WorldWideScience

Sample records for borer infestation patterns

  1. Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...

  2. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  3. THE STEM BORER INFESTATION ON RICE CULTIVARS AT THREE PLANTING TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendarsih Suharto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem borer is the second important rice pest after rats in Indonesia. A field trial was conducted in Karawang, West Java in dry season of 2003 to study the effect of planting time on the stem borer infestation on seven rice cultivars. The rice cultivars tested were Fatmawati (new plant type cultivar, Gilirang (semi-new plant type cultivar, Maro and Intani 3 (hybrid rice cultivars, and IR72, Cilosari and IR62 (inbreed rice cultivars. The three planting times (PT were: (1 the early PT, 14 days before farmer’s PT, (2 the common PT, simultaneously with farmer’s PT, and (3 the late PT, 14 days after farmer’s PT. The trial was arranged in a split plot design with four replications. Planting time is the main plot and rice cultivar is the subplot. Fourteen-day old rice seedlings were transplanted at 25 cm x 25 cm planting distance in a 5 m x 6 m plot size. Species and fluctuation of rice stem borer were determined by using water traps containing four synthetic sex pheromone lures of rice stem borer species as attractant. Results showed that the dominant species of stem borer was yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.. Degree of stem borer infestation depended upon the planting time. Stem borer infestation at the first planting time was higher (average 37.90% compared to those found at the second and third planting time, i.e. 0.65% and 0.54%, respectively. Rice yields of Fatmawati, Gilirang, Maro, Intani-3, and Cilosari cultivars correlated with the degree of stem borer infestation, but did not correlate with planting time. Cilosari cultivar showed the most tolerant under heavily stem borer infestation. The present study implies that adjustment of planting time is the most feasible effort to reduce stem borer infestation because none of the seven rice cultivars tested were able to minimize damage under heavily infestation of yellow stem borer.

  4. Influence of maize/lablab intercropping on lepidopterous stem borer infestation in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluleke, Mary H; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Ayisi, Kingsley K

    2005-04-01

    Lepidopterous stem borers seriously affect production of maize, Zea mays L., in sub-Saharan Africa. Intercropping maize with legumes such as lablab, Lablab purpurens (L.), is one of the effective systems to control stem borers. Sole culture maize and maize/lablab intercrop system of different lablab densities were planted at two locations to investigate the effects of intercrop system on incidence and severity of stem borers with particular reference to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Stem borer infestation was found to be more severe in sole culture maize than maize in maize/lablab intercrop. There was a significantly negative relationship between lablab densities and maize grain yields, suggesting a possible competition for resources between the two crops. It was concluded that density of lablab and date of planting of lablab in maize/lablab intercropping have significant affects on stem borer populations and maize grain yields.

  5. Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

    2013-04-01

    The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall.

  6. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.

  7. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

    2011-10-01

    Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.

  8. Boxwood Borer Heterobostrychus brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Dried Cassava: A Current Record from Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Aditya; Kirchner, Sascha M.; Langguth, Henning; Döring, Thomas F.; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Insect specimens of adult beetles and larvae of 7–9 and 9–10 mm length, respectively were collected from infested dry cassava at two locations from multiple stores in southern Ethiopia. The specimens were identified as Heterobostrychus brunneus (Murray, 1867) commonly known as boxwood borer and auger beetle. The study presents a current record of H. brunneus in Ethiopia, particularly in the context of infesting food products. Additionally, a wide geographical distribution of the pest was reviewed and presented in this article. Current evidence suggests that H. brunneus is a serious pest of forest wood, structural timbers, and dried food products and that it carries a risk to be introduced into various other parts of the world via global trade. PMID:28130456

  9. Boxwood Borer Heterobostrychus brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Dried Cassava: A Current Record from Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Aditya; Kirchner, Sascha M; Langguth, Henning; Döring, Thomas F; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Insect specimens of adult beetles and larvae of 7-9 and 9-10 mm length, respectively were collected from infested dry cassava at two locations from multiple stores in southern Ethiopia. The specimens were identified as Heterobostrychus brunneus (Murray, 1867) commonly known as boxwood borer and auger beetle. The study presents a current record of H. brunneus in Ethiopia, particularly in the context of infesting food products. Additionally, a wide geographical distribution of the pest was reviewed and presented in this article. Current evidence suggests that H. brunneus is a serious pest of forest wood, structural timbers, and dried food products and that it carries a risk to be introduced into various other parts of the world via global trade.

  10. Infestation by Coffee White Stem Borer, Xylotrechus quadripes, in Relation to Soil and Plant Nutrient Content and Associated Quality Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2016-01-01

    Infestation by coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is becoming severe in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in North and South America. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the severity of infe

  11. Early detection of emerald ash borer infestation using multisourced data: a case study in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kongwen; Hu, Baoxin; Robinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) poses a significant economic and environmental threat to ash trees in southern Ontario, Canada, and the northern states of the USA. It is critical that effective technologies are urgently developed to detect, monitor, and control the spread of EAB. This paper presents a methodology using multisourced data to predict potential infestations of EAB in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The information combined in this study includes remotely sensed data, such as high spatial resolution aerial imagery, commercial ground and airborne hyperspectral data, and Google Earth imagery, in addition to nonremotely sensed data, such as archived paper maps and documents. This wide range of data provides extensive information that can be used for early detection of EAB, yet their effective employment and use remain a significant challenge. A prediction function was developed to estimate the EAB infestation states of individual ash trees using three major attributes: leaf chlorophyll content, tree crown spatial pattern, and prior knowledge. Comparison between these predicted values and a ground-based survey demonstrated an overall accuracy of 62.5%, with 22.5% omission and 18.5% commission errors.

  12. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  13. The role of some agricultural practices and fertilizer type on both the incidence of stem borers infestation and corn yield in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; Massoud, M A; Abd el-Aziz, A A

    2002-01-01

    Maize, Zea mays, L. is one of the most important field crops in Egypt. It is used mainly for human, animal and poultry feeding. Corn plants are usually attacked by several injourious insect pests at different stages of development. Out of them, the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon (Bles.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.); which cause great damage and yield losses. It is profitable to adopt an effective and sustainable strategy for controlling these insect-pests. In this concern, sowing dates, planting spaces, foliar fertilizers (macro and micro-nutrients), mineral and/or biofertilization, were investigated to evaluate their role as tools in the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program of corn pests. In general, the used planting spaces of 60 and 70 cm apart between furrows insignificantly affected the level of stem borers infestation. It was clearly observed that the sowing dates have a role in the incidence of stem borers infestation throughout the corn growing seasons of 1994 and 1995. Moreover, The biofertilized corn plants were more tolerant to the infestation by the stem borers than the minerally fertilized ones. Application of Polytrin significantly decreased the mean numbers of larvae. The tested nutrients preparations affected to less extent, the infestation levels. Concerning the interaction effect of applied nutrients preparations, used sowing dates and/or fertilizer type on the deduced means of larval numbers, it was revealed that: (i) the application of the nutrients preparations decreased to a great extent the effect of the studied sowing dates on the stem borers infestation; particularly in case of spraying ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex, coppersulphate & Potasin-F, (ii) the dressing of corn grains with the biofertilizers Phosphorin & Rhizobacterin before sowing, lowered to some extent the levels of infestation by Ch. agamemnon and O. nubilalis, in

  14. Distribution Pattern of Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus Hampei on Arabica and Robusta Coffee

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    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee berry borer [CBB, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferr.] is the main pest on coffee causing a significant losses. Distribution pattern of the pest is not known deeply until now, especially in Indonesia. The data of distribution pattern of pest is very important in constructing the strategy of integrated pest management, especially to determine a sampling method for monitoring of the pest. This experiment aimed to reveal the distribution pattern of CBB both spatially and vertically. The experiment was conducted on Arabica and Robusta coffee, located in Kalibendo estate in Banyuwangi East Java. A plot with 400 (20 x 20 of coffee trees were observed for infestation and population of CBB, at four branches on south, north, east and west directions for each tree. Collected data were analyzed to obtain the value of mean, variance (=s2, variance/mean relationship (=I, index of Morisita (=Iδ, coefficient of Green (=Cx and k exponent of Negative Binomial. Results of the experiment revealed that spatial distribution pattern of CBB, both on Arabica an Robusta coffee, as well as for infestation and population parameters, was fit with aggregated or clumped distribution. For vertical distribution, it inclined that CBB infestation and population in the lower part of coffee tree was higher than in central and upper part of coffee tree. Plenty of infested coffee berries leaved on soil surface may result in higher infestation and population in the lower part.Key words: Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, Hypothenemus hampei, spatial distribution, vertical distribution.

  15. Spatio-temporal modelling of coffee berry borer infestation patterns accounting for inflation of zeroes and missing values Modelagem espaço-temporal do padrão de infestação da broca do café levando em consideração excesso de zeros e dados faltantes

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    Ramiro Ruiz-Cárdenas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of pest distributions in space and time in agricultural systems provides important information for the optimization of integrated pest management programs and for the planning of experiments. Two statistical problems commonly associated to the space-time modelling of data that hinder its implementation are the excess of zero counts and the presence of missing values due to the adopted sampling scheme. These problems are considered in the present article. Data of coffee berry borer infestation collected under Colombian field conditions are used to study the spatio-temporal evolution of the pest infestation. The dispersion of the pest starting from initial focuses of infestation was modelled considering linear and quadratic infestation growth trends as well as different combinations of random effects representing both spatially and not spatially structured variability. The analysis was accomplished under a hierarchical Bayesian approach. The missing values were dealt with by means of multiple imputation. Additionally, a mixture model was proposed to take into account the excess of zeroes in the beginning of the infestation. In general, quadratic models had a better fit than linear models. The use of spatially structured parameters also allowed a clearer identification of the temporal increase or decrease of infestation patterns. However, neither of the space-time models based on standard distributions was able to properly describe the excess of zero counts in the beginning of the infestation. This overdispersed pattern was correctly modelled by the mixture space-time models, which had a better performance than their counterpart without a mixture component.O estudo da distribuição de pragas em espaço e tempo em sistemas agrícolas fornece informação importante para a otimização de programas de manejo integrado de pragas e para o planejamento de experimentos. Dois problemas estatísticos comumente associados à modelagem espa

  16. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs.

  17. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata infestations in sugarcane

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    Malcolm Geoffrey Keeping

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae. Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N and enhanced silicon (Si nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33 and susceptible (N27 sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 t ha-1, 10 t ha-1 were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimising sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs.

  18. Genome-wide transcriptional changes and defence-related chemical profiling of rice in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Xia; Yan, Feng; Wang, Xia; Li, Ran; Cheng, Jiaan; Lou, Yonggen

    2011-09-01

    How rice defends itself against pathogen infection is well documented, but little is known about how it defends itself against herbivore attack. We measured changes in the transcriptome and chemical profile of rice when the plant is infested by the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis. Infestation by SSBs resulted in changes in the expression levels of 4545 rice genes; this number accounts for about 8% of the genome and is made up of 18 functional groups with broad functions. The largest group comprised genes involved in metabolism, followed by cellular transport, transcription and cellular signaling. Infestation by SSBs modulated many genes responsible for the biosynthesis of plant hormones and plant signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene were the major hormones that shaped the SSB-induced defence responses of rice. Many secondary signal transduction components, such as those involved in Ca²⁺ signaling and G-protein signaling, receptor and non-receptor protein kinases, and transcription factors were involved in the SSB-induced responses of rice. Photosynthesis and ATP synthesis from photophosphorylation were restricted by SSB feeding. In addition, SSB infestation induced the accumulation of defence compounds, including trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TrypPIs) and volatile organic compounds. These results demonstrate that SSB-induced defences required rice to reconfigure a wide variety of its metabolic, physiological and biochemical processes.

  19. Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations).

  20. Geostatistical Analysis on the Temporal Patterns of the Yellow Rice Borer, Tryporyza incertulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhe-ming; WANG Zhi; HU Xiang-yue

    2005-01-01

    In order to comprehend temporal pattern of the larvae population of the yellow rice borer, Tryporyza incertulas, and provide valuable information for its forecast model, the data series of the population for each generation and the over-wintered larvae from 1960 to 1990 in Dingcheng District, Changde City, Hunan Province, were analyzed with geostatistics. The data series of total number,the 1 st generation, the 3rd generation and the over-wintered larvae year to year displayed rather better autocorrelation and prediction.The data series of generation to generation, the 2nd generation and the 4th generation year to year, however, demonstrated poor autocorrelation, especially for the 4th generation, whose autocorrelation degree was zero. The population dynamics of the yellow rice borer was obviously intermittent. A remarkable cycle of four generations, one year, was observed in the population of generation to generation. Omitting the certain generation or interposing the over-wintered larvae only resulted in a less or slight change of autocorrelation of the whole data series generation to generation. Crop system, food, climate and natural enemies, therefore, played more important roles in regulating the population dynamics than base number of the larvae. The basic techniques of geostatistics applied in analyzing temporal population dynamics were outlined.

  1. Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiël A Klompmaker

    Full Text Available Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%, arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp, to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations.

  2. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, o...

  3. Breeding for stem borer resistance in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem borers are arguably the most important group of insect pests of sugarcane. Stem borers primarily belong to the insect order Lepidoptera, although a few species belong to the order Coleoptera. The larvae of these insects bore into the sugarcane stalk and heavy infestations can cause severe losse...

  4. Impact of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid, alone and in combination, used against emerald ash borer in a newly-infested ash nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are investigating the potential of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for use against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We treated approximately 400 Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F. americana (height ca. 5-6 m) at a commercial tree nursery wit...

  5. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in Bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or Western bean cutworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials were conducted (2007 to 2010) to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against European corn borer and Western bean cutworm (WBC). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) w...

  6. Aerial insecticide treatments for management of Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus, in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloderbeck, P E; Buschman, L L

    2011-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an increasingly important pest of soybean and sunflower in central North America. Nine large-scale field trials were conducted over a 3-year period to determine if Dectes stem borer could be managed with insecticide treatments. Aerial applications of lambda on July 6, 12 and 15 were successful in significantly reducing adults, but applications on July 1, 20 and 24 were less successful. These data suggest that for central Kansas two aerial applications may be required to control Dectes stem borers in soybean. Based on our experience the first application should be made at the peak of adult flight about July 5(th) and the second application 10 days later. The local treatment schedule should be developed to follow the local Dectes stem borer adult emergence pattern. Treated aerial strips 59 m (195 ft) wide were not large enough to prevent reinfestation, but treated half-circles (24 ha or 60 acres) were successful in reducing in Dectes stem borer infestation of soybean. Sweep net samples of adults were not successful in identifying a treatment threshold, so treatment decisions will need to be based on field history of infestation. Further studies are needed to identify better sampling methods that can be used to establish treatment thresholds and to refine the best timing for treatments.

  7. Urban Infestation Patterns of Argentine Ants, Linepithema humile, in Los Angeles

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    Smadar Gilboa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infestations of buildings by Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr, were monitored on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles. Foraging ant activity peaked during the hotter months of the year. The mean monthly maximum temperature, but not rainfall, positively correlated with indoor infestation frequency. Neither garden size nor the predominant groundcover vegetation correlated with the number of foraging ants at baits within gardens. Although the number of foraging ants outside a building varied over 40-fold, ant density in gardens did not predict the likelihood of infestation within the building. Also, the type of vegetative groundcover employed did not predict infestation frequency. There was, however, a significant negative relationship between the size of the garden outside of a building and the number of infestations. Given the large foraging area of L. humile workers, buildings next to small gardens may be infested simply because they lie within the “normal” foraging area of a colony. The best predictor of which rooms were infested within buildings was the presence of a water source. Thus providing water for ant colonies outside and away from buildings may be one method of integrated pest management to reduce the proclivity of ants to infest structures.

  8. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus in northeastern Brazil

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    Rocha C.F.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts’ bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100% prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets and ecology (especially microhabitat use.

  9. Patterns of infestation by chigger mites in four diurnal lizard species from a restinga habitat (Jurubatiba of Southeastern Brazil

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    M. Cunha-Barros

    Full Text Available We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62; 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7; 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12; and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21. Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02. For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions.

  10. Patterns of infestation by chigger mites in four diurnal lizard species from a Restinga habitat (Jurubatiba) of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Barros, M; Van Sluys, M; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Hatano, F H; Rocha, C F

    2003-08-01

    We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity) of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation) of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62); 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7); 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12); and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21). Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions.

  11. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Cunha-Barros, M; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A f; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-06-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts' bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100%) prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets) and ecology (especially microhabitat use).

  12. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  13. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests.

  14. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  15. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  16. Temporal Diversity and Abundance Patterns of Parasitoids of Fruit-Infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in the Argentinean Yungas: Implications for Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martin; Rull, Juan; Ovruski, Sergio M

    2016-10-01

    A 4-yr study was done to analyze seasonal patterns underlying host plant-fruit fly-parasitoid interactions in a secondary forest in the Argentinean Yunga and its importance for the implementation of conservation and augmentative biological control. Larval-pupal hymenopteran parasitoids associated with all host plants and fruit fly species were identified and the seasonal occurrence of fruit, infestation levels, parasitism percentage, and relative parasitoid abundance were determined. Three fruit fly species in two genera were found in association with surveyed plants, two of which (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)) are of major economic importance. Infestation levels were strongly influenced by environmental factors and peak fruit availability. Five fruit fly parasitoid species were recovered from fly pupae, four braconid species, and one figitid. Time windows for fruit fly population growth were pinpointed. Based on results, the present analysis proposes an effective fruit fly biological control strategy tailored for the northwestern Argentinean citrus-producing area.

  17. Differential expression patterns in chemosensory and non-chemosensory tissues of putative chemosensory genes identified by transcriptome analysis of insect pest the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker.

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    Ya-Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs, 39 for odorant receptors (ORs and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs. The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as

  18. Performance of crosses among flint maize populations under infestation by Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soengas, P; Butrón, A; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2004-08-01

    Flint maize, Zea mays L., varieties provide some interesting agronomic characteristics and kernels that possess a better ability than other kernels for developing high-quality flour. The pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre, is an important constraint for the maize crop in Mediterranean regions. The objective of this work was to identify a "flint x flint" heterotic pattern that would perform well under artificial infestation by S. nonagrioides. A 10-population diallel was evaluated under infestation by S. nonagrioides in 2 yr. Variety effects were the only significant effects involved in stem and ear resistance to S. nonagrioides attack. Variety effects and average heterosis effects were the only significant effects for grain yield under artificial infestation conditions. Considering variety effects and cross-performance, the heterotic pattern Basto/Enano levantixo x Longfellow (BA/EL x LO) would be recommended for obtaining flint maize hybrids tolerant to S. nonagrioides attack because BA/EL had the most favorable variety effects for stem resistance, LO exhibited the most positive variety effects for grain yield, and the cross BA/EL x LO yielded significantly more than the remaining crosses.

  19. Relationship between time to flowering and stalk and ear damage by second generation corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A

    2013-06-01

    In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack.

  20. Infestation pattern and parasitic castration of the crustacean Riggia paranensis (Crustacea: Cymothoidea on the fresh water fish Cyphocharax gilbert (Teleostei: Curimatidae

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    Juliana de Souza Azevedo

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert infested by Riggia paranensis shows parasitic castration. The prevalence of parasitism in C. gilbert varied among different environments, being higher in the middle rio Itabapoana. Fish were collected monthly using two cast nets (thrown 30 times during the day and gillnets kept in the river during 12 hour, from sunset to sunrise, between September 1997 and August 2000. Infestation pattern was investigated on 1358 specimens. Most of them were infested (57.9%, with one or two parasites; the majority (62.9% was collected during the rainy season (spring-summer. The parasite did not show preference for sex or size of hosts. A total of 91.5% of the 511 examined parasites had a body size that represented 10.1% to 20% of host standard length. The reproductive condition of 311 specimens of R. paranensis was analyzed checking the presence of oocytes in the ovarian and eggs or embryos in the marsupium. Nearly 73% of them were at reproductive phase, and had a body size that represented 5.1% to 20% of host standard length. The size of the immature parasites varied from 0.1% to 5% of the host size. The results suggest that R. paranensis may adopt a fast growth rate strategy and increase the investment in reproduction when they occupy most of the host's pericardial space.

  1. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  2. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.

  3. Tolerance of Bt corn (MON 810) to maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramkumar; Channappa, Ravi K; Deeba, Farah; Nagaraj, Nandi J; Sukavaneaswaran, Mohan K; Manjunath, T M

    2005-11-01

    Transgenic corn (MON 810), expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, Cry1Ab, was evaluated under greenhouse conditions for its tolerance to the maize stem borer, Chilo partellus. Bt corn (MON 810) provided effective protection against the stem borer even under a high level of larval infestation in the greenhouse. The observed tolerance is examined and discussed in the light of the susceptibility of C. partellus to the Cry1Ab protein in laboratory bioassays. The implications of the tissue concentrations of Cry1Ab in MON 810, and baseline susceptibility recorded in the current study, for insect-resistance management are discussed.

  4. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  5. Erianthus: A sugarcane relative with potential as a source of resistance to the stem borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant resistance can play an important role in IPM strategies to reduce damage from infestations of stem borers. However, resistance, when it is present, is often negatively associated with yield potential. There exists then, a need to identify sources of resistance that have no adverse effect on su...

  6. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  7. Host microhabitat location by stem-borer parasitoidCotesia flavipes: the role of herbivore volatiles and locally and systemically induced plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potting, R P; Vet, L E; Dicke, M

    1995-05-01

    The origin of olfactory stimuli involved in the host microhabitat location inCotesia flavipes, a parasitoid of stem-borer larvae, was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer. The response of femaleC. flavipes towards different components of the plant-host complex, consisting of a maize plant infested with two or more larvae of the stem borerChilo partellus, was tested in dualchoice tests. The concealed lifestyle of the stem-borer larvae did not limit the emission of volatiles attractive to a parasitoid. A major source of the attractive volatiles from the plant-host complex was the stem-borer-injured stem, including the frass produced by the feeding larvae. Moreover, the production of volatiles attractive to a parasitoid was not restricted to the infested stem part but occurs systemically throughout the plant. The uninfested leaves of a stem-borer-infested plant were found to emit volatiles that attract femaleC. flavipes. We further demonstrate that an exogenous elicitor of this systemic plant response is situated in the regurgitate of a stem-borer larva. When a minor amount of regurgitate is inoculated into the stem of an uninfested plant, the leaves of the treated plant emit volatiles that attract femaleC. flavipes.

  8. to Cocoa Pod Borer Infestation in Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pod rot disease (BPRD which is caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of the main diseases of cocoa cultivations particularly in plantations with wet climate. Black pod rot can develop rapidly under high humidity environments, particularly during rainy seasons. This disease can cause loss of harvest of up to 46.63% in East Java. The various control efforts attempted so far have not resulted in significant improvements. Urea, in addition to functioning as fertilizer, can also produce the ammonia gas which is believed to be able to suppress black pod rot. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of black pod rot control using the combination of lime and urea. This research was conducted from June to September 2013. The materials used in test included sterile soil, black pod rot infected cocoa, urea, and agricultural lime. Observation results showed that ammonia could form from urea. Lime can increase the speed of the formation. The ammonia gas forming from 0.06% urea and 0.3% lime can control the P. palmivora fungus inside the soil. Key words: Pod rot, P. palmivora, urea, lime, ammonia

  9. Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

    2002-01-01

    In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it

  10. Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-08-01

    The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies.

  11. Relationships of intercropped maize, stem borer damage to maize yield and land-use efficiency in the humid forest of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi-Olaye, A; Nolte, C; Schulthess, F; Borgemeister, C

    2005-10-01

    Stem borers are the most important maize pests in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. Field trials were conducted in the long and short rainy seasons of 2002 and 2003 to assess the level of damage and yield reductions caused by stem borers in monocropped maize and in maize intercropped with non-host plants such as cassava, cowpea and soybean. The intercrops were planted in two spatial arrangements, i.e. alternating hills or alternating rows. All intercrops and the maize monocrop were grown with and without insecticide treatment for assessment of maize yield loss due to borer attacks. The land-use efficiency of each mixed cropping system was evaluated by comparing it with the monocrop. The temporal fluctuation of larval infestations followed the same pattern in all cropping systems, but at the early stage of plant growth, larval densities were 21.3-48.1% higher in the monocrops than in intercrops, and they tended to be higher in alternating rows than alternating hills arrangements. At harvest, however, pest densities did not significantly vary between treatments. Maize monocrops had 3.0-8.8 times more stems tunnelled and 1.3-3.1 times more cob damage than intercrops. Each percentage increase in stem tunnelling lowered maize grain yield by 1.10 and 1.84 g per plant, respectively, during the long and short rainy season in 2002, and by 5.39 and 1.41 g per plant, respectively, in 2003. Maize yield losses due to stem borer were 1.8-3.0 times higher in monocrops than in intercrops. Intercrops had generally a higher land-use efficiency than monocrops, as indicated by land-equivalent-ratios and area-time-equivalent-ratios of >1.0. Land-use efficiency was similar in both spatial arrangements. At current price levels, the net production of mixed cropping systems was economically superior to controlling stem borers with insecticide in monocropped maize. The maize-cassava intercrop yielded the highest land equivalent ratios and the highest replacement value of the intercrop. At

  12. Raspberry Crown Borer [Pennisetia marginata

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet described raspberry crown borer, a pest that attacks raspberry plants in northern Utah, causing cane-wilt and death. It includes life history, host injury, monitoring and thresholds, and management techniques.

  13. The History of Attack and Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on White Fringetree in Southwestern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Danielle; Lopez, Vanessa; Ray, Ann M; Cipollini, Don

    2016-08-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive insect that has caused widespread mortality of ash species in North America. The ability of emerald ash borer to utilize white fringetree as an alternate host was reported recently. We aimed to determine how long white fringetree has been under attack from emerald ash borer, the degree of attack, and the overall success of this beetle on this novel host. Stems from three of nine infested white fringetrees collected from the Dayton and Cincinnati, OH, areas in the winter of 2015 yielded four live adult emerald ash borers after being held in rearing containers, and numerous older exit holes were observed. Measurement and aging of feeding galleries on these stems indicated that emerald ash borer has been using this species since 2011, at least, with peak gallery densities reached in 2012 and 2013 on most of the harvested trees. On average, 32 galleries per square meter were found in these stems with about one-third of them being indicative of fourth-instar larvae. This supports the assertion that emerald ash borer has been using white fringetree as a host plant with moderate to good success for as long as ash species in these particular areas have been utilized.

  14. Effects of compost and chicken litter on soil nutrition, and sugarcane physiochemistry, yield, and injury caused by Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), infestation in sugarcane have been shown to be heavily influenced by drought stress on the plants, but the effects of soil quality have not been determined. Soil enrichment with two rates of compost and chicken litter were compared with conventio...

  15. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  16. Field Evaluation of the Asian Corn Borer Control in Hybrid of Transgenic Maize Event MON 810

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; WEN Li-ping; BAI Shu-xiong; ZHOU Da-rong; ZHU Qing-hua

    2003-01-01

    In this study,a transgenic Bt maize hybrid(event MON 810 from Monsanto Company)expressing Cry1Ab protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)and its negative isoline hybrid were evaluatrial. Maize plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of Asian corn borer at the mid-whorl(firstgeneration),pre-tassel(first-and/or second-generation),and silk(second-generation)growth stages.The transgenic Bt maize hybrid sustained significantly less leaf feeding damage(rating 1.0±0.0)than its negative isoline control(rating 7.3±0.1).With the Bt maize,1.3-6.8%of plants were damaged by corn borer tunneling with<0.5 cm tunneling per stalk under different levels of infestation,compared with 100%of plants damaged with 9.3-25.0 cm tunneling per stalk for the negative isoline control. On average,transgenic Bt maize hybrids had only 0.01-0.05 tunnels per stalk and no stems were broken.In contrast,the negative isoline control had 3.11-8.36 tunnels per stalk and 31.2-73.9% of stems broken.Yields were significantly higher in trahsgenic Bt maize than in the control. These results demonstrate that transgenic Bt maize can significantly minimize yield losses caused by the Asian corn borer through resistance to the first-and second-generation larvae.

  17. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  18. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Wilson, Blake E; Reagan, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Texas; it can attack several grassy crop and noncrop host plants and has spread into Louisiana. Through small-plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the pest uses corn, Zea mays L., more than sugarcane and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, but when corn is harvested in late summer, injury to nearby sugarcane strongly increases during the next approximately equal to 2 mo to harvest. Corn was more infested than sugarcane and sorghum in commercial fields regardless of whether sampling occurred on field edges or farther into field interiors. Differences in numbers of infested stalks and in numbers of larval entry holes between field edges and interiors were not detected. We found that Mexican rice borer infestation of corn can cause loss of ears, and lodging, shattering, and complete destruction of maturing stalks. The larger quantities of adult Mexican rice borers captured in pheromone-based traps placed at corn field edges compared with sorghum and sugarcane field edges further indicates that corn is preferred to sugarcane and sorghum. The basis for the pest's attraction to corn and implications to potential range expansion to other U.S. sugarcane-growing regions are discussed.

  19. Unusual botfly skin infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Jill C; Navin, James J; Glamb, Roman W; Hardman, John M

    2004-03-01

    Myiasis, the infestation of humans and animals with fly larvae, is observed in tropical, lowland areas. Dermatobia hominis is a common cause of cutaneous human infestation in these areas. Patients often present with a furuncular lesion on the extremities, back, or scalp. We report a case of furuncular myiasis in a patient returning from a trip to South America. We will discuss the life-cycle of D. hominis and the clinical findings important in the diagnosis of myiasis.

  20. Sources of resistance to pink stem borer and european corn borer in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Mansilla, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn) is an important insect pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in Europe. However, the larvae of pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) produce important damage to the stems, especially in Southern Europe. The first step in an insect-resistance breeding program is to identify sources of resistance. The objective of this work was to study the resistance/tolerance of several populations of maize to attack by corn borers in general, and of Sesamia nonagr...

  1. Abundance, dispersion and parasitism of the stem borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi-Olaye, A; Nolte, C; Schulthess, F; Borgemeister, C

    2005-04-01

    This study was conducted in the humid forest zone of Cameroon, in 2002 and 2003. The main objective was to investigate the effects of intercropping on infestation levels and parasitism of the noctuid maize stem borer Busseola fusca Fuller. Two trials were planted per year, one during the long and one during the short rainy season. Maize monocrops were compared with maize/legume or maize/cassava intercrops in two spatial arrangements: maize on alternate hills or in alternate rows. Spatial analyses showed that the stemborer egg batches were regularly dispersed in the maize monocrop and aggregated in the intercrops, as indicated by b, the index of dispersion of Taylor's power law. Depending on the crop association and planting pattern, intercrops reduced the percentage of plants with stem borer eggs by 47.4-58.4% and egg densities by 41.2-54.5% compared to monocropped maize. Consequently, larval densities were 44.4-61.5% lower in intercrops compared to monocrops. Intercropping maize with non-host plants did not affect larval parasitism. Up to two-fold higher levels of egg parasitism by scelionid Telenomus spp. were recorded in inter- compared to monocrops during the short rainy seasons of 2002 and 2003. No differences were found among the mixed cropping treatments and parasitism was lower during the long compared to the short rainy seasons. It was proposed that differences in levels of parasitism were due to density dependence effects rather than the effect of the presence of non-host plants in the system.

  2. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage percentage by stem borer was up to 18.11%. Length of the feeding tunnel in maize stem was significantly higher in January than July. In case of exit holes made by borer counted more than four holes per plant that were planted in the month of January. All in all, except the tunnel length measurement per plant, we observed similar pattern in other borer damage parameters such as exit whole counts and plant damage percentage within the tested varieties. Stem borer damage was not significantly affect on grain yield.

  3. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn. , Stern. : Aleyrodidae) infestation patterns as influenced by cotton, weather and Heliothis: hypotheses testing by using simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgaertner, J.; Delucchi, V.; Von Arx, R.; Rubli, D.

    1986-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. is an important pest on cotton in the Sudan Gezira. A population model based on the age-specific and time-varying life table approach has been constructed and validated for B. tabaci and the cotton variety Barac. Simulation experiments indicate that weather conditions are favourable for whitefly development until late autumn, when the bolls of early sown Barac open. Host plant quality, as measured by leaf age structure, is a very important factor in the B. tabaci life system. Reduced photosynthesis decreases and delays yield formation, but appears to have little effect on whitefly infestation levels at the time the bolls open. Simulated damage caused by Heliothis larvae to fruiting structures alters the growth of the plants, changes the age structures of the leaves and suggests increased whitefly numbers at the time of boll opening. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Development of transgenic sorghum for insect resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girijashankar, V; Sharma, H C; Sharma, Kiran K; Swathisree, V; Prasad, L Sivarama; Bhat, B V; Royer, Monique; Secundo, Blanca San; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Altosaar, I; Seetharama, N

    2005-11-01

    Transgenic sorghum plants expressing a synthetic cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of a wound-inducible promoter from the maize protease inhibitor gene (mpiC1) were produced via particle bombardment of shoot apices. Plants were regenerated from the transformed shoot apices via direct somatic embryogenesis with an intermittent three-step selection strategy using the herbicide Basta. Molecular characterisation based on polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed multiple insertions of the cry1Ac gene in five plants from three independent transformation events. Inheritance and expression of the Bt gene was confirmed in T(1) plants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay indicated that Cry1Ac protein accumulated at levels of 1-8 ng per gram of fresh tissue in leaves that were mechanically wounded. Transgenic sorghum plants were evaluated for resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) in insect bioassays, which indicated partial resistance to damage by the neonate larvae of the spotted stem borer. Reduction in leaf damage 5 days after infestation was up to 60%; larval mortality was 40%, with the surviving larvae showing a 36% reduction in weight over those fed on control plants. Despite the low levels of expression of Bt delta-endotoxin under the control of the wound-inducible promoter, the transgenic plants showed partial tolerance against first instar larvae of the spotted stem borer.

  5. Infestation caused by acanthocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line case of infestation caused by M. moniliformis is descripted. This rodents’ worm, belonging to acanthocephala, can be rarely responsible of human intestinal pathology. The case is the pretext for a brief revision on this parasitosis. So, biological, epidemiological, clinical and diagnostical findings are reported.

  6. Walking Responses of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to Its Aggregation Pheromone and Odors of Wheat Infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, B J; Cai, L; Faucher, C; Michie, M; Berna, A; Ren, Y; Anderson, A; Chyb, S; Xu, W

    2017-03-03

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a worldwide pest of stored grains. Using "Y"-tube olfactometry we studied the response of T. castaneum to odors from simulated wheat infestations containing conspecifics, and infestations containing the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Tribolium castaneum larvae were significantly attracted to odors from all three test species. Tribolium castaneum adults were attracted to grains infested by R. dominica and flour infested by T. castaneum but repelled from grains infested by S. granarius. Further behavioral analysis with pheromones showed that T. castaneum were significantly attracted to their aggregation pheromone, dimethyldecanal (DMD), but not to the R. dominica aggregation pheromone, a mixture of dominicalure 1 and 2. Female T. castaneum adults were attracted to ∼50-fold less DMD than larvae and 100-fold less than male adults, suggesting they are more sensitive to DMD. This study improves our understanding of T. castaneum behaviors to infested grain volatile compounds and pheromones, and may help develop new control methods for grain pest species.

  7. Changes in phenolic concentrations during recurrent selection for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Butrón, Ana; Barros, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A

    2008-09-10

    Recurrent selection has been reported as successful for improving maize resistance against corn borers. This study was conducted to determine if phenolics concentration in maize changes during recurrent selection to improve stalk resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer. Three cycles of selection [EPS12(S)C0, ESP12(S)C2, and EPS12(S)C3] from the maize synthetic population EPS12 and test crosses to inbred lines A639, B93, and EP42 were field grown and artificially infested with Mediterranean corn borer larvae, and the pith tissues were sampled for biochemical analyses. Two major simple phenolic acids [p-coumaric (p-CA) and trans-ferulic (E-FA) acids] were identified in free and cell-wall fractions, whereas four isomers of diferulic acid (DFA) (8-5'l, 5-5', 8-o-4', and 8-5' benzofuran form) were present in the cell-wall bound fraction. The selection cycles EPS12(S)C0 and EPS12(S)C3 showed less damage and higher cell wall phenolics concentrations than the cycle EPS12(S)C2. In addition, higher concentrations of total DFAs were associated with shorter tunnel length and lower numbers of larvae per stem. The current study shows new and concrete evidence that the cell-wall bound phenolics could have a determinative role in the resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer, although future development of recurrent and divergent selection cycles will clarify this point.

  8. Influence of age and diet on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.

  9. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  10. Water stress augments silicon-mediated resistance of susceptible sugarcane cultivars to the stalk borer Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvedaras, O L; Keeping, M G; Goebel, F-R; Byrne, M J

    2007-04-01

    Silicon (Si) can improve resistance of plants to insect attack and may also enhance tolerance of water stress. This study tested if Si-mediated host plant resistance to insect attack was augmented by water stress. Four sugarcane cultivars, two resistant (N21, N33) and two susceptible (N26, N11) to Eldana saccharina Walker were grown in a pot trial in Si-deficient river sand, with (Si+) and without (Si-) calcium silicate. To induce water stress, irrigation to half the trial was reduced after 8.5 months. The trial was artificially infested with E. saccharina eggs after water reduction and harvested 66 days later. Silicon treated, stressed and non-stressed plants of the same cultivar did not differ appreciably in Si content. Decreases in numbers of borers recovered and stalk damage were not associated with comparable increases in rind hardness in Si+ cane, particularly in water-stressed susceptible cultivars. Overall, Si+ plants displayed increased resistance to E. saccharina attack compared with Si- plants. Borer recoveries were significantly lower in stressed Si+ cane compared with either stressed Si- or non-stressed Si- and Si+ cane. Generally, fewer borers were recovered from resistant cultivars than susceptible cultivars. Stalk damage was significantly lower in Si+ cane than in Si- cane, for N21, N11 and N26. Stalk damage was significantly less in Si+ combined susceptible cultivars than in Si- combined susceptible cultivars under non-stressed and especially stressed conditions. In general, the reduction in borer numbers and stalk damage in Si+ plants was greater for water-stressed cane than non-stressed cane, particularly for susceptible sugarcane cultivars. The hypothesis that Si affords greater protection against E. saccharina borer attack in water-stressed sugarcane than in non-stressed cane and that this benefit is greatly enhanced in susceptible cultivars is supported. A possible active role for soluble Si in defence against E. saccharina is proposed.

  11. Boric Acid Toxicity Trials on the Wood Borer Heterobostrychus aequalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daljit K. Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Heterobostrychus aequalis Waterhouse was a serious pest lumber of timber heveawood. The H. aequalis infest and tunnel along the wood grain, depositing eggs, which concomitantly turn into larvae and reduces the wood starch to a soft powder. The objectives of the study were to establish a suitable method for preservative trials on the wood borer and access the toxicity levels of boric acid for controlling the H. aequalis infestation. Approach: The voracious H. aequalis was collected from infested heveawood, mated and cultured on cassava. The adult beetles were exposed to boric acid treated cassava blocks as pilot trials. The boric acid concentration used was 1-5% including a control. Each treatment consists of five replicates. The voracious of H. aequalis generation was cultured for obtaining its freshly new emerged adult by exposing a number of H. aequalis directly from infested heveawood into artificial diet block and cassava. The mortality, weight loss of the test blocks, frass discharge duration and numbers of holes caused by H. aequalis were observed. Results: The results showed that the H. aequalis infested tended to penetrate the film after wrapping the heveawood with a layer of transparent cling film for 24 h experiment. The H. aequalis larvae stock cultured collected from infested heveawood exhibited differences in colour, activeness and aggression among males and females. The suitable test block size used was (2.0×5.0×1.5 cm3. The freshly emerged voracious of H. aequalis adults was more suitable than the larvae for boric acid toxicity trials. The 2% concentration was sufficiently killed the 4% boric acid treated test blocks. There was no hole observed on 5% boric acid treated test block and hence these concentrations were not infested by H. aequalis due to absence of frass in exposed blocks. Conclusion/Recommendations: There are noticeable physical and behavioural differences between voracious

  12. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes; Infestacao de Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em genotipos de Carica spp. e Vasconcella spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C. [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: fancelli@cnpmf.embrapa.br; Morales, Cinara F.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (FEPAGRO), Ijui, RS (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  13. Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X; Sardana, R; Kaplan, H; Altosaar, I

    1998-03-17

    Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and beta-glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were placed under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter, the CaMV35S promoter, and the Brassica Bp10 gene promoter to achieve high and tissue-specific expression of the lepidopteran-specific delta-endotoxins. The integration, expression, and inheritance of these genes were demonstrated in R0 and R1 generations by Southern, Northern, and Western analyses and by other techniques. Accumulation of high levels (up to 3% of soluble proteins) of CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) proteins was detected in R0 plants. Bioassays with R1 transgenic plants indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to two major rice insect pests, striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) and yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), with mortalities of 97-100% within 5 days after infestation, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in transgenic rice plants.

  14. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    attacked, suggesting that S. agrili could be reared on field collected logs infested with emerald ash borer.

  15. Detectability of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in asymptomatic urban trees by using branch samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryall, Krista L; Fidgen, Jeffrey G; Turgeon, Jean J

    2011-06-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic invasive insect causing extensive mortality to ash trees, Fraxinus spp., in Canada and the United States. Detection of incipient populations of this pest is difficult because of its cryptic life stages and a multiyear time lag between initial attack and the appearance of signs or symptoms of infestation. We sampled branches from open-grown urban ash trees to develop a sample unit suitable for detecting low density A. planipennis infestation before any signs or symptoms are evident. The sample unit that maximized detection rates consisted of one 50-cm-long piece from the base of a branch ≥6 cm diameter in the midcrown. The optimal sample size was two such branches per tree. This sampling method detected ≈75% of asymptomatic trees known to be infested by using more intensive sampling and ≈3 times more trees than sampling one-fourth of the circumference of the trunk at breast height. The method is less conspicuous and esthetically damaging to a tree than the removal of bark from the main stem or the use of trap trees, and could be incorporated into routine sanitation or maintenance of city-owned trees to identify and delineate infested areas. This research indicates that branch sampling greatly reduces false negatives associated with visual surveys and window sampling at breast height. Detection of A. planipennis-infested asymptomatic trees through branch sampling in urban centers would provide landowners and urban foresters with more time to develop and implement management tactics.

  16. [Pinworm infestation of the appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, L; Berghenti, M; Cocuzza, C; Manfredini, A; Sciascia, V; Salmi, R

    2006-01-01

    The Authors present 2 cases of enterobiasis of appendix observed on a total of 186 appendicectomies. Enterobius infestation is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible without clinical suspect. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis but parasitic infection rarely causes it. It is also important considered in the differential diagnosis cases that mimic Crohn's disease.

  17. Describing head shapes of white stem borers (Schirpophaga innotata Walker that are able to survive on different rice types using Landmark based geometric morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queenilyn B. Albutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice stem borers are considered as the most serious insect pest of rice in Asia. It infects itsplant host by burrowing into the stem using its mandible. However, apart from the mandible, the head ofrice stem borers is also associated in the incursion process since it facilitates the entry of larvae to the riceplant. Differences in the head capsules have a direct effect on the ability of the insects to ingest hardfoods rapidly. Different rice varieties in the Philippines serve as plant host for this pest and infestationoccurred in different geographical location. Variations in habitat and plant host were thought to generateenvironmental variation in morphometric traits and host adapted herbivore phenotype respectively.Landmark based geometric morphometric analysis was used to assess the hypothesis that the head shapeof white stem borer differ between populations with respect to different rice varieties and geographicallocation where it was obtained. Relative warp analysis showed variation in the head shape betweendifferent white stem borer (Schirpophaga innotata Walker populations infesting different varieties of rice.Non-significant head shape variations were obtained between geographically separated populations. Theseresults indicate that the rice host varieties play an important role in the selection of individuals that areable to counteract the resistance factors in plants.

  18. Molecular changes in the maize composite EPS12 during selection for resistance to pink stem borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrón, A; Tarrío, R; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2005-04-01

    The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre) is the most important pest of maize (Zea mays L.) throughout the Mediterranean area. The maize composite EPS12 has been chosen as the base population for a breeding program based on its resistance to pink stem borer, with the main selection criterion being resistance to stem tunneling. Yield was taken as a secondary selection criterion to avoid any unwanted negatively correlated response on this character. The aims of investigation were: (1) to monitor the effects of selection for resistance to pink stem borer on allele frequency at 70 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and their impact on the genetic structure of EPS12 and (2) to identify loci at which allelic frequencies changed significantly due to directional selection. Genetic diversity was reduced during the selection process (as expected since random genetic drift as well as selection could reduce genetic variability), but not significantly so. Although the loss of genetic variation was generally consistent with that expected in a model in which random genetic drift acts alone on neutral alleles, the changes observed in the frequency of five alleles were significantly greater than expected. Further, the linear trend of the departure from the random genetic drift model was significant for some allelic versions of two SSR markers, umc1329 and phi076; directional selection was therefore acting on these loci. The significant effect of directional selection on those markers suggests the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tunnel length and/or for yield under artificial infestation with Sesamia nonagrioides on the long arm of chromosome 4.

  19. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  20. Phosphorus fertilization and lime application and its effect on sugarcane growth, yield and borer attack in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Walter Rasche Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both soil phosphorus (P and soil acidity are the key factors in soil fertility management and of - ten limits crop production in subtropical agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of lime and different P rates on sugarcane variety and their interactive effect on the sugar cane borer attack. A three factorial experiment containing, two sugarcane varieties i. e., (SP81-3250 and RB-956911; with and without application of agricultural lime (3.5 t ha-1 and four P rates i. e., (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 was ca - rried out at the research field area of Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil during 2011-12. It assessed a sugarcane stalk length, b stem diameter; c number of internodes, d number of stalk ha-1, e stalk yield, f °Brix and g Intensity of infestation Index. Results indicated that, the stalk yields of RB-956911 and SP81-3250 was 106.6 and 139.8 Mg ha-1, respectively. The °Brix was between 18.60 % and 18.00 %, respectively. The Intensity of infestation Index was 2.76 % for the RB-956911 and 3.65 % for the SP81-3250. The lime application showed significant results only on the borer attack. Phosphorus application increased the sugarcane yield from 105.9 Mg ha-1 to 136.5 Mg ha-1 with 60 kg of P2O5 ha-1. The application of phosphorus increased sugarcane productivity but it does not contribute which increase the borer attack.

  1. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years.

  2. The role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous stem-borers on maize in the humid tropics of western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndemah, R; Gounou, S; Schulthess, F

    2002-12-01

    Sites in the humid forest of Cameroon and the derived savanna of Benin were selected to evaluate the effect of planting border rows of wild host plants on lepidopterous stem-borer infestations and on maize yield. Grass species were chosen that in surveys and greenhouse trials were highly attractive to ovipositing female moths but with offspring mortality of close to 100%, thus acting as trap plants. In Cameroon, elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Moench significantly lowered infestations of Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson and Eldana saccharina Walker and increased yields of maize though the differences were not significant during all three cropping seasons. In 1998 in Benin, the only grass tested, Pennisetum polystachion L., significantly increased parasitism of mainly S. calamistis eggs by Telenomus spp. and larvae by Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and reduced numbers of the cob-borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot. In 1999, three grass species; P. polystachion, Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf and Panicum maximum Jacq. were tested. Panicum maximum was the most efficient species for suppressing S. calamistis and M. nigrivenella infestations and enhancing egg and larval parasitism. In the Benin trials, with the exception of M. nigrivenella damage to cobs, the grass species tested had no beneficial effect on yield because pest densities were too low and also rodent damage to maize was enhanced with grasses in the vicinity of the crop. By contrast, stand losses due to Fusarium verticillioides Sacc. (Nirenberg), were significantly reduced by border rows of grasses.

  3. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13tm), BALB/c-Il13/Il4tm, and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm index mice. However, only Il13tm and Il13/Il4tm mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2tm1.1Flv Il2rgtm1.1Flv/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  4. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits.

  5. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  6. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  7. Resistance of Bt-maize (MON810) against the stem borers Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and its yield performance in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tadele; Mugo, Stephen; Mwimali, Murenga; Anani, Bruce; Tende, Regina; Beyene, Yoseph; Gichuki, Simon; Oikeh, Sylvester O; Nang'ayo, Francis; Okeno, James; Njeru, Evans; Pillay, Kiru; Meisel, Barbara; Prasanna, B M

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance of maize hybrids with Bt event MON810 (Bt-hybrids) against the maize stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) in a biosafety greenhouse (BGH) and against the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) under confined field trials (CFT) in Kenya for three seasons during 2013-2014. The study comprised 14 non-commercialized hybrids (seven pairs of near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt hybrids) and four non-Bt commercial hybrids. Each plant was artificially infested twice with 10 first instar larvae. In CFT, plants were infested with C. partellus 14 and 24 days after planting; in BGH, plants were infested with B. fusca 21 and 31 days after planting. In CFT, the seven Bt hybrids significantly differed from their non-Bt counterparts for leaf damage, number of exit holes, percent tunnel length, and grain yield. When averaged over three seasons, Bt-hybrids gave the highest grain yield (9.7 t ha(-1)), followed by non-Bt hybrids (6.9 t ha(-1)) and commercial checks (6 t ha(-1)). Bt-hybrids had the least number of exit holes and percent tunnel length in all the seasons as compared to the non-Bt hybrids and commercial checks. In BGH trials, Bt-hybrids consistently suffered less leaf damage than their non-Bt near isolines. The study demonstrated that MON810 was effective in controlling B. fusca and C. partellus. Bt-maize, therefore, has great potential to reduce the risk of maize grain losses in Africa due to stem borers, and will enable the smallholder farmers to produce high-quality grain with increased yield, reduced insecticide inputs, and improved food security.

  8. A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes.

  9. Pest status and distribution of the stem borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschman, Lawrent L; Sloderbeck, Phillip E

    2010-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America.

  10. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Morris

    Full Text Available Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82% than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  11. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  12. Rice gene expression profiles responding to larval feeding of the striped stem borer at the 1 st to 2nd instar stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Sun; Yong-Jun Zhang; Guang-Chun Cao; Shao-Hua Gu; Kong-Ming Wu; Xi-Wu Gao; Yu-Yuan Guo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify rice genes that are in response to the striped stem borer (SSB) (Chilo suppressalis Walker) feeding at the first to second larval stage. Using combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and dot blot approaches, we analyzed the induced defense genes that took place during the first 72 h of infesting intact rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants in sheath tissues with SSB larvae. By sequencing the whole SSH library, 39 expressed sequence tags involved in disease stress, insect stress or other stress responses were identified to be up-regulated by SSB larvae feeding. Among these genes, rice allene oxide cyclase (AOC), terpene synthase (TPS) and four proteinase inhibitor (PI) genes were up-regulated by SSB larvae feeding. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that four rice PI genes were already up-regulated at 6 h, and reached peaks between 6 h to 12 h. In addition, the transcription of gene involving in jasmonate signaling pathway such as allene oxide cyclase (AOC) concerning rice early defense response to SSB feeding was activated after rice feeding by SSB for 2 h. Although the expression of rice terpene synthase (TPS) gene, involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes or diterpenes, was already up-regulated at 7 h, a significant increase in the expression was delayed until 12 h and reached its peak at 24 h. The present study identified six SSB-response genes and their expression patterns, which provides evidence and information to understand insect stress-response in plants.

  13. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  14. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  15. SCREENING OF MAIZE GENOTYPES AGAINST STEM BORER CHILO PARTELLUS L. IN KHARIF SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekhar Lella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. being the highest yielding cereal crop in the world is of significant importance for countries like India, where rapidly increasing population already out stripped the available food supplies. Maize crop possesses great genetic diversity. Maize Plant is attacked by 140 species of insects causing varying degree of damage causing an annual loss of over 1 billion in the Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT, 1992. Out of these, only 10 species cause serious damage from sowing till storage, of which the stemborer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe is the major one (Hiremath et al., 1988. The larvae of C.partellus after hatching feed on soft surface of the leaves and then enter the stem through whorl of feeding on the pith of the stem. The growth of the plants becomes shunted and resulting in dead hearts when attacked by C.partellus at their initial stages. The larvae transferred from other plants enter the stem through lower nodes by making the holes. Stem borers pupate inside the stem. They make holes before pupation for the emergence of adults. Since host plant resistance is the back bone of Insect Pest Management; hence the present investigation was initiated. Present studies were designed to identify maize genotype resistance against stem borer in order to minimize pesticide use, improve natural balance, and enhance the activity of bio control agents, and to increase crop production. The investigations were carried out on the screening of Maize genotypes against Maize stem borer Chilo partellus in kharif season were conducted on the agricultural farm of the institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during kharif season of 2010-2011 to screen the relative resistance /susceptibility of 19 genotypes of maize to the insect pest, maize stem borer (Chilo partellus. In order to screen the relative susceptibility of different maize genotypes to maize stem borer the following genotypes were screened under field conditions. The

  16. Generation of marker-free Bt transgenic indica rice and evaluation of its yellow stem borer resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Arul, L; Talwar, D

    2010-01-01

    We report on generation of marker-free (‘clean DNA’) transgenic rice (Oryza sativa), carrying minimal gene-expression-cassettes of the genes of interest, and evaluation of its resistance to yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The transgenic indica rice harbours a translational fusion of 2 different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes, namely cry1B-1Aa, driven by the green-tissue-specific phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) promoter. Mature seed-derived calli of an elite indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati-1 were co-bombarded with gene-expression-cassettes (clean DNA fragments) of the Bt gene and the marker hpt gene, to generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. The clean DNA fragments for bombardment were obtained by restriction digestion and gel extraction. Through biolistic transformation, 67 independent transformants were generated. Transformation frequency reached 3.3%, and 81% of the transgenic plants were co-transformants. Stable integration of the Bt gene was confirmed, and the insert copy number was determined by Southern analysis. Western analysis and ELISA revealed a high level of Bt protein expression in transgenic plants. Progeny analysis confirmed stable inheritance of the Bt gene according to the Mendelian (3:1) ratio. Insect bioassays revealed complete protection of transgenic plants from yellow stem borer infestation. PCR analysis of T2 progeny plants resulted in the recovery of up to 4% marker-free transgenic rice plants.

  17. Keefektifan insektisida cyantraniliprole terhadap hama penggerek buah kopi ( Hypothenemus hampei pada ko pi arabika ( Effectiveness cyantraniliprole against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampeion arabica coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A trial on cyantraniliprole 10% against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei has been conducted on arabica coffee at Kalibendo Estate, in Banyuwangi regency, East Java. The altitude of the estate is about 650 m above sea level (asl. and belongs to B type of climate classification according to Schmidt and Ferguson. Composite variety of arabica coffee at about four years old planted at the location was used as plant materials. Five levels of cyantranilprole dosage and two compared insecticides i.e: carbaryl 85% and lamda cyhalothrine 25 g/L have been applied as treatments and each treatment is replicated four times. Infestation of coffee berry borer (CBB has been observed on berries in the field as well as on harvested berries and green coffee. The results revealed that cyantraniliprole 10% was very effective in suppressing infestation and population of CBB on coffee berries in the field as well as on harvested parchment and green coffee. The dosage of 2,000 ml/ha was the most effective and the highest level of efficacy against CBB until the last observation during 14 weeks trial. Application of cyantraniliprole 10% also has increased the production of green coffee harvested. The highest increase occurred on the treatment of cyantraniliprole 10% with a dosage of 1000 ml/ha, which it reached 62.87% higher compared to untreated treatment. Carbaryl and lamda cyhalothrine have effectiveness and efficacy level lower than the highest dosage of cyantraniliprole 10%.

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Differences in Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Blends from Tomato Plants Infested by Either Tuta absoluta or Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego B; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Van Loon, Joop J A; Bueno, Vanda H P

    2017-01-03

    Plants release a variety of volatile organic compounds that play multiple roles in the interactions with other plants and animals. Natural enemies of plant-feeding insects use these volatiles as cues to find their prey or host. Here, we report differences between the volatile blends of tomato plants infested with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci or the tomato borer Tuta absoluta. We compared the volatile emission of: (1) clean tomato plants; (2) tomato plants infested with T. absoluta larvae; and (3) tomato plants infested with B. tabaci adults, nymphs, and eggs. A total of 80 volatiles were recorded of which 10 occurred consistently only in the headspace of T. absoluta-infested plants. Many of the compounds detected in the headspace of the two herbivory treatments were emitted at different rates. Plants damaged by T. absoluta emitted at least 10 times higher levels of many compounds compared to plants damaged by B. tabaci and intact plants. The multivariate separation of T. absoluta-infested plants from those infested with B. tabaci was due largely to the chorismate-derived compounds as well as volatile metabolites of C18-fatty acids and branched chain amino acids that had higher emission rates from T. absoluta-infested plants, whereas the cyclic sesquiterpenes α- and β-copaene, valencene, and aristolochene were emitted at significantly higher levels from B. tabaci-infested plants. Our findings imply that feeding by T. absoluta and B. tabaci induced emission of volatile blends that differ quantitatively and qualitatively, providing a chemical basis for the recently documented behavioral discrimination by two generalist predatory mirid species, natural enemies of T. absoluta and B. tabaci employed in biological control.

  19. All European Ash Species are Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae – a Far Eastern Invader

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    Yu. N. Baranchikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae – an example of a destructive invasive insect which abruptly enlarged its initially East-Asian area in 80–90s of the previous century. Nowadays this species is the main pest of ash (Fraxinus trees in USA and Canada and is quickly spreading over 11 administrative regions of Russia. It is very important to determine a list of possible host plants of A. planipennis for the pest risk assessment of invasion of this pest over the territory of Central and Western Europe. In its native area – North-Eastern Asia – this buprestid is a secondary consumer of dying trees of East-Asian ash species F. сhinensis and F. mandshurica. Healthy trees of these species are highly resistant to the pest. No examples of resistant ash species were found at North American continent. Documentary data are presented for the first time on infestation of three European ash species at the territory of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia by the emerald ash borer. At the first time this pest was registered at the garden in 2011. During the period of 2010–2014 EAB killed from 70 to 100 % of trees of European ash species: Fraxinus excelsior, F. angustifolia (= F. oxycarpa and F. ornus. At the same period from 81 to 90 % of specimens of North American ash species (F. pennsylvanica and F. americana were killed by this buprestid. Simultaneously dead trees of Asian species F. mandshurica and F. chinensis (= F. rhynchophyla did not carry any trace of EAB infestation. This case study is a good example of the «sentinel trees» concept’s usefulness. Arboretums with collections of non-native plants may serve as «ecological traps» for the local pests and pathogens – potential invasive organisms in the source regions of introduced plants.

  20. Effectiveness of Sex Pheromone in Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.

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    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella  nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values

  1. A transcriptomic survey of Migdolus fryanus (sugarcane rhizome borer) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pedezzi, Rafael; Santiago, Adelita Carolina; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane, a major crop grown in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, is produced mainly for sucrose, which is used as a sweetener or for the production of bioethanol. Among the numerous pests that significantly affect the yield of sugarcane, the sugarcane rhizome borer (Migdolus fryanus, a cerambycidae beetle) is known to cause severe damage to the crops in Brazil. The absence of molecular information about this insect reinforces the need for studies and an effective method to control this pest. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was employed to study different parts of M. fryanus larvae. The generated data will help in further investigations about the taxonomy, development, and adaptation of this insect. RNA was extracted from six different parts (head, fat body, integument, hindgut, midgut, and foregut) using Trizol methodology. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and the Trinity platform, trimming and de novo assembly was performed, resulting in 44,567 contigs longer than 200 nt for a reunion of data from all transcriptomes, with a mean length of 1,095.27 nt. Transcripts were annotated using BLAST against different protein databanks (Uniprot/Swissprot, PFAM, KEEG, SignalP 4.1, Gene Ontology, and CAZY) and were compared for similarity using a Venn diagram. Differential expression patterns were studied for select genes through qPCR and FPKM comprising important protein families (digestive peptidases, glucosyl hydrolases, serine protease inhibitors and otopetrin), which allowed a better understanding of the insect's digestion, immunity and gravity sensorial mechanisms.

  2. Increasing bedbug, Cimex lectularius, infestations in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azazy, Osama M E; Al-Behbehani, Bahja; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud M I

    2013-08-01

    Bedbug, Cimex lectularius, human infestations were reported in the State of Kuwait in the last 2 years. Eleven separate infestations from different localities were received at the Veterinary Laboratories indicating that bedbug is widespread in the State of Kuwait. There was circumstantial evidence to suggest the transfer of bugs with recent immigrants or used furniture. The spread of infestation can be attributed to the increase in migrant labor and their mobility inside the country. The increase in reported cases appears also consistent with a worldwide increase in bedbug infestations.

  3. 76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Emerald Ash Borer AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public of our decision to revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer... revised treatment schedule will be sufficient to treat emerald ash borer. DATES: Effective Date:...

  4. Trapping effect of synthetic pheromone blends on two stem borers, Chilo suppressalis and Scripophaga incertulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two internal feeders of rice plant, rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) are major hurdles in achieving higher yields in Central China. Synthetic sex pheromone was an effective method to control the two borers. A new series of sex pheromone blends were formulated and tested.

  5. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland... to the list of areas quarantined because of emerald ash borer (EAB). The interim rule was necessary... Coordinator, Emerald Ash Borer Program, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  6. 75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined...: We are amending the emerald ash borer regulations by adding portions of Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota... rule is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the emerald ash borer to noninfested areas of...

  7. Spatial Distribution and Minimum Sample Size for Overwintering Larvae of the Rice Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) in Paddy Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, A

    2014-10-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), feeds almost exclusively in paddy fields in most regions of the world. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling procedures, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. Field experiments were conducted during 2011 and 2012 to estimate the spatial distribution pattern of the overwintering larvae. Data were analyzed using five distribution indices and two regression models (Taylor and Iwao). All of the indices and Taylor's model indicated random spatial distribution pattern of the rice stem borer overwintering larvae. Iwao's patchiness regression was inappropriate for our data as shown by the non-homogeneity of variance, whereas Taylor's power law fitted the data well. The coefficients of Taylor's power law for a combined 2 years of data were a = -0.1118, b = 0.9202 ± 0.02, and r (2) = 96.81. Taylor's power law parameters were used to compute minimum sample size needed to estimate populations at three fixed precision levels, 5, 10, and 25% at 0.05 probabilities. Results based on this equation parameters suggesting that minimum sample sizes needed for a precision level of 0.25 were 74 and 20 rice stubble for rice stem borer larvae when the average larvae is near 0.10 and 0.20 larvae per rice stubble, respectively.

  8. Relationship between Resistance of Rice Stem Borer and Insecticide Use Intensity in South China%中国华南水稻螟虫抗药性与用药的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周克; 闫苗苗

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to survey the effect of insecticide use intensity on the resistance of rice stem borer in South China.[Method] The data includes 19 counties from Guangdong Province and Guangxi Province from 1991 to 2010.A fixed effect model was established to evaluate the effect of insecticide use intensity on the resistance of rice stem borer.[Result] The regression results suggest that one-period lagged total number of insecticide sprays has significant effect on the infestation level of rice stem borer.[Conclusion] Although rice stem borer is a migratory rice pest,insecticide use intensity has significant effect on the resistance level of rice stem borer in South China.%[目标]研究中国华南稻田用药强度对水稻螟虫的抗药性的影响.[方法]采用来自广东和广西的19个水稻种植县从1991年到2010年的面板数据,建立个体固定效应模型.[结果]滞后一期针对水稻螟虫的总用药次数对当期水稻螟虫的发生级别有显著的正的影响.[结论]虽然水稻螟虫是一种迁飞性害虫,但是不同地区的农民的用药行为都受到了水稻螟虫发生级别的影响,因此,长期来看滞后一期用药对当期水稻螟虫的抗药性有显著的正的影响.

  9. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section.

  10. Elite Indica transgenic rice plants expressing modified Cry1Ac endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis show enhanced resistance to yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, H K; Raina, S K

    2002-08-01

    Bt-transgenics of elite indica rice breeding lines (IR-64, Pusa Basmati-1 and Karnal Local) were generated through biolistic or Agrobacterium-mediated approaches. A synthetic cry1Ac gene, codon optimised for rice and driven by the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter, was used. Over 200 putative transformants of IR-64 and Pusa Basmati-1 and 26 of the Karnal Local were regenerated following use of the hpt (hygromycin phosphotransferase) selection system. Initial transformation frequency was in the range of 1 to 2% for particle bombardment while it was comparatively higher (approximately 9%) for Agrobacterium. An improved selection procedure, involving longer selection on the antibiotic-supplemented medium, enhanced the frequency of Bt-transformants and reduced the number of escapes. Molecular evaluation revealed multiple transgene insertions in transformants, whether generated through biolistic or Agrobacterium. In the latter case, it was also observed that all genes on the T-DNA do not necessarily get transferred as an intact insert. Selected Bt-lines of IR-64 and Pusa Basmati-1, having Bt-titers of 0.1% (of total soluble protein) and above were evaluated for resistance against manual infestation of freshly hatched neonate larvae of yellow stem borers collected from a hot spot stem borer infested area in northern India. Several Bt-lines were identified showing 100% mortality of larvae, within 4-days of infestation, in cut-stem as well as vegetative stage whole plant assays. However, there was an occasional white head even among such plants when assayed at the reproductive stage. Results are discussed in the light of resistance management strategies for deployment of Bt-rice.

  11. EFFICASY OF NATURAL POPULATION OF Trichogramma WASPS AGAINST EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the natural infestation of European corn borer (ECB eggs by Trichogramma wasps (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae under field conditions. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia in 2013. The experiment included two levels of irrigations, two nitrogen rates and two maize genotypes. Parameters of ECB feeding activity and maize tolerance (cob mass, tunnel length, number of ECB larvae per plant, as well as number of parasitized ECB eggs by Trihogramma wasps were evaluated. Genotypes were significantly different in terms of tolerance to ECB injury. In treatments with nitrogen fertilization, ECB feeding activity was increased at both nitrogen rates. Agricultural practices did not significantly affect parasitism of ECB eggs by Trichogramma. Correlation between parameters of ECB feeding activity and parasitism by Trichogramma was slight to moderate and not significant. Natural occurrence of Trichogramma wasps were not significantly affected by agricultural practices in maize, and population of these parasitoids was low significantly affect ECB feeding activity.

  12. A High-Resolution Map of Emerald Ash Borer Invasion Risk for Southern Central Europe

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    Viktoria Valenta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ash species (Fraxinus spp. in Europe are threatened by the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB, an invasive wood boring beetle native to East Asia and currently spreading from European Russia westwards. Based on a high-resolution habitat distribution map (grid cell size: 25 × 25 m and data on distribution and abundance of Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior, the most widespread and highly susceptive host species of EAB in Europe, we assess the spatial distribution of EAB invasion risks for southern Central Europe (Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, southern Germany, South Tyrol. We found highest F. excelsior abundance and thus invasion risks in extensive lowland floodplain forests, medium risks in zonal lowland forests and low risks in upper montane and subalpine forests. Based on average velocities of spread in Russia (13–31 km/year and North America (2.5–80 km/year from flight and human-assisted transport, EAB is likely to cover the distance (1500 km between its current range edge in western Russia and the eastern border of the study region within few decades. However, secondary spread by infested wood products make earlier introductions likely. The high susceptibility and mortality of F. excelsior leave no doubt that this beetle will become a major forest pest once it reaches Central Europe. Therefore, developing and testing management approaches with the aim to halt or at least slow down the invasion of EAB in Europe have to be pursued with great urgency.

  13. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America.

  14. Efficacy of ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) against stem borers and leaffolder insect-pests of basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarao, P S; Kaur, H

    2014-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three kharif seasons from 2009 to 2011 at Sudhar village, Ludhiana and Rice Research Area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four doses of Ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) a new chemistry @ 20, 30, 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 1000 g a.i. ha(-1) was tested against stem borers and leaffolder infesting basmati rice. Over the years, dead heart in all the Ferterra doses and standard check (1.01-1.80%) were at par70 DAT, whereas, at 80 DAT doses @ 40, 50 and standard check were at par (1.04-1.13%) but significantly better than lower doses and untreated control. Similarly, over the years, Ferterra doses @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) was significantly better than control in reducing white ear incidence, whereas, at 30 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check intermediately reduced the white ears incidence. Leaffolder infestation at all the Ferterra doses were at par with standard check 70 DAT (2.69-3.87%), whereas, 80 DAT, Ferterra doses @ 30, 40, 50 and standard check were at par (2.95-3.49%) but significantly better than lower dose and untreated control. Over the years the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 23.67) in the Ferterra @40 g a.i. ha(-1) dose followed by 50 g a.i. ha(-1) dose.

  15. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  16. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  17. Hydroxycinnamate Synthesis and Association with Mediterranean Corn Borer Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Barros-Rios, Jaime; Samayoa, Luis Fernando; Butrón, Ana

    2016-01-27

    Previous results suggest a relationship between maize hydroxycinnamate concentration in the pith tissues and resistance to stem tunneling by Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) larvae. This study performs a more precise experiment, mapping an F2 derived from the cross between two inbreds with contrasting levels for hydroxycinnamates EP125 × PB130. We aimed to co-localize genomic regions involved in hydroxycinnamate synthesis and resistance to MCB and to highlight the particular route for each hydroxycinnamate component in relation to the better known phenylpropanoid pathway. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for p-coumarate, two QTLs for ferulate, and seven QTLs for total diferulates explained 81.7, 26.9, and 57.8% of the genotypic variance, respectively. In relation to borer resistance, alleles for increased hydroxycinnamate content (affecting one or more hydroxycinnamate compounds) could be associated with favorable effects on stem resistance to MCB, particularly the putative role of p-coumarate in borer resistance.

  18. Relationships of Reproductive Traits With the Phylogeny of the African Noctuid Stem Borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane; Frérot, Brigitte; Genestier, Gilles; Ahuya, Peter; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Le Ru, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B. sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M. sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis, and S. nonagrioides. For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night) were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA), Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA), showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed.

  19. Regeneration of sugarcane elite breeding lines and engineering of stem borer resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Xing; Deng, Haihua; Xu, Jin-Ling; Li, Qi; Wang, Lian-Hui; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Hai Bao; Li, Qiwei; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2006-02-01

    Five elite sugarcane breeding lines were tested for efficiency in embryogenesis and plant regeneration. All of them produced regenerative embryogenic calli but with varied efficiencies. To engineer strongly insect-resistant sugarcanes, the GC content of a truncated cry1Ac gene, which encodes the active region of Cry1Ac insecticidal delta-endotoxin, was increased from the original 37.4 to 47.5% following the sugarcane codon usage pattern. The synthetic cry1Ac gene (s-cry1Ac) was placed under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter and introduced by microprojectile bombardment into the embryogenic calli of sugarcane lines YT79-177 and ROC16. Southern blotting analysis showed that multicopies of s-cry1Ac were integrated into the genomes of transgenic sugarcane lines. Immunoblotting analysis identified 18 transgenic lines expressing detectable levels of s-Cry1Ac, which were estimated in the range of 1.8-10.0 ng mg(-1) total soluble proteins. Four transgenic and two parental lines were assayed for sugarcane stem borer resistance in leaf tissue feeding trials and greenhouse plant assays. The results showed that, while the untransformed control lines were severely damaged in both leaves and stems, the transgenic sugarcane lines expressing high levels of s-Cry1Ac proteins were highly resistant to sugarcane stem borer attack, resulting in complete mortality of the inoculated insects within 1 week after inoculation.

  20. Development of stem borer resistant transgenic parental lines involved in the production of hybrid rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S; Nagadhara, D; Pasalu, I C; Kumari, A Padma; Sarma, N P; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

    2004-07-15

    Stem borer resistant transgenic parental lines, involved in hybrid rice, were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer method. Two pSB111 super-binary vectors containing modified cry1Ab/cry1Ac genes driven by maize ubiquitin promoter, and herbicide resistance gene bar driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were, used in this study. Embryogenic calli after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium were selected on the medium containing phosphinothricin. Southern blot analyses of primary transformants revealed the stable integration of bar, cry1Ab and cry1Ac coding sequences into the genomes of three parental lines with a predominant single copy integration and without any rearrangement of T-DNA. T1 progeny plants disclosed a monogenic pattern (3:1) of transgene segregation as confirmed by molecular analyses. Furthermore, the co-segregation of bar and cry genes in T1 progenies suggested that the transgenes are integrated at a single site in the rice genome. In different primary transformants with alien inbuilt resistance, the levels of cry proteins varied between 0.03 and 0.13% of total soluble proteins. These transgenic lines expressing insecticidal proteins afforded substantial resistance against stem borers. This is the first report of its kind dealing with the introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry genes into the elite parental lines involved in the development of hybrid rice.

  1. Relationships of Reproductive Traits With the Phylogeny of the African Noctuid Stem Borers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane; Frérot, Brigitte; Genestier, Gilles; Ahuya, Peter; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Le Ru, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B. sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M. sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis, and S. nonagrioides. For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night) were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA), Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA), showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed. PMID:27867304

  2. Evaluation of the relationship between androgenetic alopecia and demodex infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Javidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically ( P = 0.0787. Most of patients (85.4% had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex.

  3. A transcriptomic survey of Migdolus fryanus (sugarcane rhizome borer) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pedezzi, Rafael; Santiago, Adelita Carolina; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane, a major crop grown in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, is produced mainly for sucrose, which is used as a sweetener or for the production of bioethanol. Among the numerous pests that significantly affect the yield of sugarcane, the sugarcane rhizome borer (Migdolus fryanus, a cerambycidae beetle) is known to cause severe damage to the crops in Brazil. The absence of molecular information about this insect reinforces the need for studies and an effective method to control this pest. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was employed to study different parts of M. fryanus larvae. The generated data will help in further investigations about the taxonomy, development, and adaptation of this insect. RNA was extracted from six different parts (head, fat body, integument, hindgut, midgut, and foregut) using Trizol methodology. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and the Trinity platform, trimming and de novo assembly was performed, resulting in 44,567 contigs longer than 200 nt for a reunion of data from all transcriptomes, with a mean length of 1,095.27 nt. Transcripts were annotated using BLAST against different protein databanks (Uniprot/Swissprot, PFAM, KEEG, SignalP 4.1, Gene Ontology, and CAZY) and were compared for similarity using a Venn diagram. Differential expression patterns were studied for select genes through qPCR and FPKM comprising important protein families (digestive peptidases, glucosyl hydrolases, serine protease inhibitors and otopetrin), which allowed a better understanding of the insect’s digestion, immunity and gravity sensorial mechanisms. PMID:28248990

  4. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-04-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  5. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-11-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  6. Induction of soluble and cell wall peroxidases by aphid infestation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaman, M E; Corcuera, L J; Zúñiga, G E; Cardemil, L; Argandoña, V H

    2001-05-01

    Peroxidase enzymes have been found in soluble, ionically bound, and covalently bound forms and have been implicated in several physiological processes in plants. This paper investigates the effect of aphid infestation on soluble and bound-cell wall peroxidase activity and bound-cell wall isoform changes of barley plants. Peroxidase activity was measured in control plants and plants infested with the aphid Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). The activity of soluble peroxidases increased with time of infestation, older plants being more affected than younger ones. The increase in bound-cell wall peroxidase activity as a function of age was higher in infested than in control plants, being higher in ionically bound than in covalently bound peroxidases. When the aphids were removed from plants, the activities of both types of peroxidases decreased to control levels. Isoelectrofocusing analyses of the ionically bound peroxidases showed changes in the isoform pattern. A new isoform was induced by infestation. The activities of all covalently bound isoforms increased after infestation. The physiological implications of these changes are discussed.

  7. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  8. Control of the peachtree borer using beneficial nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...

  9. Curative control of the peachtree borer using entomopathogenic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of stone fruit trees in North America. Current management relies upon preventative control using broad spectrum chemical insecticides, primarily chlorpyrifos, applied in the late summer or early fall. However, due to missed applications, p...

  10. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  11. Activity of Bacillis thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of coco

  12. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  13. Spatio-temporal variability of Borer Polychaetes in Posidonia oceanica beds and its relation to meadow structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. VASAPOLLO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posidonia oceanica forms an extremely productive and complex ecosystem in the coastal Mediterranean Sea providing a suitable habitat for hundreds of plant and animal species. Among motile invertebrates associated to Posidonia meadows,  polychaete borers of the plant sheaths represent a unique group which exploit a peculiar microhabitat. They belong to the family Eunicidae with three dominant species, Lysidice collaris, L. ninetta and L. unicornis. Due to their strong association with Posidonia shoots, these animals are particularly suitable to study the plant and animal spatial relationships and their pattern of variability. The aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of these animals (Index of Borer, IB at different spatial and temporal (summer vs winter scales in two Posidonia meadows off the Ischia Island (Gulf of Naples, Italy, which are exposed to different degrees of human impact and of hydrological conditions. Results showed IB values of L. collaris (the most abundant species significantly different between meadows and at scales from 10s to 100s of meters, as well as between summer and winter. The IB of L. ninetta showed significant differences only at scales of 10s of meters while, on the contrary, the IB of L. unicornis (the less abundant species did not show variability at any spatial and temporal scales. Most of the variance was at the more impacted and less water movement exposed meadow, suggesting higher level of small and intermediate scales of patchiness of borers at this meadow. These variation patterns  are discussed in relation  to local environmental differences between the studied Posidonia beds.

  14. Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-02-01

    Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations.

  15. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Jennings

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  16. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  17. 75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... emerald ash borer in the United States. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... Canada to prevent the introduction and ] spread of emerald ash borer in the United States, contact...

  18. Larval diapause termination in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suang, Suphawan; Manaboon, Manaporn; Singtripop, Tippawan; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Yu; Tiansawat, Pimonrat; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    In insects, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulate larval growth and molting. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is terminating larval diapause especially in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis. In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, we here measured the expression levels of genes which were affected by juvenile hormone analogue (JHA: S-methoprene) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in diapausing O. fuscidentalis larvae. Corresponding mRNA expression changes in the subesophageal ganglion (SG) and prothoracic gland (PG) were evaluated using qRT-PCR. The data showed similar response patterns of JH receptor gene (OfMet), diapause hormone gene (OfDH-PBAN), ecdysone receptor genes (OfEcR-A and OfEcR-B1) and ecdysone inducible genes (OfBr-C, OfE75A, OfE75B, OfE75C and OfHR3). JHA induced the expressions of OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in both SG and PG, whereas ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes were induced by JHA only in PG. For 20E treatment group, expressions of ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes in both SG and PG were increased by 20E injection. In addition, the in vitro experiments showed that OfMet and OfDH-PBAN were up-regulated by JHA alone, but ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes were up-regulated by JHA and 20E. However, OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in the SG was expressed faster than OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in the PG and the expression of ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes induced by JHA was much later than observed for 20E. These results indicate that JHA might stimulate the PG indirectly via factors (OfMet and OfDH-PBAN) in the SG, which might be a regulatory mechanism for larval diapause termination in O. fuscidentalis. PMID:28369111

  19. Detection of European corn borer infestation in rainfed and irrigated corn using airborne hyperspectral imaging: implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  20. Ability of Plant Stress Volatiles to Trigger Attacks by the Nursery-Infesting Black Stem Borer, Xylosandrus germanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylosandrus germanus is of Eastern Asia origin and among the most economically important exotic ambrosia beetles in US nurseries. The attractiveness of stress-related volatiles other than ethanol to X. germanus is inconclusive, and such information could improve detection and monitoring programs of ...

  1. House infestation dynamics and feeding sources of Triatoma dimidiata in central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Montero, Jesús; López-Monteon, Aracely; Dumonteil, Eric; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel

    2012-04-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, and we investigated here the dynamics of house infestation by Chagas disease vectors to understand disease transmission and design effective control interventions. Bug collections in 42 rural villages confirmed the widespread distribution of Triatoma dimidiata in central Veracruz. Unexpectedly, collection data further indicated a clear pattern of seasonal infestation by mostly adult bugs. Analysis of feeding sources with a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay indicated a frequent feeding on humans, in agreement with the high seroprevalence previously observed. Feeding sources also confirmed a significant dispersal of bugs between habitats. High dispersal capabilities and seasonal infestation may thus be a shared characteristic of several of the T. dimidiata sibling species from this complex. It would thus be critical to adapt vector control interventions to this behavior to improve their efficacy and sustainability, as the control of T. dimidiata has been notoriously challenging.

  2. Effects of volatiles from Maruca vitrata larvae and caterpillar-infested flowers of their host plant Vigna unguiculata on the foraging behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Elie A; Tamò, Manuele; Van Huis, Arnold; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-10-01

    The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae were investigated under laboratory conditions by using a Y-tube olfactometer. Naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps were given a choice between several odor sources that included (1) uninfested, (2) Maruca vitrata-infested, and (3) mechanically damaged cowpea flowers, as well as (4) stem portions of peabush plants carrying leaves and flowers, (5) healthy M. vitrata larvae, and moribund (6), and live (7) virus-infected M. vitrata larvae. Responses of naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps did not differ for any of the odor source combinations. Wasps were significantly attracted to floral volatiles produced by cowpea flowers that had been infested with M. vitrata larvae and from which the larvae had been removed. Apanteles taragamae females also were attracted to Maruca vitrata-infested flowers after removal of both the larvae and their feces. Female wasps discriminated between volatiles from previously infested flowers and mechanically damaged flowers. Uninfested cowpea flowers attracted only oviposition-experienced wasps that had received a rewarding experience (i.e. the parasitization of two M. vitrata larvae feeding on cowpea flowers) before the olfactometer test. Wasps also were attracted to uninfested leaves and flowers of peabush. Moreover, they were also attracted to healthy and live virus-infected M. vitrata larvae, but not when the latter were moribund. Our data show that, similarly to what has been extensively been reported for foliar volatiles, flowers of plants also emit parasitoid-attracting volatiles in response to being infested with an herbivore.

  3. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W; Poland, Therese M; Pierce, Steven J; Ahn, Su Zie

    2011-10-01

    Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of four 50- by 50-m cells. Green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) were inventoried by diameter class and ash phloem area was estimated for each cell. One trap type was randomly assigned to each cell in each block. Because initial sampling showed that A. planipennis density was extremely low, infested ash logs were introduced into the center of the site. In total, 87 beetles were captured during the summer. Purple double-decker traps baited with a blend of ash leaf volatiles, Manuka oil, and ethanol captured 65% of all A. planipennis beetles. Similarly baited, green double-decker traps captured 18% of the beetles, whereas sticky bands on girdled trees captured 11% of the beetles. Purple traps baited with Manuka oil and suspended in the canopies of live ash trees captured only 5% of the beetles. At least one beetle was captured on 81% of the purple double-decker traps, 56% of the green double-decker traps, 42% of sticky bands, and 25% of the canopy traps. Abundance of ash phloem near traps had no effect on captures and trap location and sun exposure had only weak effects on captures. Twelve girdled and 29 nongirdled trees were felled and sampled in winter. Current-year larvae were present in 100% of the girdled trees and 72% of the nongirdled trees, but larval density was five times higher on girdled than nongirdled trees.

  4. The impact of predators on maize stem borers in coastal Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonhof, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many are not effective or feasible

  5. Factors affecting stem borer parasitoid species diversity and parasitism in cultivated and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane

    2010-02-01

    The effects of biotic and abiotic factors on stem borer parasitoid diversity, abundance, and parasitism were studied in cultivated and natural habitats in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Comparing habitat types, we found partial support for the "natural enemy" hypothesis, whereby, across all localities, parasitoid diversity was higher in more diverse host plant communities in natural habitats, whereas parasitoid abundance was higher in cultivated habitats. For both habitats, parasitoid richness was mainly influenced by stem borer density and/or its interaction with stem borer richness, whereas parasitoid abundance was mainly affected by stem borer abundance. Parasitoid richness was higher in localities (with bimodal rainfall distribution) with increased spatial and temporal availability of host plants that harbored the borers. Across seasons, parasitoid richness was lower in both cultivated and natural habitats in the driest locality, Mtito Andei. Overall, parasitoid diversity was low in Suam and Mtito Andei, where maize cultivation was practiced on a commercial scale and intense grazing activities persist across seasons, respectively. Across localities, habitats, and seasons, stem borer parasitism was positively correlated with parasitoid richness and abundance. Furthermore, the interaction of rainfall and altitude influenced the presence and absence of parasitoids, and consequently, stem borer parasitism. Parasitism was positively and negatively correlated with temperature in cultivated and natural habitats, respectively. Overall, natural habitats seem to serve as important refugia for sustaining parasitoid diversity, which in turn can affect stem borer parasitism in the cereal cropping system.

  6. Breeding Resistant Sugarcane for Managing the Stem Borer Diatraea saccharalis: Progress and Prospects for Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is an important insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Growing resistant varieties is a component of the Integrated Pest Management Program as practiced in Louisiana for managing this insect; however, the release of stem borer resistant varieties is intermi...

  7. Induced defenses in maize following attack by the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the course of the past two decades, insect pests such as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) annually resulted in losses to US maize production exceeding one billion dollars. Despite the global significance of O. nubilalis and other stem borers, relatively little is known about the nat...

  8. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  9. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...

  10. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuxiong; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe) with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac) was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie) or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants. PMID:28006032

  11. Repellence of the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda from grafted apple trees by impregnation of rubber budding strips with essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Rob W H M; Swarts, Henk J; van der Linden, Anton; Visser, J H

    2007-05-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed.

  12. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective.

  13. WEED INFESTATION IN DIFFERENT FARMING SYSTEMS

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    MAGDALENA LACKO-BARTOŠOVÁ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of ecological and conventional farming systems on weed seedbank and actual weed infestation of winter wheat at agricultural farms Sebechleby, Plavé Vozokany and Dačov Lom. Significant differences between systems were determined only at the co-operative Sebechleby where the higher weed seedbank was in ecological system. Higher number of determined weed species in weed seedstock was in ecological system at Plavé Vozokany and Sebechleby. Dominant weed species in both systems were Chenopodium album L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.. Higher degree of actual weed infestation was determined in ecological system. Characteristics of systems was the occurrence of perennial species Cirsium arvense and non detection of Amaranthus retroflexus L., weed that had very high weed seedbank in soil.

  14. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MW

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Waqas Khan, Sanniya Khan Ghauri Section of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Emergency Medicine and Trauma Care, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. Keywords: partial intestinal obstruction, gastro-intestinal helminthic infection, pediatric

  15. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  16. A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2012-12-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides.

  17. The insecticide resistance in stripped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The stripped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker) is one of the major insect pests of rice in China. Chemical control has been a common practice in SSB management since 1950s. Insecticides used included BHC before 1983;organophosphorus insecticides (methyl-parathion, trichophon, methamidophos, and monocrotophos), and chlordimeform in mid-1970s-1980s; Shachongshuang (dimehypo) and Shachongdan (monousltap) since early 1980s. In recent years, SSB population and its damage to rice increased rapidly and failures on control has been reported. To find out the cause of failure and to put forward the suitable control methods, we studied the resistance of SSB to major insecticides used in China.

  18. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype.

  19. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  20. RESEARCH AND INFESTATION OF CASES OF DENGUE IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

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    Edmar Silva Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate to the infestation of Aedes aegypti and dengue cases that occurred in the rural communities covered by the municipality of Assis Chateaubriand – PR. The survey was conducted during 2009, divided into two stages, to survey the infestation was used to house infestation (IIP. Five communities were considered positive when the presence of Aedes aegypti infestation levels of communities was higher Charmed the West, Newfoundland, Nice. These data showed that higher rates will be higher infestation rate risk of people being affected by the mosquito. Dengue cases occurred more frequently in communities that had high rates of infestation. The population through prevention and awareness is one way to prevent the spread of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti in rural communities.

  1. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

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    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  2. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  3. Development of Monitoring Technique for Cocoa Pod Borer(Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness and effiency of CPB control were influenced by the right time of control. To decided this methods, information about CPB infestation was needed. An experiment had been conducted to get a simple and accurate technique for CPB monitoring. The experiment was located in Tirawuta, a smallholder cocoa plantation in Kolaka district, South-East Sulawesi. The evaluated monitoring pods techniques using observing all ripe cocoa pod as standard method, i.e. pod colour changes as an indicator of CPB attack, observation on 100 pods during harvesting, moth trapping and observation on the presence of the holes caused by CPB. The collected data expressed as the percentage of CPB attack and compared with each other. Based on the Chi 2 value and time consumed for monitoring, it could be concluded that the observation of 100 attacked pods during harvesting was the most accurate technique closest to the standard method, with a lowest 2 value and not significantly different to standard method. On the contrary the visual observation on the pod colour showed the less accurate technique with  2 value of 242,25–335,33 followed by the bservation on the present of holes on the pod with  2 value of 243,45–282,87. Furthermore, monitoring technique by moth trapping could not be compared with the other techniques since their unit was unequal. However, no insect could be trapped during a night trapping using either chemical trapping or sticky trap. Development of sticky trap by variation in trap colour could be trapped of CPB moth during more than one week. Red trap was the most interesting (preferred for the CPB followed by the yellow, white and blue ones. There was significant correlation between number of tree sample and the time needed for observation. Larger size of tree sample consumed a longer time for the observation, but in visual symptom and entry/exit hole observation methods, larger sample size did not significantly influence its accuracy

  4. Evaluation of double-decker traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C

    2011-04-01

    Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites

  5. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  6. Mechanism of rice variety resistance to the yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) has become the main rice insect pest once again along the Changjiang River sinee 1990s. Unfortunately, no rice variety with resistance to YSB has been reported so far.

  7. Damage and economical threshold of yellow stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas) on rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHuadi; ZHANGZuosheng

    1997-01-01

    Systematic measurements to damage and yield loss due to yellow stem borer (YSB) were made in the single crop and double crop areas of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou cities,northern Zhejiang Province in 1987-1994.

  8. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  9. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  10. Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Rosa; Revilla Pedro; Butrón Ana; Santiago Rogelio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety....

  11. Cross-kingdom effects of plant-plant signaling via volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles López, Yesenia Ithaí; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma Angélica; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; López, Mercedes G; Sánchez-Hernández, Carla; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2012-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants in response to insect infestation can function as signals for the attraction of predatory/parasitic insects and/or repulsion of herbivores. VOCs also may play a role in intra- and inter-plant communication. In this work, the kinetics and composition of VOC emissions produced by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested with the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum was determined within a 14 days period. The VOC emission profiles varied concomitantly with the duration of whitefly infestation. A total of 36 different VOCs were detected during the experiment, 26 of which could be identified: 23 terpenoids, plus decanal, decane, and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Many VOCs were emitted exclusively by infested plants, including MeSA and 10 terpenoids. In general, individual VOC emissions increased as the infestation progressed, particularly at 7 days post-infestation (dpi). Additional tunnel experiments showed that a 3 days exposure to VOC emissions from whitefly-infested plants significantly reduced infection by a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. Infection of VOC-exposed plants induced the expression of a likely tomato homolog of a methyl salicylate esterase gene, which preceded the expression of pathogenesis-related protein genes. This expression pattern correlated with reduced susceptibility in VOC-exposed plants. The observed cross-kingdom effect of plant-plant signaling via VOCs probably represents a generalized defensive response that contributes to increased plant fitness, considering that resistance responses to whiteflies and biotrophic bacterial pathogens in tomato share many common elements.

  12. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  13. Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees.

  14. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease.

  15. Occurrence of proscopiidae in Eucalyptus spp.: analysis of the infestations and spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to report the occurrence of proscopiidae and to quantify its infestation and spatial distribution in one experimental plantation of eucalypt clones. The study was conducted in an experimental field with eucalypt hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (clones GG100, Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (H13 and of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (VM01. The plantation was established in three continuous blocks with 512 plants with 3 m x 2 m, in Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Infestation of proscopiidae insects was detected two months after planting . The insects were collected for identification. The attacked trees were geo-referenced and the injuries were quantified. The spatial pattern of proscopiidae he attack was determinated using the location information of the damaged plants, which have been submitted to a quadrats analyses using Morisita and binomial dispersion indexes. All the collected insects have been identified as Tetanorhynchus smithi Rehn, 1904 (Orthoptera, Proscopiidae. The infestation differed significantly among the three eucalypts clones and aggregated spatial pattern of attack was observed. This is the first report of this species of proscopiidae in eucalyptus in Mato Grosso State.

  16. Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ≍68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed.

  17. Intraperitoneal ectopic infestation of parasites invading through gastrointestinal tract : CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Rha, Sung Eun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Chul [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun [St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Soo Youn [Ulsan Univ. Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of parasitic ectopic infestation in the peritoneal cavity, a transitional route for parasites invading the gastrointestinal tract, to migrate to various target organs. CT scans of nine patients with pathologically(n=8) or serologically(n=1) proven intraperitoneal involvement of parasitic infestation were retrospectively reviewed. The primary causes of parasitic infestation in nine patients were Paragonimus westermani(n=5), Sparganosis(n=2), and hepatic fascioliasis(n=2). We analyzed the CT findings with regard to the sites and patterns of lesions in the peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal track, as well as in other solid organs. The clinical features of these patients were also evaluated. The clinical symptoms and signs were chronic abdominal pain and general weakness in seven patients, while peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed in four. The CT features of these nine patients included multiseptated cystic masses of 2-6cm, diameter (mean 4.1{+-}1.7cm) in the omentum or mesentery in six(67%), omental or mesenteric infiltration in seven(78%), focal peritoneal thickening in seven(78%), 1ymphadenopathy in five(56%), and ascites in four(44%). In six of the nine patients, the gastrointestinal tract(stomach in four, colon in one, both stomach and colon in one) was concomitantly involved with focal wall thickening. Branching patterns of hypoattenuating lesions were noted in the liver of three patients; two of these had hepatic fascioliasis and one had paragonimiasis. Ectopic parasitic infestation in the peritoneal cavity manifests as mass formation, adjacent gastrointestinal wall thickening, and focal peritonitis. An understanding of these image features is important for both early diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  18. Role of terpenes from aphid-infested potato on searching and oviposition behavior of Episyrphus balteatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NICOLAS HARMEL; RAKI ALMOHAMAD; MARIE-LAURE FAUCONNIER; PATRICK DU JARDIN; FRANCO IS VERHEGGEN; MICHEL MARLIER; ERIC HAUBRUGE; FR(E)D(E)RIC FRANCIS

    2007-01-01

    To cope with pathogen and insect attacks, plants develop different mechanismsof defence, in both direct (physical and chemical) and indirect ways (attractive volatiles toentomophagous beneficials). Plants are then able to express traits that facilitate "top-down"control of pests by attracting herbivore predators. Here we investigate the indirect defencemechanism of potato plants by analyzing the volatile patterns of both healthy and aphidinfested plants. Important changes in the emitted terpene pattern by the Myzus persicaeinfested host plant were observed. Using Solid Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) and GC-MS,the (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) appeared to be emitted by aphid-infested potato and not byhealthy plants. To assess the infochemical role of these volatile releases after aphid damageon the aphidophagous predators Episyrphus balteatus, the hoverfly foraging behavior wasassessed using the Observer 5.0 software (Noldus, Wageningen, The Netherlands). Aphidfree potato plants were also used as a control volatile source in the predator behavioral study.While aphid-infested plants induced efficient searching and acceptation behaviors leadingto egg-laying, no kairomonal effect of healthy potato plants was observed, leading to longerimmobility durations and shorter searching periods in the net cage. High oviposition rate ofE. balteatus was observed when aphid-infested potato was used (mean of 48.9 eggs perlaying and per female). On the other hand, no egg was produced by the hoverfly on healthyaphid-free plants. The E. balteatus foraging and reproductive behaviors according to thevolatile emission from aphid-infested plants are discussed in relation to the potential use ofactive infochemical molecules in integrated aphid pest management.

  19. The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent F; Mercader, Rodrigo J; Haight, Robert G; Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2011-09-01

    The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding how newly established satellite populations may affect economic costs can help program managers to justify and design prevention and control strategies. We estimate the economic costs caused by EAB for the 10-yr period from 2010 to 2020 for scenarios of fewer EAB satellite populations than those found from 2005 to 2010 and slower expansion of satellite populations found in 2009. We measure the projected discounted cost of treatment, removal, and replacement of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) growing in managed landscapes in U.S. communities. Estimated costs for the base scenario with the full complement of satellites in 2005-2010 and no program to mitigate spread is $12.5 billion. Fewer EAB satellites from 2005 to 2010 delay economic costs of $1.0 to 7.4 billion. Slower expansion of 2009 satellite populations delays economic costs of $0.1 to 0.7 billion. Satellite populations that are both distant from the core EAB infestation and close to large urban areas caused more economic costs in our simulations than did other satellites. Our estimates of delayed economic costs suggest that spending on activities that prevent establishment of new satellite EAB populations or slow expansion of existing populations can be cost-effective and that continued research on the cost and effectiveness of prevention and control activities is warranted.

  20. Artificial diet sandwiches reveal sub-social behavior in the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diet sandwich, consisting of coffee berry borer artificial diet within two glass panes, has been developed to elucidate the behavior of the coffee berry borer, an insect that in nature spends most of its life cycle inside the coffee berry. Various types of behavior have been observed for the first...

  1. Susceptibility of Cry1Ab-resistant and -susceptible Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: crambidae) to Four Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a primary corn stalk borer pest targeted by transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in many areas of the mid-southern region of the United States. Recently, genes encoding for Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 Bt proteins were transferred in...

  2. Ecological and physiological aspects of aestivation-diapause in the larvae of twe pyralid stalk borers of maize in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are des

  3. Relations between two rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella (Cr.) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and their hymenopterous larval parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelen, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    In many tropical countries, lepidopterous stem borers are major pests of the rice crop. Study of the rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella and Diatraea saccharalis, was made in the Paramaribo area, at the experimental station 'CELOS' during 1971, 1972 and 1973, since data on the ecology and econo

  4. Monitoring the establishment and abundance of introduced parasitoids of emerald ash borer larvae in Maryland, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical biological control can be an important tool for managing invasive species such as emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Emerald ash borer is now widespread throughout the United States, and was first detected in Maryland in 2003. The biological control program to manage emera...

  5. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  6. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  7. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  8. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Gi Kong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. The phloem-sucking insect infestation such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves were previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation and confirmed the recruitment of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting the insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly-infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads plant recruiting specific group of rhizosphere bacteria conferring beneficial traits for host plant. This study provides a new

  9. Flea Infestation in Farm Animals and Its Health Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most fleas infest their host temporarily then pass to another of the same kind, while others move from one to a different host species. Although the comprehensive list of fleas reported from Iran, but there still exists considerable gap in our knowledge of zoonotic aspect of flea infestation. The present study was undertaken to determine correlation between domestic animals and man as host of fleas. Methods: The questionnaires on the base of flea infestation of animals flock and animal care- man were prepared and distributed to veterinary stations of all provinces. A total of 553 questionnaires sheets and 168 flea samples were collected from sixteen provinces. Results: One hundred fifty six specimens of Pulex irritans were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, chicken and human, which consisted of 92.8% of all recovered fleas. Chickens infested by three species of fleas including Pulex irritans (84.6%, Ctenocephalides canis (12.9% and Ceratophilus gallinae (2.5%. Two hundred and eighty nine cases of animal and 244 cases of human infestation were recorded among the suspicious populations, the most prevalence of infestation was found in sheep and goat herds whilst chicken flocks infested with the"nlowest rate and cattle were infested moderately. The major health problem was occurred in farmers, animal care-men and their relatives. The observations showed they had different skin reactions to flea's bites. Conclusion: The results showed that fleas are approximately a widespread parasite of farm animals and it seems that they may play an important role in occurring of zoonotic infestation in Iran. Keywords: Flea, Farm animal, Human, Iran.

  10. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  11. Biology and damage traits of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA WEI; YUN WU; RICHARD REARDON; TIE-HUAN SUN; MIN LU; JIANG-HUA SUN

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire)(Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a major stem borer of ash (Fraxinus spp.). It is univoltine in Tianjin, while it is semivoltine in Heilongjiang Province, and both univoltine and semivoltine in Changchun, Jilin Province,where the majority is univoltine. The longevity of emerald ash borer adults is 17.2 ± 4.6 days (n = 45), eggs 9.0 ± 1.1 days (n = 103), univoltine larvae 308 days, semivoltine larvae 673 days, and pupae 61.2± 1.6 days (n = 45). It takes about 100 days from the time larvae bore into the phloem to when they complete the pupal cell. In a 10-year-old velvet ash (Fraxinus velutina Torr.) plantation in Tianjin, emerald ash borer preferred to oviposit on the regions of boles from 50-150 cm above ground, accounting for 76.7% of the total girdling.Girdling on the south side of the tree boles accounted for 43.40% of the total girdling. The emerald ash borer population density is higher at the edge of the plantation compared with the center.

  12. Biology and management of economically important lepidopteran cereal stem borers in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfir, Rami; Overholt, W A; Khan, Z R; Polaszek, A

    2002-01-01

    Cereals (maize, sorghum, millet, rice) are extremely important crops grown in Africa for human consumption. Of the various insect pests attacking cereal crops in Africa, lepidopteran stem borers are by far the most injurious. All 21 economically important stem borers of cultivated grasses in Africa are indigenous except Chilo partellus, which invaded the continent from India, and C. sacchariphagus, which has recently been found in sugarcane in Mozambique. C. partellus is competitively displacing indigenous stem borers in East and southern Africa. A parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes, was introduced from Pakistan for biological control of C. partellus and caused a 32-55% decrease in stem borer densities. This article is an attempt to summarize the status of knowledge about economically important cereal stem borers in Africa with emphasis on their distribution, pest status and yield losses, diapause, natural enemies, cultural control, host plant resistance, and biological control. Special attention is given to Busseola fusca and C. partellus, the most important pests of maize and grain sorghum.

  13. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Santiago, Rogelio

    2011-04-01

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of resistant and susceptible inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Composition of cell wall polysaccharides, lignin concentration and composition, and cell wall bound forms of hydroxycinnamic acids were measured. As expected, most of the cell wall components were found at higher concentrations in the rind than in the pith tissues, with the exception of galactose and total diferulate esters. Pith of resistant inbred lines had significantly higher concentrations of total cell wall material than susceptible inbred lines, indicating that the thickness of cell walls could be the initial barrier against corn borer larvae attack. Higher concentrations of cell wall xylose and 8-O-4-coupled diferulate were found in resistant inbreds. Stem tunneling by corn borers was negatively correlated with concentrations of total diferulates, 8-5-diferulate and p-coumarate esters. Higher total cell wall, xylose, and 8-coupled diferulates concentrations appear to be possible mechanisms of corn borer resistance.

  14. Preliminary Study on Resistance of the Rice Stem Borer (Chilo Suppressalis) to Fipronil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wei-hua; HAN Zhao-jun; HAO Ming-li

    2005-01-01

    By means of topical application, fipronil resistance was surveyed in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, from 12 diferent areas in east China from 2001 to 2004. The rice stem borers in most regions of Jiangsu and Anhui were still susceptible to fipronil. But in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province and Cixi, Zhejiang Province, their sensitivity became decreased (resistance ratios were 3.1 and 3.6,respectively), and the medium level of resistance (resistance ratio was 21.2) was found in Cangnan, Zhejiang Province. So, it was still at the early stage for fipronil resistance development in this pest. Synergism experiments showed that piperonyl butoxide(PBO) had a little effect on both susceptible and resistant borers (synergism ratios were 1.1-1.2). Tho ugh triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl meleate (DEM) had no effect on the susceptible borers, they had significant synergism on fipronil in the resistant population to fipronil (synergism ratios were 1,8 and 1.6, respectively), indicating esterase and glutathion S-transferase may be involved in the resistance mechanism. Bioassay with currently used insecticides indicated that triazophos (because of high resistance), trichlorphon and acephate had very low toxicity to resistant borers. But diazinon, pyridaphenthion, decamethrin and avermeotin showed high toxicity and had no cross resistance to fipronil, which could be considered as substitute insecticides in the resistance managment.

  15. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-wei SHI; Yan HE; Xiang-hua JI; Ming-xing JIANG; Jia-an CHENG

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Knsehel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest office Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepi-doptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 24 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated nega-tively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  16. Assessment of afoxolaner efficacy against Otodectes cynotis infestations of dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Carithers, Doug; Crawford, Jordan; de Vos, Christa; Lotriet, Alta; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of a single 2.5 mg/kg dose of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial) against induced Otodectes cynotis infestations was assessed in eight afoxolaner-treated dogs, compared to eight untreated dogs. Methods After O. cynotis infestations were established and confirmed by otoscopic assessments in 16 dogs, all of the dogs were included in the study and allocated to two separate treatment groups. The first group of eight ear mite-infested dogs remained untreated, while afoxolaner was...

  17. Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-05-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-μ1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-μ1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles.

  18. Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G.; Vega, Fernando E.; Harwood, James D.

    2010-03-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US 500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations.

  19. Winter starch reserves of white oak as a predictor of attack by the twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J P; Kimmerer, T W; Potter, D A

    1987-12-01

    The twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), attacks oaks (Quercus spp.) and is associated with extensive mortality of trees in the eastern deciduous forests of North America. We tested the hypothesis that winter starch reserves of oak roots are an indicator of tree vigor and that only trees low in stored starch would be attacked by A. bilineatus. We measured the levels of stored starch in the roots of 200 non-infested healthy white oaks during the dormant season and determined their correlation with A. bilineatus attacks the following spring. There was a significant increase in A. bilineatus captures on sticky traps with a decrease in winter starch reserves. Trees low in stored starch that were also stressed by phloem-girdling attracted 3.7 times as many beetles as did non-girdled trees that were low in starch. However, non-girdled trees that had low winter starch reserves were also attacked. Only oaks that had had extremely low winter root starch reserves (5 mg/g dry wt died. These results indicate that winter starch reserves are a good predictor of A. bilineatus attack.

  20. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  1. Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

    2014-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities.

  2. Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossé, Allard A; Petroski, Richard J; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Vermillion, Karl; Lelito, Jonathan P; Cooperband, Miriam F; Gould, Juli R

    2012-04-01

    The braconid wasp, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilus planipennis), a destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We identified and synthesized seven male-specific volatile compounds. Three of these, dodecanal, (4R,11E)-tetradecen-4-olide, and (Z)-10-heptadecen-2-one, were the key behaviorally active components in flight tunnel bioassays. Male specificity was demonstrated by gas chromatographic comparison of male and female volatile emissions and whole body extracts. Identifications were aided by coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, microchemical reactions, NMR, chiral GC analysis, and GC and MS comparison with authentic standards. Both the racemic and chiral forms of the γ-lactone, as well as both E- and Z-isomers were synthesized. Flight tunnel behavioral tests showed positive male and female S. agrili responses to both natural pheromone and synthetic blends, with upwind flight and landing on the source. Large field-cage tests, using yellow sticky traps baited with pheromone, captured approximately 50% of the released male and female wasps in 24-h periods. The use of pheromone-baited traps in the field could simplify the current detection method for determining parasitoid establishment (i.e., laboriously felling and peeling ash trees for recovery of S. agrili from infested EAB larvae).

  3. STORED COCOA BEANS QUALITY AFFECTED BY FERMENTATION AND EPHESTIA CAUTELLA WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA: PHYCITIDAE INFESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OK.KY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation on Ephestia cautella population and cocoa bean s quality in terms of moisture content, fungal population, the percentage of insect-damaged and mouldy beans, lipid and free fatty acid contents during storage were investigated together with the effects of £. cautella infestation on the quality of stored cocoa beans and weight loss. Fermented and unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% were placed in ventilated plastic jars (Ikg/jar and stored for 6 months under room conditions. Seven larvae of £. cautella instar IV (2 males and 5 females were introduced in each jar at the beginning of storage. Untreated jars contained only cocoa beans. Population of £. cautella on fermented cocoa beans with either initial moisture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The population either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 7% was lower than that of 9%, and the population of all treatments increased during storage. Moisture content of all treatments either on cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% had the same pattern. The percentage of insect-damaged beans on fermented cocoa beans was lower than that on unfermented cocoa beans after 5 to 6 months of storage. The damaged beans on fermented cocoa after 6 months of storage was not different than on unfermented beans after 4 months of storage. The weig ht loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 9% was higher than that with initial moisture content of 7%. The weight loss on fermented cocoa beans either with mois ture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The weight loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans increased during storage. The percentage of mouldy beans on cocoa infested with £. cautella tended to increase during storage, while on beans not infested with the insect it

  4. Transcriptional profiling of the murine cutaneous response during initial and subsequent infestations with Ixodes scapularis nymphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinze Dar M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis ticks are hematophagous arthropods capable of transmitting many infectious agents to humans. The process of blood feeding is an extended and continuous interplay between tick and host responses. While this process has been studied extensively in vitro, no global understanding of the host response to ticks has emerged. Methods To address this issue, we used PCR-arrays to measure skin-specific expression of 233 discrete genes at 8 time points during primary and secondary infestations of mice with pathogen-free I. scapularis nymphs. Selected results were then validated at the mRNA and protein levels by additional real-time PCR and bioplex assay. Results Primary infestation was characterized by the late induction of an innate immune response. Lectin pattern recognition receptors, cytokines, and chemokines were upregulated consistent with increased neutrophil and macrophage migration. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of downregulated genes suggested inhibition of gene transcription and Th17 immunity. During the secondary infestation, additional genes were modulated suggesting a broader involvement of immune cells including CD8 and CD4 positive T lymphocytes. The cytokine response showed a mixed Th1/Th2 profile with a potential for T regulatory cell activity. Key gene ontology clusters observed during the secondary infestation were cell migration and activation. Matrix metalloproteinases were upregulated, apoptosis-related genes were differentially modulated, and immunoreceptor signaling molecules were upregulated. In contrast, transcripts related to mitogenic, WNT, Hedgehog, and stress pathways were downregulated. Conclusions Our results support a model of tick feeding where lectin pattern recognition receptors orchestrate an innate inflammatory response during primary infestation that primes a mixed Th1/Th2 response upon secondary exposure. Tick feeding inhibits gene transcription and Th17 immunity. Salivary

  5. Influence of trap placement and design on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Oliver, Jason B; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Youssef, Nadeer; Sawyer, Alan J; Mastro, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    The key to an effective pest management program for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera Buprestidae), is a survey program equipped with tools for detecting and delimiting populations. We studied the effects of trap design, color, and placement on the efficacy of sticky traps for capturing the emerald ash borer. There were significant differences in trap catch along a transect gradient from wooded to open field conditions, with most beetles being caught along the edge, or in open fields, 15-25 m outside an ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) (Oleaceae) woodlot. Greater emerald ash borer catch occurred on purple traps than on red or white traps. Traps placed in the mid-canopy of ash trees (13 m) caught significantly more beetles than those placed at ground level. We also describe a new trap design, a three-sided prism trap, which is relatively easy to assemble and deploy.

  6. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle.

  7. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-depend...

  8. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Gi Kong; Byung Kwon Kim; Geun Cheol Song; Soohyun Lee; Choong-Min Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. The phloem-sucking insect infestation such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves were previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-depende...

  9. Management of tick infestation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasani Ayodhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.

  10. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Haavik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.

  11. Searching for new sources of pink stem borer resistance in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Sandoya Miranda, Germán; Santiago Carabelos, Rogelio; Ordás Pérez, Amando; A. Rial; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana

    2006-01-01

    The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main corn (Zea mays L.) pest in the Mediterranean area. Although, screening for resistance to this pest has been successful, the level of resistance shown by the most resistant varieties is not high. The objectives of the present work were: (i) the evaluation for pink stem borer resistance of the nontested inbred lines, field and popcorn materials, from the collection maintained at the Misión Biológica de Galicia and (ii) the study of the...

  12. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the

  13. Determination of host-associated variability in the shape of the mandible of white rice stem borer Scirpophaga innotata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Alma L. I. Alegre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Host-plant modifications are known to promote high taxonomic diversity andecomorphological disparity among its insect-herbivores. Studies on mouthpart morphology specificallythe mandible are central to understanding these adaptive modifications as they are used as majorfeeding apparatus. In this study, mandible shape of a monophagous white rice stem borer, Scirpophagainnotata Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae which were obtained from different host-plant rice cultivarswere assessed using image analysis and Elliptic Fourier techniques. Contours of the mandibles wereextracted via chain-coding and principal component analyses were performed to determine patterns ofshape differences. Observed variation ranges from the arrangement and length of its teeth, from thebasal and external margins and the contour of the side of attachment from the body. The greatestvariations accounted by the first two principal components (PC’s are on the arrangement, length andnumber of its teeth which is attributable to continuous wear of the individual mandible in effect of thebiochemical properties of the plant. Intra-population variation is associated with the influence of riceplant morphological characteristics associated with resistance or susceptibility to white stem borer.

  14. Interspecific comparison of constitutive ash phloem phenolic chemistry reveals compounds unique to manchurian ash, a species resistant to emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Cipollini, Donald F; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2012-05-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB) is an invasive wood-borer indigenous to Asia and is responsible for widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in the U.S. and Canada. Resistance and susceptibility to EAB varies among Fraxinus spp., which is a result of their co-evolutionary history with the pest. We characterized constitutive phenolic profiles and lignin levels in the phloem of green, white, black, blue, European, and Manchurian ash. Phloem was sampled twice during the growing season, coinciding with phenology of early and late instar EAB. We identified 66 metabolites that displayed a pattern of variation, which corresponded strongly with phylogeny. Previously identified lignans and lignan derivatives were confirmed to be unique to Manchurian ash, and may contribute to its high level of resistance to EAB. Other compounds that had been considered unique to Manchurian ash, including hydroxycoumarins and the phenylethanoids calceolarioside A and B, were detected in closely related, but susceptible species, and thus are unlikely to contribute to EAB resistance of Manchurian ash. The distinct phenolic profile of blue ash may contribute to its relatively high resistance to EAB.

  15. Identification of odor-processing genes in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

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    Praveen Mamidala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs, including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons. Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72% did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc. putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi

  16. Population Genetic Analysis of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis, in the South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-di; HOU Mao-lin; WU Yu-chun; LIU Gui-qin

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation and patterns of genetic differentiation of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), from the South China were analyzed using 6 microsatellite markers and two partial mtDNA (cox1 and cox2) regions. All of the 6 microsatellite loci were polymorphic in the studied seven populations. The allelic richness per population ranged between 5.67 and 14.00, and average HE and HO values were 0.6246-0.8329 and 0.2634-0.6061, respectively. As the mitochondrial genome is a single genetic locus, we only present results for the concatenated data set (cox1 plus cox2 gene sequences, 513 bp). The concatenated data showed high level of genetic diversity and there are 23 variable polymorphic sites among the 513 sites in concatenated data. Nearly all of (20 of 21) pairwise FST comparisons among populations showed genetic differentiation with moderate to high pairwise FST values based on microsatellite markers. However, for the mtDNA data, most of the seven populations did not show significant differentiation with other populations. The differences of population differentiation obtained with the two different genetic markers could be mainly attributed to the different mutation rates of microsatellite and mtDNA. There was not genetic structure existed in these studied populations based on microsatellite loci and mtDNA data. The analysis based on network, mismatch distribution, Tajima’s D and FS indicated that the studied populations were from the recent same ancestor or the same refuge and followed by a sudden demographic expansion condition.

  17. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-11-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-β-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-α-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-β-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-α-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were α-aminobutyric acid, β-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed.

  18. Tissue-specific transcriptomics of the exotic invasive insect pest emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis.

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    Omprakash Mittapalli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248and trypsin (98 domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85 and protein kinase (123 domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis.

  19. Monogenean infestations and mortality in wild and cultured Red Sea fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.

    1984-03-01

    Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.

  20. Pod Borer of Peanut and Potential Entomopathogenic Fungi for its Control in West Sumatera

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    Reflinaldon Reflinaldon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pod borer (Etiella zinckenella is a serious pest on peanuts in West Sumatera since the last four years. The larvae lived and bored on pods under soil surfaces and it is often undetected.  E. zinckenella is very limited reporting as a pest on peanuts especially in Indonesia. We described about pod borer attacking in West Sumatera and as alternative strategic control using entomopathogenic fungi bicontrol agents is  safety and more efective and it will be promoted for controlling of  larvae in pods under soil. The objective of this research were to determine severity of damage of pod borer with survey and  observation methods , and to find out potential entomopathogenic fungi  by in both of baiting and  dilution method. The severity of attacking of pod borer on groundnut was 14 to 70%. Five group of fungi i.e: Metharizium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Paecillomyces were isolated from soil of groundnut’s rhizosphere in  several districts of West Sumatera and they were able to infected of Tribolium molitor 8-30%.

  1. Diallel Analysis of Southwestern Corn Borer Leaf Feeding Damage in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwestern corn borer [Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar)] is an important pest of maize in the southern United States. It feeds extensively within the leaf whorls of plants in the vegetative stages of growth. This reduces both the quantity and quality of harvestable grain. Germplasm lines with resistan...

  2. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  3. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

    2010-08-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed.

  4. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, AQUATIC RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS, RUSSIAN PEAT BORER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...

  5. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is the primary target of the widely adopted transgenic corn events MON810 and Bt11, expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxin, Cry1Ab. Resistant strains of O. nubilalis have been selected in the laboratory by exposure to Bt ...

  6. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  7. Natural enemies of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass in the forest zone of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndemah, R; Schulthess, F; Poehling, M; Borgemeister, C; Goergen, G

    2001-06-01

    The importance, geographical and temporal distributions of parasitoids of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum, were assessed during surveys in farmers' fields in six villages and two on-station trials in the forest zone of Cameroon between 1995 and 1996. The borer species encountered were Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Eldana saccharina Walker on both host plants, and Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot on maize only. Busseola fusca was the predominant host accounting for 44-57% and 96% on maize and elephant grass, respectively, followed by E. saccharina on maize with 27-39%. Fifteen hymenopterous, two dipterous and one fungal species were found on these stem and cob-borers. Among those were six pupal, six larval, four egg, one larval-pupal parasitoid and four hyperparasitoids. The scelionid parasitoids Telenomus busseolae Gahan and T. isis Polaszek were found on B. fusca eggs in all locations. During the first season, mean egg parasitism was low and ranged between 3.1% and 27% versus 54-87% during the second season. Species belonging to the Tetrastichus atriclavus Waterston complex were recovered from all four borer species. The majority and most common larval and pupal parasitoid species belonged to the ingress-and-sting guild. Larval and pupal parasitism were very erratic and on more than 50% of the sampling occasions no parasitoids were recovered. Parasitoid diversity was higher on elephant grass than maize.

  8. A relative resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Stem Borer Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane in Louisiana and Texas. Cultivar resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in commercial and experimental sugarcane cultivars in four replicated field studies between 2009 and 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed t...

  9. Abundance and Spatial Dispersion of Rice Stem Borer Species in Kahama, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alfonce; Rwegasira, Gration M

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity, abundance, and dispersion of rice stem borers in framer's fields were studied in four major rice growing areas of Kahama District. Stem borer larvae were extracted from the damaged tillers in 16 quadrants established in each field. Adult Moths were trapped by light traps and collected in vials for identification. Results indicated the presence of Chilo partellus, Maliarpha separatella, and Sesamia calamistis in all study areas. The most abundant species was C. partellus (48.6%) followed by M. separatella (35.4%) and S. calamistis was least abundant (16.1%). Stem borers dispersion was aggregated along the edges of rice fields in three locations (wards) namely: Bulige, Chela, and Ngaya. The dispersion in the fourth ward, Kashishi was uniform as established from two of the three dispersion indices tested. Further studies would be required to establish the available alternative hosts, the extent of economic losses and the distribution of rice stem borers in the rest of the Lake zone of Tanzania.

  10. Hymenopteran Parasitoids Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Western and Central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated larval parasitoids in western and central Pennsylvania (Cranberry and Granville Townships) in the spring and fall of 2009. The survey procedure involved destructively debarking sections of the m...

  11. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  12. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  13. Aphid infestation affecting the biogeochemistry of European beech saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalzik, B.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Bischoff, S.; Näthe, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mass outbreaks of herbivore insects are known to perturb the functional properties of forests. However, it is less clear how endemic to moderate aboveground herbivory affects the vertical flow of nutrients from tree canopies to the soil. Here, we report on the effects of low to moderate infestation levels of the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on the nutrient dynamics and hydrology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In a potted sapling experiment, we followed the vertical dynamics of nutrients via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and litter leachates (LL) collected over ten weeks underneath infested and uninfested control trees. Aphid infestation amplifies the fluxes of K+, Mn2+ and particulate nitrogen (0.45μm factor of up to 200 compared to TF.Imaging of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy exhibited notable differences of the surface morphology and microbiology of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves. This observation might point to an aphid-mediated alteration of the phyllosphere ecology triggering the microbial uptake of NH4-N and SO4-S and its transformation to particulate N by magnified biomass growth of the phyllosphere microflora, consequently changing the chemical partitioning and temporal availability of nitrogen.

  14. Different clinical allergological features of Taenia solium infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia (T.) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic reactions occurring during T. solium infestation was performed combining the terms (allergy, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) with T. solium. A study was considered eligible for inclusion in the review if it reported data on patients with T. solium infestation who had signs or symptoms of allergy. In literature we found six articles reporting the association between an allergic reaction and T. solium infestation: two cases of urticaria, two cases of relapsing angioedema, one case of asthma and two cases of anaphylaxis. Despite the large diffusion of T. solium infestation, we found only a few cases of concomitant allergic reaction and the presence of Taenia in the host. The association between T. solium infestation and allergic manifestations has never been clearly demonstrated, and in absence of a well-documented causality the hypotheses are merely speculative. Therefore, the association between Taenia infection and allergy needs to be thoroughly studied to better clarify if this association may really exist and which is the pathogenetic mechanism supported.

  15. The Active Space of Mexican Rice Borer Pheromone Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Blake E; Beuzelin, Julien M; Allison, Jeremy D; Reagan, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the United States. Traps baited with the synthetic female sex pheromone of E. loftini are used for monitoring and management of this invasive pest. However, the active space, or radius of attraction, of these traps is not known. Two field experiments examined the effect of intertrap distance on trap captures with hexagonal arrays of traps deployed in rice stubble habitat in Texas (2011) and Louisiana (2013). Trap capture increased with increasing intertrap distance. Trap interference occurred at intertrap distances ≤50 m in the 2011 experiment. Results from the experiment conducted in 2013 indicate that trap interference occurs at intertrap distances of 50 m, but not at distances ≥100 m. These results suggest that under field conditions, E. loftini pheromone traps attract males from distances of 50-100 m. The active space of pheromone traps also was examined under controlled wind conditions by direct observation of male response to detection of the female sex pheromone. Eoreuma loftini males responded to the pheromone blend by becoming active, fanning their wings, and rapidly walking in circles. The mean distance from the pheromone source at which males responded was 47.6 m. This work provides the first documentation of active space for traps baited with female sex pheromone for a crambid species, and these data will improve pheromone trap deployment strategies for E. loftini monitoring and management.

  16. Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?

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    Malvar Rosa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21, each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm, reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm, although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL, and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H-one (DIMBOA, a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and

  17. Relationship between maize stem structural characteristics and resistance to pink stem borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, R; Souto, X C; Sotelo, J; Butrón, A; Malvar, R A

    2003-10-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre), is one of the most important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in northwestern Spain. The objectives of this work were to evaluate, at different times during the growth of maize, structural traits related to the entry point and tissues on which larvae feed and to determine the relationship between these structural traits and the stem borer resistance. Six inbred lines with different levels of stem resistance to S. nonagrioides were evaluated in several trials. Potential structural resistance factors included rind and pith puncture resistance (RPR and PPR), rind thickness, length of the meristematic area (LMA), and pith parenchyma interlumen thickness (PPIT). Surprisingly, the inbred lines that showed the strongest stalks, EP42 and EP47, were not stem resistant to pink stem borer attack, while the stem resistant inbreds A509, CM151, and PB130 were among the least resistant to rind puncture. There were no significant differences among resistant and susceptible inbreds for the rind thickness. However, the susceptible inbred EP42 had the softest internode pith, and the resistant inbred PB130 showed the hardest, as was expected. Susceptible inbred lines in general showed higher values for the LMA, while the PPIT was important for individual inbreds. The results suggest that the usefulness of these characters as estimators of pink stem borer resistance is limited to some genotypes. Besides, even among those genotypes, other mechanisms of resistance that do not involve stalk strength could be present. Among the traits considered, the LMA was the most promising as an indicator of resistance to pink stem borer, although further experimentation is necessary.

  18. Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in a patient with severe ulcerative colitis

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    Ghoshal Uday

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic infestation with Strongyloides stercoralis, common in the tropics, may result in potentially fatal hyperinfection during treatment with immunosuppressive drugs used to treat patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC. Hence, importance of early recognition and treatment of this nematode in patients with UC before starting immunosuppressive drugs can not be overemphasized. We report a 23-yrs old man with UC who presented with acute severe attack. Since his UC did not respond to intravenous hydrocortisone over 6 days, oral cyclosporine was started on 7th day after repeating stool microscopy, which revealed larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Duodenal aspirate also confirmed presence of multiple larvae. He responded to treatment for Strongyloides stercoralis , continuation of hydrocortisone and cyclosporine. Importance of early diagnosis of infestation with Strongyloides stercoralis while on treatment with immunosuppressive drugs for severe UC is emphasized. Difficulties in diagnosis and management of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in patients with UC are discussed.

  19. Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha

    2010-01-01

    Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice.

  20. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  1. Associations between Demodex species infestation and various types of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Yalçın, Zeliha Gülter; Karakeçe, Engin; Çiftci, İhsan Hakkı; Erdem, Teoman

    2013-12-01

    Tumor-associated immune system cells secrete protease and cytokines that can inhibit the immune response. In particular, T-cell effector functions could be inhibited, potentially causing an increase in parasitic infestations. Demodex species are common inhabitants of normal hair follicles. Humans are the specific host for two species Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and infestation of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in patients with cancer. In the present study, 101 patients with cancer were selected from among patients who were diagnosed and treated for cancer. The cancer patients were divided into four groups according to cancer type. Slides were examined for parasites using light microscopy at magnifications of ×40 and ×100. Infestation was defined as having at least five living parasites/cm(2) of skin. The ages of the patients with cancer ranged between 38 and 82 years, with a mean of 65.5±10.1 years. It was determined that 77 of the 101 (76.2%) cancer patients were positive for Demodex species. Infestation was positive in 18 (47.4%) of the 38 cases in the breast cancer group, 7 (29.2%) of the 24 cases in the lung cancer group, 5 (18.5%) of the 27 cases in the gastrointestinal system cancer group, and 2 (16.7%) of the 12 cases in the urogenital system cancer group. Results showed that the rate of Demodex species infestation was higher in patients with breast cancer. Thus, cancer - and particularly breast cancer - is a risk factor for Demodex species infestation.

  2. Mechanism of Immunity to Tick infestation in Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Maharana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunological interaction at the tick host interface involves both innate and acquired host defenses against infestation and Immunomodulatory countermeasures by thetick. Acquired resistance to tick infestation involves humoral and cellular immlmoregulatory effector pathways. Tick-borne disease-causing agentspr exploit tick suppression of host defenses during transmission and initiation of infection. Because of the public health importance of ticks and tick-borne diseases, it is crucial that we understand these interactions and exploit them in novel immunological control. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 131-135

  3. Morphometric evidence for a possible role of Rhodnius prolixus from palm trees in house re-infestation in the State of Barinas (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciangeli, M Dora; Sanchez-Martin, Maria; Marrero, Rosalba; Davies, Clive; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2007-02-01

    The main vector of Chagas disease in Venezuela is Rhodnius prolixus. Specimens of Rhodnius sp., identified elsewhere as R. prolixus by molecular tools, were collected in Barinas State (Venezuela) before insecticide application, and compared by morphometric techniques with post-spraying, re-infesting insects after control. Geometric morphometry was applied, allowing separate analyses of shape and size. The idea of a single species sharing silvatic and domestic/peri-domestic ecotopes was supported, suggesting new evolutionary scenarios for the controversial R. prolixus origins. The same data allowed to understand the possible mechanisms of villages re-infestation after a control campaign, either recolonization by local recovery of survivors or re-infestation by external migrants. Both mechanisms were apparent. Although shape properties could distinguish very close subpopulations such as insects from houses and insects from peri-domestic shelters, they were unable to identify the insects from palm trees as a distinct subpopulation. This strongly suggested that human environment could receive immigrants from palm trees. The pattern of size variation supported the hypothesis of a one-way exchange from silvatic to human environments, but did not support the reverse movement. Thus, morphometric data indicated that a silvatic population of the local vector is probably responsible for re-infesting villages after insecticide application, and they also pointed to the existence of re-infestation by local recovery of survivors. According to this interpretation, new epidemiological scenarios must be considered to improve Chagas disease control in Venezuela.

  4. Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

    2014-09-01

    Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region.

  5. Histopathological changes in the skins and gills of some marine fishes due to parasitic isopod infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar; Samuthirapandian Ravichandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the histopathological symptoms owing to cymothoid isopod that were categorised as gross lesions.Methods:Nature of damage fish tissues and gills were taken from the parasite attachment area of infested and uninfested fishes which were cut out in fresh condition fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin. Fresh and recently preserved tissues and gills were washed in tap water and dehydrated using alcohol series. The tissues gills were then cleaned in methylbenzoate and benzene and embedded in paraffin wax. The serial sections cutting 4 to 5 m thickness, were stained with Erlich’s haematoxylin and Eosin for histopathological analysis.Results:In normal muscle tissue, the tensile strength of muscle fibers with extra cellular matrix collagen was extensively tight associated. This gave a rigid musculature pattern to the tissues. Infested fish exhibited histopathological anomalies such as tissue reactions, primarily associated with the formation of granulomas consisted of macrophages and epitheleioid cells, which were occasionally surrounded by a thin rim of fibroblasts. The infestations such as lipofibrosis, hyperaemia, haemorhagic lesions and penetration of dactylus usually pressure atrophy often accompanied by the presence of parasites. Lesions had well developed granulomas that underlined in the muscle or overlying subcutaneous tissue, form these spread to underlying organs.Conclusions:It could be concluded that the infection studies of parasite that attaches or settles on the host body, at first, causes localized inflammatory changes, but with time, assuring a different or diffused character. The changes always begin with hyperaemia in the angles between adjacent sides at the site of attachment and then move towards deeply situated area.

  6. Histopathological changes in the skins and gills of some marine fishes due to parasitic isopod infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the histopathological symptoms owing to cymothoid isopod that were categorised as gross lesions. Methods: Nature of damage fish tissues and gills were taken from the parasite attachment area of infested and uninfested fishes which were cut out in fresh condition fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin. Fresh and recently preserved tissues and gills were washed in tap water and dehydrated using alcohol series. The tissues gills were then cleaned in methylbenzoate and benzene and embedded in paraffin wax. The serial sections cutting 4 to 5 m thickness, were stained with Erlich’s haematoxylin and Eosin for histopathological analysis. Results: In normal muscle tissue, the tensile strength of muscle fibers with extra cellular matrix collagen was extensively tight associated. This gave a rigid musculature pattern to the tissues. Infested fish exhibited histopathological anomalies such as tissue reactions, primarily associated with the formation of granulomas consisted of macrophages and epitheleioid cells, which were occasionally surrounded by a thin rim of fibroblasts. The infestations such as lipofibrosis, hyperaemia, haemorhagic lesions and penetration of dactylus usually pressure atrophy often accompanied by the presence of parasites. Lesions had well developed granulomas that underlined in the muscle or overlying subcutaneous tissue, form these spread to underlying organs. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the infection studies of parasite that attaches or settles on the host body, at first, causes localized inflammatory changes, but with time, assuring a different or diffused character. The changes always begin with hyperaemia in the angles between adjacent sides at the site of attachment and then move towards deeply situated area.

  7. Management and Risk Assessment of Sabellid Polychaete Infestations in Abalone Mariculture Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kuris, Armand M.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, growers at some commercial abalone mariculture facilities (AMFs) in Southern California brought an interesting sabellid polychaete to our attention. The worm infested shells of cultured red abalone, Haliotis rufescens. Heavily infested abalone ceased growth. Their shells exhibited domed teratology often lacking respiratory holes. The worms appeared to bore into the shell. We discovered that all AMFs in California were infested; several were so heavily infest...

  8. Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) abundance and seasonal flight activity in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and woodlands in five eastern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, J C; Leskey, T C; Walgenbach, J F; Klingeman, W E; Kain, D P; Zhang, A

    2009-06-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 +/- 644 and 3095 +/- 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, exceeding captures at urban sites by 16 and 13 times and at woodland sites by 210 and 206 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Mean total captures at urban sites exceeded those in woodland habitats by 13 and 16 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The mean duration (wk) of the flight period did not differ significantly between apple orchards (22.6 +/- 0.6 SE) and urban sites (20.3 +/- 1.2 SE). The onset of flight was somewhat later in New York (around early June) than further south (around early to mid-May), but moth captures continued into October in all states. Captures in apple orchards and at urban sites with higher populations were essentially continuous throughout the flight period, with substantial weekly fluctuations, and tended to show a bimodal pattern with peaks from late May through mid-July and from late August through mid-September. Captures at woodland sites tended to occur predominantly from mid-May through about mid-June and were very sporadic thereafter.

  9. Oxidative enzyme changes in sorghum infested by shoot fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaja, P G; Shwetha, B L; Swetha, G; Patil, J V

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the role of oxidative enzymes in the defense response of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae), to the sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani (Diptera: Muscidae). Changes in polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity and total protein content were observed in resistant and susceptible sorghum genotypes in response to A. soccata feeding. Resistant plants exhibited higher levels of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content compared with susceptible plants. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content in the infested resistant and susceptible genotypes were higher when compared with their control plants, respectively. These findings suggest that resistant genotypes may be able to tolerate shoot fly feeding by increasing their peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities. Among the enzymes examined, differences in isozyme profiles for peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were detected between control and infested IS 18551, M35-1, 296B, SSV 84, and DJ 6514 plants. Differences in protein profiles were observed between A. soccata infested and their respective uninfested controls of all the genotypes. In conclusion, this study revealed that these defense enzymes and proteins might attribute to the resistance mechanisms in sorghum plants against A. soccata infestation.

  10. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in Northwest Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter

    2013-01-01

    CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  11. Concurrent puerperal hysterectomy with Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: coincidence or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapardiel, Ignacio; Peiretti, Michele; Godoy-Tundidor, Sonia

    2010-04-01

    The most common etiology of postpartum hemorrhage is uterine atony, although hematologic disorders may be present. A 36-year-old nulliparous woman underwent puerperal hysterectomy caused by uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. One day after discharge, she vomited in the emergency room a 24-cm long Ascaris lumbricoides. Infestation during gestation may cause hematologic disorders that could complicate pregnancy outcome.

  12. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  13. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: applications and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The challenges that land owners and resource managers face when trying to attempt applications and practices when attempting to rehabilitate rangelands infested with cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) are over-whelming. Simply purchasing seed and spreading it throughout the rangelands is doomed for failu...

  14. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  15. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  16. Determination of degree of infestation of triticale seed using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...

  17. Prevalence and reproduction of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the fecundity of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite genera. Resu...

  18. Does hair coat length affect flea infestation in naturally infested dogs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Araujo Collares da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016 at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length 5.0 cm, n= 7. In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91% and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%. The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.

  19. Molecular characterization and gene expression of juvenile hormone binding protein in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritdachyeng, Eakartit; Manaboon, Manaporn; Tobe, Stephen S; Singtripop, Tippawan

    2012-11-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in many physiological processes in insect development, diapause and reproduction. An appropriate JH titer in hemolymph is essential for normal development in insects. Information concerning its carrier partner protein, juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP), provides an alternative approach to understanding how JH regulates metamorphosis. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the Omphisa juvenile hormone binding protein (OfJHBP). The full-length OfJHBP cDNA sequence is comprised of 849 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 726bp encoding 242 amino acids. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated to be 26.94kDa. The deduced protein sequence of OfJHBP showed moderate homology with the lepidopteran, Heliothis virescens JHBP (52% amino acid identity) and lower homology with the Bombyx mori JHBP (45%) and the Manduca sexta JHBP (44%). The OfJHBP was expressed mainly in the fat body. OfJHBP transcripts in the fat body was moderately high during 3rd, 4th and 5th instars, then rapidly increased, reaching a peak during early diapause. The expression remained high in mid-diapause, then decreased in late-diapause until the pupal stage. Both juvenile hormone analog (JHA), methoprene, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exhibited a similar stimulatory pattern in OfJHBP expression of diapausing larvae. OfJHBP mRNA levels gradually increased and showed a peak of gene expression on the penultimate, then declined to low levels in the pupal stage. For in vitro gene expression, both of JHA and 20E induced OfJHBP mRNA expression in fat body. Fat body maintenance in vitro in the presence of 0.1μg/50μl JHA induced OfJHBP mRNA expression to high levels within the first 30min whereas 0.1μg/50μl 20E induced gene expression at 120min. To study the synergistic effect of these two hormones, fat body was incubated in vitro with 0.1μg/50μl JHA or 0.1μg/50μl 20E or a combination of both hormone for 30min. Induction of OfJHBP expression by

  20. Ecological Aspects of Maize Stem Borer at Intercropping and Monoculture Planting

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Hidayat, Purnama; Rauf, Aunu; Sartiami,Dewi

    2003-01-01

    Asian corn borer population Beberapa aspek ekologi hama penggerek batang jagung diamati pada pertanaman jagung milik petani dan pada plot percobaan di Bogor. Tingkat serangan penggerek batang jagung pada pertanaman berumur 50 hst adalah 7,59% pada tanaman tumpangsari jagung manis dengan ubi jalar, 8,66% pada tanaman monokultur jagung manis, dan 9,51% pada tanaman tumpangsari jagung manis dan singkong. Pengamatan peletakan telur pada plot percobaan menunjukkan bahwa populasi telur pada p...

  1. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami; Santa Bahadur BK; Ghana Shyam Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage per...

  2. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami; Santa Bahadur BK; Ghana Shyam Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage...

  3. Differential resistance reaction of maize genotypes to maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe at Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize stem borer (MSB, Chilo partellus Swinhoe, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the most important insect pest of maize in Nepal. Host plant resistance is the cost-effective, ecologically sound and stable approach to reduce damage by stem borers. Forty four maize genotypes were screened for resistance to maize stem borer at the research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring seasons (March to June of two consecutive years 2013 and 2014. The maize genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications and data were collected on foliar damage rating, tunnel length and number of exit holes made by the borer. The foliar damage and tunnel length damage were significant for genotypes for both the years. The exit holes were not significant in 2013 but significant in 2014 ranging from 2-6 scale. The foliar rating ranged from 2 to 5.5 in 2013 and 1.1 to 4.5 in 2014 on a 1-9 rating scale. The highly resistant genotypes (10 cm scale. The least susceptible genotypes (<5 cm were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18. The genotypes having least exit holes (2.0 in 2014 were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02, RampurS10F18. Thus less damage parameters were observed in R-POP-2, RML-5/RML-8, RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18 and therefore they can be used as parents or as sources of resistance in breeding program.

  4. Myctolaimellus robiniae n. sp. (Diplogasterida: Cylindrocorporidae) from Larval Cavities of the Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae Forster

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, A.; Winter, J.; Harman, D.

    2000-01-01

    A new nematode species of the family Cylindrocorporidae and the genus Myctolaimellus from subcortical cavities made by the locust borer (Megacyllene robiniae Forster) in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is described. Males of the new species have a length of 700 to 1,050 µm; a bursate tail, peloderan with nine pairs of rays; and knobbed, curved spicules with tips bending gently into a hook. The distinctive gubernaculum is half the length of the spicules, deeply grooved longitudinally al...

  5. Transgenic rice plants expressing cry1Ia5 gene are resistant to stem borer (Chilo agamemnon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A

    2010-01-01

    The stem borer, Chilo agamemnon Bles., is the most serious insect pest in rice fields of the Egyptian Nile Delta. To induce rice plant resistance to Chilo agamemnon, the cry1Ia5 gene was introduced to rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The integration of the cry1Ia5 gene into the plant genome was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. The obtained plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse until seeds were collected. Northern blot analysis of the T1 plants confirmed the expression of the cry1Ia5 gene. The insecticidal activity of the transgenic plants against the rice stem borer Chilo agamemnon were tested. The third larval instars were fed on stem cuts from three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) as well as cuts from the control (gfp-transgenic) plants for one week and the mortality percentage was daily recorded. Transgenic line-3 showed the highest mortality percentage after one day (50%) followed by L2 (25%) then L1 (0%). Two days post treatment the mortality percentage increased to 70, 45 and 25% for transgenic lines 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Mortality of 100% was recorded four days post treatment, while those fed on the gfp-transgenic rice (control) showed 0% mortality. Thus, transgenic plants showed high resistance to stem borers and can serve as a novel genetic resource in breeding programs. Transgenic plants expressing BT protein were normal in phenotype with as good seed setting as the nontransgenic control plants.

  6. Ecosystem engineering and manipulation of host plant tissues by the insect borer Oncideres albomarginata chamela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Cortés, Nancy; Uribe-Mú, Claudia A; Martínez-Méndez, A Karen; Escalera-Vázquez, Luis H; Cristobal-Pérez, E Jacob; García-Oliva, Felipe; Quesada, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem engineering by insect herbivores occurs as the result of structural modification of plants manipulated by insects. However, only few studies have evaluated the effect of these modifications on the plant responses induced by stem-borers that act as ecosystem engineers. In this study, we evaluated the responses induced by the herbivory of the twig-girdler beetle Oncideres albomarginata chamela (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) on its host plant Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae), and its relationship with the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer. Our results demonstrated that O. albomarginata chamela branch removal induced the development of lateral branches increasing the resources needed for the development of future insect generations, of its own offspring and of many other insect species. Detached branches represent habitats with high content of nitrogen and phosphorous, which eventually can be incorporated into the ecosystem, increasing nutrient cycling efficiency. Consequently, branch removal and the subsequent plant tissue regeneration induced by O. albomarginata chamela represent key mechanisms underlying the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer, which enhances arthropod diversity in the ecosystem.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  8. Characterization of cysteine protease-like genes in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Li, Guo-Qing; Xia, Yong-Gui; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2014-02-01

    The striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major pest for rice production in China and the rest of Southeast Asia. Chemical control is the main means to alleviate losses due to this pest, which causes serious environmental pollution. An effective and environmentally friendly approach is needed for the management of the striped rice stem borer. Cysteine proteases in insects could be useful targets for pest management either through engineering plant protease inhibitors, targeting insect digestive cysteine proteases, or through RNA interference-based silencing of cysteine proteases, disrupting developmental regulation of insects. In this study, eight cysteine protease-like genes were identified and partially characterized. The genes CCO2 and CCL4 were exclusively expressed in the larval gut, and their expression was affected by the state of nutrition in the insect. The expression of CCL2, CCL3, and CCO1 was significantly affected by the type of host plant, suggesting a role in host plant - insect interactions. Our initial characterization of the striped rice stem borer cysteine protease-like genes provides a foundation for further research on this important group of genes in this major insect pest of rice.

  9. Developing optimum sample size and multistage sampling plans for Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation and injury in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifoulis, A A; Savopoulou-Soultani, M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to quantify the spatial pattern and develop a sampling program for larvae of Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important vineyard pest in northern Greece. Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression were used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance of larval counts. Analysis of covariance was carried out, separately for infestation and injury, with combined second and third generation data, for vine and half-vine sample units. Common regression coefficients were estimated to permit use of the sampling plan over a wide range of conditions. Optimum sample sizes for infestation and injury, at three levels of precision, were developed. An investigation of a multistage sampling plan with a nested analysis of variance showed that if the goal of sampling is focusing on larval infestation, three grape clusters should be sampled in a half-vine; if the goal of sampling is focusing on injury, then two grape clusters per half-vine are recommended.

  10. Volatiles induced by the larvae of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in maize plants affect behavior of conspecific larvae and female adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Hong Huang; Feng-Ming Yan; John A.Byers; Rong-Jiang Wang; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) volatiles induced by larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), on the orientation behaviors of Asian corn borer larvae and oviposition of the females were investigated. Nineteen volatile chemicals, with terpenes being the major components, were identified from maize plants attacked by third instar Asian corn borer larvae. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed some electroantennographic differences between female and male Asian corn borer antennae in response to larvae-induced maize volatiles; female responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and three unknown compounds while the male only responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal and one unknown compound. In laboratory orientation bioassays, Asian corn borer neonate larvae were attracted to extracts collected from Asian corn borer-damaged plants as well as to synthetic famesene, but were repelled by (Z)-3-hexen- 1-ol. In laboratory oviposition bioassays, gravid females laid fewer eggs on plants damaged by larvae than on mechanically damaged plants or undamaged plants. Adult Asian corn borer females deposited fewer eggs on wax paper treated with (E)-2-hexenal or (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol than on wax paper treated with hexane (control). The results suggest that Asian corn borer can affect the behaviors of conspecific larvae and adults by changing host plant volatiles.

  11. Covalent cross-linking of cell-wall polysaccharides through esterified diferulates as a maize resistance mechanism against corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A

    2015-03-04

    There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming.

  12. Tolerance and compensatory response of rice to sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Longnecker, M T

    2008-06-01

    A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), as affected by cultivar (Cocodrie, Francis, and Jefferson), stage of crop growth during which the injury occurred (third tiller stage, panicle differentiation stage, and heading stage), and sugarcane borer density. The proportion of rice tillers with sugarcane borer injury (leaf and leaf sheath injury and/or stem injury) was lower when injury occurred at the third tiller stage (0.05) than at panicle differentiation (0.19) and heading (0.18). When injury occurred at the two latter stages, both the proportion of tillers with injury and the proportion of tillers with stem injury were negatively correlated with rainfall. Rainfall resulted in dislodgement and mortality of sugarcane borer eggs and larvae before the larvae entered the stems. Rice plant density in this study (111.1 plants/m2) was higher than recorded for previous research on rice compensation using potted rice or conducted in low-density hill production systems (26.7-51.3 plants/m2). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were observed. Stem injured plants produced approximately 0.69 more tillers than uninjured plants, whereas tillers with leaf and leaf sheath injury produced larger panicles, up to 39.5 and 21.0% heavier than uninjured tillers, when injury occurred at third tiller stage and at panicle differentiation, respectively. Rice yield was not reduced with up to 23% injured tiller and up to 10% injured stems at the third tiller stage, 42% injured tillers and 17% injured stems at panicle differentiation, and 28% injured tillers and 14% injured stems at heading. Significant between-plant compensation was not detected, suggesting competition between adjacent plants is not significantly reduced by injury. Our results suggest that rice can tolerate and/or compensate for a level of stem borer injury previously

  13. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

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    Aziza Sharaby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  14. Mistletoe effects on Scots pine decline following drought events: insights from within-tree spatial patterns, growth and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio

    2012-05-01

    Forest decline has been attributed to the interaction of several stressors including biotic factors such as mistletoes and climate-induced drought stress. However, few data exist on how mistletoes are spatially arranged within trees and how this spatial pattern is related to changes in radial growth, responses to drought stress and carbon use. We used dendrochronology to quantify how mistletoe (Viscum album L.) infestation and drought stress affected long-term growth patterns in Pinus sylvestris L. at different heights. Basal area increment (BAI) trends and comparisons between trees of three different infestation degrees (without mistletoe, ID1; moderately infested trees, ID2; and severely infested trees, ID3) were performed using linear mixed-effects models. To identify the main climatic drivers of tree growth tree-ring widths were converted into indexed chronologies and related to climate data using correlation functions. We performed spatial analyses of the 3D distribution of mistletoe individuals and their ages within the crowns of three severely infested pines to describe their patterns. Lastly, we quantified carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations in needles and sapwood of branches from severely infested trees and from trees without mistletoe. Mistletoe individuals formed strongly clustered groups of similar age within tree crowns and their age increased towards the crown apex. Mistletoe infestation negatively impacted growth but this effect was stronger near the tree apex than in the rest of sampled heights, causing an average loss of 64% in BAI (loss of BAI was ∼51% at 1.3 m or near the tree base). We found that BAI of severely infested trees and moderately or non-infested trees diverged since 2001 and such divergence was magnified by drought. Infested trees had lower concentrations of soluble sugars in their needles than non-infested ones. We conclude that mistletoe infestation causes growth decline and increases the sensitivity of trees to drought

  15. Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging of Crape Myrtle Leaves Infested with Sooty Mold

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    Jiyeon Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial patterns for temperature distribution on crape myrtle leaves infested with sooty mold were investigated using a digital infrared thermal imaging camera. The mean temperatures of the control and sooty regions were 26.98°C and 28.44°C, respectively. In the thermal images, the sooty regions appeared as distinct spots, indicating that the temperatures in these areas were higher than those in the control regions on the same leaves. This suggests that the sooty regions became warmer than their control regions on the adaxial leaf surface. Neither epidermal penetration nor cell wall dissolution by the fungus was observed on the adaxial leaf surface. It is likely that the high temperature of black leaves have an increased cooling load. To our knowledge, this is the first report on elevated temperatures in sooty regions, and the results show spatial heterogeneity in temperature distribution across the leaf surface.

  16. Bio-ecology of the louse, Upupicola upupae, infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007-08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75-82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented.

  17. Bt Cotton in China: Are Secondary Insect Infestations Offsetting the Benefits in Farmer Fields?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-jun; LIN Hai; HUANG Ji-kun; HU Rui-fa; Scott Rozelle; Carl Pray

    2009-01-01

    The area sown to Bt cotton has expanded rapidly in China since 1997. It has effectively controlled the bollworm. However, in recent years, concern has surfaced about the emergence of secondary insect pests, particular mirids, in Bt cotton fields. This study measures the patterns of insecticide use based on farm-level from 1999 to 2006, the analysis demonstrates a rise in insecticide use to control mirids between 2001 and 2004, secondary insect infestations is largely related to the rise of mirids, but this rising did not continue in more than half of sample villages studied in 2004-2006. Moreover, the increase in insecticide use for the control of secondary insects is far smaller than the reduction in total insecticide use due to Bt cotton adoption. Further econometric analyses show that rise and fall of mirids is largely related to local temperature and rainfall.

  18. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  19. There are more asthmatics in homes with high cockroach infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinho E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although asthma has been commonly associated with sensitivity to cockroaches, a clear causal relationship between asthma, allergy to cockroaches and exposure levels has not been extensively investigated. The objective of the present study was to determine whether asthma occurs more frequently in children living in homes with high cockroach infestation. The intensity of household infestation was assessed by the number of dead insects after professional pesticide application. Children living in these houses in the metropolitan area of Recife, PE, were diagnosed as having asthma by means of a questionnaire based on the ISAAC study. All children had physician-diagnosed asthma and at least one acute exacerbation in the past year. Children of both sexes aged 4 to 12 years who had been living in the households for more than 2 years participated in this transverse study and had a good socioeconomic status. In the 172 houses studied, 79 children were considered to have been exposed to cockroaches and 93 not to have been exposed. Children living in residences with more than 5 dead cockroaches after pesticide application were considered to be at high infestation exposure. Asthma was diagnosed by the questionnaire in 31.6% (25/79 of the exposed group and in 11.8% (11/93 of the non-exposed group (P = 0.001, with a prevalence ratio of 3.45 (95%CI, 1.48-8.20. The present results indicate that exposure to cockroaches was significantly associated with asthma among the children studied and can be considered a risk factor for the disease. Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were the species found in 96% of the infested houses.

  20. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  1. Prevalence of Tick Infestation and Theileriosis in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen Irshad, M. Qayyum, M. Hussain1 and M. Qasim Khan1*

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tick infestation and theileriosis in small ruminants maintained at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC Islamabad and Barani Livestock Production Research Institute (BLPRI Kherimurat district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 662 animals (219 sheep and 443 goats were screened for the presence of ticks. Of these, 95(43.37% sheep and 184(41.53% goats were found infested with different species of ticks. The difference in prevalence of ticks between two farms in sheep and goats (combined was statistically significant (P≤0.01. Difference in the prevalence during different months of study at NARC was non significant (χ2=0.95596, whereas at BLPRI this difference was significant (P≤ 0.01. Ticks were identified on the basis of their morphological features. Rhipicephalus spp was found to be the most abundant tick infesting both in sheep and goats. Prevalence of theileriosis in sheep was 7.36% (7/95, while in goats it was 3.8% (7/184, the difference being statistically non significant (χ2=0.6427.

  2. Prevalence of Warble Fly Infestation in Buffalo in Chakwal, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Waheed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is the major problem affecting livestock in many parts of the world. Amongst these parasitic problems, the warble fly infestation (hypodermosis is a notorious and common malady of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in Pakistan. The disease is endemic in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in semi-hilly and mountainous areas of Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of buffaloes an epidemiological survey was conducted to find the prevalence of hypodermosis in district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, during the year 2005- 2006. Buffaloes are mainly kept for milk purpose in the study area. Out of 2000 buffaloes examined clinically, for grub infestation in the study area 125 (6.25% and 37 (5.20% found to be positive for the warble fly infestation in slaughter house as well as in the field. A prevalence variation among the male and female animals was also observed during the study. The factors of climatic conditions that favor the fly activity and contribute in the onset of disease.

  3. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  4. LIVER MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN SHEEP INFESTED FROM LIVER FLUKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Papaioannou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis and dicroceliosis are pathologies very often found in animals, and mostly in small ruminants. They can be found in many places around the world. We get reports quite often about their presence on herds, mostly on those of grazing arrangement in Albania. Infestations from Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocelium dentricum in sheep cause not only health damage but considerable economical losses because of affection on blegtoral products. This study’s goal is the presence of these parasites and the macroscopical and microscopical interpretation of lesions in liver, as well as. We have randomly sampled 224 sheep livers in different Tirana slaughterhouses. The animals were of the different origin. The examination showed that 39 (17.4% livers were infested with Dicrocelium dentricum and 29.9 % of animals were infested with Fasciola hepatica. In 22.2% of samples with presence of these parasites, Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocelium dentricum accompany each-other. From macroscopic examination resulted livers with hemorrhage, fibrosis, hyperplasia of bile ducts etc. From microscopic examination, portal inflammation, hyperplasia, fibrosis, presence of parasites and their eggs in the lumen of bile ducts may be distinguished.

  5. Use of agent-based modelling to predict benefits of cleaner fish in controlling sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, M L; Cox, R; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are ectoparasites of farmed and wild salmonids. Infestations can result in significant morbidity and mortality of hosts in addition to being costly to control. Integrated pest management programmes have been developed to manage infestations, and in some salmon farming areas, these programmes include the use of wrasse. Wrasse prey upon the parasitic life stages of L. salmonis and can be stocked on farms at varying densities. Despite considerable variation in the usage of wrasse, there are few quantitative estimates of how well they can control sea lice and how best to optimize their use. To explore at what densities wrasse should be stocked in order to meet specific control targets, we built an individual-based model that simulates sea lice infestation patterns on a representative salmonid host. Sea lice can be controlled through the use of chemical treatments as well as by wrasse predators. We found that the wrasse can effectively control sea lice, and the densities of wrasse needed for effective control depend upon the source of the infestation and the targeted level of control. Effective usage of wrasse can result in decreased use of chemical treatments and improved control of sea lice.

  6. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  7. Differential effects of insecticides on mitochondrial membrane lfuidity and ATPase activity between the wolf spider and the rice stem borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-ping; CHANG Jing; FENG Tao; GAO Xi-wu

    2015-01-01

    Differential effects of methamidophos and three pyrethroids on ATPase activity and membrane lfuidity of mitochondria were investigated between the wolf spider (Pirata subpiraticus(Boes. et Str.)) and the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis (Walker)). Based on a comparison of LD50values, the toxicities of the tested insecticides were higher to the wolf spider than to the rice stem borer. Cyhalothrin at 1×10–4 mmol L–1 caused inhibition of the mitochondrial Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities, and it’s inhibitions on Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities were signiifcantly higher in the wolf spider (44 and 28%) than in the rice stem borer (19 and 11%). Methamidophos at 1×10–4 mmol L–1 decreased Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity by 16 and 27% in the wolf spider and the rice stem borer, respectively, but no signiifcant effect on the speciifc activity of Na+-K+-ATPase was observed. The DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) lfuorescence polarization values of mitochondrial membranes were not signiifcantly affected by methamidophos in either species. However, cyhalothrin and alpha-cyperme-thrin induced the values of DPH polarization of mitochondrial membrane increasing with the concentration of cyhalothrin and alpha-cypermethrin from 20 to 100 µmol L–1 in the rice stem borer and the wolf spider. Effect of ethofenprox on lfuidity of the wolf spider and the rice stem borer was contrary. These results suggest that both inhibition of membrane ATPase and changes of membrane lfuidity could be appended to the action mechanisms of pyrethroid insecticides.

  8. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G A Whitehill

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  9. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  10. Expression of a Modified Crylle Gene in E.Coli and in Transgenic Tobacco Confers Resistance to Corn Borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Jun LIU; Fu-Ping SONG; Kang-Lai HE; Yuan YUAN; Xiao-Xia ZHANG; Peng GAO; Jian-Hua WANG; Guo-Ying WANG

    2004-01-01

    The wild-type Crylle gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was modified for its efficient expression in transgenic plants. Modified Cry1 Ie gene (designated as Cry1 Iem) was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28b and its expression in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Bioassays using crude expression products in E. coli revealed that Cry1 Iem protein had a similar toxicity to corn borer as wild-type Cry1 Ie. Cry1 Iem gene was then inserted downstream of the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter in plant expression vector p3301. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying Cry1 Iem showed insecticidal activity against com borer.

  11. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  12. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, T A; Coates, B S; Kim, K S; Forgacs, D; Margam, V M; Murdock, L L; Ba, M N; Binso-Dabire, C L; Baoua, I; Ishiyaku, M F; Tamò, M; Pittendrigh, B R

    2012-10-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M. vitrata is lacking. We applied a set of six microsatellite markers to assess the population structure of M. vitrata collected at five sites from Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria. Observed polymorphisms ranged from one (marker 3393) to eight (marker 32008) alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 and 0.0 to 0.6, respectively. Three of the loci in samples from Nigeria and Burkina Faso deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), whereas no loci deviated significantly in samples from Niger. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 67.3% level of the genetic variation was within individuals compared to 17.3% among populations. A global estimate of F ST=0.1 (ENA corrected F ST=0.1) was significant (P⩽0.05) and corroborated by pairwise F ST values that were significant among all possible comparisons. A significant correlation was predicted between genetic divergence and geographic distance between subpopulations (R2=0.6, P=0.04), and cluster analysis by the program STRUCTURE predicted that co-ancestry of genotypes were indicative of three distinct populations. The spatial genetic variance among M. vitrata in West Africa may be due to limited gene flow, south-north seasonal movement pattern or other reproductive barriers. This information is important for the cultural, chemical and biological control strategies for managing M. vitrata.

  13. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.

    2012-04-17

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M. vitrata is lacking. We applied a set of six microsatellite markers to assess the population structure of M. vitrata collected at five sites from Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria. Observed polymorphisms ranged from one (marker 3393) to eight (marker 32008) alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 and 0.0 to 0.6, respectively. Three of the loci in samples from Nigeria and Burkina Faso deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), whereas no loci deviated significantly in samples from Niger. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 67.3% level of the genetic variation was within individuals compared to 17.3% among populations. A global estimate of F ST=0.1 (ENA corrected F ST=0.1) was significant (Pa=0.05) and corroborated by pairwise F ST values that were significant among all possible comparisons. A significant correlation was predicted between genetic divergence and geographic distance between subpopulations (R2=0.6, P=0.04), and cluster analysis by the program STRUCTURE predicted that co-ancestry of genotypes were indicative of three distinct populations. The spatial genetic variance among M. vitrata in West Africa may be due to limited gene flow, south-north seasonal movement pattern or other reproductive barriers. This information is important for the cultural, chemical and biological control strategies for managing M. vitrata. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  14. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Rogelio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.

  15. Management of stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe in maize using conventional pesticides in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswati Neupane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe is one of the most destructive pests of maize crop. Research experimentations were carried out on maize to control stem borer using conventional pesticides under field condition during summer season of two consecutive years from 2015 to 2016 at Rampur, Chitwan. All used pesticides had significant effect (P≤0.05 on percent damage and crop yield over control. In 2015, the lower percent damage (5.3% with higher crop yield (4.52 t ha-1 and lowest insect score (1.00 was observed in plot sprayed with spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water followed by plot treated with chloropyriphos 50% EC+cypermethrin 5%EC @1.5ml L-1 of water with percent damage of 6.60%, crop yield (4.23 t ha-1 and insect score of 1.60. Almost similar trend of insect incidence along with damage percentage and yield data were observed in 2016. The higher percent damage control (79.06% was observed at the plot sprayed after spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water with higher crop yield (4.58 t ha-1 and lowest insect score (1.00 followed by the plot treated with imidacloprid 17.8% @ 0.5 ml L-1 of water with percent damage control of 73.10 %, crop yield (3.38 t/ha and insect sore 1.50. The highest percent damage (20.63% was observed in the control plot with lower yield (0.95 t ha-1 and highest insect score (6.00. Over the years, spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water was effective bio-pesticide to control maize stem borer damage and also increase the yield.

  16. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues.

  18. Biodegradation of hardwood lignocellulosics by the western poplar clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jing; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti Dey; Chen, Shulin

    2011-05-09

    Lignin in plant cell wall is a source of useful chemicals and also the major barrier for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for producing biofuel and bioproducts. Enzymatic lignin degradation/modification process could bypass the need for chemical pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation. Herein, we reveal our new discovery in elucidating the process of hardwood lignin modification/degradation by clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae . The wood-boring clearwing borer, P. robiniae , effectively tunnels hardwood structures during the larval stage; its digestion products from wood components, however, has not yet been investigated. A series of analysis conducted in this study on tunnel walls and frass produced provided evidence of structural alterations and lignin degradation during such hardwood digestion process. The analysis included solid state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis; the results strongly suggest that the structural alteration of lignin primarily involved a preferential degradation of syringyl units accompanied by oxidation on the side chains of lignin guaiacyl moieties. This study also further indicated that unlike the wood-feeding termite the clearwing borer does not target cellulose as an energy source, and thus its lignin degradation ability should provide potential information on how to disassemble and utilize hardwood lignin. Overall, this biological model with an efficient lignin disruption system will provide the new insight into novel enzyme system required for effective plant cell wall disintegration for enhanced cellulose accessibility by enzymes and production of value-added lignin derived products.

  19. Pathogenesis-related proteins protect extrafloral nectar from microbial infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Eilmus, Sascha; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Heil, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Plants in more than 300 genera produce extrafloral nectar (EFN) to attract carnivores as a means of indirect defence against herbivores. As EFN is secreted at nectaries that are not physically protected from the environment, and contains carbohydrates and amino acids, EFN must be protected from infestation by micro-organisms. We investigated the proteins and anti-microbial activity in the EFN of two Central American Acacia myrmecophytes (A. cornigera and A. hindsii) and two related non-myrmecophytes (A. farnesiana and Prosopis juliflora). Acacia myrmecophytes secrete EFN constitutively at high rates to nourish the ants inhabiting these plants as symbiotic mutualists, while non-myrmecophytes secrete EFN only in response to herbivore damage to attract non-symbiotic ants. Thus, the quality and anti-microbial protection of the EFN secreted by these two types of plants were likely to differ. Indeed, myrmecophyte EFN contained significantly more proteins than the EFN of non-myrmecophytes, and was protected effectively from microbial infestation. We found activity for three classes of pathogenesis-related (PR) enzymes: chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase. Chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases were significantly more active in myrmecophyte EFN, and chitinase at the concentrations found in myrmecophyte EFN significantly inhibited yeast growth. Of the 52 proteins found in A. cornigera EFN, 28 were annotated using nanoLC-MS/MS data, indicating that chitinases and glucanases contribute more than 50% of the total protein content in the EFN of this myrmecophyte. Our study demonstrates that PR enzymes play an important role in protecting EFN from microbial infestation.

  20. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Achhami, Buddhi Bahadur; Santa Bahadur BK; Bhandari, GhanaShyam

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and...

  1. [Some aspects of the skin infestation by Demodex folliculorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszeja-Kotelba, Barbara; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Izdebska, Joanna N; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Tomczak, Małgorzata; Dembińska, Magdalena

    2004-01-01

    The importance of demodicids (Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis) infestation and their effect on skin lesions has been described based on literature data and our own clinical and parasitological investigations. Hair follicle mites have been detected in 45% of patients with rosacea, 27% of patients with perioral dermatitis, 28% of patients suffering from seborrhoeic dermatitis and in 3 out of 7 patients with chronic blepharitis. Clinical picture of demodecosis included erythemato-papulous and pustulous (rosacea-like) skin lesions together with erythemato-desquamative changes of the face.

  2. SSR分子标记丰富向日葵(HelianthusannuusL.)遗传图谱的研究%Differences in Ecological Fitness Between Bt Transgenic Rice and Conventional Rice Under Insect-infestation Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄先群; Genzbitelle L.; Fabre F.; Saraffi A.

    2012-01-01

    [目的]提高向日葵遗传图谱的密度和实用性。[方法]以123个来源于PAC.2和RHA-266杂交的F8代重组自交系(RILs)群体为材料,利用简单序列重复(Simplesequencerepeat,SSR)标记,采用MAPMARKER软件对向口葵遗传图谱进行标注。从300对SSR引物中筛选出51对有多态性的引物对(RILs)群体进行扫描。[结果]有19对引物无多态性或条带不清晰,32对引物表现多态性;共检测到35个多态性位点,分布在图谱的15条连锁群上。标记后的图谱总长度为2914.5cM,比原来的图谱增长7.5cM。标记间平均距离由9.0cM缩短为8.1cM。【结论】为进一步的向日葵遗传图谱整合和分子标记辅助选择提供参号。%In order to investigate the possibility and efficiency of exogenous gene spread in nature and potential ecological risk of transgenic rice, as well as analyze the effect of exogenous Bt gene insertion on ecological fitness of transgenic rice plants, a experiment was carried out with three insect-resistant Bt transgenic rice cultivars Bt63, R1 and R2 and one conventional rice line 11-838 as experimental materials, the insect-resistant transgenic and non-transgenic rice plants were inter- cropped pair-wisely under high and low insect-infestation pressures, and the vegeta- tive growth, seed-setting and the resistance to rice stem borers were compared be- tween transgenic and non-transgenic lines. According to the experimental results, both the tiller number and fresh weight of Bt transgenic rice plants under low insect- infestation pressure showed no significant differences compared with the control, but the plant height, spike length and spike weight were all lower than those of non- transgenic rice plant, and Bt63 and R2 were significantly different compared with the control. On the contrary, under high insect-infestation pressure, the tiller number, spike length and spike weight of three Bt transgenic rice cultivars were

  3. Influence of Mortality Factors and Host Resistance on the Population Dynamics of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Urban Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer.

  4. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

  5. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  6. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus s...

  7. The role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

  8. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  9. Treatment of California stone fruit with methyl bromide or phosphine to eliminate peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to develop postharvest chamber fumigations that ensure complete mortality of peach twig borer (PTB) in California stone fruit exports; results from preliminary toxicological and phytotoxicological research are presented. Fumigations with 1500 ppm phosphine over a 24 h ex...

  10. Karnyothrips flavipes, a previously unreported predatory thrips of the coffee berry borer: DNA-based gut content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new predator of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was found in the coffee growing area of Kisii in Western Kenya. Field observations, laboratory trials and gut content analysis using molecular tools have confirmed the role of the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Phlaeothrip...

  11. The Effect of Bark Borer Herbivory on BVOC Emissions in Boreal Forests and Implications for SOA Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele

    2015-04-01

    Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.

  12. A Survey: Potential Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Tolerant to Drought or Resistant to Stem Borers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac M. Wamatsembe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Uganda is constrained by various factors, but especially drought and stem borers contribute to significant yield losses. Genetically modified (GM maize with increased drought tolerance and/or Bt insect resistance (producing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry protein is considered as an option. For an ex ante impact analysis of these technologies, a farmer survey was carried out in nine districts of Uganda, representing the major farming systems. The results showed that farmers did rate stem borer and drought as the main constraints for maize farming. Most farmers indicated a positive attitude towards GM maize, and 86% of all farmers said they would grow GM maize. Farmer estimated yield losses to drought and stem borer damage were on average 54.7% and 23.5%, respectively, if stress occurred. Taking the stress frequency into consideration (67% for both, estimated yield losses were 36.5% and 15.6% for drought and stem borer, respectively. According to the ex-ante partial budget analysis, Bt hybrid maize could be profitable, with an average value/cost ratio of 2.1. Drought tolerant hybrid maize had lower returns and a value/cost ratio of 1.5. Negative returns occurred mainly for farmers with non-stressed grain yields below 2 t·ha−1. The regulatory framework in Uganda needs to be finalized with consideration of strengthening key institutions in the maize sector for sustainable introduction of GM maize.

  13. From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

  14. Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely

  15. Oviposition and larval development of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini, on rice and non-crop grass hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greenhouse study compared oviposition preference and larval development duration of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on rice, Oryza sativa L. (cv. Cocodrie), and four primary non-crop hosts of Gulf Coast Texas rice agroecosystems. Rice and two perennials, johnsongrass...

  16. Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native wood-boring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America, and threatens to extirpate the ecological services provided by the genus. Identifying the arthropod community assoc...

  17. A new species of genus Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from the Russian Far East that parasitizes eggs of Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described from the Vladivostok, Russia, Oobius primorskyensis Yao & Duan n. sp. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from t...

  18. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  19. Ocular symptoms reported by patients infested with Demodex mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sędzikowska, Aleksandra; Osęka, Maciej; Grytner-Zięcina, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine subjective ocular symptoms occurring in patients infested with Demodex. The number of Demodex mites in the obtained material that correlated with the appearance of ocular symptoms was estimated. The study material were eyelashes collected from 1499 patients. The material were observed under a light microscope. T-test, the logistic regression method, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for the analysis. Demodex mites were detected in 47% patients. The mean ages of infected women and men were 64 and 59 years, respectively. 64% infected patients complained of one or more ophthalmological symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms included itching (28%), redness of eyelids (21%), and watery eyes (15%). Positive correlation was found between itching, redness, pain, purulence or eyelash loss and the presence of Demodex. The mentioned symptoms increase the probability of Demodex infestation in a statistically significant manner (pDemodex was revealed by the study. The threshold average number of seven Demodex mites per eight collected eyelashes with which the risk of the occurrence of an ocular symptom increases significantly was defined. In patients with a low number of Demodex mites, symptoms may be absent. The risk of the occurrence of ocular symptom in patients with demodicosis increases with the increase in the average number of Demodex mites.

  20. Ectoparasite infestations of Badgers (Meles meles in Western Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Do Linh San

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1999 and 2004, 160 badger carcasses (mainly road casualties and culled animals were collected in a 600-km2 rural area of Western Switzerland (Broye region. Body and fur inspections indicated that 88.4% of the animals were infested with at least one of the following ectoparasite categories: lice (76.0%, ticks (57.5% and fleas (19.7%. Nevertheless, the number of parasites was low, in average 2.6 fleas, 4.8 ticks and/or 17.1 lice per infested animal. No significant intersexual and age-related differences (adults vs subadults, adults vs young were found as concerns prevalence and abundance of ectoparasites. The lower, and more constant infection by fleas in the course of the year, is concordant with the hypothesis which proposes that badgers frequently switch sleeping places in order to avoid a build up of ectoparasites in the nest material. It remains unclear whether the low loads of ticks and lice recorded in both low and high density badger populations are due to the efficiency of auto- and allo-grooming in this species, to frequent replacement or aeration of the bedding material by individual badgers, or to another, yet to be discovered mechanism. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these results are therefore indicative of a limited role of Eurasian badgers as a potential reservoir of diseases transmitted by ectoparasites.

  1. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1981-05-01

    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups.

  2. Emerald ash borer and the urban forest: Changes in landslide potential due to canopy loss scenarios in the City of Pittsburgh, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil-McCullough, Erin; Bain, Daniel J; Bergman, Jeffery; Crumrine, Danielle

    2015-12-01

    Emerald ash borer is expected to kill thousands of ash trees in the eastern U.S. This research develops tools to predict the effect of ash tree loss from the urban canopy on landslide susceptibility in Pittsburgh, PA. A spatial model was built using the SINMAP (Stability INdex MAPping) model coupled with spatially explicit scenarios of tree loss (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% loss of ash trees from the canopy). Ash spatial distributions were estimated via Monte Carlo methods and available vegetation plot data. Ash trees are most prevalent on steeper slopes, likely due to urban development patterns. Therefore, ash loss disproportionately increases hillslope instability. A 75% loss of ash resulted in roughly 800 new potential landslide initiation locations. Sensitivity testing reveals that variations in rainfall rates, and friction angles produce minor changes to model results relative to the magnitude of parameter variation, but reveal high model sensitivity to soil density and root cohesion values. The model predictions demonstrate the importance of large canopy species to urban hillslope stability, particularly on steep slopes and in areas where soils tend to retain water. To improve instability predictions, better characterization of urban soils, particularly spatial patterns of compaction and species specific root cohesion is necessary. The modeling framework developed in this research will enhance assessment of changes in landslide risk due to tree mortality, improving our ability to design economically and ecologically sustainable urban systems.

  3. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Bharucha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea and sorghum can be used as mixed crops to protect the crop from

  4. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharucha Bhavna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea

  5. Cloning and expression of an endo-1,4-β-xylanase from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla-Hurtado Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was

  6. PERDAS DE PRODUÇÃO PELA BROCA-DO-COLMO (Diatraea saccharalis Fabr. 1794 (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE EM GENÓTIPOS DE ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS YIELD LOSSES BY STEM BORER (Diatraea saccharalis Fab. 1794 (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE IN UPLAND RICE GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Freitas Barrigossi

    2007-09-01

    estimates obtained with these two methods were different. Less than 10% of genotypes showed a linear relationship between the infestation and stem borer damage. Estimated yield losses based on the index seemed more appropriate to the conditions of the experiment. Infestations by D. saccharalis did not visibly affect the weight of spikelets of five genotypes, caused a small reduction in two genotypes, and caused economic losses in the most of them (17 genotypes. The CNAs9023 genotype was the least infested and presented the highest weight of spikelets, and showed more resistance than CNAs9028, which was more infested and produced less.

    KEY-WORDS: Upland rice; stem borer; sampling; genotype evaluation.

  7. BIO-EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST FRUIT BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Katroju,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment carried out during kharif, 2012 at Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG @11 g a.i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 22 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @1000 g a.i. ha-1, spinosad 45 SC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis @ 25 g a.i. ha-1against tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera. Among all the insecticides, profenophos (1000 g a.i. ha-1 was found to be the most effective one with a maximum reduction in fruit borer population (65.20%, minimum per cent of fruit damage (28.80% and maximum yield (26.43 kg/20 m2 followed by bifenthrin @ 100 g a.i.ha-1 with reduced larval population of 64.51% and damaged fruits 32.60%.

  8. Effects of snowdrop lectin on Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) life history parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, M; Bernal, J S; Mirkov, T E; Legaspi, J C

    2003-06-01

    The effects of the snowdrop lectin, Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), delivered through an artificial diet, on growth, development, and life history parameters of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), were evaluated in the laboratory. Incorporation of GNA at three treatment levels, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of total dietary protein, in the larval diet significantly decreased larval survivorship and percentage of adults emerging relative to a control diet lacking GNA, whereas differences were not observed among the three treatment levels. Both larvae and pupae in the control were 8-25% larger than those in the GNA treatments, but differences were not observed between larvae in the GNA treatments. Furthermore, presence of GNA did not affect larval and pupal developmental periods, longevities, and fecundities compared with the control. Mexican rice borer life history parameters, such as net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase, were substantially reduced by the presence of GNA in the diet, but differences were not evident among the three GNA treatment levels.

  9. Cloning and characterization of serpin-like genes from the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Cheng, Xiong-Feng; Zhang, Yang; Li, Guo-Qing; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2013-06-01

    Serpins, also called serine proteinase inhibitors, are widely distributed in eukaryotes. In insects, serpins play important roles in regulating immune responses, gut physiology, and other processes. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of 12 serpin-like cDNAs from the striped rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), a major rice pest. The putative proteins share significant sequence similarity with known insect serpins, especially those from lepidopterons. Analysis of functional domains revealed that nine of the cloned serpins are putative trypsin- or chymotrypsin-like inhibitors; two are mixed-type serpins that may act as inhibitors for trypsins, elastases, or thrombin; and the remaining one is truncate. The potential functions of these serpins in interacting with host plants were also investigated by analyzing tissue-specific expression and the impact of different host plant genotypes on gene expression. Our results provide a foundation for future studies on the role of serpins in gut physiology in the striped rice stem borer, and also useful information for comparative analyses of serpins from different insect species.

  10. The biology and ecology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, En-shan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed.

  11. Striga infestation in northern Cameroon: Magnitude, dynamics and implications for managament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayongwa, G.C.; Stomph, T.J.; Hoevers, R.; Ngoumou, T.N.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Surveys of Striga (S. hermonthica (Del.) Benth.) infestation in northern Cameroon over the period 1987–2005 assessed Striga dynamics and evaluated its control strategies. In that period the percentage of Striga-infested fields increased in North and Far-North Provinces. Striga incidence increased mo

  12. Infections and infestations of the gastrointestinal tract. Part 2: Parasitic and other infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R., E-mail: rakslide@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick (United Kingdom); Rajesh, A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Rawat, S. [Department of Radiology, Ruby Hall Clinic, Pune (India); Rajiah, P. [Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Ramachandran, I. [Department of Clinical Radiology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the imaging findings of various parasitic infestations and other miscellaneous infections affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Barium examinations play an important role in the diagnostic workup of parasitic intestinal infections. Knowledge of differential diagnosis, sites of involvement, and imaging features of different infections and infestations can help in accurate diagnosis and guide treatment.

  13. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  14. In vivo Imaging of Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina Alette; Themstrup, Lotte; Ring, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcoptes scabiei can be visualized with different imaging tools. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may have the potential to describe the changes in skin morphology due to scabies infestation and visualize the parasite. METHODS: Five patients from the Departments of Dermatology......, this technology could potentially allow rapid, non-invasive, in vivo diagnosis and analysis of infestations....

  15. Impact of twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) duration of infestation on cotton seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W S; Catchot, A; Gore, J; Musser, F; Cook, D

    2013-04-01

    The yield response of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, duration of infestation during the seedling stage was measured at Starkville and Stoneville, MS, during 2010 and 2011. The treatments included a noninfested control, infestations lasting for 7, 14, 21, or 28 d, and a season long infested control. Twospotted spider mites from a greenhouse colony were inoculated on all of the infested cotton plots during the three-leaf stage. Applications of miticides were made to terminate infestations at the desired timings for each treatment. Twospotted spider mite densities and injury ratings were determined for each treatment at the end of the infestation period and yield was measured at the end of the season. Twospotted spider mite densities and injury rating significantly increased as duration of infestation increased. Significant differences in yield were observed between treatments. These data suggest infestations initiated at the three-leaf cotton growth stage with population densities at a minimum of 0.39 mites/cm2 existing > 14 d could result in reduction of cotton yields.

  16. Insect Resistance Management in Bt Maize: Wild Host Plants of Stem Borers Do Not Serve as Refuges in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, J

    2017-02-01

    Resistance evolution by target pests threatens the sustainability of Bt maize in Africa where insect resistance management (IRM) strategies are faced by unique challenges. The assumptions, on which current IRM strategies for stem borers are based, are not all valid for African maize stem borer species. The high dose-refuge strategy which is used to delay resistance evolution relies heavily on the presence of appropriate refuges (non-Bt plants) where pests are not under selection pressure and where sufficient numbers of Bt-susceptible individuals are produced to mate with possible survivors on the Bt maize crop. Misidentification of stem borer species and inaccurate reporting on wild host plant diversity over the past six decades created the perception that grasses will contribute to IRM strategies for these pests in Africa. Desired characteristics of refuge plants are that they should be good pest hosts, implying that larval survival is high and that it produces sufficient numbers of high-quality moths. Refuge plants should also have large cover abundance in areas where Bt maize is planted. While wild host plants may suffice in IRM strategies for polyphagous pests, this is not the case with stenophagous pests. This review discusses data of ecological studies and stem borer surveys conducted over the past decade and shows that wild host plants are unsuitable for development and survival of sufficient numbers of stem borer individuals. These grasses rather act as dead-end-trap plants and do not comply with refuge requirements of producing 500 susceptible individuals for every one resistant individual that survives on Bt maize.

  17. Simulated Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Throughfall and Stemflow Inputs of Water and Nitrogen in Black Ash Wetlands in Northern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pypker, T. G.; Davis, J.; Van Grinsven, M. J.; Bolton, N. W.; Shannon, J.; Kolka, R. K.; Nelson, J.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)) is an invasive insect that effectively kills ash trees (genus: Fraxinus) greater than 2.5 cm in diameter, resulting in near-complete stand mortality within 3-4 years. Black ash wetlands occupy approximately 270,000 ha in Michigan, and have 40 to 90% of the basal area occupied by black ash (F. nigra Marshall); hence the loss of black ash may result in dramatic changes in the canopy hydrology and nutrient deposition. We assessed the impact of a simulated EAB invasion on throughfall and stemflow quantity and nitrogen (N) content in 9 uninfected black ash wetlands located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Within the 9 stands, 3 stands were left untreated ('Control'), 3 stands had all the black ash trees manually girdled ('Girdled') and 3 had all the black ash trees felled by chainsaw ('Clearcut'). We measured the quantity and inorganic-N content of throughfall using an array of randomly placed collectors (n = 16 per site). Stemflow was monitored at 2 sites (n = 12 trees) on the 3 most common tree species (black ash, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) and red maple (Acer rubra L.)). Preliminary results indicate that relative to the Control, average monthly throughfall was 25% and 1% greater in the Clearcut and Girdled sites, respectively. While the loss of the ash trees resulted in greater throughfall inputs in the Clearcut sites, water table heights did not significantly change as a result of the treatments. Stemflow from live black ash trees was lower than from the yellow birch and red maple trees. As a result, we predict stemflow will increase over time as species with smoother bark and less upright branching begin replacing the black ash. Hence, the change in tree species may result in a greater concentration of inorganic-N inputs to the base of the trees, thereby altering the distribution of inorganic-N inputs into the wetland. Our preliminary results show no significant change in the total

  18. Continuous-wave Terahertz Imaging Applied to Detect Infestations Caused by Insects in Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuojun Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Detection infestations caused by insects in grain are important control measures for ensuring storage longevity, seed quality and food safety. The efficiency of the continuous wave terahertz imaging method to detect infestations caused by insects in wheat kernels was determined in this study. A continuous wave terahertz experimental setup was designed for recording of THz images corresponding to different infestations caused by different life stages of insects. The experimental results indicate that the absorbance is generally highest for un-infested wheat kernels and decreased at later growth stages from THz pseudo-color images. Our study intended to demonstrate how the method of continuous wave Terahertz imaging could be applied to detect Infestations Caused by Insects in Grain.

  19. PCR-based Synthesis of Codon Optimized cry2Aa Gene for Production of Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) Resistant Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) is a major limiting factor in commercial cultivation of eggplant in southeast Asia. Extensive use of pesticides as well as the conventional breeding methods have been ineffective in controlling the borer so there is a need for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies for its control. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known to produce a variety of insecticidal crystal proteins toxic to lepidopteran, dipteran and coleopteran pests. The...

  20. Studies on prevalence, risk indicators and control options for tick infestation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nady M. Asmaa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was conducted at Benisuef district to determine the current situation and associated determinants of tick infestations in ruminants and to assess the efficacy of three different types of insecticides against tick infestation under field conditions. Total of (1082 animals of different species (540 cattle, 230 buffaloes, 108 of each sheep & goats and 96 camels were selected randomly and examined carefully for tick infestation. About (30.1% of total observed animals were found tick infested with highest rate in cattle (60.5% followed by goats (25.9%, buffaloes (17.8%, sheep (14.8% while no tick infestation recorded in camels. The most prevalent tick's species affecting ruminants was Boophilus annulatus (26.5% followed by Hyalomma anatolicum (6.1% then Rhipicephalus turanicus (3.4%. Regarding the associated risk factors, tick infestation was found statistically significant (P 3 years (78.8% followed by at age, ≤2 months (57.8% and during summer months were found highly significant (P < 0.01 in cattle ( 76.5% followed by goats and sheep (33.3% & 22.9% resp., comparing with results in winter. The preferred sites of ticks' attachment to infested animals were udders and external genitalia (70.7% of each then Neck & chest (63.0% of each, inner thighs (61.1%, perineum (41.7%, ears (14.6%, around eyes (11.7%. The obtained results revealed that poor husbandry practices of small holder farmers be a determinant making the animals more prone to tick infestation in this district. Improving the hygienic conditions associated with treatment of infested cattle with Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg b.wt, S/C and spraying of Deltamethrin (1% for surrounding environment twice every 14 days are recommended for control of tick infestation under field condition.

  1. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal..., and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. Cars and other... shipments of animals infested with or exposed to ticks, shall be cleaned and treated within 72 hours of...

  2. Dermanyssus gallinae (chicken mite): an underdiagnosed environmental infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collgros, H; Iglesias-Sancho, M; Aldunce, M J; Expósito-Serrano, V; Fischer, C; Lamas, N; Umbert-Millet, P

    2013-06-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a mite that normally parasitizes small birds but may occasionally bite humans. We report an unusual case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and bite-like lesions over her trunk. Other members of the household were also affected. On physical examination, mites gallinae, the small size of the mites and the fact that they leave the host after feeding means that they may not be seen at presentation, thus such infestations are likely to be underdiagnosed. Physicians should be aware that infection with this mite is possible even in patients from urban areas, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions causing recurrent pruritus unresponsive to standard treatments.

  3. Treatment of public lice infestation: a comparison of two agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D E; Walsh, J

    1980-12-01

    Bulletins issued by both the United States Public Health Service and the Pan American Health Organization have noted a sharp increase in the incidence of public lice infestation (pediculosis pubis) in this country. At the Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic we conducted a controlled, open study comparing the efficacy and safety of Kwell Shampoo (gamma benzene hexachloride; lindane) with RID, an over-the-counter, pyrethrin-based pediculicide. The results showed the two treatments to be equally effective and safe. All adult lice, nymphs, and nits were eradicated at the one week follow-up in fifteen patients treated with single applications of either product. Two patients in each group experienced very slight and transient erythema.

  4. Reflectance confocal microscopy for cutaneous infections and infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, E; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F

    2016-05-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a high-resolution emerging imaging technique that allows non-invasive diagnosis of several cutaneous disorders. A systematic review of the literature on the use of RCM for the study of infections and infestations has been performed to evaluate the current use of this technique and its possible future applications in this field. RCM is particularly suitable for the identification of Sarcoptes scabies, Demodex folliculorum, Ixodes, Dermatophytes and Candida species in the clinical practice and for the follow-up after treatment. The cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and molluscipoxvirus is also detectable by this imaging technique even in a pre-vesicular stage. In addition, thanks to its non-invasiveness, RCM allows pathophysiological studies.

  5. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (Ptigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo.

  6. Improving biological control of stalk borers in sugarcane by applying silicon as a soil amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikpay Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane stalk borers, Sesamia spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae are the most destructive sugarcane insect pests in Iran. The efficiency of Telenomus busseolae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae used alone or in combination with silicon fertilization was investigated for controlling the sugarcane stalk borers under field conditions. The treatments were: a combination of silicon plus multiple releases of 2,500 T. busseolae, and multiple releases of 5,000, 2,500 and 1,250 T. busseolae alone. Plots receiving no soil amendment or parasites were included as the controls. Three weeks after the first application of each treatment, 100 shoots were selected randomly from each plot and the percentage of dead heart was determined. Then, three months after the first application of parasites, the percentage of stalks damaged, the percentage of internodes bored, and the level of parasitism were determined. Finally, at harvest the percentage of stalks damaged, the percentage of internodes bored, and sugarcane quality characteristics were determined. Results indicated that the efficiency of parasitism increased when combined with an application of silicon fertilizer. The release of 2,500 T. busseolae followed by an application of silicon fertilizer decreased dead hearts to 4%, while 12% dead hearts was observed in the control plots. For the combination treatment, the percentages of stalk damage were 1.5% and 17.2%, at 3 weeks and 3 months after time release, respectively. However, the percentages of stalk damage were 35.2% and 51% when no treatment was applied. Cane quality was significantly higher with the application of silicon fertilizer plus the release of 2,500 T. busseolae, followed by releasing 5,000 Hymenoptera. The level of parasitism was also greater when parasites were released in combination with an application of silicon. We conclude that biological control by egg parasitoids can be enhanced with concurrent applications of silicon fertilizer as a soil

  7. Nutritional Value of the Maize Stalk Borer and American Bollworm as Unconventional Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The maize stalk borer and American bollworm were grown in an artificial media to evaluate their potential as human food sources. Approach: Both cultures were started from moths and the life cycle and culture structures were evaluated. Results: The larvae of both insects reached maximum weight and maximum length at the same time. The growth rate of the youngest larvae was found to be the highest and the increase in the body weight during the growth period appeared to be linear. The larvae of these insects started to decrease in weight after they reached the maximum size. For efficient systems for the commercial production of the maize stalk borer and the American bollworm, the larvae should be harvested when they are 39 and 21 days old, respectively. The protein contents were 38.0 and 33.0% and the fat contents were 14.5 and 14.4% for the dried larvae of the American bollworm and maize stalk borer, respectively. The larvae of both insects contained the essential amino acids and minerals. Only 10% mortality was observed with older larvae of both species. A system where eggs are separated from adults and hatched in separate chambers would alleviate the possible danger of losing the population due to microbial infection. The high moisture content of the larvae (60.4-61.0% could cause handling and storage problems. Drying and grinding the larvae would reduce them to easily manageable forms and would improve their marketability as novel food. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study show the potential of using insects as a protein source for human consumption to alleviate protein deficiency in many parts of the world, especially in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Further research is required to evaluate their growth characteristics on low substrates. Future research should also evaluate environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and heat and CO2 production on food consumption and protein yield per gram

  8. Estimating the feeding rate of the bedbug Cimex lectularius in an infested room: an inexpensive method and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K; Isaac, D; Naylor, R

    2010-03-01

    The common bedbug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), is a globally re-emerging pest that is playing an increasing role in legal disputes and compensation claims as a result of its unpleasant feeding activity. However, there is little information about the feeding frequency of bedbugs outside controlled laboratory cultures. Here, we present a simple method of estimating the average time since the last bloodmeal of individual female bedbugs in a single sampling event, applicable to a single bedbug harbourage or an entire room. Using the temperature-dependent rate of decrease in the abdomen size of the bedbug after a bloodmeal, we found that, in a highly infested room kept at a constant temperature of 26 degrees C, females fed every 2.5 days on average. Our method corrects for variations in body size across different populations and determines the shrinkage that occurs when individuals are preserved in ethanol. This method should, therefore, be widely applicable. It is cheap, rapid and, if coupled with information on the total number of bedbugs present in a room, allows for the estimation of the minimum number of times persons lodging in a room have been bitten by bedbugs. This method can also be used to calculate the feeding rate of other blood-sucking insects on their hosts. The sex ratio in the infestation was female-biased. Finally, our case study suggests that individual female bedbugs within a harbourage do not seem to feed at a regular rate, but tend to synchronize feeding patterns.

  9. The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Raimundo Wilson de; Almeida Adilson Benedito de; Barbosa-Silva Silvia Cristina; Amorim Marinete; Ribeiro Paulo César; Serra-Freire Nicolau Maués

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes patterns of infestation with Tunga penetrans (L., 1758) within the poor community of Araruama municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, assessed by the number of persons and domestic animals parasitized. The overall prevalence of infestation was 49.2% (211 parasitized hosts) of the 429 examined. Humans (p < 0.01) and dogs (p < 0.01) were the most important hosts with 62.6% and 35.6% respectively. Dogs were considered as the potential infestation source to humans. Con...

  10. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  11. Oviposition behavior of the wheat stem sawfly when encountering plants infested with cryptic conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteler, Micaela; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

    2009-12-01

    Insect herbivores typically oviposit on the most suitable hosts, but choices can be modulated by detection of potential competition among conspecifics, especially when eggs are deposited cryptically. Larvae of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, developing within an already infested stem, experience elevated risk when only one will survive because of cannibalism. To increase our understanding of host selection when the choices made by females can lead to severe intraspecific competition, females were presented with either uninfested wheat plants or with plants previously exposed to other females in laboratory choice tests. The oviposition behavior of this insect was described by recording the behavioral sequences that lead to and follow the insertion of the ovipositor in both previously infested and uninfested stems. No significant differences were found in frequencies of specific behaviors or behavioral transitions associated with oviposition. In choice tests, there was no difference in the numbers of eggs laid in infested and uninfested plants. Taller plants received more eggs, irrespective of infestation. Females neither preferred nor avoided previously infested hosts. Other characteristics of the host, such as stem height, may be more important in determining suitability for oviposition. These findings support the use of management tactics relying on the manipulation of oviposition behavior, such as trap cropping. Given that there is no evidence for response to previously infested hosts, the infested plants in a trap crop would remain as suitable as they were when uninfested, which could also lead to an increase in mortality caused by intraspecific competition.

  12. Incorporating insect infestation into rodent seed dispersal: better if the larva is still inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; López, David; San Miguel, Alfonso; Gil, Luis

    2012-11-01

    Many nutritious seeds are commonly attacked by insects which feed on the seed reserves. However, studies have not fully explored the ecological implications of insect infestation in animal seed dispersal and subsequent plant regeneration. Our question is whether the fact that an infested seed still contains the larva or not might increase/decrease the probability of being successfully dispersed by animals. This study examines the effects of weevil-infested seeds on the natural regeneration of a rodent-dispersed oak species. Rodents showed a high ability to discriminate between sound and infested seeds, even when the larva was still inside. As a result, rodents caused differential seed dispersal for sound and infested seeds by modifying multiple aspects of the dispersal process. We found that, for the same seed weight, infested acorns with a larva still inside can contribute to natural regeneration (0.7 % of seedlings in next summer), although in comparison to sound acorns they suffered higher predation rates by rodents (both partial and complete), were removed later from the ground (less preferred), cached less frequently, and dispersed to shorter distances, which reduced their potential to colonize new environments. However, infested seeds with exit holes are notably less preferred by rodents and, when dispersed, they are mostly deposited on the litter (uncached) with shorter dispersal distances and lower emergence success. Thus, the probability that larval-holed acorns will produce viable seedlings is extremely low (null in this study). Whether infested seeds still contain a larva or not clearly determines the probability of being successfully dispersed. Premature seed drop prolongs the presence of the larva inside the acorn after seed drop, and could be a possible mechanism to allow dispersal of infested seeds.

  13. Control effects of Beet armyworm nuclear polyhedrosis virus·Bacillus thuringiensis against the rice stem borer%甜核·苏云菌对水稻二化螟的防效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽年; 蒋凡; 徐翔; 黄新春

    2011-01-01

    为减少化学农药在稻田的使用,在四川新都进行了2种生物农药混配制剂--甜核·苏云菌防治水稻二化螟试验和示范.结果表明:采用PB-16手动喷雾器防治试验,甜核·苏云菌对水稻二化螟的枯心、白穗和虫伤株的防治效果分别为98.0%、99.56%和99.29%,采用东-18机动喷雾器喷雾示范,甜核·苏云菌对二化螟的枯心、白穗和虫伤株的防治效果分别为96.44%、97.83%和96.69%,效果良好,可以在大面积生产中推广应用.%To reduce chemical pesticide use in paddy fields, we tested the Beet armyworm nuclear polyhedrosis virus · Bacillus thuringiensis, a mixture of 2 bio-pesticides, for its effects on the rice stem borer in Xindu county.The results of field trials showed that, by using the PB-16 manual sprayer, its control efficacies to dead heart,dead head and infested plants were 98.0%, 99.56% and 99.29%, respectively; by using the Dong-18 machine sprayer, its control efficacies were 96.44%, 97.83% and 96.69%, respectively.The mixture can be extended for large-scale use in agricultural production.

  14. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora effect on coffe berry borer in the Algarrobo locality, Trinidad, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvis Valdés Zayas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, coffee berry borer is considered the pest that bigger causes damage, to coffee production all over the world. It is an insect of difficult handling with the traditional control methods by mean of insecticides. For this reason the Strategy of Integrated Handling of this Plague take into consideration since manual collection of the insect up the employment of biological controls. The last alternative is one of the more appealed by coffee farmers due to the minor cost. That’s why with the realization of this work the levels of effectiveness of several doses of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on the control of H. hampei were evaluated. There were not significant differences between the three doses evaluated so it is suggested the employment of the dose of 500 million for hectare for the control of the plague because it is the most economic dose.

  15. Myctolaimellus robiniae n. sp. (Diplogasterida: Cylindrocorporidae) from Larval Cavities of the Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae Forster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, A; Winter, J; Harman, D

    2000-12-01

    A new nematode species of the family Cylindrocorporidae and the genus Myctolaimellus from subcortical cavities made by the locust borer (Megacyllene robiniae Forster) in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is described. Males of the new species have a length of 700 to 1,050 microm; a bursate tail, peloderan with nine pairs of rays; and knobbed, curved spicules with tips bending gently into a hook. The distinctive gubernaculum is half the length of the spicules, deeply grooved longitudinally along both its dorsal and ventral surfaces, and has a spoon-shaped end. Females have a length of 830 to 1,340 microm, an amphidelphic reproductive tract with long ovaries crossing each other to extend beyond the equatorial vulva, and a gradually tapering tail.

  16. Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jiying; LUO Youqing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiaosu; CHEN Weiping; JIANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    In November 2003 and June 2004,the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City,in East China's Zhejiang Province,where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found.The niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.Results show that five insect species infect and damage Pinus massoniana,which had been infected by pine wood nematodes,among which four are wood boring beetles and one termite.Species within host trees vary from winter to summer and all the species have their own niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap.They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.

  17. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdigoudarzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.

  18. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.

  19. Survey of fungal infestation of some fish species from Tagwai dam, Minna, Niger State

    OpenAIRE

    Tsadu, S.M.; Ojutiku, R.O.; Ayanwale, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Survey of Fungal infestation of some species of fish in Tagwai Dam Minna was carried out from March to June 2002. Fungi were isolated from the scale/skin, gills and fins. Twenty-one fungi species were identified from 18 species of fish microbial growth was measured by direct cell count using Stuart colony counter. Most of the fungi encountered were of the mould group and infestation occurred among all the species sampled. The infestation was predominantly by Aspergillus species and the scale/...

  20. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark beetle infestation were not related to total height, diameter, length of live and dead crown or crown class. As severity of oxidant injury increased, live crown ratio decreased and incidence of bark beetle infestation increased. One hundred noninfested trees in each of three disease categories, advanced, intermediate, and healthy, were examined for evidence of prior beetle attacks. Thirty-six percent of the advanced-diseased trees versus only 5% of the healthy trees were attacked. Thus, the beetles may discriminate between healthy and diseased trees at a distance, upon contact with the host, or both. These studies indicate strongly that atmospheric pollution injury predisposes ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestations. 3 references, 7 tables.

  1. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campos de Assis Fonseca

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus, a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control.

  2. [Diagnosing Low Health and Wood Borer Attacked Trees of Chinese Arborvitae by Using Thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wu, De-jun; Zhai, Guo-feng; Zang, Li-peng

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy metabolism of plants is very important actions in their lives. Although the studies about these actions by using thermography were often reported, seldom were found in detecting the health status of forest trees. In this study, we increase the measurement accuracy and comparability of thermo-images by creating the difference indices. Based on it, we exam the water and energy status in stem of Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) by detecting the variance of far infrared spectrum between sap-wood and heart-wood of the cross-section of felling trees and the cores from an increment borer using thermography. The results indicate that the sap rate between sapwood and heartwood is different as the variance of the vigor of forest trees. Meanwhile, the image temperature of scale leaves from Chinese arborvitae trees with different vigor is also dissimilar. The far infrared spectrum more responds the sap status not the wood percentage in comparing to the area rate between sapwood and heartwood. The image temperature rate can be used in early determining the health status of Chinese arborvitae trees. The wood borers such as Phloeosinus aubei Perris and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky are the pests which usually attack the low health trees, dying trees, wilted trees, felled trees and new cultivated trees. This measuring technique may be an important index to diagnose the health and vigor status after a large number of measurements for Chinese arborvitae trees. Therefore, there is potential to be an important index to check the tree vigor and pest damage status by using this technique. It will be a key in the tending and management of ecological and public Chinese arborvitae forest.

  3. Characterization of a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor from the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2012-08-01

    Octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, plays a key role in regulation of many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. It modulates these functions through binding to specific octopamine receptors, which are typical rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors. A cDNA encoding a seven-transmembrane receptor was cloned from the nerve cord of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, viz. CsOA2B2, which shares high sequence similarity to CG6989, a Drosophila β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (DmOctβ2R). We generated an HEK-293 cell line that stably expresses CsOA2B2 in order to examine the functional and pharmacological properties of this receptor. Activation of CsOA2B2 by octopamine increased the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50)=2.33 nmol l(-1)), with a maximum response at 100 nmol l(-1). Tyramine also activated the receptor but with much less potency than octopamine. Dopamine and serotonin had marginal effects on cAMP production. Using a series of known agonists and antagonists for octopamine receptors, we observed a rather unique pharmacological profile for CsOA2B2 through measurements of cAMP. The rank order of potency of the agonists was naphazoline > clonidine. The activated effect of octopamine is abolished by co-incubation with phentolamine, mianserin or chlorpromazine. Using in vivo pharmacology, CsOA2B2 antagonists mianserin and phentolamine impaired the motor ability of individual rice stem borers. The results of the present study are important for a better functional understanding of this receptor as well as for practical applications in the development of environmentally sustainable pesticides.

  4. Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) Infestations in Northwestern Nevada Mapped Using Landsat TM Imagery and GIS Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Geraci, C.; Kolkowitz, S.

    2004-12-01

    Tamarisk, also known as salt cedar (Tamarix sp.) is a prevalent invasive species that has infested many riparian areas in the southwestern United States. Mature salt cedar plants are resistant to high stress environments and fare well in drought conditions, mainly due to their extensive root systems that derive much of their sustenance from the water table rather than surface water and precipitation. The salt cedar root systems have altered hydrological patterns by tapping into underlying aquifers. This has decreased water available for recreational use, regional ecology and plant diversity. Many states have implemented salt cedar monitoring programs at the local level, but the problem of large-scale mapping of this invasive species has continued to be a challenge to land management agencies. Furthermore, inaccessible and unexplored areas continue to be absent in the mapping process. In August 2004, using field data consisting of large areas as training sets for classification of Landsat TM imagery, the DEVELOP student research team at NASA Ames Research Center generated a preliminary map of areas that that were susceptible to salt cedar growth for a region in northwestern Nevada. In addition to the remote sensing-based classification of satellite imagery, the team used the variables of elevation and estimated distance to the water table in conjunction with collected field data and knowledge of salt cedar growth habits to further refine the map. The team has further extended the mapping of key environmental factors of water availability for salt cedar, soil types and species distribution in regions infested by salt cedar. The investigation was carried out by 1) improving an existing GIS layer for water access using a suitable interpolation method, 2) including a GIS layer for soils associated with salt cedar growth and 3) completing field work to evaluate species distribution and regions of presence or absence of salt cedar. The outcome of this project served to

  5. Datasets for transcriptomic analyses of maize leaves in response to Asian corn borer feeding and/or jasmonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the most widely grown crops throughout the world. However, many corn fields develop pest problems such as corn borers every year that seriously affect its yield and quality. Corn′s response to initial insect damage involves a variety of changes to the levels of defensive enzymes, toxins, and communicative volatiles. Such a dramatic change secondary metabolism necessitates the regulation of gene expression at the transcript level. In this paper, we summarized the datasets of the transcriptome of corn plants in response to corn stalk borers (Ostrinia furnacalis and/or methyl jasmonate (MeJA. Altogether, 39, 636 genes were found to be differentially expressed. The sequencing data are available in the NCBI SRA database under accession number SRS965087. Our dataset will provide more scientific and valuable information for future work such as the study of the functions of important genes or proteins and develop new insect-resistant maize varieties.

  6. Diferulate content of maize sheaths is associated with resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Reid, Lana M; Arnason, John T; Sandoya, German; Souto, Xose C; Malvar, Rosa A

    2006-11-29

    The leaf sheaths of selected inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) with variable levels of stem resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèvbre) were evaluated for antibiotic effect on insect development. Phytochemical analyses of leaf sheaths were conducted for cell wall phenylpropanoid content to gain a better understanding of maize-resistance mechanisms. Laboratory bioassays established that sheath tissues from different genotypes significantly affected the growth of neonate larvae. Three hydroxycinnamates, p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and cis-ferulic acids, and three isomers of diferulic acid, 8-5', 8-O-4', and 8-5' b (benzofuran form), were identified. Significant negative correlations were found between larvae weight and diferulic acid content for six genotypes. These results are in agreement with previous studies concerning the role of cell wall structural components in stem borer resistance.

  7. Effect of Rice Volatiles on the Orientation Behavior of the Striped Stem Borer,Chilo suppressalis Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-mei; CHEN Hua-cai; LIAO Min; LOU Yong-gen; LIU Wei-ping; CHENG Jia-an; Susanne KLOSE; SHEN Qun-chao

    2004-01-01

    The orientation behavior of the 1st and the 3rd instar larvae of the striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppessalis, to the volatiles emitted from rice plants was studied with a Y-tube olfactometer. The treatments included healthy plants vs clean air (HP vs CA), striped stem borer damaged plants vs clean air (SSB-DP vs CA), rice leaf folder damaged plants vs clean air (RLF-DP vs CA),HP vs SSB-DP, HP vs RLF-DP and SSB-DP vs RLF-DP. Volatiles from all rice plants had significant attraction for both of the 1st and the 3rd instar larvae. The orientation selection of larvae to the volatiles from rice plants treated differentially (HP, SSB-DP, and RLF-DP) did not impose any significant influence.

  8. The impact of organic fertilizer utilization on Phytopthora pod rot and cocoa pod borer incidences in cacao plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmana, Ade; Dewi, Vien Sartika; Sjam, Sylvia; Rahim, Mohammad Danial; Nasaruddin; Wahyuni, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Phytopthora pod rot (PPR) and cocoa pod borer (CPB) are serious pests giving lost of around 60% and 70% respectively on cacao productivity in Indonesia. In this trial we tried to evaluate the impact of cultural practices by using organic fertilizer made from difference source of organic material on incidences caused by PPR and CPB. The organic fertilizer treatment consist of liquid organic fertilizer, HK compost, BH compost, DN compost, liquid organic fertilizer plus HK compost, liquid or...

  9. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM) in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides), IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved), and control (no pesticide was applied). IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less ...

  10. Resistance Identification of Maize Germplasms to Corn Borer%玉米种质资源抗螟性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青青; 郭成; 郭满库; 魏宏玉; 郭建国

    2014-01-01

    为明确玉米不同品种(系)之间的抗螟性差异,采用田间自然感螟法,于2010~2011年在甘肃省天水市甘谷县对478份玉米种质资源进行田间抗性鉴定。结果表明:在216份农家种资源、216份自交系和46份杂交种中共筛选出高抗材料86份、抗螟材料85份、中抗材料167份,分别占供鉴材料的18.0%、17.8%和34.9%;其余140份为感螟和高感材料,占29.3%。%So as to confirm the borer-resistance differences among different corn varieties ( inbred lines ) , the study adopted the method of being naturally infected by Ostrinia furnacalis under field conditions , and identified the resistance of 478 maize germ-plasms to corn borer in Gan ’ gu county, Tianshui city, Gansu province from 2010 to 2012.The results showed that: among 478 maize germplasms (216 peasant variety resources , 216 inbred lines and 46 hybrids), 86 high-resistant materials (18.0% of all materials), 85 borer-resistant materials (17.8%), 167 middle-resistant materials (34.9%) were screened out;the other 140 materials were susceptible or highly susceptible to corn borer , accounting for 29.3%of all tested materials.

  11. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus R Campos

    Full Text Available The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2 = 0.71. Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51 indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully

  12. The trapping catches of sex pheromone lure of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis at different storage duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a serious pest of rice plants in China. Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16: Ald), Z-13-octadecenal (Z13-18: Ald), and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16: Ald) were the major components of female sex pheromone. There is few study related to the lure storage duration on the trap catches of C. suppressalis. Test of storage duration was necessary for utilizing sex pheromone as a control agent.

  13. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  14. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony. PMID:27140530

  15. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    The bloom-infested waters along the southwest coast of India were assessed to bring about the probable cause related to the excessive algal production. Low nitrate and silicate concentrations were concomitant with slightly higher levels of phosphate...

  16. INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner ON CORN HYBRIDS IN NORTH-WEST AND EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  17. Elaboration of a strategy to control the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller in the Sefrou region in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfers Adil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella, oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 chemical control based on tolerance threshold of 10 males/trap/2 weeks showed unsatisfactory results. With this method, the percentage of affected fruits increased from 6.8% in 2009 to 18.6% in 2010 despite the application of four treatments of organophosphate-based insecticides in 2009 and the application of four treatments in 2010 using active ingredients from different chemical families (pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinicotinyl. On the other hand, management of the peach twig borer by the degree-days method tested and planned on the basis of a bifenthrin treatment between 150 to 204 degree-days accumulated from biofix, gave interesting results where the percentage of affected fruits hardly exceeded 0.5% over the four years of study

  18. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Kang, Min; Song, Kai; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2017-02-08

    Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis). In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha) in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed.

  19. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis. In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed.

  20. Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2011-06-01

    Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps.

  1. Crafting traps with attractant alcoholics an alternative for monitoring and control of borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agramont Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to incorporate an alternative, for monitoring and control of the borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Choleoptera: Curculionidae to be feasible for the use of the coffee producers, in the community Choro, Coripata municipality, second section of Nor Yungas province, La Paz Bolivia. It was evaluated the capture of adult borer coffee individuals using 45 traps into 1,5 hectares distributed at random with four repetitions. It was used three types of craft traps, built with disposable plastic bottles of soft drinks, with the traps Casera, Brocap and Yessica, were evaluated three treatments: mixture of alcohols methyl (M and ethylic (E in proportions 3:1; mix 1:1 of (M and (E; mix 1:1:1 of (M (E and coffee fresh cherry liquated (CFCL and water as a witness. The largest captures of adult individuals, were present in the crafting traps with mixture of (M(E 3:1 with overalls (± standard deviation adults/traps/ten days of 3414,5±3227,7 being superior to the other treatments. The crafting trap is one of the alternatives for the control and monitoring of the borer in the coffee plantations. The use of crafting traps with alcoholic attractants for the capture of adult individuals, is present as a low cost alternative, being feasible the successful use by the producers into the management integrated programs.

  2. Trade-Off between Foraging Activity and Infestation by Nest Parasites in the Primitively Eusocial Bee Halictus scabiosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lienhard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal activities of Halictus scabiosae bees and their nest parasites (major bee-flies, cuckoo wasps, ichneumon wasps, Sphecodes bees, and velvet ants were investigated at a study site with 159 nests in Eastern Austria. Foraging activity correlated with ambient temperature only before midday and decreased in the afternoon. The activity of nest-infesting parasites increased during the day and correlated with ambient temperature. The match factor fm between the ratios of the foraging activities of H. scabiosae and the ratios of aspects of morning temperature was assessed on three consecutive days with different weather. The activity patterns of halictine bees and their nest parasites differed: the parasites exhibited only small time windows in which their activities were synchronised with those of their hosts. The bees exhibited an anticyclic behaviour and collected food in times of low parasite pressure and decreased foraging activity when parasite pressure increased.

  3. The tick Ixodes granulatus infests Rattus rattus populating a small island offshore of Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Paperna I.

    2006-01-01

    The ixodid tick Ixodes granulosus Supino 1897 was found infesting Rattus rattus in Semakau island, one of the small offshore islands fringing Singapore to the south. None of the examined R. rattus from the other islands fringing Singapore, or from Singapore island were found infested. Ixodes granulatus occurs, however, on Singapore island on Rattus annandalei, resident of undisturbed forested habitats. We speculate that invading black rats in Semakau replaced autochthonous sylvatic rodent pop...

  4. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abdigoudarzi; Mahmoud S Mirafzali; Hamid Belgheiszadeh

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasit...

  5. FISH INFESTED WITH ANISAKIS SPP.: INSPECTION BEHAVIOUR IN TERMS OF REG. (CE N. 1069/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inspection behaviour on the fish infested with Anisakis spp., under Regulation (CE n.1774/2002, was always discordant among those who considered him as a secondary product of category 1 and those who categorize like 2. In near future, Regulation (CE n.1069/2009 will define that the parasitic diseases are to be included in zoonoses to make attention and definitively poses fish infested with Anisakis in category 1 material.

  6. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp,Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. ALAM; M. A. KHAN; M. A. HUSSAIN; D. MOUMITA; A. G. MAZLAN; K. D. SIMON

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp,Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh.However,its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality.The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H.molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City,Bangladesh.Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus,Dactylogyrus vastator,Ichthyophthirius multifilis,Gyrodactylus elegans,Lernaea sp.,Apiosoma sp.,Myxobolus rohitae,Camallanus ophiocephali,and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill,skin,stomach,and intestine of host fish.The highest level of infection was observed for host skin,while lower levels were observed for host gill,stomach,and intestine.The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H.molitrix varied with the season.In particular,the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February),when fish are most susceptible to parasites.The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H.molitrix.

  7. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans.

  8. Incidental parasitic infestations in surgically removed appendices: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Özgür

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appendiceal parasites can cause symptoms of appendiceal pain, independent of microscopic evidence of acute inflammation. The diagnosis of a parasitic infestation is generally achieved only after the pathologic examination of the resected appendices. Patients/Methods Pathology department records were reviewed for all patients who required an operation for symptoms of acute appendicitis between 2000 and 2006. The specimens which were pathologically diagnosed to contain parasites were reevaluated for features of acute inflamation, and parasite type. The medical records were reviewed in detail to achieve a diagnostic score(Eskelinen. Radiologic imaging findings were correlated, if present. Results Of the 190 appendectomies performed, 6 specimens (3,15% were found to contain parasites(4 Enterobius vermicularis, 2 Taenia subspecies. Appendectomies with Taenia showed acute inflamation, while acute inflamation was absent in the ones with Enterobius vermicularis. The Eskelinen score was higher than the treshold in two cases with an acute inflamation, and in two without. Ultrasound scans, and a computed tomography scan were performed in 5 patients. In 3 of 4 bland appendices, results favored acute appendicitis. Conclusion The diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites is not only made by examining the stool but the diagnosis can be made by histology from surgical specimens. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy might prevent probable future complications that may necessitate surgical procedures, at least in some of the patients. The clinical management of these infections is different from that for classical appendicitis.

  9. Granulomatous hepatitis triggered by liver Fasciola infestation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghavidel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Liver Fasciola hepatica (FH infestation is a zoonotic disorder caused by a kind of leaf-like worm. Case Report: In this article the reported patient is a woman who is 54 years old. She had been suffering from stomachaches after every meal from two years ago. Computed tomography (CT, ultrasonography (US and magnetic resonance retrograde cholangiography (MRCP, proved that right lobe ducts are dilated although there was not any filling defects in the common bile duct (CBD. These findings were most similar with the manifestations of localized segmental cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC or granulomatous hepatitis but at the work up, F. hepatica infection was confirmed. The mentioned disease was diagnosed by means of imaging modalities, laboratory analysis including serology and stool examination and was cured by triclabendazole. Conclusion: Humans are infected by consuming undercooked vegetables, with the adult worms inhabiting and laying metacercariae in the biliary system. These organisms induce a chronic inflammatory state in the proximal biliary tree, presumably leading to malignant transformation of the lining epithelium.

  10. The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Raimundo Wilson; de Almeida, Adilson Benedito; Barbosa-Silva, Silvia Cristina; Amorim, Marinete; Ribeiro, Paulo César; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes patterns of infestation with Tunga penetrans (L., 1758) within the poor community of Araruama municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, assessed by the number of persons and domestic animals parasitized. The overall prevalence of infestation was 49.2% (211 parasitized hosts) of the 429 examined. Humans (p < 0.01) and dogs (p < 0.01) were the most important hosts with 62.6% and 35.6% respectively. Dogs were considered as the potential infestation source to humans. Considering sex and age groups, both measures showed a significant difference (p < 0.01): female (62.2% infested of 143 examined) and male (43.9% infested of 98 examined). All age classes were found infested with significant difference (G = 42.5; p < 0.01) and most of the infestation occurred in children in the 0-9-year old category (27.3%). In contrast and based on mean of chigoe burden per person, the parasitic intensity was significantly higher on male than on female in all age categories, except for the 50+ (H = 27.1; p < 0.01) and decreasing with the increase of age (chi2 = 69.7, A = -124.6, p < 0.01). Growing urbanization, improved housing and sewage systems, use of appropriate footwear, examination of the feet principally in young children, antitetanus prophylaxis and reduction of stray dogs population are the major prophylactic methods recommended.

  11. The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Carvalho Raimundo Wilson de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes patterns of infestation with Tunga penetrans (L., 1758 within the poor community of Araruama municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, assessed by the number of persons and domestic animals parasitized. The overall prevalence of infestation was 49.2% (211 parasitized hosts of the 429 examined. Humans (p < 0.01 and dogs (p < 0.01 were the most important hosts with 62.6% and 35.6% respectively. Dogs were considered as the potential infestation source to humans. Considering sex and age groups, both measures showed a significant difference (p < 0.01: female (62.2% infested of 143 examined and male (43.9% infested of 98 examined. All age classes were found infested with significant difference (G = 42.5; p < 0.01 and most of the infestation occurred in children in the 0-9-year old category (27.3%. In contrast and based on mean of chigoe burden per person, the parasitic intensity was significantly higher on male than on female in all age categories, except for the 50+ (H = 27.1; p < 0.01 and decreasing with the increase of age (chi2 = 69.7, A = -124.6, p < 0.01. Growing urbanization, improved housing and sewage systems, use of appropriate footwear, examination of the feet principally in young children, antitetanus prophylaxis and reduction of stray dogs population are the major prophylactic methods recommended.

  12. Abiotic and biotic factors associated with tick population dynamics on a mammalian host: Ixodes hexagonus infesting otters, Lutra lutra.

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    Ellie Sherrard-Smith

    Full Text Available The Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, hosts several parasites with zoonotic potential. As this semiaquatic mammal has large ranges across terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, it has the capacity for wide dispersion of pathogens. Despite this, parasites of otters have received relatively little attention. Here, we examine their ectoparasite load and assess whether this is influenced by abiotic or biotic variables. Climatic phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO affect weather conditions in northern Europe. Consequently parasite distributions, particularly species with life stages exposed to the external environment, can be affected. We assessed the extent to which inter-annual variations in large-scale weather patterns (specifically the NAO and Central England (CE temperatures and host characteristics influenced tick prevalence and intensity. Ectoparasites consisted of a single species, the nidiculous tick Ixodes hexagonus (prevalence = 24.3%; mean intensity = 7.2; range = 1-122; on n = 820 otter hosts. The prevalence, but not intensity of infestation, was associated with high CE temperatures, while both prevalence and intensity were associated with positive phases of the NAO. Such associations indicate that I. hexagonus are most abundant when weather conditions are warmer and wetter. Ticks were more prevalent on juvenile than sub-adult or adult otters, which probably reflects the length of time the hosts spend in the holt where these ticks quest. High tick number was associated with poor host condition, so either poor condition hosts are more susceptible to ticks, or tick infestations negatively impact on host condition. Otters are clearly an important and common host for I. hexagonus, which has implications for vector-borne diseases. This work is the first to consider the impacts of long-term weather patterns on I. hexagonus and uses wild-animal cadavers to illustrate the importance of abiotic and biotic pressures impacting

  13. Bedbug infestation and its control practices in Gbajimba: a rural settlement in Benue state, Nigeri

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    E.A. Omudu , C.N. Kus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The common bedbug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus 1758 (Hemiptera:Cimicidae is a globally re-emerging pest of serious public health concern. We investigated bedbuginfestation in randomly selected apartments in Gbajimba community in Guma Local Governmentarea in Benue state, Nigeria.Methods: Beddings and furniture (bed frames, pillows, mattresses, cushion chairs, mats, mosquitonets and bamboo beds were thoroughly inspected for bedbug infestation using the hand-pickingtechnique. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis for differences in the infestation levels inharbourages and sampling locations.Results: Only 16% of the apartments investigated showed no evidence of bedbug infestation asegg cases and faecal marks were sighted in 62.2% of apartments surveyed. The highest infestationrate was observed in Angwan Jukun area and infestation here was higher compared to other studylocations within the town though the difference was not statistically significant (2 = 7.92, df = 6,p >0.05. Bamboo beds harboured the highest number of bedbugs collected, accounting for 35.8%,while other harbourages like iron bed frames and sleeping mats had 23 and 22.7% infestationrates respectively. The infestation rates in these household items were significantly higher thanother items inspected (2 = 11.8, df = 4, p > 0.05.Interpretation & conclusion: This study demonstrates the urgent need for identification of evidencesof infestation and bedbug management involving community participation in inspection, detectionand education, including physical removal and exclusion as well as pesticide application.

  14. Prevalence, intensity and associated factor analysis of Tropilaelaps mercedesae infesting Apis mellifera in China.

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    Luo, Qi Hua; Zhou, Ting; Dai, Ping Li; Song, Huai Lei; Wu, Yan Yan; Wang, Qiang

    2011-10-01

    Tropilaelaps mercedesae is a serious ectoparasite of Apis mellifera in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the infestation rates and intensity of T. mercedesae in A. mellifera in China, and to explore the relative importance of climate, district, management practices and beekeeper characteristics that are assumed to be associated with the intensity of T. mercedesae. Of the 410 participating apiaries, 379 apiaries were included in analyses of seasonal infestation rates and 352 apiaries were included in multivariable regression analysis. The highest infestation rate (86.3%) of T. mercedesae was encountered in autumn, followed by summer (66.5%), spring (17.2%) and winter (14.8%). In autumn, 28.9% (93) of the infested apiaries were in the north (including the northeast and northwest of China), 71.1% (229) were in the central and south (including east, southeast and southwest China), and 306 apiaries (82.9%) were co-infested by both T. mercedesae and Varroa. Multivariable regression analysis showed that geographical location, season, royal jelly collection and Varroa infestation were the factors that influence the intensity of T. mercedesae. The influence of beekeeper's education, time of beekeeping, operation size, and hive migration on the intensity of T. mercedesa was not statistically significant. This study provided information about the establishment of the linkage of the environment and the parasite and could lead to better timing and methods of control.

  15. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus in north western Libya

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    M.M. Hosni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7% were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei, one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis. For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6% were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5% by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2% by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%, Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1% and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%. The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%. We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human.

  16. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

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    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion.

  17. Curative and preventive efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Ctenocephalides canis infestation in dogs.

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    Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ≥ 99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ≥ 94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks.

  18. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

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    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  19. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

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    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer.

  20. Landscape context and scale differentially impact coffee leaf rust, coffee berry borer, and coffee root-knot nematodes.

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    Avelino, Jacques; Romero-Gurdián, Alí; Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F; Declerck, Fabrice A J

    2012-03-01

    Crop pest and disease incidences at plot scale vary as a result of landscape effects. Two main effects can be distinguished. First, landscape context provides habitats of variable quality for pests, pathogens, and beneficial and vector organisms. Second, the movements of these organisms are dependent on the connectivity status of the landscape. Most of the studies focus on indirect effects of landscape context on pest abundance through their predators and parasitoids, and only a few on direct effects on pests and pathogens. Here we studied three coffee pests and pathogens, with limited or no pressure from host-specific natural enemies, and with widely varying life histories, to test their relationships with landscape context: a fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, causal agent of coffee leaf rust; an insect, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Their incidence was assessed in 29 coffee plots from Turrialba, Costa Rica. In addition, we characterized the landscape context around these coffee plots in 12 nested circular sectors ranging from 50 to 1500 m in radius. We then performed correlation analysis between proportions of different land uses at different scales and coffee pest and disease incidences. We obtained significant positive correlations, peaking at the 150 m radius, between coffee berry borer abundance and proportion of coffee in the landscape. We also found significant positive correlations between coffee leaf rust incidence and proportion of pasture, peaking at the 200 m radius. Even after accounting for plot level predictors of coffee leaf rust and coffee berry borer through covariance analysis, the significance of landscape structure was maintained. We hypothesized that connected coffee plots favored coffee berry borer movements and improved its survival. We also hypothesized that wind turbulence, produced by low-wind-resistance land uses such as pasture, favored removal of coffee

  1. Analysis of infestation rate of Helicobacter pylori and factors affecting the infestation in Inner Mongolia border recruits

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    Jian-wei YU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infestation and its related risk factors in the recruits at Hulunbuir pastureland and Ala Shan Desert. Methods Nine hundred male recruits (16-24 years old were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. H. pylori infection was detected by 13C-urea breath test, and the related risk factors were surveyed by using questionnaires. The data of risk factors for H.pylori infection were analyzed by using chi-square test and logistic regression. Results The H. pylori infection rate was 47.5% in recruits located in Hulunbuir pastureland, while it was 44.8% in recruits located in Ala Shan Desert. The H. pylori infection rate was higher in recruits from the West China and Central China, and higher in the recruits from the rural area than those from city (P<0.05. The level of serum pepsinogen (PG I and PGⅡ was elevated, but PGR (PGⅠ/PGⅡ lowered in the recruits with H. pylori infection (P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors as hand-washing with soap, smoking, halitosis, and halitosis with acne were positively correlated with H. pylori infection. Conclusions H. pylori infection rate of new recruits is lower in Inner Mongolia compared to the finding of previous studies. Residential environment is the fact DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.17

  2. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-e ZHAO; Na GUO; Meng XUN; Ji-ru XU; Mei WANG; Duo-lao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation,756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an,China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study.Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP).The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%.Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender,residence,sharing sanitary ware,frequency of face-wash per day,and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation,whereas three variables (age,skin type,and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates.Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years.Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin.Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without.The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count.The inception rates were 21.3%,40.7%,59.2%,and 67.7% in the negative,mild,moderate,and severe infestation groups,respectively (X2=60.6,P<0.001).Specifically,the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R2=0.57,moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1,severe infestation OR=10.3).It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age,and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human.Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation.Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris.The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.

  3. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of infestation by stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), under natural infestation conditions.

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    Cruz-Vazquez, C; Carvajal Márquez, J; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Vitela-Mendoza, I; Ramos-Parra, M

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae applied by aspersion to control of Stomoxys calcitrans flies in dairy cattle naturally infested. Was applied by aspersion an aqueous formulation of M. anisopliae sensu lato (Ma134), at a concentration of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, four times with seven day intervals, on a group of eight Holstein cows; a control group of eight Holstein cows, received a water solution with Tween 80 (0.1%). The average number of flies per animal was estimated one day before each application, and then daily counts were done in both groups. The effectiveness of the formulation was calculated using the Abbott's formula. At the same time, defensive behaviors of stamp/kicks and tail movements were evaluated daily, estimating relative frequency per hour. The Ma134 formulation had an infestation control efficacy of 73%, taking into consideration the four study weeks. The population reduction effect was observed since the first week post-application (p<0.05), and the effect increased with the subsequent applications. Defensive behaviors were reduced beginning from the first application, reaching a reduction of 66% and 70%, respectively, during the four weeks of study. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the formulation to control infestation by S. calcitrans, as well as reduce defensive behaviors which involves the infestation.

  4. An implicit approach to model plant infestation by insect pests.

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    Lopes, Christelle; Spataro, Thierry; Doursat, Christophe; Lapchin, Laurent; Arditi, Roger

    2007-09-07

    Various spatial approaches were developed to study the effect of spatial heterogeneities on population dynamics. We present in this paper a flux-based model to describe an aphid-parasitoid system in a closed and spatially structured environment, i.e. a greenhouse. Derived from previous work and adapted to host-parasitoid interactions, our model represents the level of plant infestation as a continuous variable corresponding to the number of plants bearing a given density of pests at a given time. The variation of this variable is described by a partial differential equation. It is coupled to an ordinary differential equation and a delay-differential equation that describe the parasitized host population and the parasitoid population, respectively. We have applied our approach to the pest Aphis gossypii and to one of its parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes, in a melon greenhouse. Numerical simulations showed that, regardless of the number and distribution of hosts in the greenhouse, the aphid population is slightly larger if parasitoids display a type III rather than a type II functional response. However, the population dynamics depend on the initial distribution of hosts and the initial density of parasitoids released, which is interesting for biological control strategies. Sensitivity analysis showed that the delay in the parasitoid equation and the growth rate of the pest population are crucial parameters for predicting the dynamics. We demonstrate here that such a flux-based approach generates relevant predictions with a more synthetic formalism than a common plant-by-plant model. We also explain how this approach can be better adapted to test different management strategies and to manage crops of several greenhouses.

  5. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep,in Diyala Governorate,Iraq.Methods:One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate,Iraq,during the period from November 2012 to May 2013.Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad.They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and midgut.The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water(1%)and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C,to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells,then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37 °C for 18 h.Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media(nutrient,blood and McConkey agars),and then incubated at37 ℃ for 24 h.Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips.Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1,2010.Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤ 0.05.Results:Two species of ticks were identified[Rhipicephalus(Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum].High bacterial isolation rate was observed(483 isolates).A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus(63.14%).Six bacterial species were identified[Escherichia coli(28.36%),Pseudomonas aeruginosa(18.01%),Bacillus cereus(14.69%),Staphylococcus aureus(13.66%),Citrobacter freundii(13.04%),and Enterobacter species(12.21%)].Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months(November,March and April);these coincided with high reproductive performance of ticks.Conclusions:The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  6. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep, in Diyala Governorate, Iraq. Methods: One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate, Iraq, during the period from November 2012 to May 2013. Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad. They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and mid-gut. The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water (1%) and incubated for 2 h at 37℃, to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells, then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37℃ for 18 h. Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media (nutrient, blood and McConkey agars), and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 h. Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1, 2010. Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤0.05. Results: Two species of ticks were identified [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum]. High bacterial isolation rate was observed (483 isolates). A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus (63.14%). Six bacterial species were identified [Escherichia coli (28.36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.01%), Bacillus cereus (14.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.66%), Citrobacter freundii (13.04%), and Enterobacter species (12.21%)]. Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months (November, March and April); these coin-cided with high reproductive performance of ticks. Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  7. Pod Characteristics of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Related to Cocoa Pod Borer Resistance (Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

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    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance

  8. Use of Trapping for Controlling of Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei

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    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the field trapping of coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei have been conducted to evaluate trap color, trap design and lures (attractant substances. The trials were conducted in a Robusta coffee plantation in East Java during August to December 2004. The trap color evaluated were red, orange, yellow, green and blue, set up in the coffee plantation using a four funnels trap. The traps installed on wood poles at a height of 175 cm above ground and placed among coffee trees. Observations were conducted every day for a week. Result of the study showed that the red and blue color traps captured CBB significantly higher than the others. During a week, the red color captured 1694 CBB adults while the blue one captured 1619 CBB adults. Peak number of captured CBB of the red and blue trapping occurred on the third day with the number of CBB of 416 and 395, respectively. In the evaluation of trapping design, four types of trapping were tried at the same location. The types of trapping were single funnel red trapping, four funnel red trapping, bottle trap with two straight opposite holes, and bottle trapping with two-zigzag holes. Bottle trapping was made of plastic bottle of 1.5-litre capacity, provided with two holes at its opposite wall. Setting up of the trapping in the field and the observation time were in the same way with the trial in trapping color evaluation. Results obtained indicated that the bottle trapping with two straight opposite holes captured the highest number of CBB followed by four funnel red trapping i.e. 547 and 69 per week, respectively. The peak number of trapped CBB occurred at the third day, as at the color trials. Furthermore, four lures have been evaluated int order to obtain the most effective substances for CBB trapping. Substances of A, B, C and D were set up in a coffee plantation using two types of trapping, four funnel red trapping and bottle trapping with two straight opposite holes. The results

  9. Virulence and mycotoxic effects of Metarhizium anisopliae on Mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla robusta (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Balachander; O.K.Remadevi; T.O.Sasidharan; N.Sapna Bai

    2012-01-01

    Developing appropriate control measures for the Mahogany shoot borer,Hypsipyla robusta Moore has become increasingly important due to the severe damaging effect of the pest on the establishment of the saplings of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq (Sapindales:Meliaceae).Existing management methods are largely limited to silvicultural practices and spraying of chemical insecticides.To identify a potential fungal biocontrol agent,we compared the virulence of six native and two standard ARSEF isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae Metsch.against this pest.The average survival time and conidial yield of IWST-Ma7 was higher (6.2 to 7.3 days and 4.9 to 4.7 × 105 conidia/ml) than the standards.Significant difference in sporulation on the cadavers between isolates,doses and incubation periods were substantiated for the selection of potential strain.The mycotoxic effects of crude soluble protein extract when incorporated in the artificial diet,the ARSEF 2596 and ARSEF 3603showed LD50 value of 3.7% and 5.6%.However,IWST-Ma7 was highly lethal with significant lowest LD50 value of 2.6%.The enzyme activity of IWST-Ma7 was highest for chitinase,CDA,protease and lipase viz.,1.90 U/mg,1.80 U/mg,0.98 U/mg and 0.80 U/mg respectively.However the enzyme activity of chitinase and Chitin deacetylase assay for all the isolates was significantly higher than protease and lipase activity.The ITS regions (5.8S rDNA and 28S rDNA) of seven isolates of M.anisopliae were amplified using the ITS1 and ITS4 primers which was a unique fragment of approximately 550 bp.Based on ITS regions,phylogenetic tree have been constructed and the isolates have been grouped in to 5 clades.The virulence and mycotoxic effects of different isolates could rationally be used to employ them for the management of the mahogany borer.

  10. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  11. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao

    2011-12-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (χ(2)=60.6, PDemodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.

  12. Artificial infestation of Boophilus microplus in beef cattle heifers of four genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mary da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of beef cattle heifers to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was evaluated by artificial infestation of 66 beef cattle heifers of the following genetic groups: 16 Nelore (NE, 18 Canchim x Nelore (CN, 16 Angus x Nelore (AN and 16 Simmental x Nelore (SN. The animals, with a mean age of 16.5 months, were maintained with no chemical tick control in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Four artificial infestations with 20,000 B. microplus larvae were carried out 14 days apart and from day 18 to day 22 of each infestation the number of engorged female ticks (> 4.5 mm was counted on the left side of each heifer. Data were analyzed as the percentage of return (PR = percentage of ticks counted relative to the number infested, transformed to (PR¼, and as log10 (Cij + 1, in which Cij is the number of ticks in each infestation, using the least squares method with a model that included the effects of genetic group (GG, animal within GG (error a, infestation number (I, GG x I and the residual (error b. Results indicated a significant GG x I interaction, because AN and SN heifers had a higher percentage of return than CN and NE heifers, while CN heifers showed a higher percentage of return than the NE heifers only in infestations 3 and 4. Transformed percentages of return were NE = 0.35 ± 0.06, AN = 0.89 ± 0.06, CN = 0.54 ± 0.05 and SN = 0.85 ± 0.06.

  13. Occurrence Rule and Solution of Reed Stem Borer in Panjin%盘锦苇田钻心虫发生规律及防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋

    2014-01-01

    Reed stem borer is one of frequent pests in reed in Panjin, it not only destroys reed plant, but also influences the quality of reed and reduces its yield. The article introduces reed stem borer's morphological characteristics, living habit, occurrence rule and harms features, provides solutions, offers a reference for the effective prevention to reed stem borer.%芦苇钻心虫是盘锦苇田经常发生的害虫之一,不但破坏苇田植被,还直接影响芦苇质量,降低芦苇产量。介绍芦苇钻心虫的形态特征、生活习性、发生规律,以及危害特点,提出防治措施,为苇田钻心虫的有效防治提供参考。

  14. 应用白僵菌防治玉米螟的研究进展%Research Progress of Prevention and Controlling Corn Borer by Beauveria bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晴; 佘花娣; 佟文悦

    2013-01-01

    The damage characteristics of corn borer, biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanism of Beauveria bassiana were introduced briefly.The present situation, problems and corresponding measures of prevention and controlling corn borer using Beauveria bassiana were summarized, and the new direction was discussed so as to promote the corn safety production and improve the control efficiency of corn borer.%简要介绍了玉米螟的为害特点以及白僵菌的生物学特性、致病机理,对利用白僵菌防治玉米螟的现状、存在问题及相应措施进行了阐述,并对防治玉米螟的新方向进行了展望,以促进玉米安全生产和提高玉米螟的防治效率。

  15. Avaliação de progênies de algodoeiro para resistência à broca-da-raiz Progeny evaluation for resistance to the root borer in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Lajos Gridi-Papp

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base nos resultados de seleção, obtidos pela equipe de melhoramento do algodoeiro do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, numa gleba naturalmente infestada pela broca-da-raiz, Eutinobothrus brasiliensis (Hambleton, da Estação Experimental de Tietê, em 1966-81, três índices de avaliação foram propostos para a resistência dessa planta à praga. O coeficiente de correlação simples entre as duas repetições dos testes anuais de progênies foi adotado como parâmetro para estudar a eficiência dos índices na seleção de progênies resistentes. Pelo estudo comparativo, escolheu-se, como o mais adequado, o índice obtido pela contagem de furos (galerias observados na parte lenhosa, em corte oblíquo dos caules das plantas, feito na região do colo, no meio da parte hipertrofiada. Apresentam-se os coeficientes de correlação de 1972-81 e a discussão sobre a eficiência do índice escolhido que proporcionou, durante o período, um aumento gradual do coeficiente de correlação, significando um provável acúmulo de genes favoráveis à resistência nas progênies selecionadas. A prática de picar e enterrar a parte infestada dos caules, após a colheita dos dados, contribuiu para manter alta infestação da área pela broca. Aplicado, posteriormente, à avaliação de linhagens do programa de melhoramento do algodoeiro, o índice permitiu melhorar 50% o nível geral de resistência das linhagens em estudo.To evaluate cotton resistance to the Brazilian root borer, Eutinobothrus brasiliensis (Hambleton, three indexes were proposed, based on selection data obtained in progeny tests, on a naturally infested plot, situated at the Tietê Experiment Station, in the years of 1966 to 1981, by the cotton breeders of the Instituto Agronômico, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The simple correlation coefficient between the two repetitions of the yearly tests was used as a parameter to study the efficiency of the indexes in selecting resistant progenies

  16. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range.

  17. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae.

  18. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O.; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests’ biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host’s defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address

  19. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  20. Evaluation of risk factors for rural infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Triatominae), a Mexican vector of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, Kyle S; Ordoñez, Rosalinda; Wilson, Mark L; Ramsey, Janine M

    2004-07-01

    Control of Chagas disease requires control of its triatomine vectors, which requires an understanding of the determinants of infestation. Twenty-seven household environmental characteristics in the town of Chalcatzingo, Morelos, were analyzed for association with infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis, the predominant local vector. Data were obtained through timed household searches for triatomines and surveys that characterized intradomicile and peridomicile environments. Of the households surveyed, 28.4% were infested by T. pallidipennis. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed that regressed infestation on environmental variables. Of the 530 households in the town, 84% had sufficient data to be included. Adobe walls, agricultural products, junk piles, lack of bednets, and number of rabbits were significantly associated with intradomiciliary infestation. Junk piles and numbers of dogs, cats, and rabbits were significantly associated with peridomiciliary infestation. Junk piles, agricultural products, and numbers of cats, rabbits, and birds were significantly associated with overall infestation. Unexpectedly, presence of stone piles was not associated with infestation. The results of this study provide information for designing Chagas disease control programs in rural Mexican areas infested by T. pallidipennis.

  1. The Early Detection of the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Using Advanced Geospacial Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B.; Li, J.; Wang, J.; Hall, B.

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to exploit Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and very high spatial resolution (VHR) data and their synergy with hyperspectral imagery in the early detection of the EAB presence in trees within urban areas and to develop a framework to combine information extracted from multiple data sources. To achieve these, an object-oriented framework was developed to combine information derived from available data sets to characterize ash trees. Within this framework, individual trees were first extracted and then classified into different species based on their spectral information derived from hyperspectral imagery, spatial information from VHR imagery, and for each ash tree its health state and EAB infestation stage were determined based on hyperspectral imagery. The developed framework and methods were demonstrated to be effective according to the results obtained on two study sites in the city of Toronto, Ontario Canada. The individual tree delineation method provided satisfactory results with an overall accuracy of 78 % and 19 % commission and 23 % omission errors when used on the combined very high-spatial resolution imagery and LiDAR data. In terms of the identification of ash trees, given sufficient representative training data, our classification model was able to predict tree species with above 75 % overall accuracy, and mis-classification occurred mainly between ash and maple trees. The hypothesis that a strong correlation exists between general tree stress and EAB infestation was confirmed. Vegetation indices sensitive to leaf chlorophyll content derived from hyperspectral imagery can be used to predict the EAB infestation levels for each ash tree.

  2. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponson L

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Laura Ponson,1,2 Frédéric Andersson,1 Wissam El-Hage1,2 1Université François-Rabelais de Tours, Inserm, Imagerie et Cerveau UMR U930, Tours, France, 2CHRU de Tours, Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, Tours, France Background: The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown.Case presentation: Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA.Conclusion: Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. Keywords: supplementary motor area, antipsychotics, fMRI

  3. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  4. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  5. Efficacy of doramectin in Trixacarus caviae infestation in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Ahmed, Quazi Shahir; Sayedda, Kauser; Singh, Krishna Veer

    2013-04-01

    The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin against seven naturally Trixacarus caviae infested male guinea pigs. Multiple skin scrapings of all the seven guinea pigs were found microscopically positive for T. caviae mites. Clinically these animals revealed, more or less denuded, very red often thickened, and crustated cutaneous lesions restricted at the sacral region and back. Doramectin 1 % (w/v) was administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 400 μg/kg once weekly, which resulted in profound improvements in clinical conditions within 14 days after the first doramectin application. It took almost 28 days for the cutaneous lesions to disappear and to witness partial hair coat regrowth. Two moderately infested guinea pigs required only single injection of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure, while remaining five (one moderately infested and four severely infested) guinea pigs required two injections of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure. No adverse effects were revealed by any of the doramectin treated guinea pigs during the study period. Thus, it can be concluded from the present study that guinea pigs naturally infested by T. caviae mites can be cured safely using two doses of doramectin once in a week.

  6. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  7. Efficacy of the d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association against mites in naturally co-infested rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio I. Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association against Psoroptes ovis, Cheyletiella parasitivorax, and Leporacarus gibbus infestations in naturally co-infested rabbits. Twenty crossbreed (New Zealand White x California rabbits concurrently infested by the three mite species were randomly divided in two groups. All rabbits presented with hyperemia, erythema and formation of crusts in the ear canals caused by P. ovis. Infestations by both C. parasitivorax and L. gibbus were considered asymptomatic in all animals.Ten animals were treated with a 4.4% d-phenothrin and 0.148% pyriproxyfen spray formulation until have their body surface uniformly sprayed, including external ear canals. The other ten rabbits remained untreated, serving as control group. Observations were done on days +7, +14, +21, +28, and +35 post-treatment. The d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association showed 100% efficacy against the three mite species and was responsible for the remission of psoroptic mange lesions on treated animals. No signs of intoxication were observed. The results indicate that d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen spray formulation in a single application is an effective and clinically safe option for the control of different mite infestations in rabbits.

  8. Prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshaverinia, Ali; Moghaddas, Elham

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. Since April 2012 through March 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. Out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % CI 54-64) was calculated. The higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the summer that prevalence rate was the highest. A total of 1,122 ticks were collected from the infested camels and identified by stereomicroscopy. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and comprised 70.76 % of the collected ticks. The frequency of other species was as follows: H. excavatum (19.25 %), H. anatolicum (4.81 %), H. asiaticum (4.72 %), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.17 %), H. detritum (0.09 %), H. impeltatum (0.09 %) and H. schulzei (0.09 %). Based on the results of present study, it is concluded that camels mostly harbor Hyalomma spp. The species of this genus are the most notorious ticks for transmission of human and animal diseases. Therefore, appropriate tick control measures need to be employed and pour-on method for acaricide application is suggested because this method is fast, easy and suitable for use by camel owners in deserts.

  9. Alterations in the nitrogen dynamics of European beech trees infested by the woolly beech aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, D. F.; Michalzik, B.

    2012-12-01

    Insects are a major stressor in wooded ecosystems, triggering profound changes in the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and net primary productivity of infested forests. The influence of woolly beech aphids (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on nitrogen cycling via throughfall, stemflow, and litter leachates is not well understood. Employing a combination of field sampling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we examined and compared the alterations and partitioning of nitrogen (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) between control (uninfested) and infested trees. Preliminary results suggest that the amount of nitrogen routed to the soil is much lower in throughfall and stemflow of infested trees than control trees. Preliminary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the abaxial surface of sample leaves have demonstrated that the surface microbiology and nitrogen chemistry of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves are notably different. These observations suggest that the aphids alter the phyllosphere ecology to such an extent that they trigger nitrogen uptake by microbes on the leaf surface in the presence of easily available carbon from aphid excretions (i.e., honeydew). A better understanding of nitrogen cycling in stressed forests would advance theories of nitrogen cycling.

  10. Spectral Analysis of Ultraweak Chemiluminescence from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2005-02-01

    We performed the spectral analysis of ultraweak-photon emissions from kidney bean leaves infested by the kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). We also measured the spectrum of photon emissions from artificially wounded leaves, and compared the result with spectral data obtained from the mite-infested leaves. Photon emissions from both the mite-infested and wounded leaves primarily consisted of wavelengths ranging from 500 to 700 nm, and photon intensity at these wavelengths increased steadily after perturbation. In contrast, photon intensity of the mite-infested leaves at 300-400 nm exhibited only differential changes; it began increasing at 20 h, and showed two peaks at 72 and 120 h. We previously reported that photon emissions from infested leaves might be the result of both insect damage and plant self-protection. Plant defensive responses, such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), are induced by insect elicitors via insect damage. Therefore, photon intensity at 500-700 nm might be related to direct injury (physiological stress), while photon intensity at 300-400 nm may signify a physiological (biochemical)-action-related defensive response.

  11. Insect stings to change gear for healthy plant: Improving maize drought tolerance by whitefly infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-05-03

    Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants. Interestingly, the fresh weight of whitefly-infested maize plants is approximately 20% higher than in non-infected control plants under water stress conditions. Further investigation has revealed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulates in whitefly-infested maize plants after water stoppage. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of phytohormones- (i.e., IAA and JA) and H2O2-mediated maize signaling pathways triggered by aboveground whitefly infestation promotes drought resistance. They also provide an insight into how inter-kingdom interactions can improve drought tolerance in plants.

  12. High exposure to Tunga penetrans (Linnaeus, 1758 correlates with intensity of infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Feldmeier

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease widespread in resource-poor urban and rural communities in Brazil. Inhabitants of an urban slum in Northeast Brazil were examined for the presence of tungiasis lesions and followed-up twice a week for a period of three weeks. Each time the number, stages, and topographic localization of lesions were recorded on a documentation sheet. The infestation rate (number of newly embedded sand fleas per individual and day remained stable during the observation period. The infestation rate was significantly related to the intensity of infestation (total number of lesions present (rho = 0.70, p < 0.0001 and the proportion of viable lesions (rho = 0.28, p < 0.0001. The results indicate that in an endemic area the infestation intensity and the proportion of viable lesions can be used as a proxy to assess the exposure of individuals at risk for tungiasis. Persistently high infestation rates during the transmission season favour the use of prevention measures against invading sand fleas (such as a repellent rather than a drug to kill already embedded parasites.

  13. A meta-analysis of association between acne vulgaris and Demodex infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Ma, Jun-Xian

    2012-03-01

    Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34-3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18477, suggesting that at least 18477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered.

  14. New artificial diet for continuous rearing of the bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero ( 1993 ), called the "D-OO diet." However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15-25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata.

  15. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Prophenoloxidases from Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Gunée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect phenoloxidase (PO belongs to the type 3 copper protein family and possesses oxidoreductase activities. PO is typically synthesized as a zymogen called prophenoloxidase (PPO and requires the proteolytic activation to function. We here cloned full-length cDNA for 3 previously unidentified PPOs, which we named OfPPO1a, OfPPO1b, and OfPPO3, from Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Gunée, in addition to the previously known OfPPO2. These conceptual PPOs and OfPPO2 all contain two common copper-binding regions, two potential proteolytic activation sites, a plausible thiol-ester site, and a conserved C-terminal region but lack a secretion signal peptide sequence at the N-terminus. O. furnacalis PPOs were highly similar to other insect PPOs (42% to 79% identity and clustered well with other lepidopteran PPOs. RT-PCR assay showed the transcripts of the 4 OfPPOs were all detected at the highest level in hemocytes and at the increased amounts after exposure to infection by bacteria and fungi. Additionally, we established an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system to produce recombinant O. furnacalis PPO proteins for future use in investigating their functions. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the activation and functioning mechanisms of O. furnacalis PPOs.

  16. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a β-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis.

  17. Hormonal mechanisms underlying termination of larval diapause by juvenile hormone in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singtripop, Tippawan; Manaboon, Manaporn; Tatun, Nujira; Kaneko, Yu; Sakurai, Sho

    2008-01-01

    Topical application of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA), induces pupation by activating the prothoracic glands (PGs) in diapausing larvae of the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis. To determine the minimum stimulation period for PG activation, we transplanted PGs of JHA-treated larvae (donors) into non-treated larvae (recipients) on successive days after JHA treatment and observed the recipients for pupation. JHA stimulation for 1 day was sufficient to induce pupation. In recipient larvae, the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer increased transiently on day 18 after transplantation and significantly on days 24-28, prior to pupation. Secretory activity of recipient PGs increased transiently on day 16 and days 22-28. Because the recipient PG activity was too low to account for an increased ecdysteroid titer, the JHA-stimulated donor PGs must produce the major part of hemolymph ecdysteroids. In addition, the ecdysteroid produced by the donor PGs might have stimulated the recipient PGs. We examined the possible involvement of two ecdysone receptor (EcR) isoforms, OfEcR-A and OfEcR-B1, in PG activation by JHA, and found that although both isoforms were up-regulated, accompanied by an increased ecdysteroid titer in the hemolymph, the isoform mRNA levels were not altered at all before the increase in PG secretory activity. Thus, EcR expression might not be involved in feedback activation of PGs.

  18. Juvenile hormone-mediated termination of larval diapause in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singtripop, T; Wanichacheewa, S; Sakurai, S

    2000-01-01

    Larvae of the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis are in diapause for more than nine months (Singtripop, T., Wanichaneewa, S., Tsuzuki, S., Sakurai, S. 1999. Larval growth and diapause in a tropical moth, Omphisa fuscidentalis Hampson. Zool. Sci. 16, 725-733). To examine the endocrine mechanisms underlying this larval diapause, we assayed the responsiveness of the diapausing larvae to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA: S-methoprene). 20E injection caused the larvae to halt movement, followed by deposition of a pupal cuticle. Topical application of JHA induced pupation in a dose-dependent manner. JHA also induced pupation of the larvae whose brains were removed before JHA application. In those larvae, the prothoracic glands became active and competent to respond to brain extracts within seven days after JHA treatment, and the hemolymph ecdysteroid concentration began to increase 12 days after JHA application. These results indicate that JHA stimulates the prothoracic glands of diapausing Omphisa larvae, terminating larval diapause, in contrast with previous findings that JH inhibits the brain-prothoracic gland axis and thus maintains the larval diapause. Current results therefore suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for larval diapause in this species.

  19. Hybrid Sex Pheromones of the Hibiscus Flower-bud Borer, Rehimena surusalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Ryokuhei; Sumiuchi, Yoko; Uehara, Takuya; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Naka, Hideshi

    2015-11-01

    The sex pheromone of the hibiscus flower borer Rehimena surusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Three EAD-active components were found in crude pheromone gland extracts of calling females. GC/MS and GC analyses using synthetic chemicals and derivatization of the extracts identified three components as (10E,12Z)-hexadeca-10,12-dienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald,), (10E,12E)-hexadeca-10,12-dienyl acetate (E10,Z12-16:OAc), and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC). In field tests, male moths were strongly attracted to a ternary blend of E10,Z12-16:Ald, E10,Z12-16:OAc, and Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC at a ratio of 1:5:14, but single and binary blends showed only weak or no attraction.

  20. Fabrication of Polymeric Visual Decoys for the Male Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Drew P. Pulsifer; Akhlesh Lakhtakia; Mahesh S. Narkhede; Michael J. Domingue; Beverly G. Post; Jayant Kumar; Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2013-01-01

    Through a bioreplication approach,we have fabricated artificial visual decoys for the invasive species Agrilus planipennis—commonly known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB).The mating behavior of this species involves an overflying EAB male pouncing on an EAB female at rest on an ash leaflet before copulating.The male spots the female on the leaflet by visually detecting the iridescent green color of the female's elytra.As rearing EAB and then deploying dead females as decoys for trapping is both arduous and inconvenient,we decided to fabricate artificial decoys.We used a dead female to make a negative die of nickel and a positive die of epoxy.Decoys were then made by first depositing a quarter-wave-stack Bragg reflector on a polymer sheet and then stamping it with a pair of matched negative and positive dies to take the shape of the upper surface of an EAB female.As nearly 100 artificial decoys were fabricated from just one EAB female,this bioreplication process is industrially scalable.Preliminary results from a field trapping test are indicative of success.

  1. [Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fuentes, Luis M; Urias-López, Mario A; Bautista-Martínez, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    The soursop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with soursop was conducted to study the life cycle under field conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00h and 13:00h (35ºC, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days.

  2. Type and distribution of sensilla in the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Rubén; Mutis, Ana; Isaacs, Rufus; Quiroz, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the type, distribution, and structures of sensilla, the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were examined by light and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Four different types of sensilla were identified in the club, and one type of chaetica was found in the scape and funicle of both male and female individuals. Chaetica and basiconica were the most abundant sensilla types in the club. They were present in the three sensory bands described, totaling approximately 80% of sensilla in the antennal club of H. obscurus. Chaetica were predominantly mechanoreceptors, although gustatory function could not be excluded. Basiconica forms showed characteristics typical of olfactory sensilla. Trichoidea were not found in the proximal sensory band, and they exhibited abundant pores, suggesting olfactory function. Styloconica were the least abundant sensillum type, and their shape was similar to that reported as having hygro- and thermoreceptor functions. There was no difference in the relative abundance of antennal sensilla between males and females. Finally, the sensillar configuration and abundance of receptors in the H. obscurus antennae suggest that these sensilla have chemoreceptive and other functions.

  3. A potential and novel type transgenic corn plant for control of the Corn Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Enyan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2017-01-01

    The corn borer is a world-wide agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide F (npf) gene in Ostrinia furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from a cDNA library, in which the npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants - npf1 and npf2 (with a 120 bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence to generate npf2). A spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that the highest expression level of npf was in the midgut of 5th instar larvae (the gluttony period), and their npf expression and food consumption were significantly promoted after food deprivation for 6 h. When npf was knocked down by double-stranded RNA for NPF, larval food intake, weight and body size were effectively inhibited through changes of a biosynthesis and metabolism pathway; i.e. gene silencing of NPF causes decreases of total lipid and glycogen and increases of trehalose production. Moreover, we produced transgenic corn plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that O. furnacalis larvae fed on these transgenic leaves had lower food consumption and smaller body size compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the feeding control of O. furnacalis and valuable for production of potential transgenic corn. PMID:28290513

  4. EFFICIENCY OF THE CHEMICAL TREATMENT AGAINST THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN SEED MAIZE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Raspudić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a chemical treatment against larvae of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner. The experiment was set up in 2010 and 2011 in Čepin (eastern Croatia in two treatments: control treatment and insecticide treatment. The trial involved two hybrids of FAO group 400: PR37N01 and PR37F73. Biology of pests was monitored in order to determine population size and larvae development stage as well as the optimal time of insecticide application. After determination of thresholds, maize was treated with chemical formulations of active substance dimethoate. Towards the end of vegetation, length of stem damage, number of larvae in maize stalk and ear as well as grain yield were recorded by dissection of maize stalks. Statistical analysis shows that year, hybrid and chemical treatment significantly influenced the incidence of this pest and justified the use of chemical preparations with mandatory monitoring biology of this pest.

  5. Knockdown of Cs-Spook induces delayed larval molting in rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species.

  6. Induction of serotonin accumulation by feeding of rice striped stem borer in rice leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Yumi; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Wakasa, Kyo

    2008-09-01

    Tryptophan (Trp)-related secondary metabolism has been implicated in the defense against pathogen infection and insect feeding in various gramineous species. Recently, we also reported that rice plant accumulated serotonin and tryptamine as well as their amide compounds coupled with phenolic acids in response to the infection by fungal pathogen. These compounds were likely to play an important role in the formation of physical barrier to the invading pathogens. To extend our study to elucidate the defensive role of Trp-derived secondary metabolism in gramineous plants, we examined in this study whether it is activated in response to herbivore attack as well. Third leaves of rice plant were fed on by third instar larvae of rice striped stem borer for 24 h or 48 h. The analysis of four Trp-derived metabolites including tryptamine, serotonin feruloyltryptamine (FerTry) and p-coumaroylserotonin (CouSer) by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry revealed that their contents clearly increased in response to the larvae feeding. The respective amounts of tryptamine, serotonin, FerTry and CouSer in the larvae-fed leaves were 12-, 3.5-, 33- and 140-fold larger than those in control leaves 48 h after the start of feeding.

  7. Diapause induction, maintenance and termination in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai-Jun; Mou, Feng-Chen; Zhu, Xing-Fen; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2010-11-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short-day conditions during the autumn. Our results showed that the critical night length for diapause induction in C. suppressalis was between 10 h 22 min and 10h 45 min at 22, 25 and 28 degrees C, 11 h 18 min at 31 degrees C, and between 10 h 5 min and 10 h 20 min under field conditions (average temperature ranged from 27.2 to 30.7 degrees C). The diapause incidence declined in ultra-long nights (18-22 h scotophases) and DD, and increased in ultra-short nights (2-6 h scotophases) and LL. Moreover, we found that the third instar was the stage most sensitive to the photoperiod, and night length played an essential role in the initiation of diapause. Night-interruption experiments with a 1-h light pulse at LD 12:12 (light 12:dark 12) exhibited two troughs of diapause inhibition, with one occurring in early scotophase and the other in late scotophase. Field observations for six years showed that most larvae entered winter diapause in August in response to declining day lengths, despite the high temperatures prevailing during August. By periodically transferring the field-collected overwintering larvae to different photoperiods and temperatures, the results showed that photoperiod had a significant influence on diapause development during the early phase of diapause, while high temperature significantly accelerated the termination of larval diapause.

  8. Pharmacological characterization of dopamine receptors in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Wu, Shun-Fan; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Ye, Gong-Yin; Huang, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates and is the most abundant monoamine present in the central nervous system of insects. A complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors mediate the signal transduction of dopamine by modifying intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP levels. In the present study, we pharmacologically characterized three types of dopamine receptors, CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3, from the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. All three receptors show considerable sequence identity with orthologous dopamine receptors. The phylogenetic analysis also clusters the receptors within their respective groups. Transcript levels of CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3 were all expressed at high levels in the central nervous system, indicating their important roles in neural processes. After heterologous expression in HEK 293 cells, CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3 were dose-dependently activated by dopamine and synthetic dopamine receptor agonists. They can also be blocked by different series of antagonists. This study offers important information on three dopamine receptors from C. suppressalis that will provide the basis for forthcoming studies investigating their roles in behaviors and physiology, and facilitate the development of new insecticides for pest control.

  9. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  10. mRNA profiles of piRNA pathway genes in emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omprakash Mittapalli; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have enabled a better understanding of their putative roles in the protection of germ cells against selfish genetic elements.The germ plasm proteins namely,PIWI and VASA,are key players in regulation of piRNAs.However,the biogenesis of piRNAs remains poorly understood.We report the characterization and the transcript profiles of a PIWI and VASA gene in various tissues and developmental stages of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis),an exotic invasive insect pest that has attained a high impact status worldwide.The deduced amino acid sequences of both these genes (herein referred to "ApPIWI and ApVASA") revealed homology with similar proteins from other insect and non-insect taxa.Peak transcript levels for ApPIWI and ApVASA were observed in the ovaries (compared to the other tissues assayed) and in adults (compared to the other developmental stages assayed).To our knowledge this is the first report of profiling piRNA pathway genes in A.planipennis.These results provide new insights into the putative function of the PIWI and VASA proteins in insects.

  11. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Praveen Mamidala; Omprakash Mittapalli

    2012-01-01

    The Emerald ash borer (EAB,Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) an exotic invasive insect pest has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) across North America and threatens billions more.We validated six A.planipennis reference genes (actin,ACT; beta tubulin,β- TUB; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase,GAPDH; ribosomal protein,RPL7; translation elongation factor 1α,TEF-1α; and ubiquitin,UBQ) using geNorm,Normfinder and BestKeeper for accurate determination of target messenger RNA levels in gene expression studies.The stability of the six reference genes was evaluated in different larval tissues,developmental stages and two treatments ofA.planipennis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Although there was no consistent ranking observed among the reference genes across the samples,the overall analysis revealed TEF-1α as the most stable reference gene.GAPDH and ACT showed least stability for all the samples studied.We conclude that TEF-1α is the most appropriate reference gene for gene expression studies inA.planipennis.Results obtained can be applicable for transcript profiling in other invasive insect pests.Further,these validated reference genes could also serve as the basis for selection of candidate reference genes in any given insect system post-validation.

  12. Invasive sequence and ecological niche of main insect borers of Larix gmelinii forest in Aershan, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; Kari KELI(O)SVAARA; QI Guo-xin; LI Xiang-jun; HAN Yong-shi; CHEN Chao

    2008-01-01

    After the outbreak of Dendrolimus superans Buret in 2002, many insect borers quickly invaded larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) forests in the Aershan of Inner Mongolia. Methods involved included setting sample plots, collecting adults in iron traps and measuring areas of galleries to study the invasive sequence, their ecological niche and the extent of the different effects by the main insect borers to their hosts. The results showed that the damage of D. superans weakened L. gmelinii, first Ips subelongatus Motschulsky invaded, followed by Acanthocinus carinulatus Gebler, Monochamus urussovi Fisher and M. sutor L. After the outbreak of D. superans, the average density of longhorn beetles per L. gmelinii tree increased. The ecological niche of Ips subelongatus stretches almost from the base to the top of the trunk. The number of insects in older stands of L. gmelinii is larger than those in middle aged stands. They do not damage healthy trees of L. gmelinii. The ecological niche of A. carinulatus is higher in dead L. gmelinii trees than in weak ones. The degree of damage is directly proportional with age and depth of bark. M. urussovi mainly damages trunks below 4 m in weak trees; in dead trees they can do damage up to 6 m in height. M. sutor mainly damages trunks below 5 m in weak L.gmelinii trees; in dead trees they cause damage up to 7 m. Again, the degree of damage is directly proportional with age. None of the three species of longhorn beetles damage healthy L. gmelinii and younger trees. Among the main insect borers, the degree of damage caused by L subelongatus is more serious than that of other insects.

  13. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close.

  14. Infestation of natural populations of earthworm cocoons by rhabditid and cephalobid nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraglund, HO; Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Nematodes infested 13 of 100 earthworm cocoons from a compost pile and 17 of 197 cocoons from a permanent pasture soil. Between one and 2000 nematodes were found within the infested cocoons. All nematodes found in cocoons from the compost pile belonged to the genus Rhabditis, while Rhabditis spp....... as well as members of Cephalobidae infested earthworm cocoons in the pasture soil. In cultures established from cocoons found in the pasture soil, at least five different types of nematodes belonging to the family Cephalobidae were found. Acrobeloides nanus was found in six cocoons, Cephalobus persegnis...... was found in four and Chiloplacus minimus was found in one cocoon. We suggest that earthworm - nematode interactions may be an important pathway for the transfer of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, and that the inclusion of these pathways may lead to a better understanding of soil food web functioning....

  15. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  16. Dynamics of Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae infestation on Nelore cattle in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Antonio Thadeu M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From June 1993 to May 1995, horn fly counts were conducted twice a month on untreated Nelore cattle raised extensively in the Pantanal. Horn fly population showed a bimodal fluctuation and peaks were observed every year after the beginning (November/December and at the end (May/June of the rainy season, which coincided with mid-late spring and mid-late fall, respectively. Horn flies were present on cattle throughout the year in at least 64% of the animals. Mean horn fly numbers on animals did not exceed 85 flies/cow during peaks and were under 35 flies/cow in most of the remaining periods. The highest infestations (population peaks were short and dropped suddenly within two weeks. Less than 15% of the animals in both herds could be considered as "fly-susceptible" - showing consistently higher infestations, or "fly-resistant" - showing consistently lower infestations.

  17. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species.

  18. Silencing of CYP6 and APN Genes Affects the Growth and Development of Rice Yellow Stem Borer, Scirpophaga incertulas

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya Sudhakara Rao eKola; P eRenuka; Ayyagari Phani Padmakumari; Satendra Kumar Mangrauthia; Balachandran eS M; MAGANTI SHESHU MADHAV

    2016-01-01

    RNAi is a powerful tool to target the insect genes involved in host-pest interactions. Key insect genes are the choice for silencing to achieve pest derived resistance where resistance genes are not available in gene pool of host plant. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of dsRNA designed from two genes Cytochrome P450 derivative (CYP6) and Aminopeptidase N (APN) of rice yellow stem borer (YSB) on growth and development of insect. The bioassays involved injection of ch...

  19. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species. This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  20. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-07-08

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  1. Environmental safety to decomposer invertebrates of azadirachtin (neem) as a systemic insecticide in trees to control emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzweiser, David; Thompson, Dean; Grimalt, Susana; Chartrand, Derek; Good, Kevin; Scarr, Taylor

    2011-09-01

    The non-target effects of an azadirachtin-based systemic insecticide used for control of wood-boring insect pests in trees were assessed on litter-dwelling earthworms, leaf-shredding aquatic insects, and microbial communities in terrestrial and aquatic microcosms. The insecticide was injected into the trunks of ash trees at a rate of 0.2 gazadirachtin cm(-1) tree diameter in early summer. At the time of senescence, foliar concentrations in most (65%) leaves where at or below detection (emerald ash borer, resultant foliar concentrations in senescent leaf material are likely to pose little risk of harm to decomposer invertebrates.

  2. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus Fallén (Homoptera: Delphacidae, is a serious pest of rice (Oryza sativa L. in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid (SA synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation (hpi increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid (JA synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase (POD, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  3. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canxing; Duan; Jiaojiao; Yu; Jianyu; Bai; Zhendong; Zhu; Xiaoming; Wang

    2014-01-01

    The small brown planthopper(SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallén(Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice(Oryza sativa L.) in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid(SA) synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation(hpi) increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid(JA) synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase(POD), and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  4. Impact of Mountain Pine Beetle Infestation on Snowmelt: Variations with Vegetation Structure and Geographical Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni-Meister, W.

    2015-12-01

    The warming climate resulted in the current outbreak of mountain pine beetles (MPB) in western and northwestern US. and Western Canada. Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, and British Columbia are also currently experiencing widespread mountain pine beetle infestations. Forest disturbance due to MPB can have a large impact on hydrological processes specifically snow accumulation and snowmelt. In those regions, spring snowmelt is a major water resource and MPB infestations can have a big impact on water resource management. MPB infestations cause forest canopies to gradually diminish over the course of several years, they therefore impact snow interception and radiation balance at snow surface, thus snowmelt. Past studies on this topic have achieved contradicting results. This study focuses on understanding how the impacts of MPB infestations on snow surface radiation balance and snowmelt rates vary with vegetation structure and geographical locations. We selected four sites in northern Colorado and four sites in the Cascade Mountains in Oregon with varying intensities of MPB. Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) data from SNOTEL sites and MPB-caused forest disturbance data extracted from Landsat time series disturbance maps were used for our analysis. Our results show that MPB sites show larger snow accumulation for sites in Colorado and Cascade Mountains. However snowmelt rate varies differently. For sites in Colorado, snow melts faster in the MPB sites than in the healthy forest sites. In contrary, in the Cascade Mountains, snow stays longer in MPB sites than in healthy and undisturbed sites. Our modeling study shows that shortwave radiation is a dominant factor for radiation balance in the mid-latitude region (Colorado). There, MPB infestations lead to increased shortwave radiation and faster snowmelt. However, long wave radiation plays an important role for radiation balance in high latitude areas. MPB infestations decrease longwave radiation and result in snow

  5. Fatal Ichthyocotylurus erraticus infestation in Inca terns (Larosterna inca) in a zoological collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Wouter; Hoyer, Mark; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno; Ijzer, Jooske; de Jong, Sara; Cremers, Herman; Kik, Marja

    2014-06-01

    In a breeding group of Inca terns (Larosterna inca), 14 birds died without antemortem signs of illness. Other than a poor body condition and a bloody cloaca, no symptoms were observed. Gross necropsy revealed severe segmental hemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional trematodes in most birds. Histopathologic examination revealed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenum and cross-sections of trematodes in the lumen. The parasites were identified as Ichthyocotylurus erraticus, a trematode of fish-eating birds. The cause of the infestation most likely was the feeding of unfrozen fresh fish. We describe the first case of a lethal I. erraticus infestation in Inca terns.

  6. Population growth of carmine cochineal in giant cactus pear artificially infested on laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae) is up today, the main pest of the giant cactus pear in the states of Pernambuco, Paraíba and Ceará. This research aimed to measure the population growth of D. opuntiae in cladodes of giant cactus pear infested in the laboratory conditios. Cladodes of giant cactus pear were artificially infested with colonies carmine cochineal. The experiment was initiated on 10/02/2009 and ended 10/03/2009. Shaped population growth is a function of time and infesta...

  7. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  8. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  9. A key for identifying faecal smears to detect domestic infestations of triatomine bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Schofield

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of residual populations of domestic triatomine bugs that survive insecticide treatment is a key component of successful evaluation and vigilance for Chagas disease control. We have recently demonstrated that sheets of paper, tacked on to the walls of infested houses, can become streaked with the faeces of triatomine bugs and thus reveal thepresence of an infestation. In thispaper, wepresent a simple key to differentiate the faecal streaks of triatomine bugs from those of other domestic arthropods such as cockroaches, ticks and cimicid bedbugs.

  10. Infestation of a bird and two cats by larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, R D; Kanton, K; Foster, C N; Steinberg, H; Pellitteri, P

    2001-09-01

    The larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), commonly known as the Indian meal moth, often cause enormous losses in stored food supplies. We present three clinical case reports of accidental infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in two domestic cats and one parakeet. A larva gained entry into the avian host and subsequently migrated to the brain. It was alive, covered with "silk-like" fibers and confirmed to be a fourth instar. Plodia interpunctella larvae were excised with forceps from the subcutaneous tissues of the ear and neck of two cats in a different household. Previous reports of infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in vertebrates are unknown.

  11. Effect of a herbal compound for treatment of sarcoptic mange infestations on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S S

    1996-06-01

    Charmil gel, a herbal product was tried against Sarcoptes scabei var canis on dogs and its efficacy was compared with that of amitraz. Mite scrapings examined at scheduled intervals after the topical application of Charmil gel caused complete recovery after 14 days in severe infestation and 7 to 10 days in mild to moderate infestations with regrowth of hair on Day 28 post-treatment. No adverse reactions were observed except mild irritation and restlessness, which persisted for a few hours soon after application.

  12. On the efficacy of Co-trimoxazole as an oral treatment for pediculosis capitis infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Ramadan, N I; Mahmoud, M S; Lashen, A H

    1996-04-01

    No doubt, pediculosis capitis or Pediculus h. capitis infestation is an increasing health problem particularly among Egyptian children. Many chemical pediculocides are used with a variety of effectiveness and side effects. Meanwhile, Co-trimoxazole (Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole) have shown some pediculocidal action. In this paper, Co-trimoxazole was given to patients infested with pediculosis capitis. Prolonged course was needed to free the patients from adult and nymphal stages but not the eggs (nits). The results were discussed. It was concluded that until the discovery of cheap, safe and effective oral drug, topical application of pediculocides as ointment or shampoo is the method of choice.

  13. Treatment of pediculosis capitis infested children with 1% permethrin shampoo in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Suleyman; Sahin, Izzet

    2005-10-01

    Pediculosis capitis (head lice) is an infestation that affects many children. Although, there are a number of different treatment modalities, at the present study, we investigated the efficacy of permethrin in the treatment of pediculosis capitis in children. This study was carried out in 3 village primary schools in the Kayseri region involving 185 of 712 school children infested with Pediculus humanus capitis during a survey conducted in March 2001. It was found that 173 (97.29%) of the 178 students who applied the prescribed medications were cured, indicating that interestingly 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada) is an effective and safe treatment choice for pediculosis capitis.

  14. The infestation of Dermestes ater (De Geer) on a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2009-04-01

    A human corpse at an advanced stage of decomposition was found in a house in the residential area of Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia. Entomological specimens were collected during the post-mortem and the live specimens were subsequently reared at room temperature. The time of death was estimated to have been 14 days previous to the discovery of the body based on the police investigation. Both adult and larvae of the beetle Dermestes ater (De Geer) were found to be infesting the corpse and from the stage of decomposition of the body and the estimated time of death it would appear that infestation may have begun at a relatively early stage of decomposition.

  15. Phthirus pubis infestation of the eyelashes and scalp hairs in a girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nariko; Nomoto, Hiroo; Hayasaka, Seiji; Nagaki, Yasunori

    2003-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl was seen because of foreign bodies on the eyelashes. Parasites and their nits were seen on the patient's eyelashes and scalp. Her parents denied having Phthirus pubis infection of the axillary, pubic, or body hair, despite confirmation of the infestation in their child. The parasites were removed and the lashes with nits were cut off at the base. The parasite was identified as P. pubis. The scalp was washed with phenothrin shampoo. One month later no P. pubis infestation was found. Removal of the parasites, cutting the lashes at the base, and using phenothrin shampoo on the scalp were effective in resolving phthiriasis.

  16. A previously unidentified Chorioptes species infesting outer ear canals of moose (Alces alces: characterization of the mite and the pathology of infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Roland

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decade, Chorioptes mites occupying the outer ear canals have been a common finding at routine necropsies of moose (Alces alces in Sweden, but neither the taxonomy of the mites nor lesions from the infestation have been investigated. In this study, the mites are characterized by morphological and molecular techniques, and the histopathology of the skin of the outer ear canal is described. Methods External auditory meatuses from 53 necropsied moose were examined for the presence of Chorioptes, and samples from outer ear canals were taken for histopathological and microbiological examination. A proportion of the mites from each moose was identified to species. The DNA was extracted from mites from three moose, and their ITS-2 sequences were determined; these sequences were compared phylogenetically to sequences from other Chorioptes taxa. Results Chorioptes mites were found in 43 (81% of the 53 moose. The mites had morphological and genetic characteristics distinct from those of C. texanus and C. bovis, the two species generally accepted within the genus. Morphology also did not argue for a diagnosis as C. crewei, C. mydaus or C. panda. On histopathology, lesions were characterized by a hyperplastic perivascular to interstitial dermatitis with epidermal hyperkeratosis and crust formation. Dermal inflammatory infiltrates were composed of mixed T- and B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, whereas eosinophils were notably uncommon. Staphylococcus aureus was grown from the infested epidermis of five of 14 examined moose. Conclusion Chorioptes mite infestation was frequently detected in the outer ear canals of moose in Sweden. The mites were evidently pathogenic, being associated with inflammatory lesions of the external auditory meatus. Our studies indicate infestations with a previously undescribed Chorioptes species.

  17. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  18. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation shall not be moved interstate unless they are treated, handled,...

  19. A Survey of Bedbug (Cimex lectularius Infestation in Some Homes and Hostels in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onah Isegbe Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (χ2=61.44, df=4, P<0.05. Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%, followed by males 223 (31.6%, and females 190 (27.0%. There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (χ2=0.8, df=4, P<0.05. The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%, followed by males 538 (36.1%, and then females 496 (35.3%. The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma.

  20. Cross-transmission studies with Hypoderma lineatum de Vill. (Diptera: Oestridae): attempted infestation of goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Douglas D; Otranto, Domenico

    2006-11-05

    The potential for cross-transmission of Hypoderma lineatum from cattle to domestic goats (Capra hircus) was examined using artificial infestation techniques. Two routes of infestation, subcutaneous injection and dermal penetration, were used to expose goats to newly hatched first instars. Presence of antibodies and appearance of circulating antigen (hypodermin C) were evaluated at selected intervals for up to 40 weeks post-infestation. In addition, immunoblots against H. lineatum first-instar proteins were conducted using sera taken at 10 weeks post-infestation. Goats were palpated for the presence of developing larvae at sub-dermal sites beginning at week 30 pi. No developing larvae were palpated at any time, regardless of the route of infestation nor was circulating antigen detected in any infested goats. Antibodies were present at weeks 6 and 10 and week 27 pi in both infested groups. Immunoblots indicated all infested goats produced antibodies to first instar H. lineatum antigens. H. lineatum appears to be incapable of completing development in domestic goats although the transient appearance of ELISA detectable antibodies and the presence of bands on immunoblots suggests that at least some larvae survive long-enough to engender a humoural response. The host specificity of H. lineatum is discussed in light of the general concepts of host-parasite relationships of oestrids.

  1. Species diversity, phenology, and temporal flight patterns of Hypothenemus pygmy borers (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothenemus are some of the most common and diverse bark beetles in natural as well as urban habitats, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Despite their ecological success and ubiquitous presence, very little is known about the habits of this genus. This study aimed to understand sp...

  2. Assessing non-target effects and host feeding of the exotic parasitoid Apanteles taragamae, a potential biological control agent of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Apanteles taragamae Viereck is a larval parasitoid introduced in Benin for classical biological control of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata Fabricius. In the laboratory, we evaluated the effects of A. taragamae on non-target herbivore species, and on another parasitoid of M. vitrata, i.e. the egg

  3. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of egg and larval parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA using sentinel eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and Spathius agrili Yang, and one egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang, were introduced into the United Sta...

  4. Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

  5. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  6. Biology and Life History of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a North American Larval Parasitoid Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a serious invasive pests of North American ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To facilitate the development of potential augmentative biocon...

  7. Down regulation of a gene for cadherin but not alkaline phosphatase associated with Cry1Ab resistance in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of tran...

  8. Mapping of QTL for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer attack using the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordas, Bernardo; Malvar, Rosa A; Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Romay, Maria C; Butron, Ana

    2009-11-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stem borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few experiments have been carried out to detect QTL for corn borer resistance in the B73 x Mo17 population. The objective of this work was to locate QTL for resistance to stem tunneling and kernel damage by MCB in the IBM population. We detected a QTL for kernel damage at bin 8.05, although the effect was small and two QTL for stalk tunneling at bins 1.06 and 9.04 in which the additive effects were 4 cm, approximately. The two QTL detected for MCB resistance were close to other QTL consistently found for European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) resistance, indicating mechanisms of resistance common to both pests or gene clusters controlling resistance to different plagues. The precise mapping achieved with the IBM population will facilitate the QTL pyramiding and the positional cloning of the detected QTL.

  9. New Ichneumonidae, parasitic upon the rice borer Rupela albinella (Cr.) (Lep. Pyralidae) in Surinam, with a key to the species of Strabotes (Hym., Ichneumonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, K.W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Venturia ovivenans nov. spec, and Strabotes rupelae nov. spec, are described. Both were reared from the rice stem borer Rupela albinella (Cr.) in Surinam (Sth. America). Strabotes abdominalis obscurus nov. subspec. is described from Columbia and a key is given to the known species of the Neotropic g

  10. A new species of oobius trjapitzin (hymenoptera:encyrtidae) from the russian far east that parasitizes eggs of emerald ash borer (coleoptera:buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  11. The mating and oviposition behavior of the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), with reference to the influence of host plant condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive wood-boring beetle accidentally introduced to North America from northeastern Asia. While our knowledge of EAB ecology has increased greatly over the past decade, we still know relatively little abou...

  12. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which has killed millions of ash trees since it was first detected in Michigan. A native parasitoid like A. cappaerti...

  13. Evaluating a new method for monitoring the field establishment and parasitism of Oobius agrili, an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oobius agrili is a solitary egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and can be responsible for 50-60% of EAB egg mortality in its native range. O. agrili has been released for biological control of EAB in the US since 2007; however, current methods to monitor its establishme...

  14. Natural enemies implicated in the regulation of an invasive pest: a life table analysis of the population dynamics of the emerald ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a serious invasive forest pest that has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus) trees in the United States and Canada. By caging EAB adults on trunks of healthy ash trees, we established three generations of experimental cohorts from ...

  15. Natural enemies and their impacts on emerald ash borer populations in its native range, with new records of parasitism by two species of beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the natural enemies of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and their role in regulating the pest population dynamics, we conducted field surveys at multiple forest sites with variable host densities in the pest’s native range (north an...

  16. Research on Corn Borer Prevention by Using Beauveria Bassiana Sealing Method%白僵菌封垛防治玉米螟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳广

    2014-01-01

    Corn borer is one of the main pests of maize crops. Using beauveria bassiana sealing method can decrease the quantity of corn borer larva. The article introduces the features and growing condition of corn borer, expounds the theory, methods, effects, considerations and advantages of using beauveria bassiana sealing method for corn borer prevention, provides a reference for the application and extension for the technique.%玉米螟是危害玉米作物的主要害虫之一,利用白僵菌可以有效减少玉米螟幼虫数量。介绍玉米螟的危害特点与发生条件,阐述白僵菌封垛防治玉米螟技术的原理、方法、效果、注意事项及优点,为该技术的推广应用提供参考。

  17. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  18. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  19. Olfactory response of predatory Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) to the odours host plant infested by Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Khalid A.; Roff, M. N. Mohamad; Salam, Mansour; Hanifah Mohd, Y.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    Plant infested with herbivores, release volatile that can be used by natural enemies to locate their herbivorous prey. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the olfactory responses of predator Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae), to chili plant infected with eggs, nymphs of Bemisia tabaci, using Y-tube olfactometer. The results shown that predator, M. caliginosus has ability to discriminate between non-infested and infested plant by B. tabaci. Moreover, the predator preferred plants with nymphs over plants with eggs. This suggested that M. caliginous uses whitefly-induced volatile as reliable indicators to distinguish between infested chili plants by nymphs, eggs and non-infested plants. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by M. caliginosus to plant with and without Bemisia tabaci.

  20. Ectoparasite infestation and sex-biased local recruitment of hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeb, P.; Werner, I.; Mateman, A.C.; Kolliker, M.; Brinkhof, M.W.G.; Lessells, C.M.; Richner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Dispersal patterns of organisms are a fundamental aspect of their ecology, modifying the genetic and social structure of local populations(1-4). Parasites reduce the reproductive success and survival of hosts and thereby exert selection pressure on host life-history traits(4-6), possibly affecting h