Heckel David G
Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner, is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males from each strain exhibit phenotypic differences in peripheral physiology. Both strains possess co-localized pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons characterized by a larger amplitude action potential (spike responding to the major pheromone component, and a smaller spike amplitude cell responding to the minor component, i.e. the opposite isomer. These differences in amplitude correspond to differences in dendritic diameter between the two neurons. Previous studies showed that behavioral response to the pheromone blend was sex-linked, but spike amplitude response to pheromone components matched autosomal, not sex-linked inheritance. Results As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance. Conclusions We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought.
Transgenic maize hybrids that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) protein toxins effectively protect against feeding damage inflicted by the insect pest the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Field monitoring and laboratory selections have detected varying level...
Mencarelli, Mariangela; Accinelli, Cesare; Vicari, Alberto
A novel biocontrol strategy consisting of field application of bioplastic-based granules inoculated with a non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus L. strain has recently been shown to be effective for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. This study focused on other factors that may affect the feasibility of this biocontrol technique, and more specifically the role of the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis H., in the dispersal and infestation of A. flavus in corn and its impact on crop yield. In spite of the high percentage of corn ears showing larval feeding damage, ECB-bored kernels accounted for only 3 and 4% in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Most of the damaged kernels were localised in the ear tip or immediately below. More precisely, the average incidence of ECB-bored kernels in the upper end of the ear was 32%. However, less than 5% of kernels from the central body of the ear, which includes the majority of kernels, were injured by ECB. Although ECB larvae showed a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 and thus had the potential to serve as vectors of the mould, fungal infection of kernels was poorly associated with insect damage. ECB infestation resulted in grain yield losses not exceeding 2.5%. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available European Corn Borer (ECB - (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner is one of the most important pest on corn in Croatia. In the last decade corn production was on over 400 000 ha, in Eastern Croatia. Although ECB is present every year, with no such a low intensity, their control is not implemented. Corn is grown in monoculture, at 40% of cornfields, which also has influence on spreading of ECB. In the last ten years average attack of ECB was 51.5%; been done three different kinds of trials for controlling ECB. First trials were carried out in DeKalb hybrids, and ECB was controlled by Biobit XL, on the base of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Intensity of attack was decreased for 46%. Second trial was carried out in ten hybrids, in order to determine the tolerance of hybrids against ECB. It was identified that several domestic hybrids (OSSK 382, OSSK 664 and BC 462 are tolerant to ECB. The third trial was carried out with GM hybrids. Experiments included Pioneer hybrids Evelina Bt, and Landia Bt. Intensity of attack at Evelina standard was 52%, while in Evelina Bt, ECB wasn't present at all. At Landia standard ECB was present on 98%, while in Landia Bt, intensity of attack was 21%. At both Bt hybrids, number of larvae and tunnels was lower comparing to standard hybrids. Length of damage in Landia check was 20.66 cm, while in Landia Bt it was 0.45 cm. The yield was increased for 10.27% at Evelina Bt, and for 26.67% in Landia Bt comparing to their standards. This kind of experiments will be continued in the future, not only because of its agronomic importance, but also because of its ecological relevance.
Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.
Bohnenblust, Eric W; Breining, James A; Shaffer, John A; Fleischer, Shelby J; Roth, Gregory W; Tooker, John F
Recent evidence indicates that some populations of European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), have declined to historic lows owing to widespread adoption of Bt corn hybrids. To understand current ECB populations in Pennsylvania field corn, the authors assessed larval damage in Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids at 29 sites over 3 years. The influence of Bt adoption rates, land cover types and moth activity on levels of ECB damage was also considered. Bt hybrids reduced ECB damage when compared with non-Bt, but these differences inconsistently translated to higher yields and, because of higher seed costs, rarely improved profits. No relationships were detected between land use or Bt adoption and ECB damage rates, but positive relationships were found between plant damage and captures of Z-race ECB moths in pheromone traps in the PestWatch network. ECB damage levels were generally low and appear to be declining across Pennsylvania. In many locations, farmers may gain greater profits by planting competitive non-Bt hybrids; however, Bt hybrids remain valuable control options, particularly in the parts of Pennsylvania where ECB populations persist. Moth captures from PestWatch appear to provide insight into where Bt hybrids are most valuable. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Bourguet, D; Bethenod, M T; Trouvé, C; Viard, F
The strategies proposed for delaying the development of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic maize require high levels of gene flow between individuals feeding on transgenic and refuge plants. The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) may be found on several host plants, which may act as natural refuges. The genetic variability of samples collected on sagebrush (Artemisia sp.), hop (Humulus lupulus L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) was studied by comparing the allozyme frequencies for six polymorphic loci. We found a high level of gene flow within and between samples collected on the same host plant. The level of gene flow between the sagebrush and hop insect samples appeared to be sufficiently high for these populations to be considered a single genetic panmictic unit. Conversely, the samples collected on maize were genetically different from those collected on sagebrush and hop. Three of the six loci considered displayed greater between-host-plant than within-host-plant differentiation in comparisons of the group of samples collected on sagebrush or hop with the group of samples collected on maize. This indicates that either there is genetic isolation of the insects feeding on maize or that there is host-plant divergent selection at these three loci or at linked loci. These results have important implications for the potential sustainability of transgenic insecticidal maize. PMID:10902683
Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB is an important maize pest in central and northern Europe. Presently it is controlled by insecticides or biological agents such as Trichogramma brassicae in several European countries, excluding Slovenia, where the pest’s pressure is highly variable and no appropriate mechanization is available. Lessening the dependence on chemical pesticides is an integral part of the European Union’s agenda for agriculture. Mass release of Trichogramma spp. could be seen as a promising alternative for ECB control in countries with a highly fluctuating ECB pressure and no mechanization for insecticide applications. However, no records of naturally occurring hymenopteran parasitoids of ECB exist in Slovenia. To address this important under-researched topic and provide the expert basis for potential introduction of ECB egg parasitoids in Slovene maize production, a systematic inventarisation programme of ECB parasitoids was launched in 2010. Additionally, ECB flight was monitored in 2011 and 2012 at two locations in Slovenia: Jablje and Rakičan. In both locations two ECB generations were observed. ECB was fist observed at the end of May in Rakičan. During the five years of the systematic survey we discovered two ECB parasitoid species. ECB egg masses were parasitized by Trichogramma brassicae, whereas ECB pupae were parasitized by Tycherus nigridens, with 6 or 7 % parasitation rate, respectively. T. nigridens represents a new taxon report for Slovenia. We conclude that there is a strong need for undertaking systematic surveys of natural enemies of agricultural pests.
Harrison Richard G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Moth pheromone mating systems have been characterized at the molecular level, allowing evolutionary biologists to study how changes in protein sequence or gene expression affect pheromone phenotype, patterns of mating, and ultimately, the formation of barriers to gene exchange. Recent studies of Ostrinia pheromones have focused on the diversity of sex pheromone desaturases and their role in the specificity of pheromone production. Here we produce a Δ11 desaturase genealogy within Ostrinia nubilalis. We ask what has been the history of this gene, and whether this history suggests that changes in Δ11 desaturase have been involved in the divergence of the E and Z O. nubilalis pheromone strains. Results The Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy does not differentiate O. nubilalis pheromone strains. However, we find two distinct clades, separated by 2.9% sequence divergence, that do not sort with pheromone strain, geographic origin, or emergence time. We demonstrate that these clades do not represent gene duplicates, but rather allelic variation at a single gene locus. Conclusions Analyses of patterns of variation at the Δ11 desaturase gene in ECB suggest that this enzyme does not contribute to reproductive isolation between pheromone strains (E and Z. However, our genealogy reveals two deeply divergent allelic classes. Standing variation at loci that contribute to mate choice phenotypes may permit novel pheromone mating systems to arise in the presence of strong stabilizing selection.
Full Text Available Field experiments with natural population of European corn borer (ECB were conducted in three vegetation seasons (2012-2014 at Agricultural Institute in Osijek. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design as split-split plot method, with three repetitions. This plot has been constantly maize - soybean rotation for already 15 years. It was a 3x3x4 factorial experiment with three irrigation levels (A1- non-irrigated (only natural precipitation, A2-from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3-from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1-0, B2-100 and B3-200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1-0SSK 596; C2-0SSK 617; C3-0SSK 602 and C4-0SSK 552.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotypes on occurrence and damage of maize plants by the European corn borer larvae and relation between leaf feeding larvae with nitrogen and silicon concentration as well as C/N ratio. At the end of each growing season, ten maize plants from each variant were cut. Ear weight for each specific plant (g, tunnel length (cm, number of larvae in stalk, number of larvae in the ear shank, ear shank damage (cm and total number of larvae in maize plantwere determined. In silking stage (middle of July ten leaves (below the ear, from 10 maize plants were sampled on each variant. Nitrogen, carbon and silicon concentrations were determined in maize leaf (% and C/N ratio calculated. In 2014, a significantly lower ECB attack was determined taking into account lower temperatures and higher amount of precipitate compared to the previous years. Dominance of Z-type European corn borer on pheromone traps in the area of eastern Slavonia was confirmed. Increasing the level of soil water content, damage from larvae was reduced and increasing the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. We have confirmed different hybrid resistance in regards to damage from larvae
Suverkropp, B.P.; Dutton, A.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.
Oviposition behaviour and egg distribution of Ostrinia nubilalis is reviewed based on published information and new research. The position of egg masses of O. nubilalis on maize plants and leaves were sampled in the field. Most egg masses were found on the lower leaf side, on the middle part of the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuning of the olfactory system of male moths to conspecific female sex pheromones is crucial for correct species recognition; however, little is known about the genetic changes that drive speciation in this system. Moths of the genus Ostrinia are good models to elucidate this question, since significant differences in pheromone blends are observed within and among species. Odorant receptors (ORs play a critical role in recognition of female sex pheromones; eight types of OR genes expressed in male antennae were previously reported in Ostrinia moths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened an O. nubilalis bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library by PCR, and constructed three contigs from isolated clones containing the reported OR genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis using these clones as probes demonstrated that the largest contig, which contained eight OR genes, was located on the Z chromosome; two others harboring two and one OR genes were found on two autosomes. Sequence determination of BAC clones revealed the Z-linked OR genes were closely related and tandemly arrayed; moreover, four of them shared 181-bp direct repeats spanning exon 7 and intron 7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of tandemly arrayed sex pheromone receptor genes in Lepidoptera. The localization of an OR gene cluster on the Z chromosome agrees with previous findings for a Z-linked locus responsible for O. nubilalis male behavioral response to sex pheromone. The 181-bp direct repeats might enhance gene duplications by unequal crossovers. An autosomal locus responsible for male response to sex pheromone in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa was recently reported to contain at least four OR genes. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that generation of additional copies of OR genes can increase the potential for male moths to acquire altered specificity for pheromone components, and accordingly
Bethenod, M-T; Thomas, Y; Rousset, F; Frérot, B; Pélozuelo, L; Genestier, G; Bourguet, D
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner, colonized maize (Zea mays L.) after its introduction into Europe about 500 years ago and is now considered one of the main pests of this crop. In northern France, two sympatric host races have been described: one feeding on maize and the other on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and hop (Humulus lupulus L.). In a previous study, we showed that mating between the two races may be impeded by differences in the timing of moth emergence and in the composition of the sex pheromone produced by the females. In this study, we further investigated the genetic isolation of these two races using strains from the maize (Z strain) and mugwort (E strain) races selected for diagnostic alleles at two allozyme loci. In a cage containing maize and mugwort plants and located in natural conditions, mating between individuals of the same strain occurred more often than mating between males and females of the E and Z strains. In particular, we obtained no evidence for crosses between Z females and E males. We also found that females of the Z strain laid their eggs almost exclusively on maize, whereas females of the E strain laid their eggs preferentially, but not exclusively, on mugwort. These results suggest that the genetic differentiation between the two host races may also be favored by host-plant preference, one of the first steps toward sympatric speciation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of comparing the biodiversity of the midgut-associated microbiota and explore their potential as a source of genes and enzymes with biotechnological applications. METHODOLOGICAL/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high-throughput sequencing approach has been used to identify bacterial species, genes and metabolic pathways, particularly those involved in plant-matter degradation, in two different ECB populations (field-collected vs. lab-reared population with artificial diet. Analysis of the resulting sequences revealed the massive presence of Staphylococcus warneri and Weissella paramesenteroides in the lab-reared sample. This enabled us to reconstruct both genomes almost completely. Despite the apparently low diversity, 208 different genera were detected in the sample, although most of them at very low frequency. By contrast, the natural population exhibited an even higher taxonomic diversity along with a wider array of cellulolytic enzyme families. However, in spite of the differences in relative abundance of major taxonomic groups, not only did both metagenomes share a similar functional profile but also a similar distribution of non-redundant genes in different functional categories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal a highly diverse pool of bacterial species in both O. nubilalis populations, with major differences: The lab-reared sample is rich in gram-positive species (two of which have almost fully sequenced genomes while the field sample harbors mainly gram-negative species and has a larger set of cellulolytic enzymes. We have found a clear relationship between the
Crespo Andre LB
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidoptera represents more than 160,000 insect species which include some of the most devastating pests of crops, forests, and stored products. However, the genomic information on lepidopteran insects is very limited. Only a few studies have focused on developing expressed sequence tag (EST libraries from the guts of lepidopteran larvae. Knowledge of the genes that are expressed in the insect gut are crucial for understanding basic physiology of food digestion, their interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins, and for discovering new targets for novel toxins for use in pest management. This study analyzed the ESTs generated from the larval gut of the European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, one of the most destructive pests of corn in North America and the western world. Our goals were to establish an ECB larval gut-specific EST database as a genomic resource for future research and to explore candidate genes potentially involved in insect-Bt interactions and Bt resistance in ECB. Results We constructed two cDNA libraries from the guts of the fifth-instar larvae of ECB and sequenced a total of 15,000 ESTs from these libraries. A total of 12,519 ESTs (83.4% appeared to be high quality with an average length of 656 bp. These ESTs represented 2,895 unique sequences, including 1,738 singletons and 1,157 contigs. Among the unique sequences, 62.7% encoded putative proteins that shared significant sequence similarities (E-value ≤ 10-3with the sequences available in GenBank. Our EST analysis revealed 52 candidate genes that potentially have roles in Bt toxicity and resistance. These genes encode 18 trypsin-like proteases, 18 chymotrypsin-like proteases, 13 aminopeptidases, 2 alkaline phosphatases and 1 cadherin-like protein. Comparisons of expression profiles of 41 selected candidate genes between Cry1Ab-susceptible and resistant strains of ECB by RT-PCR showed apparently decreased expressions in 2 trypsin-like and 2
Comparisons of transcriptional profiles of gut genes between cry1Ab-resistant and susceptible strains of Ostrinia nubilalis revealed genes possibly related to the adaptation of resistant larvae to transgenic cry1Ab corn
European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) gut 2,895 unique genes expressions were quantified and compared between a laboratory-selected Cry1Ab-resistant (R) strain and a susceptible (S) strain after fed transgenic corn (MON810) leaves expressing Cry1Ab by microarray. A total of 398 gut genes were di...
Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M
Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.
Huseth, Anders S; Groves, Russell L; Chapman, Scott A; Nault, Brian A
Multiple applications of pyrethroid insecticides are used to manage European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, in snap bean, but new diamide insecticides may reduce application frequency. In a 2 year small-plot study, O. nubilalis control was evaluated by applying cyantraniliprole (diamide) and bifenthrin (pyrethroid) insecticides at one of three phenological stages (bud, bloom and pod formation) of snap bean development. Co-application of these insecticides with either herbicides or fungicides was also examined as a way to reduce the total number of sprays during a season. Cyantraniliprole applications timed either during bloom or during pod formation controlled O. nubilalis better than similar timings of bifenthrin. Co-applications of insecticides with fungicides controlled O. nubilalis as well as insecticide applications alone. Insecticides applied either alone or with herbicides during bud stage did not control this pest. Diamides are an alternative to pyrethroids for the management of O. nubilalis in snap bean. Adoption of diamides by snap bean growers could improve the efficiency of production by reducing the number of sprays required each season. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Razze, J M; Mason, C E; Pizzolato, T D
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economically important insect pest of corn, Zea mays L., in the United States and Canada. The development of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect. To assess the feeding behavior of neonate O. nubilalis on Bt corn, we examined differences in feeding behavior, based on presence of plant material in the gut, between Cry1Ab Bt corn and non-Bt near isoline corn for four intervals over a 48-h period. Feeding experiments revealed that there was significantly less feeding on Bt corn compared with non-Bt near isoline corn. The behavior of neonates on the plant corresponded with the differences in feeding on the two corn lines. The findings also showed that > 50% of the larvae initially left the plant before there was evidence in the gut of feeding regardless of whether the source was Bt or non-Bt corn. A higher quantity of plant material was found in the gut of larvae recovered from leaves of non-Bt compared with Bt corn. At the end of 48 h among the larvae that had left the plant, a greater proportion from Bt corn had plant material in the gut than did those from non-Bt corn.
Folcher, L; Eychenne, N; Weissenberger, A; Jarry, M; Regnault-Roger, C; Delos, M
Crops of maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in southwestern France with GMO (Genetic Modified Organism) vs isogenetic varieties in order to verify the control of European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and the Corn Stalk Borer (CBS) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefevbre) by GMO in field conditions. The bioassays were carried out in 1998 and 1999 before moratorium, then in 2005. Experiments involved respectively 18, 12 and 19 fields cultivated with Furio/Furio cb (GMO), Cecilia/ Elgina (GMO) and PR33P66/PR33P67 (GMO) varieties. These transgenic events expressed Cry1A(b) protein (Bt maize). Plants were noted for insect infestation assessment (number of larvae in stalks and ears per plant). Statistical tests used t-test on couple of plots. Results showed a significant difference in the density of both ECB and CBS between control and the two transgenic events. The two transgenic events acted differently. The control of the two Bt events on the two pests were differentiated and discussed. These experiments underlined the importance of field evaluation for testing real effects of transgenic events on crop according the environmental context.
Brad S. Coates
Full Text Available PCR-based O. nubilalis population and pedigree analysis indicated female specificity of a (GAAAATn microsatellite, and male specificity of a CAYCARCGTCACTAA repeat unit marker. These loci were respectively named Ostrinia nubilalis W-chromosome 1 (ONW1 and O. nubilalis Z-chromosome 1 (ONZ1. Intact repeats of three, four, or five GAAAAT units are present among ONW1 alleles, and biallelic variation exists at the ONZ1 locus. Screening of 493 male at ONZ1 and 448 heterogametic females at ONZ1 and ONW1 loci from eleven North American sample sites was used to construct genotypic data. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and F-statistics indicated no female haplotype or male ONZ1 allele frequency differentiation between voltinism ecotypes. Four subpopulations from northern latitudes, Minnesota and South Dakota, showed the absence of a single female haplotype, a significant deviation of ONZ1 data from Hardy-Weinberg expectation, and low-level geographic divergence from other subpopulations. Low ONZ1 and ONW1 allele diversity could be attributed either to large repeat unit sizes, low repeat number, reduced effective population (Ne size of sex chromosomes, or the result of recent O. nubilalis introduction and population expansion, but likely could not be due to inbreeding. These sequences have been deposited in GenBank AF442958, and AY102618 to AY102620.
Full Text Available We developed a microarray based on 2895 unique transcripts assembled from 15,000 cDNA sequences from the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis larval gut. This microarray was used to monitor gene expression in early third-instar larvae of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-susceptible O. nubilalis after 6 h feeding on diet, with or without the Bt Cry1Ab protoxin. We identified 174 transcripts, for which the expression was changed more than two-fold in the gut of the larvae fed Cry1Ab protoxin (p < 0.05, representing 80 down-regulated and 94 up-regulated transcripts. Among 174 differentially expressed transcripts, 13 transcripts putatively encode proteins that are potentially involved in Bt toxicity, and these transcripts include eight serine proteases, three aminopeptidases, one alkaline phosphatase, and one cadherin. The expressions of trypsin-like protease and three aminopeptidase transcripts were variable, but two potential Bt-binding proteins, alkaline phosphatase and cadherin were consistently up-regulated in larvae fed Cry1Ab protoxin. The significantly up and down-regulated transcripts may be involved in Cry1Ab toxicity by activation, degradation, toxin binding, and other related cellular responses. This study is a preliminary survey of Cry1Ab protoxin-induced transcriptional responses in O. nubilalis gut and our results are expected to help with further studies on Bt toxin-insect interactions at the molecular level.
Folcher, Laurent; Bourguet, Denis; Thiéry, Denis; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Phalip, Michel; Weissenberger, Alain; Eychenne, Nathalie; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Delos, Marc
Understanding the ways in which human environmental modifications affect biodiversity is a key challenge in conservation planning, pest control and evolutionary ecology. Parasitoid communities, particularly those associated with agricultural pests, may be susceptible to such modifications. We document here changes in the larval parasitoid communities of Ostrinia nubilalis — the main pest of maize — and its sibling species O. scapulalis, based on two historical datasets, one collected from 1921–1928 and the other from 2001–2005. Each of these datasets encompasses several years and large geographical areas and was based on several thousands/millions of host larvae. The 80-year interval between the two datasets was marked by a decrease in O. nubilalis parasitism to about two thirds its initial level, mostly due to a decrease in the rate of parasitism by hymenopterans. However, a well balanced loss and gain of species ensured that species richness remained stable. Conversely, O. scapulalis displayed stable rates of parasitism over this period, with a decline in the species richness of its parasitoid community. Rates of parasitism and species richness in regions colonized by O. nubilalis during the 1950s were one half to one third those in regions displaying long-term colonisation by this pest. During the recent human activity-driven expansion of its range, O. nubilalis has neither captured native parasitoids nor triggered parasite spill back or spill over. PMID:21980436
Crava, Maria C.
Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) es una de las plagas más devastadoras de los cultivos de maíz de Europa y Norte América, y a nivel económico la obtención de un control eficaz de esta plaga es un logro fundamental. En 1996, se permitió la comercialización de las plantas transgénicas que llevan insertado en el genoma un gen procedente de Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) y que codifica para una proteína insecticida de las que esta bacteria produce en forma de cristales paraesporales (proteínas...
Full Text Available Serine proteases, such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, are the primary digestive enzymes in lepidopteran larvae, and are also involved in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt protoxin activation and protoxin/toxin degradation. We isolated and sequenced 34 cDNAs putatively encoding trypsins, chymotrypsins and their homologs from the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis larval gut. Our analyses of the cDNA-deduced amino acid sequences indicated that 12 were putative trypsins, 12 were putative chymotrypsins, and the remaining 10 were trypsin and chymotrypsin homologs that lack one or more conserved residues of typical trypsins and chymotrypsins. Reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated that all genes were highly expressed in gut tissues, but one group of phylogenetically-related trypsin genes, OnTry-G2, was highly expressed in larval foregut and midgut, whereas another group, OnTry-G3, was highly expressed in the midgut and hindgut. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that several trypsin genes (OnTry5 and OnTry6 were significantly up-regulated in the gut of third-instar larvae after feeding on Cry1Ab protoxin from 2 to 24 h, whereas one trypsin (OnTry2 was down-regulated at all time points. Four chymotrypsin and chymotrypsin homolog genes (OnCTP2, OnCTP5, OnCTP12 and OnCTP13 were up-regulated at least 2-fold in the gut of the larvae after feeding on Cry1Ab protoxin for 24 h. Our data represent the first in-depth study of gut transcripts encoding expanded families of protease genes in O. nubilalis larvae and demonstrate differential expression of protease genes that may be related to Cry1Ab intoxication and/or resistance.
Takanashi, Takuma; Nakano, Ryo; Surlykke, Annemarie
Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian cong...
Bourguet, Denis; Chaufaux, Josette; Micoud, Annie; Delos, Marc; Naibo, Bernard; Bombarde, Fany; Marque, Gilles; Eychenne, Nathalie; Pagliari, Carine
In this study, we evaluated in field trials the effects on non-target species, of transgenic corn producing the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In 1998, we collected Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) larvae from transgenic Bt corn (Novartis Hybrid 176) and non-Bt corn at four geographical sites. We found a significant variation in parasitism by the tachinids Lydella thompsoni (Herting) and Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata (Walker) among sites, and more parasitism in non-Bt than in Bt fields. The Bt effect did not vary significantly among fields. In 1999, we performed a field experiment at two sites, comparing the temporal abundance of non-target arthropods in Bt corn (Monsanto Hybrid MON810) and non-Bt corn. The non-target insects studied included the aphids Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.), the bug Orius insidiosus (Say), the syrphid Syrphus corollae (Meigen), the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (L.), the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), thrips and hymenopteran parasitoids. For all species but one, the number of individuals varied greatly over the season but did not differ between the types of corn. The only exception was thrips which, at one site, was significantly more abundant in Bt corn than in non-Bt corn. However this difference did not remain significant when we took the multiple tests into account. Implications for pest resistance management, population dynamics and risk assessment are discussed.
Full Text Available Studies to understand the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt resistance mechanism in European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis suggest that resistance may be due to changes in the midgut-specific Bt toxin receptor. In this study, we identified 10 aminopeptidase-like genes, which have previously been identified as putative Bt toxin receptors in other insects and examined their expression in relation to Cry1Ab toxicity and resistance. Expression analysis for the 10 aminopeptidase-like genes revealed that most of these genes were expressed predominantly in the larval midgut, but there was no difference in the expression of these genes in Cry1Ab resistant and susceptible strains. This suggested that altered expression of these genes was unlikely to be responsible for resistance in these ECB strains. However, we found that there were changes in two amino acid residues of the aminopeptidase-P like gene (OnAPP involving Glu(305 to Lys(305 and Arg(307 to Leu(307 in the two Cry1Ab-resistant strains as compared with three Cry1Ab-susceptible strains. The mature OnAPP contains 682 amino acid residues and has a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus, a predicted glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI-anchor signal at the C-terminal, three predicted N-glycosylation sites at residues N178, N278 and N417, and an O-glycosylation site at residue T653. We used a feeding based-RNA interference assay to examine the role of the OnAPP gene in Cry1Ab toxicity and resistance. Bioassays of Cry1Ab in larvae fed diet containing OnAPP dsRNA resulted in a 38% reduction in the transcript level of OnAPP and a 25% reduction in the susceptibility to Cry1Ab as compared with larvae fed GFP dsRNA or water. These results strongly suggest that the OnAPP gene could be involved in binding the Cry1Ab toxin in the ECB larval midgut and that mutations in this gene may be associated with Bt resistance in these two ECB strains.
Comparisons of Transcriptional Profiles of Gut Genes between Cry1Ab-Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Ostrinia nubilalis Revealed Genes Possibly Related to the Adaptation of Resistant Larvae to Transgenic Cry1Ab Corn
Full Text Available A microarray developed on the basis of 2895 unique transcripts from larval gut was used to compare gut gene expression profiles between a laboratory-selected Cry1Ab-resistant (R strain and its isoline susceptible (S strain of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis after the larvae were fed the leaves of transgenic corn (MON810 expressing Cry1Ab or its non-transgenic isoline for 6 h. We revealed 398 gut genes differentially expressed (i.e., either up- or down-regulated genes with expression ratio ≥2.0 in S-strain, but only 264 gut genes differentially expressed in R-strain after being fed transgenic corn leaves. Although the percentages of down-regulated genes among the total number of differentially expressed genes (50% in S-strain and 45% in R-strain were similar between the R- and S-strains, the expression ratios of down-regulated genes were much higher in S-strain than in R-strain. We revealed that 17 and 9 significantly up- or down-regulated gut genes from S and R-strain, respectively, including serine proteases and aminopeptidases. These genes may be associated with Cry1Ab toxicity by degradation, binding, and cellular defense. Overall, our study suggests enhanced adaptation of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on transgenic Cry1Ab corn as revealed by lower number and lower ratios of differentially expressed genes in R-strain than in S-strain of O. nubilalis.
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...
European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...
Popović, Ž. D.; Subotić, A.; Nikolić, T. V.; Radojičić, R.; Blagojević, D. P.; Grubor-Lajšić, G.; Košťál, Vladimír
Roč. 186, AUG 1 (2015), s. 1-7 ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12103 Grant - others:Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) 173014 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : GST * redoxin * ferritin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.651, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1096495915000627
Full Text Available Insect phenoloxidase (PO belongs to the type 3 copper protein family and possesses oxidoreductase activities. PO is typically synthesized as a zymogen called prophenoloxidase (PPO and requires the proteolytic activation to function. We here cloned full-length cDNA for 3 previously unidentified PPOs, which we named OfPPO1a, OfPPO1b, and OfPPO3, from Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Gunée, in addition to the previously known OfPPO2. These conceptual PPOs and OfPPO2 all contain two common copper-binding regions, two potential proteolytic activation sites, a plausible thiol-ester site, and a conserved C-terminal region but lack a secretion signal peptide sequence at the N-terminus. O. furnacalis PPOs were highly similar to other insect PPOs (42% to 79% identity and clustered well with other lepidopteran PPOs. RT-PCR assay showed the transcripts of the 4 OfPPOs were all detected at the highest level in hemocytes and at the increased amounts after exposure to infection by bacteria and fungi. Additionally, we established an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system to produce recombinant O. furnacalis PPO proteins for future use in investigating their functions. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the activation and functioning mechanisms of O. furnacalis PPOs.
Vukašinović, Elvira L; Pond, David W; Worland, M Roger; Kojić, Danijela; Purać, Jelena; Popović, Željko D; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana
Seasonal changes in the FA composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids prepared from the whole bodies of non-diapausing and diapausing fifth instar larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubn. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were determined to evaluate the role of these lipids in diapause. Substantial changes in the FA composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids were triggered by diapause development. This led to a significant increase in the overall FA unsaturation (UFAs/SFAs ratio), attributable to an increase in the relative proportion of MUFAs and the concomitant decrease in PUFAs and SFAs. In triacylglycerols, the significant changes in the FAs composition are the result of an increase in the relative proportions of MUFAs, palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and oleic acid (18:1n-9), and a concomitant reduction in the composition of SFAs and PUFAs, mainly palmitic acid (16:0) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6), respectively. Changes in the composition of phospholipids were more subtle with FAs contributing to the overall increase of FA unsaturation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the melt transition temperatures of total lipids prepared from whole larvae, primarily attributable to the triacylglycerol component, were significantly lower during the time course of diapause compared with non-diapause. These observations were correlated to the FA composition of triacylglycerols, most likely enabling them to remain functional during colder winter conditions. We conclude that O. nubilalis undergoes remodeling of FA profiles of both energy storage triacylglycerols and membrane phospholipids as an element of its overwintering physiology which may improve the ability to cold harden during diapause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aye Kyawt Kyawt Ei
Full Text Available The larval susceptibility of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, to a Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Cry1Ac was evaluated using insect feeding bioassays. The founding population of O. furnacalis was originally collected from the experimental station of UGM at Kalitirto and had been reared in the laboratory for three generations using an artificial diet “InsectaLf”. The tested instars were exposed on diets treated with a series of concentrations of Cry1Ac for one week. The LC50 values on the seventh day after treatment for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars were 7.79, 21.12, 113.66, and 123.17 ppm, respectively, showing that the higher the instars the lesser the susceptibility to Cry1Ac. When the neonates were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cry1Ac (0.0583, 0.116, and 0.5830 ppm, growth and development of the surviving larvae were inhibited. The fecundity and viability of females produced from treated larvae decreased with increasing the concentrations. These findings indicate that Cry1Ac is toxic to larva of O. furnacalis and has chronic effects to larvae surviving from Cry1Ac ingestion. Kepekaan larva penggerek batang jagung Asia, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, terhadap protein Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac diuji dengan metode celup pakan. Larva berasal dari pertanaman jagung di KP-4, UGM di Kalitirto dan telah dikembangbiakkan di laboratorium menggunakan pakan buatan (InsectaLF selama tiga generasi sebelum digunakan untuk pengujian. Larva O. furnacalis yang diuji dipaparkan pada pakan buatan yang telah dicelupkan pada seri konsentrasi Cry1Ac. Nilai LC50 pada hari ketujuh setelah perlakukan untuk instar 1, 2, 3, dan 4 berturut-turut adalah 0,79; 21,12; 113,66; dan 123,17 ppm. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa instar yang semakin tinggi tingkat kepekaannya terhadap Cry1Ac semakin menurun. Larva yang baru menetas dan diberi pakan yang telah dicelupkan pada konsentrasi sublethal Cry1Ac
Park, Chang-Gyu; Seo, Bo Yoon; Jung, Jin Kyo; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Lee, Si-Woo; Seong, Ki Yeong
This study was conducted to develop temperature-dependent postdiapause development models of overwintering larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and to evaluate the models' forecasting accuracy using spring adult emergence data. Overwintering larvae were collected at three different times: 24 February (first), 23 March (second), and 25 April (third), 2005. The developmental periods of each collection colony were measured at eight constant temperatures, and those developmental rates were modeled with linear and nonlinear regression. One linear and three nonlinear models provided good fits of developmental rate to temperature across all colonies (r2 = 0.96-0.99). The distribution of development completion time was modeled with a Weibull equation that fit data from the second (r2 = 0.92) and third (r2 = 0.97) colonies better than the first (r2 = 0.87). A Lactin 2 model based on data from the first colony was statistically the best model to describe the relationship between temperature and the postdiapause development rate of O. furnacalis (r2adj = 0.99). However, validation results based on the field data showed that the Logan 6 model combined with the Weibull model (based on the second colony) was well describing spring adult emergence patterns up to 50% cumulative emergence date. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Xiao, L; He, H M; Zhong, P S; Fu, S; Chen, C; Xue, F S
The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis enters diapause as fully grown larvae. Owing to geographical variation in photoperiodic control of diapause, the subtropical strain from Hefei city (HF) enters diapause in response to short daylengths, whereas the tropical strain from Ledong county (LD) exhibits almost no diapause under the same conditions. The two strains were used in crosses to study the inheritance of diapause. The HF strain showed a typical long-day response with a critical daylength of approximately 14.97 h at 22 °C, 14.60 h at 25 °C and 13.68 h at 28 °C. The LD strain showed weak photoperiodic responses at 22 and 25 °C; and the F1 progeny also showed a long-day response with significantly shorter critical daylength compared with the HF strain. However, the LD × HF (F × M) crosses had significantly longer critical daylengths than HF × LD crosses, indicating a sexual bias in the inheritance of diapause induction, with the male parent having more influence on the F1 progeny. The critical daylength in a backcross to HF was significantly longer than a backcross to LD. Whether the inheritance of diapause fits an additive hypothesis or not depended on photoperiod, with results from different photoperiods showing additive inheritance or incomplete dominance of either diapause or non-diapause. Unlike diapause induction, the duration of diapause for reciprocal crosses was equally influenced by each parent, suggesting that diapause incidence and maintenance are controlled by separate systems in O. furnacalis.
Full Text Available The northernmost Harbin strain (N strain of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short daylengths; whereas the southernmost Ledong strain (S strain exhibits almost no diapause under the same light conditions. In the present study, we examined the inheritance of diapause induction and termination by crossing the two strains under a range of environmental conditions. The N strain showed a typical long-day response with a critical daylength of approximately15.88 h at 22°C, 15.72 h at 25°C and 15.14 h at 28°C, whereas the S strain showed a weak photoperiodic response at 22°C. The F1 progeny also showed a long-day response at 22, 25 and 28°C. However, the critical daylengths in S ♀ × N ♂ crosses were significantly longer than those in N ♀ × S ♂ crosses, indicating a sex linkage in the inheritance of diapause induction, with the male parent having more influence on the following F1 progeny. The incidence of diapause in S ♀ × N ♂ crosses was the same as in the N strain under short daylengths of 11-13 h, indicating that diapause trait is completely dominant over the non-diapause trait. The critical daylength in backcross to N was significantly longer than it was in backcross to S, showing a grandfather gene effect. Whether the inheritance of diapause fits an additive hypothesis or not was dependent on the rearing photoperiod, and the capacity for diapause was transmitted genetically in the manner of incomplete dominance. The duration of diapause for the reciprocal crosses under different diapause-terminating conditions showed different patterns of inheritance. The results in this study reveal that genetic and genetic-environmental interactions are involved in diapause induction and termination in O. furnacalis.
Zhao, Can; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Abdelgaffar, Heba M; Pan, Hongyu; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie
Pyramiding of diverse cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis with different modes of action is a desirable strategy to delay the evolution of resistance in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Considering the dependency of susceptibility to Cry toxins on toxin binding to receptors in the midgut of target pests, a diverse mode of action is commonly defined as recognition of unique binding sites in the target insect. In this study, we present a novel cry1Ie toxin gene (cry1Ie2) as a candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to control Ostrinia species larvae. The new toxin gene encodes an 81-kDa protein that is processed to a protease-resistant core form of approximately 55 kDa by trypsin digestion. The purified protoxin displayed high toxicity to Ostrinia furnacalis and O. nubilalis larvae but low to no activity against Spodoptera or heliothine species or the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor. Results of binding assays with (125)I-labeled Cry1Ab toxin and brush border membrane vesicles from O. nubilalis larvae demonstrated that Cry1Ie2 does not recognize the Cry1Ab binding sites in that insect. Reciprocal competition binding assays with biotin-labeled Cry1Ie2 confirmed the lack of shared sites with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis brush border membrane vesicles. These data support Cry1Ie2 as a good candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to increase the control of O. nubilalis and reduce the risk of resistance evolution. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered.
Full Text Available Development of resistance in target pests is a major threat to long-term use of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry toxins. To manage and/or delay the evolution of resistance in target insects through the implementation of effective strategies, it is essential to understand the basis of resistance. One of the most important mechanisms of insect resistance to Bt crops is the alteration of the interactions between Cry toxins and their receptors in the midgut. A Cry1Ac-selected strain of Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, a key pest of maize in China, evolved three mutant alleles of a cadherin-like protein (OfCAD (MPR-r1, MPR-r2 and MPR-r3, which mapped within the toxin-binding region (TBR. Each of the three mutant alleles possessed two or three amino acid substitutions in this region, especially Thr1457→Ser. In highly resistant larvae (ACB-Ac200, MPR-r2 had a 26-amino acid residue deletion in the TBR, which resulted in reduced binding of Cry1Ac compared to the MPR from the susceptible strain, suggesting that the number of amino acid deletions influences the level of resistance. Furthermore, downregulation of OfCAD gene (ofcad transcription was observed in the Cry1Ac resistant strain, ACB-Ac24, suggesting that Cry1Ac resistance in ACB is associated with the downregulation of the transcript levels of the cadherin-like protein gene. The OfCAD identified from ACB exhibited a high degree of similarity to other members of the cadherin super-family in lepidopteran species.
Rosca, I.; Barbulescu, Al.
The inherited sterility in F 1 and F 2 of the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses of 10 and 15 Krad has been studied at Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial Crops, Fundulea, Romania. Irradiations were done with a 60 Co source delivering 1,805 roentgen/h/m in containers of 23 mm diameter and 125 mm height, placed apart from the 60 Co source. Following irradiation of male parent generation, no significant differences were recorded in F 1 and F 2 referring to the number of deposited egg-batches and adult longevity. Nevertheless, there was a significant decrease of the percentage of viable eggs and an increase of the number of sterile couples. (author)
Transgenic plants that expressed Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) protein toxins can suffer feeding damage from a small number of lepidopteran insect species under field conditions, which has heightened concerns about the durability of pest control tactics. Genomics research has provid...
The sex determination system of Lepidoptera is comprised of heterogametic females (ZW) and homogametic males (ZZ), where voltinism (Volt) and the male pheromone response traits (Resp) are controlled by genes housed on the Z-chromosome. Volt and Resp determine traits that lead to ecotype differentia...
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Van Rie, Jeroen; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan
First generation of insect-protected transgenic corn (Bt-corn) was based on the expression of Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa proteins. Currently, the trend is the combination of two or more genes expressing proteins that bind to different targets. In addition to broadening the spectrum of action, this strategy helps to delay the evolution of resistance in exposed insect populations. One of such examples is the combination of Cry1A.105 with Cry1Fa and Cry2Ab to control O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda. Cry1A.105 is a chimeric protein with domains I and II and the C-terminal half of the protein from Cry1Ac, and domain III almost identical to Cry1Fa. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the chimeric Cry1A.105 has shared binding sites either with Cry1A proteins, with Cry1Fa, or with both, in O. nubilalis and in S. frugiperda. Brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from last instar larval midguts were used in competition binding assays with (125)I-labeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa, and unlabeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae. The results showed that Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa competed with high affinity for the same binding sites in both insect species. However, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae did not compete for the binding sites of Cry1 proteins. Therefore, according to our results, the development of cross-resistance among Cry1Ab/Ac, Cry1A.105, and Cry1Fa proteins is possible in these two insect species if the alteration of shared binding sites occurs. Conversely, cross-resistance between these proteins and Cry2A proteins is very unlikely in such case.
Hutchison, W D; Burkness, E C; Mitchell, P D; Moon, R D; Leslie, T W; Fleischer, S J; Abrahamson, M; Hamilton, K L; Steffey, K L; Gray, M E; Hellmich, R L; Kaster, L V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Pecinovsky, K; Rabaey, T L; Flood, B R; Raun, E S
Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management.
Carmen Sara Hernández-Rodríguez
Full Text Available First generation of insect-protected transgenic corn (Bt-corn was based on the expression of Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa proteins. Currently, the trend is the combination of two or more genes expressing proteins that bind to different targets. In addition to broadening the spectrum of action, this strategy helps to delay the evolution of resistance in exposed insect populations. One of such examples is the combination of Cry1A.105 with Cry1Fa and Cry2Ab to control O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda. Cry1A.105 is a chimeric protein with domains I and II and the C-terminal half of the protein from Cry1Ac, and domain III almost identical to Cry1Fa. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the chimeric Cry1A.105 has shared binding sites either with Cry1A proteins, with Cry1Fa, or with both, in O. nubilalis and in S. frugiperda. Brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV from last instar larval midguts were used in competition binding assays with (125I-labeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa, and unlabeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae. The results showed that Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa competed with high affinity for the same binding sites in both insect species. However, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae did not compete for the binding sites of Cry1 proteins. Therefore, according to our results, the development of cross-resistance among Cry1Ab/Ac, Cry1A.105, and Cry1Fa proteins is possible in these two insect species if the alteration of shared binding sites occurs. Conversely, cross-resistance between these proteins and Cry2A proteins is very unlikely in such case.
Rebecca C. Levy
Full Text Available Speciation often involves the coupling of multiple isolating barriers to produce reproductive isolation, but how coupling is generated among different premating barriers is unknown. We measure the degree of coupling between the daily mating time and seasonal mating time between strains of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis and evaluate the hypothesis that the coupling of different forms of allochrony is due to a shared genetic architecture, involving genes with pleiotropic effects on both timing phenotypes. We measure differences in gene expression at peak mating times and compare these genes to previously identified candidates that are associated with changes in seasonal mating time between the corn borer strains. We find that the E strain, which mates earlier in the season, also mates 2.7 h earlier in the night than the Z strain. Earlier daily mating is correlated with the differences in expression of the circadian clock genes cycle, slimb, and vrille. However, different circadian clock genes associate with daily and seasonal timing, suggesting that the coupling of timing traits is maintained by natural selection rather than pleiotropy. Juvenile hormone gene expression was associated with both types of timing, suggesting that circadian genes activate common downstream modules that may impose constraint on future evolution of these traits.
Razze, J M; Mason, C E
European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.
Calcagno, V; Thomas, Y; Bourguet, D
The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a major pest of maize crops. In Europe, two sympatric host races are found: one feeds on maize (Zea mays) and the other mainly on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). The two host races are genetically differentiated, seldom crossing in the laboratory or in the field, and females preferentially lay eggs on their native host species. We conducted two independent experiments, in field and greenhouse conditions, to determine whether the two host races are locally adapted to their host species. The effect of larval density and the performance of hybrids were also investigated. Despite some differences in overall larval feeding performance, both experiments revealed consistent patterns of local adaptation for survival and for larval weight in males. In females the same trend was observed but with weaker statistical support. F1 hybrids did not seem to be disadvantaged compared with the two parental races. Overall, our results showed that both host races are physiologically adapted to their native host. The fitness trade-off between the two host plants provides a potential driving force for ecological speciation in this species.
Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John
Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour.
Hansson Bill S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC that is identical in morphology, but reversed in functional topology. However, hybrids prefer intermediate ratios. How a topological arrangement of two glomeruli can accommodate for an intermediate preference was unclear. Therefore we studied the neurophysiology of hybrids and paternal backcrosses to see which factors correlated with male behavior. Results Projection neuron (PN recordings and stainings in hybrids and backcrosses show a dominance of the E-type MGC topology, notwithstanding their intermediate preference. Apparently, the topological arrangement of glomeruli does not directly dictate preference. However, two other factors did correlated very well with preference. First, volumetric measurements of MGC glomeruli demonstrate that, whereas in the parental strains the medial MGC glomerulus is more than 2 times larger than the lateral, in hybrids they are intermediate between the parents, i.e. equally sized. Paternal backcrosses showed that the volume ratio is sex-linked and co-dominant. Second, we measured the summed potential difference of the antennae in response to pheromone stimulation using electroantennogram recordings (EAG. Z-strain antennae responded 2.5 times stronger to Z11 than to E11-14:OAc, whereas in E-strain antennae the ratio was approximately equal. Hybrid responses were intermediate to the parents, and also here the antennal response of the paternal backcrosses followed a pattern similar to the behavioral phenotype. We found no differences in frequency and types of projection and local interneurons encountered
Fotini A Koutroumpa
Full Text Available Pheromone communication relies on highly specific signals sent and received between members of the same species. However, how pheromone specificity is determined in moth olfactory circuits remains unknown. Here we provide the first glimpse into the mechanism that generates this specificity in Ostrinia nubilalis. In Ostrinia nubilalis it was found that a single locus causes strain-specific, diametrically opposed preferences for a 2-component pheromone blend. Previously we found pheromone preference to be correlated with the strain and hybrid-specific relative antennal response to both pheromone components. This led to the current study, in which we detail the underlying mechanism of this differential response, through chemotopically mapping of the pheromone detection circuit in the antenna. We determined that both strains and their hybrids have swapped the neuronal identity of the pheromone-sensitive neurons co-housed within a single sensillum. Furthermore, neurons that mediate behavioral antagonism surprisingly co-express up to five pheromone receptors, mirroring the concordantly broad tuning to heterospecific pheromones. This appears as possible evolutionary adaptation that could prevent cross attraction to a range of heterospecific signals, while keeping the pheromone detection system to its simplest tripartite setup.
A study was conducted to determine the influence of planting date and transgenic maize on maize yield following stalk injury by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner). Transgenic and non-transgenic maize hybrids with short- and full-season maturity were planted in late April, mid-May and early June from 2006 to ...
Full Text Available Over the past decade, the high-dose refuge (HDR strategy, aimed at delaying the evolution of pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins produced by transgenic crops, became mandatory in the United States and is being discussed for Europe. However, precopulatory dispersal and the mating rate between resident and immigrant individuals, two features influencing the efficiency of this strategy, have seldom been quantified in pests targeted by these toxins. We combined mark-recapture and biogeochemical marking over three breeding seasons to quantify these features directly in natural populations of Ostrinia nubilalis, a major lepidopteran corn pest. At the local scale, resident females mated regardless of males having dispersed beforehand or not, as assumed in the HDR strategy. Accordingly, 0-67% of resident females mating before dispersal did so with resident males, this percentage depending on the local proportion of resident males (0% to 67.2%. However, resident males rarely mated with immigrant females (which mostly arrived mated, the fraction of females mating before dispersal was variable and sometimes substantial (4.8% to 56.8%, and there was no evidence for male premating dispersal being higher. Hence, O. nubilalis probably mates at a more restricted spatial scale than previously assumed, a feature that may decrease the efficiency of the HDR strategy under certain circumstances, depending for example on crop rotation practices.
Yosefus F. da-Lopez
Full Text Available Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée, is known as an important pest of maize, Zea mays L., in both whorl and reproductive stages. Management decisions based on egg-mass density is useful because decision is made before damage occurs. Observation on O. furnacalis egg-mass distribution in maize-field was carried out in Agricultural Training, Research, and Development Station (ATRD UGM, Yogyakarta. The number of egg-masses laid on each plant surface in maize-field was sampled in reproductive stage of corn at 52 – 58 days after planting. The spatial dispersion was analyzed using the ratio variance-to-mean (σ2/μ = Iδ, Morista’s Index (Iγ, and the negative binomial parameter (κ-value. The results showed that horizontal and vertical distributions were aggregated distributions (σ2 > μ or σ2/μ > 1. In line with the increasing age of plant, the degree of clustering or aggregation likely tended to decline (the κ-value increased, Morisita index decreased indicating the possible departure from aggregation to randomness (Poison distribution due to the heterogeneity of the environment, such as microclimate, preferred parts of the plants, and occurrence of natural enemies. The results concluded that the horizontal and vertical distributions of egg-masses of O. furnacalis on corn in generative phase were clustered with the degree of clustering tended to decrease by the increase of age of corn. These findings provide the bases for further study on the ecology and biology of O. furnacalis for management decision-making process.
Full Text Available The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée is an important economic pest of corn and is widely distributed in the Asia-Pacific region, including Indonesia. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of infestation levels of O. furnacalis larvae per plant on corn grain yield reductions, and to determine economic injury levels (EIL of O. furnacalis larvae at three growth stages (V10, R1, and R2 of corn. The experiment was designed in a split-plot randomized complete block with blocks replicated three times. Differences in grain weight between the uninfested and highest infestation levels (six larvae per plant V10, R1, and R2 were 59.81; 58.76; and 49.20 g/plant, respectively. For each additional infestation by one larvae per plant at V10, R1, dan R2, there is reduction in grain weight of 4.94%, 4.56% and 3.76% respectively. The calculation of EILs was based on the proportion of yield loss per larvae per plant on three corn growth stages with the assumption that pesticide control reduced 67% of O. furnacalis population. The lowest EIL was 0.31 larvae per plant at V10 when the cost of control reaching Rp.125,000 per ha and crop value of Rp.12,000,000 per ha. The highest EIL of 1.24 larvae per plant was found at R2 with the cost of control of Rp.250,000 per ha and crop value of Rp.8,000,000 per ha.
Field evolved resistance of insect populations to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) toxins expressed by crop plants has resulted in reduced control of insect feeding damage to field crops, and threatens the sustainability of Bt transgenic technologies. A single quantitative trait locus ...
Jin, Tingting; Gao, Yulin; He, Kanglai
Abstract Trehalose is the major blood sugar in insects. Physiological significance of this compound has been extensively reported. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) is an important enzyme in the trehalose biosynthesis pathway. Full-length cDNAs of TPS (Of tps) and its alternative splicing isoform (Of tps_isoformI) were cloned from the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae. The Of tps and Of tps_isoformI transcripts were 2913 and 1689 bp long, contained 2529 and 1293 bp open reading frames encoding proteins of 842 and 430 amino acids with a molecular mass of 94.4 and 48.6 kDa, respectively. Transcriptional profiling and response to thermal stress of Of tps gene were determined by quantitative real-time PCR showing that the Of tps was predominantly expressed in the larval fat body, significantly enhanced during molting and transformation; and thermal stress also induced Of tps expression. Gene structure analysis is indicating that one TPS domain and one trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) domain were located at the N- and C-termini of Of TPS, respectively, while only the TPS domain was detected in OfTPS_isoformI. Three-dimensional modeling and heterologous expression were developed to predict the putative functions of OfTPS and Of TPS_isoformI. We infer that the expression of Of tps gene is thermally induced and might be crucial for larvae survival.
Robin A. Taylor; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robert A. Haack
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) that is rapidly spreading from the probable introduction site in Detroit, Michigan. The rapid spread to areas outside Michigan is undoubtedly due to phoretic transport on nursery stock, logs, and...
Leah Bauer; Juli Gould; Jian Duan; Mike. Ulyshen
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus) tree mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Ontario, Canada. This destructive beetle apparently arrived in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from...
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...
Afidchao, Miladis M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging pest in corn in south-east Asia. Corn farmers in the Philippines have incurred great yield losses in the past decades because of ACB infestation. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bt herbicide-tolerant (BtHT) corns have been developed to reduce borer attacks worldwide. This study assessed the extent of ACB and non-ACB pest infestations in both GM and non-GM corn in Isabela Province, the Philippines. Specific aims were to reinvestigate the efficacy of Bt corn in controlling ACB, to evaluate what parts of Bt corn plants are susceptible to ACB, to monitor the potential development of ACB resistance and to evaluate whether secondary pests dominate in an ACB-free Bt corn environment. The study involved preparatory interviews with farmers, site selection, field scouting and visual inspection of 200 plants along 200 m transect lines through 198 cornfields. Bt corn can efficiently reduce the ACB pest problem and reduce borer damage by 44%, to damage levels in Bt and BtHT corn of 6.8 and 7% respectively. The leaves of Bt corn were more susceptible, while cobs of Bt corn were less affected by ACB. Non-ACB pests were common in Bt toxin-free cornfields and reduced in non-GM cornfields where ACB was abundant. No secondary pest outbreaks were found in ACB-free Bt cornfields. Bt and BtHT corn hybrids containing the Cry1Ab protein performed well in Isabela Province. Reduced cob damage by ACB on Bt fields could mean smaller economic losses even with ACB infestation. The occurrence of ACB in Bt and BtHT cornfields, although at a moderate and insignificant level, could imply the potential development of resistance to Bt toxin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H and the Simpson (1-D indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.
Full Text Available A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F1 crosses were similar (LC50s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g, which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance (h decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue (h = 0.02, but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant (h = 0.98 on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold, Cry1Ac (0.8-fold, Cry1F (0.9-fold, and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold. The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.
Wang, Yueqin; Yang, Jing; Quan, Yudong; Wang, Zhenying; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai
A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR) after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F₁ crosses were similar (LC 50 s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g), which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance ( h ) decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue ( h = 0.02), but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant ( h = 0.98) on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold), Cry1Ac (0.8-fold), Cry1F (0.9-fold), and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold). The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.
Full Text Available Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively, indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased.
J. D. Solomon; L. Newsome; W. N. Darwin
A portable, battery-operated light trap was used in hardwood stands in Mississippi. Ten species of hardwood borers were captured with carpenterworm moths being taken in the greatest numbers. Many cerambycid borers were also captured.
Full Text Available A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.
Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Tiantao; Bai, Shuxiong; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai
A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe) with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac) was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie) or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.
Full Text Available The effect of Bacillus thuringiensis to the mortality of corn stemborer Ostrinia furnacalis (Lep. Pyralidae. The study was conducted at the laboratory of Bogor Research Institute for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources during 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dosages of Bacillus. thuringiensis var. aizawai and var. Kurstaki on the mortalities of larvae of corn stemborer Ostrinia furnacalis. Completely randomize design was used with seven treatments. Each treatment was repeated four time with ten larvae per replication. The treatments were three formulation dosages of B. thuringiensis var. aizawai, i.e. 0,5; 1,0; and 2,0 g/l, thee formulation dosages of B. thuringiensis var. Kurstaki, i.e. 0,5; 1,0; and 2,0 g/l, and untreated control. Second instar larvae of O. furnacalis was used in this study. B. thuringiensis was contaminated to the surface of artificial diet with a small paint brush. The result showed that B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki at the dose rate of 1,0 g/l was toxic to the test insect while B. thuringiensis var. aizawai at the dose rate of 2,0 g/l was toxic to the test insect B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki was more toxic than B. thuringiensis var. aizawai to the corn stemborer.
Alexandre, Hermine; Ponsard, Sergine; Bourguet, Denis; Vitalis, Renaud; Audiot, Philippe; Cros-Arteil, Sandrine; Streiff, Réjane
The genus Ostrinia includes two allopatric maize pests across Eurasia, namely the European corn borer (ECB, O. nubilalis) and the Asian corn borer (ACB, O. furnacalis). A third species, the Adzuki bean borer (ABB, O. scapulalis), occurs in sympatry with both the ECB and the ACB. The ABB mostly feeds on native dicots, which probably correspond to the ancestral host plant type for the genus Ostrinia. This situation offers the opportunity to characterize the two presumably independent adaptations or preadaptations to maize that occurred in the ECB and ACB. In the present study, we aimed at deciphering the genetic architecture of these two adaptations to maize, a monocot host plant recently introduced into Eurasia. To this end, we performed a genome scan analysis based on 684 AFLP markers in 12 populations of ECB, ACB and ABB. We detected 2 outlier AFLP loci when comparing French populations of the ECB and ABB, and 9 outliers when comparing Chinese populations of the ACB and ABB. These outliers were different in both countries, and we found no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between any two of them. These results suggest that adaptation or preadaptation to maize relies on a different genetic architecture in the ECB and ACB. However, this conclusion must be considered in light of the constraints inherent to genome scan approaches and of the intricate evolution of adaptation and reproductive isolation in the Ostrinia spp. complex.
Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robin A.J. Taylor; Robert A. Haack
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Native to several Asian countries, EAB was discovered in six southeastern Michigan counties and southwestern Ontario in 2002. EAB presumably emerged from infested solid wood...
Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Jonathan P. Lelito; Houping Liu; Juli R. Gould
The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle introduced from China (Bray et al., 2011), was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002; Federal Register, 2003; Cappaert et al., 2005)....
Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, samples were collected from introduced sites in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ontario, Canada, as well as native sites in China, Japan, and South Korea with the help of a network of collaborators. The beetles were analyzed using DNA sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome...
Robert A. Haack; Yuri Baranchikov; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to eastern Asia and is primarily a pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees (Fig. 1). Established populations of EAB were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002), and based on a dendrochronology study by Siegert...
Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to Asia and was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. As of October 2004, EAB was only found to breed in ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. EAB is spreading naturally through adult flight as well as artificially through...
The three maize endosperm types used in the experiment were susceptible to stem borer infestation, but there was no statistical difference with respect to stem borer infestation and severity of damage for July and August cropping, although, sweet corn tended to be more susceptible than the other endosperm types (flint and.
Implications of Black Coffee Twig Borer on cocoa in Uganda. G.H. Kagezi1, P. Kucel1, J.P. Egonyu1, ... Here, we report for the first time an outbreak of the Black Coffee Twig Borer (BCTB), Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff), a new pest on ... the damaged plant parts do not bear fruits resulting into loss of yields and hence,.
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major rice pest around the world. A strong ability of the rice stem borer to adapt/resist cold temperature (cold hardiness) contributes to its survival through winter. However, the physiological mechanism of its cold hardiness is poorly understood. In this study, we ...
Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....
Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...
Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were ...
Jun 1, 2011 ... Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize ...
Previous testing of several public Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize events did not show control of the African stem borer (Busseola fusca Fuller), an important stem borer species, without which stewardship would be compromised by the possibility of rapid development of resistance to Bt deltaendotoxins. This study was ...
Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack
In 2010-2011, we studied the European oak borer (EOB), Agrilus sulcicollis Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Michigan, United States of America, and made comparisons with the native twolined chestnut borer (TLCB), Agrilus bilineatus (Weber). EOB adult flight began and peaked before TLCB. More EOB females were captured on...
Full Text Available We propose an impulsive biological pest control of the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis by its egg parasitoid Trichogramma galloi based on a mathematical model in which the sugarcane borer is represented by the egg and larval stages, and the parasitoid is considered in terms of the parasitized eggs. By using the Floquet theory and the small amplitude perturbation method, we show that there exists a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution when some conditions hold. The numerical simulations show that the impulsive release of parasitoids provides reliable strategies of the biological pest control of the sugarcane borer.
Burkness, E C; O'Rourke, P K; Hutchison, W D
The efficacy of nontransgenic sweet corn, Zea mays L., hybrids cross-pollinated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sweet corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab toxin was evaluated in both field and laboratory studies in Minnesota in 2000. Non-Bt and Bt hybrids (maternal plants) were cross-pollinated with pollen from both non-Bt and Bt hybrids (paternal plants) to create four crosses. Subsequent crosses were evaluated for efficacy in the field against European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and in laboratory bioassays against O. nubilalis. Field studies indicated that crosses with maternal Bt plants led to low levels of survival for both O. nubilalis and H. zea compared with the non-Bt x non-Bt cross. However, the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen led to survival rates of 43 and 63% for O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae, respectively. This intermediate level of survival also was reflected in the number of kernels damaged. Laboratory bioassays for O. nubilalis, further confirmed field results with larval survival on kernels from the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen reaching 60% compared with non-Bt crossed with non-Bt. These results suggest that non-Bt refuge plants, when planted in proximity to Bt plants, and cross-pollinated, can result in sublethal exposure of O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae to Bt and may undermine the high-dose/refuge resistance management strategy for corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab.
Kathleen S. Knight; Robert P. Long; Joanne Rebbeck; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Catherine P. Herms; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Kyle C. Costilow; Lawrence C. Long; David L. Cappaert
The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmare) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program involving U.S. Forest Service Northern Research Station (Research...
Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien
The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...
Chris Sargent; Dick Bean; Michael Raupp; Alan J. Sawyer
The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive pest from Asia, was introduced into Maryland in April 2003 via infested nursery stock shipped from Michigan to a nursery in southern...
Frank, Daniel Lee
A rearing methodology for dogwood borer was developed, using standardized procedures at each developmental stage. These methods enabled the establishment of a laboratory colony and efficient production of synchronized cohorts of each of its lifestages throughout the year for specific experimental needs. The behavioral repertoire shown by mated female dogwood borer in an apple orchard was characterized and quantified and the diel periodicity with which those behaviors occurred was deter...
Laurel J. Haavik; Tom W. Coleman; Mary Louise. Flint; Robert C. Venette; Steven J. Seybold
We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on...
.... APHIS-2008-0072] Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri... emerald ash borer (EAB). The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of EAB into... CONTACT: Mr. Paul Chaloux, National Program Coordinator, Emerald Ash Borer Program, Emergency and Domestic...
...-0098] Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York... interim rule that amended the emerald ash borer regulations by adding portions of Kentucky, Michigan... those areas, was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the emerald ash borer to noninfested...
...] Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer AGENCY: Animal and Plant... revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer in the Plant Protection and Quarantine... treat emerald ash borer. DATES: Effective Date: January 19, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr...
.... APHIS-2009-0098] Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New..., USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the emerald ash borer... the emerald ash borer to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: This interim rule is effective...
Vélez, Ana M; Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Siegfried, Blair D
The Cry1Fa protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known for its potential to control lepidopteran pests, especially through transgenic expression in maize and cotton. The maize event TC1507 expressing the cry1Fa toxin gene became commercially available in the United States in 2003 for the management of key lepidopteran pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. A high-dose/refuge strategy has been widely adopted to delay evolution of resistance to event TC1507 and other transgenic Bt crops. Efficacy of this strategy depends on the crops expressing a high dose of the Bt toxin to targeted pests and adjacent refuges of non-Bt host plants serving as a source of abundant susceptible insects. While this strategy has proved effective in delaying O. nubilalis resistance, field-evolved resistance to event TC1507 has been reported in S. frugiperda populations in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the southeastern United States. This paper examines available information on resistance to Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda and discusses how this information identifies opportunities to refine resistance management recommendations for Bt maize. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith
Emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in Michigan and Canada in 2002. Efforts to eradicate this destructive pest by federal and state regulatory agencies continue. Knowledge of EAB genetics will be useful in understanding the invasion dynamics of the beetle and to help identify geographic localities of potential biocontrol agents.
Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.
Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of
Jun 30, 2015 ... selecting for stem borer resistance and high yield could consider plant height, days to 50% pollen shed, ear aspect and grain ... improvement study therefore, breeders need to consider not only the magnitude of the correlation between pairs of .... computed using variance-covariance matrix and estimates of ...
Xiujun, W.; Kalinová, Blanka; Manguang, L.; Hoskovec, Michal
Roč. 45, č. 12 (2009), s. 84-89 ISSN 1001-7488 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 860 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Euzophera batangensis * persimmon bark borer * sex pheromone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Jun 1, 2011 ... Abbreviations: Bt, Bacillus thuringiensis; HPR, host plant resistance; ITK, indigenous technical knowledge; CFT, confined field trials; IRM, Insect Resistance Management. achieving greater yields is to minimize insect pest losses through the use of stem borer resistant maize that could reduce annual grain ...
Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Stem Borers and the Incidence of Stalk Rot under Varying Plant Population Densities in Maize. ... heavier cobs and more grains. The results showed that the medium plant density was more desirable from both disease and pest control points of view. JARD Vol. 1 2001: pp. 67-74 ...
Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown on about 360 hectares in Mauritius. Pod borers (Lampides boeticus L., Maruca vitrata F. and Etiella zinckenella Tr.) are reported to cause serious damage to floral parts and pods. They are difficult to control with insecticides because they remain concealed in feeding sites. Farmers.
Juli S. Gould; Leah S. Bauer; Jonathan Lelito; Jian. Duan
Emerald ash borer (EAB), a beetle from Asia that feeds on ash trees, was discovered as the cause of extensive ash mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Canada in 2002. It is thought that this destructive pest was introduced in the early 1990's in infested solid wood packing material originating in Asia. Shortly after EAB was discovered in North...
Anantha Prasad; Louis Iverson; Matthew Peters; Jonathan Bossenbroek; Davis Sydnor; Mark Schwartz
Our group has been modelling the spread of emerald ash borer (EAB) in Ohio using a spatially explicit cell-based model that takes into account the insect's flight characteristics (Insect Flight Model) as well as external factors that enable the insects to travel passively (Insect Ride Model).
Tom Scott; Kevin Turner
In 2012, the goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus, GSOB) was discovered in the mountain community of Idyllwild, 56.3 km north of its known area of infestation. This was the third time that a point of outbreak was discovered >32.2 km from the GSOB infestation area, suggesting that human transport of GSOB has substantially expanded the...
Y. Baranchikov; Y. Gninenko; G. Yurchenko
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a beetle native to East Asia and the Russian Far East where it is considered a minor pest, attacking weakened or dying ash trees. In 2006, EAB was found to be responsible for enormous damage of ash species in Moscow, which causes serious concern for Europe. Recently we reviewed the EAB...
Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.
The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...
Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Daniel A. Herms; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Andrew R. Tluczek
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid native to northeast Asia, has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus) trees in infested areas of eastern North America. EAB apparently arrived in infested solid wood packaging materials from China in the early 1990s near Detroit, MI, but was not identified as...
One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...
The study determined the amount of haemolymph vitellogenin (Vg) of the Larger Grain Borer (LGB), Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) vitellogenic females reared on different maize varieties. The varieties were ZM 521, ZM 421, ECAVL1-DLN, WEEVIL A, LOCAL 1 and LOCAL 2. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide Gel ...
The study investigated the current distribution of the larger grain borer (LGB), Prostephanus truncatus, in five states of South-western Nigeria; Ogun, Oyo, Lagos, Ondo and Osun by visual observation of maize stored in cribs and using the synthetic aggregation pheromone of LGB as baits in survey traps for twenty days.
The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...
Kathleen S. Knight; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Robert Long; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Catharine P. Herms
The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program between the U.S. Forest Service and The Ohio State University. We are monitoring ash demographics, understory light availability, EAB population dynamics, native and non-native plants, and effects of ash...
The coffee berry borer continues to pose a formidable challenge to coffee growers worldwide. Due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. A sesquiterpene, (E,E)-a-farnesene, produced by infested coffee berries...
Full Text Available Stem borer is the second important rice pest after rats in Indonesia. A field trial was conducted in Karawang, West Java in dry season of 2003 to study the effect of planting time on the stem borer infestation on seven rice cultivars. The rice cultivars tested were Fatmawati (new plant type cultivar, Gilirang (semi-new plant type cultivar, Maro and Intani 3 (hybrid rice cultivars, and IR72, Cilosari and IR62 (inbreed rice cultivars. The three planting times (PT were: (1 the early PT, 14 days before farmer’s PT, (2 the common PT, simultaneously with farmer’s PT, and (3 the late PT, 14 days after farmer’s PT. The trial was arranged in a split plot design with four replications. Planting time is the main plot and rice cultivar is the subplot. Fourteen-day old rice seedlings were transplanted at 25 cm x 25 cm planting distance in a 5 m x 6 m plot size. Species and fluctuation of rice stem borer were determined by using water traps containing four synthetic sex pheromone lures of rice stem borer species as attractant. Results showed that the dominant species of stem borer was yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.. Degree of stem borer infestation depended upon the planting time. Stem borer infestation at the first planting time was higher (average 37.90% compared to those found at the second and third planting time, i.e. 0.65% and 0.54%, respectively. Rice yields of Fatmawati, Gilirang, Maro, Intani-3, and Cilosari cultivars correlated with the degree of stem borer infestation, but did not correlate with planting time. Cilosari cultivar showed the most tolerant under heavily stem borer infestation. The present study implies that adjustment of planting time is the most feasible effort to reduce stem borer infestation because none of the seven rice cultivars tested were able to minimize damage under heavily infestation of yellow stem borer.
Toxity of Gedunin, Piperine and Crude Extracts of their Natural Products on Growth and Development of Ostrinia Nubilalis Hbner (Lepidoptera: Pyrarlidae). F K Ewete, J T Arnason, T Durst, S Mackinnon ...
...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host... of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and spread of emerald ash borer in the... prevent the introduction and [[Page 45602
Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many
Vanessa Lopez; Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Richard Stouthamer; Mark Hoddle
Californiaâs oak woodlands are threatened by the recent introduction of goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus). This invasive wood-borer is indigenous to mountain ranges in southern Arizona where its low population densities may be due to the presence of co-evolved, host-specific natural enemies. Reuniting A. auroguttatus...
In Kenya, stem borers destroy an estimated 400,000 metric tons, or 13.5%, of farmers' annual maize harvest costing about US$80 millions. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize controls stem borers without harming humans, livestock and the environment and was sown to 140m ha-1 globally in 2009. Two public Bt maize lines of ...
Full Text Available Development of an ideal marker system facilitates a better understanding of the genetic diversity in lepidopteran non-model organisms, which have abundant species, but relatively limited genomic resources. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered within single-copy genes have proved to be desired markers, but SNP genotyping by current techniques remain laborious and expensive. High resolution melting (HRM curve analysis represents a simple, rapid and inexpensive genotyping method that is primarily confined to clinical and diagnostic studies. In this study, we evaluated the potential of HRM analysis for SNP genotyping in the lepidopteran non-model species Ostrinia furnacalis (Crambidae. Small amplicon and unlabeled probe assays were developed for the SNPs, which were identified in 30 females of O. furnacalis from 3 different populations by our direct sequencing. Both assays were then applied to genotype 90 unknown female DNA by prior mixing with known wild-type DNA. The genotyping results were compared with those that were obtained using bi-directional sequencing analysis. Our results demonstrated the efficiency and reliability of the HRM assays. HRM has the potential to provide simple, cost-effective genotyping assays and facilitates genotyping studies in any non-model lepidopteran species of interest.
Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.
The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA
Chen, Ri-Zhao; Jow, Chung-Kuang; Klein, Michael G; Jia, Yu-di; Zhang, Da-Yu; Li, Lan-Bing
Mating disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with its sex pheromone has not been commonly used in NE China due to a lack of information about optimal sex pheromone dosages and the density of release points required in the field. During 2014-2016, first, the two active pheromone ingredients were evaluated in the laboratory alone at ca. 2.5-5.0 mg, or in combination at 0.2-6.0 mg, to disrupt male O. furnacalis mating behaviors. Then, mating disruption areas, with radii of disruption treatments. Finally, 6.0 (F30) and 0.2 mg (Fs) dosages were used in fields at 20-640 and 200-6,400 release points/ha. We found that ≧6.0 mg of the binary pheromone mixture, or ca. 5.0 mg of either of the two single components, completely disrupted mating behaviors, and F30 of the binary mixture provided a 200-m2 disruption area, with at least 50% capture reductions. At a density of 60-640 and 600-6,400 points/ha in a corn field, F30 and Fs dosages provided >90% mating disruption, leaf protection, and ear protection. The dispenser densities and inverse male catches in traps tended to follow a noncompetitive mechanism of mating disruption. Since 85% disruption of mating with 200-400 0.02 mg release points/ha was obtained, that level is recommended as the choice in future NE China O. furnacalis IPM programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available The Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, is the most destructive insect pest of corn in China. Susceptibility to the Cry1F toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis has been demonstrated for ACB, suggesting the potential for Cry1F inclusion as part of an insect pest management program. Insects can develop resistance to Cry toxins, which threatens the development and use of Bt formulations and Bt crops in the field. To determine possible resistance mechanisms to Cry1F, a Cry1F-resistant colony of ACB (ACB-FR that exhibited more than 1700-fold resistance was established through selection experiments after 49 generations of selection under laboratory conditions. The ACB-FR strain showed moderate cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac of 22.8- and 26.9-fold, respectively, marginally cross-resistance to Cry1Ah (3.7-fold, and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ie (0.6-fold. The bioassay responses of progeny from reciprocal F1 crosses to different Cry1 toxin concentrations indicated that the resistance trait to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F has autosomal inheritance with no maternal effect or sex linked. The effective dominance (h of F1 offspring was calculated at different concentrations of Cry1F, showing that h decreased as concentration of Cry1F increased. Finally, the analysis of actual and expected mortality of the progeny from a backcross (F1 × resistant strain indicated that the inheritance of the resistance to Cry1F in ACB-FR was due to more than one locus. The present study provides an understanding of the genetic basis of Cry1F resistance in ACB-FR and also shows that pyramiding Cry1F with Cry1Ah or Cry1Ie could be used as a strategy to delay the development of ACB resistance to Bt proteins.
Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko
Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Melody A. Keena; Juli Gould; Leah S. Bauer
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a nonnative insect from Asia that threatens ash trees in the urban and natural forests of North America. Research on this invasive insect and rearing parasitoids for...
Laurel J. Haavik; Tom W. Coleman; Yigen Chen; Micheal I. Jones; Robert C. Venette; Mary L. Flint; Steven J. Seybold
Calosota elongata Gibson (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is a gregarious, ectoparasitic larval parasitoid that was described recently (Gibson 2010) in association with the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse [now considered to be Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)] in its native...
The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...
Joseph A. Francese; Damon J. Crook; Ivich Fraser; David R. Lance; Alan J. Sawyer; Victor C. Mastro
As the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), spreads throughout the range of North American ash species, better tools are needed for the detection and delimitation of new infestations...
J.J. Duan; R.W. Fuester; J. Wildonger; P.B. Taylor; S. Barth; S-E. Spichiger
Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin....
Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; John Bedford
Several isolated outlier populations of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) were discovered in 2008 and additional outliers will likely be found as detection surveys and public outreach activities...
Leah S. Bauer; Diana K. Londo& #241; o
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, an intermittent pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in northeastern Asia, was discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In North America, infestations of EAB are now known in 13 states and 2 provinces.
Yigen. Chen; Tom. W. Coleman; Michael. I. Jones; Mary. L. Flint; Steven. J. Seybold
Adults of the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), consumed foliar weight in no-choice feeding tests of, in descending order, California black oak Quercus kelloggii Newb., Engelmann oak, Quercus engelmannii Greene, coast live oak, Quercus...
In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...
Almaši, Radmila; Poslončec, Danijela
This paper presents results of population numbers of lesser grain borer (Rhizopertha dominica F.) depending on initial density of population of this species and depending on storage methods of spelt (Triticum aestivum spp. spelta), sort Eko 10. Results have showed that the lesser grain borer develops better in kernels than in spikes. Average offspring obtained from kernel in all three evaluations (2, 4 and 6 months) was statistically significantly higher compared to the spikes. The initial po...
Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.
In agricultural crop improvement, yield under various stress conditions and limiting factors is assessed experimentally. Of the stresses on plants which affect yield are those due to insects. Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (corn borer) is a major pest in sweet and field corn in the U.S. There are many ways to fight crop pests such as the corn borer, including (1) application of chemical insecticides, (2) application of natural predators and, (3) improving crop resistance through plant genetics programs. Randomized field trials are used to determine the effectiveness of pest management programs. These trials frequently consist of randomly selected crop plots to which well-defined input regimes are instituted. For example, corn borers might be released onto crop plots in several densities at various stages of crop development, then sprayed with different levels of pesticide. These experiments are duplicated across regions and, in some cases across the country, to determine, in this instance for example, the best pesticide application rate for a given pest density and crop development stage. In order to release these pests onto crop plots, one must have an adequate supply of the insect pest. In winter months studies are carried out in the laboratory to examine chemical and natural pesticide effectiveness, as well as such things as the role of pheromones in moth behavior. The advantage in field trials is that yield data can be garnered directly. In this country, insects are raised for crop research primarily through the US Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with public Land Grant Universities and, by the private sector agricultural concerns - seed companies and others. This study quantifies the airborne allergen exposure of persons working in a Land Grant University entomology lab were allergy to European corn borer was suspected.
Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger
Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.
Samuel J. Fahrner; Mark Abrahamson; Robert C. Venette; Brian H. Aukema
Emerald ash borer is an invasive beetle causing significant mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and western Russia. The invasive range has expanded to more than half of the states in the United States since the initial detection in Michigan, USA in 2002. Emerald ash borer is typically managed with a combination of techniques...
Classical biological control can be an important tool for managing invasive species such as emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Emerald ash borer is now widespread throughout the United States, and was first detected in Maryland in 2003. The biological control program to manage emera...
1974-01-01In many tropical countries, lepidopterous stem borers are major pests of the rice crop. Study of the rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella and Diatraea saccharalis, was made in the Paramaribo area, at the experimental station 'CELOS' during
Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are
Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Donovan, Geoffrey H; Butry, David T; Michael, Yvonne L; Prestemon, Jeffrey P; Liebhold, Andrew M; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mao, Megan Y
Several recent studies have identified a relationship between the natural environment and improved health outcomes. However, for practical reasons, most have been observational, cross-sectional studies. A natural experiment, which provides stronger evidence of causality, was used to test whether a major change to the natural environment-the loss of 100 million trees to the emerald ash borer, an invasive forest pest-has influenced mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory diseases. Two fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and county-level mortality from 1990 to 2007 in 15 U.S. states, while controlling for a wide range of demographic covariates. Data were collected from 1990 to 2007, and the analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. There was an increase in mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness in counties infested with the emerald ash borer. The magnitude of this effect was greater as infestation progressed and in counties with above-average median household income. Across the 15 states in the study area, the borer was associated with an additional 6113 deaths related to illness of the lower respiratory system, and 15,080 cardiovascular-related deaths. Results suggest that loss of trees to the emerald ash borer increased mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness. This finding adds to the growing evidence that the natural environment provides major public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J
Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn
Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1∶1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135
Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C
The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.
Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C
The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies.
Laurel J. Haavik
Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.
Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy
Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the
Full Text Available A field study was conducted to determine the distribution of egg masses of Ostrinia furnacalis on corn leaves and within corn field. The corn field was divided into three regions: the inner edge closed to other crops and outer edge closed to main road and the middle region. The numbers of egg masses laid were recorded entirely in all corn plants existed (census method. Egg laying period lasted for 34 days, with 11 days from initiation of egg laying to the peak of oviposition and 23 days from the peak to termination of egg laying. The egg masses laid on corn leaves were distributed in aggregation pattern. During eight-opened-leaf to twelve-opened-leaf stages, there were 847 egg masses found, and 80.9% was laid on the sixth-to-ninth leaves. From tasseling to blister stages there were 491 egg masses found of which approximately 80.7% was laid on the seventh-to-11 32.8, and 29.8% of those were found in the inner edge, middle, and outer edge of corn field, respectively. leaves. Egg masses laid within corn field varied, in which 37.4, 32.8, and 29.8% of those were found in the inner edge, middle, and outer edge of corn field, respectively. Kajian lapang dilaksanakan untuk mengetahui pola sebaran peletakan kelompok telur ngengat Ostrinia furnacalis pada daun tanaman jagung dan penyebarannya pada lahan pertanaman jagung. Lahan penelitian dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok yaitu lahan pinggir dalam berdekatan dengan pertanaman lain, bagian tengah lahan, dan lahan pinggir luar berdekatan dengan jalan raya. Pengamatan kelompok telur dilakukan pada seluruh tanaman jagung (sensus. Periode peletakan telur berlangsung selama 34 hari, dengan periode inisiasi hingga puncak 11 hari dan periode setelah puncak hingga akhir peletakan telur 23 hari. Peletakan telur O. furnacalis pada daun tanaman jagung menyebar secara berkelompok. Pada fase 8 hingga 10 daun telah terbuka sempurna ditemukan sebanyak 847 kelompok telur, 80,9% diantaranya ditemukan pada daun ke 6–9
Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew
Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.
Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Taylor Scarr; Joseph Francese; Damon Crook; Michael Domingue; Harold Thistle; Brian Strom; Laura Blackburn; Daniel A. Herms; Krista Ryall; Patrick. Tobin
The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was discovered near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002 (www.emeraldashborer. info 2016) and continues to spread in North America. Canadian and U.S. federal, provincial, and state regulatory agencies have used artificial traps...
Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Robert P. Long; Robin A.J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms
We monitored the progression of ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality due to emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, in 38 forest stands in the upper Huron River watershed region of southeastern Michigan from 2004-2007. Black ash (F. nigra), green ash (F. pennsylvanica), and white ash...
Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Jonathan P. Lelito
The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), a buprestid native to north-east Asia, was first discovered in North America near Detroit in 2002. EAB has since spread to at least 15 U.S. States and two Canadian provinces, threatening the existence of native ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A classical biocontrol program was initiated...
Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in forest and urban settings in southeastern lower Michigan and Windsor, Ontario. To date, 21 Michigan counties have been...
Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough
The emerald ash borer (EAB), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered killing ash trees in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, in 2002. Like several other invasive forest pests, the EAB likely was introduced and became established in a highly urbanized setting, facilitated by international trade and abundant hosts. Up to 15 million ash trees in...
Terrance M. Hurley; Silvia Secchi; Bruce A. Babcock
The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.
Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes
Landscape metrics, including host abundance and population density, were calculated using forest inventory and land cover data to assess the relationship between landscape pattern and the presence or absence of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). The Random Forests classification algorithm in the R statistical environment was...
Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo
Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread...
Yigen Chen; Michael D. Ulyshen; Therese M. Poland
Two experiments were performed to determine the extent to which ash species (black, green and white) and larval developmental stage (second, third and fourth instar) affect the efficiency of phloem amino acid utilization by emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larvae. EAB larvae generally utilized green ash...
Yigen Chen; Justin G.A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland
The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses of the three most common North...
Yigen Chen; Justin G.A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland
The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region...
Jun 1, 2011 ... segregating tropical Bt maize populations in Kenya. Mwimali G. Murenga1, Stephen M. Githiri2, Stephen N. Mugo3* and Florence M. Olubayo4 ... methods of stem borer control (James, 2009; Mugo et al.,. 2005; Tabashnik et al., 2009). ... genic maize varieties (James, 2009). The benefits accruing to farmers ...
Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Kuhn; Chen Zhangjing; Andrea Diss-Torrance; Erin L. Clark
Since its discovery in Detroit, Michigan, in 2002, the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has caused extensive mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) as it has spread across southeast Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario, Canada (Haack et al. 2002, Poland and McCullough 2006). In addition to this core...
Xiping Wang; Richard D. Bergman; Brian K. Brashaw; Scott W. Myers
The movement of firewood within emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB)-infested states and into adjoining areas has been a contributor to its spread throughout the United States and Canada. In an effort to prevent further human-aided spread of EAB and to facilitate interstate commerce, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and cooperating...
Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Buprestidae), a native of Asia, was discovered in the USA and Canada in 2002. Drs. Deborah McCullough (Michigan State University) and Therese Poland (USDA-FS) tested several systemic and topical insecticides for EAB control, which they reported elsewhere. One additional insecticide that we...
Annemarie Smith; Daniel A. Herms; Robert P. Long
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB), a buprestid beetle native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) over thousands of square miles in southeast Michigan, northwest Ohio and neighboring Ontario. This invasive pest has the potential to decimate ash across North America with major impacts on...
Xiping Wang; Henry E. Stelzer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Patricia K. Lebow; Robert J. Ross
Large numbers of black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) trees are declining and dying in the Missouri Ozark forest as a result of oak decline. Red oak borer-infested trees produce low-grade logs that become extremely difficult to merchandize as the level of insect attack increases. The objective of this study was to investigate...
Fernando E Vega
Full Text Available The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001 number of facets in males (19.1 ± 4.10 than in females (127.5 ± 3.88. To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles.
Christopher J. Fettig
Several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), and to a much lesser extent wood borers (primarily Coleoptera: Buprestidae and Cerambycidae), are capable of causing conifer mortality in Mediterranean forests of California, U.S. This mortality is an important part of the ecology of these ecosystems, but the economic and social...
Therese Poland; Damon Crook; Joseph Francese; Jason Oliver; Gard Otis; Peter De Groot; Gary Grant; Linda MacDonald; Deborah McCullough; Ivich Fraser; David Lance; Victor Mastro; Nadeer Youssef; Tanya Turk; Melodie Youngs
Improved survey tools are essential for accurately delimiting the infestation of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and for detecting new infestations. Current survey methods including visual surveys for damage, girdled trap trees, and trunk dissections are less than ideal because newly infested trees...
Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith
Emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in Michigan and Canada in 2002. Efforts by federal and state regulatory agencies to control this destructive pest have been challenged by the biology of the pest and the speed in which it has spread. Invasion dynamics of the beetle and identifying source populations from Asia may help identify geographic localities of...
Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower
Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...
Michael D. Hyslop; Andrew J. Storer
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an exotic forest pest of ash that is native to Asia. Since its discovery in North America in 2002, it has been found in 13 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces and has killed more than 50 million trees in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana alone. The presence of EAB in Houghton County, MI, was...
Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao
Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), also known as emerald ash borer (EAB), was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario, Canada, in 2002 following investigations of declining and dying ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Agrilus planipennis has also spread to Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia,...
Yigen Chen; Tina Ciaramitaro; Therese M. Poland
The exotic phloem-feeding emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, has killed tens of millions of North American ash trees (Fraxinus) since its first detection in the U.S.A. in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which disrupts translocation of photosynthates and nutrients. We observed that EAB...
Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen
Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oakâhickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....
Rahayu, M.; Bande, LOS; Hasan, A.; Yuswana, A.; Rinambo, F.
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the most important crops which production continues to be improved in all areas of soybean cultivation centers in an effort to maintain the availability of soybean foods, including Southeast Sulawesi. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of pod borer pests to soybean crop production. Methods of direct observation were made on observed variables, including species and population of pest pod borer, intensity, and crop production. The result that found four types of pod borer pests are Nezara viridula, Riptortus linearis, Etiella zinckenella, and Leptocorisa acuta, each with a different population and contribution to the intensity of pod damage. The result of path analysis showed that directly population of N. viridula (61.14) and E. zinckenella (66.44) gave positive contribution in increasing pod damage, by 0.332 and 0.502 respectively, while the negative contribution was shown by population of R. linearis and L. acuta. Damage of the pod causes increased production of low soybean is only about 0.202, therefore required appropriate control techniques to control pod borer pests populations in soybean crops.
David E. Jennings; Jian J. Duan; Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Paula M. Shrewsbury; Roy G. Van Driesche
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB), is an invasive buprestid native to northeastern Asia that feeds on ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). First detected in North America (in Michigan, United States and Ontario, Canada) in 2002, EAB has spread rapidly, in part because of movement of infested nursery stock and untreated...
Chaoyang Zhao; Miguel A. Alvarez Gonzales; Therese M. Poland; Omprakash. Mittapalli
The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong...
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an invasive insect pest, and the target of an extensive biological control campaign designed to mitigate EAB driven ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Since 2007, environmental releases of three species of hymenopteran parasitoids of EA...
Jordan M. Marshall; Melissa J. Porter; Andrew J. Storer
Incorporation of multiple trapping techniques and sites within a survey program is essential to adequately identify the range of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestation. Within natural forests, EAB lands on stick band traps wrapped around girdled ash trees at a rate similar to that on unwounded ash trees. The objective of...
Paula M. Pijut; Rochelle R. Beasley; Kaitlin J. Palla
The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae) is a wood-boring beetle that poses substantial risk to the ash resource in North America. Ash species native to the United States and known to be susceptible to EAB are Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash), F. americana (white ash...
Rodrigo J. Mercader; Andrew M. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough
Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive forest insect pest threatening more than 8 billion ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. Development of effective survey methods and strategies to slow the spread of A. planipennis requires an understanding of dispersal...
Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold; Frank W. Telewski
Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis was identified in 2002 as the cause of extensive ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality in Detroit, Michigan, and has since killed millions of ash trees in the US and Canada. When discovered, it was not clear how long it had been present or at what location the invading colony started....
Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive Asian beetle that is destroying ash in forests over much of eastern North America because of the high susceptibility of our native ash and a lack of effective natural enemies. To increase mortality of EAB larvae and eggs, the USDA (FS, ARS and APHIS) is carryin...
Louis R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Jonathan Bossenbroek; Davis Sydnor; Mark W. Schwartz
The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is threatening to decimate native ashes (Fraxinus spp.) across North America and, so far, has devastated ash populations across sections of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario. We are attempting to develop a computer model that will predict EAB future movement by adapting...
Justin G.A. Whitehill; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi. Bonello
Larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) feed on phloem of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. It is hypothesized that the resistance of Asian species of ash (e.g., Manchurian ash, F. mandshurica) to EAB is due to endogenous defenses present in phloem tissues in the form of defensive proteins and/or...
Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...
Melissa J. Porter; Michael D. Hyslop; Andrew J. Storer
The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was first discovered in North America in Detroit, MI, in 2002. This beetle has killed millions of ash trees in several states in the United States and in Canada, and populations of this insect continue to be detected. EAB is difficult to detect when it invades new...
Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland; David. Cappaert
New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed...
The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...
Field trials were carried out at Umudike South eastern Agro-ecological zone of Nigeria, in the 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons to evaluate the effectiveness of stemborer resistant maize varieties, AMA–TZBR-WCI, TZBR--ELD3 and FARO 23 + FURADAN in protecting maize (Zea mays L) against stem borer infestation.
Walter D. Koenig; Andrew M. Liebhold; David N. Bonter; Wesley M. Hochachka; Janis L. Dickinson
The emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis, first detected in 2002 in the vicinity of Detroit, Michigan, USA, is one of the most recent in a long list of introduced insect pests that have caused serious damage to North American forest trees, in this case ash trees in the genus Fraxinus. We used data from Project FeederWatch, a...
Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack; Anthony I. Cognato; James J. Smith
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees first discovered outside of its native range of northeastern Asia in 2002. EAB spread from its initial zone of discovery in the Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario metropolitan areas,...
Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Diana. Londono
The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), a buprestid native to Asia that feeds on ash trees (Fraxinus spp.), was discovered in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002. It apparently arrived in the 1990's via infested solid-wood packing materials from China. As of 2011, areas considered generally infested with...
David Cappaert; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Phil Lewis; John Molongoski
Imidacloprid is the active ingredient of many widely used products applied to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in valuable urban trees. Systemic treatment with imidacloprid is typically made in the spring to reduce the number of larvae that would otherwise be generated by oviposition during the summer. Substantial...
Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Deborah L. Miller
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) is an invasive buprestid native to Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. It was first discovered in 2002 in areas of southern Michigan and Ontario, and infestations have since been found in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, Virginia...
Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges...
Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deborah G. McCullough
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy...
After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...
Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert
New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fainnaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling(bark and phloem removed from a 15...
Transgenic maize (Zea mays L), developed using modified genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), controls stem borers without observable negative effects to humans, livestock or the environment, and is now sown on 134 million hectares globally. Bt maize could contribute to increasing maize production in ...
David Cappaert; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Nathan W. Siegert
The saga of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmare (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in North America began on 25 June 2002, when five entomologists representing Michigan State University (MSU), the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA APHIS)...
Javier A. Ceja-Navarro
Full Text Available A technique for dissecting the alimentary canal of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is presented. The technique was developed to isolate and identify alimentary canal-associated microorganisms that might be involved in caffeine detoxification.
Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer
The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...
Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...
Yang, Linnan; Peng, Lin; Zhong, Fei; Zhang, Yinsong
Paddystem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) is a serious rice pest. The damaged plants wither into dead tassel or white tassel. Such damage leads to decreased in rice production. In order to control the damages of paddystem borer efficiency, it is very important to analyze and study the regulation of population dynamics and the related factors affecting the development. This investigated the population dynamics of paddystem borer by means of light trap in JianShui County in Yunnan of China during 2004 to 2006, and analyzed the meteorological conditions affecting the population dynamics. The research suggests that: there exists a significant relationship between the population dynamics of paddystem borer and meteorological factors, among it, The most influenced are the average minimum temperature per month and relative humidity (RH).
Asfers Adil; Blenzar Abdelali; Rachdaoui Mohammed; Joutei Abdelmalek Boutaleb; Houssa Abdelhadi Ait; Sekkat Ahmed
Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella), oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta) and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana) revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 ...
Morais, Jacqueline Lavinscky Costa; Castellani, Maria Aparecida; Raetano, Carlos Gilberto; Macêdo, Juliana Alves de; Nery, Moisés Silva; Moreira, Gabriela Luz Pereira
ABSTRACT In Brazil, the state of Bahia is one of the largest pinecone (Annona squamosa L.) growers; nevertheless, fruit borer (Cerconota anonella L.) presence limits production. This research aimed to test the efficiency of lambda-cyhalothrin in controlling fruit borer using different spray volumes; additionally, this research tested qualitative and quantitative operational aspects. Trials were carried out in pinecone orchards in Caraíbas-BA, Brazil. Pesticide efficiency was tested by a rando...
Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M; Peterson, Donnie L
We examined the suitability of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L., as a host for emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. In a bioassay using cut stems from a field-grown olive tree (cv. 'Manzanilla') we found that 45% of larvae that had emerged from eggs used to inoculate stems, were recovered alive, many as larvae or prepupae, during periodic debarking of a subset of stems. Three intact stems that 19 larvae successfully entered were exposed to a simulated overwintering treatment. Four live adults emerged afterwards, and an additional pupa and several prepupae were discovered after debarking these stems. Cultivated olive joins white fringetree as one of the two species outside of the genus Fraxinus capable of supporting the development of emerald ash borer from neonate to adult. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C
The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.
Polaszek, A.; Fitton, M.G.; Bianchi, G.; Huddleston, T.
A key is provided for the recognition of the hymenopterous parasitoids of the African white rice borer, Maliarpha separatella Ragonot, a pest of rice in Africa and Madagascar. Five species are described as new: Braconidae: Chelonus maudae Huddleston, Rhacanotus carinafus Polaszek; Ichneumonidae: Prisfomerus bullis Fitton, Prisfomerus caris Fitton, Venturia jordanae Fitton. The following synonyms are proposed: Goniozus indicus Muesebeck, G. natalensis Gordh and G. procerae Risbec are synonymiz...
Pickel, Carolyn; Hasey, Janine; Bentley, Walt; Olson, William H.; Grant, Joe
Slow-release pheromone tech-nology can successfully control oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer while eliminating in-season insecticide sprays in cling peaches. In conjunction with a demon-stration program, we compared mating disruption for these two pests with standard grower pest-control methods in the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys, and monitored for pest damage, yield and grower costs. While the mating-disruption program was effective in controlling the targeted pests, costs were...
Therese M. Poland
When the emerald ash borer (EAB) was discovered near Detroit, Michigan in July 2002, very little was known about it other than the fact that it was killing large numbers of ash trees throughout a widespread area in southeast Michigan (Poland and McCullough 2006). Ash mortality in the area had been noted for a few years, but was attributed to ash decline until damage...
Teixeira, Luís A F; Grieshop, Matthew J; Gut, Larry J
The timing and duration of approaches by male peachtree borer Synanthedon exitiosa Say (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to commercial pheromone dispensers placed singly or at high density in peach orchards was determined by using field-deployed video cameras and digital video recorders. Cameras were trained on one dispenser, and one standard lure was placed in a peach orchard, and on 12 dispensers in a separate orchard where dispensers for mating disruption had been placed at 371 per hectare. Male moth approaches were video recorded at the peak of peachtree borer annual flight, from 13 to 18 August 2009. The mean approach timing (h:min:sec±SD) during the study period was 11:33:12 ± 00:46:43, 11:43:52 ± 00:45:58, and 11:41:21 ± 00:45:54 AM with the single dispenser, high-density dispensers, and lure, respectively. Day-to-day variability in approach timings suggested that there were no biologically significant differences among treatments. The frequency distribution of approach durations varied among treatments, as the high-density dispensers had mostly short approaches, while the distribution of approaches to the single dispenser and lure was wider. The median (interquartile range) approach duration was 3 (2-4), 1 (1-2), and 4 (2-6) seconds with the single dispenser, high-density dispensers, and lure, respectively. The relative rank of median approach durations was constant throughout the period, indicating differences among treatments. This study showed that the presence of pheromone dispensers for mating disruption did not cause an advancement of peachtree borer diel rhythm of response. Shorter approaches to dispensers placed at high density than singly suggest that dispenser retentiveness is not constant with peachtree borer, which may bias estimates of disruption activity as a function of dispenser density.
The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree decline: Using visual canopy condition assessments and leaf isotope measurements to assess pest damage
Charles E. Flower; Kathleen S. Knight; Joanne Rebbeck; Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler
Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America are being severely impacted by the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) which was inadvertently introduced to the US in the 1990s from Asia. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is a phloem boring beetle which relies exclusively on ash trees to complete its life cycle. Larvae...
Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A
There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming.
Dively, Galen P; Venugopal, P Dilip; Bean, Dick; Whalen, Joanne; Holmstrom, Kristian; Kuhar, Thomas P; Doughty, Hélène B; Patton, Terry; Cissel, William; Hutchison, William D
Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976-2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States. We provide evidence for the regional suppression of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), European corn borer, and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), corn earworm, populations in association with widespread Bt maize adoption (1996-2016) and decreased economic levels for injury in vegetable crops [peppers ( Capsicum annuum L.), green beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sweet corn ( Zea mays L., convar. saccharata )] compared with the pre-Bt period (1976-1995). Moth populations of both species significantly declined in association with widespread Bt maize (field corn) adoption, even as increased temperatures buffered the population reduction. We show marked decreases in the number of recommended insecticidal applications, insecticides applied, and O. nubilalis damage in vegetable crops in association with widespread Bt maize adoption. These offsite benefits to vegetable growers in the agricultural landscape have not been previously documented, and the positive impacts identified here expand on the reported ecological effects of Bt adoption. Our results also underscore the need to account for offsite economic benefits of pest suppression, in addition to the direct economic benefits of Bt crops.
Williams, W P; Buckley, P M; Davis, F M
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, are major insect pests of maize, Zea mays L., in the southern USA. Both insects feed extensively on leaves of plants in the whorl stage of growth. A diallel cross of seven inbred lines with different levels of susceptibility to leaf feeding damage in the field was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay for fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer larval growth. Diets were prepared from lyophilized leaf tissue of field-grown plants of the inbred lines and their 21 F1 hybrids. One inbred line, Tx601, exhibited heavy leaf damage in field tests but showed moderate resistance in the laboratory bioassay. Both general and specific combining ability were highly significant sources of variation in the inheritance of fall armyworm and south-western corn borer larval growth in the laboratory bioassay. Tx601 showed excellent general combining ability for reduced larval growth of both species.
Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.
Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Heyd, Robert L
Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85-97% of girdled trees and 57-72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2-5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S
The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.
Coffee ( Coffea arabica and C. canephora) is one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities and the main cash crop in ∼80 tropical countries. Among the factors that limit coffee production, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) has been considered the main insect pest, causing losses of over U.S. $500 million dollars annually. Control of this pest has been hindered by two main factors: the cryptic nature of the insect (i.e., protected inside the coffee berry) and the availability of coffee berries in the field allowing the survival of the pest from one generation to the next. Coffee berry borer control has primarily been based on the use of synthetic insecticides. Management strategies have focused on the use of African parasitoids ( Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Prorops nasuta, and Phymastichus coffea), fungal entomopathogens ( Beauveria bassiana), and insect traps. These approaches have had mixed results. Recent work on the basic biology of the insect has provided novel insights that might be useful in developing novel pest management strategies. For example, the discovery of symbiotic bacteria responsible for caffeine breakdown as part of the coffee berry borer microbiome opens new possibilities for pest management via the disruption of these bacteria. Some chemicals with repellent propieties have been identified, and these have a high potential for field implementation. Finally, the publication of the CBB genome has provided insights on the biology of the insect that will help us to understand why it has been so successful at exploiting the coffee plant. Here I discuss the tools we now have against the CBB and likely control strategies that may be useful in the near future.
Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C
Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap.
Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues.
Stefan Krottenthaler; Philipp Pitsch; G. Helle; Giuliano Maselli Locosselli; Gregório Ceccantini; Jan Altman; Miroslav Svoboda; Jiri Dolezal; Gerhard Schleser; Dieter Anhuf
High-density hardwood trees with large diameters have been found to damage manually operated increment borers, thus limiting their use in the tropics. Therefore, we herein report a new, low-cost gasoline-powered sampling system for high-density tropical hardwood trees with large diameters. This system provides increment cores 15 mm in diameter and up to 1.35 m in length, allowing minimally invasive sampling of tropical hardwood tree species, which, up to the present, could not be collected by...
Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.220.127.116.11/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking
Robin A. J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms; Louis R. Iverson
The dispersal of organisms is rarely random, although diffusion processes can be useful models for movement in approximately homogeneous environments. However, the environments through which all organisms disperse are far from uniform at all scales. The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is obligate on ash (Fraxinus spp...
Philip Taylor; Jian J. Duan; Roger. Fuester
Classical biological control efforts against emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America primarily have focused on introduction and releases of exotic parasitoid species collected from northern parts of China. Recently, field surveys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Ontario also indicate that some existing parasitoids...
Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland
Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, ...
Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; Therese M. Poland; Steven J. Pierce; Su Zie. Ahn
Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of...
Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Andrea Diss-Torrance
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a highly destructive exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus) in North America. Human movement of infested logs, primarily pieces of firewood, is a major pathway for long distance spread of the beetle. Firewood may be confiscated at campgrounds, rest-areas, and...
Biological control can be an important component of integrated pest management programs. Coffee berry borer is a new pest of Hawaii coffee that arrived with no apparent natural enemies. The square-necked grain beetle, Cathartus quadricollis, has been present in Hawaii for many years and has become o...
Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F
The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.
Peter A. Williams; Candace. Karandiuk
Oakville is an urban municipality with 846 ha of woodland. Management priorities are to maintain forest health, environmental health, and safety; wood production is a minor objective. The town developed a comprehensive strategy to plan for emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) induced ash mortality and forest restoration. Oakville has begun...
Kathleen S. Knight; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Robert Long; Joanne Rebbeck; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Wendy S. Klooster; Catherine P. Herms; Alejandro A. Royo
The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program involving the U.S. Forest Service's Northern Research Station and The Ohio State University. We are monitoring the decline and mortality of >4,500 ash trees and saplings, EAB population density, changes...
Michael I. Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Andrew D. Graves; Mary Louise. Flint; Steven J. Seybold
Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle...
Robert A. Progar; George Markin; Joseph Milan; Tom Barbouletos; Matthew J. Rinella
We evaluated the efficacy of the biological control agent, red-headed leafy spurge stem borer, against the nonnative invasive plant leafy spurge. Our three treatments were release of the biological control agent into uncaged plots, release of the biological control agent into plots caged to prevent agent escape, and control plots caged to prevent agent entry. These...
Carson C. Keever; Christal Nieman; Larissa Ramsay; Carol E. Ritland; Leah S. Bauer; D. Barry Lyons; Jenny S. Cory
The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae), is an invasive wood-boring beetle native to northeast Asia. This species was first detected in Michigan USA in 2002, and is a significant threat to native and ornamental ash tree species (Fraxinus spp.) throughout North America. We...
The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...
Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Roy G. Van Driesche
In many parts of North America, ash (Fraxinus) stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees, saplings, basal sprouts, and seedlings. Without a soil seed bank for Fraxinus spp., tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these...
A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...
Corn is one of the most widely grown crops throughout the world. However, many corn fields develop pest problems such as corn borers every year that seriously affect its yield and quality. Corn's response to initial insect damage involves a variety of changes to the levels of defensive enzymes, toxi...
In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...
Clifford S. Sadof
City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city...
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native wood-boring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America, and threatens to extirpate the ecological services provided by the genus. Identifying the arthropod community assoc...
Jian J. Duan; Mike Ulyshen; Leah Bauer; Ivich. Fraser
Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North...
A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described from the Vladivostok, Russia, Oobius primorskyensis Yao & Duan n. sp. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from t...
Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002 and has been detected in 32 U.S. states and two Canadian pro...
Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...
Toby Petrice; F. William Ravlin; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland
The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is one of four parasitoid species from northeast Asia being released in regions of North America as part of a biological control program to manage the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (Bauer et al...
Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...
Isaac M. Wamatsembe
Full Text Available Maize production in Uganda is constrained by various factors, but especially drought and stem borers contribute to significant yield losses. Genetically modified (GM maize with increased drought tolerance and/or Bt insect resistance (producing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry protein is considered as an option. For an ex ante impact analysis of these technologies, a farmer survey was carried out in nine districts of Uganda, representing the major farming systems. The results showed that farmers did rate stem borer and drought as the main constraints for maize farming. Most farmers indicated a positive attitude towards GM maize, and 86% of all farmers said they would grow GM maize. Farmer estimated yield losses to drought and stem borer damage were on average 54.7% and 23.5%, respectively, if stress occurred. Taking the stress frequency into consideration (67% for both, estimated yield losses were 36.5% and 15.6% for drought and stem borer, respectively. According to the ex-ante partial budget analysis, Bt hybrid maize could be profitable, with an average value/cost ratio of 2.1. Drought tolerant hybrid maize had lower returns and a value/cost ratio of 1.5. Negative returns occurred mainly for farmers with non-stressed grain yields below 2 t·ha−1. The regulatory framework in Uganda needs to be finalized with consideration of strengthening key institutions in the maize sector for sustainable introduction of GM maize.
Vlieger, J.J. de
In the FAIR project "Pheromaize", CT96-1302, the main objective is to provide European growers with a reliable, cost effective and environmentally friendly technology based on pest mating disruption. The project is mainly focused on Mediterranean Corn Borer (MCB), Sesamia nonagroides, the key pest
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), attacks crops including corn, Zea mays L.; rice, Oryza sativa L.; sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; and sugarcane, Saccharum spp., but strongly resistant varieties of any kind, native or otherwise, have not been identified. A field plot corn varie...
Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...
Annemarie Smith; Daniel A. Herms; Robert P. Long; Kamal J.K. Gandhi
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a non-native, wood-boring beetle that has caused widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus Linnaeus (Oleaceae)) in eastern North America. During 2004-2007, we determined whether forest community composition and structure of black (F. nigra...
Xiao-Yi Wang; Liang-Ming Cao; Zhong-Qi Yang; Jian J. Duan; Juli R. Gould; Leah S. Bauer
To investigate natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in northeastern China, we conducted field surveys of ash (Fraxinus Linnaeus (Oleaceae)) trees in semi-natural forests and plantations at variable EAB densities from 2008 to 2013. Our surveys revealed a complex of...
Therese M. Poland; Yigen Chen; Jennifer Koch; Deepa. Pureswaran
As of summer 2014, the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has become established in 24 states in the United States of America and has killed tens of millions of ash trees since its introduction into Michigan in the 1990s. Considerable research has been conducted on many aspects of EAB life...
Shahid, M.A.; Rana, Z.A.; Haq, I.; Tariq, H.
Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was
Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich
Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully
Luiz Eduardo da Rocha Pannuti
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen availability in fertigation and rainfed management, as well as their interactions with the incidence of and damage caused by D. saccharalis and red rot in sugarcane. The experiment consisted of four treatments (0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer with irrigation; 0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer in rainfed management in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The evaluated parameters were the number of holes and internodes with red rot per meter of cultivation, stalk yield and sugar content. In the laboratory (T = 25 ± 2 °C; R.H. = 70 ± 10%: 12:12-L:D, we evaluated the attractiveness and consumption of fragments of stalks from the different treatments for fourth instar larvae through choice and no-choice tests in a randomized complete block design with ten replications. Nitrogen fertilization via irrigation has favorable effects on borer-rot complex and leads to higher gains in stalk and sugar yields when compared to rainfed management. The increments of stalk and sugar yields due to nitrogen fertilization compensates for the increase in borer-rot complex infestation. In laboratory tests, D. saccharalis larvae were similarly attracted to all treatments regardless of the doses of N-fertilizer or the water regimes evaluated. However, fragments of sugarcane stalks produced with nitrogen fertilization were consumed more by D. saccharalis in both water regimes.
Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan
The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922
Wiendl, F.M.; Silva, A.L. da.
Two experiments carried out in order to determine immediate lethal doses (LD sub(I)) for gamma irradiation of larvae, pupae and adults hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867) are presented. One experiment aimed only the determination of LD sub(I) for the adults of the coffee borer-outside the coffee-berries. The other to obtain the equivalent data for insects inside the coffee-berry, for all phases of the development cycle of the insect. It was found that LD sub(I) for larvae was around 350 Krad and for pupae around 400 Krad. For the adults, the LD sub(I) for insects outside the coffee-berry was 475 Krad and 525 for insects inside the coffee-berry. It was found that smaller doses caused a pronunced decrease in the insect lifetime, lifetime decrease proportionally as the irradiation dose increase. According to the results obtained, is postulated that this species of coffee-borer may be considered resistant to gamma radiation [pt
Full Text Available The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B . sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M . sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis , and S. nonagrioides . For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA, Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA, showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed.
Cheng, Xuan; Chang, Cheng; Dai, Shu-Mei
Information on the insecticide susceptibility of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is essential for an effective pest management programme. An early detection of resistance development can prompt the modification of current control methods and increase the lifespan of insecticides through the rotation of chemicals with different modes of action. In this study, the susceptibility of this pest in Taiwan to four classes of insecticides has been examined. Over 1000-fold resistance to carbofuran was detected in C. suppressalis collected from Chiayi and Changhua prefectures, with estimated LC(50) values of > 3 mg cm(-2). In addition, 61-fold resistance to cartap was found in the Chiayi population. On the other hand, all tested populations of rice stem borer were still relatively susceptible to chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, with LC(50) values ranging from 30 to 553 ng cm(-2). Chilo suppressalis populations collected from the central parts of Taiwan have a higher degree of resistance to the tested insecticides than those from northern areas. The occurrence of high resistance to carbofuran in the Chiayi and Changhua areas suggests that this compound should be replaced with chemicals having a different mode of action, such as chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, to which low cross-resistance has been detected. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Prabhukarthikeyan, Rathinam; Saravanakumar, Duraisamy; Raguchander, Thiruvengadam
Most of the approaches for biocontrol of pests and diseases have used a single biocontrol agent as antagonist to a single pest or pathogen. This accounts for the inconsistency in the performance of biocontrol agents. The development of a bioformulation possessing a mixture of bioagents could be a viable option for the management of major pests and diseases in crop plants. A bioformulation containing a mixture of Beauveria bassiana (B2) and Bacillus subtilis (EPC8) was tested against Fusarium wilt and fruit borer in tomato under glasshouse and field conditions. The bioformulation with B2 and EPC8 isolates effectively reduced the incidence of Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) and fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera) under glasshouse and field conditions compared with the individual application of B2 and EPC8 isolates and control treatments. In vitro studies showed a higher larval mortality of H. armigera when fed with B2 + EPC8-treated leaves. Further, plants treated with the B2 + EPC8 combination showed a greater accumulation of defence enzymes such as lipoxygenase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase against wilt pathogen and fruit borer pest than the other treatments. Moreover, a significant increase in growth parameters and yield was observed in tomato plants treated with B2 + EPC8 compared with the individual bioformulations and untreated control. The combined application of Beauveria and Bacillus isolates B2 and EPC8 effectively reduced wilt disease and fruit borer attack in tomato plants. Results show the possibility of synchronous management of tomato fruit borer pest and wilt disease in a sustainable manner. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Jian J. Duan; Roy G. Van Driesche
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoid species, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera:...
Full Text Available The frequency and incidence of A. flavus and A. niger on barley, maize, soybean, sunflowerand wheat grain, the abundance of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis mothsand their interaction depending on weather conditions in the 2008-2012 period were studied.Under the agroecological conditions of Serbia, the species A. niger is more frequentthan A. flavus, and concerning the crop species, its frequency is highest in kernels of sunflower,than soybean, maize, barley and wheat. A. flavus was extremely dominant on allplant species in 2012 regarding its frequency: 100% on soybean, 95.3% on maize, 65.2% onbarley, 57.1% on sunflower and 45.8% on wheat. Furthermore, the incidence of A. flavus washigher in 2012 than in previous years. The uncommonly high frequency and incidence of A.flavus infestation of maize grain in 2012 were caused by extremely stressful agrometeorologicalconditions, high temperatures and drought over the period from flowering to waxymaturity of maize. The precipitation factor (Pf = precipitation sum / average monthly temperatureshowed that 2012 was extremely arid in June (Pf = 0.57, July (Pf = 1.45, August (Pf= 0.15 and September (Pf = 1.42. European corn borer (ECB was a second factor causingintensive occurrence of A. flavus on maize grain in 2012. The maximum flight of ECB mothswas recorded as early as in July (5,149 and, as a result of this, high damage and numerousinjuries were detected at harvest. Those injuries were covered by visible olive-green powderycolonies typical of A. flavus. In the chronology of A. flavus occurrence, these are thefirst data on its very high frequency and incidence under the agroecological conditions ofSerbia. As intensive infections with A. flavus were rare in the past 50 years, the level of aflatoxinsin maize grain was low.
Kiani, Ghaffar; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Ghareyazie, Behzad; Sattari, Majid
Three transgenic rice varieties namely Khazar, Neda and Nemat, all containing a cry1Ab gene, were evaluated through PCR analysis and field examinations for their resistance at natural infestation of insect pests during 2007. The results showed that all transgenic varieties produced 1.2 kb PCR product derived from application of cry1Ab gene. In field conditions, transgenic varieties exhibited high levels of resistance against natural infestation of stem borer and the damaged plants based on dead heart or white heat for them were less than 1%. Moreover, in stem-cut bioassay 100% of released larvae died within four days after infestation. These results demonstrate that expression of cry1Ab gene in the genome of transgenic varieties provided season-long protection from the natural infestation of lepidopteran insects.
Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G
Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.
Davolos, Camila C; Hernández-Martinez, Patricia; Crialesi-Legori, Paula C B; Desidério, Janete A; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar; Lemos, Manoel Victor F
Sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis, F.) is an important corn pest in South America and United States. The aim of the present study was to analyze the susceptibility and binding interactions of three Cry1A proteins and Cry1Fa in a Brazilian D. saccharalis population. The results showed that Cry1Ab was the most active, followed by Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa and Cry1Aa. All Cry1-biotinylated proteins tested bound specifically to the D. saccharalis brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Heterologous competition assays showed shared binding sites for all Cry1A proteins and another one shared by Cry1Fa and Cry1Ab. Thus, pyramiding Cry1Aa/Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins would be a recommended strategy for managing this pest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Delvis Valdés Zayas
Full Text Available Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, coffee berry borer is considered the pest that bigger causes damage, to coffee production all over the world. It is an insect of difficult handling with the traditional control methods by mean of insecticides. For this reason the Strategy of Integrated Handling of this Plague take into consideration since manual collection of the insect up the employment of biological controls. The last alternative is one of the more appealed by coffee farmers due to the minor cost. That’s why with the realization of this work the levels of effectiveness of several doses of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on the control of H. hampei were evaluated. There were not significant differences between the three doses evaluated so it is suggested the employment of the dose of 500 million for hectare for the control of the plague because it is the most economic dose.
Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.
Wang, Fei; Wu, De-jun; Zhai, Guo-feng; Zang, Li-peng
Water and energy metabolism of plants is very important actions in their lives. Although the studies about these actions by using thermography were often reported, seldom were found in detecting the health status of forest trees. In this study, we increase the measurement accuracy and comparability of thermo-images by creating the difference indices. Based on it, we exam the water and energy status in stem of Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) by detecting the variance of far infrared spectrum between sap-wood and heart-wood of the cross-section of felling trees and the cores from an increment borer using thermography. The results indicate that the sap rate between sapwood and heartwood is different as the variance of the vigor of forest trees. Meanwhile, the image temperature of scale leaves from Chinese arborvitae trees with different vigor is also dissimilar. The far infrared spectrum more responds the sap status not the wood percentage in comparing to the area rate between sapwood and heartwood. The image temperature rate can be used in early determining the health status of Chinese arborvitae trees. The wood borers such as Phloeosinus aubei Perris and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky are the pests which usually attack the low health trees, dying trees, wilted trees, felled trees and new cultivated trees. This measuring technique may be an important index to diagnose the health and vigor status after a large number of measurements for Chinese arborvitae trees. Therefore, there is potential to be an important index to check the tree vigor and pest damage status by using this technique. It will be a key in the tending and management of ecological and public Chinese arborvitae forest.
Dwinardi Apriyanto, Edi Gunawan, dan Tri Sunardi .
Full Text Available Resistance of some groundnut cultivars to soybean pod borer, Etiella zinckenella Treit. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Five groundnut cultivars: Badak, Panther, Sima, Gajah, and Simpai, were grown in field in June-August, 2006 to determine their resistance/susceptibility to Etiella zinckenella Treit. Two local cultivars (big and small seeds were included as comparison (controls. All cultivars were grown in experimental plots arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD, replicated three times. The incidence of soybean pod borer and damaged pods were observed at 9, 11, 13 weeks after sowing (WAS at 10 sample plants taken randomly from each plot. All cultivars were harvested at 13 WAS. Number of damaged pods was counted and percentages per plant were calculated. Larvae observed inside pod or in the soil were counted and collected. The seed yield per plant and weight of 100 seeds from 100 sample plants taken randomly at harvest were weighted to nearest gram at 10% water content. Pod toughness (hardness was measured with penetrometer. Resistance level of each cultivar was determined based on cultivar’s means and overall mean and standard deviation of the percentages of damaged pods. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA and means were separated with DMRT. The result revealed that mean percentages of damaged pod differed significantly between cultivars. Seed yield of cultivar Panther, Sima and Badak were significantly higher than those of the other two and local cultivars. Cultivar Panther was categorized as resistant, cultivar Sima and Badak as moderately resistant, while the others as susceptible. The relative resistance of groundnut cultivar seems, at least in part, to correlate with the structural hardness of pod.
Steckel, S; Stewart, S D
Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun.
Bergh, J. C.; Leskey, T. C.; Walgenbach, J. F.; Klingeman, W. E.; Kain, D. P.; Zhang, A.
The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 ± 644 and 3095 ± 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, excee...
L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha
Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.) has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with Solanum viarum to transfer th...
Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.
The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h 2 = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = −0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to
Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M
Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.
Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger
The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A
The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to
Trnka, M.; Muška, F.; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Kocmánková, E.; Žalud, Z.
Roč. 207, 2-4 (2007), s. 61-84 ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA MZe QG60051; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0125 Grant - others:6th FP EU(XE) GOCE 037005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Corn borer * ECAMON * GCMs * Degree day model * Climate change impacts Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2007
Full Text Available Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella, oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 chemical control based on tolerance threshold of 10 males/trap/2 weeks showed unsatisfactory results. With this method, the percentage of affected fruits increased from 6.8% in 2009 to 18.6% in 2010 despite the application of four treatments of organophosphate-based insecticides in 2009 and the application of four treatments in 2010 using active ingredients from different chemical families (pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinicotinyl. On the other hand, management of the peach twig borer by the degree-days method tested and planned on the basis of a bifenthrin treatment between 150 to 204 degree-days accumulated from biofix, gave interesting results where the percentage of affected fruits hardly exceeded 0.5% over the four years of study
Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Nasrullah; Tofique, M.
The present studies report the genotypic responses of 61 rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (35 aromatic and 26 non aromatic) against the infestation of rice stem borers under natural field conditions. The data obtained on these genotypes on larval infestation in combination with yield were the criteria to assess the resistance depicted by them. The studies showed that among aromatic genotypes, 'Khushboo-95' gave the best yield of grain and harboured the least pest infestation (2.81% dead hearts and 1.85% white heads); on the other hand variety 'Sonahri Sugdasi (P)' harboured the highest borers attack (10.37% and 19.30%) and yielded the lowest grain yield. Regarding non-aromatic genotypes, IR8-2.5-11 received least infestation (1.32% and 0.26% dead hearts and white heads, respectively) generating highest yield showing its tolerance to borer's attack, in contrast, genotype IR6-252 harboured the highest infestation (5.65%, 4.28%) and yielded minimum grain indicating its susceptibility. These results demonstrate the expression of resistance gene in the genome of tolerant rice genotypes that can provide season-long protection from the natural infestation of insect pests. (author)
Full Text Available The necessity to incorporate an alternative, for monitoring and control of the borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Choleoptera: Curculionidae to be feasible for the use of the coffee producers, in the community Choro, Coripata municipality, second section of Nor Yungas province, La Paz Bolivia. It was evaluated the capture of adult borer coffee individuals using 45 traps into 1,5 hectares distributed at random with four repetitions. It was used three types of craft traps, built with disposable plastic bottles of soft drinks, with the traps Casera, Brocap and Yessica, were evaluated three treatments: mixture of alcohols methyl (M and ethylic (E in proportions 3:1; mix 1:1 of (M and (E; mix 1:1:1 of (M (E and coffee fresh cherry liquated (CFCL and water as a witness. The largest captures of adult individuals, were present in the crafting traps with mixture of (M(E 3:1 with overalls (± standard deviation adults/traps/ten days of 3414,5±3227,7 being superior to the other treatments. The crafting trap is one of the alternatives for the control and monitoring of the borer in the coffee plantations. The use of crafting traps with alcoholic attractants for the capture of adult individuals, is present as a low cost alternative, being feasible the successful use by the producers into the management integrated programs.
Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C
Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps.
Full Text Available Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis. In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed.
Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Driesche, Roy Van
Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well. PMID:22233133
Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.
Agung Wahyu Soesilo
Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance
Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values
Full Text Available The coffee is one of the main cultivated crops in the Caranavi region, among the biotic stress factors; the borer of the coffee (Hypothenemus hampei is the one that affects significantly and negatively. In order to finding alternative practical and economic for the control of the pest, it was carried this investigation in the “Bolinda” Colony of the Caranavi Municipality La Paz-Bolivia, the trial was established under a completely random, design with two study factors, e three replications, 1.5 ha distributed at random in the coffee plantations. Three types of traps were built handmade. These were, INIA, ECOIAPAR and TRAP BORER, in combination with the attractive mixtures of alcohols methanol (M and ethanol (E in the proportion of 3: 1; it mixes 3: 1: 1 M-E+milled coffee, 2: 1 M-E and commercial alcohol as check. Borer/trap/attractive capture was evaluated. He she was highly significant statistical differences among them. The biggest captures female adults of Hipothenemus hampei were presented in the proportion 2: 1 of M-E and ECOIAPAR trap (T8 was identified as the most efficient and economic, being able to capture 4877 borer, with a cost trap (1.50 Bs and the attractive (2.20 Bs, continued by the T2 with the same cost (proportion 3: 1 of M-E and INIA trap with 159 borer and the treatments witnesT9, T5 and T1 (commercial alcohol they obtained smaller captures with 23, 35 and 38 drills, which means that it is not effective for the control. The costs of the implementation of traps the marginal cost of 40 Bolivianos/ha. The results obtained in the study show the biggest borer captures were in December and January, the use of handmade traps constitutes an alternative for the control in the period of postharvest, a more practical and economic method, feasible for the producers.
Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J
Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae.
Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range.
Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).
Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M
We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Srinivasappa, K.N.; Ramanjini Gowda, P.H.; Thimmaiah, S.K.; Mahadevu, P.
Shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) is a serious pest in brinjal and no variety is found to be resistant to this dreaded pest. Solanum macrocarpon, a wild relative of brinjal is found to be resistant to shoot and fruit borer infestation. Attempts were made to hybridise between S. melongena and S. macrocarpon, but it was unsuccessful due to ovule abortion. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the promising mutants in M 3 generation for improved fruit quality besides its unbroken resistance and for further crop improvement
Full Text Available The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire infects and eventually kills endemic ash trees and is currently spreading across the Great Lakes region of North America. The need for early detection of EAB infestation is critical to managing the spread of this pest. Using WorldView-2 (WV2 imagery, the goal of this study was to establish a remote sensing-based method for mapping ash trees undergoing various infestation stages. Based on field data collected in Southeastern Ontario, Canada, an ash health score with an interval scale ranging from 0 to 10 was established and further related to multiple spectral indices. The WV2 image was segmented using multi-band watershed and multiresolution algorithms to identify individual tree crowns, with watershed achieving higher segmentation accuracy. Ash trees were classified using the random forest classifier, resulting in a user’s accuracy of 67.6% and a producer’s accuracy of 71.4% when watershed segmentation was utilized. The best ash health score-spectral index model was then applied to the ash tree crowns to map the ash health for the entire area. The ash health prediction map, with an overall accuracy of 70%, suggests that remote sensing has potential to provide a semi-automated and large-scale monitoring of EAB infestation.
Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping
Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C(25)), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with (n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C(25), which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C(25) had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.
McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), the most destructive forest insect to have invaded North America, has killed hundreds of millions of forest and landscape ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Several artificial trap designs to attract and capture EAB beetles have been developed to detect, delineate, and monitor infestations. Double-decker (DD) traps consist of two corrugated plastic prisms, one green and one purple, attached to a 3 m tall polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe supported by a t-post. The green prism at the top of the PVC pipe is baited with cis-3-hexenol, a compound produced by ash foliage. Surfaces of both prisms are coated with sticky insect glue to capture adult EAB beetles. Double-decker traps should be placed near ash trees but in open areas, exposed to sun. Double-decker trap construction and placement are presented here, along with a summary of field experiments demonstrating the efficacy of DD traps in capturing EAB beetles. In a recent study in sites with relatively low EAB densities, double-decker traps captured significantly more EAB than green or purple prism traps or green funnel traps, all of which are designed to be suspended from a branch in the canopy of ash trees. A greater percentage of double decker traps were positive, i.e., captured at least one EAB, than the prism traps or funnel traps that were hung in ash tree canopies.
Posada, Francisco J.; Virdiana, Ike; Navies, Maisin; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Hebbar, Prakash
This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening. The male genital opening is a conspicuous, brown, longitudinal slit located between the two pairs of tubercles. The sex of the adult moth can be determined by examining the ventrocaudal segments of the abdomen. The last segment of the female abdomen is white, compressed laterally and at the tip, and the hairy anal papillae can be seen. In the male, the ventrocaudal end of the abdomen is black and robust. This information will be useful for laboratory and field diagnosis and while working on sex ratios of this important pest of cocoa. PMID:21861656
Full Text Available The erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. has a social, cultural and economic importance in the southern states of Brazil. The pure stands of this culture was responsible for the increase of many species of insects. Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae is considered the main pest from an economic viewpoint because of its difficult control and potential for damage. The larval phase occurs inside the twings and trunks, what makes more difficult to deal with its detention and management. Cultural and mechanical management are the most indicated, such as collection of adults, prunning and burning of plant parts damaged by the insect, balanced nutrition, adequate plant density and maintenance of areas with native vegetation or also the introduction of policulture. These strategies may increase the agroecossystem balance and thus a reduction of the insect-pest to an aceptable level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assemble and the discuss the information on the bioecology and management of erva-mate borer.
Bento, J M; Parra, J R; Vilela, E F; Walder, J M; Leal, W S
Males and virgin females of the citrus fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantiana Lima, displayed two flight peaks during a 24-hr period, one at dawn and the other at dusk in an orange grove near Gavião Peixoto, São Paulo, Brazil. During the day, when temperatures were highest and relative humidity lowest, most individuals rested on leaves in the lower and middle crown. Moths rapidly moved higher in the crown after sunset, and many were observed flying above the tree canopy. This behavior was mainly associated with mating. Males and virgin females marked with fluorescent powder of different colors were observed in the dark with the aid of a black light. Mating was observed only in the upper crown of citrus trees from 6:00 to 9:00 PM, with a peak (64%) between 7:00 and 8:00 PM. Males of E. aurantiana were captured in traps baited either with virgin females or female extracts, suggesting the use of a long-range sex pheromone. At close distance (1-2 cm), males and females displayed a short-range communication behavior, with males exposing hairpencils and vibrating their wings. Females were frequently stimulated to contact the body of a male before copulation. The mean duration of copulation was 1 hr 40 min.
Oppenheim, Sara J; Feindt, Wiebke; DeSalle, Rob; Goldstein, Paul Z
Stem-borers in the genus Papaipema (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) range from highly polyphagous agricultural pests to specialists on more than 20 families of flowering plants, many of them highly toxic. Papaipema is the largest genus of noctuids endemic to North America and provides an excellent study system for the evolution of noctuid host plant use. To improve the availability of genomic resources for such investigations, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly for two specialist Papaipema with unusual larval hosts: P. speciosissima, which is associated with ferns, and the undescribed P. "sp. 4," which is associated with bamboo. The resulting transcriptomes were similar in terms of completeness, gene count, and gene identity, but we identified some 8,000 genes (~17% of each transcriptome) not shared between the two species. While some of these have identifiable orthologs in other Lepidoptera, ~5% of each transcriptome consists of species-specific genes. We examine the function of these genes and find that almost half have retrotransposon-related functional domains. The potential role of species-specific genes is discussed, and the expansion of certain retrotransposon families in Papaipema is examined.
Li Yuanying; Kang Wen; Zhang Heqin
The chromosomal aberration, its genetic effect and the structurally abnormal sperms of Peach Fruit Borer (PFB) irradiated with substerilizing dose were described. The numbers of chromosome of PFB were n = 31. The longest chromosome was 4.43 ± 0.49 μ. The shortest one was 1.54 ± 0.15 μ. Total chromosome lengh was 96.37 ± 10.75 μ. The variation rate of the chromosome was 83.6% in F 1 generation including several kinds of aberration. The main chromosomal rearrangement was reciprocal translocation involving many chromosomes. It is the main factor of F 1 generation with higher sterility than P generation that the radiation damage of chromosome can be inherited and strongly expressed in F 1 generation. Because of the dominant lethal mutation of F 1 generation leading to high rate of death, there was less chromosomal aberration in F 2 generation. The variation rate was 12.5%. The genetic abnormalities of ultrastructure of sperm were inherited more intensely in F 1 progeny, produced from the cross of P male adults with the irradiated females
Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C
The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals.
Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A.; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor
The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to exploit the synergy of hyperspectral imagery, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR and high spatial resolution data and their synergy in the early detection of the EAB (Emerald Ash Borer presence in trees within urban areas and to develop a framework to combine information extracted from multiple data sources. To achieve these, an object-oriented framework was developed to combine information derived from available data sets to characterize ash trees. Within this framework, an advanced individual tree delineation method was developed to delineate individual trees using the combined high-spatial resolution worldview-3 imagery was used together with LiDAR data. Individual trees were then classified to ash and non-ash trees using spectral and spatial information. In order to characterize the health state of individual ash trees, leaves from ash trees with various health states were sampled and measured using a field spectrometer. Based on the field measurements, the best indices that sensitive to leaf chlorophyll content were selected. The developed framework and methods were tested using worldview-3, airborne LiDAR data over the Keele campus of York University Toronto Canada. Satisfactory results in terms of individual tree crown delineation, ash tree identification and characterization of the health state of individual ash trees. Quantitative evaluations is being carried out.
Rodrigues, Thais B; Rieske, Lynne K; J Duan, Jian; Mogilicherla, Kanakachari; Palli, Subba R
The ingestion of double-strand RNAs (dsRNA) targeting essential genes in an insect could cause mortality. Based on this principle, a new generation of insect control methods using RNA interference (RNAi) are being developed. In this work, we developed a bioassay for oral delivery of dsRNA to an invasive forest and urban tree pest, the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis). EAB feeds and develops beneath the bark, killing trees rapidly. This behavior, coupled with the lack of a reliable artificial diet for rearing larvae and adults, make them difficult to study. We found that dsRNA is transported and processed to siRNAs by EAB larvae within 72 h after ingestion. Also, feeding neonate larvae with IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) or COP (COPI coatomer, β subunit) dsRNA silenced their target genes and caused mortality. Both an increase in the concentration of dsRNA fed and sequential feeding of two different dsRNAs increased mortality. Here we provide evidence for successful RNAi in EAB, and demonstrate the development of a rapid and effective bioassay for oral delivery of dsRNA to screen additional genes.
McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Lewis, Phillip A
Economic and ecological impacts of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality resulting from emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) invasion are severe in forested, residential and urban areas. Management options include girdling ash trees to attract ovipositing adult beetles and then destroying infested trees before larvae develop or protecting ash with a highly effective, systemic emamectin benzoate insecticide. Injecting this insecticide and then girdling injected trees a few weeks later could effectively create lethal trap trees, similar to a bait-and-kill tactic, if girdling does not interfere with insecticide translocation. We compared EAB larval densities on girdled trees, trees injected with the emamectin benzoate insecticide, trees injected with the insecticide and then girdled 18-21 days later and untreated controls at multiple sites. Pretreatment larval densities did not differ among treatments. Current-year larval densities were higher on girdled and control trees than on any trees treated with insecticide at all sites. Foliar residue analysis and adult EAB bioassays showed that girdling trees after insecticide injections did not reduce insecticide translocation. Girdling ash trees to attract adult EAB did not reduce efficacy of emamectin benzoate trunk injections applied ≥ 18 days earlier and could potentially be used in integrated management programs to slow EAB population growth. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.
DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.
Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash
The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a β-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palma, Rubén; Mutis, Ana; Isaacs, Rufus; Quiroz, Andrés
In order to determine the type, distribution, and structures of sensilla, the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were examined by light and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Four different types of sensilla were identified in the club, and one type of chaetica was found in the scape and funicle of both male and female individuals. Chaetica and basiconica were the most abundant sensilla types in the club. They were present in the three sensory bands described, totaling approximately 80% of sensilla in the antennal club of H. obscurus. Chaetica were predominantly mechanoreceptors, although gustatory function could not be excluded. Basiconica forms showed characteristics typical of olfactory sensilla. Trichoidea were not found in the proximal sensory band, and they exhibited abundant pores, suggesting olfactory function. Styloconica were the least abundant sensillum type, and their shape was similar to that reported as having hygro- and thermoreceptor functions. There was no difference in the relative abundance of antennal sensilla between males and females. Finally, the sensillar configuration and abundance of receptors in the H. obscurus antennae suggest that these sensilla have chemoreceptive and other functions.
Kiyota, Ryutaro; Yamakawa, Rei; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Hoshino, Keita; Ando, Tetsu
Adult males of the grape borer, Xylotrechus pyrrhoderus, secrete (S)-2-hydroxy-3-octanone [(S)-1] and (2S,3S)-2,3-octanediol [(2S,3S)-2] from their nota of prothoraces as sex pheromone components. Their structural similarity suggests that one of them is the biosynthetic precursor of the other component. In order to confirm the biochemical conversion, deuterated derivatives of both components were synthesized by starting from a Wittig reaction between hexanal and an ylide derived from D(5)-iodoethane and ending with enantiomeric resolution by chiral HPLC. The molecular ions of 1 and 2 could scarcely be detected by using a GC-MS analysis, and the labeled compounds showed similar mass spectra to the unlabeled pheromone components. However, several fragment ions, including four deuterium atoms, were observed in the mass spectra of their acetate derivatives, indicating that the conversion could be confirmed by examining a compound with the diagnostic ions after acetylation of the volatiles collected from insects treated with the labeled precursors.
Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei
Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A. John Woodill
Full Text Available Integrated pest management strategies were adopted to combat the coffee berry borer (CBB after its arrival in Hawaii in 2010. A decision tree framework is used to model the CBB integrated pest management recommendations, for potential use by growers and to assist in developing and evaluating management strategies and policies. The model focuses on pesticide spraying (spray/no spray as the most significant pest management decision within each period over the entire crop season. The main result from the analysis suggests the most important parameter to maximize net benefit is to ensure a low initial infestation level. A second result looks at the impact of a subsidy for the cost of pesticides and shows a typical farmer receives a positive net benefit of $947.17. Sensitivity analysis of parameters checks the robustness of the model and further confirms the importance of a low initial infestation level vis-a-vis any level of subsidy. The use of a decision tree is shown to be an effective method for understanding integrated pest management strategies and solutions.
Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping
Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.
Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A
Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close.
Jaclyn Hatala Matthes
Full Text Available Invasive insect pests are a common disturbance in temperate forests, but their effects on belowground processes in these ecosystems are poorly understood. This study examined how aboveground disturbance might impact short-term soil carbon flux in a forest impacted by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire in central New Hampshire, USA. We anticipated changes to soil moisture and temperature resulting from tree mortality caused by emerald ash borer, with subsequent effects on rates of soil respiration and methane oxidation. We measured carbon dioxide emissions and methane uptake beneath trees before, during, and after infestation by emerald ash borer. In our study, emerald ash borer damage to nearby trees did not alter soil microclimate nor soil carbon fluxes. While surprising, the lack of change in soil microclimate conditions may have been a result of the sandy, well-drained soil in our study area and the diffuse spatial distribution of canopy ash trees and subsequent canopy light gaps after tree mortality. Overall, our results indicate that short-term changes in soil carbon flux following insect disturbances may be minimal, particularly in forests with well-drained soils and a mixed-species canopy.
Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a devastating, invasive insect pest of ash trees, Fraxinus spp., in North America. Using a simulation model, we evaluated three potential management options to slow the spread of A. planipennis in discrete outlier sites: (i)...
Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...
Andrew C. Telander; Robert A. Slesak; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Kenneth N. Brooks; Christian F. Lenhart
Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) mortality caused by the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) is of concern to land managers in the upper Great Lakes region, given the large areas of ash-dominated forest and potential alteration of wetland hydrology following loss of this foundation tree species. The importance of changes in evapotranspiration (ET) following...
Aboubakar Souna, Djibril; Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé; Ravallec, Marc; Cusumano, Antonino; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert; Volkoff, Anne Nathalie; Tamò, Manuele
Therophilus javanus is a koinobiont, solitary larval endoparasitoid currently being considered as a biological control agent against the pod borer Maruca vitrata, a devastating cowpea pest causing 20-80% crop losses in West Africa. We investigated ovary morphology and anatomy, oogenesis, potential
Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak
Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash), a dominant tree species of wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, is imperiled by the invasive insect emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888). Regeneration of associated tree species is generally low in F. nigra forests and could be impacted...
Charles E. Flower; Kathleen S. Knight; Miquel. Gonzalez-Meler
Invasive species are widely recognized as altering species and community dynamics, but their impacts on biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem processes are less understood. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a phloem feeding beetle that was inadvertently introduced to the US in the 1990s and relies solely on ash trees (...
Full Text Available The polyphagous shot hole borer and Kuroshio shot hole borer, two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, are invasive ambrosia beetles that harbor distinct species of Fusarium fungal symbionts. Together with the damage caused by gallery construction, these two phytopathogenic Fusarium species are responsible for the emerging tree disease Fusarium dieback, which affects over 50 common tree species in Southern California. Host trees suffer branch dieback as the xylem is blocked by invading beetles and fungi, forcing the costly removal of dead and dying trees in urban areas. The beetles are also threatening natural riparian habitats, and avocado is susceptible to Fusarium dieback as well, resulting in damage to the avocado industries in California and Israel. Currently there are no adequate control mechanisms for shot hole borers. This paper summarizes efforts to find a suitable lure to monitor shot hole borer invasions and dispersal. Field trials were conducted in two counties in Southern California over a span of two years. We find that the chemical quercivorol is highly attractive to these beetles, and perform subsequent field experiments attempting to optimize this lure. We also explore other methods of increasing trap catch and effects of other potential attractants, as well as the deterrents verbenone and piperitone.
Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Kristopher J. Abell; Jonathan P. Lelito; Roy. Van Driesche
Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid native to China and has been introduced to the United States since 2007 for classical biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. Between 2007-2010, T....
Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a serious invasive pests of North American ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To facilitate the development of potential augmentative biocon...
Oobius agrili is a solitary egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and can be responsible for 50-60% of EAB egg mortality in its native range. O. agrili has been released for biological control of EAB in the US since 2007; however, current methods to monitor its establishme...
To investigate the natural enemies of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and their role in regulating the pest population dynamics, we conducted field surveys at multiple forest sites with variable host densities in the pest’s native range (north an...
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and Spathius agrili Yang, and one egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang, were introduced into the United Sta...
A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...
Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which has killed millions of ash trees since it was first detected in Michigan. A native parasitoid like A. cappaerti...
Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough
Since its discovery in southeast Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has continued to spread and kill ash (Fraxinus) trees at an alarming rate. As of February 2010, EAB has killed tens of millions of ash trees in Michigan, at least 12 additional U.S. states, and the...
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a serious invasive forest pest that has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus) trees in the United States and Canada. By caging EAB adults on trunks of healthy ash trees, we established three generations of experimental cohorts from ...
Andrea C. Anulewicz; Deborah G. McCullough; Deborah L. Miller
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive phloem-feeding pest native to Asia. It was first identified in North America in 2002 and has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in southeast Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Since then, additional populations have been discovered...
Jian J. Duan; Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Juli Gould; Roy. Van Driesche
The emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a serious invasive forest pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Life tables were constructed for both experimentally established cohorts and wild populations of A. planipennis on healthy host trees from 2008 to 2011 in six forests in central Michigan...
Randall S. Morin; Scott A. Pugh; Andrew M. Liebhold; Susan J. Crocker
The nonnative insect, emerald ash borer (Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire), has caused extensive mortality of ash tree species (Fraxinus spp.) in the eastern United States. As of 2012, the pest had been detected in about 15 percent of the counties in the 37 states that comprise the natural range of ash in forests of the eastern...
Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack
Efforts to eradicate or slow the spread of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire [Coleoptera: Buprestidae]) include cutting infested and nearby uninfested ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. However, ash trees readily sprout after they have been cut, providing potential host material for EAB. In 2004-2005, we conducted...
Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Michael D. Ulyshen; Juli R. Gould; Roy. Van Driesche
A field study was conducted in forested plots near Lansing, Michigan in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the newly introduced egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). To measure parasitism by
Kent F. Kovacs; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Robert G. Haight; Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold
The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding...
Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint; Tom W. Coleman; Joseph J. Doccola; Donald M. Grosman; David L. Wood; Steven J. Seybold
BACKGROUND: The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego County, California. From two sites in the core area of the infestation, we report a 2.5 year investigation of the impact of A. auroguttatus on coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, before and after treatment with two systemic...
The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature r...
Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...
Kalinová, Blanka; Jiroš, Pavel; Žďárek, Jan; Wen, X.; Hoskovec, Michal
Roč. 99, č. 11 (2005), s. 843 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii /40./. 18.11.2005-20.11.2005, Nymburk] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sex pheromone * persimmon bark borer * two-dimensional (GC x GC) system Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Kristopher J. Abell; Roy. van Driesch
Populations of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with larval stages of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were surveyed in 2009 and 2010 in the recently invaded areas in north central United States (Michigan), where two introduced EAB larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi...
Charles E. Flower; Lawrence C. Long; Kathleen S. Knight; Joanne Rebbeck; Joel S. Brown; Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler; Christopher J. Whelan
Inadvertently introduced into North America in the 1990s, the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) has been spreading across the Great Lakes Region resulting in widespread ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Native woodpeckers and other bark-foraging insectivores represent one of the few potential natural predators...
Full Text Available In order to develop efficient lures for soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura in China, (E,E-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate (EE-8,10-12:Ac, the main component of the pheromone of L. glycinivorella, and 12 structurally-related compounds were synthesised in good overall yields, regiospecificities, and stereo-selectivities via coupling reactions catalysed by Li2CuCl4. The effect of different synthetic compounds, alone or in combination with EE-8,10-12:Ac, on numbers of captured L. glycinivorella males was evaluated. EE-8,10-12:Ac, (E-10-dodecenyl acetate (E-10-12:Ac, (E-8-dodecenol (E-8-12:OH, tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac, and (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z-9-14:Ac alone displayed different attractiveness to L. glycinivorella males. 14:Ac, E-8-12:OH, E-10-12:Ac, (E,E-8,10-dodecadienal (EE-8,10-12:Ald, (E-8-dodecenal (E-8-12:Ald, (E-10-dodecenal (E-10-12:Ald and Z-9-14:Ac all showed a synergistic effect to EE-8,10-12:Ac at certain dosages. The binary mixtures of EE-8,10-12:Ac and E-10-12:Ald, Z-9-14:Ac,14:Ac, E-8-12:Ald, EE-8,10-12:Ald, E-8-12:OH, or E-10-12:Ac in suitable ratios give 17.00-, 10.98-, 10.67-, 6.73-, 5.54-, 4.30- and 4.50-fold increases in trap catch, respectively, over the standard pheromone lure, and as novel pheromone blends, demonstrated potential use in pheromone traps to monitor or control L. glycinivorella populations in China.
Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.
Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843
Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.
Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G
Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years.
Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ω-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption.
Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela J; Wijeratne, Saranga; Poland, Therese; Qazi, Sohail S; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; Beliveau, Catherine; Mittapalli, Omprakash
Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer) is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp) trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons). Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72%) did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc.) putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi-sesquithujene) previously identified in this serious invasive pest.
Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-μ1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-μ1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Aijun; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F
Using a ternary sex pheromone blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate: (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate: (Z,E)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate], we tested the effect of dispenser type and trap design for capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in apple orchards in West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina. Wing-style sticky traps baited with polyethylene vial pheromone dispensers captured more male DWB over the first 2 months than traps baited with rubber septum pheromone dispensers. However, catches in vial-baited traps decreased considerably after the first 2 months, possibly due to the antagonistic effect of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy acetophenone that diffused from the polyethylene vials. By contrast, traps baited with rubber septum dispensers captured DWB males for at least 6 months; over the last four months of the flight season, catches in traps baited with a rubber septum were greater than those in traps baited with a vial dispenser. Therefore, the rubber septum dispenser is recommended for season-long monitoring of DWB. A release-rate study, using laboratory and field-aged dispensers, demonstrated that desorption of DWB sex pheromone from polyethylene vial or rubber septum dispensers followed first order kinetics, with half-lives of 1.6 and 10.7 months, respectively. Several trap designs, including wing-and delta-style sticky traps, and white and green "bucket-style" traps, baited with rubber septum dispensers were compared in commercial apple orchards for catch of DWB. Bucket traps caught more moths when moth populations were high, because the sticky surfaces of the 1C and delta traps likely became saturated. However, among the commercially available traps tested, no particular design gave consistently higher catches. Further work is needed to explore capture mechanisms and maintenance needs of different trap types.
Wilson, Blake E; Beuzelin, Julien M; Reagan, Thomas E
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest that was first introduced into southern Texas in 1980 and has been expanding its range eastward along the United States Gulf Coast. The pest attacks rice (Oryza sativa L.), sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), corn (Zea mays L.), and other graminaceous crops, and its establishment in Louisiana is expected to have severe economic impacts on crop production. Range expansion and population distribution of E. loftini were monitored with a network of 77 pheromone traps throughout southwestern Louisiana from 2013 to 2015. Eoreuma loftini was ubiquitous throughout the study region, with male moths captured in every habitat sampled. Spatial analysis revealed the population is characterized by high and low density clusters, with the greatest trap captures occurring in southeastern Calcasieu Parish and southern Jefferson Davis Parish. Trap captures in more northern regions of the study were lower than in southern parishes. Trap captures in areas where the pest has been established for >3 yr were greatest in rice habitats. The weighted mean population center moved eastward at a rate of ∼11 km per year. Human-aided movement of E. loftini was probably not involved in the eastward expansion documented during this study. Seasonal population peaks were detected in March-April, July-August, and October-November. This study indicates this species is continuing its spread eastward along the United States Gulf Coast and will likely become established throughout Louisiana within the next 20 yr. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Saimandir, Jayakrishnan; Gopal, Madhuban
Indoxacarb was applied at 75 and 150 g a.i. ha(-1) for two years to an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) crop grown in the field plots in order to evaluate its efficacy for management of the lepidopteron pest, shoot and fruit borer. The residues of the insecticide were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean initial deposits of indoxacarb on eggplant fruits were found to be 2.60-2.634 mg kg(-1) and 3.64-3.68 mg kg(-1) from the two rates of applications, respectively. They declined with time and reached to non-detectable (indoxacarb was found to be by washing with a mixture of alkali and potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) thereby resulting in the removal of 67.5% and 59.2 % residues for 5 and 10 microg g(-1) spiking doses, respectively. Major products formed on reaction of indoxacarb with alkali were identified by electron spray ionization chromatography/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). The per cent reduction on the weight and number basis of treated eggplant plots were compared to those observed in control plots to demonstrate the effectiveness of indoxacarb treatment on shoot and fruit borer population.
Carolina Ramírez C.
Full Text Available It is expected that climate change modifies the current spatial pattern of coffee cultivation in mountainous slopes of Colombia. However, the approaches used to reach these results are based on the use of (global and regional climate models and species distribution models that largely supported in the niche concept. In order to assess the certainty of the results obtained with these models, a methodolog y in which data from weather stations and an index of agroclimatic type (thermal time, expressed as degree days are used. The best approximation for thermal time calculation was determined. Then, a multiyear monthly accumulated of coffee degree-days and coffee berry borer degree-days were generated (using the simple triangle method by using daily data from weather stations with more than 20 years of information. The nonparametric trend analysis (Mann-Kendall and correlation analysis were used to determine effects of climate variability associated with the occurrence of El Niño and La Niña, on the thermal time of the two mentioned species. Significant, positive trends, in coffee degree-days and coffee berry borer degree-days were found at heights (above sea level where the optimum coffee growth is reported.
Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.
Jacqueline Lavinscky Costa Morais
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, the state of Bahia is one of the largest pinecone (Annona squamosa L. growers; nevertheless, fruit borer (Cerconota anonella L. presence limits production. This research aimed to test the efficiency of lambda-cyhalothrin in controlling fruit borer using different spray volumes; additionally, this research tested qualitative and quantitative operational aspects. Trials were carried out in pinecone orchards in Caraíbas-BA, Brazil. Pesticide efficiency was tested by a randomized block experiment with six treatments and five replications. Treatments consisted of lambda-cyhalothrin application (1.5 g a.i. 100 L-1 water with a surfactant (0.03% v v-1 at spray volumes of 100, 200, 268, 382 and 488 L ha-1 and one control (without spray. Pest infestation was assessed by counting symptomatic fruits for further percentage calculation. Five treatments with five replications were developed to evaluate spraying performance. These treatments consisted of an aqueous solution with a Brilliant Blue tracer at 0.15% (p v-1 and a surfactant at 0.03% (v v-1, using the same spray volumes as the first experiment. Qualitative assessments were performed on water-sensitive paper cards and were quantified through tracer deposit levels on leaves. Spray volumes between 100 and 382 L ha-1 with lambda-cyhalothrin were efficient to control Cerconota anonella in the pinecone crop, providing good quality application.
Vega, Fernando E.
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.
Field trials were carried out to estimate resistance along with paddy yield in 55 rice germplasm lines (35 aromatic and 20 non-aromatic genotypes) for rice stem borers (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) to expose their potential in pest management approach. The results expressed significant differences for pest damage build-up and paddy yield among the rice germplasm lines. The findings clearly portrayed that based upon the percentage of pest invasions (dead hearts and white heads damage), no genotype was exclusively resistant to stem borers damage under field conditions. Two aromatic genotypes, Jajai-15A/97 and Basmati-Cr-34, exhibited least borers prevalence and amplified paddy yield while Sonehri Sugdasi (P) and Sada Gulab (P) pointed out a peak pest invasion and declined paddy yield. The estimation of pest incidence build-up and paddy productivity within non-aromatic genotypes confirmed that IR8 (P), IR6-15-2 and IR6 (P) were mainly proficient for bearing condensed pest invasion and augmented paddy yield. IR8-2.5-4, IR6-15-10 and IR6-20-9 demonstrated elevated pest susceptibility and gave poor yield. Rest of the germplasms appeared to be least tolerant or vulnerable to pest build-up and reduced paddy production. The tolerant and high yielding genotypes should be popularised in rice borers endemic areas and can be used in varietals resistance breeding strategy. The outcome of current studies necessitates the integration of existing host plant tolerance along with other management strategies to accomplish a suitable control of rice stem borers and enhance paddy yield. (author)
Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F
Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control.
Linn, Matthew D; Moore, Paul A
Bt crops are one of the most commonly used genetically modified crops worldwide. Bt crops contain a gene that is derived from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces the Cry1Ab toxin. Bt corn that contains the Cry1Ab toxin is used throughout the Midwest United States to control crop pests such as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Headwater streams in regions known for intensive agriculture receive Bt corn detritus after the fall harvest, which is then consumed by a diverse community of stream invertebrates. The rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) is a common invertebrate detritivore in these headwater streams. Both isogenic and Bt corn were grown under the controlled environmental conditions of a greenhouse and, after senescence, were tested for nutritional equality. Rusty crayfish were exposed to one of several detrital treatments composed of Bt corn, Bt corn plus American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), isogenic corn alone, isogenic corn plus P. occidentalis, or P. occidentalis alone for 8 weeks. Both strains of corn were grown under the controlled environmental conditions in a greenhouse and were tested for nutritional equality after senescence. Crayfish were housed in live streams with a water temperature of 12.8 °C and a 12:12 h light-to-dark photoperiod. Survival and growth of animals within each experimental treatment were monitored each week. After 8 weeks of exposure, there was no statistically significant difference in growth between crayfish in Bt and isogenic treatments. However, survivorship was 31 % lower in the Bt treatment compared with the isogenic treatment. These results suggest that the Bt corn and isogenic corn were of equivalent nutritional value but that Bt corn does have a toxic effect on rusty crayfish during long-term exposure.
Jensen, Peter D; Dively, Galen P; Swan, Christopher M; Lamp, William O
Corn (Zea mays L.) transformed with a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) comprises 49% of all corn in the United States. The input of senesced corn tissue expressing the Bt gene may impact stream-inhabiting invertebrates that process plant debris, especially trichopteran species related to the target group of lepidopteran pests. Our goal was to assess risk associated with transgenic corn debris entering streams. First, we show the input of corn tissue after harvest was extended over months in a stream. Second, using laboratory bioassays based on European corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)], we found no bioactivity of Cry1Ab protein in senesced corn tissue after 2 wk of exposure to terrestrial or aquatic environments. Third, we show that Bt near-isolines modify growth and survivorship of some species of invertebrates. Of the four nontarget invertebrate species fed Bt near-isolines, growth of two closely related trichopterans was not negatively affected, whereas a tipulid crane fly exhibited reduced growth rates, and an isopod exhibited reduced growth and survivorship on the Cry1Ab near-isoline but not on the stacked Cry1Ab + Cry3Bb1 near-isoline. Because of lack of evidence of bioactivity of Bt after 2 wk and because of lack of nontarget effects on the stacked near-isoline, we suggest that tissue-mediated differences, and not the presence of the Cry1Ab protein, caused the different responses among the species. Overall, our results provide evidence that adverse effects to aquatic nontarget shredders involve complex interactions arising from plant genetics and environment that cannot be ascribed to the presence of Cry1Ab proteins.
Svobodová, Eva; Trnka, Miroslav; Žalud, Zdeněk; Semerádová, D.; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Štěpánek, Petr
Roč. 15, SEP 2012 (2012), s. 54-57 ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cydia pomonella * Ostrinia nubilalis * Lobesia botrana * změna klimatu * CLIMEX * climate change * sensitive areas Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology
Izumi Willcoxon, Michi; Dennis, Jaclyn R; Lau, Sabina I; Xie, Weiping; You, You; Leng, Song; Fong, Ryan C; Yamamoto, Takashi
A high-throughput, in-vitro assay for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins designated as Cry was developed and evaluated for screening a large number of Cry protein variants produced by DNA shuffling. This automation-amenable assay exploits an insect cell line expressing a single receptor of Bt Cry proteins. The Cry toxin used to develop this assay is a variant of the Cry1Ab protein called IP1-88, which was produced previously by DNA shuffling. Cell mortality caused by the activated Bt Cry toxin was determined by chemical cell viability assay in 96/384-well microtiter plates utilizing CellTiter 96(®) obtained from Promega. A widely-accepted mode-of-action theory of certain Bt Cry proteins suggests that the activated toxin binds to one or more receptors and forms a pore through the insect gut epithelial cell apical membrane. A number of insect proteins such as cadherin-like protein (Cad), aminopeptidase-N (APN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ABC transporter (ABCC) have been identified as the receptors of Bt Cry toxins. In this study, Bt Cry toxin receptors Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) cadherin-like protein (On-Cad) and aminopeptidase-N 1 and 3 (On-APN1, On-APN3) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) cadherin-like protein (Sf-Cad) were cloned in an insect cell line, Sf21, and a mammalian cell line, Expi293F. It was observed by ligand blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy that trypsin-activated IP1-88 bound to On-Cad and On-APN1, but not Sf-Cad or On-APN3. In contrast, IP1-88 bound only to APN1 in BBMV (Brush Border Membrane Vesicles) prepared from the third and fourth-instar O. nubilalis larval midgut. The sensitivity of the recombinant cells to the toxin was then tested. IP1-88 showed no toxicity to non-recombinant Sf21 and Expi293F. Toxicity was observed only when the On-Cad gene was cloned and expressed. Sf-Cad and On-APN1 were not able to make those cells sensitive to the toxin. Since the expression of On-Cad alone was
Grimi, Damián A; Parody, Betiana; Ramos, María Laura; Machado, Marcos; Ocampo, Federico; Willse, Alan; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham
Maize technologies expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins are widely used in Argentina to control sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius). Unexpected D. saccharalis damage was observed to Bt maize events TC1507 (expressing Cry1F) and MON 89034 × MON 88017 (expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2) in an isolated area of San Luis Province. Diatraea saccharalis larvae were sampled from MON 89034 × MON 88017 fields in the area to generate a resistant strain (RR), which was subsequently characterized in plant and diet bioassays. Survivorship of the RR strain was high on TC1507 leaf tissue, intermediate on MON 89034 × MON 88017, and low on MON 810 (expressing Cry1Ab). The RR strain had high resistance to Cry1A.105 (186.74-fold) and no resistance to Cry2Ab2 in diet bioassays. These results indicate resistance to Cry1F and Cry1A.105 (and likely cross-resistance between them) but not to Cry1Ab or Cry2Ab2. Resistance to MON 89034 × MON 88017 was functionally recessive. Reviews of grower records suggest that resistance initially evolved to Cry1F, conferring cross-resistance to Cry1A.105, with low refuge compliance as the primary cause. A mitigation plan was implemented in San Luis that included technology rotation, field monitoring, and grower education on best management practices (BMPs) including refuges. In the affected area, the resistance to Cry1F and Cry1A.105 is being managed effectively through use of MON 89034 × MON 88017 and MON 810 in combination with BMPs, and no spread of resistance to other regions has been observed. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C
Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites
Agung Wahyu Susilo
Full Text Available The characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB had been identified in a series of study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of cocoa pod using more diverse of genetic background to obtain selection criteria. Genetic materials for this studywere 25 cocoa clones planted in Central Sulawesi for resistance evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed by using variable of the percentage of unextractable beans, number of larvae entry and exit holes by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichomes, granules of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using canonical correlation. The result performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics 0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical correlation for CPB resistance 0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance in 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiated the resistant clones of ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones of ICCRI 04, KW 516, and KW 564.
Diamond, J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Slesak, R.
Hydrology is a primary driver of wetland structure and process that can be modified by abiotic and biotic feedbacks, leading to self-organization of wetland systems. Large-scale disturbance to these feedbacks, such as loss of vegetation, can thus be expected to impact wetland hydrology. The Emerald Ash Borer is an invasive beetle that is expected to cause widespread-loss of ash trees throughout the northern U.S. and Canada. To predict ecosystem response to this threat of vegetation loss, we ask if and how Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra), a ubiquitous facultative-wetland ash species, actively controls wetland hydrology to determine if Black Ash creates favorable hydrologic regimes for growth (i.e., evidence for ecohydrologic feedbacks). We do this by taking advantage of plot-level tree removal experiments in Black Ash-dominated (75-100% basal area) wetlands in the Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota. The monospecies dominance in these systems minimizes variation associated with species-specific effects, allowing for clearer interpretation of results regarding ecohydrologic feedbacks. Here, we present an analysis of six years of water table and soil moisture time series in experimental plots with the following treatments: 1) clear cut, 2) girdling, 3) group-selection thinning, and 4) control. We also present evapotranspiration (ET) time series estimates for each experimental plot using analysis of diel water level variation. Results show elevated water tables in treatment plots relative to control plots for all treatments for several years after treatments were applied, with differences as great as 50 cm. Some recovery of water table to pre-treatment levels was observed over time, but only the group-selection thinning treatment showed near-complete recovery to pre-treatment levels, and clear-cut treatments indicate sustained elevated water tables over five years. Differences among treatments are directly attributed to variably reduced ET relative to controls. Results also
José C. Jiménez-Galindo
Full Text Available Introduction: The Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides, is a major pest of maize, Zea mays, in Mediterranean countries, inflicting significant kernel yield losses. For that reason, it necessary to know the genetic mechanisms that regulate the agronomic and resistance traits. A quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping study for yield, resistance against MCB attack, and other relevant agronomic traits was performed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from the cross A637 × A509 that is expected to segregate for yield, and ear, and stalk resistance to MCB. 171 RILs were evaluated in 2014 and 2015 at Pontevedra, Spain, along with the two parental inbreds A637 and A509 using a 13 × 14 single lattice design with two replications. A genetic map with 285 SNP markers was used for QTL analysis. Our objectives were to detect QTL for resistance to MCB and tolerance-related agronomic traits, to gain insights on the genetic relationship between resistance to MCB attack and yield, and to establish the best way for simultaneously improving yield and resistance to MCB.Results: Twelve significant QTL were detected for agronomic and resistance traits. QTL at bins 1.10 and 5.04 were especially interesting because the same allelic variant at these QTL simultaneously improved yield and insect resistance. In contrast, in the region 8.04–8.05, QTL showed opposite effects for yield and resistance. Several QTL for indexes which combine yield and resistance traits were found especially in the region 10.02–10.03.Conclusions: Selecting genotypes with the favorable allele of QTL on chromosome 5 (bin 5.01 will decrease tunnel length without affect yield, silking and plant height and QTL on the region 5.04 could be used to improve stalk resistance and yield simultaneously. An allele of QTL on bin 9.07 will increase ear resistance to MCB attack but it could produce later varieties while favorable allele in region 1.10 could improve ear and
Dopman, Erik B
A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation. Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories of population divergence, including strict allopatric isolation, restricted migration, secondary contact, and population growth or decline. This result corroborates a previous QTL study that identified the Tpi chromosomal region as a repository for gene(s) contributing to divergence in life history. Patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at Tpi suggest a recent selective sweep and genetic hitchhiking associated with colonization of North America from Europe ~200 generations ago. These results indicate that gene genealogies initially diverge during speciation because of selective sweeps, but differential introgression may play a role in the maintenance of differentiation for sympatric populations.
Full Text Available Study of borer pest control potato tuber (Phthorimaea operculella Zell in warehouses seedlings with the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo and leaf Tagetes erecta was conducted in Kutagadung village, district of Brand, Karo District, starting in October until December 2010. The draft that is in use is completely randomized (CRD comprised of seven treatments with three replications. Treatment at Kaji is: Control (no treatment, the density of conidia 106 per ml, 105 per ml, 104 per ml, leaf thickness Tegetes two cm, three cm, and four cm. Observations were P. operculella and intensity of attacks healthy seedlings. In the final analysis, the intensity of attacks in 100 percent control treatment, the density of conidia.
Bick, Emily N; Forbes, Nora J; Haugen, Christopher; Jones, Grant; Bernick, Shawn; Miller, Fredric
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is decimating ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Combatting EAB includes the use of insecticides; however, reported insecticide efficacy varies among published studies. This study assessed the effects of season of application, insecticide active ingredient, and insecticide application rate on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (Lamiales: Oleaceae) canopy decline caused by EAB over a 5- to 7-yr interval. Data suggested that spring treatments were generally more effective in reducing canopy decline than fall treatments, but this difference was not statistically significant. Lowest rates of decline (<5% over 5 yr) were observed in trees treated with imidacloprid injected annually in the soil during spring (at the higher of two tested application rates; 1.12 g/cm diameter at 1.3 m height) and emamectin benzoate injected biennially into the stem. All tested insecticides (dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, and imidacloprid) under all tested conditions significantly reduced the rate of increase of dieback.
Iwabuchi, K; Takahashi, J; Nakagawa, Y; Sakai, T
Electroantennograms were recorded from the grape borerXylotrechus pyrrhoderus in response to serial dilutions of male sex pheromone components, (2S,3S)-octanediol and (2S)-hydroxy-3-octanone, and to 100 μg of their optical isomers and host plant substances. Female antennae always responded more strongly than male antennae. Antennae of both sexes were highly sensitive to (2S)-hydroxy-3-octanone. F/M ratio (female to male EAG value) was greater for male sex pheromone components, especially (2S,3S)-octanediol, and their optical isomers than plant substances. Antennal sensitivity to optical isomers (2R,3R-octanediol and 2S,3R-octanediol) was lower than true pheromone components.
Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F
Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.
Joseph Heimlich; T. Davis Sydnor; Matthew Bumgardner; Patrick O' Brien
Toledo, Ohio, U.S. residents on four streets in an area with mature street trees, including ash, scheduled for removal as a result of attack by emerald ash borer were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward their street trees. Toledo is in the process of removing some 5,000 trees. Large trees with a variety of summer and fall foliar characteristics were highly...
Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.
The African coffee white stem borer, Monochamus leuconotus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest of Arabica coffee in Zimbabwe and other African countries. Very was known about the chemical ecology of M. leuconotus prior to the initiation of the studies described in this thesis. The objectives of this work were to investigate the mating behaviour in order to look for evidence of the existence of chemical interactions between conspecific beetles and host plants. Mating behaviour and dai...
Ocneria terebinthina Strg. (Lep.: Lymanteriidae) is a leaf borer pest in pistachio orchard. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki alone and in combination with henna powder was investigated on third larval instar of O. terebinthina under laboratory conditions. Bioassay was carried out using spray technique on pistachio offshoot. Probit analysis of concentration-mortality data was conducted to estimate the LC50 value. The LC50 value of B. thuringiensis on third instar of larvae ...
Yang, Fei; Chen, Mao; Gowda, Anilkumar; Kerns, David L; Huang, Fangneng
The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a major maize borer pest and a target of transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of resistance in target pest populations is a great threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt crops. In this study, we compared the genetic basis of resistance to Cry1Ab protein in 3 resistant colonies of sugarcane borer established from field populations in Louisiana, USA. Responses of larvae to the Cry1Ab protein for the parental and 10 other cross colonies were assayed in a diet-incorporated bioassay. All 3 resistant colonies were highly resistant to the Cry1Ab protein with a resistance ratio of >555.6 fold. No maternal effect or sex linkage was evident for the resistance in the 3 colonies; and the resistance was functionally nonrecessive at the Cry1Ab concentrations of ≤ 3.16 μg/g, but it became recessive at ≥10 μg/g. In an interstrain complementation test for allelism, the F 1 progeny from crosses between any 2 of the 3 resistant colonies exhibited the similar resistance levels as their parental colonies, indicating that the 3 colonies most likely shared a locus of Cry1Ab resistance. Results generated from this study should provide useful information in developing effective strategies for managing Bt resistance in the insect. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Perry, Kayla I; Herms, Daniel A
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an invasive wood-boring beetle native to Asia, has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction into North America, resulting in widespread formation of canopy gaps and accumulations of coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests. The objective was to quantify effects of canopy gaps and CWD caused by early stages of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality, and their interaction on ground beetle assemblages. The impact of canopy gaps and CWD varied, as gaps affected beetle assemblages in 2011, while effects of CWD were only observed in 2012. Gaps decreased beetle activity-abundance, and marginally decreased richness, driving changes in species composition, but evenness and diversity were unaffected. Effects of the CWD treatment alone were minimal, but CWD interacted with the canopy treatment, resulting in an increase in activity-abundance of ground beetles in canopy gaps without CWD, and a marginal increase in species richness in canopy gaps with CWD. Although there were some initial changes in species composition, these were ephemeral, suggesting that ground beetle assemblages may be resilient to disturbance caused by emerald ash borer. This study contributes to our understanding of the cascading ecological impacts of biological invasions on forest ecosystems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae is a major pest of cocoa. Detection of the pest infestation using sex pheromone traps in the early growth and development of cocoa pods is important for an early warning system programme. In order to prevent the pest infestation the young pods were wrapped with plastic bags. A research to study the CPB incidence was conducted at cocoa plantations in Banjarharjo and Banjaroya villages, District of Kalibawang; Hargotirto and Hargowilis villages, District of Kokap; and Pagerharjo village, District of Samigaluh, Yogyakarta. The experiments design used RCBD with four treatments (sex pheromone trap, combination of sex pheromone trap and pod wrapping, pod wrapping, and control and five replications. As many as 6 units/ha pheromone traps were installed with a distance of 40 m in between. Results showed that one month prior to the trap installation in the experimental plots there were ripen cocoa pods as many as 9-13%, which were mostly infested by CPB. During the time period of introducting research on August to Desember 2016 there was not rambutan fruits as the CPB host, hence the CPB resource was from infested cocoa pods. The CPB moth trapped as many as 0−7 (1.13 ± 0.14 moths/6 traps/12 observations. The seed damage due to CPB larvae in the pheromone trap treatments (23.98% was relatively similar with the control (20.25%. Seed damage rate in combination treatment of pheromone trap and pod wrapping (0.59% was relatively the same with the pod wrapping (0.20%. The pheromone trap was more usefull for monitoring tool rather than for control, meanwhile pod wrapping was an effective control measure of CPB. Intisari Penggerek Buah Kakao (PBK, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae merupakan salah satu hama utama kakao. Deteksi serangan hama PBK dengan perangkap feromon seks pada awal pertumbuhan dan perkembangan buah kakao penting dilakukan sebagai
Lyons, D Barry; Iavallée, Robert; Kyei-Poku, George; Van Frankenhuyzen, Kees; Johny, Shajahan; Guertin, Claude; Francese, Joseph A; Jones, Gene C; Blais, Martine
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive species from Asia that was discovered in North America Canada, in 2002. Herein, we describe studies to develop an autocontamination trapping system to disseminate Beauveria bassiana to control beetle populations. The standard trap for emerald ash borer in Canada is a light green prism trap covered in an insect adhesive and baited with (Z)-3-hexenol. We compared of green multifunnel traps, green intercept panel traps (both with and without fluon coating) and green prism traps for capturing emerald ash borer in a green ash plantation. The coated green multifunnel traps captured significantly more males and more females than any other trap design. We examined the efficacy of two native B. bassiana isolates, INRS-CFL and L49-1AA. In a field experiment the INRS-CFL isolate attached to multifunnel traps in autocontamination chambers retained its pathogenicity to emerald ash borer adults for up to 43 d of outdoor exposure. Conidia germination of the INRS-CFL isolate was >69% after outdoor exposure in the traps for up to 57 d. The L49-1AA isolate was not pathogenic in simulated trap exposures and the germination rate was extremely low (<5.3%). Mean (+/- SEM) conidia loads on ash borer adults after being autocontaminated in the laboratory using pouches that had been exposed in traps out of doors for 29 d were 579,200 (+/- 86,181) and 2,400 (+/- 681) for the INRS-CFL and the LA9-1AA isolates, respectively. We also examined the fungal dissemination process under field conditions using the L49-1AA isolate in a green ash plantation. Beetles were lured to baited green multifunnel traps with attached autocontamination chambers. Beetles acquired fungal conidia from cultures growing on pouches in the chambers and were recaptured on Pestick-coated traps. In total, 2,532 beetles were captured of which 165 (6.5%) had fungal growth that resembled B. bassiana. Of these 25 beetles were positive for
Bergh, J C; Leskey, T C; Walgenbach, J F; Klingeman, W E; Kain, D P; Zhang, A
The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 +/- 644 and 3095 +/- 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, exceeding captures at urban sites by 16 and 13 times and at woodland sites by 210 and 206 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Mean total captures at urban sites exceeded those in woodland habitats by 13 and 16 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The mean duration (wk) of the flight period did not differ significantly between apple orchards (22.6 +/- 0.6 SE) and urban sites (20.3 +/- 1.2 SE). The onset of flight was somewhat later in New York (around early June) than further south (around early to mid-May), but moth captures continued into October in all states. Captures in apple orchards and at urban sites with higher populations were essentially continuous throughout the flight period, with substantial weekly fluctuations, and tended to show a bimodal pattern with peaks from late May through mid-July and from late August through mid-September. Captures at woodland sites tended to occur predominantly from mid-May through about mid-June and were very sporadic thereafter.
Blandino, Massimo; Peila, Alessandro; Reyneri, Amedeo
European corn borer (ECB) is the main maize pest in central and southern Europe and it promotes the infection of maize with Fusarium verticillioides, which is able to produce fumonisins. Field experiments were performed from 2006 to 2007 in northwestern Italy to determine the effects of the timing of insecticide applications on maize fungal ear rot and fumonisin contamination in natural infection conditions. Four application timings and two insecticides (clorpirifos + cypermethrin and indoxacarb) were compared each year. In both years, the treatments applied at the beginning of a consistent ECB flight activity and at the flight peak showed the best efficacy to control the insect damage on ears. Fungal ear rot and fumonisin contamination were clearly affected by ECB control. The efficacy of the best application timing to control fumonisin occurrence was 73% in 2006 and 84% in 2007. Earlier insecticide applications showed lower fumonisin contamination than treatments applied after the adult flight peak. The production of maize and maize-based foods with a low fumonisin content may be enhanced through correct insecticide application against the second ECB generation. The optimum timing of insecticides is between the beginning of a consistent adult flight activity and the flight peak.
Full Text Available Emerald ash borer (EAB continues to spread across North America, infesting native ash trees and changing the forested landscape. Black ash wetland forests are severely affected by EAB. As black ash wetland forests provide integral ecosystem services, alternative approaches to maintain forest cover on the landscape are needed. We implemented simulated EAB infestations in depressional black ash wetlands in the Ottawa National Forest in Michigan to mimic the short-term and long-term effects of EAB. These wetlands were planted with 10 alternative tree species in 2013. Based on initial results in the Michigan sites, a riparian corridor in the Superior Municipal Forest in Wisconsin was planted with three alternative tree species in 2015. Results across both locations indicate that silver maple (Acer saccharinum L., red maple (Acer rubrum L., American elm (Ulmus americana L., and northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L. are viable alternative species to plant in black ash-dominated wetlands. Additionally, selectively planting on natural or created hummocks resulted in two times greater survival than in adjacent lowland sites, and this suggests that planting should be implemented with microsite selection or creation as a primary control. Regional landowners and forest managers can use these results to help mitigate the canopy and structure losses from EAB and maintain forest cover and hydrologic function in black ash-dominated wetlands after infestation.
Contreras Duran, J.V.
Some effects of gamma radiation on the behaviour of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr., 1794) (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) were studied under controlled conditions of temperature (28 +- 2 0 C) and relative humidity (75 +- 10%). The insects were reared in an artificial diet and the adults were irradiated at 24 hour age, in each treatment, to observe the effects of the gamma radiation on the sugar cane borer, in order to provide data for future researches in the Sterile Insect Technique. Cobalt-60 was used as a source of radiation with a dose-rate of 353 krad/hour. Also an activi-meter and climatized room were used. The effects of radiation under cooling (5 +- 1 0 C) and normal conditions were determined concerning the insect activity, oviposition, competitiveness, mating and longevity. These data were obtained for both sexes and the conclusions were as follows: a) The sterilizing dosis of gamma radiation do not affect the sexual behaviour of the insect, even under cooling conditions; b) the percentages of egg unviability are directly proportional to the dosis either for the females or the males; c) D. saccharalis is active only in the scotophase and therefore it can be characterized as a nocturnal insect. (Author) [pt
Feng, Bo; Qian, Kai; Du, Yong-Jun
Abstract : We investigated the role of floral odors from cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), in mediating oviposition of the bean pod borer moth, Maruca vitrata , a serious pest of grain legumes that flies to host plants at the flowering stage and oviposits onto flowers and buds. The flower of the host plant V. unguiculata was a stimulus for egg-laying by M. vitrata in an oviposition bioassay. Commercial longifolene, β-caryophyllene, linalool, geraniol, and ( Z )-3-hexenyl acetate were used as stimulus. Each one elicited dose-dependent electroantennogram responses in female M. vitrata , and all but longifolene stimulated oviposition, when presented singly. Beta-caryophyllene was the most active stimulant, similar to that of the flower of V. unguiculata , and eliciting a dose-dependent oviposition response. Either olfaction or gustation was sufficient to mediate an oviposition response to V. unguiculata floral volatiles: intact M. vitrata responded to β-caryophyllene whether or not they could contact the source of the volatiles, and females with amputated antennae responded if allowed to contact the source. We believe this is the first demonstration in a moth where β-caryophyllene from the host plant was able to mediate an oviposition response. As β-caryophyllene is widely expressed by non-host plants, we suggest that its role in stimulating oviposition could be exploited as part of a push-pull strategy for pest management in which β-caryophyllene-expressing non-host plants provide a population sink for M. vitrata .
Jones, Joshua S.; Tullis, Jason A.; Haavik, Laurel J.; Guldin, James M.; Stephen, Fred M.
Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for developing an understanding of past and potential ROB damage in the Ozark Mountains. We categorized forest change using a normalized difference water index (NDWI) applied to multitemporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (1990, 2001, and 2006). Levels of decline or growth were categorized using simple statistical thresholds of change in the NDWI over time. Corresponding decline and growth areas were then observed in situ where tree diameter, age, crown condition, and species composition were measured within variable radius plots. Using a machine learning decision tree classifier, remote sensing-derived decline and growth was characterized in terms of in situ observation. Plots with tree quadratic mean diameter at breast height ≥21.5 cm were categorized remotely as in severe decline. Landsat TM/ETM+-based NDWI derivatives reveal forest decline and regrowth in post-ROB outbreak surveys. Historical and future Landsat-based canopy change detection should be incorporated with existing landscape-based prediction of ROB hazard.
Venu M Margam
Full Text Available The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation.
Smitley, David R; Herms, Daniel A; Davis, Terrance W
Protection of green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) from the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, by soil applications of neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and dinotefuran) was tested at five locations between 2005 and 2013. Application rate and spring versus fall application dates were evaluated in tests with neighborhood street trees and in one plantation of 65 ash trees. Insecticide treatments of ash trees at all five sites were initiated as the leading edge of the EAB invasion began to kill the first ash trees at each location. Trees were treated and evaluated at each site for 4 to 7 yr. Spring applications of imidacloprid were more efficacious than fall applications. Application rates of 0.8 g a.i./cm dbh or greater per year gave a higher level of protection and were more consistent than rates of 0.56 g a.i./cm dbh per year or less. The number of years between the first observation of canopy loss due to EAB and death of most of the control trees varied from three to seven years among test sites, depending on how many non-treated ash trees were nearby. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America.
Rodrigues, Thais B; Duan, Jian J; Palli, Subba R; Rieske, Lynne K
Recent study has shown that RNA interference (RNAi) is efficient in emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and that ingestion of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting specific genes causes gene silencing and mortality in neonates. Here, we report on the identification of highly effective target genes for RNAi-mediated control of EAB. We screened 13 candidate genes in neonate larvae and selected the most effective target genes for further investigation, including their effect on EAB adults and on a non-target organism, Tribolium castaneum. The two most efficient target genes selected, hsp (heat shock 70-kDa protein cognate 3) and shi (shibire), caused up to 90% mortality of larvae and adults. In EAB eggs, larvae, and adults, the hsp is expressed at higher levels when compared to that of shi. Ingestion of dsHSP and dsSHI caused mortality in both neonate larvae and adults. Administration of a mixture of both dsRNAs worked better than either dsRNA by itself. In contrast, injection of EAB.dsHSP and EAB.dsSHI did not cause mortality in T. castaneum. Thus, the two genes identified cause high mortality in the EAB with no apparent phenotype effects in a non-target organism, the red flour beetle, and could be used in RNAi-mediated control of this invasive pest.
Zhang, Kongwen; Hu, Baoxin; Robinson, Justin
The emerald ash borer (EAB) poses a significant economic and environmental threat to ash trees in southern Ontario, Canada, and the northern states of the USA. It is critical that effective technologies are urgently developed to detect, monitor, and control the spread of EAB. This paper presents a methodology using multisourced data to predict potential infestations of EAB in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The information combined in this study includes remotely sensed data, such as high spatial resolution aerial imagery, commercial ground and airborne hyperspectral data, and Google Earth imagery, in addition to nonremotely sensed data, such as archived paper maps and documents. This wide range of data provides extensive information that can be used for early detection of EAB, yet their effective employment and use remain a significant challenge. A prediction function was developed to estimate the EAB infestation states of individual ash trees using three major attributes: leaf chlorophyll content, tree crown spatial pattern, and prior knowledge. Comparison between these predicted values and a ground-based survey demonstrated an overall accuracy of 62.5%, with 22.5% omission and 18.5% commission errors.
Cipollini, Don; Peterson, Donnie L
The traits used by phytophagous insects to find and utilize their ancestral hosts can lead to host range expansions, generally to closely related hosts that share visual and chemical features with ancestral hosts. Host range expansions often result from ecological fitting, which is the process whereby organisms colonize and persist in novel environments, use novel resources, or form novel associations with other species because of the suites of traits that they carry at the time they encounter the novel environment. Our objective in this review is to discuss the potential and constraints on host switching via ecological fitting in emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, an ecologically and economically important invasive wood boring beetle. Once thought of as an ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree specialist, recent studies have revealed a broader potential host range than was expected for this insect. We discuss the demonstrated host-use capabilities of this beetle, as well as the potential for and barriers to the adoption of additional hosts by this beetle. We place our observations in the context of biochemical mechanisms that mediate the interaction of these beetles with their host plants and discuss whether evolutionary host shifts are a possible outcome of the interaction of this insect with novel hosts.
Chakraborty, Sourav; Whitehill, Justin G A; Hill, Amy L; Opiyo, Stephen O; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi
The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle is a significant threat to the survival of North American ash. In previous work, we identified putative biochemical and molecular markers of constitutive EAB resistance in Manchurian ash, an Asian species co-evolved with EAB. Here, we employed high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS) to characterize the induced response of soluble phloem phenolics to EAB attack in resistant Manchurian and susceptible black ash under conditions of either normal or low water availability, and the effects of water availability on larval performance. Total larval mass per tree was lower in Manchurian than in black ash. Low water increased larval numbers and mean larval mass overall, but more so in Manchurian ash. Low water did not affect levels of phenolics in either host species, but six phenolics decreased in response to EAB. In both ashes, pinoresinol A was induced by EAB, especially in Manchurian ash. Pinoresinol A and pinoresinol B were negatively correlated with each other in both species. The higher accumulation of pinoresinol A in Manchurian ash after attack may help explain the resistance of this species to EAB, but none of the responses measured here could explain increased larval performance in trees subjected to low water availability. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Christopher Sean Greene
Full Text Available Management decisions grounded in ecological understanding are essential to the maintenance of a healthy urban forest. Decisions about where and what tree species to plant have both short and long-term consequences for the future function and resilience of city trees. Through the construction of a theoretical damage index, this study examines the legacy effects of a street tree planting program in a densely populated North American city confronting an invasion of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis. An investigation of spatial autocorrelation for locations of high damage potential across the City of Toronto, Canada was then conducted using Getis-Ord Gi*. Significant spatial clustering of high damage index values affirmed that past urban tree planting practices placing little emphasis on species diversity have created time-lagged consequences of enhanced vulnerability of trees to insect pests. Such consequences are observed at the geographically local scale, but can easily cascade to become multi-scalar in their spatial extent. The theoretical damage potential index developed in this study provides a framework for contextualizing historical urban tree planting decisions where analysis of damage index values for Toronto reinforces the importance of urban forest management that prioritizes proactive tree planting strategies that consider species diversity in the context of planting location.
Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Peteinatos, Gerassimos G; Petrou, Stamatina E; Boukouvala, Maria C; Tomanović, Zeljko
Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluated three diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations--Protect-It, PyriSec (at dose rates 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm), and DEA-P (at dose rates 75, 150, and 500 ppm)--against the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), adults in stored maize, Zea mays L., at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30 degrees C) and two relative humidity (RH) levels (55 and 75%). At these conditions, the capability of progeny production in the treated substrate also was assessed. Adult survival was high, at all doses of Protect-It and PyriSec. Progeny production was also high. In contrast with the other two DEs, DEA-P was highly effective and caused complete mortality to the exposed P. truncatus adults, even at the lowest dose rate (75 ppm). In addition, progeny production was completely suppressed. Generally, Protect-it and PyriSec were more effective at 20 degrees C than at 30 degrees C. In contrast, the efficacy of DEA-P was continuously high in all temperatures and relative humidities examined.
Yobana A. Mariño
Full Text Available Wolbachia are widely distributed endosymbiotic bacteria that influence the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. In recent years the manipulation of Wolbachia infection has been considered as a potential tool for biological control. The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most devastating coffee pest worldwide. Wolbachia infection in the CBB has been reported, but until now the role of Wolbachia in CBB reproduction and fitness has not been tested. To address this issue we reared the CBB in artificial diets with and without tetracycline (0.1% w/v for ten generations. Tetracycline reduced significantly the relative proportion of Wolbachia in the CBB microbiota from 0.49% to 0.04%. This reduction affected CBB reproduction: females fed with tetracycline had significantly fewer progeny, lower fecundity, and fewer eggs per female. Tetracycline also reduced the population growth rate (λ, net reproductive rate (R0, and mean generation time (T in CBB; the reduction in population growth was mostly due to variation in fertility, according to life time response experiments (LTREs analysis. Our results suggest that Wolbachia contribute to the reproductive success of the CBB and their manipulation represents a possible approach to CBB biocontrol mediated by microbiome management.
Jian J. Duan
Full Text Available After emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, was discovered in the United States, a classical biological control program was initiated against this destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.. This biocontrol program began in 2007 after federal regulatory agencies and the state of Michigan approved release of three EAB parasitoid species from China: Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Eulophidae, Spathius agrili Yang (Braconidae, and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Encyrtidae. A fourth EAB parasitoid, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij (Braconidae from Russia, was approved for release in 2015. We review the rationale and ecological premises of the EAB biocontrol program, and then report on progress in North American ash recovery in southern Michigan, where the parasitoids were first released. We also identify challenges to conserving native Fraxinus using biocontrol in the aftermath of the EAB invasion, and provide suggestions for program improvements as EAB spreads throughout North America. We conclude that more work is needed to: (1 evaluate the establishment and impact of biocontrol agents in different climate zones; (2 determine the combined effect of EAB biocontrol and host plant resistance or tolerance on the regeneration of North American ash species; and (3 expand foreign exploration for EAB natural enemies throughout Asia.
Andrea L Joyce
Full Text Available The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species.
Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F
The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis.
Mariño, Yobana A; Ospina, Oscar E; Verle Rodrigues, José C; Bayman, Paul
Variation in microbiota of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei was studied. Diversity, structure and function of bacterial communities were compared between eggs vs. adults, CBBs from shade coffee vs. sun coffee, CBBs from the field vs. raised in the lab, and CBBs with and without the antibiotic tetracycline. We sequenced the region V4 of the gene 16 S rRNA. Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Pseudomonas and Pantoea, dominated microbiota of the CBB. Comparative functional inferences with PICRUSt suggested that samples from the field were enriched for genes involved in carbohydrate and protein digestion and absorption, while lab-reared samples were higher in genes for melanization and caffeine metabolism. Microbiota of the CBB was diverse and dominated by the genus Pseudomonas, several species of which have been previously associated with caffeine degradation in this insect. Wolbachia was the only endosymbiont detected with known ability to manipulate host reproduction. This study demonstrates that stage of development and origin of samples affected the structure and function of the CBB's bacterial communities. This is the first attempt to predict functional significance of the CBB microbiota in nutrition, reproduction and defense. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Sarao, P S; Kaur, H
Field experiments were conducted during three kharif seasons from 2009 to 2011 at Sudhar village, Ludhiana and Rice Research Area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four doses of Ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) a new chemistry @ 20, 30, 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 1000 g a.i. ha(-1) was tested against stem borers and leaffolder infesting basmati rice. Over the years, dead heart in all the Ferterra doses and standard check (1.01-1.80%) were at par70 DAT, whereas, at 80 DAT doses @ 40, 50 and standard check were at par (1.04-1.13%) but significantly better than lower doses and untreated control. Similarly, over the years, Ferterra doses @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) was significantly better than control in reducing white ear incidence, whereas, at 30 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check intermediately reduced the white ears incidence. Leaffolder infestation at all the Ferterra doses were at par with standard check 70 DAT (2.69-3.87%), whereas, 80 DAT, Ferterra doses @ 30, 40, 50 and standard check were at par (2.95-3.49%) but significantly better than lower dose and untreated control. Over the years the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 23.67) in the Ferterra @40 g a.i. ha(-1) dose followed by 50 g a.i. ha(-1) dose.
Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).
Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Abell, Kristopher J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Van Driesche, Roy
Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid native to China and has been introduced to the United States since 2007 for classical biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. Between 2007-2010, T. planipennisi adults (3,311-4,597 females and approximately 1,500 males per site) were released into each of six forest sites in three counties (Ingham, Gratiot, and Shiawassee) of southern Michigan. By the fall of 2012, the proportion of sampled trees with one or more broods of T. planipennisi increased to 92 and 83% in the parasitoid-release and control plots, respectively, from 33 and 4% in the first year after parasitoid releases (2009 fall for Ingham county sites and 2010 for other sites). Similarly, the mean number of T. planipennisi broods observed from sampled trees increased from less than one brood per tree in the first year after parasitoid releases to 2.46 (at control plots) to 3.08 (at release plots) broods by the fall of 2012. The rates of emerald ash borer larval parasitism by T. planipennisi also increased from 1.2% in the first year after parasitoid releases to 21.2% in the parasitoid-release plots, and from 0.2 to 12.8% for the control plots by the fall of 2012. These results demonstrate that T. planipennisi is established in southern Michigan and that its populations are increasing and expanding. This suggests that T. planipennisi will likely play a critical role in suppressing emerald ash borer populations in Michigan.
Effect of temperature, exposure interval, and depth of diatomaceous earth treatment on distribution, mortality, and progeny production of lesser grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in stored wheat.
Vardeman, E A; Arthur, F H; Nechols, J R; Campbell, J F
Diatomaceous earth (DE) can be used as a surface treatment in stored wheat Triticum aestivum (L.) to control pest infestations. However, it is not known how the thickness of the DE-treated wheat layer or grain temperature impact effectiveness. Therefore, we conducted an experiment in growth chambers to assess the effect of different surface layers of hard winter wheat combined with DE on spatial distribution, adult survival, and progeny production of lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and to determine whether temperature and exposure interval modified this effect. When adult lesser grain borers were released in experimental towers containing untreated wheat or wheat admixed with DE to a surface layer depth of 15.2, 22.9, or 30.5 cm, they were able to penetrate all DE layers and oviposit in the untreated wheat below. However, survival was significantly reduced in adults exposed to DE. Survival decreased both with increasing depth of the DE-treated wheat and with exposure interval. Temperature had no effect on adult survival, but significantly more progeny were produced at 32 than at 27 degrees C. Progeny production was inversely correlated with the depth of the DE-treated layer. Vertical distribution patterns of parental beetles were not significantly different among treatments or exposure intervals; however, more insects were found at greater depths at 32 than at 27 degrees C. The F1 production was reduced by 22% at the thickest DE-treated layer. However, we conclude that this level of survival could leave a residual population of lesser grain borers that would probably be above an allowable threshold for insect damage.
The described software serves for the control of CAMAC-systems by a PDP-11 Computer with one DEC CA11-A Branch-Driver, respectively up to ten BORER Type 1533A Single-Crate-Controllers under the Operating System DOS V08. The software consists of three parts: 1) a subroutine library for programming in FORTRAN, 2) a macro library for programming in Assembler (for time-critical problems), 3) a loadable CAMAC-Driver for controlling the system by input of single CAMAC-commands at the terminal. Programs which apply the first two parts can be written independently of the CAMAC-Controller used at runtime. (orig.) [de
Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer
Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...
Long-term monitoring of the introduced emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) egg parasitoid, oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyridae), in Michigan, USA and evaluation of a newly developed monitoring technique
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was introduced as a biological control agent of this pest in Michiga...
An improved method for monitoring parasitism and establishment of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid introduced for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America
Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Jason A. Hansen; Kristopher J. Abell; Roy. Van Driesche
Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a solitary egg parasitoid that has been released in the United States since 2007 for biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Field and laboratory trials with ash logs infested with EAB eggs were conducted...
Long-term monitoring of the introduced emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Michigan, USA and evaluation of a newly developed monitoring technique
Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Roy. Van Driesche
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America from China. The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was introduced from China as a biological control agent for this pest in...
Uemura-Lima, Daliana H; Ventura, Maurício U; Mikami, Adriana Y; Silva, Flávia C Da; Morales, Lauro
Captures of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) were assessed in traps in the field. IAPAR designed traps [plastic bottles (2 L) lured with methanol:ethanol (1:1) in a vessel] were placed either at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m high from the ground or simultaneously tested in the 2004 fructification season. Traps placed at the three heights trapped 5.5 times more CBB than the others, mostly at the traps placed at 0.5 m (75%). Treatments using the IAPAR designed trap placed at 1.2 m high; IAPAR trap with a white plastic plate above (IAPAR modified I) at 1.2 m high; IAPAR at 0.5 m high and two additional vessels at 1.0 and 1.5m high (IAPAR modified II) and T-163 trap [three red plastic cups (300 ml) and a red plastic plate as a cover] lured with M:E (1:1) at 1.2m height were compared in the vegetative (2005) and fructification (2006) periods. IAPAR modified II (dispenser vessels placed at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m) trapped more beetles than the remaining types (2.72 times more beetles than IAPAR design); and IAPAR modified I traps trapped more beetles than T 163 and IAPAR traps in the vegetative period. In the reproductive period, IAPAR modified II trapped less beetles than IAPAR and IAPAR modified I. In 2007 vegetative season, IAPAR modified II trap were compared with IAPAR trap and trapped 2.8 times more beetles. The positive responses to a vertical distribution of the volatile attractants in the vegetative period of the planting allow the development of more efficient trapping systems for CBB.
Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian
Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255
Tussey, Dylan A; Aukema, Brian H; Charvoz, Anthony M; Venette, Robert C
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle from Asia, spreads through human-mediated movement and active flight. The effects of adult feeding and overwintering conditions on A. planipennis energy reserves (e.g., lipid, glycogen, and sugars) and flight are poorly understood. We conjectured that the potential energetic demands associated with the production of cryoprotectants might affect dispersal capacity and partially explain slower spread of A. planipennis in Minnesota than in the other states. Two studies sought to measure the effects of adult feeding on lipid content and flight capacity. Adult A. planipennis were fed shamel ash, Fraxinus uhdei Wenzig, leaves for 0-20 d after emergence, and half were flown on a custom flight mill for 24 h, before being frozen for comparative lipid analysis with a control group. The second study compared the effects of adult feeding on energy reserves and flight capacity of A. planipennis that were originally from St. Paul, Minnesota but overwintered in infested logs placed in Grand Rapids, Minnesota (low winter temperature, -34°C) or St. Paul, Minnesota (-26.3°C). Live adults consumed foliage at a constant rate, but lipid content (percentage of fresh mass) did not change with increases in feeding or flight. Adult glycogen content declined with flight and increased only slightly with feeding. Overwintering location affected survival rates but not energy reserves or flight capacity. These results suggest that the flight capacity of A. planipennis is largely determined before emergence, with no differences in energy reserves after cryoprotectant investment.
Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian
Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20-30 degrees C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32 degrees C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1-2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1 degrees C rise in thermal optimum (T(opt.)), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (r(max)) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2.
Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette
Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.
Aristizábal, Luis F; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Arthurs, Steven
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a recent invader to Hawaii. To date, limited information regarding the seasonal phenology of this pest on the islands limits the implementation of integrated control strategies. As part of a coffee farmer training program, we monitored CBB flight activity in 15 coffee plantations (Kona and Kau Districts) over 10 mo with methanol-ethanol (3:1 ratio) baited traps. Concurrently, we quantified CBB infestation and penetration rates inside developing coffee berries through the end of harvest. Approximately 1 million CBB were captured, with the highest activity (e.g., >500 CBB/trap/wk) in December through February, coinciding with end of main regional harvesting periods. Relatively high activity (>250 CBB/trap/wk) was also observed during berry development, in May and June (Kona) and June and July (Kau). Field infestation rates were higher overall in Kau (9.6 ± 1.1%) compared with coffee plantations in Kona (4.7 ± 0.4%). Linear regression investigated relationships between CBB trap data and berry infestation rates. Trap catch data generally correlated better with the proportion of shallow entries (AB position) compared with deeper penetrations (CD position) or total infestation. Pearson correlation coefficients based on different parameters (i.e., region, altitude, and berry phenology) revealed positive and mostly significant correlations between these variables (R values 0.410 to 0.837). Timing peak flight activity of CBB with insecticide applications will help coffee growers improve pest control. The ability of trap data to calculate reliable economic (action) thresholds for the CBB is discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P
Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ≍68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed.
Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Mastro, Victor C
Field assays were conducted in southeastern and south-central Michigan in 2011 and 2012 to optimize green and purple multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps for use as a survey tool for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Larger sized (12- and 16-unit) multifunnel traps caught more beetles than their smaller-sized (4- and 8-unit) counterparts. Green traps coated with untinted (white) fluon caught almost four times as many adult A. planipennis as Rain-X and tinted (green) fluon-coated traps and almost 33 times more beetles than untreated control traps. Purple multifunnel traps generally caught much lower numbers of A. planipennis adults than green traps, and trap catch on them was not affected by differences in the type of coating applied. However, trap coating was necessary as untreated control purple traps caught significantly less beetles than traps treated with Rain-X and untinted or tinted (purple) fluon. Proportions of male beetles captured were generally much higher on green traps than on purple traps, but sex ratios were not affected by trap coating. In 2012, a new shade of purple plastic, based on a better color match to an attractive purple paint than the previously used purple, was used for trapping assays. When multifunnel traps were treated with fluon, green traps caught more A. planipennis adults than both shades of purple and a prism trap that was manufactured based on the same color match. Trap catch was not affected by diluting the fluon concentration applied to traps to 50% (1:1 mixture in water). At 10%, trap catch was significantly lowered.
Burr, Stephen J; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding buprestid, has killed hundreds of millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and two Canadian provinces. We evaluated EAB persistence in post-invasion sites and compared EAB adult captures and larval densities in 24 forested sites across an east-west gradient in southern Michigan representing the Core (post-invasion), Crest (high EAB populations), and Cusp (recently infested areas) of the EAB invasion wave. Condition of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) trees were recorded in fixed radius plots and linear transects in each site. Ash mortality was highest in Core sites in the southeast, moderate in Crest sites in central southern Michigan, and low in Cusp sites in the southwest. Traps and trap trees in Crest sites accounted for 75 and 60% of all EAB beetles captured in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Populations of EAB were present in all Core sites and traps in these sites captured 13% of all beetles each year. Beetle captures and larval densities at Cusp sites roughly doubled between 2010 and 2011, reflecting the increasing EAB populations. Sticky bands on girdled trees captured the highest density of EAB beetles per m2 of area, while baited double-decker traps had the highest detection rates and captured the most beetles. Larval densities were higher on girdled ash than on similar ungirdled trees and small planted trees. Woodpecker predation and a native larval parasitoid were present in all three invasion regions but had minor effects on ash survival and EAB densities. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Yang, Zhong-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Gould, Juli R.; Reardon, Richard C.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, En-Shan
Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and is a recently described species. Both pest and parasitoid are native to China. In Tianjin City, China, S. agrili typically exhibited 3–4 generations per year, overwintering as a prepupa in a cocoon inside the host gallery. The multiple generations of S. agrili overlapped with its host, as did the emergence dates of the overwintering generation. From a single host, 1–18 S. agrili successfully developed to the adult stage (average 8.4), but in all cases the host was killed. The sex ratio (female: male) of the parasitoid adults emerging from field-collected cocoons was 2:1, whereas the sex ratio of parasitoids reared from field collected eggs and larvae was greater than 3:1. On average, adult females lived 29.1 d, and males lived 23.6 d when fed with 20% honey solution, significantly longer than without a nutritional supplement. Sexual reproduction is the normal mode of reproduction, but in the laboratory females did reproduce parthenogenetically, producing only males. The average fecundity was 23.3 eggs per female in the laboratory. S. agrili developed through five larval instars, and the larvae fed gregariously on the host hemolymph. The generation time from egg to adult wasp was 27–28 d at 22–26°C. Natural parasitism rates were as high as 60%, and in October they reached over 90% in some stands. This study showed that S. agrili is a promising agent for biocontrol of A. planipennis. PMID:20569125
Rigsby, Chad M; McCartney, Nathaniel B; Herms, Daniel A; Tumlinson, James H; Cipollini, Don
Emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) is a devastating pest of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in its invaded range in North America. Its coevolved Asian hosts are more resistant and less preferred for oviposition than susceptible North American species. We compared EAB oviposition preferences and bark and canopy volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of resistant Manchurian ash and susceptible black ash, and examined relationships between VOC profiles and oviposition. In the field, black ash was highly preferred for oviposition while no eggs were laid on Manchurian ash, and we found clear differences in the VOC profiles of Manchurian and black ash. We detected 78 compounds emitted from these species, including 16 compounds that elicited EAB antennal activity in prior studies. Four compounds were unique to black and 11 to Manchurian ash. Emission rates of 14 canopy and 19 bark volatiles varied among the two species, including four previously reported as antennally active. Specifically, 7-epi-sesquithujene (bark) emissions were greater from black ash, while β-caryophyllene (canopy), linalool (bark), and α-cubebene (bark) were emitted at higher rates by Manchurian ash. No relationships were found between the emission rate of any single compound or group of compounds (e.g. monoterpenes) suggesting that preference may be based on complex profile combinations. This is the first study to directly compare VOCs of black and Manchurian ash as well as the first to examine bark- and canopy-specific VOCs. The unique bark and canopy VOC profiles of these two species implicates potentially important variation in VOCs between a closely related resistant and susceptible species that provides a foundation for future studies of host preferences of EAB.
Duan, Jun; Ladd, Tim; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; vanFrankenhuyzen, Kees; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Krell, Peter J; Quan, Guoxing
The Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive phloem-feeding insect pest of ash trees. Since its initial discovery near the Detroit, US- Windsor, Canada area in 2002, the spread of EAB has had strong negative economic, social and environmental impacts in both countries. Several transcriptomes from specific tissues including midgut, fat body and antenna have recently been generated. However, the relatively low sequence depth, gene coverage and completeness limited the usefulness of these EAB databases. High-throughput deep RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to obtain 473.9 million pairs of 100 bp length paired-end reads from various life stages and tissues. These reads were assembled into 88,907 contigs using the Trinity strategy and integrated into 38,160 unigenes after redundant sequences were removed. We annotated 11,229 unigenes by searching against the public nr, Swiss-Prot and COG. The EAB transcriptome assembly was compared with 13 other sequenced insect species, resulting in the prediction of 536 unigenes that are Coleoptera-specific. Differential gene expression revealed that 290 unigenes are expressed during larval molting and 3,911 unigenes during metamorphosis from larvae to pupae, respectively (FDR2). In addition, 1,167 differentially expressed unigenes were identified from larval and adult midguts, 435 unigenes were up-regulated in larval midgut and 732 unigenes were up-regulated in adult midgut. Most of the genes involved in RNA interference (RNAi) pathways were identified, which implies the existence of a system RNAi in EAB. This study provides one of the most fundamental and comprehensive transcriptome resources available for EAB to date. Identification of the tissue- stage- or species- specific unigenes will benefit the further study of gene functions during growth and metamorphosis processes in EAB and other pest insects.
Duan, Jian J.; Taylor, Philip B.; Fuester, Roger W.
Balcha indica Mani and Kaul (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is a solitary ectoparasitoid attacking larvae, prepupae, and pupae of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae). Its fecundity, oviposition rate, longevity, and development time were determined in the laboratory under standard rearing conditions (25 ± 2° C, 65 ± 10% relative humidity, and 14:10 L:D). Adults lived a mean of 59 days with a maximum of 117 days. Lifetime adult fecundity averaged 36 eggs with a maximum 94 eggs per female. The egg stage lasted for a maximum of four days with ∼ 50% eggs hatched within two days. The development time of the first instars lasted for a maximum of nine days; 50% of the first instars completed their development (i.e., molted to the next instar) within five days. Instars of the intermediate and final stage larvae (after molting of the first instars occurred) could not be distinguished until they reached the pupal stage, and 50% of those larvae pupated ∼ 62 days after adult oviposition. Under the standard rearing conditions, 50% of B. indica took ∼ 83 days to complete the life cycle (from egg to adult emergence) ranging from 47 to 129 days. These results suggest that B. indica may not have more than two generations in the mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions of United States, where normal growing seasons—with average temperature above 25° C—are normally less than six months (May–October). Because of the long life span and oviposition period of adults, however, B. indica is likely to have overlapping generations. PMID:22233385
Sanders, W R; Liburd, O E; Mankin, R W; Meyer, W L; Stelinski, L L
Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is an important pest of cultivated grapes (Vitis spp.) in the eastern United States from Michigan to Florida. There are few registered insecticides for control of this pest, and their efficacy is limited. Pheromone-based mating disruption is a potential alternative to insecticides for management of V. polistiformis. Wax-based Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) was tested as a mating disruption method. Deployment densities of 150 dispensers per ha dosed with 5 mg of V. polistiformis pheromone were sufficient to achieve 95% mating disruption during a 7-wk trapping period. The disruption mechanism was determined to be competitive attraction. The release rate of pheromone from these dispensers was quantified to be approximately linear, 77.4 microg/g SPLAT/d. At this release rate, a minimum initial load of 5.4 mg of pheromone per dispenser would be needed to maintain disruption over a 9-10-wk V. polistiformis flight season, approximately 19 August to 21 October in central Florida. It should be noted, however, that the main pheromone component alone, (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate (ODDA), was effective (presumably by a noncompetitive mechanism) at higher loads per area of crop. Due to the cost of synthesis of highly pure isomers of the V. polistiformis pheromone components, mating disruption of V. polistiformis may be more practical with higher doses of commercially produced Zeuzera pyrina L. blend [95% (E,Z)-2,13-ODDA:5% (E,Z)-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol] or with (E,Z)-2,13-ODDA alone than with the V. polistiformis blend at lower rates.
Full Text Available The yellow stem borer (YSB, Scirpophaga incertulas, is a prominent pest in rice cultivation causing serious yield losses. The larval stage is an important stage in YSB, responsible for maximum infestation. However, limited knowledge exists on the biology and mechanisms underlying the growth and differentiation of YSB. To understand and identify the genes involved in YSB development and infestation, so as to design pest control strategies, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis at the first, third, fifth, and seventh larval developmental stages employing Illumina Hi-seq. High-quality reads (HQR of ∼229 Mb were assembled into 24,775 transcripts with an average size of 1485 bp. Genes associated with various metabolic processes, i.e., detoxification mechanism [CYP450, GSTs, and carboxylesterases (CarEs], RNA interference (RNAi machinery (Dcr-1, Dcr-2, Ago-1, Ago-2, Sid-1, Sid-2, Sid-3, and Sid-1-related gene, chemoreception (CSPs, GRs, OBPs, and ORs, and regulators [transcription factors (TFs and hormones] were differentially regulated during the developmental stages. Identification of stage-specific transcripts made it possible to determine the essential processes of larval development. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that YSB has not evolved much with respect to the detoxification mechanism, but showed the presence of distinct RNAi machinery. The presence of strong specific visual recognition coupled with chemosensory mechanisms supports the monophagous nature of YSB. Designed expressed sequenced tags-simple-sequence repeats (EST-SSRs will facilitate accurate estimation of the genetic diversity of YSB. This is the first report on characterization of the YSB transcriptome and the identification of genes involved in key processes, which will help researchers and industry to devise novel pest control strategies. This study also opens up a new avenue to develop next-generation resistant rice using RNAi or genome editing approaches.
Full Text Available Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation and one negative control treatment (aquades. The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol. The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.
Agunbiade, Tolulope A.
The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M. vitrata is lacking. We applied a set of six microsatellite markers to assess the population structure of M. vitrata collected at five sites from Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria. Observed polymorphisms ranged from one (marker 3393) to eight (marker 32008) alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 and 0.0 to 0.6, respectively. Three of the loci in samples from Nigeria and Burkina Faso deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), whereas no loci deviated significantly in samples from Niger. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 67.3% level of the genetic variation was within individuals compared to 17.3% among populations. A global estimate of F ST=0.1 (ENA corrected F ST=0.1) was significant (Pa=0.05) and corroborated by pairwise F ST values that were significant among all possible comparisons. A significant correlation was predicted between genetic divergence and geographic distance between subpopulations (R2=0.6, P=0.04), and cluster analysis by the program STRUCTURE predicted that co-ancestry of genotypes were indicative of three distinct populations. The spatial genetic variance among M. vitrata in West Africa may be due to limited gene flow, south-north seasonal movement pattern or other reproductive barriers. This information is important for the cultural, chemical and biological control strategies for managing M. vitrata. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
Bendera, M.; Ekesi, S.; Ndung'u, M.; Srinivasan, R.; Torto, B.
Previous studies on the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on sex pheromones, but the role of the host plant on sexual behavior has not been explored. We investigated this interaction in the laboratory using behavioral assays and chemical analyses. We found that the presence of cowpea seedlings and a dichloromethane extract of the leaf increased coupling in the legume pod borer by 33 and 61 %, respectively, compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of both contact and olfactory cues. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify compounds from the cowpea leaf extract, detected by M. vitrata antenna. We found that the antennae of the insect consistently detected four components, with 1-octen-3-ol identified as a common and dominant component in both the volatiles released by the intact cowpea plant and leaf extract. We therefore investigated its role in the coupling of M. vitrata. In dose-response assays, 1-octen-3-ol increased coupling in M. vitrata with increasing dose of the compound compared to the control. Our results suggest that the cowpea volatile 1-octen-3-ol contributes to M. vitrata sexual behavior.
Keefektifan insektisida cyantraniliprole terhadap hama penggerek buah kopi ( Hypothenemus hampei pada ko pi arabika ( Effectiveness cyantraniliprole against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampeion arabica coffee.
Full Text Available A trial on cyantraniliprole 10% against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei has been conducted on arabica coffee at Kalibendo Estate, in Banyuwangi regency, East Java. The altitude of the estate is about 650 m above sea level (asl. and belongs to B type of climate classification according to Schmidt and Ferguson. Composite variety of arabica coffee at about four years old planted at the location was used as plant materials. Five levels of cyantranilprole dosage and two compared insecticides i.e: carbaryl 85% and lamda cyhalothrine 25 g/L have been applied as treatments and each treatment is replicated four times. Infestation of coffee berry borer (CBB has been observed on berries in the field as well as on harvested berries and green coffee. The results revealed that cyantraniliprole 10% was very effective in suppressing infestation and population of CBB on coffee berries in the field as well as on harvested parchment and green coffee. The dosage of 2,000 ml/ha was the most effective and the highest level of efficacy against CBB until the last observation during 14 weeks trial. Application of cyantraniliprole 10% also has increased the production of green coffee harvested. The highest increase occurred on the treatment of cyantraniliprole 10% with a dosage of 1000 ml/ha, which it reached 62.87% higher compared to untreated treatment. Carbaryl and lamda cyhalothrine have effectiveness and efficacy level lower than the highest dosage of cyantraniliprole 10%.
Full Text Available Paecilomyces fumosoroseuswas known as one of the effective biological agents of cocoa pod borer and Helopeltis antonii. To find out the side effect of application of P. fumosoroseuson black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus, a series of observations were carried out at the Laboratory of Pest and Diseases Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI and in a cocoa plantation of Glenmore, Banyuwangi district, since June until October, 2004. Laboratory research used four concentrations of P. fumosoroseusnamely 105, 106, 107 and 108 spores/ml, while in the field used concentration 2, 4, 6, 8 g dry spores/ml. Each trial as compared with spraying of carbamate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides as control and untreated This research was designed by randomized block design and four replications. The results showed that in the laboratory, direct spraying suspension of P. fumosoroseuskilled black ant between 20—39% which infected fungi about 2.5—12.5%. The relationship between log of spores concentration of P. fumosoroseus and probit of ant mortality followed the regression equation Y = 3.653 + 0.097 X with LC 50 was 8 x 10 13 spore/ml. The period needed to kill a half of ant population at the laboratory (LT 50 at concentration 107 spores/ml followed the regression equation Y = 1.851 + 1.522 X, with LT50 is 12,01 days. The effect of pyrethroid and carbamate insecticide on ants mortality were 91.25% and 98.75% respectively. In the field, the effect of P. fumosoroseusspray on black ant population was very low, with the percentage of ant mortality at cocoa leaf nest were 0.25–0.46% and at cocoa leaf nest in plastic bag were 0.06–0.21%, while carbamate and pyrethroid synthetic effect were 37.35% and 52.37% at cocoa leaf nest, and 19.15% and 46.67% at cocoa leaf nest in plastic bags. Key words : Cocoa, capsid, Helopeltis antonii, biological control, biological agents, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Dolichoderus tharacicus.
Yan, Qi; Vang, Le Van; Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc; Naka, Hideshi; Ando, Tetsu
The sweet potato vine borer moth, Omphisa anastomosalis (Pyraloidea: Crambidae), is a serious pest in tropical and subtropical Asia-Pacific regions. In previous work using a population from Okinawa, Japan, (10E,14E)-10,14-hexadecadienal (E10,E14-16:Ald) was identified as the major pheromone component, with hexadecanal, (E)-10-hexadecenal, and (E)-14-hexadecenal as minor components. However, traps baited with the synthetic compounds were less effective at attracting males in the field than those baited with virgin females. While Pyraloidea females usually produce only Type I pheromone components (unsaturated fatty alcohols and their derivatives), the pheromones of some Pyraloidea species have been shown to involve a combination of both Type I and Type II components (unsaturated hydrocarbons and their epoxides). We examined an extract of the pheromone glands of female O. anastomosalis from Vietnam by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and detected (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-tricosatriene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H) in addition to the compounds identified previously. All four isomers of 10,14-16:Ald were synthesized. A mixture of synthetic E10,E14-16:Ald and Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H in a ratio of 1:0.2-1:2 was attractive to male moths in Vietnam, indicating the strong synergistic effect of the Type II compound. Addition of the other minor pheromone components to the binary blend did not increase the number of male moths captured. Combinations of Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H with the other three geometrical isomers of E10,E14-16:Ald attracted no males, further substantiating the 10E,14E configuration of the natural diene component. E10,E14-16:Ald mixed with other polyunsaturated hydrocarbons showed that mixtures that included a C21 triene, a C22 triene, or a C23 pentaene attracted as many males as did the mixture with Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H. The identification of a highly attractive sex pheromone will help in developing efficient strategies for monitoring and control of O. anastomosalis populations in sweet
Full Text Available Lepidopteran stem borers are among the most important pests of maize in East Africa. The objective of the present study was to predict the impact of temperature change on the distribution and abundance of the crambid Chilo partellus, the noctuid Busseola fusca, and their larval parasitoids Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae at local scale along Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills gradients in Tanzania and Kenya, respectively. Temperature-dependent phenology models of pests and parasitoids were used in a geographic information system for mapping. The three risk indices namely establishment, generation, and activity indices were computed using current temperature data record from local weather stations and future (i.e., 2055 climatic condition based on downscaled climate change data from the AFRICLIM database. The calculations were carried out using index interpolator, a sub-module of the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM software. Thin plate algorithm was used for interpolation of the indices. Our study confirmed that temperature was a key factor explaining the distribution of stem borers and their natural enemies but other climatic factors and factors related to the top-down regulation of pests by parasitoids (host-parasitoid synchrony also played a role. Results based on temperature only indicated a worsening of stem borer impact on maize production along the two East African mountain gradients studied. This was attributed to three main changes occurring simultaneously: (1 range expansion of the lowland species C. partellus in areas above 1200 m.a.s.l.; (2 increase of the number of pest generations across all altitudes, thus by 2055 damage by both pests will increase in the most productive maize zones of both transects; (3 disruption of the geographical distribution of pests and their larval parasitoids will cause an improvement of biological control at altitude below 1200 m.a.s.l. and a deterioration above 1200 m.a.s.l. The predicted increase in
Franco Alirio Vallejo Cabrera
Full Text Available Se evaluó la resistencia al pasador del fruto Neoleucinodes elegantalis en doce introducciones silvestres de Solanum sección Lycopersicum. Las introducciones PI 134417, PI134418 y PI 126449 Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum, las introducciones LA 1624 y LA2092 de S. habrochaites var. typicum y la introducción LA 444-1 de S. peruvianum, presentaron alta resistencia al pasador del fruto de tomate N. elegantalis. Se realizó la introgresión genética de la resistencia al pasador del fruto presente en la introducción PI 134418 de S. habrochaites var. glabratum hacia el cultivar Unapal - Maravilla de S. lycopersicum. Se encontró asociación positiva altamente significativa entre el daño causado por el insecto plaga y el peso del fruto; a medida que se recupera el peso del fruto del cultivar Unapal - Maravilla (padre recurrente, por sucesivos retrocruzamientos, se disminuye la resistencia al insecto plaga. Los tricomas y el número de frutos por racimo no afectaron la infestación y el daño de los frutos por parte del insecto; mientras que el peso de fruto si tuvo efecto importante ya que tiende a producir mayor daño a medida que se incrementa el peso de fruto. El método del retrocruzamiento fue efectivo para romper la asociación entre el peso de fruto y la resistencia al insecto. Se obtuvieron plantas recombinantes RC2 con resistencia al pasador del fruto y pesos de fruto entre 45,1 y 68,6g.Twelve wild introductions of Solanum section Lycopersicum were evaluated to determine their resistance to tomato fruit borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis. The introductions PI 134417, PI134418 and PI 126449 of Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum, the introduction LA 1624 and LA2092 of S. habrochaites var. typicum, and the introduction LA 444-1 of S. peruvianum, presented high resistance to the tomato fruit borer of tomato N. elegantalis. Genetic introgression of resistance to tomato fruit borer in the introduction PI 134418 S. habrochaites var. glabratum
Djibril Aboubakar Souna
Full Text Available Therophilus javanus is a koinobiont, solitary larval endoparasitoid currently being considered as a biological control agent against the pod borer Maruca vitrata, a devastating cowpea pest causing 20–80% crop losses in West Africa. We investigated ovary morphology and anatomy, oogenesis, potential fecundity, and egg load in T. javanus, as well as the effect of factors such as age of the female and parasitoid/host size at oviposition on egg load. The number of ovarioles was found to be variable and significantly influenced by the age/size of the M. vitrata caterpillar when parasitized. Egg load also was strongly influenced by both the instar of M. vitrata caterpillar at the moment of parasitism and wasp age. The practical implications of these findings for improving mass rearing of the parasitoid toward successful biological control of M. vitrata are discussed.
Kubitz, M.; Kind, R.
The IML-implementations follow the Macro-Syntax as given in Appendix A of the document 'CAMAC. The Definitior of IML (A Language For Use in CAMAC Systems)'. This document has been adopted as a description by ESONE and AEC NIM in August/September 74 and has been published in October 74. They have been designed for the DEC PDP 11 computer with the branch controller DEC CA 11-A and the Single Crate Controller BORER Type 1,533 A. For both DEC operating systems, DOS V08/09 and RSX-11D/M a full set of macros has been implemented except the block transfer on special LAM, X-error control statements and the subscript mode. Transfer modes not implemented by the hardware of the CA 11-A are simulated by software. (orig.) [de
Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George
Emerald ash borer is an invasive species from Asia. Beauveria bassiana strain L49-1AA is being tested for the control of emerald ash borer in Canada, using an autocontamination trapping system. We have developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen B. bassiana strain, L49-1AA from other Beauveria species by targeting the inter-strain genetic differences in 5' end of EF1-α gene of the genus Beauveria. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, T→C was identified only in L49-1AA and was used to develop a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a modified allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) approach for distinguishing B. bassiana L49-1AA from all background Beauveria isolates. The SNP site was employed to design inner primers but with a deliberate mismatch introduced at the 3' antepenultimate from the mutation site in order to maximize specificity and detection efficiency. Amplification was specific to L49-1AA without cross-reaction with DNA from other Beauveria strains. In addition, the designed primers were also tested against environmental samples in L49-1AA released plots and observed to be highly efficient in detecting and discriminating the target strain, L49-1AA from both pure and crude DNA samples. This new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of released L49-1AA in our autocontamination and dissemination projects for managing EAB populations. Additionally, the modified-AIDA format has potential as a tool for simultaneously identifying and differentiating closely related Beauveria species, strains/isolates as well as general classification of other pathogens or organisms. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phylogenetic variation of the green muscadine fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin, and its virulence to larvae of the sugarcane longhorn stem borer, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Full Text Available The sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae has recently become a serious insect pest of sugarcane in Thailand and effective biological control agent must be evaluated. The green muscadine fungus (GMF, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin is a species complex of entomopathogenic fungi, which includes many cryptic subspecies and species. It has been reported that GMF infects and kills the sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, D. buqueti Guerin, so that GMF is a possible biological control agent of SLSB. Molecular analyses were conducted to gain a better understanding of the taxonomic position of GMF Thai strains. Virulence bioassays were carried out on four isolates of GMF to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. This study revealed that an isolate from Khon Kaen (KK showed the highest virulence to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. In biological control, an aqueous suspension containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL of KK isolate was best from the viewpoint of a tradeoff between the economic cost/benefit of the mass production cost and the consequent mortality after application. Comparing suspensions containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL with those containing 1 × 1013 conidia/mL, 100,000 times as much quantity of suspension can be obtained from the same quantity of conidia, though the difference in the D. buqueti mortality was relatively small. Six isolates of GMF from SLSB in Thailand were likely a cryptic species, although further molecular analysis using factor 1-alpha sequences is needed.
In vitro production of two chitinolytic proteins with an inhibiting effect on the insect coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the fungus Hemileia vastatrix the most limiting pests of coffee crops.
Martínez, Claudia P; Echeverri, Claudia; Florez, Juan C; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Góngora, Carmenza E
Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies.
Expression of a Chimeric Gene Encoding Insecticidal Crystal Protein Cry1Aabc of Bacillus thuringiensis in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Confers Resistance to Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner.).
Das, Alok; Datta, Subhojit; Thakur, Shallu; Shukla, Alok; Ansari, Jamal; Sujayanand, G K; Chaturvedi, Sushil K; Kumar, P A; Singh, N P
Domain swapping and generation of chimeric insecticidal crystal protein is an emerging area of insect pest management. The lepidopteran insect pest, gram pod borer ( Helicoverpa armigera H.) wreaks havoc to chickpea crop affecting production. Lepidopteran insects were reported to be controlled by Bt ( cryI ) genes. We designed a plant codon optimized chimeric Bt gene ( cry1Aabc ) using three domains from three different cry1A genes (domains I, II, and III from cry1Aa , cry1Ab , and cry1Ac , respectively) and expressed it under the control of a constitutive promoter in chickpea ( cv . DCP92-3) to assess its effect on gram pod borer. A total of six transgenic chickpea shoots were established by grafting into mature fertile plants. The in vitro regenerated (organogenetic) shoots were selected based on antibiotic kanamycin monosulfate (100 mg/L) with transformation efficiency of 0.076%. Three transgenic events were extensively studied based on gene expression pattern and insect mortality across generations. Protein expression in pod walls, immature seeds and leaves (pre- and post-flowering) were estimated and expression in pre-flowering stage was found higher than that of post-flowering. Analysis for the stable integration, expression and insect mortality (detached leaf and whole plant bioassay) led to identification of efficacious transgenic chickpea lines. The chimeric cry1Aabc expressed in chickpea is effective against gram pod borer and generated events can be utilized in transgenic breeding program.
Expression of a Chimeric Gene Encoding Insecticidal Crystal Protein Cry1Aabc of Bacillus thuringiensis in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Confers Resistance to Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner.
Full Text Available Domain swapping and generation of chimeric insecticidal crystal protein is an emerging area of insect pest management. The lepidopteran insect pest, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera H. wreaks havoc to chickpea crop affecting production. Lepidopteran insects were reported to be controlled by Bt (cryI genes. We designed a plant codon optimized chimeric Bt gene (cry1Aabc using three domains from three different cry1A genes (domains I, II, and III from cry1Aa, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac, respectively and expressed it under the control of a constitutive promoter in chickpea (cv. DCP92-3 to assess its effect on gram pod borer. A total of six transgenic chickpea shoots were established by grafting into mature fertile plants. The in vitro regenerated (organogenetic shoots were selected based on antibiotic kanamycin monosulfate (100 mg/L with transformation efficiency of 0.076%. Three transgenic events were extensively studied based on gene expression pattern and insect mortality across generations. Protein expression in pod walls, immature seeds and leaves (pre- and post-flowering were estimated and expression in pre-flowering stage was found higher than that of post-flowering. Analysis for the stable integration, expression and insect mortality (detached leaf and whole plant bioassay led to identification of efficacious transgenic chickpea lines. The chimeric cry1Aabc expressed in chickpea is effective against gram pod borer and generated events can be utilized in transgenic breeding program.
Svobodova, E.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Semeradova, D.; Dubrovsky, M.; Sefrova, H.
Climate change is likely to be a dominant factor affecting the lifecycle and overall occurrence of pest's species whose development is directly linked with climate conditions. This study is focused on the estimation of the potential occurrence and generation growth of selected pests causing the significant damages on the yield of crops over western part of Europe in changing climate. Modelled species involved the main pest of potato Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say 1824), the pest of maize European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubner 1796), the pest which causes the damages in orchards and decreases the yield of apples, Codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Linnaeus 1758) and Cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus, Linnaeus 1758) seriously affecting wheat production. The development of these pests' is driven mainly by temperature of the environment, which is in turn function of air temperature. The climate change is likely to lead to an earlier once and prolongation of the growing season and in the same time accelerate pests' developmental rate and will increase number of generations. Estimates of potential distribution of selected pest species for the present as well as expected climate conditions are based on the dynamical model CLIMEX. This approach exploits the expression of the overall climate suitability for the species longterm survival in terms of ecoclimatic index. The CLIMEX model was at first validated with observed data of pests' occurrences using CRU 10´ climate data set a source of climate data. All pest models listed were then used to study the effects of climate change on pests by estimating changes in population dynamics and/or infestation pressure during the first half of the 21st century. Outputs of the models were applied within the European scale in the 10´ resolution using digital terrain model. Simulations of the impacts of expected climate on the pests distribution were conducted under three global circulation models (Had
Böttger, Rita; Schaller, Jörg; Lintow, Sven; Gert Dudel, E
The increasing cultivation of genetically modified corn plants (Zea mays) during the last decades is suggested as a potential risk to the environment. One of these genetically modified variety expressed the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein originating from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), resulting in resistance against Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer. Transgenic litter material is extensively studied regarding the decomposition in soils. However, only a few field studies analyzed the fate of the Cry1Ab protein and the impact of green and senescent leaf litter from corn on the decomposition rate and related ecosystem functions in aquatic environments. Consequently, a microbial litter decomposition experiment was conducted under controlled semi-natural conditions in batch culture using two maize varieties: one variety with Cry1Ab and another one with the appertaining Iso-line as control treatment. The results showed no significant differences between the treatment with Cry1Ab and the Iso-line regarding loss of total mass in dry weight of 43% for Iso-line and 45% for Bt-corn litter, lignin content increased to 137.5% (Iso-line) and 115.7% (Bt-corn), and phenol loss decreased by 53.6% (Iso-line), 62.2% (Bt-corn) during three weeks of the experiment. At the end of the experiment Cry1Ab protein was still detected with 6% of the initial concentration. A slightly but significant lower cellulose content was found for the Cry1Ab treatment compared to the Iso-line litter at the end of the experiment. The significant higher total protein (25%) and nitrogen (25%) content in Bt corn, most likely due to the additionally expression of the transgenic protein, may increase the microbial cellulose degradation and decrease microbial lignin degradation. In conclusion a relevant year by year input of protein and therefore nitrogen rich Bt corn litter into aquatic environments may affect the balanced nutrient turnover in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D
Field trials were conducted at Rosemount, MN in 2009 and 2010, to measure pollen movement from Bt corn to adjacent blocks of non-Bt refuge corn. As the use of Bt corn hybrids continues to increase in the United States, and new insect resistance management (IRM) plans are implemented, it is necessary to measure the efficacy of these IRM plans. In Minnesota, the primary lepidopteran pests of corn include the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). The primary IRM plan in transgenic corn is the use of hybrids expressing a high dose of insecticidal proteins and an insect refuge containing hybrids not expressing insecticidal proteins that produce susceptible insects. Wind-assisted pollen movement in corn occurs readily, and is the primary method of pollination for corn. The combination of pollen movement and viability determines the potential for cross pollination of refuge corn. In 2009 and 2010, cross pollination occurred with the highest frequency on the north and east sides of Bt corn fields, but was found at some level in all directions. Highest levels of cross pollination (75%) were found within the first four rows (3 m) of non-Bt corn adjacent to Bt corn, and in general decreasing levels of cross pollination were found the further the non-Bt corn was planted from the Bt corn. A mosaic of Bt cross-pollinated kernels was found throughout the ear, but in both years the ear tip had the highest percentage of cross-pollinated kernels; this pattern may be linked to the synchrony of pollen shed and silking between Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids. The dominant wind direction in both years was from WNW. However, in both years, there were also prevailing winds from SSW and WSW. Further studies are needed to quantify Bt levels in cross-pollinated kernels, measure the Bt dose of such kernels and associated lepidopteran pest survival, and measure the impact of Bt pollen on lepidopteran pests, particularly when considering the
Selection of three strains creole Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin as an alternative for biological control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867 (Coleoptera: Scolytidae at different temperatures
Full Text Available In the world there is great demand for coffee (Coffea arabica across Europe and America, and coffee producing countries like Brazil, Colombia, and low producers. Bolivia is a country that produces coffee, produces 90% instead of the Yungas of La Paz department. One of the biggest problem for producers is to attack the coffee berry borer that will affect the performance to drop, and producers are seeing thus applying chemicals to eliminate this pest, but the taste is no longer the same and now there is now demand for organic coffee as producers seek to eliminate the scourge of environmentally friendly manner. Thus he found one of the ways you can remove it with an entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana that is killing the fruit contact the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, is present in the form of a creamy yellow cotton that does not affects the environment and is wicked for warm-blooded animals. But how to play this fungus is not known at what temperature can be reproduced only has information that germinate at 23 °C to 25 ºC but in a different area, that is why research is done. That's why were submitted to different temperatures (15ºC, 18ºC, 21ºC, 24ºC, 27ºC, 30ºC. In three different places (Carmen Pampa, Irupana, Asunta at different temperatures and altitudes. The results were that a thickened first all well but after time passed were changing the behavior and the best result was at 24ºC, initially in the germination started badly but the results of growth rate was 2.21mm/day the concentration of conidia was 2.0 conidia / ml, followed by the temperature of 18º, 21º, 27º, the growth rate ranging from 1.43 to 1.85 mm/day, and the concentration is 1.50 to 1.70 conidia/mL. The place was better behaved Asunta fungus followed by Carmen Pampa.
Full Text Available The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae was first reported infecting Costa Rican coffee plantations in the year 2000. Due to the impact that this plague has in the economy of the country, we were interested in seeking new alternatives for the biological control of H. hampei, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. Atotal of 202 B. thuringiensis isolates obtained from Costa Rican coffee plantations infested with H. hampei were analyzed through crystal morphology of the crystal inclusions and SDS-PAGE of d-endotoxins, while 105 strains were further evaluated by PCR for the presence cry, cyt and vip genes. Most of the Bt strains showed diverse crystal morphologies: pleomorphic (35%, oval (37%, bipyramidal (3%, bipyramidal and oval (12%, bipyramidal, oval and pleomorphic (10% and bipyramidal, oval and cubic (3%. The SDS-PAGE analyses of the crystal preparations showed five strains with delta -endotoxin from 20 to 40 kDa, six from 40 to 50 kDa, seven from 50 to 60 kDa, 19 from 60 to 70 kDa, 29 from 70 to 100 kDa and 39 from 100-145 kDa. PCR analyses demonstrated that the collection showed diverse cry genes profiles having several genes per strain: 78 strains contained the vip3 gene, 82 the cry2 gene, 45 the cry1 and 29 strains harbored cry3-cry7 genes. A total of 13 strains did not amplified with any of the cry primers used: cry1, cry2, cry37, cry5, cry11, cry12 and cry14. Forty-three different genetic profiles were found, mainly due to the combination of cry1A genes with other cry and vip genes. The genetic characterization of the collection provides opportunities for the selection of strains to be tested in bioassays against H. hampei and other insect pests of agricultural importance. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 757-764. Epub 2004 Dic 15.En el año 2000 se reportó por primera vez la principal plaga del cafeto, conocida como broca (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolitidae en
Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell; Albajes, Ramon; Eizaguirre, Matilde
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., is highly efficient against the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) when the larvae feed only on the transgenic plants. However, when they feed on Bt leaves during only part of their development, thus ingesting sublethal amounts of Bt toxins, some larvae survive. A previous study reported a prolonged development and precocious diapause induction in larvae fed on a diet with sublethal amounts of Cry1Ab protein. To determine whether these effects were accompanied by a modification of the hormonal balance, S. nonagrioides larvae were fed on sublethal amounts of Bt protein provided in Bt leaves or in the diet. The larvae that survived had higher levels of juvenile hormone (JH), whereas their level of ecdysteroids did not increase sufficiently to allow pupation, leading to a longer larval development and more larval molts. This response may be considered a defense mechanism that allows some larvae to survive toxin ingestion; it is similar the response to insecticidal toxins or viruses observed in other larvae. Changes in the hormone levels in diapausing larvae were undetectable, probably because these changes were masked by the higher level of JH in the hemolymph of diapausing larvae and because of lack of ecdysteroid titer increase, a phenomenon that is usually observed a few days before pupation in nondiapausing larvae. These results should be taken into account in the establishment of non-Bt refuges to prevent development of Bt-resistance in S. non-agrioides populations.
Full Text Available Striped stem-borer (SSB infestation is one of the most serious sources of damage to rice growth. A rapid and non-destructive method of early SSB detection is essential for rice-growth protection. In this study, hyperspectral imaging combined with chemometrics was used to detect early SSB infestation in rice and identify the degree of infestation (DI. Visible/near-infrared hyperspectral images (in the spectral range of 380 nm to 1030 nm were taken of the healthy rice plants and infested rice plants by SSB for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. A total of 17 characteristic wavelengths were selected from the spectral data extracted from the hyperspectral images by the successive projection algorithm (SPA. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the hyperspectral images, and 16 textural features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM were extracted from the first two principal component (PC images. A back-propagation neural network (BPNN was used to establish infestation degree evaluation models based on full spectra, characteristic wavelengths, textural features and features fusion, respectively. BPNN models based on a fusion of characteristic wavelengths and textural features achieved the best performance, with classification accuracy of calibration and prediction sets over 95%. The accuracy of each infestation degree was satisfactory, and the accuracy of rice samples infested for 2 days was slightly low. In all, this study indicated the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging techniques to detect early SSB infestation and identify degrees of infestation.
Fan, Yangyang; Wang, Tao; Qiu, Zhengjun; Peng, Jiyu; Zhang, Chu; He, Yong
Striped stem-borer (SSB) infestation is one of the most serious sources of damage to rice growth. A rapid and non-destructive method of early SSB detection is essential for rice-growth protection. In this study, hyperspectral imaging combined with chemometrics was used to detect early SSB infestation in rice and identify the degree of infestation (DI). Visible/near-infrared hyperspectral images (in the spectral range of 380 nm to 1030 nm) were taken of the healthy rice plants and infested rice plants by SSB for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. A total of 17 characteristic wavelengths were selected from the spectral data extracted from the hyperspectral images by the successive projection algorithm (SPA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the hyperspectral images, and 16 textural features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from the first two principal component (PC) images. A back-propagation neural network (BPNN) was used to establish infestation degree evaluation models based on full spectra, characteristic wavelengths, textural features and features fusion, respectively. BPNN models based on a fusion of characteristic wavelengths and textural features achieved the best performance, with classification accuracy of calibration and prediction sets over 95%. The accuracy of each infestation degree was satisfactory, and the accuracy of rice samples infested for 2 days was slightly low. In all, this study indicated the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging techniques to detect early SSB infestation and identify degrees of infestation.
Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G.; Vega, Fernando E.; Harwood, James D.
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US 500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations.
Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae); Biologia y habitos del barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)
Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A., E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestal000, Agricolas y Pecuarias, Santiago, Nayarit (Mexico). Campo Experimental Santiago Ixcuintla; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor, E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Fitosanidad, Montecillo, Texcoco (Mexico). Colegio de Postgraduados
The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)
Villari, Caterina; Herms, Daniel A; Whitehill, Justin G A; Cipollini, Don; Bonello, Pierluigi
We review the literature on host resistance of ash to emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an invasive species that causes widespread mortality of ash. Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), which coevolved with EAB, is more resistant than evolutionarily naïve North American and European congeners. Manchurian ash was less preferred for adult feeding and oviposition than susceptible hosts, more resistant to larval feeding, had higher constitutive concentrations of bark lignans, coumarins, proline, tyramine and defensive proteins, and was characterized by faster oxidation of phenolics. Consistent with EAB being a secondary colonizer of coevolved hosts, drought stress decreased the resistance of Manchurian ash, but had no effect on constitutive bark phenolics, suggesting that they do not contribute to increased susceptibility in response to drought stress. The induced resistance of North American species to EAB in response to the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate was associated with increased bark concentrations of verbascoside, lignin and/or trypsin inhibitors, which decreased larval survival and/or growth in bioassays. This finding suggests that these inherently susceptible species possess latent defenses that are not induced naturally by larval colonization, perhaps because they fail to recognize larval cues or respond quickly enough. Finally, we propose future research directions that would address some critical knowledge gaps. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities.
Kumar, Sandeep; Dhillon, Mukesh K
In order to better understand the biochemical interactions and to identify new biomarkers for plant resistance against insects, we proposed a suitable lipophilic profiling method for insects and their host plants. The critical components of GC-MS based analysis are: sample amount, extraction, derivatization, temperature gradient, run time, and identification of peaks. For lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum, and their insect pest, spotted stem borer larvae, we recommend 100 mg sample weight for seeds and insect samples (whole insect body), and 200 mg for seedlings. Maize and sorghum seeds required less time for fat extraction in comparison to their seedlings and the pest fed on these seedlings. GC-MS was standardized for better separation and intensity of peaks using different temperature gradients in the range of 180-300 C. A total of 48 lipophilic compounds encompassing various classes based on their functional groups such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoids, vitamin derivative, etc. were separated in the seedlings (30), seeds (14), and the pest (26) in the retention time range of 3.22 to 29.41 min. This method could be useful to study nutritional aspects of different field crops in relation to various stresses apart from the analysis of lipophilic compounds for better understanding of insect-plant interactions.
Full Text Available Ocneria terebinthina Strg. (Lep.: Lymanteriidae is a leaf borer pest in pistachio orchard. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki alone and in combination with henna powder was investigated on third larval instar of O. terebinthina under laboratory conditions. Bioassay was carried out using spray technique on pistachio offshoot. Probit analysis of concentration-mortality data was conducted to estimate the LC50 value. The LC50 value of B. thuringiensis on third instar of larvae was estimated as 2817.30 ppm. The synergist effect of henna powder on efficacy of B. thuringiensis was also evaluated. Three concentrations of henna powder were combined with minimum lethal dose of B. thuringiensis against third larval instar. The results revealed that the henna powder had synergist effect on B. thuringiensis. The combination of B. thuringiensis and henna powder (6000 ppm caused 80.68% mortality, whereas B. thuringiensis alone caused 15.91% mortality. Our results suggested that henna powder can increase the efficacy of B. thuringiensis in controlling O. terebinthina in pest integrated management.
Jiang, Shan; Wu, Hao; Liu, Haoju; Zheng, Jie; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao
The striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice insect pest worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi) has become a promising strategy for developing insect-resistant crops. In a previous study, five double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting important SSB housekeeping genes were overexpressed in rice, but none of the acquired dsRNA-transgenic rice plants showed significant effects on SSB. Thirteen selected SSB endogenous small RNAs, predicted as SSB novel microRNAs (miRNAs), were overexpressed in rice using artificial miRNA (amiRNA) expression technology. Feeding tests showed that two out of 13 selected SSB novel miRNAs caused significant growth inhibition for feeding SSB larvae based on transgenic rice expression. Pupation was delayed 4 days when SSB larvae consecutively fed on transgenic rice expressing the SSB novel miRNA candidate csu-novel-miR15 (csu-15 rice). Gene expression analysis confirmed that the expression levels of at least six SSB unigenes significantly changed (i.e., were up- or down-regulated) after feeding on csu-15 rice. Our research demonstrated a novel RNAi strategy using SSB endogenous small RNAs to develop RNAi crops for pest management; this strategy is different from the common RNAi resulting from transgenic dsRNAs or amiRNAs targeting certain insect endogenous genes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Meng, Fanli; Li, Yang; Zang, Zhenyuan; Li, Na; Ran, Ruixue; Cao, Yingxue; Li, Tianyu; Zhou, Quan; Li, Wenbin
The soybean pod borer [SPB; Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)] is the most important soybean pest in northeastern Asia. Silencing genes using plant-mediated RNA-interference is a promising strategy for controlling SPB infestations. The ribosomal protein P0 is important for protein translation and DNA repair in the SPB. Thus, transferring P0 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into plants may help prevent SPB-induced damage. We investigated the effects of SpbP0 dsRNA injections and SpbP0 dsRNA-expressing transgenic soybean plants on the SPB. Larval mortality rates were greater for SpbP0 dsRNA-injected larvae (96%) than for the control larvae (31%) at 14 days after injections. Transgenic T 2 soybean plants expressing SpbP0 dsRNA sustained less damage from SPB larvae than control plants. In addition, the expression level of the SpbP0 gene decreased and the mortality rate increased when SPB larvae were fed on T 3 transgenic soybean pods. Moreover, the surviving larvae were deformed and exhibited inhibited growth. Silencing SpbP0 expression is lethal to the SPB. Transgenic soybean plants expressing SpbP0 dsRNA are more resistant to the SPB than wild-type plants. Thus, SpbP0 dsRNA-expressing transgenic plants may be useful for controlling insect pests. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Bowers, Erin; Hellmich, Richard; Munkvold, Gary
Field trials were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against manual infestations of European corn borer (ECB) and Western bean cutworm (WBC). HPLC and ELISA were used to measure fumonisin levels. Results of the methods were highly correlated, but ELISA estimates were higher. Bt hybrids experienced less insect injury, Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin contamination compared to non-Bt hybrids. WBC infestation increased fumonisin content compared to natural infestation in non-Bt and hybrids expressing Cry1Ab protein in five of eight possible comparisons; in Cry1F hybrids, WBC did not impact fumonisins. These results indicate that WBC is capable of increasing fumonisin levels in maize. Under WBC infestation, Cry1F mitigated this risk more consistently than Cry1Ab or non-Bt hybrids. Transgenically expressed Bt proteins active against multiple lepidopteran pests can provide broad, consistent reductions in the risk of fumonisin contamination.
Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng
Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure o...
Full Text Available The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB, Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT and Generalized Linear Models (GLM was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms.
Sheng, Cheng-Wang; Jia, Zhong-Qiang; Ozoe, Yoshihisa; Huang, Qiu-Tang; Han, Zhao-Jun; Zhao, Chun-Qing
Insect γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABAR) is one of the major targets of insecticides. In the present study, cDNAs (CsRDL1A and CsRDL2S) encoding the two isoforms of RDL subunits were cloned from the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis. Transcripts of both genes demonstrated similar expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages, although CsRDL2S was ∼2-fold more abundant than CsRDL1A throughout all development stages. To investigate the function of channels formed by CsRDL subunits, both genes were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes singly or in combination in different ratios. Electrophysiological results using a two-electrode voltage clamp demonstrated that GABA activated currents in oocytes injected with both cRNAs. The EC 50 value of GABA in activating currents was smaller in oocytes co-injected with CsRDL1A and CsRDL2S than in oocytes injected singly. The IC 50 value of the insecticide fluralaner in inhibiting GABA responses was smaller in oocytes co-injected with different cRNAs than in oocytes injected singly. Co-injection also changed the potency of the insecticide dieldrin in oocytes injected singly. These findings suggested that heteromeric GABARs were formed by the co-injections of CsRDL1A and CsRDL2S in oocytes. Although the presence of Ser at the 2'-position in the second transmembrane segment was responsible for the insensitivity of GABARs to dieldrin, this amino acid did not affect the potencies of the insecticides fipronil and fluralaner. These results lead us to hypothesize that C. suppressalis may adapt to insecticide pressure by regulating the expression levels of CsRDL1A and CsRDL2S and the composition of both subunits in GABARs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tomov, Beverly Wachtel; Bernal, Julio S
Parallorhogas pyralophagus (Marsh) is the principal parasitoid of the Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar)], the primary pest of sugarcane in south Texas. Insect resistant transgenic sugarcane producing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) was developed to improve control of E. loftini. The present laboratory study addressed whether over two consecutive generations transgenic sugarcane delivered via artificial diet has adverse host-mediated effects on P. pyralophagus life history parameters. The results of this study showed that a number of life history parameters were affected by transgenic sugarcane, whereas others were not affected, and that effects varied between generations. In the first generation, adult longevity was increased by approximately 2 d, and cocoon to adult and egg to adult developmental times were prolonged by approximately 1 d in parasitoids exposed to transgenic sugarcane, whereas effects were not evident on adult size; egg load; egg to cocoon developmental time; rates of gain of longevity and egg load with adult size; and egg, larval, and pupal mortality. However, in the second generation, adult longevity was reduced by approximately 3 d, adult size by approximately 5%, egg load by approximately 24%, and rate of gain of longevity with adult size by approximately 21%, whereas effects were not evident on the rate of gain of egg load with adult size. It was concluded that although GNA transgenic sugarcane, ingested via E. loftini tissues, was not acutely toxic to P. pyralophagus, the sublethal effects on life history parameters measured in this study must be considered in a broader context to determine their possible ecological significance.
Full Text Available The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model. In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.
Rigsby, C M; Showalter, D N; Herms, D A; Koch, J L; Bonello, P; Cipollini, D
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an Asian wood-boring beetle, has devastated ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North American forests and landscapes since its discovery there in 2002. In this study, we collected living larvae from EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandschurica), and susceptible white (Fraxinus americana) and green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) ash hosts, and quantified the activity and production of selected detoxification, digestive, and antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized that differences in larval physiology could be used to infer resistance mechanisms of ash. We found no differences in cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, carboxylesterase, sulfotransferase, and tryptic BApNAase activities between larvae feeding on different hosts. Despite this, Manchurian ash-fed larvae produced a single isozyme of low electrophoretic mobility that was not produced in white or green ash-fed larvae. Additionally, larvae feeding on white and green ash produced two serine protease isozymes of high electrophoretic mobility that were not observed in Manchurian ash-fed larvae. We also found lower activity of β-glucosidase and higher activities of monoamine oxidase, ortho-quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase in Manchurian ash-fed larvae compared to larvae that had fed on susceptible ash. A single isozyme was detected for both catalase and superoxide dismutase in all larval groups. The activities of the quinone-protective and antioxidant enzymes are consistent with the resistance phenotype of the host species, with the highest activities measured in larvae feeding on resistant Manchurian ash. We conclude that larvae feeding on Manchurian ash could be under quinone and oxidative stress, suggesting these may be potential mechanisms of resistance of Manchurian ash to EAB larvae, and that quinone-protective and antioxidant enzymes are important counter-adaptations of larvae for dealing with these resistance
Hoban, J; Duan, J J; Hough-Goldstein, J
Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and has been introduced to the United States for classical biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of both diapaused and nondiapaused populations of O. agrili under four different temperature-photophase combinations: 30°C (warm) and 20°C (cold) temperatures with both long-day (16 h) and short-day (8 h) photophase. Results of this study showed that regardless of the length of photophase, parental parasitoids of both diapaused and nondiapaused O. agrili survived significantly longer at 20°C than at 30°C. Both populations also laid their eggs faster at 30°C compared with those at 20°C. Higher proportions of the progeny produced by both populations of O. agrili were induced into diapause by short-day (8 h) photophase, regardless of rearing temperature. In addition, the diapaused parasitoids in the short-day photophase treatment at both warm and cold temperatures produced increasing proportions of diapaused progeny over time, whereas no significant differences were observed in the proportions of diapaused progeny by the nondiapaused parasitoids over different sampling times. These findings suggest that O. agrili should be continuously reared under warm temperature and long-day photoperiod (to avoid diapause for increased reproduction). In addition, we recommend that diapaused adults be used for field releases in early summer when temperatures are still relatively low (∼20°C) and host eggs are available so that they can produce multiple generations prior to overwintering. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.
Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi
Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks.
Vega, Fernando E.; Davis, Aaron; Borgemeister, Christian; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin
The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model). In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1. PMID:21935419
Jaramillo, Juliana; Muchugu, Eric; Vega, Fernando E; Davis, Aaron; Borgemeister, Christian; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin
The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model). In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.
Full Text Available The insecticidal IE648 toxin is a truncated Cry1Ie protein with increased toxicity against Asian corn borer (ACB. Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins that disrupt insect midgut cells to kill the larvae. However, the peritrophic membrane (PM is an important barrier that Cry toxins must cross before binding to midgut cells. Previously, it was shown that Cry toxins are able to bind and accumulate in the PM of several lepidopteran insects. Binding of IE648 toxin to PM of ACB was previously reported and the goal of the current work was the identification of the binding region between Cry1Ie and the PM of ACB. Homologous competition binding assays showed that this interaction was specific. Heterologous competition binding assays performed with different fragments corresponding to domain I, domain II and domain III allowed us to identify that domain III participates in the interaction of IE648 with the PM. Specifically, peptide D3-L8 (corresponding to Cry1Ie toxin residues 607 to 616, located in an exposed loop region of domain III is probably involved in this interaction. Ligand blot assays show that IE648 interact with chitin and PM proteins with sizes of 30, 32 and 80 kDa. The fact that domain III interacts with proteins of similar molecular masses supports that this region of the toxin might be involved in PM interaction. These data provide for the first time the identification of domain III as a putative binding region between PM and 3D-Cry toxin.
Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb
The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms.
Full Text Available The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt proteins (i.e., Cry1Ab in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of transgenic Bt crops. Understanding the pests' resistance mechanisms will facilitate development of effective strategies for delaying or countering resistance. Alterations in expression of cadherin- and alkaline phosphatase (ALP have been associated with Bt resistance in several species of pest insects. In this study, neither the activity nor gene regulation of ALP was associated with Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis. Total ALP enzymatic activity was similar between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS and -resistant (Cry1Ab-RR strains of D. saccharalis. In addition, expression levels of three ALP genes were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and -RR, and cDNA sequences did not differ between susceptible and resistant larvae. In contrast, altered expression of a midgut cadherin (DsCAD1 was associated with the Cry1Ab resistance. Whereas cDNA sequences of DsCAD1 were identical between the two strains, the transcript abundance of DsCAD1 was significantly lower in Cry1Ab-RR. To verify the involvement of DsCAD1 in susceptibility to Cry1Ab, RNA interference (RNAi was employed to knock-down DsCAD1 expression in the susceptible larvae. Down-regulation of DsCAD1 expression by RNAi was functionally correlated with a decrease in Cry1Ab susceptibility. These results suggest that down-regulation of DsCAD1 is associated with resistance to Cry1Ab in D. saccharalis.
Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality
Faria, Jose Tadeu de
The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)
Kocmankova, E.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Semeradova, D.; Dubrovsky, M.; Juroch, J.; Mozny, M.
Climate conditions exert significant influence over the the population dynamic, life cycle duration, infestation pressure and the overall occurrence of majority of agricultural pests and diseases. Particularly in the case of those pest species whose development is directly linked with the climate conditions the shift of their climatic niche or their infestation capability is to be expected under the changing climate. Te presented study is focused on the most important potato pest i.e Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say 1824) and most important pest of grain maize i.e. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, Hübner 1796). Simulations of potential distribution of pests in the Czech Republic in the conditions of climate change were made with the usage of dynamical model CLIMEX and by the interpolation of output EI from 43 locations there are climate conditions of almost whole area of the Czech Republic considered as favorable for pest' survival. The models validation was based on the comparison of the modeled potential pests' distribution with the field observations in the current climate conditions. Under the expected climate conditions the pests will most likely be able to complete their development earlier and in higher population densities. Both mechanisms might cause a subsequent increase of the severity of the pest infestation. In addition to this the higher temperature and its earlier coming in the beginning of the vegetative season may support the mobility and faster local spread of some species. The estimates of the future climate is based on the assumption of slow increase of green house gases emissions and low climate sensitivity to their rising concentration (LOW B1) as well as the "opposite" scenario assuming rapid growth of emissions and the high sensitivity of the climate system (HIGH A2). Three GCM models that were driven by these emission scenarios included HadCM3, NCAR-PCM and ECHAM4. For Colorado potato beetle the realization of
Van Grinsven, M. J.; Shannon, J.; Noh, N. J.; Kane, E. S.; Bolton, N. W.; Davis, J.; Wagenbrenner, J.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Kolka, R.; Pypker, T. G.
The rapid and extensive expansion of emerald ash borer (EAB) is considered an important ecological and economic disturbance, and will likely affect critical ecosystem services associated with black ash wetlands. It is unknown how EAB-induced disturbance in wetlands dominated with black ash will impact stream water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) export dynamics. We hypothesized that loads of water, DOC and TDN exported from black ash wetlands would be elevated following an EAB-induced disturbance. Stream water, DOC and TDN loads exiting two black ash wetlands in headwater watersheds in Michigan were quantified over a four-year period, and were combined with wetland soil temperature and soil decomposition rate monitoring to better understand the biogeochemical implications of an EAB-induced disturbance. After a two-year baseline monitoring period, an EAB disturbance was simulated by felling (ash-cut) all black ash trees with diameters greater than 2.5-cm in one wetland. When compared to the unaltered control, stream water DOC and TDN concentrations exiting the ash-cut wetland were significantly larger by 39% and 38%, respectively during the post-treatment study period. The significantly elevated DOC and TDN concentrations were likely associated with the higher soil temperatures and increased rates of soil decomposition detected in the ash-cut site during the post-treatment period. No significant mean daily stream discharge differences were detected between treatments during the pre-treatment period, however the 0.46 mm d-1 mean daily stream discharge exiting the ash-cut wetland was significantly smaller than the 1.07 mm d-1 exiting the unaltered control during the post-treatment study period. The significantly smaller daily stream discharge in the ash-cut site likely contributed to the fact no significant differences between treatments for either mean daily DOC loads or TDN loads were detected during the post-treatment period
Pypker, T. G.; Davis, J.; Van Grinsven, M. J.; Bolton, N. W.; Shannon, J.; Kolka, R. K.; Nelson, J.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)) is an invasive insect that effectively kills ash trees (genus: Fraxinus) greater than 2.5 cm in diameter, resulting in near-complete stand mortality within 3-4 years. Black ash wetlands occupy approximately 270,000 ha in Michigan, and have 40 to 90% of the basal area occupied by black ash (F. nigra Marshall); hence the loss of black ash may result in dramatic changes in the canopy hydrology and nutrient deposition. We assessed the impact of a simulated EAB invasion on throughfall and stemflow quantity and nitrogen (N) content in 9 uninfected black ash wetlands located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Within the 9 stands, 3 stands were left untreated ('Control'), 3 stands had all the black ash trees manually girdled ('Girdled') and 3 had all the black ash trees felled by chainsaw ('Clearcut'). We measured the quantity and inorganic-N content of throughfall using an array of randomly placed collectors (n = 16 per site). Stemflow was monitored at 2 sites (n = 12 trees) on the 3 most common tree species (black ash, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) and red maple (Acer rubra L.)). Preliminary results indicate that relative to the Control, average monthly throughfall was 25% and 1% greater in the Clearcut and Girdled sites, respectively. While the loss of the ash trees resulted in greater throughfall inputs in the Clearcut sites, water table heights did not significantly change as a result of the treatments. Stemflow from live black ash trees was lower than from the yellow birch and red maple trees. As a result, we predict stemflow will increase over time as species with smoother bark and less upright branching begin replacing the black ash. Hence, the change in tree species may result in a greater concentration of inorganic-N inputs to the base of the trees, thereby altering the distribution of inorganic-N inputs into the wetland. Our preliminary results show no significant change in the total
Entomopathogenic fungi isolates to control the borer of yerba mate (Hedypathes betulinus Kluger (Coleoptera; CerambycidaeIsolados de fungos entomopatogênicos visando ao controle da broca da erva-mate (Hedypathes betulinus Kluger (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae
André Luis Pereira Fanti
Full Text Available Yerba mate is an important crop of southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, with socio-economic and environmental importance. Due the lack of native herbals, yerba mate has become a monoculture, and as a consequence, insects have become pests, and the borer, Hedypathes betulinus, one of the most important. In order to improve biological control in the crop, this work aims to select in laboratory the most virulent, of 32 isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and 18 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. Initially, isolates virolence was evaluated by immersing the adults borers in a fungal suspension, containing 1×108 conidia mL-1, and after, those caused highest confirmed mortality were selected for the second step, wherein it was evaluated the virulence, vegetative growth and conidia production in culture medium, rice and borer bodies. Three isolates of B. bassiana (UNIOESTE 4, UNIOESTE 52 and UNIOESTE 64 and one of M. anisopliae (IBCB 352 reached confirmed mortality equal or superior to 90%, these isolates were selected for the second step, together with the standard isolated GC 716 (B. bassiana. The isolated IBCB 352 of M. anisopliae, despite being the only of this species to be selected for the second step, promoted the high confirmed mortality and conidiogenesis in adults borer, indicating a high inoculums production i, being nominated for field evaluations. A erva-mate é uma cultura importante da região sul do Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai, tendo grande importância sócio-econômica e ambiental. Com a escassez de ervais nativos, a cultura da erva-mate passou a ser cultivada em sistema de monocultivo e como consequência, alguns insetos tornaram-se pragas, sendo a broca, Hedypathes betulinus, muito importante. A fim de incrementar o controle biológico na cultura, o objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar em laboratório os isolados mais virulentos de 32 isolados do fungo entomopatog
Minimal effective dose of phosphine to control the cashew root borer, Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Dose mínima efetiva de fosfina no controle da broca-da-raiz do cajueiro, Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine, in field conditions, the minimal of phosphine effective dose for the cashew root borer control. Three experiments were set up at three different periods: August, October and November, 1994, to control the cashew root borer, Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, in Piaui State, Brazil. One, two, three and six phosphine tablets of three gram each, per plant were tested. In the August essay, phosphine was inefficient to control the borer. In the October essay, control was achieved using as little as 2 tablets per plant and in November with one tablet per plant to control the adult borers in the soil. Higher efficiency was achieved when treatment was applied far away from the last rain, in other words, as soil dries out.Objetivou-se determinar, em condições de campo, a dose mínima de fosfina para o controle da broca da raiz do cajueiro. Foram instalados 3 experimentos em épocas distintas, sendo o primeiro em agosto, o segundo em outubro e o terceiro em novembro de 1994 para o controle de Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em cajueiro, Anacardium occidentale L. no município de Pio IX, Estado do Piauí. Foram testadas 1; 2; 3 e 6 pastilhas de fosfina na forma de fosfeto de alumínio, de 3 gramas cada, por planta. No ensaio conduzido em agosto nenhum tratamento foi eficiente para o controle de brocas adultas no solo. No ensaio instalado em outubro, a fosfina foi eficiente a partir de duas pastilhas por planta e no ensaio de novembro a partir de uma pastilha por planta para o controle de adultos no solo. A eficiência foi tanto maior quanto maior foi o tempo decorrido após a última chuva, estando, portanto, o solo mais seco.
Efeito do ensacamento na qualidade dos frutos e na incidência da broca-dos-frutos da atemoieira e da pinheira Bagging effect upon either quality of the fruits and incidence of the fruit borer in atemoya and sweetsop
Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira
Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o uso de diferentes invólucros nos frutos de atemoieira e pinheira na qualidade físico-química dos frutos e na incidência da broca-dos-frutos, Cerconota anonella. Os experimentos foram instalados em dois pomares comerciais: um de atemoieira no município de Matias Cardoso e outro de pinheira no município de Verdelândia, Norte de Minas Gerais. Os tratamentos para a atemoieira consistiram em: 1 Testemunha (sem ensacamento; 2 Saco plástico leitoso; 3 Saco de TNT (tecido-não-tecido branco sem fundo e 4 Saco de TNT branco com fundo. Para a pinheira foi modificado apenas o tratamento 2 para saco de papel pardo. Avaliaram-se número de dias da polinização à colheita, número de dias da colheita ao amadurecimento, ocorrência de injúrias e brocas e características físico-químicas dos frutos. Observam-se maior número de dias entre a colheita e o amadurecimento e mais firmeza nos frutos de pinheira não-ensacados. O uso do plástico leitoso controlou a broca em frutos de atemoieira. As características físico-químicas: massa, comprimento, diâmetro dos frutos e teor de sólidos solúveis totais da polpa não foram influenciados pelo uso dos invólucros.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect from using different involucres for fruits of the atemoya and sweetsop upon either physiochemical quality of the fruits and incidence of the fruit borer Cerconota anonella. The experiments were set up in two commercial orchards: one with atemoya at Matias Cardoso county and the other one with sweetsop at Verdelândia on northern Minas Gerais state. The treatments for atemoya consisted of: 1 Control (without bagging; 2 Milky plastic bag; 3 White, bottomless, tissue-non-tissue (TNT bag; and (4 With bottom TNT bag. For the sweetsop, only treatment 2 was modified to brown paper bag. The following evaluation were performed: the number of days from pollination to harvest, number of days from harvest to ripening
Carolina González Cardona
Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la granja Montelindo, municipio de Palestina (Caldas a 5° 05' N y 75° 40' O, a 1010 m.s.n.m., 23.5 °C, precipitación anual de 2100 mm y humedad relativa de 76%, con el fin de generar información sobre el manejo de picudos y nematodos fitoparásitos del plátano. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos por bloque, tres repeticiones y 24 plantas por repetición. Para el manejo de los picudos se hicieron aplicaciones de Carbofurán, Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae en trampas tipo columna. Para el control de nematodos se hicieron aplicaciones en el suelo de Carbofurán y dos cepas comerciales de Paecilomyces lilacinus. Se evaluaron el número de adultos de picudos en trampas, la infección de estos por los hongos empleados y la población de nematodos en suelo y raíces. Se encontró que las trampas tratadas con Carbofurán fueron significativamente más efectivas para la captura de insectos. En laboratorio se estableció que M. anisopliae tuvo una mejor capacidad para infectar adultos del insecto en el campo. La población de nematodos fue menor en suelo y raíces de las plantas tratadas con Carbofurán. Paecilomyces lilacinus no fue efectivo para reducir las poblaciones de nematodos. Los géneros de nematodos predominantes fueron Radopholus, Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne y Helicotylenchus.This work was carried out at the ‘Montelindo’ farm, municipality of Palestina (Department of Caldas, Colombia, located at 5° 05' N and 75° 40' W, at 1010 m.a.s.l., 23.5 °C, with 2100 mm of annual rainfall, and relative humidity of 76%, in order to generate information on the management of borers and parasitic nematodes of the plantain. A completely randomised block experimental design was used, with four treatments per block, three replicates and 24 plants per replicate. For the management of borers, applications of Carbofuran, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were made
The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: egg and damage distribution and parasitism A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: distribuição de ovos e de danos e parasitismo
Celso Luiz Hohmann
Full Text Available The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (Wals. has been a limiting factor in growing avocados over the last years in many Brazilian states. This is a result of the lack of safe and feasible management practices to minimize the fruit borer damage. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the pest biology and ecology as well as on the role of natural enemies to define strategies to control the pest. Samples were taken biweekly and consisted of 20 fruits collected randomly (10 from the upper half and 10 from the lower half of the plant in ten plants, cv. Margarida, in a commercial avocado grove in Arapongas and Cambé regions, PR, from October/2001 to September/2002. Laboratory determinations of the percentage of damaged fruit per plant region, location and number of bored fruit sites, and the number and location of the fruit borer eggs, including parasitized ones, were performed. The results showed that S. catenifer preferred to oviposit and attack fruits located on the upper half of the trees. The majority of the eggs were laid on the fruit pedicel whereas the damage was mainly located on the lower half of the fruits. Trichogrammatids were the most constant and abundant parasitoids found in both localities throughout the study period.A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae, continua sendo fator limitante para o cultivo do abacate em vários estados do Brasil, nos últimos anos. Isso se deve a falta de métodos seguros e viáveis para reduzir os prejuízos causados pela praga. Com o intuito de obter informações sobre a sua bioecologia e ação de inimigos naturais, para auxiliar na elaboração de estratégias de controle, realizaram-se coletas quinzenais de 20 frutos ao acaso (10 da metade superior e 10 da metade inferior em 10 plantas, em pomar comercial, cv. Margarida, nos municípios de Arapongas e Cambé, PR, durante os meses de outubro/2001 a setembro/2002. Em laboratório determinaram-se a porcentagem
Tarciso Albuquerque de Farias
Full Text Available
A trial was carried out in Goiânia-Go, Brazil, to verify the effect of several insecticides on tomato fruit borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenné, 1854. The treatments and active ingredient per hectare were: 1-cypermethrin, 130 g; 2-diclorvos, 312.5 g; 3- diazinon 250 g; 4- diazinon 30 g and 5- cartap 312.5 g. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four replications being each plot constituted of two rows with 10 plants. The insecticides were applied four times at seven days intervals. The results showed that all the treatments were efficient to control the tomato fruit borer. The best results were obtained with cartap, 90.9% of the control, followed by cypermethrin with 88.2% of control.
Para controle da broca pequena do fruto do tomate Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guennée, 1854, foi realizado no campo experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, um experimento em tomateiro, cultivar Kadá, visando a avaliar em campo a eficiência dos inseticidas: cypermethrin (Polydial 20 CE – 130 g. i.a./ha; diclorvos (Nuvan 1000 CE - 312,5 g. i.a./ha; diazinon (Diazinon 40 PM 250 g. i.a,/ha; diazinon (Diazinon 600 CE 300 g. i.a/ha, comparados com cartap (Cartap BR 500 - 312,5 g. i.a. e uma testemunha. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída de duas linhas com dez plantas. Foram realizadas quatro aplicações, sendo uma a cada semana, a partir do surgimento dos primeiros frutos. A avaliação dos resultados foi realizada por ocasião da primeira produção, quando todos os frutos das parcelas foram colhidos para se detectar quantos estavam brocados. Os resultados obtidos no presente experimento mostraram que houve diferença estatística significativa entre os produtos
Full Text Available The Rubin-7 maize hybrid belongs to the FAO 700 maturity group. It is characterized by high yield potential for kernels, which was proven during investigations by the Committee for Species. During the three year monitoring period, from 1999 to 2001, the average yield of kernel was 9.412 t/ha which is 5% above the ZP 704 standard, and was highly statistically significant. Resistance to disease was high for Ustilago maydis 0.49, Fusarium spp. 0.13, and Exerohilum turcicum 1.25. Tolerance against Ostrinia nubilalis is 3-33. All of the above parameters and the agreeable phenotype of this hybrid indicate the value of Rubin-7. .
Hautea, Desiree M.; Taylo, Lourdes D.; Masanga, Anna Pauleen L.; Sison, Maria Luz J.; Narciso, Josefina O.; Quilloy, Reynaldo B.; Hautea, Randy A.; Shotkoski, Frank A.; Shelton, Anthony M.
Plants expressing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), have become a major tactic for controlling insect pests in maize and cotton globally. However, there are few Bt vegetable crops. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia that is heavily treated with insecticides to control the eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (EFSB). Herein we provide the first publicly available data on field performance in Asia of eggplant engineered to produce the Cry1Ac protein. Replicated field trials with five Bt eggplant open-pollinated (OP) lines from transformation event EE-1 and their non-Bt comparators were conducted over three cropping seasons in the Philippines from 2010–2012. Field trials documented levels of Cry1Ac protein expressed in plants and evaluated their efficacy against the primary target pest, EFSB. Cry1Ac concentrations ranged from 0.75–24.7 ppm dry weight with the highest in the terminal leaves (or shoots) and the lowest in the roots. Cry1Ac levels significantly increased from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated excellent control of EFSB. Pairwise analysis of means detected highly significant differences between Bt eggplant lines and their non-Bt comparators for all field efficacy parameters tested. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated high levels of control of EFSB shoot damage (98.6–100%) and fruit damage (98.1–99.7%) and reduced EFSB larval infestation (95.8–99.3%) under the most severe pest pressure during trial 2. Moths that emerged from larvae collected from Bt plants in the field and reared in their Bt eggplant hosts did not produce viable eggs or offspring. These results demonstrate that Bt eggplant lines containing Cry1Ac event EE-1 provide outstanding control of EFSB and can dramatically reduce the need for conventional insecticides. PMID:27322533