01-01

    针对TX6922镗铣床存在主轴转速低、主传动箱的制造加工精度低、齿轮过于庞大、运行噪音大等缺点,文中对主传动箱进行了改进设计,给出了合理的工艺措施和相应的计算过程.

  7. Progress and gaps in understanding mechanisms of ash tree resistance to emerald ash borer, a model for wood-boring insects that kill angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Herms, Daniel A; Whitehill, Justin G A; Cipollini, Don; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    We review the literature on host resistance of ash to emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an invasive species that causes widespread mortality of ash. Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), which coevolved with EAB, is more resistant than evolutionarily naïve North American and European congeners. Manchurian ash was less preferred for adult feeding and oviposition than susceptible hosts, more resistant to larval feeding, had higher constitutive concentrations of bark lignans, coumarins, proline, tyramine and defensive proteins, and was characterized by faster oxidation of phenolics. Consistent with EAB being a secondary colonizer of coevolved hosts, drought stress decreased the resistance of Manchurian ash, but had no effect on constitutive bark phenolics, suggesting that they do not contribute to increased susceptibility in response to drought stress. The induced resistance of North American species to EAB in response to the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate was associated with increased bark concentrations of verbascoside, lignin and/or trypsin inhibitors, which decreased larval survival and/or growth in bioassays. This finding suggests that these inherently susceptible species possess latent defenses that are not induced naturally by larval colonization, perhaps because they fail to recognize larval cues or respond quickly enough. Finally, we propose future research directions that would address some critical knowledge gaps. PMID:26268949

  8. A conduction-cooled, 680-mm-long warm bore, 3-T Nb3Sn solenoid for a Cerenkov free electron laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, W.A.J.; Ouden, den A.; Krooshoop, H.J.G.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Wieland, J.; Slot, van der P.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A compact, cryocooler cooled Nb3Sn superconducting magnet system for a Cerenkov free electron laser has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet is positioned directly behind the electron gun of the laser system. The solenoidal field compresses and guides a tube-shaped 100 A, 500 kV electron

  9. A conduction-cooled, 680-mm-long warm bore, 3-T Nb3Sn solenoid for a Cerenkov free electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, W.A.J.; Ouden, den, W.; Krooshoop, H.J.G.; Kate, ten, Herman H.J.; Wieland, J; Slot, van der, J.

    1999-01-01

    A compact, cryocooler cooled Nb3Sn superconducting magnet system for a Cerenkov free electron laser has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet is positioned directly behind the electron gun of the laser system. The solenoidal field compresses and guides a tube-shaped 100 A, 500 kV electron beam. A two-stage GM cryocooler, equipped with a first generation ErNi5 regenerator, cools the epoxy impregnated solenoid down to the operating temperature of about 7.5 K. This leaves a conservati...

  10. Ultrasonic Detection on Welded Joint of Small-bore Thin Wall Tube%薄壁小径管焊接接头超声波探伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂葵

    2013-01-01

    为进一步提高薄壁小口径管焊缝的超声波检验准确度,以《管道焊接接头超声波检验技术规程》(DL/T820-2002)标准为检验依据,介绍了薄壁小径管焊缝超声波探伤的常规方法,重点探讨了常规探伤方法在实际探伤中缺陷定位方面遇到的一些问题,提出了解决问题的方案.

  11. Proof-of-feasibility of using well bore deformation as a diagnostic tool to improve CO2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, Larry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Moysey, Stephen [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Germanovich, Leonid [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Hughes, Baker [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-01-13

    Injecting CO2 raises pore pressure and this causes subsurface formations to deform. The pattern and amount of deformation will reflect the distribution of pressure and formation properties in the subsurface, two quantities of interest during CO2 storage. The hypothesis underlying this research is that the small deformation accompanying CO2 storage can be measured and interpreted to improve the storage process.

  12. Study of boron carbide evolution under neutron irradiation; Contribution a l'etude de l'evolution du carbure de bore sous irradiation neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeone, D. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie (DMT), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand II, (CNRS), 63 - Aubiere (France)

    1999-07-01

    Owing to its high neutron efficiency, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) is used as a neutron absorber in control rods of nuclear plants. Its behaviour under irradiation has been extensively studied for many years. It now seems clear that brittleness of the material induced by the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li capture reaction is due to penny shaped helium bubbles associated to a high strain field around them. However, no model explains the behaviour of the material under neutron irradiation. In order to build such a model, this work uses different techniques: nuclear microprobe X-ray diffraction profile analysis and Raman and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to present an evolution model of B{sub 4}C under neutron irradiation. The use of nuclear reactions produced by a nuclear microprobe such as the {sup 7}Li(p,p'{gamma}){sup 7}Li reaction, allows to measure lithium profile in B{sub 4}C pellets irradiated either in Pressurised Water Reactors or in Fast Breeder Reactors. Examining such profiles enables us to describe the migration of lithium atoms out of B{sub 4}C materials under neutron irradiation. The analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles of irradiated B{sub 4}C samples allows us to quantify the concentrations of helium bubbles as well as the strain fields around such bubbles.Furthermore Raman spectroscopy studies of different B{sub 4}C samples lead us to propose that under neutron irradiation. the CBC linear chain disappears. Such a vanishing of this CBC chain. validated by NMR analysis, may explain the penny shaped of helium bubbles inside irradiated B{sub 4}C. (author)

  13. Meet the New You: In Teen Second Life, Librarians Can Leap Tall Buildings in a Single Bound and Save Kids from Boring Assignments--All before Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Kelly; Gullett, Matt

    2007-01-01

    This article presents and discusses a 3-D online environment known as Teen Second Life. TSL is a virtual environment geared just for youth, ages 13-17. Its social appeal is huge, especially for teens who are developmentally inclined to seek out the company of their peers. In TSL one can meet friends or make new ones, hang out, listen to music and…

  14. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Parameters as Biomarkers in Assessing Head and Neck Lesions After Chemoradiotherapy Using a Wide-Bore 3 Tesla Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerant, Gergely; Sarkozy, Peter; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Polony, Gabor; Tamas, Laszlo; Toth, Erika; Boer, Andras; Javor, Laszlo; Godeny, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Pilot studies have shown promising results in characterizing head and neck tumors (HNT) using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), differentiating between malignant and benign lesions and evaluating changes in response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Our aim was to find DCE-MRI parameters, biomarkers in evaluating the post-CRT status. Two hundred and five patients with head and neck lesions were examined with DCE-MRI sequences. The time intensity curves (TIC) were extracted and processed to acquire time-to-peak (TTP), relative maximum enhancement (RME), relative wash-out (RWO), and two new parameters attack and decay. These parameters were analyzed using univariate tests in SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 17, SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA) to identify parameters that could be used to infer tumor malignancy and post-CRT changes. Multiple parameters of curve characteristics were significantly different between malignant tumors after CRT (MACRT) and changes caused by CRT. The best-performing biomarkers were the attack and the decay. We also found multiple significant (p < 0.05) parameters for both the benign and malignant status as well as pre- and post-CRT status. Our large cohort of data supports the increasing role of DCE-MRI in HNT differentiation, particularly for the assessment of post-CRT status along with accurate morphological imaging. PMID:25920367

  15. Over-all Drying-rate Equations on the Drying of Potato by the Microwave Energy and of Bored One by Heated Flowing Air

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Kiyoshi; Araki, Hideki; Nagai, Mitsuo; Kintou, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Kanichi; Esaka, Muneharu

    1983-01-01

    各種食品の各種乾燥装置を設計するためには、各種乾燥における乾燥速度式を設定しておくことが必要となる。前報1~3)において、熱風乾燥における食品の総括乾燥速度式の設定に関する研究を根菜類食品を例として行なってきた。食品乾燥工程における熱効率向上を進めることを目的として、試料の前処理方法とか加熱方法とかを検討していくことは、熱エネルギー資源を有効利用し、食糧資源を保存利用していくのに役立つ研究と考えられる。本報では、ジャガイモを例とし、マイクロ波利用と試料に穴あけする方法で乾燥速度を増大させる試みをする実験を行ない、それぞれに対し総括乾燥速度式の設定を行なった。マイクロ波利用の乾燥は、試料の褐変化などのために低乾燥域の実験しか行なうことができなかった。また、熱風乾燥において、試料に穴あけする方法による熱効率向上の試みに対しては、本実験条件下では期待した結果が得られないことがわかった。本研究成果を参考とし、マイクロ波利用における均一化加熱の検討を進めるなどし、マイクロ波加熱による組織破壊の前処理試料を作製し、それを熱風乾燥していく研究を進めていくことによって、熱効率向上ができる結果が得...

  16. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Morphological and genetic diversity of the wood-boring Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia: new species and records from deep-sea Iberian canyons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Romano

    Full Text Available Deep-sea bivalves of the Xylophagaidae, a poorly known group, are obligate wood-borers. Deployment of wood in three submarine canyons off the Iberian coast, the Blanes and La Fonera Canyons (Mediterranean Sea and the Avilés Canyon (Cantabric Sea, Bay of Biscay, lead to the discovery of four xylophagaid species in our samples. Xylophaga dorsalis (the dominant species, X. atlantica, X. cf. anselli and the new species X. brava, were identified on the basis of morphological data, and supported by a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the nuclear genes 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA and including several genus of Xylophagaidae. Genetic divergence between species of Xylophaga varied between genes, ranging from 0.5 to 4.0% for the 18SrDNA and from 4.1 to 16.6% for the 28SrDNA. Xylophaga brava sp. nov. appeared to be restricted to the Mediterranean and morphologically resembled the closely related X. cf. anselli from the Cantabrian Sea. However, they clearly diverged in two well-supported clades. Low levels of intraspecific variability and higher interspecific divergence between species also supported the existence of these two different species. Morphologically they differ in the number of cirri at the siphon openings, in the shape of the posterior shell and in the size of prodissoconch II. The new species is characterized by having weak, poorly mineralized mesoplax and siphons united throughout, covered by a periostracal, non-calcified tube; distinct proximal and distal siphons, the former translucent and soft, the latter muscular, with concentric rings. Xylophaga atlantica, previously known only from the western Atlantic, is reported for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. Whether its presence in the Mediterranean indicates its natural distribution or reflects its recent introduction is unknown. Although xylophagaids have been previously reported to recruit heavily to wood deposited on the seabed, these four species colonized wood suspended 30 m above the seafloor.

  18. Research and Discussion of Multifuctional Raise Boring Machine%多功能反井钻机的研究与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹年宝

    2010-01-01

    多功能反井钻机是在现有反井钻机基础七开发出来的,既可以向下钻扩孔又可以向上钻扩孔,借鉴了Atlas-Copoco公司Robbins类型反井钻机的设计经验,填补了国内反井钻机的一项空白,为国内反井钻机的发展和更广泛的应用提供了一种新的思路.

  19. 上海中心大厦钻孔灌注桩施工技术%CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF BORED PILE IN SHANGHAI TOWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋华福

    2010-01-01

    结合位于陆家嘴金融贸易核心区、将成为上海和全国新标志的"中国第一高楼"上海中心大厦超大超深钻孔灌注桩工程,剖析了其垂直度要求高、成孔难度大、桩端注浆控制难等施工技术特点和难点.针对该工程钻孔灌注桩的钻机就位和开孔、泥浆性能、钻进成孔、第一次清孔、钢筋笼制作、钢筋笼的安装与沉放、水下混凝土浇筑、压密注浆等主要工序阐述了其施工技术控制要点.

  20. On some Indo-Pacific boring endolithic Bivalvia species introduced into the Mediterranean Sea with their host – spread of Sphenia rueppelli A. Adams, 1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the endolithic molluscs found on/in living alien Spondylusshells collected in the Gulf of Iskenderun (Turkey brought to light three more alien bivalvia species namely Petricola hemprichi, Gastrochaena cymbium and Sphenia rueppelli. The presence of Sphenia rueppellideserves attention as it constitutes the first record of this species as living in the Mediterranean Sea. The definitive establishment and spreading of these bivalves in the basin seems to be also attested by careful analysis of specimens sampled in other southern Turkish localities and previously retained in local private collections. The present records raise some questions on the vector of arrival of the species in the Mediterranean Sea that could be strictly connected with their hosts.

  1. A Hybrid Monte Carlo Method Based Artificial Neural Networks Approach for Rock Boundaries Identification: A Case Study from the KTB Bore Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Saumen; Tiwari, R. K.

    2009-11-01

    Identification of rock boundaries and structural features from well log response is a fundamental problem in geological field studies. However, in a complex geologic situation, such as in the presence of crystalline rocks where metamorphisms lead to facies changes, it is not easy to discern accurate information from well log data using conventional artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Moreover inferences drawn by such methods are also found to be ambiguous because of the strong overlapping of well log signals, which are generally tainted with deceptive noise. Here, we have developed an alternative ANN approach based on Bayesian statistics using the concept of Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC)/Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion scheme for modeling the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) well log data. MCMC algorithm draws an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d) sample by Markov Chain simulation technique from posterior probability distribution using the principle of statistical mechanics in Hamiltonian dynamics. In this algorithm, each trajectory is updated by approximating the Hamiltonian differential equations through a leapfrog discrimination scheme. We examined the stability and efficiency of the HMC-based approach on “noisy” data assorted with different levels of colored noise. We also perform uncertainty analysis by estimating standard deviation (STD) error map of a posteriori covariance matrix at the network output of three types of lithofacies over the entire length of the litho section of KTB. Our analyses demonstrate that the HMC-based approach renders robust means for classification of complex lithofacies successions from the KTB borehole noisy signals, and hence may provide a useful guide for understanding the crustal inhomogeneity and structural discontinuity in many other tectonically critical and complex regions.

  2. Bored to Death: Community-Wide Effect of Predation on a Foundation Species in a Low-Disturbance Arctic Subtidal System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniy Yakovis

    Full Text Available The strength of top-down control by consumers is predicted to decrease with latitude, but most data confirming this assumption come from latitudes <60°, while empirical studies of predation in sub-arctic and arctic marine habitats are few. A barnacle Balanus crenatus is a native foundation species in the shallow subtidal of the White Sea (65° N, hosting a diverse (250+ species assemblage of macrobenthic organisms. On mixed sediments live barnacles share primary substrates (shells and gravel with numerous empty barnacle tests, 7% of which had drill holes of an unidentified origin. We manipulated the densities of (i adult muricid whelks Boreotrophon clathratus (of previously unknown feeding habits, to check if they prey on barnacles, (ii other predators to reveal their effect on juvenile Boreotrophon, and (iii empty tests to assess the community-wide effect of predation on barnacles. The abundance of drilled empty tests in the field correlated with that of Boreotrophon. A year-long caging experiment clearly confirmed predation, showing the highest barnacle mortality and proportion of drilled tests in whelk enclosures, and the lowest--in predator exclosure treatments. Boreotrophon preferred the barnacles attached to conspecifics to those from primary substrates. Because of its scarcity Boreotrophon had a minor direct effect on barnacle abundance in the field. Yet, initially defaunated empty tests and live barnacles developed markedly different macrobenthic assemblages, suggesting a strong indirect effect of the predation. Juvenile Boreotrophon were 5-6 times less abundant in open and partial cages than in exclosures and enclosures, which indicates that the recruitment and, consequently, the abundance of Boreotrophon and its predation on Balanus are top-down controlled by apex predators. In contrast, in tropical and temperate intertidal the predation on barnacles is stronger and primarily limited by environmental stress and prey availability.

  3. Is IPE just 'boring',1 or committed to problematic meta-theoretic|al assumptions? A critical engagement with the politics of method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Weber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In my contribution to this forum on IPE, my aim is to add further to the critical interventions in the debate ignited by Benjamin Cohen. The call to discuss the state of IPE has been timely, though not only because (some IPE journals have indeed become uninteresting; much more is at stake. Intellectual debate in the field has now not only narrowed, but has also shifted away from engaging the underlying premises of (global development, inequalities, and relations of domination. As such, the mainstream framing of IPE is arguably also implicated in a project of 'gate-keeping'. This is not to say that the intellectual richness and creativity that Cohen has called for in the study of IPE does not exist; such work is pursued by scholars of IR, more broadly conceived, and not just by those in other disciplines. Such richer scholarship has for instance, been advanced by historical sociologists, postcolonial theorists, and critical scholars of global development/global political economy including many working from feminist political-economic perspectives. The absence of an engagement with such perspectives in the mainstream of IPE can perhaps be explained to some extent by reference to ideological dispositions and attempts to maintain a hold on the disciplinary core along epistemological and methodological premises committed to ostensibly power-free and value-free analysis. The consequences are felt, as Cohen notes, also in the context of training and preparing future generations of IPE scholars, where current practices tend to reproduce students unable to 'ask and respond to the big questions', and who have instead come to be satisfied with applying 'accepted' methods. Critical scholars, on the other hand, have continuously pushed beyond the analytical and theoretical boundaries, engaging for example, with questions of power, domination and resistance, and more often than not such analyses are grounded in empirical research. In this contribution, I aim to demonstrate, through a critical reconstructive sketch, how mainstream IPE falls short, and what the value is of alternative, relationally conceived, analytical approaches.

  4. 水下钻孔灌注桩施工技术与质量控制%Construction Technology and Quality Control of Underwater Bored Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范振鹏; 殷志坚; 汤旭明

    2006-01-01

    水下钻孔灌注桩的成桩质量不易控制,是施工界的一大难题.通过工程实例的施工经验,介绍了水下钻孔灌注桩施工工艺及质量控制要点,并提出了相应建议.检测结果表明,控制措施切实有效.

  5. Elaboration and characterisation of SiAlON-boron nitride refractory ceramic composites; Elaboration et caracterisation de composites ceramiques refractaires SiALON-Nitrure de bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doche, C.

    1996-05-07

    SiAlON-BN are materials able to replace carbon refractories used in steel-making shop, especially for low carbon steels elaboration. Two family of composites are studied: Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-BN obtained by hot compression, and SiAlON-BN by natural sintering. In the first case, an organic precursor of BN which seems to activate the sintering process was also used. For all these materials, we studied elaboration processes, microstructures, mechanical properties, and thermal shocks, oxidation and corrosion resistances by liquid iron. BN presence lowers mechanical properties, but increases thermal shock and oxidation resistance at high temperature. From all the sintering add-on, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, neodymium and lanthanum oxides seems to give a light improvement of high temperature resistance. (A.B.)

  6. 渔港码头钻孔灌注桩工程施工质量控制%Quality Control of Bored Pile Construction for Fishing Port Wharf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈东星; 孔淑芹; 张育栋

    2009-01-01

    对沧州渤海新区新村一级渔港码头工程中混凝土钻孔灌注桩工程施工质量控制要点做了较详细的介绍,对工程质量控制过程中经常出现的问题提出了一些具体的处理措施.

  7. 磁力泵内循环量与循环孔径优化设计%Optimal Design of Cycle Capacity and Bore Diameter in Magnetic Drive Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童小育; 黄晓鹏; 万芳新; 毛玲玲

    2008-01-01

    降低涡流损失和内循环量对提高磁力驱动离心泵的效率具有重要的意义.在分析磁力驱动离心泵冷却循环回路的基础上,探讨了内循环量与轴承润滑冷却量、隔离套冷却量的相互关系,提出了一套循环量与孔径的优化设计方案,并通过实例进行了验证.

  8. 钻孔桩与D型钢便梁在营业线施工中的应用%Bored Piles D Steel Beam in the Construction Business Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正宇

    2012-01-01

    太原铁路枢纽新建西南环线工程的北格站旅客地道下穿既有太中银铁路,在不能中断太中银铁路行车的情况下,提出了将钻孔桩与D型钢便梁进行有效结合的方法,顺利完成了营业线路下方的旅客地道施工.解决了施工中如何最大限度地减小对太中银铁路行车干扰的问题,达到了降低施工风险和难度,确保行车和施工安全的效果.

  9. Nouveaux systèmes réducteurs utilisant des hydrosiloxanes comme substituts des hydrures d’aluminium et de bore : application à la réduction des fonctions amides et nitriles

    OpenAIRE

    Laval, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, industrial and academic researches have experienced unprecedented changes related to the concept of sustainable development. Health and environment new requirements have prompted chemists to develop chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate hazardous substances. The research work described in this thesis is focused on the development of new reducing systems using hydrosiloxanes as substitutes for aluminum and boron hydrides. In order to achieve this goal, reduc...

  10. Mechanical and thermal analyses of transfer casks and bore hole lock for final storage of spent fuel rod in BSK-3; Mechanische und thermische Analysen von Transferbehaelter und Bohrlochschleuse zur Endlagerung abgebrannter Brennstaebe in BSK 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fopp, S.; Graf, R. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Filbert, W. [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In the frame of ESDRED (engineering studies and demonstration of repository designs) DBE Technology and GNS enhance the concept of final storage of spent fuel rods in un-shielded canisters (BSK 3) in boreholes of salt formations. The transfer container (TSB) is envisaged as radiological shielding for the transport of BSK 3 within the facility. The authors describe the construction of TFB including the lock at the top and bottom ends of the container and the lock on top of the borehole. The mechanical design of the TFB is performed using the FEM program ANSYS, the compliance with allowed stress limits is demonstrated. The temperature field in the TFB is calculated using ANSYS, the maximum temperatures are 74-76 C at the TFB wall and the lock, respectively.

  11. Logging as a means of characterising the water in rock formations in groundwater collection borings; Utilizacion de diagrafias para la caracterizacion del agua de la formaciones en sondeos de captacion de aguas subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Curiel, J.M.; Miguel, M.J.; Dominguez, S.; Caparrini, N

    1998-12-01

    We present an improvement of the S.P. application to obtain water conductivity and total of dissolved solids in the permeable layers passed through open hole, supposing said levels completely water saturated (under phreatic level). The optimization consists of a methodology for the treatment and interpretation of S.P. logs as well as the development of computer codes to execute the following processes. Laboratory measurements to acquire a set of key values in the interpretation processes (R{sub w}e/R{sub w} and TDS/R{sub w}). Conversion of the obtained data and selected charts, with continuous application range, to analytical curves for their automatic procedure. Algorithms development in order to carry out the automatic determination of base line and the elimination of its displacements. This system have been applied over a set of 27 logs performed by the author in the south area of the Duero basin (Spain) as an example of multi-layered detrital. We show the conductivity and TDS results in comparison with the water analysis obtained through pumping. (Author) 30 refs.

  12. 某超高射速舰炮弹药筒膛内横断问题技术分析%Technical Analysis of Cartridge Breaking in Bore for Super-high Firing Rate Naval Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马献怀

    2015-01-01

    针对某超高射速舰炮及其弹道炮试验过程中出现的药筒膛内横断问题,通过现场勘测、理论分析和故障还原试验,确定了故障原因。根据故障机理,经技术攻关,提出了解决措施,经过后续多次射击试验验证,故障再未复现,证明了解决措施的可行有效。分析结果对解决速射火炮类似故障有重要的参考价值。%Aimed at the cartridge breaking problem occurred during the test of super-high firing rate naval gun and ballistic gun,the failure causes were determined by site investigation,theo-retical analysis and failure reproduction test.The solution was proposed based on the failure mechanism and technology research.The same failure hasn't occurred again during many firing test.The results show the solution is reasonable and feasible,which provides an important ref-erence value for solving similar failure of rapid-fire gun.

  13. A Study on Numerical Simulation of Ignition and Combustion Enhancement with Plasma in Bore of ETC Guns%膛内等离子体点火及燃烧增强过程数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海元; 栗保明; 李鸿志

    2002-01-01

    在初始点火过程中,假设等离子体为充分发展射流流动,因而可采用积分近似模型进行描述.而在随后的膛内燃烧过程中通过以经验公式给出等离子体混合长度的方法来处理等离子体的运动,并给出了合适的相间阻力及传热公式.通过在计算网格设计中引入了自适应方法提高了数值解精度.计算膛压曲线与实验符合良好.相对常规内弹道情形,等离子体能量的注入使在不同时刻膛内的气、固两相速度、压力和膛底温度等出现提高,这是等离子体注入后对内弹道的增强过程.计算结果为固体工质电热化学炮的弹道设计提供了理论依据.

  14. Clinical Observation of Green Turtle Searching and Boring Acupuncture in Treating Ischioneuralgia%苍龟探穴针法治疗坐骨神经痛临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美仁; 王萍; 成钢; 郭翔; 魏高文; 成旭辉

    2007-01-01

    目的:应用Mcgill疼痛量表评定苍龟探穴针法治疗坐骨神经痛的疼痛缓解程度,并观察其临床疗效.方法:纳入2004年3月-2006年10月湖南中医药高等专科学校第一附属医院针灸科住院部或门诊坐骨神经痛患者165例,按简单随机法分为两组,即苍龟探穴组82例与常规电针组83例.苍龟探穴组:取肾俞、大肠俞、腰阳关、环跳、昆仑、阿是穴,选用50~75 mm长的毫针,得气后退至皮下,分别向前后左右多向斜刺,渐渐加深,不留针.常规电针组取穴同苍龟探穴组,但不进行苍龟探穴手法操作,直接调针至"得气"后接G6805 Ⅱ型电针机,选连续波,频率1.5~3.0 Hz以患者能耐受为度,持续电针30 min.两组均隔天进行针刺1次,10次为1疗程.以疼痛分级指数进行量化计分,结合临床症状、体征,在1个疗程结束后进行疗效观察.结果:苍龟探穴组、常规电针组各有2、3例患者脱落,最终苍龟探穴组80例,常规电针组80例,进入结果分析.①治疗后苍龟探穴针法组痊愈显效率为88.75%,常规电针组痊愈显效率57.5%,差异有显著性意义(x2=6.10,P=0.01).②疗程结束后苍龟探穴组疼痛分级指数评分优于常规电针组(P=0.00).结论:苍龟探穴针法治疗坐骨神经痛优于常规电针法,治疗方法较为满意.

  15. 适用于浅海小口径复合软管的接头形式研究%Research for End Fitting of Small-bore Composite Flexible Pipes in Shallow Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建华; 王琳; 曲杰

    2012-01-01

    Design a type of the flexible pipe end fitting, which can have enough strength and leak tightness under certain pressure and can release the accumulated gas in the armor layers, and this type of end fitting have successfully achieved the connection and protection request of the flexible pipes. A major advantage of using the flexible pipes is their ability to work under extreme dynamic conditions and their relatively seabed adaptability and chemical compatibility properties and installation convenience compared with rigid carbon steel pipes.%设计了一种适用于软管结构的接头形式,在一定压力作用下保证软管的强度和密封性,同时能够释放金属铠装层中累积的渗透气体,成功实现复合软管的连接和保护.因其在动力特性、地形适应性、抗腐蚀性、安装等多方面的优势,越来越多的油田开发考虑采用软管采代替钢管,具有很大的发展前景.

  16. 邕江特大桥深水大直径钻孔灌注桩施工%Construction of deep-water large diameter bored pier of super large bridge over Yongjiang river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃壮

    2004-01-01

    结合邕江特大桥18号墩深水桩基础施工实践,简述深水直径钻孔灌注桩施工中所遇到的偏孔、溶洞、卡钻和导管堵管等种种问题及采取的解决办法,对深水钻孔灌注桩水下施工的工作平台安装、清孔、钻孔、水下混凝土连续灌注等工艺作了详细介绍.为以后同类工程施工积累了一定的经验.

  17. Mine Small-bore Resin Anchor Rope Application in Roadway of Mine%矿用小孔径树脂锚索在煤巷中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪波

    2015-01-01

    基于煤矿小孔径树脂锚索在煤矿巷道设计中的广泛应用,尤其在复杂地质条件下对围岩稳定控制效果突出,通过对锚索支护特点、支护机理的分析,结合实践施工中的应用总结,提出巷道锚索支护设计方法.结果表明,此方法能够有效的控制巷道围岩的变形.

  18. Summing of the Thin-wall Medium Tube Weld Bore's Ultrasonic Flaw Detection Methods%薄壁中管焊口超声波探伤方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫斌; 邓大勇; 何喜梅; 施勇

    2001-01-01

    文章通过对薄壁中管焊口(包括管座角焊缝和对接焊缝)超声波探伤的研究,总结出适用于薄壁中管焊口超声波的探伤方法,对保障电力工程质量和发电机组安全稳定运行,消除设备隐患,起到了重要的指导意义.

  19. MWD (Measurement While Drilling) system for the recording of acustic wave velosity in rock formations. Framgangsmaate for aa maale hastigheten av akustiske boelger i bergartene rundt et borehull mens boring paagaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lile, O.B.

    1988-07-06

    The invention deals with a MWD (Measurements While Drilling) system designed for the continuous measurement of acoustic wave velocity in the rock formations near to the well bone. The system consists of several sets of in pairs coupled receivers connected to the drill pipe in order to record the time delay for the acoustic waves being generated from the drill bit. A correlation analysis is to be done in order to calculate the acoustic wave velocity. 1 fig.

  20. Ultrasonic Creeping Wave Testing for the Welds of Middle-Bore Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe%奥氏体不锈钢中径管焊缝超声爬波探伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军; 赵有明; 金友东; 印高明; 陈诗华

    2013-01-01

    为了有效解决传统超声波横波无法检测奥氏体不锈钢的问题,研制开发了超声爬波探头和对比试块.使用超声爬波技术对奥氏体中径管焊缝进行了全面检测,并对其性能进行验证.结果证明,采用超声爬波技术能有效检测出壁厚不大于18 mm的奥氏体中径管焊缝缺陷,可以作为奥氏体中径管焊缝的一种检测方法.