WorldWideScience

Sample records for boreholes

  1. Borehole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature derived from boreholes drilled into the Earth crust. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional summary...

  2. Deep boreholes; Tiefe Bohrloecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit gGmbH Koeln (Germany); Charlier, Frank [NSE international nuclear safety engineering gmbh, Aachen (Germany); Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; and others

    2016-02-15

    The report on deep boreholes covers the following subject areas: methods for safe enclosure of radioactive wastes, requirements concerning the geological conditions of possible boreholes, reversibility of decisions and retrievability, status of drilling technology. The introduction covers national and international activities. Further chapters deal with the following issues: basic concept of the storage in deep bore holes, status of the drilling technology, safe enclosure, geomechanics and stability, reversibility of decisions, risk scenarios, compliancy with safe4ty requirements and site selection criteria, research and development demand.

  3. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, W. Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spane, Frank A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  4. Safety valve for offshore borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, H.L.; Randermann, E. Jr.; Musik, O.J.

    1977-10-06

    The invention concerns a new and improved submarine safety valve with a valve element which rotate, which can be used, in emergencies, to separate the wound-up piping which extends into the borehole and to close the production line.

  5. MWD tool for deep, small diameter boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buytaert, J.P.R.; Duckworth, A.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring a drilling parameters while drilling a borehole in an earth formation, wherein the borehole includes a small diameter deep borehole portion and a large diameter upper borehole portion. It includes small diameter drillstring means for drilling the deep borehole portion; sensor means, disposed within the small diameter drillstring means, for measuring a drilling parameter characteristic of the deep portion of the borehole while drilling the deep portion of the borehole and for providing sensor output signals indicative of the measured parameter; an upper drillstring portion extending between the surface of the formation and the small diameter drillstring means, the upper drillstring portion including a large diameter drillstring portion; data transmission means disposed within the large diameter drillstring portion and responsive to the sensor output.

  6. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  7. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  8. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  9. Backtracking urbanization from borehole temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Peter; Rivera, Jaime A.; Blum, Philipp; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2016-04-01

    The thermal regime in shallow ground is influenced by various factors such as short and long term climatic variations, atmospheric urban warming, land use change and geothermal energy use. Temperature profiles measured in boreholes represent precious archives of the past thermal conditions at the ground surface. Changes at the ground surface induce time-dependent variations in heat transfer. Consequently, instantaneous and persistent changes such as recent atmospheric climate change or paving of streets cause perturbations in temperature profiles, which now can be found in depths of hundred meters and even more. In our work, we focus on the influence of urbanization on temperature profiles. We inspect profiles measured in borehole heat exchanger (BHE) tubes before start of energy extraction. These were obtained at four locations in the city and suburbs of Zurich, Switzerland, by lowering a specifically developed temperature logging sensor in the 200-400 m long tubes. Increased temperatures indicate the existence of a subsurface urban heat island (SUHI). At the studied locations groundwater flow can be considered negligible, and thus conduction is the governing heat transport process. These locations are also favorable, as long-term land use changes and atmospheric temperature variations are well documented for more than the last century. For simulating transient land use changes and their effects on borehole temperature profiles, a novel analytical framework based on the superposition of Green's functions is presented. This allows flexible and fast computation of the long term three-dimensional evolution of the thermal regime in shallow ground. It also facilitates calibration of unknown spatially distributed parameter values and their correlation. With the given spatial and temporal discretization of land use and background atmospheric temperature variations, we are able to quantify the heat contribution by asphalt and buildings. By Bayesian inversion it is

  10. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tillman, Jack Bruce [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  11. Model on surface borehole squeezing deformation fracture*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai-tao; HU Qian-ting; HUANG Sheng-shu

    2009-01-01

    As a good method to solve the problem of high methane on the workface and in the goaf, drawing coal strata methane through a surface borehole is used. However, the excavation affected the overlying rock strata greatly. When the excavation face passed through the surface borehole position, the surface borehole fractures fast. This problem was seriously related to the unformed squeeze effect. Therefore, a squeezing deformation fracture model based on the rock strata squeezing effect was set up. At the same time, a 3DEC simulation model is presented to confirm the theory. The result shows that the mod-el is reliable and has a good engineering application value.

  12. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams , S. C.; Ahlquist, Stephen T.; Fetters, Jeffree R.; Garcia, Ben; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-01-28

    This report presents the field-generated borehole log, lithologic summary, and the record of samples collected during the recent drilling and sampling of the basalt interval of borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4996 was one of four exploratory borings, one core hole and three boreholes, drilled to investigate and acquire detailed stratigraphic and down-hole seismic data. This data will be used to define potential seismic impacts and refine design specifications for the Hanford Site WTP.

  13. SNG-log in borehole Ermelund-208

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    A Spectral Natural Gamma-ray log has been run in a borehole in Ermelunden. The vertical distribution of Th, U, and K is similar to that observed in neighbouring boreholes. A new measuring and data processing technique was used and the probes own background signal was determined. Surprisingly a si......-rays are emitted and detected by the probe. The intensity of cosmic radiation varies with depth, and, therefore, slightly influences the accuracy of the thorium concentration determination....

  14. Slim hole logging in shallow boreholes

    OpenAIRE

    Monnet, R.; L. Baron; Chapellier, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    While well logging, a continuous recording of the physical parameters down a borehole, is employed systematically in petroleum exploration, its application in environmental prospections, such as hydrogeology or civil engeering, has been very limited. This deficiency is partly due to the fact that logging probes used in this kind of boreholes are generally not calibrated and the results are more or less qualitative. The purpose of this lecture is to show that it is possible to calibrate these ...

  15. Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P R Sorensen

    Full Text Available Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m. These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3 at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied.

  16. Working programme for MIU-4 borehole investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Kunio; Nakano, Katsushi; Metcalfe, R.; Ikeda, Koki; Goto, Jun-ichi; Amano, Kenji; Takeuchi, Shinji; Hama, Katsuhiro; Matsui, Hiroya [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    1999-08-01

    Surface-based investigations have now been carried out since 1997 according to the Master Plan of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) (PNC, 1996). The specific goals of the surface-based investigations are: To acquire information necessary for understanding the undisturbed deep geological environment as a background of the MIU and for predicting the effects of the construction of underground facilities. To establish methodologies for evaluating predictions. To formulate detailed design concepts for underground facilities and to plan scientific investigations during the construction of the MIU. In addition, appropriate, systematic methodologies for investigating the deep subsurface should be developed through the surface-based investigations. It is expected that the surface-based investigations with further borehole investigations will last until March 2002. However, the construction of the MIU was provisionally planned to commence in the 2000 financial year. JNC has drilled four 1,000m-deep boreholes and one 400m-deep borehole at the MIU site (JNC's land of about 140,000m{sup 2}) in Akeyo-cho, Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture. In the surface-based investigations, specifically three 1,000m-deep boreholes, MIU-1, MIU-2 and MIU-3, have been drilled. Investigations in these boreholes have characterised mainly the geological structure and hydrogeological features of the deep geological environment. In addition, JNC has been developing investigation techniques and improving equipment for these investigations. At the time of writing, a series of borehole investigations are being carried out in the MIU-3 borehole. The MIU-3 borehole investigations aim mainly at characterising the Tsukiyoshi fault that intersects the crystalline basement in the site. (J.P.N.)

  17. BASIMO - Borehole Heat Exchanger Array Simulation and Optimization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Borehole heat exchangers represent a well-established technology, which pushes for new fields of applications and novel modifications. Current simulation tools cannot - or only to some extent - describe features like inclined or partly insulated boreholes unless they run fully discretized models of the borehole heat exchangers. However, fully discretized models often come at a high computational cost, especially for large arrays of borehole heat exchangers. We present a tool, which uses one dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for the borehole heat exchangers coupled with a numerical finite element model for the subsurface heat transport. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh bypasses the limitations of structured grids for borehole path geometries, while the thermal resistance and capacity model is improved to account for borehole heat exchanger properties changing with depth. The presented tool benefits from the fast analytical solution of the thermal interactions within the boreholes while still allowing for a detailed consideration of the borehole heat exchanger properties.

  18. Optimization of Borehole Heat Exchanger Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Arrays of borehole heat exchangers are an increasingly popular source for renewable energy. Furthermore, they can serve as borehole thermal energy storages for seasonally fluctuating heat sources like solar thermal energy or district heating grids. However, the uncertainty of geological parameters and the nonlinear behavior of the complex system make it difficult to simulate and predict the required design of borehole heat exchanger arrays. As a result, the arrays easily turn out to be over or undersized, which compromises the economic feasibility of these systems. Here, we present a novel optimization strategy for the design of borehole thermal energy storages. The arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion method is used to build a proxy model from a set of numerical training simulations, which allows for the consideration of parameter uncertainties. Thus, the resulting proxy model bypasses the problem of excessive computation time for the numerous function calls required for a mathematical optimization. Additionally, we iteratively refine the proxy model during the optimization procedure using additional numerical simulation runs. With the presented solution, many aspects of borehole heat exchanger arrays can be optimized under geological uncertainty.

  19. Heat Calculation of Borehole Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Filatov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a heat calculation method of borehole heat exchangers (BHE which can be used for designing and optimization of their design values and included in a comprehensive mathematical model of heat supply system with a heat pump based on utilization of low-grade heat from the ground.The developed method of calculation is based on the reduction of the problem general solution pertaining to heat transfer in BHE with due account of heat transfer between top-down and bottom-up flows of heat carrier to the solution for a boundary condition of one kind on the borehole wall. Used the a method of electrothermal analogy has been used for a calculation of the thermal resistance and  the required shape factors for calculation of  a borehole filler thermal resistance have been obtained numerically. The paper presents results of heat calculation of various BHE designs in accordance with the proposed method.

  20. Developments of borehole strain observation outside China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱泽华; 石耀霖

    2004-01-01

    Borehole strain observation is playing an increasingly important role in the study on the crustal movements. It hasbeen used by many countries such as China, USA, Japan, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Iceland and Italy, in research fields of plate tectonics, earthquake, volcanic eruption, dam safety, oil field subsidence, mining collapse andso on. Borehole strainmeter has been improved rapidly and tends to get more and more components included inone probe. Based on observations by this kind of instruments, studies on seismic strain step, slow earthquake,earthquake precursor and volcanic eruption forecasting have made remarkable achievements. In the coming years,borehole strain observation is going to become one major geodetic means, together with GPS and InSAR.

  1. Borehole radar and BIPS investigations in boreholes at the Boda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A. [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    As part of the studies conducted in the Boda area, measurements with borehole radar, borehole TV (BIPS) and deviation measurements were performed during May 2000. The investigations were carried out in four percussion-drilled boreholes with a total length of 514 m. Two boreholes are vertical and two are directed into and below the cave area. The BIPS measurement showed the presence of 14 open fractures. Largest apparent aperture width of open fractures was 133 mm. In the lowest part in boreholes 2, 3, and 4, particles in suspension deteriorated the visibility. BIPS has revealed a dominating subhorizontal fracture set and another striking NW to N-S with a dip close to vertical. Possible but very uncertain is a third fracture set striking NE and dipping steeply towards S. The open and partly open fractures forms an average block size 11 m wide and 6 m high, while the length of the block is uncertain. Of 98 borehole radar reflectors interpreted to intersect within BIPS-mapped sections, 90 were possible to combine with BIPS-mapped structures, i.e. 92% of the radar reflectors. The fractured rock around Boda is a shallow feature, since borehole radar and BIPS measurements shows no evidence of increased fracturing or the presence of caves at larger depth in the Boda area. The result indicates that the formation of the superficial fracture system (with caves included) at Boda in all probability is connected to glacial action, such as banking.

  2. Slim hole logging in shallow boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Monnet

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available While well logging, a continuous recording of the physical parameters down a borehole, is employed systematically in petroleum exploration, its application in environmental prospections, such as hydrogeology or civil engeering, has been very limited. This deficiency is partly due to the fact that logging probes used in this kind of boreholes are generally not calibrated and the results are more or less qualitative. The purpose of this lecture is to show that it is possible to calibrate these tools in order to obtain quantitative results, to make available to geologists, engineers and technicians engaged in shallow exploration, the information required for effectively applying the well-logging method.

  3. Critical condition study of borehole stability during air drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Jingen; Zou Linzhan; Tan Qiang; Yan Wei; Gao Deli; Zhang Hanlin; Yan Xiuliang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the existence of the critical condition of borehole stability during air drilling.Rock Failure Process Analysis Code2D was used to set up a damage model of the borehole excavated in strain-softening rock.Damage evolution around the borehole was studied by tracking acoustic emission.The study indicates that excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is formed around borehole because of stress concentration after the borehole is excavated.There is a critical condition for borehole stability; the borehole will collapse when the critical damage condition is reached.The critical condition of underground excavation exists not only in elastic and ideal plastic material but in strain-softening material as well.The research is helpful to developing an evaluation method of borehole stability during air drilling.

  4. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The h

  5. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  6. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  7. Near Field Investigation of Borehole Heat Exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative and renewable energy source, the shallow geothermal energy evolving as one of the most popular energy source due to its easy accessibility and availability worldwide, and the ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are the most frequent applications for extracting the energy from the shallow subsurface. As the heat extraction capacity of the GSHP system applications arises, the design of the borehole heat exchangers (BHE), which is the connected part of the system in the grou...

  8. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  9. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Utilization of test boreholes in prospecting and mining operations. [NONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierak, J.P.

    1987-02-01

    Test boreholes are of fundamental importance for mining and prospecting operations. The drilling techniques are suited to the geological conditions and to the nature of the information desired. At Cogema, non-coring test boreholes, mainly drilled by a rotary percussive method, represent over 90% of the footage drilled; they achieve impressive performances at a cost which is by far less than that of coring test boreholes. The geological exploitation of these test boreholes is effected by a combined investigation of well logging and of cuttings. These investigations lead to an assessment for certain substances like uranium or coal or they mark the limits for favourable zones which alone will form the object of coring boreholes. In mining operations, boreholes indicate the definition for workable panels; they ensure at less cost the distribution of fluids, the forwarding of stowing material and the mine ventilation.

  11. The experimental study of acoustic field in an asymmetric borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINWeijun; ZHANGChengyu; ZHANGHailan; WANGXiuming

    2003-01-01

    The acoustic field in an asymmetric borehole was investigated by recording and comparing the waveforms with different offset in both axial symmetric borehole and axial asymmetric borehole. The two-dimensional spectrum in wave-number and frequency domain was also calculated and compared with the result of numeric simulation with 2.5-D finite difference method, and a consistent result was obtained. This work provides an accurate verification of our investigation of asymmetric borehole with 2.5-D finite difference method.

  12. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  13. Borehole Logging for Uranium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Nyegaard, P.; Christiansen, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium-iodide, and the photo......The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium...... of the spectrometer system were determined by calculating the average number of U and thorium (Th) counts per meter of borehole and comparing these with the U-Th concentrations in 1-m sections of analyzed drill core. The sensitivity and the background count rate in the uranium window varied appreciably from one hole...

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer (Malaa Geoscience AB (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  15. Surface borehole synthesis tension deformation fracture time-space rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianzhong; Sun Haitao; Hu Qianting

    2012-01-01

    In order to release the tension and shear effect of the superjacent rock strata movement during excavation in coal mine,protect the surface borehole case from fracturing fast and make a good use of the surface borehole during goaf methane drawing,a common synthesis tension deformation fracture model was set up based on the synthesis tension effect of the rock strata,and the deformation rule of the surface borehole case with time and space was researched.The results suggest that,to reduce the deformation the surface borehole should be built between the boundary of the stope and the knee of subsidence curve.At the same time,a 3DEC simulation model and an engineering example were carried out to examine the rules of theoretical model.The result suggests that the model and the rules accord to the test and have good building and protection engineering application values to the surface borehole.

  16. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  17. Borehole plugging by compaction process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; MacGowan, C.; Nolan, E.; Morey, R.; Palty, A.

    1976-08-01

    The requirements of an overall program to preserve the integrity of a repository formation are documented. The repository is intended to be in stable earth stratum used as a safe and permanent storage area for nuclear waste material. These wastes represent an environmental hazard for a period of up to 200,000 years. An engineering analysis, a reliability and quality-assurance program, and a development program for borehole plugging by compaction process, using natural earthen materials, are presented. Part 1 provides the engineering analysis of downhole compaction methods and related instrumentation along with a recommended development plan from concept through a pilot in-situ experiment. Part 2 provides a reliability and quality-assurance program from laboratory testing of materials through an in-situ experiment.

  18. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  19. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  20. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  1. BoreholeAR: A mobile tablet application for effective borehole database visualization using an augmented reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Boring logs are widely used in geological field studies since the data describes various attributes of underground and surface environments. However, it is difficult to manage multiple boring logs in the field as the conventional management and visualization methods are not suitable for integrating and combining large data sets. We developed an iPad application to enable its user to search the boring log rapidly and visualize them using the augmented reality (AR) technique. For the development of the application, a standard borehole database appropriate for a mobile-based borehole database management system was designed. The application consists of three modules: an AR module, a map module, and a database module. The AR module superimposes borehole data on camera imagery as viewed by the user and provides intuitive visualization of borehole locations. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map with additional map layers. The database module provides data management functions for large borehole databases for other modules. Field survey was also carried out using more than 100,000 borehole data.

  2. Research borehole drilling activity for boreholes DH-18, DH-19, DC-12, DC-13, DC-14, DC-15, and deepening of existing borehole DC-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This report is an environmental evaluation of the impacts of proposed borehole drilling activities at the Hanford Site, northwest of Richland, Washington. The proposed action is to drill six research boreholes ranging in depth from 137 to 1372 meters (m) (250 to 4500 +- feet (ft)). In addition, an existing borehole (DC-7) will be extended from 1249 to 1524 m (4099 to 5000 +- ft). The purpose of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) borehole drilling activities is to collect data on in situ rock formations that are considered potentialy suitable for nuclear waste repositories. The technical program efforts necessary to identify and qualify specific underground waste facility sites in candidate rock formations include geologic and hydrologic studies (seismicity and tectonics, rock structure and stratigraphy, lithology, etc.). Borehole drilling is an integral part of the geological studies and is essential to a thorough understanding of potentially suitable geologic formations. The purpose of the proposed drilling activities is to obtain data for evaluating Columbia River basalts that are being evaluated by the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program to determine their suitability potential for nuclear waste repositories. Unavoidable impact to the environment is limited primarily to the clearing of land needed for access and drilling operations. Considerations exercised during site preparation, drilling, and subsequent site restoration will limit modification of the natural environment to the minimum required for accomplishment of test objectives.

  3. Shock-induced wave propagation over porous and fractured borehole zones: Theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, H.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Borehole waves are strongly affected by adjacent porous zones or by fractures intersecting the borehole. A theoretical description for both porous and fracture zones is possible based on the introduction of an effective borehole fluid bulk modulus, characterizing the wave attenuation via borehole wa

  4. Piceance Basin Oil Shale Data: Assays, Boreholes and Formation Tops

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This database contains Oil Shale Assays, Borehole Locations and Formation Tops that were used in support of the 2009 Oil Shale Assessment (Survey Fact Sheet...

  5. An acoustic imaging system of migration technique used in borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Weijun; WU Nan; SUN Jian; ZHANG Hailan

    2008-01-01

    In order to detect the damage of casing boreholes, an acoustic imaging method with a two-dimensional ultrasonic array was presented. Each element of the array independently emits down ultrasonic waves, the echoes received by all elements are sampled and transmitted to a computer on ground surface, where the dynamic migration method is used to form a 2 or 3-dimensional image of the situation in the borehole. The numerical simulation and experiment are conducted that demonstrate a high imaging accuracy with a small number of elements used in array. Since the delay circuits used in the traditional phased array imaging system is not needed in this system, and all data process could be completed in a ground system,the complexity and the volume of system in borehole may be significantly simplified, which is critical to the borehole instrument.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Two Borehole Heat Exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi Pagola, Maria; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines key results from a comparative study of two different pipe borehole heat exchanger (BHE) configurations. The work was carried out by VIA University College and in collaboration with GM Plast A/S.......This report outlines key results from a comparative study of two different pipe borehole heat exchanger (BHE) configurations. The work was carried out by VIA University College and in collaboration with GM Plast A/S....

  7. Development of a Single-Borehole Radar for Well Logging

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng-ou Zhou; Qing Zhao; Haining Yang; Tingjun Li

    2012-01-01

    An impulse-based single-borehole radar prototype has been developed for well logging. The borehole radar is comprised of subsurface sonde and surface equipment. An armored 7-conductor well logging cable is used to connect subsurface sonde and surface equipment which is well compatible with the other well logging instruments. The performance experiments of the prototype have been conducted in a test field. The results show that the prototype system is capable of detecting the target which is 8...

  8. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Correcting Borehole Temperture Profiles for the Effects of Postglacial Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, V.; Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.

    2010-09-01

    Though the investigation of observed borehole temperatures has proved to be a valuable tool for the reconstruction of ground surface temperature histories, there are many open questions concerning the signifcance and accuracy of the reconstructions from these data. In particular, the temperature signal of the warming after the Last glacial Maximum (LGM) is still present in borehole temperature proiles. It also influences the relatively shallow boreholes used in current paleoclimate inversions to estimate temperature changes in the last centuries. This is shown using Monte Carlo experiments on past surface temperature change, using plausible distributions for the most important parameters, i.e.,amplitude and timing of the glacial-interglacial transition, the prior average temperature, and petrophysical properties. It has been argued that the signature of the last glacial-interglacial transition could be responsible for the high amplitudes of millennial temperature reconstructions. However, in shallow boreholes the additional effect of past climate can reasonably approximated by a linear variation of temperature with depth, and thus be accommodated by a "biased" background heat flow. This is good news for borehole climatology. A simple correction based on subtracting an appropriate prior surface temperature history shows promising results reducing these errors considerably, in particular with deeper boreholes, where the warming signal in heat flow can no longer be approximated linearly. We will show examples from North America and Eurasia, comparing temperatures reduced the proposed algoritm with AOGCM modeling results.

  10. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  11. Thermal modelling of borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy stores; Zur thermischen Modellierung von Erdwaermesonden und Erdsonden-Waermespeichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Dan

    2011-07-15

    The thermal use of the underground for heating and cooling applications can be done with borehole heat exchangers. This work deals with the further development of the modelling of thermal transport processes inside and outside the borehole as well as with the application of the further developed models. The combination of high accuracy and short computation time is achieved by the development of three-dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for borehole heat exchangers. Short transient transport processes can be calculated by the developed model with a considerable higher dynamic and accuracy than with known models from literature. The model is used to evaluate measurement data of a thermal response test by parameter estimation technique with a transient three-dimensional model for the first time. Clear advantages like shortening of the test duration are shown. The developed borehole heat exchanger model is combined with a three-dimensional description of the underground in the Finite-Element-Program FEFLOW. The influence of moving groundwater on borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy stores is then quantified.

  12. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  13. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  14. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  15. Comparing plume characteristics inferred from cross-borehole geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Eline Bojsen; Binley, Andrew; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2012-01-01

    Three cross-borehole geophysical methods are used to image water migration in the unsaturated zone after a point injection of water. Mass balance calculations and moment analysis highlight the differences in resolution between the methods. The choice of moisture content threshold value significan......Three cross-borehole geophysical methods are used to image water migration in the unsaturated zone after a point injection of water. Mass balance calculations and moment analysis highlight the differences in resolution between the methods. The choice of moisture content threshold value...... significantly influences results of the moment analysis. We compare results of three cross-borehole geophysical approaches for imaging tracer migration arising from a point injection of water in the unsaturated zone: three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), two-dimensional ground...

  16. Geology and Geophysics of new boreholes at the FEBEX site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, R.; Perez-Estaun, A. [Inst. Jaume Almera, CSIC (Spain); Missana, T.; Buil, B.; Garralon, A.; Gomez, J. [CIEMAT (Spain); Suso, J.; Carretero, G.; Bueno, J.; Martinez, L. [AITEMIN (Spain); Hernan, P. [ENRESA (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Geophysical data has been acquired to characterized the fracture network of the surrounding volume within the FEBEX gallery. The geophysic data include new borehole logging such as Natural Gamma and Borehole Ground Penetrating radar and cross hole ultrasonic tomography. The preliminary processing and integration of these different data sets indicates that the GPR record can provide images of the fractures, specially if they are fluid filled. The GPR is specially sensitive to the water content as it directly affects the electrical conductivity and the dielectric permittivity Therefore it is adequate for mapping water conductive fractures of the crystalline rock. The correlation of the anomalies measured by the natural gamma can be correlated with the 'diffractions' in the GPR and the fractures imaged by the borehole televiewer. The cross hole ultrasonic tomography data is under processing and no interpretations have been attempted yet.

  17. 2005 CNPC S&E International Seminar on Borehole Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From 23rd to 24th in September, the 2005 CNPC S&E International Seminar on Borehole Technology was held in Beijing. Invited by CNPC S&E, 68 honorable guests from 14 countries in Central Asia, Africa, North and South Americas and Southeast Asia and more than 100 representatives for the embassies in the People's Republic of China from 13 countries discussed the trend,progress and utilization of borehole technology and the service strength of CNPC's borehole technology together.The honorable attendees can further know the technical strength of CNPC S&E through this communication,and therefore find out the best cooperation way to create a higher value for the oil company in one hand, and improve the force and popularity of CNPC S&E in the international market on the other hand.

  18. Development of a Single-Borehole Radar for Well Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-ou Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An impulse-based single-borehole radar prototype has been developed for well logging. The borehole radar is comprised of subsurface sonde and surface equipment. An armored 7-conductor well logging cable is used to connect subsurface sonde and surface equipment which is well compatible with the other well logging instruments. The performance experiments of the prototype have been conducted in a test field. The results show that the prototype system is capable of detecting the target which is 8 meters away from the borehole. This radar prototype has been employed in a real oil field well with a depth of about 1600 meters. Compared with conventional resistivity well logging tools, the prototype system provides comprehensive well-bore formation analysis information.  

  19. Method of monitoring core sampling during borehole drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, A.; Barnes, D.; Gennings, T.L.

    1991-04-30

    This paper describes a method of monitoring the acquisition of a core sample obtained from a coring tool on a drillstring in a borehole. It comprises: measuring the weight of a portion of the drillstring at a pre-selected borehole depth when the drillstring is off bottom to define a first measurement; drilling to acquire a core sample; measuring the weight of a portion of the drillstring at a pre-selected borehole depth when the drillstring is off-bottom to define a second measurement; determining the difference between the first and second measurements, the difference corresponding to the weight of the core sample; and comparing the measured core sample weight to a calculated weight of a full core sample to determine if the core sample has been acquired.

  20. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  1. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor.......Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  2. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  4. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  5. Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Seismic signatures of partial saturation on acoustic borehole modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, G.E.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Van Dongen, M.E.H.

    2007-01-01

    We present an exact theory of attenuation and dispersion of borehole Stoneley waves propagating along porous rocks containing spherical gas bubbles by using the Biot theory. An effective frequency-dependent fluid bulk modulus is introduced to describe the dynamic (oscillatory) behavior of the gas bu

  7. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, John T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  8. Shock-Induced Borehole Waves and Fracture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, H.; Smeulders, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We perform wave experiments using a vertical shock tube setup. Shock waves are generated by the rupture of a thin membrane. In the test section, the incident pressure waves generate borehole-guided waves along water-saturated samples. The tube is equipped with side wall gages and a mobile pressure p

  9. Development of a mobile borehole investigation software using augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Kim, S.; Park, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the most developing technologies in smartphone and IT areas. While various applications have been developed using the AR, there are a few geological applications which adopt its advantages. In this study, a smartphone application to manage boreholes using AR has been developed. The application is consisted of three major modules, an AR module, a map module and a data management module. The AR module calculates the orientation of the device and displays nearby boreholes distributed in three dimensions using the orientation. This module shows the boreholes in a transparent layer on a live camera screen so the user can find and understand the overall characteristics of the underground geology. The map module displays the boreholes on a 2D map to show their distribution and the location of the user. The database module uses SQLite library which has proper characteristics for mobile platforms, and Binary XML is adopted to enable containing additional customized data. The application is able to provide underground information in an intuitive and refined forms and to decrease time and general equipment required for geological field investigations.

  10. Imaging for Borehole Wall by a Cylindrical Linear Phased Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bi-Xing; SHI Fang-Fang; WU Xian-Mei; GONG Jun-Jie; ZHANG Cheng-Guang

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new ultrasonic cylindrical linear phased array (CLPA) transducer is designed and fabricated for the borehole wall imaging in petroleum logging based on the previous theoretical researches.First,the CLPA transducer,which is made up of numbers of the piezoelectric elements distributed on the surface of a cylinder uniformly,is designed and fabricated.

  11. Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.

  12. X-ray inspection for boreholes in intact trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Hemming, J.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray systems are commonly used for luggage inspection. The size of these systems is sufficient for inspection of intact trees. The first objective of this study is to determine whether such an X-ray system is able to visualise boreholes in intact trees. The present study is partly based on human in

  13. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  14. Sealing of investigation boreholes, Phase 4 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Luleaa Technical University, Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [El-Tekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Associates, Goeteborg (Sweden); Ekman, Lennart [LE Geokonsult AB, Baelinge (Sweden)

    2011-09-15

    The report describes the outcome of Phase 4 of the project 'Sealing of investigation boreholes', which deals with 1) characterization and planning of borehole sealing, 2) performance and quality assessment, 3) sealing of large diameter holes, and 4) interaction of clay and concrete plugs. A specific goal was to find ways to characterize, plan and seal of boreholes so that their impact on the overall hydraulic performance of the repository rock can predicted and controlled. The work comprised selection of representative 'reference holes' at the Laxemar and Forsmark sites for development of a general programme for planning and simulating implementation of borehole plugging campaigns, considering also cost issues. A second aim was to define and quantify the role of seals in the reference holes for finding out how important sealing really is. A third was to test a practical way to seal large diameter boreholes and a fourth to find out how concrete matures and performs in contact with smectite clay. The study demonstrated, in conclusion, the need for developing techniques for preparing deep boreholes before lasting seals are installed in them, since poor sealing can short-circuit hydraulically important fracture zones intersected by the holes. The practically oriented sealing activities showed that the technique developed for tight sealing of large-diameter boreholes is practical and feasible. The issue of chemical stability was investigated by testing the performance and constitution of a plug consisting of CBI concrete in contact with smectite-rich seals for almost three years. This study showed that none of them underwent substantial degradation in this period of time, but chemical reactions and thereby generated changes in physical behaviour of the plug components had taken place, particularly in the clay. The rate of degradation is, however, not yet known. It was concluded from this study that it is suitable to carry out a corresponding

  15. Determination of correction factors for borehole natural gamma-ray measurements by Monte Carlo simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M.; Hendriks, Peter; Limburg, J.; de Meijer, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of natural gamma-ray spectra measured in boreholes has to take into account borehole parameters such as the presence of casings and borehole diameter. For large, high-efficiency gamma-ray detectors, such as BGO-based systems, which employ full-spectrum data analysis, corresponding corre

  16. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.

    2016-12-06

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  17. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lester, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Brady, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, B. W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  18. Study of borehole probing methods to improve the ground characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimipour, Ali

    Collecting geological information allows for optimizing ground control measures in underground structures. This includes understanding of the joints and discontinuities and rock strength to develop rock mass classifications. An ideal approach to collect such information is through correlating the drilling data from the roofbolters to assess rock strength and void location and properties. The current instrumented roofbolters are capable of providing some information on these properties but not fully developed for accurate ground characterization. To enhance existing systems additional instrumentation and testing was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. However, to define the geology along the boreholes, the use of probing was deemed to be most efficient approach for locating joints and structures in the ground and evaluation of rock strength. Therefore, this research focuses on selection and evaluation of proper borehole probes that can offer a reliable assessment of rock mass structure and rock strength. In particular, attention was paid to borehole televiewer to characterize rock mass structures and joints and development of mechanical rock scratcher for determination of rock strength. Rock bolt boreholes are commonly drilled in the ribs and the roof of underground environments. They are often small (about 1.5 inches) and short (mostly 2-3 meter). Most of them are oriented upward and thus, mostly dry or perhaps wet but not filled with water. No suitable system is available for probing in such conditions to identify the voids/joints and specifically to measure rock strength for evaluation of rock mass and related optimization of ground support design. A preliminary scan of available borehole probes proved that the best options for evaluation of rock structure is through analysis of borehole images, captured by optical televiewers. Laboratory and field trials with showed that these systems can be used to facilitate measurement of the location, frequency and

  19. Detection of buried pipes by polarimetric borehole radar; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru maisetsukan no kenshutsu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nakauchi, T. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    If the borehole radar is utilized for detection of buried pipes, the underground radar measurement becomes possible even in the situation where the mesurement on the earth surface is difficult, for example, such a place as under the road where there is much traffic. However, since buried pipes are horizontally installed and the existing borehole radar can send/receive only vertical polarization, the measurement conducted comes to be poor in efficiency from a viewpoint of the polarization utilization. Therefore, by introducing the polarimetric borehole radar to the detection of buried pipes, a basic experiment was conducted for the effective detection of horizontal buried pipes. Proposing the use of a slot antenna which can send/receive horizontal polarization in borehole in addition to a dipole antenna which sends/receives vertical polarization, developed was a step frequency type continuous wave radar of a network analyzer basis. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that reflection from buried pipes is largely dependent on polarization. Especially, it was found that in the slot dipole cross polarization mesurement, reflection from buried pipes can be emphasized. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Measuring and interpretation of three-component borehole magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil, C.; Ehmann, S.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.

    2012-04-01

    Three-component borehole magnetics provides important additional information compared with total field or horizontal and vertical measurements. The "Göttinger Bohrloch Magnetometer" (GBM) is capable of recording the vector of the magnetic field along with the orientation of the tool using three fluxgate magnetometers and fibre-optic gyros. The GBM was successfully applied in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (OKU R2500), Finland in September 2008 and in the Louisville Seamount Trail (IODP Expedition 330) from December 2010 until February 2011, and in several shallower boreholes. With the declination of the magnetic field, the GBM provides additional information compared to conventional tools, which reduces the ambiguity for structural interpretation. The position of ferromagnetic objects in the vicinity of the borehole can be computed with higher accuracy. In the case of drilled-through structures, three-component borehole magnetics allow the computation of the vector of magnetization. Using supplementary susceptibility data, the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) vector can be derived, which yields information about the apparent polar wander curve and/or about the structural evolution of the rock units. The NRM vector can further be used to reorient core samples in regions of strong magnetization. The most important aspect in three-component borehole magnetics is the knowledge of the orientation of the probe along the drillhole. With the GBM we use three fibre-optic gyros (FOG), which are aligned orthogonal to each other. These instruments record the turning rate about the three main axes of the probe. The FOGs benefit from a high resolution (FOG triplet, temperature dependent drift of the FOGs, misalignment of the fluxgate and FOG triplet in respect with each other, as well as start and end position of the probe with respect to Earth's reference frame. Using the high precision gyro data, we can compute the vector of the magnetic anomaly with respect to the Earth

  1. Borehole cylindrical noise during hole-surface and hole-hole resistivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiensky, James L.; Nimmer, Robin; Binley, Andrew M.

    2004-04-01

    Drilled boreholes generally are the only feasible means to access the subsurface for the emplacement of downhole electrodes for most hole-hole and hole-surface resistivity experiments. However, the very existence of the borehole itself creates the potential for significant noise due to the inevitable conductivity contrast that develops between the borehole walls and the formation. Borehole cylindrical noise develops whenever a current source is placed in a drilled borehole. Borehole geometries may range from nearly perfect cylinders to highly, irregular, rugose holes in consolidated rock, to relatively minor, collapsed, disturbed zones in caving sediments. Boreholes in non-caving formations generally are filled with artificial, conductive materials to afford crucial, electrical continuity between downhole electrodes and the borehole walls. Filled boreholes form cylindrically shaped heterogeneities that create significant noise due to preferential current flow up and down the conductive columns. Selected conditions are simulated with a finite difference model to illustrate the significance of borehole cylindrical noise on hole-hole and hole-surface mise-à-la-masse electrical potentials near a current electrode. Mise-à-la-masse electrical potentials measured during a field tracer experiment also are presented. These measurements are used to illustrate significant errors may develop in the interpretation of apparent resistivity estimates out to a distance of several meters from the current source if borehole cylindrical noise is not recognized and accounted for in the analysis of electrical potential data.

  2. Temporal and spatial changes of radon concentration in borehole water (Little Carpathians Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smetanová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The 222Rn activity concentration in ground water from four boreholes was investigated from January 2006 to June 2008. The boreholes are situated in the region of the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory in Modra-Piesok (Little Carpathians Mts., 40 km NW from Bratislava, Slovakia. Three boreholes have been drilled in Lower Triassic quartzite. Another borehole has been drilled in granodiorite of the Modra massif in which the quartzite is folded. Temporal and spatial differences in radon concentration were observed. Significant short-term variations were noticed in all boreholes. Precipitation caused the changes of water level and strongly affected the values of 222Rn activity concentration in less deep boreholes. The measured activities in boreholes ranged approximately over 1–240 kBq/m3.

  3. PARTICLE DISPLACEMENTS ON THE WALL OF A BOREHOLE FROM INCIDENT PLANE WAVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Particle displacements from incident plane waves at the wall of a fluid-filled borehole are formulated by applying the seismic reciprocity theorem to far-field displacement fields. Such displacement fields are due to point forces acting on a fluid-filled borehole under the assumption of long wavelengths. The displacement fields are analyzed to examine the effect of the borehole on seismic wave propagation, particularly for vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements. When the shortest wavelength of interest is approximately 25 times longer than the borehole's diameter, the scattered displacements are proportional to the first power of incident frequency and borehole diameter. When the shortest wavelength of interest is about 40 times longer than the borehole's diameter, borehole effects on VSP measurements using a wall-locking geophone are negligible.

  4. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  5. Metamorphic rocks in the deep boreholes near Maribor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirka Trajanova

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Six research-captive boreholes for thermal water passed through a pile of metamorphic rocks near Maribor (Eastern Slovenia that is on average about 1000 m thick. The succession of metamorphic rocks is characteristic for the Pohorje Mt. and eastern Kobansko region. In the area of the boreholes two tectonic zones are more pronounced: the upper one, at a depth of about 510 to 550 m at the contact of the Štelenska Gora and Phyllite formations and the deeper one at a depth of about 460 to 590 m, indicating the reverse fault junction of the Phyllite and Kobansko formations. They belong to the second andthe third thrust unit of the accretionary wedge formed at the collision of the European and African plates. Four Alpine nappe units are proven in the Slovenian part of the Eastern Alps.

  6. Method and apparatus for borehole fluid influx detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosso, D.S.

    1988-03-22

    This patent describes an apparatus for detection of fluid influx in a borehole in which a drill string is positioned, the drill string cooperating with the wall of the borehole to define an annulus, and in which drilling fluid is circulated from the surface through the interior of the drill string and into the annulus back to the surface, including: means for generating a coherent energy signal at a downhole location and propagation the signal as a primary signal in the drilling fluid in the drill string and as a secondary signal in the drilling fluid in the annulus; means for detecting the primary signal; means for detecting the secondary signal; means for measuring the difference between at least one selected parameter of the primary signal with the same selected parameter of the secondary signal, and means for determining changes in the measured difference between the selected parameter of the primary and secondary signals wherein fluid influx into the annulus is determined.

  7. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal borehole televiewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  8. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal Borehole Televiewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  9. Resistivity probes for borehole measuring. Resistivitetssonder til borehulsmaalinger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.

    1990-09-01

    Various aspects of resistivity measurements in boreholes are dealt with. The models used were point electrode models and infinite uniform media. This simplification of the geometry meant that relations between the resistivity, the currents and the voltage could be expressed analytically, thus giving a better understanding of the measuring principle. The possibilities for the interpretion of the resistivity logs are handled with special regard to oil and gas detection. It is claimed that resistivity logs are very informative in this respect. (AB).

  10. Equipment and Experimental Technique For Temperature Measurements In Deep Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoforov, A.

    The technique of temperature measurements is highly informative since any dynami- cal processes in the boreholes and in the vicinities are accompanied by thermal effects. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes are briefly dis- cussed in the report. It includes a deep instrument, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. The temperature dependent frequency modulated signal is used in deep instrument. A cable of original construction was developed for chute-lift operations. It has a signal and power channel at the same time and play the depth me- ter. The surface recording unit includes power supply for deep instruments, receiver, frequency meter and indicator. A personal computer is used for the measurement nu- merical control. Energy for the electronics is supplied by a car battery. Self sufficiency and high accuracy are specialities of the equipment. Using the technique and equip- ment we made the experimental study of temperature in the boreholes of the East European platform, Middle Asia, West Siberia, Kamchatka and other regions. Most of our temperatures and temperature gradients have been used for mapping.

  11. Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

  12. Characterization of magnetized ore bodies based on three-component borehole magnetic and directional borehole seismic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil, Christopher; Neuhaus, Martin; Hördt, Andreas; Giese, Rüdiger; Krüger, Kay; Jurczyk, Andreas; Juhlin, Christopher; Juhojuntti, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades magnetic prospecting using total field data was used with great success for localization and characterization of ferromagnetic ore bodies. Especially borehole magnetic measurements reveal important constraints on the extent and depth of potential mining targets. However, due to the inherent ambiguity of the interpretation of magnetic data, the resulting models of the distribution of magnetized material, such as iron ore bodies, are not entirely reliable. Variations in derived parameters like volume and estimated ore content of the expected body have significant impact on the economic efficiency of a planned mine. An important improvement is the introduction of three-component borehole magnetic sondes. Modern tools comprise orientation modules which allow the continuous determination of the tool's heading regardless of the well inclination and independent of the magnetic field. Using the heading information the recorded three-component magnetic data can be transferred from the internal tool's frame to the geographic reference frame. The vector information yields a more detailed and reliable description of the ore bodies compared to total field or horizontal and vertical field data. Nevertheless complementary information to constrain the model is still advisable. The most important supplementary information for the interpretation of magnetic data is the knowledge of the structural environment of the target regions. By discriminating dissimilar rock units, a geometrical starting model can be derived, constraining the magnetic interpretation and leading to a more robust estimation of the rock magnetizations distribution. The most common approach to reveal the lithological setting rests upon seismic measurements. However, for deep drilling targets surface seismic and VSP lack the required spatial resolution of 10s of meters. A better resolution is achieved by using directed sources and receivers inside the borehole. Here we present the application of

  13. Numerical simulation on heat transfer performance of vertical U-tube with different borehole fill materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Heat exchange performance of vertical U-tube heat exchanger was studiedwith two different borehole fill materials and CFD software. Borehole surface temperature and water temperature distribution were simulated on the condition of continuous operation for 8 h in winter with inlet water temperature being 10 ℃. The results show that there is no obvious difference on heat exchanger performance between the two different borehole fill materials.

  14. Challenges and opportunities for fractured rock imaging using 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Judith; Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-02-02

    There is an increasing need to characterize discrete fractures away from boreholes to better define fracture distributions and monitor solute transport. We performed a 3D evaluation of static and time-lapse cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data sets from a limestone quarry in which flow and transport are controlled by a bedding-plane feature. Ten boreholes were discretized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, and 2D panel measurements were inverted for a 3D distribution of conductivity. We evaluated the benefits of 3D versus 2.5D inversion of ERT data in fractured rock while including the use of borehole regularization disconnects (BRDs) and borehole conductivity constraints. High-conductivity halos (inversion artifacts) surrounding boreholes were removed in static images when BRDs and borehole conductivity constraints were implemented. Furthermore, applying these constraints focused transient changes in conductivity resulting from solute transport on the bedding plane, providing a more physically reasonable model for conductivity changes associated with solute transport at this fractured rock site. Assuming bedding-plane continuity between fractures identified in borehole televiewer data, we discretized a planar region between six boreholes and applied a fracture regularization disconnect (FRD). Although the FRD appropriately focused conductivity changes on the bedding plane, the conductivity distribution within the discretized fracture was nonunique and dependent on the starting homogeneous model conductivity. Synthetic studies performed to better explain field observations showed that inaccurate electrode locations in boreholes resulted in low-conductivity halos surrounding borehole locations. These synthetic studies also showed that the recovery of the true conductivity within an FRD depended on the conductivity contrast between the host rock and fractures. Our findings revealed that the potential exists to improve imaging of fractured

  15. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  16. Borehole Geophysical Logging Program: Incorporating New and Existing Techniques in Hydrologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The borehole geophysical logging program at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) provides subsurface information needed to resolve geologic, hydrologic, and environmental issues in Florida. The program includes the acquisition, processing, display, interpretation, and archiving of borehole geophysical logs. The borehole geophysical logging program is a critical component of many FISC investigations, including hydrogeologic framework studies, aquifer flow-zone characterization, and freshwater-saltwater interface delineation.

  17. Geologic and geochemical results from boreholes drilled in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2007 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Cheryl; Susong, David; Heasler, Henry; Mencin, David; Johnson, Wade; Conrey, Rick; Von Stauffenberg, Jennipher

    2016-06-01

    Between 2007 and 2008, seven Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) boreholes ranging in depth from about 200 to 800 feet deep were drilled in and adjacent to the Yellowstone caldera in Yellowstone National Park, for the purpose of installing volcano monitoring instrumentation. Five of the seven boreholes were equipped with strainmeters, downhole seismometers, and tiltmeters. Data collected during drilling included field observations of drill cuttings, stratigraphy within the boreholes, water temperature, and water and drill cuttings samples from selected depths.

  18. Polarimetric borehole radar measurement near Nojima fault and its application to subsurface crack characterization; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru Nojima danso shuhen no chika kiretsu keisoku jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Miwa, T.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ikeda, R. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Makino, K. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Practical application of subsurface crack characterization by the borehole radar measurement to which the radar polarimetric method was introduced was attempted to measuring objects for which the borehole radar has not been much used, for example, the inside of low loss rock mass or fracture zone where cracks tightly exist. A system was trially manufactured which makes the radar polarimetric measurement possible in the borehole at a 1000m depth and with a about 10cm diameter, and a field experiment was conducted for realizing the subsurface crack characterization near the Nojima fault. For the measuring experiment by the polarimetric borehole radar, used were Iwaya borehole and Hirabayashi borehole drilled in the north of Awaji-shima, Hyogo-ken. In a comparison of both polarization systems of Hirabayashi borehole, reflected waves at depths of 1038m and 1047m are relatively stronger in both polarization systems than those with the same polarization form and at different depths, whereas reflected waves around a 1017m depth are strong only as to the parallel polarization system. Characteristics of the polarization in this experiment indirectly reflect crack structures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Safety analysis of stability of surface gas drainage boreholes above goaf areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-zhou; LI Xiao-hong

    2007-01-01

    As longwall caving mining method prevails rapidly in China coal mines, amount of gas emission from longwall faces and goaf area increased significantly. Using traditional gas drainage methods, such as drilling upward holes to roof strata in tailgate or drilling inseam and cross-measure boreholes, could not meet methane drainage requirements in a gassy mine. The alternative is to drill boreholes from surface down to the longwall goaf area to drain the gas out. As soon as a coal seam is extracted out, the upper rock strata above the goaf start to collapse or become fractured depending upon the rock characteristics and the height above the coal seam. During overlying rock strata being fractured,boreholes in the area may be damaged due to ground movement after the passage of the longwall face. The sudden damage of a borehole may cause a longwall production halt or even a serious mine accident. A theoretical calculation of the stability of surface boreholes in mining affected area is introduced along with an example of determination of borehole and casing diameters is given for demonstration. By using this method for the drilling design, the damage of surface boreholes caused by excessive mining induced displacement can be effectively reduced if not totally avoided. Borehole and casing diameters as well as characteristics of filling materials can be determined using the proposed method by calculating the horizontal movement and vertical stain at different borehole depths.

  20. Joint inversion of surface and borehole magnetic amplitude data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zelin; Yao, Changli; Zheng, Yuanman; Yuan, Xiaoyu

    2016-04-01

    3D magnetic inversion for susceptibility distribution is a powerful tool in quantitative interpretation of magnetic data in mineral exploration. However, the inversion and interpretation of such data are faced with two problems. One problem is the poor imaging results of deep sources when only surface data are inverted. The other is the unknown total magnetization directions of sources when strong remanence exists. To deal with these problems simultaneously, we propose a method through the joint inversion of surface and borehole magnetic amplitude data. In this method, we first transform both surface and borehole magnetic data to magnetic amplitude data that are less sensitive to the directions of total magnetization, and then preform a joint inversion of the whole amplitude data to generate a 3D susceptibility distribution. The amplitude inversion algorithm uses Tikhonov regularization and imposes a positivity constraint on the effective susceptibility defined as the ratio of magnetization magnitude over the geomagnetic field strength. In addition, a distance-based weighting function is used to make the algorithm applicable to joint data sets. To solve this positivity-constraint inversion problem efficiently, an appropriate optimization method must be chosen. We first use an interior-point method to incorporate the positivity constraint into the total objective function, and then minimize the objective function via a Gauss-Newton method due to the nonlinearity introduced by the positivity constraint and the amplitude data. To further improve the efficiency of the inversion algorithm, we use a conjugate gradient method to carry out the fast matrix-vector multiplication during the minimization. To verify the utility of the proposed method, we invert the synthetic and field data using three inversion methods, including the joint inversion of surface and borehole three-component magnetic data, the inversion of surface magnetic amplitude data, and the proposed joint

  1. Water inflow into boreholes during the Stripa heater experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.H.; Rachiele, R.; Remer, J.S.; Carlsson, H.

    1981-04-01

    During the operation of three in-situ heater experiments at Stripa, Sweden, groundwater flowed into many of the instrumentation and heater boreholes. These flows were recovered and measured routinely. The records of water inflow indicate two origins: inflow attributed to local hydrological pressure gradients, and water migration from cracks closing under the rapidly increasing, thermal-induced stress changes. The latter component appeared as a main pulse that occurred when the heaters were turned on, and lasted about 30 to 40 days, steadily declining over the next several months, and decreasing sharply when heater power was decreased or stopped. The magnitude of the total inflow per hole ranged over more than five decades, from 0.1 to over 10,000 liters over the 500 to 600 day time periods. When plotted against the logarithm of total volume, the frequency distribution displays a normal curve dependence with a mean of approximately 10 liters. Of this amount, 1 to 2 liters of flow into 38-mm-diam boreholes accompanied an increase in applied heat load. These amounts are compatible with rock porosities of a fraction of one percent. Inflow into the 3.6 and 5.0 kW heater holes peaked within 3 to 6 days after heater turn on, then declined to zero inflow, with no further inflow measured for the remainder of the experiments. In the heater holes of the time-scaled experiment, which operated at 1.125 kW or less, the initial pulse of inflow took much longer to decay, and 7 of 8 heater holes continued to flow throughout the experiment. The packing off and isolation of a borehole some 40 m distant in the ventilation drift dramatically increased the inflow into the heater holes in one of the three heater experiments. This demonstrated the existence of permeable flow paths among a number of boreholes. The records of water inflow demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of the nature of fluid flow and storage in fractured crystalline rock.

  2. Instrument for orientation of a deflection in a borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vechkhaizer, Ya.I.; Buslaev, V.F.; Khafizof, Z.Kh.; Shafikov, F.Kh.

    1981-05-17

    The instrument contains a diamagnetic pipe, a dipmeter with a cylindrical ring, and a framework installed in it, an azimuthal rheochord with magnetic arrow, and an extender with a locknut. To shorten the lowering and raising operations and increase the reliability of orientation of the deflector in vertical and inclined borehole shafts it is equipped with an additional deflector with a cylindrical ring. Installed in it is an additional famework. The extender with locknut is placed between the main and auxillary dipmeters. The frameworks of both dipmeters are arrested with rings with the aid of fixers; the azimuthal rheochords are installed according to one generatrix.

  3. Ceramic Borehole Seals for Nuclear Waste Disposal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, B.; Coates, K.; Wohletz, K.; Dunn, S.; Patera, E.; Duguid, A.; Arnold, B.; Zyvoloski, G.; Groven, L.; Kuramyssova, K.

    2015-12-01

    Sealing plugs are critical features of the deep borehole system design. They serve as structural platforms to bear the weight of the backfill column, and as seals through their low fluid permeability and bond to the borehole or casing wall. High hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures, high mineral content water, and elevated temperature due to the waste packages and geothermal gradient challenge the long term performance of seal materials. Deep borehole nuclear waste disposal faces the added requirement of assuring performance for thousands of years in large boreholes, requiring very long term chemical and physical stability. A high performance plug system is being developed which capitalizes on the energy of solid phase reactions to form a ceramic plug in-situ. Thermites are a family of self-oxidized metal/oxide reactions with very high energy content and the ability to react under water. When combined with engineered additives the product exhibits attractive structural, sealing, and corrosion properties. In the initial phase of this research, exploratory and scaled tests demonstrated formulations that achieved controlled, fine grained, homogeneous, net shape plugs composed predominantly of ceramic material. Laboratory experiments produced plug cores with confined fluid permeability as low as 100 mDarcy, compressive strength as high as 70 MPa (three times the strength of conventional well cement), with the inherent corrosion resistance and service temperature of ceramic matrices. Numerical thermal and thermal/structural analyses predicted the in-situ thermal performance of the reacted plugs, showing that they cooled to ambient temperature (and design strength) within 24 to 48 hours. The current development effort is refining the reactant formulations to achieve desired performance characteristics, developing the system design and emplacement processes to be compatible with conventional well service practices, and understanding the thermal, fluid, and structural

  4. Induced temperature gradients to examine groundwater flowpaths in open boreholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Eddie W; Shanafield, Margaret A; Cook, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Techniques for characterizing the hydraulic properties and groundwater flow processes of aquifers are essential to design hydrogeologic conceptual models. In this study, rapid time series temperature profiles within open-groundwater wells in fractured rock were measured using fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS). To identify zones of active groundwater flow, two continuous electrical heating cables were installed alongside a FO-DTS cable to heat the column of water within the well and to create a temperature difference between the ambient temperature of the groundwater in the aquifer and that within the well. Additional tests were performed to examine the effects of pumping on hydraulic fracture interconnectivity around the well and to identify zones of increased groundwater flow. High- and low-resolution FO-DTS cable configurations were examined to test the sensitivities of the technique and compared with downhole video footage and geophysical logging to confirm the zones of active groundwater flow. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this new technique for rapid characterization of fracture zones in open boreholes. The combination of the FO-DTS and heating cable has excellent scope as a rapid appraisal tool for borehole construction design and improving hydrogeologic conceptual models.

  5. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. An Effective Method for Borehole Imaging of Buried Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Di Donato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection and imaging of buried tunnels is a challenging problem which is relevant to both geophysical surveys and security monitoring. To comply with the need of exploring large portions of the underground, electromagnetic measurements carried out under a borehole configuration are usually exploited. Since this requires to drill holes in the soil wherein the transmitting and receiving antennas have to be positioned, low complexity of the involved apparatus is important. On the other hand, to effectively image the surveyed area, there is the need for adopting efficient and reliable imaging methods. To address these issues, in this paper we investigate the feasibility of the linear sampling method (LSM, as this inverse scattering method is capable to provide almost real-time results even when 3D images of very large domains are built, while not requiring approximations of the underlying physics. In particular, the results of the reported numerical analysis show that the LSM is capable of performing the required imaging task while using a quite simple measurement configuration consisting of two boreholes and a few number of multiview-multistatic acquisitions.

  7. Borehole locations and top surface altitudes of each of the 16 hydrostratigraphic layers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina (pp1773_unit_alt_boreholes)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Point data pp1773_unit_alt_boreholes represent the 309 locations of various types of boreholes that were used to determine the altitudes of each of the 16...

  8. Temperature logging as an aid to understanding groundwater flow in boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conaway, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Borehole temperatures are affected by a range of physical phenomena, including drilling and engineering procedures, thermal resistivity of the rock, surface climatic changes, local heat sources and sinks, free convection of the borehole fluid, and water flows inside the borehole. As a result, temperature logs provide unique information not available from other logs. On the other hand, because the temperature log is sensitive to a variety of phenomena, one or more of these may obscure the effect being studied. In the case where groundwater is entering the borehole at one depth and exiting at another depth (or at the surface) the temperature disturbance resulting from this flow is likely to be a prominent feature of the temperature profile of the borehole. Because of this, water flows in boreholes are often a source of noise in temperature logs, obscuring the features of interest. Recently, however, unusual groundwater behavior was noted in several boreholes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and temperature logs were run as part of a program to study this phenomenon. In this case the groundwater flow has been the feature of interest in the logs, and the logs have been useful as an aid in understanding the water flow in those boreholes.

  9. An analysis of the lithology to resistivity relationships using airborne EM and boreholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian A.S.; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Møller, Ingelise

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the relationship between dense airborne skyTEM resistivity data and sparse lithological borehole data. Understanding the resistivity structure of the subsurface is of great importance to hydrogeological surveys and to ensure a high standard for groundwater quality. Borehole ...

  10. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  11. Flushing solutions for sinking boreholes in the complex conditions of Western Siberia and the Far East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, L.V.; Demina, T.N.; Konovalov, V.S.; Ulybusheva, E.I.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of stable clay beds in the stratum is one feature of drilling boreholes in the fields of the Far East. Experience has been accumulated which makes it possible to establish the causes of complications in the boreholes of this region and their connection to the quality of the flushing solution. Formulae for solutions based on the local raw materials are proposed.

  12. Borehole Geologic Data for the 216-Z Crib Facilities, A Status of Data Assembled through the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.

    2006-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assembling existing borehole geologic information to aid in determining the distribution and potential movement of contaminants released to the environment and to aid selection of remedial alternatives. This information is being assembled via the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS), which is being developed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, managed by PNNL, and the Remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project, managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The purpose of this particular study was to assemble the existing borehole geologic data pertaining to sediments underlying the 216-Z Crib Facilities and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Closure Zone. The primary objective for Fiscal Year 2006 was to assemble the data, complete log plots, and interpret the location of major geologic contacts for each major borehole in and around the primary disposal facilities that received carbon tetrachloride. To date, 154 boreholes located within or immediately adjacent to 19 of the 216-Z crib facilities have been incorporated into HBGIS. Borehole geologic information for the remaining three Z-crib facilities is either lacking (e.g. 216-Z-13, -14, and -15), or has been identified as a lesser priority to be incorporated at a later date.

  13. On the use of borehole radar measurements for 3D assessment of structures in rock volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, S.A. [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    Construction of a three-dimensional model of an area, for example a site for radioactive waste disposal, requires subsurface extrapolation of surface data and interpolation of subsurface and surface data. Such structural interpretation is based on local information in the perspective of the regional structural setting of the site. The SKB borehole radar, which can detect structures within a radius of 15 to 25 m around the borehole, is one of the most important sources of geometrical information from boreholes. Directional borehole radar measurements produce information on the angle ({alpha}) at which a feature intersects the borehole and the location (azimuth) relative to the borehole. Although the azimuthal information is important for the subsequent interpretation, the critical parameter that determines whether the feature is detected by the radar appears to be the {alpha}-angle. In this paper, the performance of the radar tool concerning {alpha}-angles is studied. The reason for undertaking the study was that predicted low angle intersections between boreholes and structures were not identified. This suggests that the relationship between the sampled population and the target population needs to be investigated. The analysed data sets comprise 307 reflectors from the Romuvaara site in Finland and 307 reflectors from the cored boreholes in the Hard Rock Laboratory at Aespoe. In the Aespoe bedrock, the shape of the frequency histogram displaying the {alpha}-angles is very consistent throughout the area. A brief comparison of amplitudes and reflectivity shows that the shape of the frequency histogram is tool-dependent rather than depending on the physical properties of the zones. The potential of the borehole radar to detect structures intersecting the borehole at very high angles is low due to the transmitter-receiver configuration of the tool. In the Aespoe radar data, the range of the borehole radar appears to be narrower than expected, with very few radar

  14. Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km{sup 2} (1-mi{sup 2}) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported.

  15. Thermal Performance Analysis of a Geologic Borehole Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagin, Lauren [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-16

    The Brazilian Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) proposed a design for the disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) based on the IAEA Borehole Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources (BOSS) design that would allow the entirety of Brazil’s inventory of DSRS to be disposed in a single borehole. The proposed IPEN design allows for 170 waste packages (WPs) containing DSRS (such as Co-60 and Cs-137) to be stacked on top of each other inside the borehole. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal performance of a conservative approach to the IPEN proposal with the equivalent of two WPs and two different inside configurations using Co-60 as the radioactive heat source. The current WP configuration (heterogeneous) for the IPEN proposal has 60% of the WP volume being occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source and the remaining 40% as vacant space. The second configuration (homogeneous) considered for this project was a homogeneous case where 100% of the WP volume was occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source. The computational models for the thermal analyses of the WP configurations with the Co-60 heat source considered three different cooling mechanisms (conduction, radiation, and convection) and the effect of mesh size on the results from the thermal analysis. The results of the analyses yielded maximum temperatures inside the WPs for both of the WP configurations and various mesh sizes. The heterogeneous WP considered the cooling mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation. The temperature results from the heterogeneous WP analysis suggest that the model is cooled predominantly by conduction with effect of radiation and natural convection on cooling being negligible. From the thermal analysis comparing the two WP configurations, the results suggest that either WP configuration could be used for the design. The mesh sensitivity results verify the meshes used, and results obtained from the thermal analyses were close to

  16. Thermal Performance Analysis of a Geologic Borehole Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagin, Lauren [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-16

    The Brazilian Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) proposed a design for the disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) based on the IAEA Borehole Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources (BOSS) design that would allow the entirety of Brazil’s inventory of DSRS to be disposed in a single borehole. The proposed IPEN design allows for 170 waste packages (WPs) containing DSRS (such as Co-60 and Cs-137) to be stacked on top of each other inside the borehole. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal performance of a conservative approach to the IPEN proposal with the equivalent of two WPs and two different inside configurations using Co-60 as the radioactive heat source. The current WP configuration (heterogeneous) for the IPEN proposal has 60% of the WP volume being occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source and the remaining 40% as vacant space. The second configuration (homogeneous) considered for this project was a homogeneous case where 100% of the WP volume was occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source. The computational models for the thermal analyses of the WP configurations with the Co-60 heat source considered three different cooling mechanisms (conduction, radiation, and convection) and the effect of mesh size on the results from the thermal analysis. The results of the analyses yielded maximum temperatures inside the WPs for both of the WP configurations and various mesh sizes. The heterogeneous WP considered the cooling mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation. The temperature results from the heterogeneous WP analysis suggest that the model is cooled predominantly by conduction with effect of radiation and natural convection on cooling being negligible. From the thermal analysis comparing the two WP configurations, the results suggest that either WP configuration could be used for the design. The mesh sensitivity results verify the meshes used and results obtained from the thermal analyses were close to being

  17. A novel muon detector for borehole density tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Alain; Kouzes, Richard T.; Yamaoka, Jared; Rowe, Charlotte; Guardincerri, Elena; Durham, J. Matthew; Morris, Christopher L.; Poulson, Daniel C.; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie; Morley, Deborah J.; Bacon, Jeffrey D.; Bynes, James; Cercillieux, Julien; Ketter, Chris; Le, Khanh; Mostafanezhad, Isar; Varner, Gary; Flygare, Joshua; Lintereur, Azaree T.

    2017-04-01

    Muons can be used to image the density of materials through which they pass, including geological structures. Subsurface applications of the technology include tracking fluid migration during injection or production, with increasing concern regarding such timely issues as induced seismicity or chemical leakage into aquifers. Current density monitoring options include gravimetric data collection and active or passive seismic surveys. One alternative, or complement, to these methods is the development of a muon detector that is sufficiently compact and robust for deployment in a borehole. Such a muon detector can enable imaging of density structure to monitor small changes in density - a proxy for fluid migration - at depths up to 1500 m. Such a detector has been developed, and Monte Carlo modeling methods applied to simulate the anticipated detector response. Testing and measurements using a prototype detector in the laboratory and shallow underground laboratory demonstrated robust response. A satisfactory comparison with a large drift tube-based muon detector is also presented.

  18. Elastic wave scattering to characterize heterogeneities in the borehole environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Hei, Chuang; Su, Yuan-Da

    2016-04-01

    Scattering due to small-scale heterogeneities in the rock formation surrounding a wellbore can significantly change the acoustic waveform from a logging measurement which in turn can be used to characterize the formation heterogeneities. This study simulates the elastic heterogeneity scattering in monopole and dipole acoustic logging and analyse the resulting effects on the waveforms. The results show that significant coda waves are generated in both monopole and dipole waveforms and the dipole coda is dominated by S-to-S scattering, which can be effectively utilized to diagnose the heterogeneity in the rock formation. The coda wave modelling and analysis were used to characterize dipole acoustic data logged before and after fracturing a reservoir interval, with significant coda wave in the after-fracturing data indicating fracturing-induced heterogeneous property change in the rock volume surrounding the borehole.

  19. Non-integral dimensions ultrasonic phased arrays in a borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bixing; ZHANG Chengguang; Deng Fangqing

    2009-01-01

    The non-integral dimensions ultrasonic phased arrays and their scanning and test-ing methods in a borehole are studied. First, the focusing acoustic fields excited by the 1.25D, 1.5D, and 1.75D phased arrays are analyzed, and then the imaging resolution in the elevation direction and the influence of the dynamic elements are investigated. Second, the focusing and deflexion characteristics of the acoustic fields excited by the annular and segmented annular phased arrays are studied, and they are compared with those excited by the 2D surface array. The application method of the 1.25D, 1.5D, and 1.75D, annular and segmented annular phased arrays in acoustic logging are analyzed and discussed. It provides a theoretical foundation for the application of the ultrasonic phased arrays in acoustic logging.

  20. OSL-thermochronometry of feldspar from the KTB borehole, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guralnik, Benny; Jain, Mayank; Herman, Frédéric;

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of thermal histories of rocks (thermochronometry) is a fundamental tool both in Earth science and in geological exploration. However, few methods are currently capable of resolving the low-temperature thermal evolution of the upper ∼2 km of the Earth's crust. Here we introduce...... the current geothermal gradient, or (ii) inverted into a geothermal palaeogradient of 29±2 °C km−1, integrating natural thermal conditions over the last ∼65 ka. The demonstrated ability to invert a depth–luminescence dataset into a meaningful geothermal palaeogradient opens new venues for reconstructing...... recent ambient temperatures of the shallow crust (200 °C Ma−1 range). Although Na-feldspar IRSL is prone to field saturation in colder or slower environments, the method's primary relevance appears to be for borehole and tunnel studies, where it may offer remarkably recent (...

  1. Probe for temperature logging of deep cold boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangirolami, M.; Cavagnero, G.; Rossi, A.

    2003-04-01

    A new probe has been developed for measuring some physical parameters in deep cold boreholes such as those of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA), which is targeted to drill two holes through the ice sheet down to the bedrock at DOME C and at Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The probe is operative in the temperature range 0 to -60^oC and for pressures up to 35 MPa, down to 3500 m depth and in the presence of aggressive fluid filling. The probe is equipped with : 1) a set of four thermometers. Three are fitted in the expandable arms of the probe, to log the temperature of the ice-wall. The fourth thermometer is fitted into a static arm in a central position, between the previous three, and logs the temperature of the borehole fluid, for comparison. Thermistor-type sensors have been selected, with a resolution of 2 mK in the interval near 0^oC. During laboratory tests a time constant of 2.7 s was obtained for the thermal sensors fitted in their protective case. After final assemblage of the probe the sensors were calibrated in the laboratory against a standard precision thermometer, over the range 0 to -60^oC; 2) a sensor for differential measurement of the pressure of the liquid column of the drill fluid, with a resolution of a few 10-6 MPa, sufficient to detect any convective cells, induced by the dishomogeneous composition of the mixing fluids; 3) a manometer (strain gauge) for measuring the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column in the full range 0 to 35 MPa, from the surface to bottom hole, with a resolution better than 0.001 of the full range; 4) a vertical depth meter for direct measurement of depth on the wall of the borehole, to eliminate any uncertainties caused by variations in the length of the electro-mechanical drilling wire due to the fatigue and strain of drilling operations. The progressive depths are measured by a wheel counter and encoder on the upper arms of the probe, with an expected resolution better than 10-3; 5) a

  2. Rock stress orientation measurements using induced thermal spalling in slim boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Eva [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    In the planning and design of a future underground storage for nuclear waste based on the KBS-3 method, one of the aims is to optimize the layout of deposition tunnels such that the rock stresses on the boundaries of deposition holes are minimized. Previous experiences from heating of larger scale boreholes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AHRL) gave rise to the idea that induced borehole breakouts using thermal loading in smaller diameter boreholes, could be a possible way of determining the stress orientation. Two pilot experiments were performed, one at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and one at ONKALO research site in Finland. An acoustic televiewer logger was used to measure the detailed geometrical condition of the borehole before and after heating periods. The acoustic televiewer gives a value for each 0.7 mm large pixel size around the borehole periphery. The results from the loggers are presented as images of the borehole wall, and as curves for the maximum, mean and minimum values at each depth. Any changes in the borehole wall geometry may thus be easily detected by comparisons of the logging result images. In addition, using an optical borehole televiewer a good and detailed realistic colour picture of the borehole wall is obtained. From these images the character of the spalls identified may be evaluated further. The heating was performed in a 4 m long section, using a heating cable centred in an 8 m deep vertical borehole, drilled from the floor of the tunnels. For the borehole in the Q-tunnel of AHRL the results from the loggings of the borehole before the heating revealed that breakouts existed even before this pilot test due to previous heating experiments at the site (CAPS). Quite consistent orientation and the typical shape of small breakouts were observed. After the heating the spalling increased slightly at the same locations and a new spalling location also developed at a deeper location in the borehole. At ONKALO three very small changes

  3. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic

  4. Single-borehole measuring method for broken rock zone in gently inclined thin layer weakness structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-fa; ZHOU Ke-ping; LONG Teng-teng; GAO Feng

    2008-01-01

    According to the structural characteristics of gently inclined thin layer rock mass in which lots of weak interlayer existed, the concept of gently inclined thin layer weakness structure was proposed. If single-borehole measuring method of the acoustic along the conventional arrangement mode was used in measuring the broken rock zone in this structure, the change of the relationship curves (Vp-L) between acoustic p-wave velocity (Vp) and borehole depth (L) would present the irregular feature due to the mechanical characteristics of layered rock mass and harmful effects of weak interlayers, and the scope of broken rock zone couldn't be defined quickly. Based on the analysis of the mechanical characteristics of layered rock mass, the propagation rule of acoustic and distributions characteristics of plastic zone and slip zone in layered rock mass, new arrangement mode of acoustic measuring boreholes for broken rock zone in gently inclined thin layer weakness structure was proposed. Namely, the measuring boreholes in two sides were parallel to the strata, the measuring boreholes in the roof and floor perpendicular to the strata. Besides the controlling depth of the measuring boreholes in the scope of the large plastic zones or the large slip zones should be increased. Engineering exampleshowed that new acoustic measuring boreholes arrangement mode had the better applicability and could determine the scope of the broken rock zone in the gently inclined thin layer weakness structure quickly.

  5. Room Q data report: Test borehole data from April 1989 through November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howard, C.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Peterson, T.P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Pore-pressure and fluid-flow tests were performed in 15 boreholes drilled into the bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation from within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The tests measured fluid flow and pore pressure within the Salado. The boreholes were drilled into the previously undisturbed host rock around a proposed cylindrical test room, Room Q, located on the west side of the facility about 655 m below ground surface. The boreholes were about 23 m deep and ranged over 27.5 m of stratigraphy. They were completed and instrumented before excavation of Room Q. Tests were conducted in isolated zones at the end of each borehole. Three groups of 5 isolated zones extend above, below, and to the north of Room Q at increasing distances from the room axis. Measurements recorded before, during, and after the mining of the circular test room provided data about borehole closure, pressure, temperature, and brine seepage into the isolated zones. The effects of the circular excavation were recorded. This data report presents the data collected from the borehole test zones between April 25, 1989 and November 25, 1991. The report also describes test development, test equipment, and borehole drilling operations.

  6. Causes of Borehole Failure in Complex Basement Terrains: ABUAD Case Study, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1 Ogundana, A.K , 2 Aladesanmi A. O., 3 Okunade A., 4Olutomilola O.O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of primary causes of borehole failure has being conducted using Afe Babalola University as a case study. A total of fourteen boreholes (namely borehole 1-14 were studied, vertical electrical soundings, depth sounding, flushing and pump testing were conducted on each of the boreholes to establish their status at the time of the study and possible evaluation of the groundwater potential of the wells. Four out of the fourteen boreholes (borehole 1-4 are productive and in-use, while the remaining ten (borehole 5-14 are out-of-use and abandoned for various. The productive holes were able to support continuous flow of water for over 3 hours without drop in volume of water flow. Seven of the holes (boreholes 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12 & 14 failed and were abandoned because of low yield (could not flow beyond 5 minutes, while the remaining three (boreholes 7, 10 & 13 failed and were abandoned due to wrong location and improper completion, caving/formation problems, and wrong installation/completion respectively. Proper well completion is essential in areas prone to caving and other formation related problems. Air drilling should be avoided in areas with thick and loose overburden. Right mixture of drilling mud should be applied to secure the hole wall while flushing should be continuous throughout drilling in such formation. Casing should be done immediately and such holes should be lined and grouted. Timers should be installed on low yield wells and regulated/programmed for 5 or 10 minutes flow depending on the recharge rate. Pump rating for installation should be strictly based on well recharge rate. Productive wells should be properly maintained and monitored for optimal performance.

  7. Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

    2007-02-01

    During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

  8. Experimental research on sealing of boreholes, shafts and ramps in welded tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuenkajorn, K. [Rock Engineering International, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Laboratory and in-situ experiments have been conducted to determine the mechanical and hydraulic performance of cement borehole seals in densely welded Apache Leap tuff. Test results indicate that under saturated conditions, commercial expansive cement can provide good bond strength and adequate hydraulic performance for borehole seal under changing stress conditions. The cement seal should be installed at the intact portion of the opening, and should have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than four. Drying increases borehole plug permeability and decreases mechanical and hydraulic bonds at the plug-rock interface. In-situ testing indicates that installation procedure may significantly affect the cement plug performance.

  9. Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K R; Lillie, J T

    1982-03-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area.

  10. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  11. Drilling, logging, and testing information from borehole UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamir, F.; Thordarson, W.; Kume, J.; Rousseau, J. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Branch; Long, R. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Cunningham, D.M. Jr. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Borehole UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 is the first of two boreholes that may be used to determine the subsurface structure at Yucca Mountain by using vertical seismic profiling. This report contains information collected while this borehole was being drilled, logged, and tested from May 27, 1992, to April 22, 1994. It does not contain the vertical seismic profiling data. This report is intended to be used as: (1) a reference for drilling similar boreholes in the same area, (2) a data source on this borehole, and (3) a reference for other information that is available from this borehole. The reference information includes drilling chronology, equipment, parameters, coring methods, penetration rates, completion information, drilling problems, and corrective actions. The data sources include lithology, fracture logs, a list of available borehole logs, and depths at which water was recorded. Other information is listed in an appendix that includes studies done after April 22, 1994.

  12. Numerical Modeling of a Shallow Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catolico, N.; Ge, S.; Lu, N.; McCartney, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) combined with solar thermal energy harvesting is an economic technological system to garner and store energy as well as an environmentally-sustainable alternative for the heating of buildings. The first community-scale BTES system in North America was installed in 2007 in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), about 35 miles south of Calgary, Canada. The BTES system involves direct circulation of water heated from solar thermal panels in the summer into a storage tank, after which it is circulate within an array of 144 closed-loop geothermal heat exchangers having a depth of 35 m and a spacing of 2.5 m. In the winter the circulation direction is reversed to supply heat to houses. Data collection over a six year period indicates that this system can supply more than 90% of the winter heating energy needs for 52 houses in the community. One major challenge facing the BTES system technology is the relatively low annual efficiency, i.e., the ratio of energy input and output is in the range of 15% to 40% for the system in Drake Landing. To better understand the working principles of BTES and to improve BTES performance for future applications at larger scales, a three-dimensional transient coupled fluid and heat transfer model is established using TOUGH2. The time-dependent injection temperatures and circulation rate measured over the six years of monitoring are used as model input. The simulations are calibrated using soil temperature data measured at different locations over time. The time-dependent temperature distributions within the borehole region agree well with the measured temperatures for soil with an intrinsic permeability of 10e-19 m2, an apparent thermal conductivity of 2.03 W/m°C, and a volumetric heat capacity of 2.31 MJ/m-3°C. The calibrated model serves as the basis for a sensitivity analysis of soil and operational parameters on BTES system efficiency preformed with TOUGH2. Preliminary results suggest 1) BTES

  13. Borehole data package for the 100-K area ground water wells, CY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.A.

    1994-12-27

    Borehole, hydrogeologic and geophysical logs, drilling, as-built diagrams, sampling, and well construction information and data for RCRA compliant groundwater monitoring wells installed in CY 1994 at the 100-K Basins.

  14. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, B.N.P. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  15. Hydrogeological characterisation using cross-borehole ground penetration radar and electrical resistivity tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2007-01-01

    . The methods provided estimates of soil moisture content and electrical resistivity variations among 12 m deep boreholes located 5 – 7 m apart. The moisture content change following natural precipitation was observed to be practically negligible, providing minimal information to constrain the dynamic...... was characterized by ~30 m thick unsaturated zone consisting mainly of sands of varying coarseness. Following an instrumentation of 16 boreholes two geophysical methods (cross-borehole ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography) were applied during natural precipitation and forced infiltration...... properties of the subsurface. On the other hand, volumetric moisture content variations of up to 5% were observed during a 20-day long forced infiltration experiment. The cross-borehole electrical resistance tomography and ground penetrating radar data collected during this experiment were subsequently...

  16. Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360?? views of the borehole wall from which the character, relation, and orientation of lithologic and structural planar features can be defined for studies of fractured-rock aquifers. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing of the character of and relation between lithology, fractures, foliation, and bedding. The most powerful approach is the combined application of acoustic and optical imaging with integrated interpretation. Imaging of the borehole wall provides information useful for the collection and interpretation of flowmeter and other geophysical logs, core samples, and hydraulic and water-quality data from packer testing and monitoring. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of induced temperature anomalies along borehole heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Michael; Schelenz, Sophie; Stollberg, Reiner; Gossel, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Over the last years, the thermal use of the shallow subsurface for heat generation, cooling, and thermal energy storage has increased. However, the injection or extraction of heat potentially drives changes in the subsurface temperature regime; especially in urban areas. The presented case study investigates the intensive use of borehole heat exchangers (BHE) and their potential thermal impacts on subsurface temperatures, as well as thermal interactions between individual BHE's for a residential neighborhood in Cologne, Germany. Based on on-site subsurface parameterization, a 3D subsurface model was designed, using the finite element software FEFLOW (DHI WASY). The model contains five BHE, extracting 8.2 kW, with a maximum BHE depth of 38 m, whereby the thickness of the unsaturated zone is 22 m. The simulated time span is 10 years. This study focusses on two questions: How will different BHE arrangements vary in terms of temperature plume formation and potential system interaction and what is the influence of seasonal subsurface heat storage on soil and ground water temperatures.

  18. Method for measurement of azimuth of a borehole while drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPersio, R.D.; Cobern, M.E.

    1989-03-21

    A method is described for determining the azimuth angle of a borehole being drilled by instruments contained downhole in the drillstring, including the steps of: sensing with accelerometer means, during a period of nonrotation of the drillstring, the components of Gx, Gy and Gz of the total gravity field Go at the location of the instrument; sensing with magnetometer means, during a period of nonrotation of the drillstring, the components of Hx, Hy and Hz of the total magnetic field Ho at the location of the instrument; the components Gz and Hz being along the axis of the drillstring, the components Gx and the components and Gy being orthogonal to Gz and the components Hx and Hy being orthogonal to Hz; rotating the magnetometer means with the drillstring and obtaining the parameter Hzr which is the Hz component of the magnetic field at the location of the instrument during rotation of the drillstring; determining Ho from values Hx, Hy and Hz sensed during nonrotation of the drillstring; determining the inclination angle of the drillstring; determining the dip angle of the magnetic field; determining the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the axis of the drillstring at the location of the instrument from Ho and Hzr; and determining the azimuth angle.

  19. Borehole Radar Evaluation Program: Antenna designs for optimal directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, J. G.; Morris, H. E.

    1991-05-01

    The thrust of this progress report deals with the significant advances we have made in the past few months toward optimal radiating efficiency and optimal directionality from antenna arrays that fit inside a 5.5 in.-OD tool. The reasons spawning this development effort on antennas are the many uses for underground radar systems that can be built around such high-performance antennas. Targets of interest include large man-made voids, natural voids in strata, fractures zones in hard rock, edges and internal faults in salts domes and glaciers, etc. Recent progress includes observation of the radiation patterns of several dipole arrays which we designed to fit within a 5.5-inch OD borehole tool and to radiate efficiently at wavelengths in the band from 0.4 meter to 2 meters with optimal directionality. Front-to-back ratios of 15 dB are consistently observed in the horizontal plane of these arrays. These antennas are observed to radiate with high efficiencies, less than 1 dB loss, into air at 1.3 meter wavelength.

  20. Borehole Radar Evaluation Program: Antenna designs for optimal directionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, J.G.; Morris, H.E.

    1991-05-01

    The thrust of this progress report deals with the significant advances we have made in the past few months toward optimal radiating efficiency and optimal directionality from antenna arrays that fit inside a 5.5 in.-OD tool. The reasons spawning this development effort on antennas are the many uses for underground radar systems that can be built around such high-performance antennas. Targets of interest include large man-made voids, natural voids in strata, fractures zones in hard rock, edges and internal faults in salts domes and glaciers, etc. Recent progress includes observation of the radiation patterns of several dipole arrays which we designed to fit within a 5.5-inch OD borehole tool and to radiate efficiently at wavelengths in the band from 0.4 meter to 2 meters with optimal directionality. Front-to-back ratios of 15 dB are consistently observed in the horizontal plane of these arrays. These antennas are observed to radiate with high efficiencies, less than 1 dB loss, into air at 1.3 meter wavelength. 18 figs.

  1. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  2. Acoustoelastic effects of Stoneley waves in a borehole surrounded by a transversely isotropic elastic solid

    OpenAIRE

    Jinxia Liu; Zhiwen Cui; Zhengliang Cao; Kexie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Stoneley wave in a fluid-filled pressurized borehole surrounded by a transversely isotropic elastic solid with nine independent third-order elastic constants in presence of biaxial stresses are studied. A simplified acoustoelastic formulation of Stoneley wave is presented for the parallelism of the borehole axis and the formation axis of symmetry. Sensitivity coefficients and velocity dispersions for Stoneley wave due to the presence of stresses are numerically investigated, respectively. The...

  3. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  4. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  5. The Device for Communication in the Tool for Measurement in Boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Slankamenac

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an implementation and test of the device for communication between Telemetry system and Surface unit with the tool for measurement of pipe diameter, fluid velocity and direction of flow in the borehole (Calliper-Fullbore Flowmeter - CFF are presented. This communication is done according to SIPLOS (Simultaneous Production Logging String protocol and it is used by Hotwell company [1] as a part of a larger system for borehole investigations.

  6. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-10-01

    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

  7. Development of the Borehole 2-D Seismic Tomography Software Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. D.; Syahputra, A.; Fatkhan, F.; Sule, R.; Hendriyana, A.

    2011-12-01

    We developed 2-D borehole seismic tomography software that we called "EARTHMAX-2D TOMOGRAPHY" to image subsurface physical properties including P-wave and S-wave velocities between two boreholes. We used Graphic User Interface (GUI) facilities of MATLAB programming language to create the software. In this software, we used travel time of seismic waves from source to receiver by using pseudo bending ray tracing method as input for tomography inversion. We can also set up a model parameterization, initial velocity model, ray tracing processes, conduct borehole seismic tomography inversion, and finally visualize the inversion results. The LSQR method was applied to solve of tomography inversion solution. We provided the Checkerboard Test Resolution (CTR) to evaluate the model resolution of the tomography inversion. As validation of this developed software, we tested it for geotechnical purposes. We then conducted data acquisition in the "ITB X-field" that is located on ITB campus. We used two boreholes that have a depth of 39 meters. Seismic wave sources were generated by impulse generator and sparker and then they were recorded by borehole hydrophone string type 3. Later on, we analyzed and picked seismic arrival time as input for tomography inversion. As results, we can image the estimated weathering layer, sediment layer, and basement rock in the field depicted by seismic wave structures. More detailed information about the developed software will be presented. Keywords: borehole, tomography, earthmax-2D, inversion

  8. Cyclic high temperature heat storage using borehole heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boockmeyer, Anke; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the German energy supply towards mainly renewable energy sources like wind or solar power, termed "Energiewende", makes energy storage a requirement in order to compensate their fluctuating production and to ensure a reliable energy and power supply. One option is to store heat in the subsurface using borehole heat exchangers (BHEs). Efficiency of thermal storage is increasing with increasing temperatures, as heat at high temperatures is more easily injected and extracted than at temperatures at ambient levels. This work aims at quantifying achievable storage capacities, storage cycle times, injection and extraction rates as well as thermal and hydraulic effects induced in the subsurface for a BHE storage site in the shallow subsurface. To achieve these aims, simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites is performed. A detailed, high-resolution numerical simulation model was developed, that accounts for all BHE components in geometrical detail and incorporates the governing processes. This model was verified using high quality experimental data and is shown to achieve accurate simulation results with excellent fit to the available experimental data, but also leads to large computational times due to the large numerical meshes required for discretizing the highly transient effects. An approximate numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly was therefore developed for use in larger scale simulations. The approximate numerical model still includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with a deviation of less than 2% from the fully discretized model. Simulation times are reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. This model is then used to investigate achievable storage capacity, injection and extraction rates as well as induced effects for

  9. Optimization of CPMG sequences for NMR borehole measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ronczka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuklear Magnetic Resonance (NMR can provide key information such as porosity and permeability for hydrological characterization of geological material. Especially the NMR transverse relaxation time T2 is used to estimate permeability since it reflects a pore-size dependent relaxation process. The measurement sequence (CPMG usually used consists of several thousands of electromagnetic pulses to densely record the relaxation process. These pulses are equidistantly spaced by a time constant τ. In NMR borehole applications the use of CPMG sequences for measuring the transverse relaxation time T2 is limited due to requirements on energy consumption. It is state of the art to conduct at least two sequences with different echo spacings (τ for recording fast and slow relaxing processes that correspond to different pore-sizes. For the purpose to reduce the amount of energy used for conducting CPMG sequences and to obtain both, slow and fast, decaying components within one sequence we tested the usage of CPMG sequences with an increasing τ and a decreasing number of pulses. A synthetic study as well as laboratory measurements on samples of glass beads and granulate of different grain size spectra were conducted to evaluate the effects of of an increasing τ spacing, e.g. an enhanced relaxation due to diffusion processes. The results are showing broadened T2 distributions if the number of pulses is decreasing and the mean grain size is increasing, which is mostly an effect of a significantly shortened acquisition time. The shift of T2 distributions to small decay times in dependence of the τ spacing and the mean grain size distribution is observable. We found that it is possible to conduct CPMG sequences with an increased τ spacing. According to the acquisition time and enhanced diffusion the sequence parameters (number of pulses and τmax has to be chosen carefully. Otherwise the underestimated relaxation time (T2 will lead to misinterpretations.

  10. Borehole dilatometer installation, operation, and maintenance at sites in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myren, G.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In response to concerns about the potential hazard of Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, the USGS began efforts in 1998 to add four high-resolution borehole sites. Located at these sites are; strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, accelerometers and other instrumentation. These instruments are capable of providing continuous monitoring of the magma movement under Mauna Loa. Each site was planned to provide multi-parameter monitoring of volcanic activity. In June of 2000, a contract was let for the core drilling of three of these four sites. They are located at Hokukano (west side of Mauna Loa) above Captain Cook, Hawaii; at Mauna Loa Observatory (11,737 feet near the summit), and at Mauna Loa Strip Road (east side of Mauna Loa). Another site was chosen near Halema'uma u' and Kilauea's summit, in the Keller deep well. (See maps). The locations of these instruments are shown in Figure 1 with their latitude and longitude in Table 1. The purpose of this network is to monitor crustal deformation associated with volcanic intrusions and earthquakes on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. This report describes the methods used to locate sites, install dilatometers, other instrumentation, and telemetry. We also provide a detailed description of the electronics used for signal amplification and telemetry, plus techniques used for instrument maintenance. Instrument sites were selected in regions of hard volcanic rock where the expected signals from magmatic activity were calculated to be a maximum and the probability of earthquakes with magnitude 4 or greater is large. At each location, an attempt was made to separate tectonic and volcanic signals from known noise sources for each instrument type.

  11. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196, and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28, and 4.52. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the second of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. Finally, the measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared with a nearby borehole drilled in 1993, 299- W10-196, through the tank T-106 leak plume.

  12. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  13. Radiological consequences of accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    In this report, an analysis of the radiological consequences of potential accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is presented. The results presented should be seen as coarse estimates of possible radiological consequences of a canister being stuck in a borehole during disposal rather than being the results of a full safety analysis. In the concept for deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel developed by Sandia National Laboratories, the fuel is assumed to be encapsulated in mild steel canisters and stacked between 3 and 5 km depth in boreholes that are cased with perforated mild steel casing tubes. The canisters are joined together by couplings to form strings of 40 canisters and lowered into the borehole. When a canister string has been emplaced in the borehole, a bridge plug is installed above the string and a 10 metres long concrete plug is cast on top of the bridge plug creating a floor for the disposal of the next sting. In total 10 canister strings, in all 400 canisters, are assumed to be disposed of at between 3 and 5 kilometres depth in one borehole. An analysis of potential accidents during the disposal operations shows that the potentially worst accident would be that a canister string is stuck above the disposal zone of a borehole and cannot be retrieved. In such a case, the borehole may have to be sealed in the best possible way and abandoned. The consequences of this could be that one or more leaking canisters are stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater. In the case of a leaking canister being stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater, the potential radiological consequences are likely to be dominated by the release of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) of the radionuclide inventory, i.e. the fraction of the radionuclides that as a consequence of the in-core conditions are present in the annulus between the fuel pellets and the cladding or on the grain boundaries of the UO{sub 2} matrix

  14. The derivation of an anisotropic velocity model from combined surface and borehole seismic experiments at the COSC-1 borehole, central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision, where the surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of parts of the Caledonian structure. The project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) investigates the structure and physical conditions of the orogen units and the underlying basement with two approximately 2.5 km deep fully cored boreholes in western Jämtland, central Sweden. In 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was successfully drilled through the Seve Nappe Complex. This unit, mainly consisting of gneisses, belongs to the so-called Middle Allochthons and has been ductilely deformed and transported during collisional orogeny. A major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Combined with core analysis and downhole logging, the survey will allow extrapolation of the structures away from the borehole. The survey consisted of three parts: 1) a high-resolution zero-offset Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP), 2) a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP in combination with three long offset surface receiver lines, and 3) a limited 3D seismic survey. Data from the multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP experiment and the long offset surface lines were used to derive a detailed velocity model around the borehole from the inversion of first arrival traveltimes. The comparison of velocities from these tomography results with a velocity function calculated from the zero-offset VSP revealed clear differences in velocities for mainly horizontally and vertically traveling waves. Therefore, an anisotropic VTI model was constructed, using the P-wave velocity function from zero-offset VSP and the Thomson parameters ɛ and δ. The latter were partly derived from ultrasonic lab measurements on COSC-1 core samples. Traveltimes were calculated with an anisotropic eikonal solver and serve as the basis

  15. Installation of borehole seismometer for earthquake characteristics in deep geological environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Hee; Choi, Weon Hack; Cho, Sung Il; Chang, Chun Joong [KHNP CRI, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Deep geological disposal is currently accepted as the most appropriate method for permanently removing spent nuclear fuel from the living sphere of humans. For implementation of deep geological disposal, we need to understand the geological changes that have taken place over the past 100,000 years, encompassing active faults, volcanic activity, elevation, ubsidence, which as yet have not been considered in assessing the site characteristics for general facilities, as well as to investigate and analyze the geological structures, fracture systems and seismic responses regarding deep geological environment about 500 meters or more underground. In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) have installed the deep borehole earthquake observatory at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep geological environment on June, 2014 in Andong area. This paper will show the status of deep borehole earthquake observatory and the results of background noise response characteristics of these deep borehole seismic data as a basic data analysis. We present here the status of deep borehole seismometer installation by KHNP. In order to basic data analysis for the borehole seismic observation data, this study shows the results of the orientation of seismometer and background noise characteristics by using a probability density function. Together with the ground motion data recorded by the borehole seismometers can be utilized as basic data for seismic response characteristics studies with regard to spent nuclear fuel disposal depth and as the input data for seismic hazard assessment that

  16. Vadose Zone Characterization and Monitoring Beneath Waste Disposal Pits Using Horizontal Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLin, S. G.; Newman, B. D.; Broxton, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Vadose zone characterization and monitoring immediately below landfills using horizontal boreholes is an emerging technology. However, this topic has received little attention in the peer-reviewed literature. The value of this approach is that activities are conducted below the waste, providing clear and rapid verification of containment. Here we report on two studies that examined the utility of horizontal boreholes for environmental characterization and monitoring under radioactive waste disposal pits. Both studies used core sample analyses to determine the presence of various radionuclides, organics, or metals. At one borehole site, water content and pore-water chloride concentrations were also used to interpret vadose zone behavior. At another site, we examined the feasibility of using flexible membrane liners in uncased boreholes for periodic monitoring. For this demonstration, these retrievable liners were air-injected into boreholes on multiple occasions carrying different combinations of environmental surveillance equipment. Instrument packages included a neutron logging device to measure volumetric water at regular intervals, high-absorbency collectors that wicked available water from borehole walls, or vent tubes that were used to measure air permeability and collect air samples. The flexible and retrievable liner system was an effective way to monitor water content and collect air permeability data. The high-absorbency collectors were efficient at extracting liquid water for contaminant analyses even at volumetric water contents below 10 percent, and revealed vapor-phase tritium migration at one disposal pit. Both demonstration studies proved that effective characterization and periodic monitoring in horizontal boreholes is both feasible and adaptable to many waste disposal problems and locations.

  17. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  18. Evolution of stress-induced borehole breakout in inherently anisotropic rock: Insights from discrete element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, K.; Kwok, C. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand the mechanisms controlling the initiation, propagation, and ultimate pattern of borehole breakouts in shale formation when drilled parallel with and perpendicular to beddings. A two-dimensional discrete element model is constructed to explicitly represent the microstructure of inherently anisotropic rocks by inserting a series of individual smooth joints into an assembly of bonded rigid discs. Both isotropic and anisotropic hollow square-shaped samples are generated to represent the wellbores drilled perpendicular to and parallel with beddings at reduced scale. The isotropic model is validated by comparing the stress distribution around borehole wall and along X axis direction with analytical solutions. Effects of different factors including the particle size distribution, borehole diameter, far-field stress anisotropy, and rock anisotropy are systematically evaluated on the stress distribution and borehole breakout propagation. Simulation results reveal that wider particle size distribution results in the local stress perturbations which cause localization of cracks. Reduction of borehole diameter significantly alters the crack failure from tensile to shear and raises the critical pressure. Rock anisotropy plays an important role on the stress state around wellbore which lead to the formation of preferred cracks under hydrostatic stress. Far-field stress anisotropy plays a dominant role in the shape of borehole breakout when drilled perpendicular to beddings while a secondary role when drilled parallel with beddings. Results from this study can provide fundamental insights on the underlying particle-scale mechanisms for previous findings in laboratory and field on borehole stability in anisotropic rock.

  19. Simpevarp site investigation. Geophysical, radar and BIPS logging in borehole KSH01A, HSH01, HSH02 and HSH03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Per; Gustafsson, Christer [RAYCON, Malaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The objective of the surveys is to both receive information of the borehole itself, and from the rock mass around the borehole. Bore hole radar was used to investigate the nature and the structure of the rock mass located around the boreholes, and BIPS for geological surveying and fracture mapping and orientation. Geophysical logging was used to measure changes in physical properties in the borehole fluid and the bedrock surrounding the boreholes. This field report describes the equipment used as well the measurement procedures. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. Radar data is presented in radargrams and identified reflectors in each borehole are listed in tables. Geophysical logging data is presented in graphs as a function of depth.

  20. Forsmark site investigation. Geophysical, radar and BIPS logging in boreholes HFM01, HFM02, HFM03 and the percussion drilled part of KFM01A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Christer; Nilsson, Per [Malaa Geoscience AB/RAYCON, Jaerfaella (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    This document reports the data gained during logging operations, which is one of the activities performed within the site investigation at Forsmark. The logging operations presented here include geophysical logging with Wellmac, RAMAC and BIPS. In total, 430 metres of logging was carried out in four percussion drilled boreholes. The boreholes in question are; KFM01A (c. 100 m deep of which 50 m were logged/diameter 165 mm), HFM01 (200 m/140 mm), HFM02 (100 m/140 mm) and HFM03 (30 m/140 mm). The borehole referred to as KFM01A is the uppermost, percussion drilled part of a c 1000 m deep telescopic drilled borehole of which the section 1001000 metres is core drilled. All measurements were conducted in June 2002. Instruments used: Borehole radar (RAMAC) system with dipole radar antennas. Borehole TV system (Borehole Image Processing System BIPS), a high resolution, side viewing, colour borehole TV system. Borehole geophysical logging system (WELLMAC)

  1. Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Urik, Joseph; Lukes, Joseph; Kobr, Miroslav; Mares, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Application of the cross-borehole flow method, in which short pumping cycles in one borehole are used to induce time-transient flow in another borehole, demonstrated that a simple hydraulic model can characterize the fracture connections in the bedrock mass between the two boreholes. The analysis determines the properties of fracture connections rather than those of individual fractures intersecting a single borehole; the model contains a limited number of adjustable parameters so that any correlation between measured and simulated flow test data is significant. The test was conducted in two 200-m deep boreholes spaced 21 m apart in the Melechov Granite in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Transient flow was measured at depth stations between the identified transmissive fractures in one of the boreholes during short-term pumping and recovery periods in the other borehole. Simulated flows, based on simple model geometries, closely matched the measured flows. The relative transmissivity and storage of the inferred fracture connections were corroborated by tracer testing. The results demonstrate that it is possible to assess the properties of a fracture flow network despite being restricted to making measurements in boreholes in which a local population of discrete fractures regulates the hydraulic communication with the larger-scale aquifer system.

  2. Estimation of the sustainable yields of boreholes in fractured rock formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tonder, G. J.; Botha, J. F.; Chiang, W.-H.; Kunstmann, H.; Xu, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The simplest way to derive an estimate for the sustainable yield of a borehole is to study the behaviour of drawdowns observed during a hydraulic (also known as a pumping test) of the borehole, through an appropriate conceptual model. The choice of this model is probably the most difficult choice that the analyst of such a hydraulic test has to make, since a wrong model can only lead to the wrong conclusions and failure of the borehole. This paper discusses a semi-analytical and two numerical methods that can be used to simplify the analyses of hydraulic tests in fractured rock formations. The first method, called the Method of Derivative Fitting (MDF), uses a new approach to identify the conceptual model needed in such analyses. This is achieved by characterizing the various flow periods in fractured rock aquifers with numerical approximations of the first logarithmic derivative of the observed drawdown (the derivative of the drawdown with respect to the logarithm of the time). Semi-analytical expressions are used to estimate the influence that boundaries may have on the observed drawdown and the sustainable yield of a borehole — the rate at which a borehole can be pumped without lowering the water level below a prescribed limit. An effort has also been made to quantify errors in the estimates introduced by uncertainties in the parameters, such as the transmissivity and storativity, through a Gaussian error propagation analysis. These approximations and the MDF, called the Flow Characteristics Method (FCM) have been implemented in a user-friendly EXCEL notebook, and used to estimate the sustainable yield of a borehole on the Campus Test Site at the University of the Orange Free State. The first numerical method, a two-dimensional radial flow model, is included here because it allows the user more freedom than the FCM, although it requires more information. One particular advantage of the method is that it allows one to obtain realistic estimates of the

  3. A Fiber-Optic Borehole Seismic Vector Sensor System for Geothermal Site Characterization and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc.; Thornburg, Jon A [Paulsson, Inc.; He, Ruiqing [Paulsson, Inc.

    2015-04-21

    Seismic techniques are the dominant geophysical techniques for the characterization of subsurface structures and stratigraphy. The seismic techniques also dominate the monitoring and mapping of reservoir injection and production processes. Borehole seismology, of all the seismic techniques, despite its current shortcomings, has been shown to provide the highest resolution characterization and most precise monitoring results because it generates higher signal to noise ratio and higher frequency data than surface seismic techniques. The operational environments for borehole seismic instruments are however much more demanding than for surface seismic instruments making both the instruments and the installation much more expensive. The current state-of-the-art borehole seismic instruments have not been robust enough for long term monitoring compounding the problems with expensive instruments and installations. Furthermore, they have also not been able to record the large bandwidth data available in boreholes or having the sensitivity allowing them to record small high frequency micro seismic events with high vector fidelity. To reliably achieve high resolution characterization and long term monitoring of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) sites a new generation of borehole seismic instruments must therefore be developed and deployed. To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for EGS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) funded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 to develop a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into ultra-high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed on the DOE funding have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown

  4. Determination of thermal dispersivity using a borehole heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, V.; Bayer, P.; Bisch, G.; Braun, J.; Klaas, N.; Blum, P.

    2012-04-01

    Shallow geothermal energy is a popular option for the heating and air-conditioning of buildings, because it is a regenerative energy and modern heat-pump-based low-enthalpy geothermal systems are often economically advantageous to alternative technologies. Geothermal systems extract heat from the ground, or inject waste heat. This may cause temperature anomalies in the subsurface, and when shallow aquifers exist, these anomalies can be observed in the groundwater. To ensure an efficiently operating, and in the long-run, sustainable, geothermal system, a precise knowledge of the evolving temperature anomaly is desirable. When planning a system, among the subsurface heat transport processes, advection due to flowing groundwater is not often considered. Accordingly, the role of thermal dispersion is rarely inspected. To determine the thermal dispersion influencing the temperature plume around a borehole heat extractor (BHE), a geothermal lab experiment is performed in an artificial aquifer. The size of the aquifer is 9 m × 6 m × 4.5 m, it is heterogeneous and composed of five different sand layers. In the lab, a specific hydraulic gradient is imposed. A BHE is installed in this aquifer, and the exact size and temporal evolution of the induced temperature anomaly is measured by a monitoring network of over 100 temperature sensors. Based on the known hydraulic and thermal properties of the different sand layers, a high-resolution finite element model is built, which simulates the transient conditions during the experiment. This model contains a fully discretized BHE, with an integrated heat carrier fluid flow inside the U-pipes, located inside the BHE. Therefore, the model is able to consider the coupled processes between the temperature development of the heat carrier fluid and the heat propagation in the subsurface. Except the longitudinal and transversal dispersivity, all material properties and boundary conditions are known, thus the dispersivities can be

  5. Single-valued definition of the multivalued function for borehole acoustic waves in transversely isotropic formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is useful to extract all components, including compressional, shear, and guided waves, from the full waveforms when we investigate the acoustic log data. The component waves can be simulated by calculating the contributions from poles and branch points of the borehole acoustic function according to Cauchy’s theorem. For such an algorithm to be implemented, the multivalued function for the borehole wave field in the frequency-axial-wavenumber domain has to be rendered single-valued first. Assuming that the borehole axis is parallel to the symmetry axis of transverse isotropy, this paper derives the branch points of the borehole acoustic function. We discover that the number and the locations of those branch points are determined by the relation among the formation parameters c33, c44, ε, and δ. Thus the single-valued definitions in the acoustic-wave computation are sorted into two different cases. After building the Riemann surface related to each radial wavenumber, we give the single-valued definition of the borehole acoustic function inside and on the integration contour based on the radiation condition. In a formation with δ > ε + c44/2c33, if we choose the integration contour and the single-valued definition of the acoustic function in the way used in isotropic cases, the simulation results of component waves will be wrong.

  6. Geostatistical borehole image-based mapping of karst-carbonate aquifer pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Sukop,; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the character and spatial distribution of porosity in carbonate aquifers is important as input into computer models used in the calculation of intrinsic permeability and for next-generation, high-resolution groundwater flow simulations. Digital, optical, borehole-wall image data from three closely spaced boreholes in the karst-carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida are used in geostatistical experiments to assess the capabilities of various methods to create realistic two-dimensional models of vuggy megaporosity and matrix-porosity distribution in the limestone that composes the aquifer. When the borehole image data alone were used as the model training image, multiple-point geostatistics failed to detect the known spatial autocorrelation of vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes, which were only 10 m apart. Variogram analysis and subsequent Gaussian simulation produced results that showed a realistic conceptualization of horizontal continuity of strata dominated by vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes.

  7. Numerical study on scanning radiation acoustic field in formations generated from a borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Xiaohua; ZHANG Hailan; QIAO Wenxiao; JU Xiaodong

    2005-01-01

    Numerical study on scanning radiation acoustic field in formations generated by linear phased array transmitters in a fluid-filled borehole is carried out using a real axis integration (RAI) method. The main lobe width of the acoustic beams and the incident angle on the borehole wall can be controlled by means of adjusting parameters, such as the element number and the delay time between the neighboring array elements of linear phased array transmitter. The steered angle of longitudinal waves generated in the formation satisfies the Snell's law for plane waves when the incident angle on the borehole wall is less than the first critical angle. When the lobe width of the acoustic beams is narrow and the steered angle is less than the first critical angle, the acoustic field in the formation can be approximately calculated given that the linear phased array is put in the formation without borehole. The technique of scanning radiation acoustic field can be applied to enhancing investigation resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in crosswell seismic survey and borehole acoustic reflection imaging.

  8. Using the Hypergeometric Model to analyze the buckling of drillstrings in curved boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, J.H.B. Jr. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Eustes, A.W. III [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Current methodologies for analytically determining the onset of buckling of drillstrings within curved boreholes are limited. In this paper, the Hypergeometric Model is shown to be an effective model to determine drillstring buckling within curved boreholes. With the Hypergeometric Model, the analysis of drillstring buckling results in curves expressing the local buckling force versus the angle of inclination. The local buckling force alone, however, does not contain all the information required for a practical analysis. From the local buckling force curve, the positional buckling force is derived. The positional buckling force considers the distributed weight of the drillstring and the friction between the drillstring and the borehole wall. From this curve, the point of minimum resistance to buckling of the drillstring is determined. Using the local and positional buckling force curves, experimental results and simulations are presented. When multiple configurations exist (for example tapered drillstrings, tapered boreholes, multi-curved boreholes, or any combination of these), the analysis procedure uses superposition of two or more single configuration curves and a graphical algorithm. The Hypergeometric Model permits the optimization of the position of the crossing points (cross-over positioning, casing-shoe positioning, and change of curvature) to achieve extended reach with less risk and cost. The procedure for this model and examples are presented in this paper.

  9. Measurements and Design Calculations for a Deep Coaxial Borehole Heat Exchanger in Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Dijkshoorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the feasibility of an installation for space heating and cooling the building of the university in the center of the city Aachen, Germany, with a 2500 m deep coaxial borehole heat exchanger (BHE. Direct heating the building in winter requires temperatures of 40°C. In summer, cooling the university building uses a climatic control adsorption unit, which requires a temperature of minimum 55°C. The drilled rocks of the 2500 m deep borehole have extremely low permeabilities and porosities less than 1%. Their thermal conductivity varies between 2.2 W/(m·K and 8.9 W/(m·K. The high values are related to the quartzite sandstones. The maximum temperature in the borehole is 85°C at 2500 m depth, which corresponds to a mean specific heat flow of 85 mW/m2–90 mW/m2. Results indicate that for a short period, the borehole may deliver the required temperature. But after a 20-year period of operation, temperatures are too low to drive the adsorption unit for cooling. In winter, however, the borehole heat exchanger may still supply the building with sufficient heat, with temperatures varying between 25 and 55°C and a circulation flow rate of 10 m3/h at maximum.

  10. An automatic recognition and parameter extraction method for structural planes in borehole image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanying; Zou, Xianjian; Han, Zengqiang; Wang, Yiteng; Wang, Jinchao

    2016-12-01

    As a breakthrough in borehole imaging technology, digital panoramic borehole camera technology has been widely employed. The high-resolution panoramic borehole images can accurately reproduce the geometric features of structural planes. However, the detection of these features is usually done manually, which is both time-consuming and introduces human errors. To solve this problem, this paper presents a method for the automatic recognition and parameter extraction of borehole geometric features of camera images. In this method, the image's gray and gradient level, and also their projection on the depth axis are used to identify the locations of structural planes. Afterwards, iterative matching is employed by using a template of sinusoidal function to search for structural planes in the identified image blocks. Finally, optimal sine curves are selected as the feature curves of structural planes, and their related parameters are converted into structural plane parameters required for engineering, such as their positions, dip directions, dip angles and fracture widths. The method can automatically identify all of structural planes throughout the whole borehole camera image in a continuous and rapid manner, and obtain the corresponding structural parameters. It has proven highly reliable, accurate and efficient.

  11. Study of Performance on Recharging the Borehole by Means of Exhaust-air Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su; FAHL(E)N Per

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the performance analysis of recharging the borehole by means of exhaust-air energy is carried out. The results show that a vertical borehole used as heat source for a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) can be recharged in high efficiency. With equal heat transfer capabilities of exhaust-air coil and borehole collector, the system provides a maximum overall efficiency. However, due to ground infinite capacity, the optimum brine flow rate is different from conventional twoexchanger system. The recharging system provides two peak overall efficiencies when the capacity ratio Cr = 5 for laminar flow and Cr = 15 for turbulent flow respectively.The overall efficiency is independent of exhaust-air temperature and undisturbed ground temperature,although the fluid properties depend on temperature. In practical system lower ethyl percentage brine should be chosen if the freezing point meets the system request,which can provide a higher overall efficiency.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Shear-Horizontal-Wave-Induced Electromagnetic Field in Borehole Surrounded by Porous Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhi-Wen; WANG Ke-Xie; SUN Jian-Cuo; ZHU Zheng-Ya; YAO Gui-Jin; HU Heng-Shan

    2007-01-01

    Seismoelectric field excited by purely torsional loading applied directJy to the borehole wall is considered.A brief formulation and some computed waveforms show the advantage of using shear-horizontal (SH) transverseelectric(TE) seismoelectric waves logging to measure shear velocity in a fluid-saturated porous lormation.By assuming that the acoustic field is not influenced by its induced electromagnetic field due to seismoelectric effect,the coupling governing equations for electromagnetic field are reduced to Maxwell equations with a propagation current source.It is shown that this simplification is valid and the borehole seismoelectric conversion effcient is mainly dependent on the electrokinetic coupling coeffcient.The receivers to detect the conversion electromagnetic field and to obtain shear veloeity can be set in the borehole fluid in the SH-TE seismoelectric wave log.

  13. High-density support matrices: Key to the deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibb, F.G.F. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.gibb@sheffield.ac.uk; McTaggart, N.A.; Travis, K.P.; Burley, D. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hesketh, K.W. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., B709 Springfields, Preston PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Deep (4-5 km) boreholes are emerging as a safe, secure, environmentally sound and potentially cost-effective option for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, including plutonium. One reason this option has not been widely accepted for spent fuel is because stacking the containers in a borehole could create load stresses threatening their integrity with potential for releasing highly mobile radionuclides like {sup 129}I before the borehole is filled and sealed. This problem can be overcome by using novel high-density support matrices deployed as fine metal shot along with the containers. Temperature distributions in and around the disposal are modelled to show how decay heat from the fuel can melt the shot within weeks of disposal to give a dense liquid in which the containers are almost weightless. Finally, within a few decades, this liquid will cool and solidify, entombing the waste containers in a base metal sarcophagus sealed into the host rock.

  14. Failure development around a borehole in an orthorhombic thermo-elastoplastic rock medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłacik, Alicja; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    The elastic anisotropy of a rock medium is one of the main factors affecting stress distribution around the borehole. It governs the initiation and propagation of the technologically induced compressive and tensile failure zones, and reopening of natural mechanical discontinuities. We conducted a two-dimensional analysis of failure around a pressurized horizontal borehole in an orthorhombic elastic rock medium subject to variable far-field loads. The analytical solution to the thermoelastic problem was derived. An elastoplastic finite element method code was developed using MILAMIN platform (milamin.org) and implemented in MATLAB. Various yield functions were used, including von Mises, Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager and Hoek-Brown failure criteria. The analysis was augmented by introducing rock heterogeneities and discrete mechanical discontinuities in the vicinity of the borehole.

  15. Deep Boreholes Seals Subjected to High P, T conditions – Preliminary Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James Lavada [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-18

    The objective of this planned experimental work is to evaluate physio-chemical processes for ‘seal’ components and materials relevant to deep borehole disposal. These evaluations will encompass multi-laboratory efforts for the development of seals concepts and application of Thermal-Mechanical-Chemical (TMC) modeling work to assess barrier material interactions with subsurface fluids, their stability at high temperatures, and the implications of these processes to the evaluation of thermal limits. Deep borehole experimental work will constrain the Pressure, Temperature (P, T) conditions which “seal” material will experience in deep borehole crystalline rock repositories. The rocks of interest to this study include the silicic (granitic gneiss) end members. The experiments will systematically add components to capture discrete changes in both water and EBS component chemistries.

  16. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-01-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of pilot hole ONK-PH2 in ONKALO tunnel at the Olkiluoto site in December 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all the surveys, integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment, processing procedures, interpretation results and shows the obtained geophysical and image data. The data as well as the interpretation results are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  17. Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, S Emad; Schincariol, Robert A; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10(-7) m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings.

  18. High energy gas fracture experiments in liquid-filled boreholes: potential geothermal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuderman, J.F.; Chu, T.Y.; Jung, J.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    High Energy Gas Fracturing is a tailored pulse fracturing technique which uses propellants to obtain controlled fracture initiation and extension. Borehole pressurization rates can be tailored, by suitable choice of propellants, to produce four or eight fractures radiating from the wellbore. High Energy Gas Fracture (HEGF) research is conducted at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) in a tunnel complex where experiments can be done under realistic in situ stress conditions (1400 psi (9.7 MPa) overburden stress). Pressure measurements are made in the test borehole during all fracturing experiments. Experiments are mined back to provide direct observation of fracturing obtained. The initial objective of HEGF research was to develop multiple fracturing technology for application in gas well stimulation. HEGF research at NTS and in Devonian shale demonstration tests has resulted in a completed technology for multiple fracturing in uncased, liquid-free wellbores. Current resarch is directed toward extending the technique to liquid-filled boreholes for application in geothermal in addition to gas and oil wells. For liquid-free boreholes, multiple fracturing is specified in terms of pressure risetime required for a given borehole diameter. Propellants are mixed to achieve the desired risetime using a semiempirical mixing equation. The same techniques were successfully applied to fracturing in liquid-filled wellbores. However, the addition of liquid in the borehole results in a significantly more complicated fracturing behavior. Hydrodynamic effects are significant. Multiple fractures are initiated but only some propagated. Multiple- and hydraulic-type fracturing and wellbore crushing have been observed in the same experiment. The potential of using HEGB for geothermal well stimulation has been demonstrated through the present experiments. 18 refs., 40 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The ICDP Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project: preliminary overview of borehole geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Liberty, Lee M.; Kessler, James E.; Kuck, Jochem; Kofman, Randolph; Bishop, Ross; Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Champion, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    Hotspot: The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project was undertaken to better understand the geothermal systems in three locations across the Snake River Plain with varying geological and hydrological structure. An extensive series of standard and specialized geophysical logs were obtained in each of the wells. Hydrogen-index neutron and γ-γ density logs employing active sources were deployed through the drill string, and although not fully calibrated for such a situation do provide semi-quantitative information related to the ‘stratigraphy’ of the basalt flows and on the existence of alteration minerals. Electrical resistivity logs highlight the existence of some fracture and mineralized zones. Magnetic susceptibility together with the vector magnetic field measurements display substantial variations that, in combination with laboratory measurements, may provide a tool for tracking magnetic field reversals along the borehole. Full waveform sonic logs highlight the variations in compressional and shear velocity along the borehole. These, together with the high resolution borehole seismic measurements display changes with depth that are not yet understood. The borehole seismic measurements indicate that seismic arrivals are obtained at depth in the formations and that strong seismic reflections are produced at lithological contacts seen in the corresponding core logging. Finally, oriented ultrasonic borehole televiewer images were obtained over most of the wells and these correlate well with the nearly 6 km of core obtained. This good image log to core correlations, particularly with regards to drilling induced breakouts and tensile borehole and core fractures will allow for confident estimates of stress directions and or placing constraints on stress magnitudes. Such correlations will be used to orient in core orientation giving information useful in hydrological assessments, paleomagnetic dating, and structural volcanology.

  20. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31b, KR32, KR33, KR33b and KR24 Upper Part, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33, KR33B and KR24 upper part at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2004, January, February and September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  1. Overview of high-temperature batteries for geothermal and oil/gas borehole power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.; Odinek, Judy

    Batteries currently used as power supplies for measurement while drilling (MWD) equipment in boreholes for oil and gas exploration use a modified lithium/thionyl chloride technology. These batteries are limited to operating temperatures below 200 °C. At higher temperatures, the batteries and the associated electronics must be protected by a dewar. Sandia National Laboratories has been actively engaged in developing suitable alternative technologies for geothermal and oil/gas borehole power sources that are based on both ionic liquid and solid-state electrolytes. In this paper, we present the results of our studies to date and the directions of future efforts.

  2. Accuracy and borehole influences in pulsed neutron gamma density logging while drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huawei; Sun, Jianmeng; Wang, Jiaxin; Gardner, Robin P

    2011-09-01

    A new pulsed neutron gamma density (NGD) logging has been developed to replace radioactive chemical sources in oil logging tools. The present paper describes studies of near and far density measurement accuracy of NGD logging at two spacings and the borehole influences using Monte-Carlo simulation. The results show that the accuracy of near density is not as good as far density. It is difficult to correct this for borehole effects by using conventional methods because both near and far density measurement is significantly sensitive to standoffs and mud properties.

  3. Disposition of excess weapon plutonium in deep boreholes - site selection handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Woldegabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H.; Rowley, J.

    1996-09-01

    One of the options for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology needed to begin designing this means of disposition already exists, and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous United States. There are even more potential sites for this option within Russia. The successful design of a borehole system must address two criteria: (1) how to dispose of 50 metric tons of weapons plutonium while making it inaccessible for unauthorized retrieval, and (2) how to prevent contamination of the accessible biosphere, defined here as the Earth`s surface and usable groundwaters.

  4. Analysis of the Data from the Geophysical Borehole Logging on the KURT Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hun

    2009-08-15

    The properties of rock mass in the deep borehole, which is named DB-1 and installed in KURT site, were analyzed using the resultant data from several geophysical borehole logging methods including BIPS, SPS, full-wave sonic logging, gamma-gamma logging, electrical resistivity survey. From the results, the fracture zones at 154 m and 200-224 m depth in DB-1 was identified. We expected that the results can establish the basic information about the structural geology in and around KURT site.

  5. Deep Drilling Into the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Pemex Oil Exploration Boreholes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Chicxulub structure was recognized in the 1940´s from gravity anomalies in oil exploration surveys by Pemex. Geophysical anomalies occur over the carbonate platform in NW Yucatan, where density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts with the carbonates suggested a buried igneous complex or basement uplift. The exploration program developed afterwards included several boreholes, starting with the Chicxulub-1 in 1952 and eventually comprising eight deep boreholes completed through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the Pemex decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to Pemex information, original data have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and incorporation with results from recent efforts. Logging data and core samples remain to be analyzed, reevaluated and integrated in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we discuss the paleontological data, stratigraphic columns and geophysical logs for the Chicxulub-1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m) and Ticul-1 (3575m) boreholes. These boreholes remain the deepest ones drilled in Chicxulub and the only ones providing samples of the melt-rich breccias and melt sheet. Other boreholes include the Y1 (3221m), Y2 (3474m), Y4 (2398m) and Y5A (3003m), which give information on pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on log and microfossil data, stratigraphic columns, lateral correlation, integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data, and analyses of sections of melt, impact breccias and basal Paleocene carbonates. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater focus in the peak ring zone and central sector, with proposed marine and on-land boreholes to the IODP and ICDP programs. Future ICDP borehole will be located close to Chicxulub-1 and Sacapuc-1, which intersected

  6. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR36 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R.; Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 205.17 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in May 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock and the anomalous part of the bedrock and quality and the location of the fractured zones R19A and R19B. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR36. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling measurements. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 117 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 51m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR36. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. The results of the Maxibor measurements indicate that borehole OL-KR36 deviates 10.34 m left and 7.11 m up at the borehole depth of 204 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 126

  7. Finite line-source model for borehole heat exchangers. Effect of vertical temperature variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandos, Tatyana V.; Fernandez, Esther; Santander, Juan Luis G.; Isidro, Jose Maria; Perez, Jezabel; Cordoba, Pedro J. Fernandez de [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montero, Alvaro; Urchueguia, Javier F. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    A solution to the three-dimensional finite line-source (FLS) model for borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) that takes into account the prevailing geothermal gradient and allows arbitrary ground surface temperature changes is presented. Analytical expressions for the average ground temperature are derived by integrating the exact solution over the line-source depth. A self-consistent procedure to evaluate the in situ thermal response test (TRT) data is outlined. The effective thermal conductivity and the effective borehole thermal resistance can be determined by fitting the TRT data to the time-series expansion obtained for the average temperature. (author)

  8. Performance analysis on borehole energy storage system including utilization of solar thermal and photovoltaic energies; Taiyonetsu hikari riyo wo fukumu borehole energy chozo system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yamaguchi, A. [Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A permanent borehole energy storage system utilizing solar energy and waste heat from coolers is simulated, to be used as an air conditioning system for super-tall buildings. A 100m-long pipe is buried vertically into the ground, and a heat medium is caused to circulate in the pipe for the exchange of heat with the soil. Thirty borehole units are used, each measuring 9m{times}9m (with the pipe pitch being 3m). Solar cells occupying half of the wall surface facing south and solar collectors installed on the roof supply electric power and heat for cooling and warming. Heat in the ground is transferred mainly by conduction but also is carried by water and gas in movement. So, an analysis is carried out using an equation in which heat and water move at the same time. Because waste heat from cooling and warming systems is accumulated in the ground and none is discharged into the air, big cities will be protected from warming (from developing heat islands). As compared with the conventional boiler-aided air conditioning system, a hybrid borehole system incorporating solar collectors and solar cells will bring about an 80% reduction in CO2 emission and annual energy consumption. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Air temperature regulation in mine workings on the basis of local and block ventilation systems with boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, A.I.; Batmanov, Y.K.; Lunev, S.G.; Martynov, A.A. [Makeyevka Safety in Mines Research Institute, Makeyevka (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The thermal factor is one of the main factors complicating coal mining in the Donetsk Basin (Ukraine). Local ventilation systems (small diameter boreholes to improve ventilation in individual headings at deep levels) and block ventilation systems (large diameter boreholes for ventilation and air temperature control in independently mined blocks and panels) are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1321 - Permits for firing more than 20 boreholes and for use of nonpermissible blasting units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use of nonpermissible blasting units. 75.1321 Section 75.1321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1321 Permits for firing more than 20 boreholes and for use of nonpermissible blasting units. (a) Applications for permits for firing more than 20 boreholes in...

  11. Preliminary analyses of the deep geoenvironmental characteristics for the deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Spent fuels from nuclear power plants, as well as high-level radioactive waste from the recycling of spent fuels, should be safely isolated from human environment for an extremely long time. Recently, meaningful studies on the development of deep borehole radioactive waste disposal system in 3-5 km depth have been carried out in USA and some countries in Europe, due to great advance in deep borehole drilling technology. In this paper, domestic deep geoenvironmental characteristics are preliminarily investigated to analyze the applicability of deep borehole disposal technology in Korea. To do this, state-of-the art technologies in USA and some countries in Europe are reviewed, and geological and geothermal data from the deep boreholes for geothermal usage are analyzed. Based on the results on the crystalline rock depth, the geothermal gradient and the spent fuel types generated in Korea, a preliminary deep borehole concept including disposal canister and sealing system, is suggested.

  12. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2006-10-18

    The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to Tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. Sediments from borehole 299-E27-22 were considered to be background uncontaminated sediments against which to compare contaminated sediments for the C Tank Farm characterization effort. This report also presents our interpretation of the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the A-AX, C and U Waste Management Area field investigation report(a) in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. A core log was generated for both boreholes and a geologic evaluation of all core samples was performed at the time of opening. Aliquots of sediment from the borehole core samples were analyzed and characterized in the laboratory for the following parameters: moisture content, gamma-emitting radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Two key radiocontaminants

  13. SNG-log in borehole P7 in Faxe Chalk Quarry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    A spectral natural gamma-ray log in a 190 m borehole in Faxe chalk quarry confirms that Danish bryozoan and corallic limestones contain very low levels of natural radioactivity. Due to the low content of natural radioactivity it has been possible to observe the influence from cosmic radiation...

  14. Informing groundwater model hydrostratigraphy with airborne time-domain electromagnetic data and borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    lithological information directly into groundwater models is proposed. The approach builds on a clay-fraction inversion which is a spatially variable translation of resistivity values from EM data into clay-fraction values using borehole lithological information. Hydrostratigraphical units are obtained through...

  15. An automated method to build groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, N.; He, X.

    2015-01-01

    alone. Due to sparse sampling in space, lithological borehole logs may overlook structures that are important for groundwater flow at larger scales. Good spatial coverage along with high spatial resolution makes airborne time-domain electromagnetic (AEM) data valuable for the structural input to large...

  16. Borehole flowmeter logging for the accurate design and analysis of tracer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiricò, Stefano; Crosta, Giovanni B; Frattini, Paolo; Villa, Alberto; Godio, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Tracer tests often give ambiguous interpretations that may be due to the erroneous location of sampling points and/or the lack of flow rate measurements through the sampler. To obtain more reliable tracer test results, we propose a methodology that optimizes the design and analysis of tracer tests in a cross borehole mode by using vertical borehole flow rate measurements. Experiments using this approach, herein defined as the Bh-flow tracer test, have been performed by implementing three sequential steps: (1) single-hole flowmeter test, (2) cross-hole flowmeter test, and (3) tracer test. At the experimental site, core logging, pumping tests, and static water-level measurements were previously carried out to determine stratigraphy, fracture characteristics, and bulk hydraulic conductivity. Single-hole flowmeter testing makes it possible to detect the presence of vertical flows as well as inflow and outflow zones, whereas cross-hole flowmeter testing detects the presence of connections along sets of flow conduits or discontinuities intercepted by boreholes. Finally, the specific pathways and rates of groundwater flow through selected flowpaths are determined by tracer testing. We conclude that the combined use of single and cross-borehole flowmeter tests is fundamental to the formulation of the tracer test strategy and interpretation of the tracer test results.

  17. Computer modeling and laboratory experiments of a specific borehole to surface electrical monitoring technique (BSEMT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, J.A.C.; Zhang, X.; Abdul Fattah, R.

    2011-01-01

    Geophysical monitoring of the dynamical behavior of subsurface reservoirs (oil, gas, CO2) remains an important issue in geophysical research. A new idea for reservoir monitoring based on electrical resistivity tomography was developed at TNO. The essential element of the so-called BSEMT (Borehole to

  18. Sustained high basal motion of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by borehole deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luethi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.;

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high am...

  19. Characterization of earthquake fault by borehole experiments; Koseinai sokutei ni yoru jishin danso no kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishizawa, O.; Kuwahara, Y.; Kiguchi, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A borehole was excavated to penetrate the Nojima fault at the Hirabayashi area, to investigate the underground structures of the fault by observation of the cores and well logging. The borehole was excavated from 74.6m east of the fault surface. Soil is of granodiorite from the surface, and fault clay at a depth in a range from 624.1 to 625.1m. Observation of the cores, collected almost continuously, indicates that the fault fracture zone expands in a depth range from 557 to 713.05m. The well logging experiments are natural potential, resistivity, density, gamma ray, neutron, borehole diameter, microresistivity and temperature. They are also for DSI- and FMI-observation, after expansion of the borehole. The well logging results indicate that resistivity, density and elastic wave velocity decrease as distance from fault clay increases, which well corresponds to the soil conditions. The BHTV and FMI analyses clearly detect the fault clay demarcations, and show that elastic wave velocity and BHTV results differ at above and below the fault. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Research on Deep Joints and Lode Extension Based on Digital Borehole Camera Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zengqiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Structure characteristics of rock and orebody in deep borehole are obtained by borehole camera technology. By investigating on the joints and fissures in Shapinggou molybdenum mine, the dominant orientation of joint fissure in surrounding rock and orebody were statistically analyzed. Applying the theory of metallogeny and geostatistics, the relationship between joint fissure and lode’s extension direction is explored. The results indicate that joints in the orebody of ZK61borehole have only one dominant orientation SE126° ∠68°, however, the dominant orientations of joints in surrounding rock were SE118° ∠73°, SW225° ∠70° and SE122° ∠65°, NE79° ∠63°. Then a preliminary conclusion showed that the lode’s extension direction is specific and it is influenced by joints of surrounding rock. Results of other boreholes are generally agree well with the ZK61, suggesting the analysis reliably reflects the lode’s extension properties and the conclusion presents important references for deep ore prospecting.

  1. Geostatistical analysis of the relationship between airborne electromagnetic data and borehole lithological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian; Møller, Ingelise; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2015-01-01

    We present a large-scale study of the relationship between dense airborne SkyTEM resistivity data and sparse lithological borehole data. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data contains information about subsurface geology and hydrologic properties; however extracting this information is not trivial....

  2. Estimate of rock mass stability in surface–borehole mining of high-grade iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammal, AS; Antsiferov, SV; Deev, PV; Sergeev, SV

    2017-02-01

    Under consideration is the estimate of rock mass stability around underground openings generated as a result of hydraulic borehole mining of iron ore. The authors use analytical solutions of two plane elasticity problems on stress state of infinite media with the zone of weakening in the form of one or two circular holes, given initial stresses are set in the study domains.

  3. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffia, I. Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111 respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO, total dissolved solids (TDS, Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium and heavy metals such as Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium using conventional equipment and standard laboratory procedures. Most of these parameters indicated traceable pollution but were below the World Health Organization (WHO and Nigerian Standard for Drinking water quality (NSDWQ limits for consumption. The pH value in sample position 0km ( X1 was 5.5 indicating toxic pollution in the vicinity within the abandoned battery industry. Turbidity and temperature in sample position 0km (X1 were 6.7 NTU and 27.60 respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water within abandoned battery industry were above the WHO permissible level. The results showed that borehole water in sample position 0km (X1 was strongly polluted and require urgently certain levels of treatment before use.

  4. Advanced Coupled Simulation of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Above Ground Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Bastian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel O.; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage in borehole heat exchanger arrays is a promising technology to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. These systems usually consist of several subsystems like the heat source (e.g. solarthermics or a combined heat and power plant), the heat consumer (e.g. a heating system), diurnal storages (i.e. water tanks), the borehole thermal energy storage, additional heat sources for peak load coverage (e.g. a heat pump or a gas boiler) and the distribution network. For the design of an integrated system, numerical simulations of all subsystems are imperative. A separate simulation of the borehole energy storage is well-established but represents a simplification. In reality, the subsystems interact with each other. The fluid temperatures of the heat generation system, the heating system and the underground storage are interdependent and affect the performance of each subsystem. To take into account these interdependencies, we coupled a software for the simulation of the above ground facilities with a finite element software for the modeling of the heat flow in the subsurface and the borehole heat exchangers. This allows for a more realistic view on the entire system. Consequently, a finer adjustment of the system components and a more precise prognosis of the system's performance can be ensured.

  5. Analysis of Geo-Temperature Restoration Performance under Intermittent Operation of Borehole Heat Exchanger Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent operation can improve the coefficient of performance (COP of a ground source heat pump (GSHP system. In this paper, an analytical solution to analyze the geo-temperature restoration performance under intermittent operation of borehole heat exchanger (BHE fields is established. For this purpose, the moving finite line source model is combined with the g-function and the superposition principle. The model takes into account the heat transfer along the borehole, thermal interference between BHEs, and the influence of groundwater flow. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with an experiment carried out under intermittent operation. The model makes it possible to analyze the geo-temperature restoration performance and its influencing factors, such as BHE spacing, heat flow rate, operation mode, and groundwater flow. The main conclusions of this work are as follows. The heat transfer along the borehole should be considered when analyzing the geo-temperature restoration performance. When the BHE spacing increases, the soil temperature change decreases and the heat recovery improves. Therefore, adequate borehole separation distance is essential in the case of a multiple BHE system with unbalanced load. The presence of groundwater flow is associated with interference between the BHEs, which should not be ignored. In the case of long-term operation, the groundwater flow is beneficial to the geo-temperature recovery process, even for downstream BHEs. Finally, a greater groundwater flux leads to a better geo-temperature recovery.

  6. Rock Mass Characterization by High-Resolution Sonic and GSI Borehole Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, F.; Sapigni, M.; Crosta, G. B.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the relationships between the in situ P-wave velocity (Vp) of rock masses, measured by borehole acoustic logging, and their Geological Strength Index (GSI), to support a reliable assessment of equivalent continuum rock mass properties at depth. We quantified both Vp and GSI in three deep boreholes drilled in a crystalline core complex of the central Italian Alps. The boreholes were driven up to 400 m in depth and provided high-quality drill cores in gneiss, schist and metasedimentary rocks with variable lithology. Geological and geomechanical logging was carried out for over 800 m of cores, and acoustic logging was performed for more than 600 m of borehole length. High-resolution core logging in terms of GSI was obtained using an original quantitative approach. Candidate empirical correlation functions linking Vp and GSI were tested by a two-step statistical analysis of the experimental dataset, including outlier removal and nonlinear regression analysis. We propose a sigmoid Vp-GSI equation valid over a depth range between 100 and 400 m. This accounts for extremely variable lithological, weathering and rock mass damage conditions, complementing existing shallow-depth approaches and showing potential for practical applications in different engineering settings.

  7. Measurements of shock-induced guided and surface acoustic waves along boreholes in poroelastic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, G.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Van Dongen, M.E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic experiments on the propagation of guided waves along water-filled boreholes in water-saturated porous materials are reported. The experiments were conducted using a shock tube technique. An acoustic funnel structure was placed inside the tube just above the sample in order to enhance the ex

  8. Comprehensive borehole management for shorter drilling time; Umfassendes Bohrfortschrittsmanagement zur Verkuerzung der Bohrprojektdauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrlich, M. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    In 2006, the trademarked ExxonMobil Fast Drill Process (FDP) was introduced also in the German ExxonMobil boreholes. The process is to maximize the drilling speed for every meter drilled. The process makes it possible to ensure borehole management on the basis of quantitative data and in consideration of all phases that are relevant for sinking a borehole. The FDP is used world-wide in all ExxonMobil drilling departments. More than 1.35 million meters are drilled annually in many different boreholes with different geological conditions, drilling profiles and international sites. The results were similar in many cases, with a significant increase in ROP and drill bit life, and with less damage caused by vibrations. FDP was developed on the basis of real time monitoring of the specific mechanical energy (MSE) required for drilling. MSE monitoring was found to be an effective tool dor detecting inefficient functioning of the drill bit and the overall system. To make operation more efficient, the causes must be identified and measures must be taken accordingly, taking into account the potential risks involved in such measures. MSE monitoring is a tool while FDPL is a broad management process ensuring that MSE and many other data sources are used effectively for optimisation of the ROP. Consequent implementation of the process resulted in a significant increase of the ROP. The major elements required for achieving this goal are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers. Digging deeper for safety. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido; Hurst, Stephanie; Merkel, Broder; Mueller, Birgit; Schilling, Frank

    2016-03-15

    The proceedings of the workshop on final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers - digging deeper for safety include contributions on the following topics: international status and safety requirements; geological and physical barriers; deep drilling - shaft building; technical barriers and emplacement technology for high P/T conditions; recovery (waste retrieval); geochemistry and monitoring.

  10. Development of a Universal Canister for Disposal of High-Level Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gomberg, Steve [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The mission of the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Some of the wastes that must be managed have been identified as good candidates for disposal in a deep borehole in crystalline rock. In particular, wastes that can be disposed of in a small package are good candidates for this disposal concept. A canister-based system that can be used for handling these wastes during the disposition process (i.e., storage, transfer, transportation, and disposal) could facilitate the eventual disposal of these wastes. Development of specifications for the universal canister system will consider the regulatory requirements that apply to storage, transportation, and disposal of the capsules, as well as operational requirements and limits that could affect the design of the canister (e.g., deep borehole diameter). In addition, there are risks and technical challenges that need to be recognized and addressed as Universal Canister system specifications are developed. This paper provides an approach to developing specifications for such a canister system that is integrated with the overall efforts of the DOE’s Used Fuel Disposition Campaign's Deep Borehole Field Test and compatible with planned storage of potential borehole-candidate wastes.

  11. MODELING OF THE GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT AROUND A DEEP BOREHOLE NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lubchenko; M. Rodríguez-Buño; E.A. Bates; R. Podgorney; E. Baglietto; J. Buongiorno; M.J. Driscoll

    2015-04-01

    The concept of disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock is gaining renewed interest and consideration as a viable mined repository alternative. A large amount of work on conceptual borehole design and preliminary performance assessment has been performed by researchers at MIT, Sandia National Laboratories, SKB (Sweden), and others. Much of this work relied on analytical derivations or, in a few cases, on weakly coupled models of heat, water, and radionuclide transport in the rock. Detailed numerical models are necessary to account for the large heterogeneity of properties (e.g., permeability and salinity vs. depth, diffusion coefficients, etc.) that would be observed at potential borehole disposal sites. A derivation of the FALCON code (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) was used for the thermal-hydrologic modeling. This code solves the transport equations in porous media in a fully coupled way. The application leverages the flexibility and strengths of the MOOSE framework, developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The current version simulates heat, fluid, and chemical species transport in a fully coupled way allowing the rigorous evaluation of candidate repository site performance. This paper mostly focuses on the modeling of a deep borehole repository under realistic conditions, including modeling of a finite array of boreholes surrounded by undisturbed rock. The decay heat generated by the canisters diffuses into the host rock. Water heating can potentially lead to convection on the scale of thousands of years after the emplacement of the fuel. This convection is tightly coupled to the transport of the dissolved salt, which can suppress convection and reduce the release of the radioactive materials to the aquifer. The purpose of this work has been to evaluate the importance of the borehole array spacing and find the conditions under which convective transport can be ruled out as a radionuclide transport mechanism

  12. Cross-borehole ERT monitoring of a tracer injection into chlorinated-solvent contaminated fractured mudstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Slater, L. D.; Johnson, T. C.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Imbrigiotta, T. E.; Johnson, C. D.; Lacombe, P.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Shapiro, A. M.; Tiedeman, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to monitor remedial injections in contaminated fractured rock to determine if targeted areas have been reached and to monitor treatment effectiveness. While detailed information can be obtained at boreholes, these locations are limited; determining connectivity in fracture networks is difficult and borehole monitoring locations may miss the injection entirely. The primary and secondary domains in fractured rock have hydraulic conductivities that differ by orders of magnitude such that tracer injections commonly have rapid breakthrough followed by extended tailings. Often, it is presumed that the tracer is transported into dead-end pore spaces or unknown inter-connected networks and/or sorbed into the primary porosity. Cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), guided by information from borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic testing, has the potential to monitor the fate of tracer injections between borehole locations. ERT has been under-exploited in fractured rock due to: (1) a lack of available 3D codes, (2) a lack of computing resources to accommodate a large number of model parameters, and (3) limitations of regularization constraints used in ERT modeling for representing fractured rock settings along with a full understanding of these constraints. Recognizing numerous advances in ERT imaging and building on our previous studies, we present results from a field-scale ERT experiment in fractured rock. We use ERT to monitor a conductive tracer injection in a fractured mudstone at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in New Jersey. A custom-built electrode array included inflatable bladders to isolate fractures within each borehole and allowed for discrete water sampling and injection. By injecting the tracer in pulses and collecting 3D ERT measurements following each pulse, we were able to (1) avoid rapid breakthrough and large dilution rates and thus maintain a high conductivity contrast, and (2) characterize ambient flow by

  13. Moving to Google Cloud: Renovation of Global Borehole Temperature Database for Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y.; Huang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Borehole temperature comprises an independent archive of information on climate change which is complementary to the instrumental and other proxy climate records. With support from the international geothermal community, a global database of borehole temperatures has been constructed for the specific purpose of the study on climate change. Although this database has become an important data source in climate research, there are certain limitations partially because the framework of the existing borehole temperature database was hand-coded some twenty years ago. A database renovation work is now underway to take the advantages of the contemporary online database technologies. The major intended improvements include 1) dynamically linking a borehole site to Google Earth to allow for inspection of site specific geographical information; 2) dynamically linking an original key reference of a given borehole site to Google Scholar to allow for a complete list of related publications; and 3) enabling site selection and data download based on country, coordinate range, and contributor. There appears to be a good match between the enhancement requirements for this database and the functionalities of the newly released Google Fusion Tables application. Google Fusion Tables is a cloud-based service for data management, integration, and visualization. This experimental application can consolidate related online resources such as Google Earth, Google Scholar, and Google Drive for sharing and enriching an online database. It is user friendly, allowing users to apply filters and to further explore the internet for additional information regarding the selected data. The users also have ways to map, to chart, and to calculate on the selected data, and to download just the subset needed. The figure below is a snapshot of the database currently under Google Fusion Tables renovation. We invite contribution and feedback from the geothermal and climate research community to make the

  14. Semi-analytical model of cross-borehole flow experiments for fractured medium characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinet, D.; Irving, J.; Day-Lewis, F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The study of fractured rocks is extremely important in a wide variety of research fields where the fractures and faults can represent either rapid access to some resource of interest or potential pathways for the migration of contaminants in the subsurface. Identification of their presence and determination of their properties are critical and challenging tasks that have led to numerous fracture characterization methods. Among these methods, cross-borehole flowmeter analysis aims to evaluate fracture connections and hydraulic properties from vertical-flow-velocity measurements conducted in one or more observation boreholes under forced hydraulic conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that analysis of these data can provide important information on fracture connectivity, transmissivity, and storativity. Estimating these properties requires the development of analytical and/or numerical modeling tools that are well adapted to the complexity of the problem. Quantitative analysis of cross-borehole flowmeter experiments, in particular, requires modeling formulations that: (i) can be adapted to a variety of fracture and experimental configurations; (ii) can take into account interactions between the boreholes because their radii of influence may overlap; and (iii) can be readily cast into an inversion framework that allows for not only the estimation of fracture hydraulic properties, but also an assessment of estimation error. To this end, we present a new semi-analytical formulation for cross-borehole flow in fractured media that links transient vertical-flow velocities measured in one or a series of observation wells during hydraulic forcing to the transmissivity and storativity of the fractures intersected by these wells. Our model addresses the above needs and provides a flexible and computationally efficient semi-analytical framework having strong potential for future adaptation to more complex configurations. The proposed modeling approach is demonstrated

  15. Effect of Stresses and Strains of Roadway Surrounding Rocks on Borehole Airtightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, many high gas and outburst mines have poor gas drainage effects. An important reason influencing the gas drainage effect is a poor hole-sealing effect. Most studies on gas drainage borehole sealing focus on local and foreign borehole sealing methods, borehole sealing equipment, and borehole sealing materials. Numerical simulations of initial drilling sealing depth are insufficient because studies on this subject are few. However, when the initial sealing depth of the borehole is not chosen reasonably, air can enter the gas drainage drill hole through the circumferential crack of roadway surrounding rocks under the influence of suction pressure of the drainage system. This phenomenon ultimately affects the hole-sealing effect. To improve the drilling hole sealing of gas drainage boring, we deduced the expression formulas of the crushing zone, plastic zone, and elastic zone around the coal-seam floor stone drift and conducted a stress–strain analysis of the coal-seam floor stone drift of the 2145 working surfaces of the Sixth Coal Mine of Hebi Coal Mine Group Company by using theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and on-scene verification. Finally, we obtain the initial drilling sealing depth, which is a main contribution of this study. The results prove the following. The performed hole-sealing process with an initial drilling sealing depth of 8 m has a gas drainage efficiency of 55%. Compared with the previous 6.8 m initial drilling sealing depth with a gas drainage efficiency of less than 30%, which was adopted by the mine, the initial sealing depth of 8 m chosen in the numerical simulation is reasonable and conforms to the actual situation on the spot. Therefore, the initial drilling sealing depth chosen in the numerical simulation will produce practical and effective guidance to study the field hole-sealing depth.

  16. Effective Stress and Permeability Redistributions Induced by Successive Roadway and Borehole Excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengyong; Zhou, Fubao; Liu, Yingke; Xia, Tongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Methane extraction from in-seam boreholes is the main approach for recovering methane in China. However, the methane concentration for this method is generally lower than 30 %, which incurs a risk of methane outbursts during pipeline transportation. To increase the methane concentration, we first conducted permeability experiments to investigate the relationships between the permeability and the effective stress at different stages in the complete effective stress-strain process. We then adopted FLAC3D software to calculate the stress distributions around roadways and boreholes after their consecutive excavations and thereby divided the coal mass around the roadway and borehole according to different effective stress stages to understand the gas flow characteristics. The results show that the coal mass along the radial direction of the roadway and borehole can be sequentially divided into four zones, including the full flow zone (FFZ), the transitive flow zone (TFZ), the flow-shielding zone (FSZ), and the in situ rock flow zone (IRFZ), which have been proven correct by field experiments. The methane in the IRFZ was difficult to extract because of the low permeability of coal mass in this zone. The permeability of the FSZ was lower than that of the IRFZ. The permeability along the interface between the FSZ and TFZ was nearly one time as low as that of the IRFZ, while the permeability of the FFZ was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the IRFZ. This four-zone division demonstrates the decaying mechanism of methane extraction concentration and flow in the in-seam borehole and can provide theoretical guidance for improvement of methane extraction.

  17. Borehole radar survey at the granodiorite quarry mine, Cheonan, Chungnam province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Seong Jun; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il; Shin, In Chul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Borehole radar survey in combination with the reflection and tomography methods was conducted at the granodiorite quarry mine of Cheonan area near Asan city in Chungnam province. The purpose of radar survey in quarry mine is to delineate the inhomogeneities including fractures and to estimate the freshness of rock. 20 MHz was adopted as the central frequency for the radar reflection and tomography surveys for the longer distance of penetration. The reflection survey using the direction finding antenna was also conducted to get the information on the spatial orientation of reflectors. The reflection data processing package, RADPRO version 2.2, developed continuously through in this study, was used to process the borehole reflection radar data. The new tomographic inversion programs were devised and used to get the both of velocity and attenuation tomograms. The inverting algorithm is based on the least squared method with smoothness constraint. In spite of straight ray assumption, the new programs could give more reasonable images than the conventional programs based on the ART or SIRT. The major dip angle of fractured zones were determined from the radar reflection images. With the aid of direction finding antenna, it was possible to get the three dimensional attitudes of reflectors. Detailed interpretation results of the surveyed area are included in this report. Through the interpretation of borehole reflection data using dipole and direction finding antenna, we could determine the orientation of the major fractured zone detected in the borehole DH-1 between about 40 and 50 meter depths. The tomographic images also show the image of the fractured zone very well, and it would be coincided with the interpretation result of the borehole reflection data. The fracture zone tends to go shallower with the dip of 30 degrees approximately, when going southwards. Underneath of the fracture zone, the fresh granodiorite mass will be widely distributed. (author). 9 refs., 3

  18. Optimal Duration of Submersible Pump Equipped Deep Water Borehole Project in Ikwuano, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankwojike, B. Nduka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimal duration for constructing a submersible pump equipped deep water borehole in Ikwuano and optimal durations of distinct jobs in this project were determined to aid effective planning and implementation of borehole projects in this area. The investigation was conducted and analyzed using network modeling procedure. Results revealed 13days as the optimal duration of the borehole project when construction of overhead water distribution tank stantion constitutes part of the contract and 12days when the overhead structure is not involved. The optimal duration in hours for the distinct jobs involved in this borehole construction include 25.92 for site preparation/mobilization of geophysical survey team, 36 for geophysical analysis/selection of the best water yielding point in the site, 72 for mobilizing labour and materials to the selected site, 168 for constructing overhead water distribution tank stantion, 3.12 for placement of overhead tank(s on its stantion/installation of its water conveying pipes/accessories, 4.56 for casing/gravel packing/flushing materials preparation, 19.44 for well drilling, 1.92 for casing, 1.92 for gravel packing, 1.2 for flushing, 25.92 for water collection/analysis, 1.2 for water treatment, 13.44 for pumping test, 25.92 for platforming, 77.04 for pump installation/integration of water conveying systems, 4.8 for test running and 0.96 for training end users/project commission. Thus, a guide for effective planning to ensure adequate and timely implementation of deep borehole water supply projects in Ikwuano is set.

  19. Conductive fracture mapping. A study on the correlation between borehole TV- and radar images and difference flow logging results in borehole KLX02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A.; Ludvigson, Jan-Erik [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This study presents an attempt to correlate images from borehole-TV (BIPS) and borehole radar with interpreted flow anomalies from Difference Flow Meter logging (DIFF). The measurements were performed in the interval 200-400 m in borehole KLX02 at Laxemar. In total, 59 flow anomalies were interpreted by the DIFF-log in this borehole interval. However, 14 flow anomalies were below the rigorous measurement limit for the actual flow meter and are thus regarded as uncertain. In total, 261 features were primarily interpreted by the BIPS-characterization in the borehole interval 200-400 m but only 12 radar reflectors. The low number of interpreted radar reflectors most likely depends on the low frequency of the antenna used in this case which gave a poor depth resolution. The total number of fractures recorded by the core mapping in this interval was 374 (279 in the rock together with 95 fractures in interpreted crush zones). Prior to the correlation analysis it was necessary to adjust the length scales of the BIPS-measurements relative to the length scale of the Difference Flow logging due to non-linear stretching of logging cables etc to achieve the necessary resolution of the depth scale.This adjustment was done by comparing the distances between clearly identified single features in the BIPS-images with the corresponding distances between clearly identified flow anomalies. The BIPS-measurements consist of 5 independent logging sequences in the studied borehole interval, which resulted in 'jumps' when comparing the non-conform length scales of the different sequences. All of the 59 flow anomalies could be correlated (matched) with BIPS-features with varying degree of certainty. A majority of the correlated BIPS-features was classified as open fractures or fractures with cavities. Most of the flow anomalies below the measurement limit were correlated to veins in the rock. In the correlation between borehole radar reflectors and BIPS-features, the calculated

  20. Character and distribution of borehole breakouts and their relationship to in situ stresses in Deep Columbia River Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Kim, Kunsoo

    1987-06-01

    The character and distribution of borehole breakouts in deeply buried basalts at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State are examined in light of stress indicator data and hydraulic-fracturing stress data by means of acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform logging systems. A series of boreholes penetrating the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group were logged to examine the extent of breakouts at depths near 1000 m. Breakouts occur discontinuously throughout the interiors of most flows. In some boreholes the distribution of borehole wall breakouts closely correlates with the incidence of core disking. Differences in the distribution of breakouts and disking are attributed to differences in failure mechanisms. A thin interval of breakout-free basalt occurs near the upper and lower limits of flow interiors, with many intervals of breakouts terminating at the intersection of oblique fractures with the borehole. Hydraulic-fracturing stress measurement results obtained from four deep boreholes indicate anisotropic horizontal principal stresses, with maximum principal stress along an approximate north trending axis, consistent with the east trending orientation of breakouts. Acoustic waveform logs indicate that there is no measurable difference between the seismic properties of breakout-free flow tops and flow interiors. The highly coherent waveforms obtained in almost all flow interiors indicate that damage to the borehole wall associated with breakout formation remains confined to the thin annulus of stress concentration.

  1. Numerical simulation of an acoustic field generated by a phased arc array in a fluid-filled borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Che Xiaohua; Qiao Wenxiao

    2009-01-01

    The acoustic tools widely used in borehole well logging and being developed in borehole acoustic reflection imaging do not have the function of azimuthal measurement due to a symmetric source, so they can not be used to evaluate the azimuthal character of borehole formation. In this paper, a 3D finite difference method was used to simulate the acoustic fields in a fluid-filled borehole generated by a traditional monopole source and a phased arc array. Acoustic waveforms were presented for both cases. The analysis of the simulated waveforms showed that different from the monopole source, the acoustic energy generated by the phased arc array transmitter mainly radiated to the borehole in a narrow azimuthal range, which was the key technique to implement azimuthal acoustic well logging. Similar to the monopole source, the waveforms generated by the phased arc array in the fluid-filled borehole also contain compressional (P) waves and shear (S) waves refracted along the borehole, which is the theoretical foundation of phased arc array acoustic well logging.

  2. Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS) Updated User’s Guide for Web-based Data Access and Export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-09-24

    The Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS) is a prototype web-based graphical user interface (GUI) for viewing and downloading borehole geologic data. The HBGIS is being developed as part of the Remediation Decision Support function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project, managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington. Recent efforts have focused on improving the functionality of the HBGIS website in order to allow more efficient access and exportation of available data in HBGIS. Users will benefit from enhancements such as a dynamic browsing, user-driven forms, and multi-select options for selecting borehole geologic data for export. The need for translating borehole geologic data into electronic form within the HBGIS continues to increase, and efforts to populate the database continue at an increasing rate. These new web-based tools should help the end user quickly visualize what data are available in HBGIS, select from among these data, and download the borehole geologic data into a consistent and reproducible tabular form. This revised user’s guide supersedes the previous user’s guide (PNNL-15362) for viewing and downloading data from HBGIS. It contains an updated data dictionary for tables and fields containing borehole geologic data as well as instructions for viewing and downloading borehole geologic data.

  3. Conductive fracture mapping. A study on the correlation between borehole TV- and radar images and difference flow logging results in borehole KLX02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A.; Ludvigson, Jan-Erik [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This study presents an attempt to correlate images from borehole-TV (BIPS) and borehole radar with interpreted flow anomalies from Difference Flow Meter logging (DIFF). The measurements were performed in the interval 200-400 m in borehole KLX02 at Laxemar. In total, 59 flow anomalies were interpreted by the DIFF-log in this borehole interval. However, 14 flow anomalies were below the rigorous measurement limit for the actual flow meter and are thus regarded as uncertain. In total, 261 features were primarily interpreted by the BIPS-characterization in the borehole interval 200-400 m but only 12 radar reflectors. The low number of interpreted radar reflectors most likely depends on the low frequency of the antenna used in this case which gave a poor depth resolution. The total number of fractures recorded by the core mapping in this interval was 374 (279 in the rock together with 95 fractures in interpreted crush zones). Prior to the correlation analysis it was necessary to adjust the length scales of the BIPS-measurements relative to the length scale of the Difference Flow logging due to non-linear stretching of logging cables etc to achieve the necessary resolution of the depth scale.This adjustment was done by comparing the distances between clearly identified single features in the BIPS-images with the corresponding distances between clearly identified flow anomalies. The BIPS-measurements consist of 5 independent logging sequences in the studied borehole interval, which resulted in 'jumps' when comparing the non-conform length scales of the different sequences. All of the 59 flow anomalies could be correlated (matched) with BIPS-features with varying degree of certainty. A majority of the correlated BIPS-features was classified as open fractures or fractures with cavities. Most of the flow anomalies below the measurement limit were correlated to veins in the rock. In the correlation between borehole radar reflectors and BIPS-features, the calculated

  4. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196 and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2004-09-01

    This report contains geologic, geochemical, and physical characterization data collected on sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. The measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared to a nearby borehole 299-W10-196 placed through the plume from the 1973 T-106 tank leak. This report also presents the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the T Tank Farm. Sediment samples were characterized for: moisture content, gamma-emission radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, radionuclide and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Overall, our analyses showed that common ion exchange is a key mechanism that influences the distribution of contaminants within that portion of the vadose zone affected by tank liquor. We observed slight elevated pH values in samples from borehole C4104. The sediments from the three boreholes, C4104, C4105, and 299-W10-196 do show that sodium-, nitrate-, and sulfate-dominated fluids are present below tank T-106 and have formed a salt plume. The fluids are more dilute than tank fluids observed below tanks at the SX and BX Tank Farms and slightly less than those from the most saline porewater found in contaminated TX tank farm sediments. The boreholes could not penetrate below the gravel-rich strata of the Ringold Formation Wooded Island member (Rwi) (refusal was met at about 130 ft bgs); therefore, we could not identify the maximum vertical penetration of the tank related plumes. The moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, and technetium-99 profiles versus depth in the three

  5. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR DYNAMIC INITIAL SHOCK PARAMETERS OF COUPLING CHARGE ON BOREHOLE WALL UNDER THE ACTION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪芝芳; 李玉民

    1996-01-01

    According to detonation theory and hydrodynamic principle, a physical model has been set up in this paper. Based on the model a methodology for calculating dynamic initial shock parameters such as shock pressure p,,, shock wave velosity Dm etc. of coupling charge on borehole wall has ben developed. The shock parameters have been calculated when high explosives works on granite, limestone and marble respectively. The magnitude of every parameter on borehole wall has been obtained from ignited dot to the end of borehole along axial direction. Some important conclusions are also gained.

  6. Growth of borehole breakouts with time after drilling: Implications for state of stress, NanTroSEIZE transect, SW Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, J. Casey; Chang, Chandong; Mcneill, Lisa; Thu, Moe Kyaw; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Huftile, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Resistivity at the bit tools typically provide images of wellbore breakouts only a few minutes after the hole is drilled. In certain cases images are taken tens of minutes to days after drilling of the borehole. The sonic caliper can also image borehole geometry. We present four examples comparing imaging a few minutes after drilling to imaging from about 30 min to 3 days after drilling. In all cases the borehole breakouts widen with time. The tendency to widen with time is most pronounced wi...

  7. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-02-27

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the

  8. Protecting coastal abstraction boreholes from seawater intrusion using self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Malcolm; Butler, Adrian; MacAllister, Donald John; Vinogradov, Jan; Ijioma, Amadi; Jackson, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether the presence and transport of seawater can influence self-potentials (SPs) measured within coastal groundwater boreholes, with a view to using SP monitoring as part of an early warning system for saline intrusion. SP data were collected over a period of 18 months from a coastal groundwater borehole in the fractured Chalk of England. Spectral analysis of the results shows semi-diurnal fluctuations that are several orders of magnitude higher than those observed from monitoring of the Chalk more than 60 km inland, indicating a strong influence from oceanic tides. Hydrodynamic and geoelectric modelling of the coastal aquifer suggests that observed pressure changes (giving rise to the streaming potential) are not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the observed SP fluctuations. Simulation of the exclusion-diffusion potential, produced by changes in concentration across the saline front, is required to match the SP data from the borehole, despite the front being located some distance away. In late summer of 2013 and 2014, seawater intrusion occurred in the coastal monitoring borehole. When referenced to the shallowest borehole electrode, there was a characteristic increase in SP within the array, several days before any measurable increase in salinity. The size of this precursor increased steadily with depth, typically reaching values close to 0.3 mV in the deepest electrode. Numerical modelling suggests that the exclusion-diffusion potential can explain the magnitude of the precursor, but that the polarity of the change in SP cannot be replicated assuming a homogeneous aquifer. Small-scale models of idealised Chalk blocks were used to simulate the effects of discrete fractures on the distribution of SP. Initial results suggest that comparatively large reductions in voltage can develop in the matrix ahead of the front, in conjunction with a reduced or absent precursor in the vicinity of a fracture. Geophysical logging indicates the presence of a

  9. Uranium in Hanford Site 300 Area: Extraction Data on Borehole Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lindberg, Michael J.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Wang, Zheming; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-11-26

    In this study, sediments collected from boreholes drilled in 2010 and 2011 as part of a remedial investigation/feasibility study were characterized. The wells, located within or around two process ponds and one process trench waste site, were characterized in terms of total uranium concentration, mobile fraction of uranium, particle size, and moisture content along the borehole depth. In general, the gravel-dominated sediments of the vadose zone Hanford formation in all investigated boreholes had low moisture contents. Based on total uranium content, a total of 48 vadose zone and periodically rewetted zone sediment samples were selected for more detailed characterization, including measuring the concentration of uranium extracted with 8 M nitric acid, and leached using bicarbonate mixed solutions to determine the liable uranium (U(VI)) contents. In addition, water extraction was conducted on 17 selected sediments. Results from the sediment acid and bicarbonate extractions indicated the total concentrations of anthropogenic labile uranium in the sediments varied among the investigated boreholes. The peak uranium concentration (114.84 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions was found in borehole 399 1-55, which was drilled directly in the southwest corner of the North Process Pond. Lower uranium concentrations (~0.3–2.5 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions were found in boreholes 399-1-57, 399-1-58, and 399-1-59, which were drilled either near the Columbia River or inland and upgradient of any waste process ponds or trenches. A general trend of “total” uranium concentrations was observed that increased as the particle size decreased when relating the sediment particle size and acid extractable uranium concentrations in two selected sediment samples. The labile uranium bicarbonate leaching kinetic experiments on three selected sediments indicated a two-step leaching rate: an initial rapid release, followed by a slow continual release of uranium from

  10. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.7 and 4.25. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2006. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at the Hanford Site. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. This report also presents the interpretation of data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the WMA A-AX, C, and U field investigation report in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.

  11. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the TX Tank Farm: Boreholes C3830, C3831, C3832 and RCRA Borehole 299-W10-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28,4.43, and 4.59. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in April 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C3830, C3831, and C3832 in the TX Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-10-27 installed northeast of the TY Tank Farm.

  12. Three dimensional numerical modeling for investigation of fracture zone filled with water by borehole radar; Borehole radar ni yoru gansui hasaitai kenshutsu no sanjigen suchi modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hasegawa, K.; Yabuuchi, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Water bearing fracture zones existing in rock mass largely influence the underground water flow and dynamic property of rock mass. The detailed survey of the location and size of water bearing fracture zones is an important task in the fields such as civil engineering, environment and disaster prevention. Electromagnetic waves of high frequency zones can be grasped as a wave phenomenon, and the record obtained in the actual measurement is wave forms of time series. In the exploration using borehole radar, this water bearing fracture zone becomes the reflection surface, and also becomes a factor of damping in the transmitted wave. By examining changes which these give to the observed wave forms, therefore, water bearing fracture zones can be detected. This study made three dimensional numerical modeling using the time domain finite difference method, and obtained the same output as the observed wave form obtained using borehole radar. By using this program and changing each of the parameters such as frequency and resistivity in the homogeneous medium, changes of the wave forms were observed. Further, examples were shown of modeling of detection of water bearing fracture zones. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Elastic waves along a cylindrical borehole in a poroelastic medium saturated by two immiscible fluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Arora; S K Tomar

    2007-06-01

    The propagation of elastic waves along a cylindrical borehole filled with/without liquid and embedded in an infinite porous medium saturated by two immiscible fluids has been studied. The theory of porous media saturated by two immiscible fluids developed by Tuncay and Corapcioglu (1997) is employed. Frequency equations determining the phase velocity of axial symmetric waves are obtained. It is found that the surface waves along cylindrical borehole are dispersive. The dispersion equation of Rayleigh-type surface waves along the boundary of a poroelastic solid half-space saturated by two immiscible fluids is also obtained. Some special cases have been deduced and the dispersion curves are obtained numerically for a peculiar model. It is found that the density of fluids affects the Rayleigh mode.

  14. Visual texture for automated characterisation of geological features in borehole televiewer imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sit, Waleed; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Marelli, Matteo; Al-Ataby, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Detailed characterisation of the structure of subsurface fractures is greatly facilitated by digital borehole logging instruments, the interpretation of which is typically time-consuming and labour-intensive. Despite recent advances towards autonomy and automation, the final interpretation remains heavily dependent on the skill, experience, alertness and consistency of a human operator. Existing computational tools fail to detect layers between rocks that do not exhibit distinct fracture boundaries, and often struggle characterising cross-cutting layers and partial fractures. This paper presents a novel approach to the characterisation of planar rock discontinuities from digital images of borehole logs. Multi-resolution texture segmentation and pattern recognition techniques utilising Gabor filters are combined with an iterative adaptation of the Hough transform to enable non-distinct, partial, distorted and steep fractures and layers to be accurately identified and characterised in a fully automated fashion. This approach has successfully detected fractures and layers with high detection accuracy and at a relatively low computational cost.

  15. The research on borehole stability in depleted reservoir and caprock: using the geophysics logging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junliang; Deng, Jingen; Luo, Yong; Guo, Shisheng; Zhang, Haishan; Tan, Qiang; Zhao, Kai; Hu, Lianbo

    2013-01-01

    Long-term oil and gas exploitation in reservoir will lead to pore pressure depletion. The pore pressure depletion will result in changes of horizontal in-situ stresses both in reservoirs and caprock formations. Using the geophysics logging data, the magnitude and orientation changes of horizontal stresses in caprock and reservoir are studied. Furthermore, the borehole stability can be affected by in-situ stresses changes. To address this issue, the dehydration from caprock to reservoir and roof effect of caprock are performed. Based on that, the influence scope and magnitude of horizontal stresses reduction in caprock above the depleted reservoirs are estimated. The effects of development on borehole stability in both reservoir and caprock are studied step by step with the above geomechanical model.

  16. Borehole seismic in crystalline environment at the COSC-project in Central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Almqvist, Bjarne; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Buske, Stefan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2016-04-01

    As support for the COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), an extensive seismic survey took place during September and October 2014 in and around the newly drilled 2.5 km deep COSC-1 borehole. The main aim of the COSC project is to better understand orogenic processes in past and recently active mountain belts. For this, the Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved case of Paleozoic collision of the Laurentia and Baltica continental plates. Surface geology and geophysical data provide knowledge about the geometry of the Caledonian structure. The reflectivity geometry of the upper crust was imaged by regional seismic data and the resistivity structure by magnetotelluric methods. The crustal model was refined by seismic pre-site surveys in 2010 and 2011 to define the exact position of the first borehole, COSC-1. The completely cored COSC-1 borehole was drilled in Central Sweden through the Seve Nappe Complex, a part of the Middle Allochthon of the Scandinavian Caledonides that comprises units originating from the outer margin of Baltica. The upper 2350 m consist of alternating layers of highly strained felsic and calc-silicate gneisses and amphibolites. Below 1710 m the mylonite content increases successively and indicates a high strain zone of at least 800 m thickness. At ca. 2350 m, the borehole leaves the Seve Nappe Complex and enters underlying mylonitised lower grade metasedimentary units of unknown tectonostratigraphic position. The seismic survey consisted of three parts: a limited 3D-survey, a high resolution zero-offset VSP (vertical seismic profile) and a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP (MSP) experiment with sources and receivers along three surface profiles and receivers at seven different depth levels of the borehole. For the zero-offset VSP (ZVSP) a hydraulic hammer source was used and activated over a period of 20 s as a sequence of impacts with increasing hit frequency. The wave field was recorded with 3

  17. A dielectric logging tool with insulated collar for formation fluid detection around borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Kang; Kong, Fan-Min; Zhao, Jia

    2015-08-01

    A dielectric tool with insulated collar for analyzing fluid saturation outside a borehole was introduced. The UWB (ultra-wideband) antenna mounted on the tool was optimized to launch a transient pulse. The broadband evaluation method provided more advantages when compared with traditional dielectric tools. The EM (electromagnetic) power distribution outside the borehole was studied, and it was shown that energy was propagated in two modes. Furthermore, the mechanism of the modes was discussed. In order to increase this tools' investigation depth, a novel insulated collar was introduced. In addition, operation in difference formations was discussed and this tool proved to be able to efficiently launch lateral EM waves. Response voltages indicated that the proposed scheme was able to evaluate the fluid saturation of reservoir formations and dielectric dispersion properties. It may be used as an alternative tool for imaging logging applications.

  18. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward–Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into “strings” and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  19. Determination of Groundwater Velocity and Dispersion Parameters by Borehole Wall Multielectrode Geoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    A single well technique to determine groundwater flow values and transport parameters is presented. Multielectrode arrays are placed at the filtered casing depth by an inflatable packer or are installed on the borehole wall behind the casing.Tracer water with a higher or lower specific electrical conductivity (salinity) which is injected between the electrodes. This tracer plume then moves into the natural groundwater flow field. The observation of this movement by geoelectric logging enables the determination of the groundwater velocity and salinity. The transport parameters "effective porosity" and "dispersion length" can also be derived. The geoelectric logging uses n borehole electrodes and two grounding electrodes. Thus, either n independent two point measurements or n*(n-1)/2 pole-to-pole measurements can be conducted to obtain a full set of geoelectric measurements. This set is used to derive all electrode combinations by applying the law of superposition and reciprocity. The tracer distribution around the borehole during and after injection depends on the hydraulic and transport parameters of the aquifer and the filter sand. The transport parameter "porosity" plus the total injected tracer volume determines the tracer distribution around the borehole. The transport parameter "dispersivity" determines the abruptness of the tracer front. The method was tested by undertaking measurements in a lab aquifer filled with sand. The results are discussed and the limitations of the method are shown. Multielectrode installations behind casing were tested in situ in the two scientific boreholes CAT-LUD-1 and CAT- LUD-1A drilled in the northern part of Germany. A multielectrode packer system was designed, built and tested in these boreholes. The results are compared with colloid observations in the borehole and hydraulic triangulation in surrounded observation wells. Here, the interpretation of these in situ measurements is mainly restricted to two point geoelectric

  20. Application of Wavelet Decomposition to Removing Barometric and Tidal Response in Borehole Water Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Rui; Huang Fuqiong; Chen Yong

    2007-01-01

    Wavelet decomposition is used to analyze barometric fluctuation and earth tidal response in borehole water level changes. We apply wavelet analysis method to the decomposition of barometric fluctuation and earth tidal response into several temporal series in different frequency ranges. Barometric and tidal coefficients in different frequency ranges are computed with least squares method to remove barometric and tidal response. Comparing this method with general linear regression analysis method, we find wavelet analysis method can efficiently remove barometric and earth tidal response in borehole water level. Wavelet analysis method is based on wave theory and vibration theories. It not only considers the frequency characteristic of the observed data but also the temporal characteristic, and it can get barometric and tidal coefficients in different frequency ranges. This method has definite physical meaning.

  1. Accuracy and borehole influences in pulsed neutron gamma density logging while drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Huawei [College of Geo-Resources and Information, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Sun Jianmeng [College of Geo-Resources and Information, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Wang Jiaxin [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Gardner, Robin P., E-mail: gardner@ncsu.edu [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A new pulsed neutron gamma density (NGD) logging has been developed to replace radioactive chemical sources in oil logging tools. The present paper describes studies of near and far density measurement accuracy of NGD logging at two spacings and the borehole influences using Monte-Carlo simulation. The results show that the accuracy of near density is not as good as far density. It is difficult to correct this for borehole effects by using conventional methods because both near and far density measurement is significantly sensitive to standoffs and mud properties. - Highlights: > Monte Carlo evaluation of pulsed neutron gamma-ray density tools. > Results indicate sensitivity of the tool to standoff and mudcake properties. > Accuracy of far spaced detector is better than near spaced.

  2. The Research on Borehole Stability in Depleted Reservoir and Caprock: Using the Geophysics Logging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingen; Luo, Yong; Guo, Shisheng; Zhang, Haishan; Tan, Qiang; Zhao, Kai; Hu, Lianbo

    2013-01-01

    Long-term oil and gas exploitation in reservoir will lead to pore pressure depletion. The pore pressure depletion will result in changes of horizontal in-situ stresses both in reservoirs and caprock formations. Using the geophysics logging data, the magnitude and orientation changes of horizontal stresses in caprock and reservoir are studied. Furthermore, the borehole stability can be affected by in-situ stresses changes. To address this issue, the dehydration from caprock to reservoir and roof effect of caprock are performed. Based on that, the influence scope and magnitude of horizontal stresses reduction in caprock above the depleted reservoirs are estimated. The effects of development on borehole stability in both reservoir and caprock are studied step by step with the above geomechanical model. PMID:24228021

  3. Full 3-D numerical modeling of borehole electric image logging and the evaluation model of fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A full 3-D finite element method numerical modeling program is written based on the principle and technical specification of borehole electric image well logging tool. The response of well logging is computed in the formation media model with a single fracture. The effect of changing fracture aperture and resistivity ratio to the logging response is discussed. The identification ability for two parallel fractures is also present. A quantitative evaluation formula of fracture aperture from borehole electric image logging data is set up. A case study of the model well is done to verify the accuracy of the for-mula. The result indicates that the formula is more accurate than the foreign one.

  4. Finite element modeling of borehole heat exchanger systems. Part 2. Numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diersch, H.-J. G.; Bauer, D.; Heidemann, W.; Rühaak, W.; Schätzl, P.

    2011-08-01

    Single borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and arrays of BHE are modeled by using the finite element method. Applying BHE in regional discretizations optimal conditions of mesh spacing around singular BHE nodes are derived. Optimal meshes have shown superior to such discretizations which are either too fine or too coarse. The numerical methods are benchmarked against analytical and numerical reference solutions. Practical application to a borehole thermal energy store (BTES) consisting of 80 BHE is given for the real-site BTES Crailsheim, Germany. The simulations are controlled by the specifically developed FEFLOW-TRNSYS coupling module. Scenarios indicate the effect of the groundwater flow regime on efficiency and reliability of the subsurface heat storage system.

  5. Borehole data package for well 699-37-47A, PUREX Plant Cribs, CY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Williams, B.A.; Spane, F.A.

    1997-02-01

    A new groundwater monitoring well (699-37-47A) was installed in 1996 as a downgradient well near the PUREX Plant Cribs Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility at Hanford. This document provides data from the well drilling and construction operations, as well as data from subsequent characterization of groundwater and sediment samples collected during the drilling process. The data include: well construction documentation, geologist`s borehole logs, results of laboratory analysis of groundwater samples collected during drilling and of physical tests conducted on sediment samples collected during drilling, borehole geophysics, and results of aquifer testing including slug tests and flowmeter analysis. This well (699-37-47A) was constructed in support of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-24-00H and interim milestone M-24-35 (Ecology et al. 1994), and was funded under Project W-152.

  6. Laboratory and numerical evaluation of borehole methods for subsurface horizontal flow characterization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedler, William H. (Radon Abatement Systems, Inc., Golden, CO); Jepsen, Richard Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

    2003-08-01

    The requirement to accurately measure subsurface groundwater flow at contaminated sites, as part of a time and cost effective remediation program, has spawned a variety of flow evaluation technologies. Validation of the accuracy and knowledge regarding the limitations of these technologies are critical for data quality and application confidence. Leading the way in the effort to validate and better understand these methodologies, the US Army Environmental Center has funded a multi-year program to compare and evaluate all viable horizontal flow measurement technologies. This multi-year program has included a field comparison phase, an application of selected methods as part of an integrated site characterization program phase, and most recently, a laboratory and numerical simulator phase. As part of this most recent phase, numerical modeling predictions and laboratory measurements were made in a simulated fracture borehole set-up within a controlled flow simulator. The scanning colloidal borescope flowmeter (SCBFM) and advanced hydrophysical logging (NxHpL{trademark}) tool were used to measure velocities and flow rate in a simulated fractured borehole in the flow simulator. Particle tracking and mass flux measurements were observed and recorded under a range of flow conditions in the simulator. Numerical models were developed to aid in the design of the flow simulator and predict the flow conditions inside the borehole. Results demonstrated that the flow simulator allowed for predictable, easily controlled, and stable flow rates both inside and outside the well. The measurement tools agreed well with each other over a wide range of flow conditions. The model results demonstrate that the Scanning Colloidal Borescope did not interfere with the flow in the borehole in any of the tests. The model is capable of predicting flow conditions and agreed well with the measurements and observations in the flow simulator and borehole. Both laboratory and model results showed a

  7. Generalized poroviscoelastic model based on effective Biot theory and its application to borehole guided wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Heinson, Graham

    2016-12-01

    A method using modified attenuation factor function is suggested to determine the parameters of the generalized Zener model approximating the attenuation factor function. This method is applied to constitute the poroviscoelastic model based on the effective Biot theory which considers the attenuative solid frame of reservoir. In the poroviscoelastic model, frequency-dependent bulk modulus and shear modulus of solid frame are represented by generalized Zener models. As an application, the borehole logging dispersion equations from Biot theory are extended to include effects from the intrinsic body attenuation in formation media in full-frequency range. The velocity dispersions of borehole guided waves are calculated to investigate the influence from attenuative bore fluid, attenuative solid frame of the formation and impermeable bore wall.

  8. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N.; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Christiansen, A. V.;

    2014-01-01

    resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity data set....... The parameter of interest is the clay fraction, expressed as the relative length of clay units in a depth interval. The clay fraction is obtained from lithological logs and the clay fraction from the resistivity is obtained by establishing a simple petrophysical relationship, a translator function, between...... and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey...

  9. Information on stress conditions in the oceanic crust from oval fractures in a deep borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Oval images etched into the wall of a deep borehole were detected in DSDP Hole 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, from analysis of an acoustic televiewer log. A systematic inspection of these ovals has identified intriguing consistencies in appearance that cannot be explained satisfactorily by a random, coincidental distribution of pillow lavas. As an alternative hypothesis, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to account for the generation and orientation of similarly curved, stress-induced fractures. Consequently, these oval features can be interpreted as fractures and related directly to stress conditions in the oceanic crust at this site. The azimuth of the oval center corresponds to the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress (SH), and the oval width, which spans approximately 180?? of the borehole, is aligned with the azimuth of minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh). The oval height is controlled by the fracture angle and thus is a function of the coefficient of internal friction of the rock. -from Author

  10. Performance of a Borehole X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; Willard-Schmoe, Ella

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program [1]. It can be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary requirements and performance metrics for the instrument are to obtain parts-per-million (ppm) lower limits of detection over a wide range of elements in the periodic table (Magnesium to Lead). Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight ppm for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  11. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON FRACTURE PLANE CONTROL BLAST WITH NOTCHED BOREHOLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The results of theoretical studies and field tests on fracture plane control blast with notched boreholes have been introduced. In these studies, the single symmetrical notched borehole was simplified to a pressurized hole with two symmetrical cracks under the state of plane strain. In analyzing the growth and termination of the notch, only quasi-static pressure was considered. In the mean time, the rock to be blasted was considered to be isotropic. Based on the principles of fracture mechanics, the stress components near the tip of the notch were calculated, and the criteria for growth and termination of the notch were established. The growth direction of the notch was also predicted on the basis of strain energy density factor. An approach for estimating the amount of explosive for each hole and the spacing of holes was suggested. Furthermore, field tests were conducted to check the results from the theoretical studies.

  12. The effects of bonding conditions on the propagation of acoustic waves along a cased borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhenglin; DU Guangsheng; WANG Yaojun

    2001-01-01

    Based on the wave equations in cylindrically layered structures and boundary conditions, the frequency equation for axisymmetric guided waves and the expression for sound fields in a cased borehole excited by a monopole or multipole source have been derived. The synthetic full waveforms excited by the monopole and dipole source are simulated using a real axis integration and FFT method. According to the axisymmetric guided wave modes, the synthetic full waveforms and the effects of the interface conditions on the sound field in a cased borehole have been analyzed and studied respectively. Numerical results indicate that it may be difficult to distinguish well bonded, poorly bonded or unbonded intermediate layer between the steel pipe and formation if only using a monopole source or dipole source. To properly estimate the case boundary conditions, a combination of monopole source logging with dipole source logging is suggested.

  13. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Thermal structure of the deep Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiner, Niels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available nformation on temperature, temperature gradients, thermal conductivity and heat flow from the c. 3.5 km deep Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands is presented and analysed. The upper 2450 m of the drilled sequence consists of thick tholeiitic basalt flows and the deeper parts of hyaloclastites and thin beds of basalt. Temperature data originate from high precision temperature logging a long time after drilling to a depth of 2175 m (the original Lopra-1 borehole and from commercial temperature logs measured a short time after drilling to a depth of 3430 m (Lopra-1/1A. The high-precision temperature log determines accurately levels of inflow of groundwater to the borehole and significantthermal disturbances to a depth of c. 1250 m. Below 1300 m, no significant disturbances are seen and interval temperature gradients for large depth intervals show only small variations between 28 and 33°C/km. The mean least-squares gradient for the depth interval of 1400–3430 m is 31.4°C/ km. In clear contrast to these overall very homogeneous, large-interval, mean temperature gradients, great local variability, between gradients of 20–25°C/km and 45°C/km, was observed between about 1300 and 2175 m (maximum depth of the high-resolution temperature log. These gradient variations are interpreted to be due to thermal conductivity variations and to reflect varying secondary mineralisation and mineral alterations.A preliminary analysis of the Lopra-1/1A temperature–depth function in terms of long-term palaeoclimatic signals indicates subsurface temperatures below about 1300 m to be in equilibrium with mean surface temperatures significantly below zero during the last glacial period. A subsequent temperature increase of 12–16°C occurred at around the termination of the last glaciation. The measured temperatures (some after correction and the thermal regime below 1300 m seem to represent conductive equilibrium conditions without significant disturbances

  14. Correction of steel casing effect for density log using numerical and experimental methods in the slim borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun; Kim, Jongman [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Byeongho [Heesong Geotek Co. Ltd., B-120 UrymLionsValley A-Building, 146-8 Sangdaewondong, Chungwongu, Seongnam City, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea, 462-807 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-10

    Density log is widely applied for a variety of fields such as the petroleum exploration, mineral exploration, and geotechnical survey. The logging condition of density log is normally open holes but there are frequently cased boreholes. The primary calibration curve by slim hole logging manufacturer is normally the calibration curves for the variation of borehole diameter. In this study, we have performed the correction of steel casing effects using numerical and experimental methods. We have performed numerical modeling using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code based on Monte Carlo method, and field experimental method from open and cased hole log. In this study, we used the FDGS (Formation Density Gamma Sonde) for slim borehole with a 100 mCi 137Cs source, three inch borehole and steel casing. The casing effect between numerical and experimental method is well matched.

  15. Forward modeling and inversion of responses for borehole normal and lateral electrode arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The finite difference method is used to solve the forward problems which simulate the borehole normal and lateral electrode arrangements for the combined boundary (2-D) earth model which has both horizontal and cylindrical boundaries. The ridge regression estimator is then applied to solve the inverse problems which determine the earth parameters such as bed boundaries, extent of invaded zones, and vertical and horizontal resistivity profiles from the borehole normal and lateral resistivity logs. The apparent resistivity values in the presence of borehole mud, invaded zone, and horizontal bed boundaries can be obtained from an earth geometry provided that the model is symmetric around the borehole axis. The quick and accurate forward calculations are achieved by using a gradually expanding grid system and a terminal resistance type boundary condition, and by using a two-dimensional average resistivity scheme in a grid block. The finite difference solutions are verified against analytical solutions for limiting cases, and excellent agreement in obtained. The finite difference forward modeling also can be used for investigation into the effects of the earth parameter variations on the apparent resistivities. Inverse modeling is tested on synthetic and field data. The field data are inverted to a horizontally layered (1-D) model, and the theoretical data are inverted to a 2-D model. The test results indicate that the thickness and the resistivity of each layer can be determined simultaneously. For the practical inversion of field data, the 1-D model inversion results can be used as a first try model of the 2-d inversion. Interactive inverse modeling can be used for an automatic interpretation of the resistivity logs, with models constrained by logging and geologic information.

  16. A Study on the Pressure Relief Scope and the Stress Variation of Hydraulic Flushing Borehole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F.Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the variation of the pressure relief scope and the stress around hydraulic flushing borehole, the theory of coalrock damage was utilized to distinguish the interaction area of water-jet and coal-rock into the coal-rock crushing area, the water-jet pressure stagnation area, the transition area and the original stress recovery area of coal-rock. Based on the actual occurrence conditions of the coal seam, the pressure variation and relief scope around the hydraulic flushing borehole were analyzed and simulated by RFPA2D-Flow software. The results showed that a relief area with the radius of 5.0 ~ 6.0 m around the borehole formed due to the hydraulic flushing with the pressure relief of 0.038 ~ 6.545 MPa, and the maximum principal stress is 15.85 MPa with a distance of 6.8 m from the inspected hole where stress concentration appeared. After hydraulic flushing test, the diameter (441.8 ~ 1171.6 mm of the hole which can be an expression of coal crushing area size, was calculated based on the examination of the coal amount through the trial process, and it can be drawn that the pressure relief area must be larger than that of the coal-rock crushing area. Meanwhile, the measured pressures relief range(5.96 ~ 6.62 m is basically consistent with the numerical simulation result (5.0 ~ 6.0 m which verified the accuracy of the simulation analysis, according to the distance from the inspection drilling to the hydraulic flushing borehole and the decreased degree of the gas content in the inspection hole by the way of Gas Content.

  17. Determination of in-situ fracture apertures from digital borehole images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Maria C.; Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology

    1998-09-01

    Imaging methods applied to borehole investigations have become common for mapping and characterisation of the rock mass. Today we have access to detailed information about the rock, but we lack some methods for analysis. In this study we develop a methodology for measurements of in-situ fracture geometry, from optical borehole images (BIP-system). We focus on the detailed information about fracture geometry, available thanks to the high image resolution. We have decided to perform the measurements using digital image processing, to avoid bias from the human analyst, and we present on-going work on the image processing methodology. Our method is based on iterative intensity thresholding. We work on grey-scale images, of open fractures that fully intersect the borehole. The fracture trace comes out as a dark sinusoidal in the borehole image. First, the darkest pixels in the image are extracted. Then the pixels, which are immediate neighbours to the first set, are included, under the condition that they are darker than a somewhat lower threshold. The including of neighbours is repeated until the fracture trace is filled. The resulting sinusoidal fracture trace is then used for finding an approximation of the fracture plane. The fracture plane orientation is used for determination of true aperture from the apparent aperture seen in the image. After this, fracture aperture statistics can be determined. The method works well for images of open fractures of simple geometry (sine wave). It needs to be improved to handle more complex geometry, e.g. crossing fracture traces. Today, some minor interaction from the analyst is needed, but slight modifications will minimise this 4 refs, 4 figs

  18. Borehole Breakout. Bibliographic Synthesis L'ovalisation des trous de forages. Synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauer P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural borehole breakout (borehole cross-section elongation due to the fracturing and spalling of well walls has been used in recent years to determine the direction of stress in the Earth's crust. Its performances and scope of application are compared to those of other methods used in boreholes. An initial selection of information obtained by different logging tools appeared necessary to prevent any contamination of measurements by phenomena independent of deformation under stress. The principal parameters governing the amplitude and frequency of the phenomenon are reviewed. The outlook for the future of the method are examined, including the recent development of research on borehole breakout by the plastic deformation of the surrounding formations. L'ovalisation naturelle des trous de forages par fracturation et écaillage des parois du puits est utilisée, depuis quelques années, pour déterminer la direction des contraintes dans la croûte. Ses performances et son champ d'application sont comparés à ceux des autres méthodes utilisées dans les forages. Une sélection initiale de l'information fournie par les différents outils diagraphiques apparaît nécessaire, pour éviter toutes contaminations des mesures par des phénomènes indépendants de la déformation sous contraintes. Les principaux paramètres contrôlant l'ampleur et la fréquence du phénomène sont passés en revue. Enfin, les perspectives concernant l'avenir de la méthode, et parmi celles-ci le développement récent de l'étude de l'ovalisation par la déformation plastique de l'encaissant, sont examinées.

  19. The presence of Lower Miocene (Eggenburgian in borehole 575 Cetea (East of Borod Basin, NW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Petrescu

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The microfloral record evidenced in borehole 575 Cetea is very rich, consisting of 114 taxa, some of them being new species for the Tertiary of Romania. At the same time, it includes species of Eggenburgian age of the host rocks. The whole microflora assemblage suggests a forest-type vegetation developed in a warm, subtropical climate, characteristic for the Eggenburgian age of the Early Miocene. The Eggenburgian of Romania shows the same microfloral features as the Eggenburgian of Central Paratethys.

  20. Groundwater sampling and chemical characterization of the Laxemar deep borehole KLX02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, M.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Smellie, J. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Nilsson, A.C. [KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-02-01

    The Laxemar deep borehole, KLX02 (1705 m depth), located close to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), has been investigated. Groundwater sampling was conducted on two occasions and using different methods. The first sampling was taken in the open borehole using the so-called Tube sampler; the second sampling carried out using the SKB-packer equipment to isolate pre-determined borehole sections. Groundwater compositions consist of two distinct groupings; one shallow to intermediate Sodium-Bicarbonate type (Na(Ca,K):HC{sub 3}Cl(SO{sub 4})) to a depth of 1000 m, and the other of deep origin, a calcium-chloride type (Ca-Na(K):Cl-SO{sub 4}(Br)), occurring below 1000 m. The deep brines contain up to 46000 mg of Cl per litre. The influence of borehole activities are seen in the tritium data which record significant tritium down to 1000 m, and even to 1420 m. Mixing modelling shows that water from the 1960`s is the main source for this tritium. The high tritium values in the 1090-1096.2 m section are due to contamination of 1% shallow water from 1960 and 2% of modern shallow water. The upper 800 m of bedrock at Laxemar lies within a groundwater recharge area; the sub-vertical to moderate angled fracture zones facilitate groundwater circulation to considerable depths, at least to 800 m, thus accounting for some of the low saline brackish groundwaters in these conducting fracture zones. Below 1000 m the system is hydraulically and geochemically `closed` such that highly saline brines exist in a near-stagnant environment. 30 refs, 22 figs, 8 tabs.

  1. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Erkan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995–1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100–150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85–90 mW m−2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m−2 are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90–100 mW m−2 are also observed in the peninsular (western part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60–70 mW m−2 are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  2. Physico-Chemical and Microbial Analysis of Selected Borehole Water in Mahikeng, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lobina Palamuleni; Mercy Akoth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is generally considered a “safe source” of drinking water because it is abstracted with low microbial load with little need for treatment before drinking. However, groundwater resources are commonly vulnerable to pollution, which may degrade their quality. An assessment of microbial and physicochemical qualities of borehole water in the rural environs of Mahikeng town, South Africa, was carried out. The study aimed at determining levels of physicochemical (temperature, pH, turbidi...

  3. Borehole paleoclimatology – the effect of deep lakes and "heat islands" on temperature profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Kutasov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that changes in ground surface temperatures could be caused by many non-climatic effects. In this study we propose a method based on utilization of Laplace equation with nonuniform boundary conditions. The proposed method makes possible to estimate the maximum effect of deep lakes and "heat islands" (areas of deforestation, urbanization, farming, mining and wetland drainage on the borehole temperature profiles.

  4. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-08-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  5. Comparison of particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing for locating additional boreholes considering combined variance minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani-Mohammadi, Saeed; Safa, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Hadi

    2016-10-01

    One of the most important stages in complementary exploration is optimal designing the additional drilling pattern or defining the optimum number and location of additional boreholes. Quite a lot research has been carried out in this regard in which for most of the proposed algorithms, kriging variance minimization as a criterion for uncertainty assessment is defined as objective function and the problem could be solved through optimization methods. Although kriging variance implementation is known to have many advantages in objective function definition, it is not sensitive to local variability. As a result, the only factors evaluated for locating the additional boreholes are initial data configuration and variogram model parameters and the effects of local variability are omitted. In this paper, with the goal of considering the local variability in boundaries uncertainty assessment, the application of combined variance is investigated to define the objective function. Thus in order to verify the applicability of the proposed objective function, it is used to locate the additional boreholes in Esfordi phosphate mine through the implementation of metaheuristic optimization methods such as simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization. Comparison of results from the proposed objective function and conventional methods indicates that the new changes imposed on the objective function has caused the algorithm output to be sensitive to the variations of grade, domain's boundaries and the thickness of mineralization domain. The comparison between the results of different optimization algorithms proved that for the presented case the application of particle swarm optimization is more appropriate than simulated annealing.

  6. A comparative study of metal contamination in soil using the borehole method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, T L; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Shahadat, Mohammad; Wong, Y S; Syakir, Muhammad I; Omar, A K Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The present study deals with possible contamination of the soil by metal ions which have been affecting the environment. The concentrations of metal ions in 14 borehole samples were studied using the ICP-OES standard method. The degree of contamination was determined on the basis of single element pollution index (SEPI), combined pollution index (CPI), soil enrichment factor (SEF), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). Geo-accumulation indices and contamination factors indicated moderate to strong contaminations for eight boreholes (BL-1, BL-2, BL-6, BL-8, BL-9, BL-10, BL-12, and BL-13) while the rest were extremely contaminated. Among all the boreholes, BL-3 and BL-11 demonstrated the highest level of Cd(II) and Pb(II) which were found the most polluted sites. The level of metal contamination was also compared with other countries. The development, variation, and limitations regarding the regulations of soil and groundwater contamination can be provided as a helpful guidance for the risk assessment of metal ions in developing countries.

  7. Acoustoelastic effects of Stoneley waves in a borehole surrounded by a transversely isotropic elastic solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxia Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stoneley wave in a fluid-filled pressurized borehole surrounded by a transversely isotropic elastic solid with nine independent third-order elastic constants in presence of biaxial stresses are studied. A simplified acoustoelastic formulation of Stoneley wave is presented for the parallelism of the borehole axis and the formation axis of symmetry. Sensitivity coefficients and velocity dispersions for Stoneley wave due to the presence of stresses are numerically investigated, respectively. The acoustoelastic formulation explicitly shows that the velocity dispersions of Stoneley wave depend on seven independent third-order elastic constants in presence of biaxial stresses and on six independent third-order elastic constants in the presence of borehole pressurization alone. Numerical results of both sensitivity coefficients and velocity dispersions of Stoneley wave show that at low frequency the velocity change of Stoneley wave is sensitive to c111 and c112. Stoneley wave velocity at low frequencies can be simplified by 3 independent third order elastic constants (c111, c112 and c123 instead of nine constants. In presence of biaxial stresses, at low frequencies the speed of the Stoneley wave is similar to White’s formula.

  8. Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.; Hunter, J.A.; Harris, J.B.; Ivanov, J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent field tests illustrate the accuracy and consistency of calculating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). S-wave velocity profiles (S-wave velocity vs. depth) derived from MASW compared favorably to direct borehole measurements at sites in Kansas, British Columbia, and Wyoming. Effects of changing the total number of recording channels, sampling interval, source offset, and receiver spacing on the inverted S-wave velocity were studied at a test site in Lawrence, Kansas. On the average, the difference between MASW calculated Vs and borehole measured Vs in eight wells along the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada was less than 15%. One of the eight wells was a blind test well with the calculated overall difference between MASW and borehole measurements less than 9%. No systematic differences were observed in derived Vs values from any of the eight test sites. Surface wave analysis performed on surface data from Wyoming provided S-wave velocities in near-surface materials. Velocity profiles from MASW were confirmed by measurements based on suspension log analysis. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel Wireless Sensor System for Dynamic Characterization of Borehole Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo García-Olcina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The design and field test of a novel sensor system based in autonomous wireless sensors to measure the temperature of the heat transfer fluid along a borehole heat exchanger (BHE is presented. The system, by means of two specials valves, inserts and extracts miniaturized wireless sensors inside the pipes of the borehole, which are carried by the thermal fluid. Each sensor is embedded in a small sphere of just 25 mm diameter and 8 gr weight, containing a transceiver, a microcontroller, a temperature sensor and a power supply. A wireless data processing unit transmits to the sensors the acquisition configuration before the measurements, and also downloads the temperature data measured by the sensor along its way through the BHE U-tube. This sensor system is intended to improve the conventional thermal response test (TRT and it allows the collection of information about the thermal characteristics of the geological structure of subsurface and its influence in borehole thermal behaviour, which in turn, facilitates the implementation of TRTs in a more cost-effective and reliable way.

  10. Novel wireless sensor system for dynamic characterization of borehole heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Julio; Montero, Álvaro; Torres, José; Soret, Jesús; Martínez, Guillermo; García-Olcina, Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    The design and field test of a novel sensor system based in autonomous wireless sensors to measure the temperature of the heat transfer fluid along a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is presented. The system, by means of two special valves, inserts and extracts miniaturized wireless sensors inside the pipes of the borehole, which are carried by the thermal fluid. Each sensor is embedded in a small sphere of just 25 mm diameter and 8 gr weight, containing a transceiver, a microcontroller, a temperature sensor and a power supply. A wireless data processing unit transmits to the sensors the acquisition configuration before the measurements, and also downloads the temperature data measured by the sensor along its way through the BHE U-tube. This sensor system is intended to improve the conventional thermal response test (TRT) and it allows the collection of information about the thermal characteristics of the geological structure of subsurface and its influence in borehole thermal behaviour, which in turn, facilitates the implementation of TRTs in a more cost-effective and reliable way.

  11. Research on borehole stability of shale based on seepage-stress-damage coupling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil drilling, one of the most complicated problems is borehole stability of shale. Based on the theory of continuum damage mechanics, a modified Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion according to plastic damage evolution and the seepage-stress coupling is established. Meanwhile, the damage evolution equation which is based on equivalent plastic strain and the permeability evolution equation of shale are proposed in this paper. The physical model of borehole rock for a well in China western oilfield is set up to analyze the distribution of damage, permeability, stress, plastic strain and displacement. In the calculation process, the influence of rock damage to elastic modulus, cohesion and permeability is involved by writing a subroutine for ABAQUS. The results show that the rock damage evolution has a significant effect to the plastic strain and stress in plastic zone. Different drilling fluid density will produce different damage in its value, range and type. This study improves the theory of mechanical mechanism of borehole collapse and fracture, and provides a reference for the further research of seepage-stress-chemical-damage coupling of wall rock.

  12. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson Geophysical Services

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Borehole Flow in Deep Monitor Wells, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, K.; Oki, D. S.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells are commonly used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness in coastal aquifers. However, vertical flow in these wells can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer. Substantial borehole flow has been observed in uncased wells in the Pearl Harbor aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii. A numerical modeling approach, incorporating aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer, was used to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from deep monitor wells. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with the natural regional groundwater-flow system and local groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results were used to estimate differences between vertical salinity profiles in deep monitor wells and the adjacent aquifer in areas of downward, horizontal, and upward flow within the regional flow system—for cases with and without nearby pumped wells. Aquifer heterogeneity, represented in the model as layers of contrasting permeability, was incorporated in model scenarios. Results from this study provide insight into the magnitude of the differences between vertical salinity profiles from deep monitor wells and the salinity distributions in the aquifers. These insights are relevant and are critically needed for management and predictive modeling purposes.

  14. Tidal modulation of temperature oscillations monitored in borehole Yaxcopoil-1 (Yucatán, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Bodri, Louise; Safanda, Jan

    2009-05-01

    For better understanding of temperature state in the subsurface, temperature-depth logs can be suitably completed by high-resolution long-run temperature-time monitoring at selected depths. The results of temperature monitoring at three depth levels in borehole Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico (April/May 2006) proved that even when a borehole is in "fully" stabilized conditions, temperature may exhibit certain unrest resembling irregular oscillations in the order of hundredths or (in the extreme case) even first tenths of degree. Two novel methods for detection of the weak fingerprints of stable periodic components in long noisy records, namely the RQI (Recurrence Quantification Interval) analysis and the HiCum (Histograms Cumulation) were used to isolate the constituents with tidal periodicities from temperature oscillations measured in borehole Yaxcopoil-1. Both analyses revealed that temperature series contain perceptible tidal component. The field data were correlated with the simulated synthetic tides. The comparison of staked HiCum records for the theoretical gravity tide and monitored temperature shows significant positive linear correlation between both variables. There is a small lag between two signals corresponding to ~ 25 min phase difference.

  15. Acoustoelastic effects on mode waves in a fluid-filled pressurized borehole in triaxially stressed formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping'en Li; Youquan Yin; Xianyue Su

    2006-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear theory of acoustoelasticity,considering the triaxial terrestrial stress,the fluid static pressure in the borehole and the fluid nonlinear effect jointly,the dispersion curves of the monopole Stoneley wave and dipole flexural wave propagating along the borehole axis in a homogeneous isotropic formation are investigated by using the perturbation method.The relation of the sensitivity coefficient and the velocity-stress coefficient to frequency are also analyzed.The results show that variations of the phase velocity dispersion curve are mainly affected by three sensitivity coefficients related to third-order elastic constant.The borehole stress concentration causes a split of the flexural waves and an intersection of the dispersion curves of the flexural waves polarized in directions parallel and normal to the uniaxial horizontal stress direction.The stress-induced formation anisotropy is only dependent on the horizontal deviatoric terrestrial stress and independent of the horizontal mean terrestrial stress,the superimposed stress and the fluid static pressure.The horizontal terrestrial stress ratio ranging from 0 to 1 reduces the stress-induced formation anisotropy.This makes the intersection of flexural wave dispersion curves not distinguishable.The effect of the fluid nonlinearity on the dispersion curve of the mode wave is small and can be ignored.

  16. Acoustic–electromagnetic effects of tectonic movements of the crust – borehole survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Uvarov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Borehole radiophysical properties are briefly described. Borehole investigation of lithosphere acoustic-electromagnetic radiation was carried out in a seismically active region. Four main types of anomalies of acoustic-electromagnetic radiation were distinguished. They correspond to shear and bulk relaxations of tectonic stress. Stability of phase relations of acoustic and electromagnetic signals in the region of anomalies was detected that allows us to state their coherence. It was concluded that the reason of mutual coherence of acoustic and electromagnetic signals is the magnetoelastic effect of the casing pipe. A mechanism of generation of rock self-induced vibrations during tectonic stress relaxation causing acoustic-electromagnetic emission was suggested. It was concluded that "sigmoid" anomalies may correlate with excitation of eigen vibrations in a fracture cavity during brittle shear relaxation of rock tectonic stress. An explanation of the change of anomalous "sigmoid" signal frequency was given. It is considered to be the result of growth of rock fracture cavity and the decrease of tectonic stress relaxation. It was concluded that a borehole, cased in a steel pipe, together with a system of inductance coils and a hydrophone is the effective sounding sensor for acoustic fields of interior deep layers. It may be applied to investigate and to monitor the geodynamic activity, in particular, in earthquake forecasts and in monitoring of hydrocarbon deposits during their production.

  17. Evaluation of the ground surface Enthalpy balance from bedrock shallow borehole temperatures (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a quartzite outcrop in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth hourly temperature profiles from: (i the cooling periods of the frost seasons of 2000 to 2005, and (ii the warming periods of the thaw seasons of 2002–2003, 2003–2004 and 2004–2005, were studied. In this modelling approach, heat gains and losses across ground surface are considered to be the causes for the 0°C isotherm movement. A methodological approach to calculate the Enthalpy change based on the thermodynamic analysis of the ground during the cooling and warming periods is proposed. The Enthalpy change is equivalent to the heat exchange through the ground surface during each season, thus enabling to describe the interaction ground-atmosphere and providing valuable data for studies on permafrost and periglacial processes. The bedrock density is considered to be constant in the borehole and initial isothermal conditions at 0°C are assumed to run the model. The final stages correspond to the temperatures at the end of the cooling and warming periods (annual minima and maxima.

  18. Geostatistical methods for rock mass quality prediction using borehole and geophysical survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Rubin, Y.; Sege, J. E.; Li, X.; Hehua, Z.

    2015-12-01

    For long, deep tunnels, the number of geotechnical borehole investigations during the preconstruction stage is generally limited. Yet tunnels are often constructed in geological structures with complex geometries, and in which the rock mass is fragmented from past structural deformations. Tunnel Geology Prediction (TGP) is a geophysical technique widely used during tunnel construction in China to ensure safety during construction and to prevent geological disasters. In this paper, geostatistical techniques were applied in order to integrate seismic velocity from TGP and borehole information into spatial predictions of RMR (Rock Mass Rating) in unexcavated areas. This approach is intended to apply conditional probability methods to transform seismic velocities to directly observed RMR values. The initial spatial distribution of RMR, inferred from the boreholes, was updated by including geophysical survey data in a co-kriging approach. The method applied to a real tunnel project shows significant improvements in rock mass quality predictions after including geophysical survey data, leading to better decision-making for construction safety design.

  19. A new capacitive borehole tiltmeter for crustal deformation measurement and its performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Liheng; Li Tao; Chen Zheng; Li Hong

    2015-01-01

    Borehole inclinometers are important observation instruments used to measure ground tilt movement and monitor crustal deformation of solid tides and geological landslide disasters. They are widely used in oil exploration, mineral resource drilling, well logging, exploration and other fields. There is potential for development of rock stress strain monitoring tools. Many types of tiltmeters have been installed, such as SQ-7, FSQ, VS and JB. However, these tiltmeters are generally installed in a deep cave to avoid the inter-ference of temperature, humidity, and human activities. With the urbanization of human society, suitable installation locations are difficult to find. To solve the problem, a two-component borehole tiltmeter, named the CBT-type tiltmeter, is proposed in this paper. It can be installed in a borehole less than 500 m deep to eliminate environmental influences. The tiltmeter is composed of two sophisticated gravitational swing and two capacitive transducers. From preliminary theory and experiment analysis, its linear correlation coefficient is higher than 0.99, its co-seismic response is rapid and its noise level is up to 10-4 arc seconds in practice.

  20. The U-tube: A New Paradigm for Borehole Fluid Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry M. Freifeld

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluid samples from deep boreholes can provide insights into subsurface physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Recovery of intact, minimally altered aliquots of subsurface fluids is required for analysis of aqueous chemistry, isotopic composition, and dissolved gases, and for microbial community characterization. Unfortunately, for many reasons, collecting geofluids poses a number of challenges, from formation contamination by drilling to maintainingintegrity during recovery from depths. Not only are there substantial engineering issues in retrieval of a representative sample, but there is often the practical reality that fluid sampling is just one of many activities planned for deep boreholes. The U-tube geochemical sampling system presents a new paradigm for deep borehole fluid sampling. Because the system is small, its ability to integrate withother measurement systems and technologies opens up numerous possibilities for multifunctional integrated wellbore completions. Todate, the U-tube has been successfully deployed at four different field sites, each with a different deployment modality, at depths from 260 m to 2 km. While the U-tube has proven to be highly versatile, these installations have resulted in data that provide additional insights for improving future U-tube deployments.

  1. Finite element modeling of borehole heat exchanger systems. Part 1. Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diersch, H.-J. G.; Bauer, D.; Heidemann, W.; Rühaak, W.; Schätzl, P.

    2011-08-01

    Single borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and arrays of BHE are modeled by using the finite element method. The first part of the paper derives the fundamental equations for BHE systems and their finite element representations, where the thermal exchange between the borehole components is modeled via thermal transfer relations. For this purpose improved relationships for thermal resistances and capacities of BHE are introduced. Pipe-to-grout thermal transfer possesses multiple grout points for double U-shape and single U-shape BHE to attain a more accurate modeling. The numerical solution of the final 3D problems is performed via a widely non-sequential (essentially non-iterative) coupling strategy for the BHE and porous medium discretization. Four types of vertical BHE are supported: double U-shape (2U) pipe, single U-shape (1U) pipe, coaxial pipe with annular (CXA) and centred (CXC) inlet. Two computational strategies are used: (1) The analytical BHE method based on Eskilson and Claesson's (1988) solution, (2) numerical BHE method based on Al-Khoury et al.'s (2005) solution. The second part of the paper focusses on BHE meshing aspects, the validation of BHE solutions and practical applications for borehole thermal energy store systems.

  2. Poro-thermoelastic borehole stress analysis for determination of the in situ stress and rock strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Qingfeng; Ghassemi, Ahmad [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The in situ stress state and rock strength are key parameters in a number of problems concerning petroleum and geothermal reservoir development, particularly in well stimulation and optimum wellbore trajectory analyses. Inversion techniques utilized to determine the in situ stress and rock strength based on the observation of borehole failure and its analysis often assume elastic rock behavior. However, when drilling through high-pressure and high-temperature rocks, coupled poro-thermo-mechanical processes result in a time-dependent stress and pore pressure distribution around the borehole. In this work, the poro-thermoelastic effects on borehole failure are studied and their impact on wellbore stability and the estimations of the in situ maximum horizontal stress and rock strength using wellbore failure data are investigated. It is shown that coupled poro-thermo-mechanical effects influence both failure mode and potential. Also, when considering shear failure, neglecting heating and cooling effects will underestimate and overestimate rock strength, respectively. Therefore, for accurate assessment of wellbore stability and inversion of wellbore failure data, poroelastic and thermal factors should be considered. (author)

  3. Borehole camera technology for measuring the relaxation zone of surrounding rock: mechanism and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Hong-wen; Li Yuan-hai; Liang Jun-qi; Yu De-cheng [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics & Deep Underground Engineering

    2009-05-15

    A panoramic borehole camera technology (BCT) and digital image processing method was developed by constructing a system composed of hardware and software. The technology was used for measuring the relaxation zone of surrounding rock with the borehole camera. The hardware consists of a mini CCD camera and a high-pressure sealed magnetic compass that is used for camera positioning. The software includes real-time image monitoring and a processing program that includes the procedure for analysis of the relaxation zone. The roundness of cracks in the boreholes is taken as the index for identifying the relaxation zone. The system was used to measure the relaxation zone of a deep roadway in the Qiwu coal mine of Shandong province. The distribution of the relaxation zone around the roadway was obtained. The results show that the thickness of the broken rock zone varies with the measuring position within a cross section of the roadway. The reliability of the measuring method was tested and verified by comparing the data from BCT with those measured by an ultrasonic method; the difference is less than 3.5%. The system provides a new method for the measurement of the relaxation zone when engineering deep underground. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Non-linear degradation model of cement barriers in a borehole repository for disused radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharbieh, Heidar K., E-mail: heidar.gharbieh@tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Disposal Research, Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Cota, Stela, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Narrow diameter borehole facilities (a few tens of centimeters), like the BOSS concept developed by the IAEA, provide a safe and cost effective disposal option for radioactive waste and particularly disused sources. The BOSS concept (borehole disposal of sealed radioactive sources) comprises a multi-barrier system of cement grout and stainless steel components. In order to predict the long-time performance of the cement barriers as an input of a future safety assessment under the specific hydrochemical and hydrological conditions, a non-linear degradation model was developed in this work. With the assistance of the program 'PHREEQC' it describes the change of the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity with time, which also let to conclusions concerning the change of the sorption capacity of the cement grout. This work includes the theoretical approach and illustrates the non-liner degradation by means of an exemplary water composition found in the saturated zone and the dimensions of the backfill made of cement grout representing a barrier of the BOSS borehole facility. (author)

  5. Climate trends in northern Ontario and Québec from borehole temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    The ground surface temperature histories of the past 500 years were reconstructed at 10 sites containing 18 boreholes in northeastern Canada. The boreholes, between 400 and 800 m deep, are located north of 51° N and west and east of James Bay in northern Ontario and Québec. We find that both sides of James Bay have experienced similar ground surface temperature histories with a warming of 1.51 ± 0.76 K during the period of 1850 to 2000, similar to borehole reconstructions for the southern portion of the Superior Province and in agreement with available proxy data. A cooling period corresponding to the Little Ice Age was found at only one site. Despite permafrost maps locating the sites in a region of discontinuous permafrost, the ground surface temperature histories suggest that the potential for permafrost was minimal to absent over the past 500 years. This could be the result of air surface temperature interpolation used in permafrost models being unsuitable to account for the spatial variability of ground temperatures along with an offset between ground and air surface temperatures due to the snow cover.

  6. Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014, Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from instrument calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, John O.

    2015-01-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts-per-billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally calibrated strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor instrument calibration and better modeling of the strain fit from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in-situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain-tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measure the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point-source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to calibrate borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.

  7. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli pathotypes and factors associated with well and boreholes water contamination in Mombasa County

    OpenAIRE

    Thani, Thani Suleiman; Symekher, Samwel Morris Lifumo; Boga, Hamadi; Oundo, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Safe water for human consumption is important, but there is a limited supply. Mombasa County has water shortages making residences rely on other sources of water including boreholes and wells. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water is important to reduce exposure to water borne enteric diseases. This cross sectional study aimed at determining the frequency and characterization of Escherichia coli (E. coli) pathotypes from water samples collected from wells and boreholes in ...

  8. Growth of borehole breakouts with time after drilling: Implications for state of stress, NanTroSEIZE transect, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. Casey; Chang, Chandong; McNeill, Lisa; Thu, Moe Kyaw; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Huftile, Gary

    2011-04-01

    Resistivity at the bit tools typically provide images of wellbore breakouts only a few minutes after the hole is drilled. In certain cases images are taken tens of minutes to days after drilling of the borehole. The sonic caliper can also image borehole geometry. We present four examples comparing imaging a few minutes after drilling to imaging from about 30 min to 3 days after drilling. In all cases the borehole breakouts widen with time. The tendency to widen with time is most pronounced within a few hundred meters below the seafloor (mbsf), but may occur at depths greater than 600 mbsf. In one example the widening may be due to reduced borehole fluid pressure that would enhance borehole failure. In the three other cases, significant decreases in fluid pressure during temporal evolution of breakouts are unlikely. The latter examples may be explained by time-dependent failure of porous sediments that are in an overconsolidated state due to drilling of the borehole. This time-dependent failure could be a consequence of dilational deformation, decrease of pore fluid pressure, and maintenance of sediment strength until migrating pore fluids weaken shear surfaces and allow spallation into the borehole. Breakout orientations, and thus estimates of stress orientations, remain consistent during widening in all four cases. In vertical boreholes, breakouts wider than those initially estimated by resistivity imaging would result in higher estimates of horizontal stress magnitudes. Because the vertical overburden stress is fixed, higher estimated horizontal stresses would favor strike-slip or thrust faulting over normal faulting.

  9. Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from instrument calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, John

    2015-10-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source, and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts per billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally calibrated strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor instrument calibration and better modeling of the strain field from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measures the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to calibrate borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.

  10. Assessment of physico-chemical quality of borehole and spring water sources supplied to Robe Town, Oromia region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigut, Dagim Abera; Liknew, Geremew; Irge, Dejene Disasa; Ahmad, Tanweer

    2016-11-01

    The study was carried out to find the physico-chemical water quality of borehole and spring water supplied to Robe Town. For this study, a total of six water samples were collected from three borehole and three spring water sources. The analyses for 14 physico-chemical parameters, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids total hardness cations (Ca2+, Mg2+), anions (NO2 -, NO3 -, SO4 2- and PO4 3-) and heavy metals (Fe and Mn), were done in the laboratory by adopting standard procedures suggested by the American Public Health Association (APHA). Descriptive statistics were used to describe data, while Pearson correlation was used to determine the influences of the physico-chemical variables. The single factor analysis of variance (t test) was used to determine possible differences between the borehole and spring water, while means plots were used for further structure detection. From the total samples analyzed, most of the samples comply with the water quality guidelines of Ethiopian limit, WHO and U.SEPA. The pH of the water samples from borehole groundwater source was found to be slightly acidic and bove the maximum permissible limit (MPL). High concentration of Fe and Mn that exceeds the MPL set by WHO was found in the three boreholes. The spring water sources were found to be better for drinking than borehole water sources.

  11. Experimental Study of Crack Initiation and Extension Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing in a Tree-Type Borehole Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure hydraulic fracturing technology in coal and coal bed methane mines can lead to roof and floor damage, and fracture initiation disorder that leads to a “blank area”, and other issues. A new method of hydraulic fracturing is proposed to increase the homogeneous permeability of coal in underground coalmines. Numerical and other simulation tests for different forms of a tree-type, branched borehole model are presented. The results show that the branched array causes cracks to initiate from the bottom of the array, and these extend along the direction of the adjacent boreholes. Generally, as the number of branched boreholes increases, the coal seam fracture network also increase, improving the distribution of the fracture network, making the fracturing effect better. The branched boreholes appear to reduce initiation pressure and, with increasing branches, the initiation pressure decreases. A model with four tree-type, branched boreholes leads to a reduction in initiation pressure of 69%. In terms of permeability improvement technology in underground coalmines, a branched hydraulic fracturing borehole array has the advantages of reducing initiation pressure, controlling crack initiation and extension, enhancing the fracturing effect and reducing the destruction of the roof and floor.

  12. Forsmark site characterisation - Borehole KFM22 and KFM23: Derivation of porewater data by diffusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waber, H. N. [Rock Water Interaction, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Smellie, J. A. T. [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    Within the Detum Project (Detailed Investigations in Forsmark) a 'Methodology comparison for porewater extraction and characterisation techniques' was initiated. This has centred on two shallow boreholes drilled at Soederviken within the northern part of the Forsmark characterisation site. The comparison includes different methodologies to characterise the chemical and isotopic composition of porewater residing in the connected pore space of the rock matrix. The present report describes the chemical and isotopic information of the porewater obtained by out-diffusion experiments and the diffusive isotope equilibration technique applied to originally water saturated drillcore samples. In addition, petrophysical data and solute transport properties of the rock matrix, all necessary for porewater characterisation, have also been elaborated. Specially conditioned drillcore samples were obtained from depths of less than 100 m from boreholes KFM22 and KFM23. Porewater has been extracted successfully from seven samples by laboratory out-diffusion and diffusive isotope exchange methods. The methodology to extract and analyse the porewater is outlined and the analytical data are tabulated. The data are critically reviewed for potential experimental artefacts and their significance with respect to in situ conditions. The connected pore space in the core material representing borehole KFM22 and KFM23 was measured on different types of originally saturated drillcore samples using gravimetric and isotope mass balance methods. Out-diffusion experiments were performed on kg-sized drillcore samples to derive the in situ concentration of the chemically conservative compounds chloride and bromide. The attainment of equilibrium conditions in the out-diffusion experiments was monitored by the concentration change of chloride and bromide as a function of time. The water isotope composition of porewater was determined by the diffusive isotope equilibration technique and by

  13. Site investigation SFR. Boremap mapping of core drilled borehole KFR106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winell, Sofia (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    This report presents the result from the Boremap mapping of the core drilled borehole KFR106, drilled from an islet ca 220 m southeast of the pier above SFR. The borehole has a length of 300.13 m, and a bearing and inclination of 195.1 deg and -69.9 deg, respectively. The purpose of the location and orientation of the borehole is to investigate the possible occurrence of gently dipping, water-bearing structures in the area. The geological mapping is based on simultaneous study of drill core and borehole image (BIPS). The two lowermost meters of the drill core was mapped in Boremap without access to complementary BIPS-image. The dominating rock type, which occupies 72% of KFR106, is fine- to medium-grained, metagranite granodiorite (rock code 101057), which is foliated with a medium to strong intensity. Pegmatite to pegmatitic granite (rock code 101061) is the second most common rock type and it occupies 16% of the mapped interval. It is also frequent as smaller rock occurrences (< 1 m) in other rock types throughout the borehole. Subordinate rock types are fine- to medium-grained granite (rock code 111058), felsic to intermediate meta volcanic rock (rock code 103076), fine- to medium-grained metagranitoid (rock code 101051) and amphibolite (rock code 102017). Totally 49% of the rock in KFR106 has been mapped as altered, where muscovitization and oxidation is the two most common. Additional shorter intervals of alterations are in decreasing order of abundance quartz dissolution, epidotization, argillization, albitization, chloritization, laumontization and carbonatization. A total number of 2801 fractures are registered in KFR106. Of these are 1059 open, 1742 sealed and 84 partly open. This result in the following fracture frequencies: 6.0 sealed fractures/m, 3.7 open fractures/m and 0.3 partly open fractures/m. In addition there are 5 narrow brecciated zones, and 20 sealed networks with a total length of 18 m. The most frequent fracture fillings in KFR106 are

  14. Chicxulub Post-Impact Sedimentary Sequence: Integrated Borehole Paleogene Carbonate Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Escobar-Sanchez, E.; Ortega-Nieto, A.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chicxulub crater was formed by a bolide impact on the southern Gulf of Mexico at ~66 Ma ago that marked the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, represented worldwide by the ejecta layer. The K/Pg boundary layer with its global distribution provides a high resolution marker, allowing high precision stratigraphic analyses in marine and continental sequences. Following crater formation, sedimentation re-established in the carbonate platform, filling the basin. Crater is located half on-land and half offshore, with the crater floor covered by sediments with variable thickness up to about 1 km. The target, impact and post-impact sequences have been drilled and cored, providing samples for stratigraphic, petrographic and physical-chemical laboratory studies. The post-impact stratigraphy has been analyzed in several studies at proximal, intermediate and distal outcrops and in the crater boreholes, using e.g., radiometric dating, micropaleontology, paleomagnetism, and strontium and stable isotope geochemistry. Emphasis has been given on the impact breccias-carbonates contact and the basal Paleocene sequence. Here we re-analyze the available data, revisiting the stratigraphy for the Santa Elena, Tekax, Peto and Yaxcopoil-1 boreholes using newly constructed detailed lithostratigraphic columns in the continuously cored boreholes. Additionally we extend the study to the Paleogene sequence in the Santa Elena and Yaxcopoil-1 boreholes using bulk carbon and oxygen isotopes, magnetic polarity, XRF core geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility stratigraphy. Results spanning chrons c29 to c24 constrain the K/Pg boundary, c29r-c29n polarity reversal and the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, providing high resolution records. The basal Paleocene gap and age differences in an integrated stratigraphy are discussed and correlated to the GPTS scale and IODP marine isotope records. The extent and characteristics of crater structure and target/cover sediments have been imaged with

  15. The strong ground motion in Mexico City: array and borehole data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullé, A.; Chávez-García, F. J.

    2003-04-01

    Site response at Mexico City has been intensively studied for the last 15 years, since the disastrous 1985 earthquakes. After those events, more than 100 accelerographs were installed, and their data have been extremely useful in quantifying amplification and in the subsequent upgrading of the building code. However, detailed analysis of the wavefield has been hampered by the lack of absolute time in the records and the large spacing between stations in terms of dominant wavelengths. In 2001, thanks to the support of CONACYT, Mexico, a new dense accelerographic network was installed in the lake bed zone of Mexico City. The entire network, including an existing network of 3 surface and 2 borehole stations operated by CENAPRED, consists in 12 surface and 4 borehole stations (at 30, 102 and 50 meters). Each station has a 18 bits recorder and a GPS receiver so that the complete network is a 3D array with absolute time. The main objective of this array is to provide data that can help us to better understand the wavefield that propagates in Mexico City during large earthquakes. Last year, a small event of magnitude 6.0 was partially recorded by 6 of the 12 surface stations and all the borehole stations. We analysed the surface data using different array processing techniques such as f-k methods and MUSIC algorithm and the borehole ones using a cross-correlation method. For periods inferior to the site resonance period, the soft clay layer with very low propagation velocities (less than 500 m/s) and a possible multipathing rule the wavefield pattern. For the large period range, the dominant surface wave comes from the epicentral direction and propagates with a quicker velocity (more than 1500 m/s) that corresponds to the velocity of deep layers. The analysis of borehole data shows the presence of different quick wavetrains in the short period range that could correspond to the first harmonic modes of Rayleigh waves. To complete this study, four others events recorded in

  16. Influence of Capillary Heterogeneity on Leakage of CO2 from a Borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecker, F.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the leakage of CO2 from a borehole using a macroscopic invasion percolation (MIP) model that incorporates capillary, buoyancy, and viscous forces. The model is being applied to the shallow subsurface of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) test pilot plant in Cranfield, MS at the Denbury Resources, Inc. site. Denbury is injecting CO2 for enhanced oil recovery and to demonstrate the sequestration of high volumes of CO2. Modeling shallow leakage pathways is important for predicting the long-term performance at CO2 sequestration sites. The MIP model differs from invasion percolation (IP) through the definition of macro, near-pore scale capillarity. Here, individual pore throats and necks are not considered. Instead, a near pore-scale block is defined and characterized by a local threshold spanning pressure (a local block-scale breakthrough pressure) that represents the behavior of the subscale network. The model domain is discretized into an array of grid blocks with assigned spanning pressures. An invasion pressure for each block is then determined by the sum of spanning pressure, buoyance forces, and viscous forces. An IP algorithm sorts the invadable blocks, selects the block connected to the growing cluster with the lowest invasion pressure, and invades it. For this investigation, we simulate the conditions surrounding a leak in the casing of a well into the shallow sediments present at the Cranfield site. The model domain includes the borehole annular space and the surrounding sediment. CO2 is introduced at the bottom of the domain into the annular materials. The properties of the annular materials and the host sediments are systematically varied to evaluate the impact of capillary heterogeneity on CO2 transport pathways. Varying degrees of stratification are included in the host sediments. The strength of the average capillary force between the sediments and the annular space are varied to determine the conditions

  17. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY WORK OF U-SHAPE BOREHOLE HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Filatau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady numerical model of borehole heat exchanger heat regime was developed. General numerical modeling results are borehole heat flux, heat carrier inlet temperature and average soil temperature distribution. Proposed model is based on solution of heat conduction equation in transient plane axially symmetric formulation with boundary conditions for borehole heat exchanger and undisturbed soil domain. Solution method is finite difference method. Numerical model is verified with comparisons numerical results and experimental data from developed laboratory installation for simulation unsteady heat regime of horizontal positioned U-shape ground heat exchanger in sand medium.Cooling of water is organized in ground exchanger in experiment. Experiment includes two steps. Thermal properties of sand is determined at the first stage. Thermal conductivity of sand is determined by stationary plate method, thermal diffusivity is determined by regular regime method using cylindrical calorimeter. Determined properties are used further in processing of experimental results at second step for analysis of transient work of ground heat exchanger. Results of four experiments are analyzed with different duration and time behavior of mass flow and heat carrier temperature. Divergences of experimental and simulated results for temperature of heat carrier changes in the range 0,5–1,8 %, for sand temperature in the range 1,0–2,3 %, for heat flux in the range 3,6–5,4 %. Experimental results can be used for validation of other simulation methods of ground heat exchangers. Presented numerical model can be used for analyzing of heat supply systems with heat pumps.

  18. Subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the U.S. Beaufort Margin: 2. Borehole constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn; Herman, Bruce M.; Brothers, Laura L.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Borehole logging data from legacy wells directly constrain the contemporary distribution of subsea permafrost in the sedimentary section at discrete locations on the U.S. Beaufort Margin and complement recent regional analyses of exploration seismic data to delineate the permafrost's offshore extent. Most usable borehole data were acquired on a ∼500 km stretch of the margin and within 30 km of the contemporary coastline from north of Lake Teshekpuk to nearly the U.S.-Canada border. Relying primarily on deep resistivity logs that should be largely unaffected by drilling fluids and hole conditions, the analysis reveals the persistence of several hundred vertical meters of ice-bonded permafrost in nearshore wells near Prudhoe Bay and Foggy Island Bay, with less permafrost detected to the east and west. Permafrost is inferred beneath many barrier islands and in some nearshore and lagoonal (back-barrier) wells. The analysis of borehole logs confirms the offshore pattern of ice-bearing subsea permafrost distribution determined based on regional seismic analyses and reveals that ice content generally diminishes with distance from the coastline. Lacking better well distribution, it is not possible to determine the absolute seaward extent of ice-bearing permafrost, nor the distribution of permafrost beneath the present-day continental shelf at the end of the Pleistocene. However, the recovery of gas hydrate from an outer shelf well (Belcher) and previous delineation of a log signature possibly indicating gas hydrate in an inner shelf well (Hammerhead 2) imply that permafrost may once have extended across much of the shelf offshore Camden Bay.

  19. Deep Boreholes Seals Subjected to High P,T conditions - Proposed Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporuscio, F.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole experimental work will constrain the P,T conditions which "seal" material will experience in deep borehole crystalline rock repositories. The rocks of interest to this study include mafic (amphibolites) and silicic (granitic gneiss) end members. The experiments will systematically add components to capture discrete changes in both water and EBS component chemistries. Experiments in the system wall rock-clay-concrete-groundwater will evaluate interactions among components, including: mineral phase stability, metal corrosion rates and thermal limits. Based on engineered barrier studies, experimental investigations will move forward with three focusses. First, evaluation of interaction between "seal" materials and repository wall rock (crystalline) under fluid-saturated conditions over long-term (i.e., six-month) experiments; which reproduces the thermal pulse event of a repository. Second, perform experiments to determine the stability of zeolite minerals (analcime-wairakitess) under repository conditions. Both sets of experiments are critically important for understanding mineral paragenesis (zeolites and/or clay transformations) associated with "seals" in contact with wall rock at elevated temperatures. Third, mineral growth at the metal interface is a principal control on the survivability (i.e. corrosion) of waste canisters in a repository. The objective of this planned experimental work is to evaluate physio-chemical processes for 'seal' components and materials relevant to deep borehole disposal. These evaluations will encompass multi-laboratory efforts for the development of seals concepts and application of Thermal-Mechanical-Chemical (TMC) modeling work to assess barrier material interactions with subsurface fluids and other barrier materials, their stability at high temperatures, and the implications of these processes to the evaluation of thermal limits.

  20. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  1. Orientation Uncertainty of Structures Measured in Cored Boreholes: Methodology and Case Study of Swedish Crystalline Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigsson, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Many engineering applications in fractured crystalline rocks use measured orientations of structures such as rock contact and fractures, and lineated objects such as foliation and rock stress, mapped in boreholes as their foundation. Despite that these measurements are afflicted with uncertainties, very few attempts to quantify their magnitudes and effects on the inferred orientations have been reported. Only relying on the specification of tool imprecision may considerably underestimate the actual uncertainty space. The present work identifies nine sources of uncertainties, develops inference models of their magnitudes, and points out possible implications for the inference on orientation models and thereby effects on downstream models. The uncertainty analysis in this work builds on a unique data set from site investigations, performed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB). During these investigations, more than 70 boreholes with a maximum depth of 1 km were drilled in crystalline rock with a cumulative length of more than 34 km including almost 200,000 single fracture intercepts. The work presented, hence, relies on orientation of fractures. However, the techniques to infer the magnitude of orientation uncertainty may be applied to all types of structures and lineated objects in boreholes. The uncertainties are not solely detrimental, but can be valuable, provided that the reason for their presence is properly understood and the magnitudes correctly inferred. The main findings of this work are as follows: (1) knowledge of the orientation uncertainty is crucial in order to be able to infer correct orientation model and parameters coupled to the fracture sets; (2) it is important to perform multiple measurements to be able to infer the actual uncertainty instead of relying on the theoretical uncertainty provided by the manufacturers; (3) it is important to use the most appropriate tool for the prevailing circumstances; and (4) the single most

  2. Subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the U.S. Beaufort Margin: 2. Borehole constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Herman, Bruce M.; Brothers, Laura L.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2016-11-01

    Borehole logging data from legacy wells directly constrain the contemporary distribution of subsea permafrost in the sedimentary section at discrete locations on the U.S. Beaufort Margin and complement recent regional analyses of exploration seismic data to delineate the permafrost's offshore extent. Most usable borehole data were acquired on a ˜500 km stretch of the margin and within 30 km of the contemporary coastline from north of Lake Teshekpuk to nearly the U.S.-Canada border. Relying primarily on deep resistivity logs that should be largely unaffected by drilling fluids and hole conditions, the analysis reveals the persistence of several hundred vertical meters of ice-bonded permafrost in nearshore wells near Prudhoe Bay and Foggy Island Bay, with less permafrost detected to the east and west. Permafrost is inferred beneath many barrier islands and in some nearshore and lagoonal (back-barrier) wells. The analysis of borehole logs confirms the offshore pattern of ice-bearing subsea permafrost distribution determined based on regional seismic analyses and reveals that ice content generally diminishes with distance from the coastline. Lacking better well distribution, it is not possible to determine the absolute seaward extent of ice-bearing permafrost, nor the distribution of permafrost beneath the present-day continental shelf at the end of the Pleistocene. However, the recovery of gas hydrate from an outer shelf well (Belcher) and previous delineation of a log signature possibly indicating gas hydrate in an inner shelf well (Hammerhead 2) imply that permafrost may once have extended across much of the shelf offshore Camden Bay.

  3. Self and transfer impedances of coaxial coils for interrogating a borehole formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical models for coaxial-coil logging were improved to permit a self-consistent and accurate evaluation of formation rocks using multiple frequencies within 10 to 100 MHz. For typical borehole diameters up to 20 cm, the inclusion of magnetic-quadrupole coupling allows the self and transfer impedances to be accurately calibrated during design, and self-consistently measured during downhole interrogation. Comprehensive processings of the measurable Z/sub 11/ and Z/sub 21/ are expected to enhance the uniqueness of evaluating the properties of reservoir rocks.

  4. Geological interpretation of borehole image and sonic logs. A case study from the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahle, C. [Eriksfiord GmbH, Walldorf (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Borehole imagers and dipole sonic tools form the ideal pair of instruments for observation and evaluation of structural tilt, faulting and fracturing as well as sediment transport direction and depositional architecture. In addition, the stress field can be inverted in combination with rock mechanical data. The structural tilt and its variation along the well are evaluated in stereograms and projections along the well trace. Changes in structural tilt are attributed to fault block rotation as well as angular unconformities. Fault zones are usually easily recognised in borehole images by e.g. juxtaposition of different strata/facies and deformation of adjacent layering. Integration with micro-scale core data as well as macro-scale seismics, if available, is of vital importance. Furthermore, calibration against core observations is helpful for e.g. fracture characterisation. The stress field orientation is interpreted from breakout and drilling-induced fractures, which are usually easy to detect in borehole images. However, in case of slanted and highly deviated wells the full stress tensor including the stress magnitudes is necessary to evaluate the stress field orientation. The full stress tensor is inverted by utilising rock mechanical data from core measurement and/or from empirical relations with elastic properties such as Poission's ratio and Young's modulus with respect to breakout and drilling-induced fractures. In addition, the stress field can be simulated using numerical methods to match the current observations. Sedimentary features such as cross-beds or slumps may indicate sediment transport directions after the data set was corrected for structural tilt. Image facies and their stacking patterns in combination with standard petrophysical curves are interpreted with respect to the depositional environment and included in a sequence stratigraphic framework. A correlation with core observations provides important calibration of the image facies

  5. 3D subsurface geological modeling using GIS, remote sensing, and boreholes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoura, Katerina; Konstantopoulou, Maria; Kyriou, Aggeliki; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos; Depountis, Nikolaos

    2016-08-01

    The current paper presents the combined use of geological-geotechnical insitu data, remote sensing data and GIS techniques for the evaluation of a subsurface geological model. High accuracy Digital Surface Model (DSM), airphotos mosaic and satellite data, with a spatial resolution of 0.5m were used for an othophoto base map compilation of the study area. Geological - geotechnical data obtained from exploratory boreholes and the 1:5000 engineering geological maps were digitized and implemented in a GIS platform for a three - dimensional subsurface model evaluation. The study is located at the North part of Peloponnese along the new national road.

  6. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  7. On the Fidelity of “CORK” Borehole Hydrologic Observatory Pressure Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keir Becker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term formation pressure monitoring in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP boreholes using evolving Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK hydrologic observatory technology has led to unanticipated applications as a result of the growing duration of recording intervals and the improvement of measurement fidelity. Current capabilities provide geologically meaningful observations over a broad range of time scales from static state to 1 Hz, allowing investigations of many coupled hydrologic, geodynamic, and seismologic phenomena. In this review, we present observations that provide constraints on current limits to recording fidelity, and examples of how leakage can affect pressure observations.

  8. Simulation of wave propagation in boreholes and radial profiling of formation elastic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shihong

    Modern acoustic logging tools measure in-situ elastic wave velocities of rock formations. These velocities provide ground truth for time-depth conversions in seismic exploration. They are also widely used to quantify the mechanical strength of formations for applications such as wellbore stability analysis and sand production prevention. Despite continued improvements in acoustic logging technology and interpretation methods that take advantage of full waveform data, acoustic logs processed with current industry standard methods often remain influenced by formation damage and mud-filtrate invasion. This dissertation develops an efficient and accurate algorithm for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in fluid-filled boreholes in the presence of complex, near-wellbore damaged zones. The algorithm is based on the generalized reflection and transmission matrices method. Assessment of mud-filtrate invasion effects on borehole acoustic measurements is performed through simulation of time-lapse logging in the presence of complex radial invasion zones. The validity of log corrections performed with the Biot-Gassmann fluid substitution model is assessed by comparing the velocities estimated from array waveform data simulated for homogeneous and radially heterogeneous formations that sustain mud-filtrate invasion. The proposed inversion algorithm uses array waveform data to estimate radial profiles of formation elastic parameters. These elastic parameters can be used to construct more realistic near-wellbore petrophysical models for applications in seismic exploration, geo-mechanics, and production. Frequency-domain, normalized amplitude and phase information contained in array waveform data are input to the nonlinear Gauss-Newton inversion algorithm. Validation of both numerical simulation and inversion is performed against previously published results based on the Thomson-Haskell method and travel time tomography, respectively. This exercise indicates that the

  9. Change in Seismic Attenuation of the Nojima Fault Zone Measured Using Spectral Ratios from Borehole Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Y.; Tadokoro, K.; Nishigami, K.; Mori, J.

    2006-12-01

    We measured the seismic attenuation of the rock mass surrounding the Nojima fault, Japan, by estimating the P-wave quality factor, Qp, using spectral ratios derived from a multi-depth (800 m and 1800 m) seismometer array. We detected an increase of Qp in 2003-2006 compared to 1999-2000. Following the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the project "Fault Zone Probe" drilled three boreholes to depths of 500 m, 800 m, 1800 m, in Toshima, along the southern part of the Nojima fault. The 1800-m borehole was reported to reach the fault surface. One seismometer (TOS1) was installed at the bottom of the 800-m borehole in 1996 and another (TOS2) at the bottom of 1800-m borehole in 1997. The sampling rate of the seismometers is 100 Hz. The slope of the spectral ratios for the two stations plotted on a linear-log plot is -π t^{*}, where t^{*} is the travel time divided by the Qp for the path difference between the stations. For the estimation of Qp, we used events recorded by both TOS1 and TOS2 for periods of 1999-2000 and 2003-2006. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectral ratios, we first calculated spectra ratios between TOS1 and TOS2 for each event and averaged the values over the earthquakes for each period. We used the events that occurred within 10 km from TOS2, and the numbers of events are 74 for 1999-2000 and 105 for 2003-2006. Magnitudes of the events range from M0.5 to M3.1. The average value of Qp for 1999-2000 increased significantly compared to 2003-2006. The attenuation of rock mass surrounding the fault in 2003-2006 is smaller than that in 1999-2000, which suggests that the fault zone became stiffer after the earthquake. At the Nojima fault, permeability measured by repeated pumping tests decreased with time from the Kobe earthquake, infering the closure of cracks and a fault healing process occurred The increase of Qp is another piece of evidence for the healing process of the Nojima fault zone. u.ac.jp/~kano/

  10. Delineation of fault systems on Langeland, Denmark based on AEM data and boreholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Westergaard, Joakim Hollenbo; Pytlich, Anders

    2016-01-01

    and geoelectrical surveys. The data serve as basis for constructing 3D hydrogeological and groundwater models from which site-specific protection zones are establish. At present time dense geophysical mapping covers approximately 45 % of Denmark. Based on a dense Airborne ElectroMagnetic (AEM) survey in combination...... modelling, Fault systems....... with boreholes, three fault systems in the northern part of the island of Langeland, Denmark are mapped. Two of the fault systems were unknown prior to the mapping campaign. The two unknown fault systems are interpreted as a normal fault and graben structures, respectively. The presence of the hanging-wall block...

  11. Dense borehole network observations of a small surge-type glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, C.; Schoof, C.; Radic, V.

    2015-12-01

    Subglacial drainage is known to play an important role in glacier dynamics trough its influence on basal sliding. However, drainage is also one of the most poorly understood process in glacier flow due to the difficulties of observing, identifying and modeling the physics involved. In an effort to improve understanding of subglacial processes, we have monitored a small, approximately 100 m thick surge-type alpine glacier for seven years. Over 300 boreholes were instrumented with pressure transducers over a 0.5 km² in its upper ablation area, in addition to a permanent GPS array and weather station. To quantitatively characterize the morphology and evolution of the subglacial drainage, we use Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) in combination with various filtering techniques. This allows us to identify clusters of boreholes exhibiting similar evolution in water pressure. Using moving time windows, we use this approach to identify connections between boreholes, and to track how these changes evolve over longer time intervals. Our results include: i) The different areas can be subdivided in three groups according to the water pressure variations: Hydraulically isolated, hydraulically connected with distributed drainage, and channelized areas ii) Transitions between connected and isolated areas are mostly discrete and rapid switch-like events, taking from a few minutes to a few hours iii) There is limited evidence to support the assumption that the hydraulic connection between instruments installed at the bed happens necessarily trough the bed interface itself, with engacial conduits also playing an important role iv) Transmissivity, conductivity and reflectivity measurements in a small subsets of boreholes suggest that most water pressure variation measured at the bed in areas of "distributed" drainage are not accompanied by substantial water transport, even where time lags and attenuation of pressure suggest behavior consistent with a "macroporous" water sheet at the bed

  12. 通用钻孔柱状图模型研究%Research on the model of universal borehole log

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张驰; 李安波; 周良辰

    2012-01-01

    本文针对当前钻孔柱状图在通用性与扩展性等方面存在的问题,将多个行业的钻孔柱状图进行抽象,设计出通用的钻孔数据模型与界面样式模型,并在此基础上利用插件架构实现了钻孔列元素的动态扩展.应用实例表明,基于该模型的钻孔柱状图可进行界面与数据的灵活配置,能应用于工程地质、水文地质,第四纪地质等多个行业.%Focusing on the existent problem in universality and expansibility of the current borehole log, this paper abstracted the borehole log from multi-fields and designed a general borehole data model and pattern model for them. Based on the models, this paper utilized the plug-in structure to realize the dynamic extension of borehole columns. Experiments showed thai the borehole log based on the model could configure its interface and data flexibly and could be applied to multiply industries such as hydiogeology, engineering geology, quaternary geology and so on.

  13. Sealing of 300 mm boreholes KXTT3 and KXTT4 at Aespoe HRL. Report of Subproject 3 of Borehole sealing Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Lund (Sweden); Luleaa Technical Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [Eltekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Sealing of two moderately dipping 300 mm diameter holes that had been bored from a niche adjacent to the ramp in the Aespoe URL in conjunction with earlier geohydrological investigations (TRUE Project, Winberg et al. 2000) was successfully completed in early 2010. The work was preceded by a pilot test on the ground surface for investigating if a simple version of sealing by pressing down clay pellets into clay mud is feasible. The borehole was simulated by a steel tube that was filled with smectite mud in which a cage filled with clay pellets was moved down. The experience from this experiment was that the mud used was somewhat too stiff and that strong vibration significantly reduced its viscosity but not sufficiently much. The predicted average density at water saturation was 1,780 kg/m{sup 3} (dry density 1,240 kg/m{sup 3}). The finally selected sealing method comprised casting of concrete plugs where the inflow of water was significant (up to 30 l/min), and to install precompacted blocks of smectite-rich clay where the rock was 'dry'. The finally matured clay plugs will have a density of around 2,000 kg/m{sup 3} (dry density 1,580 kg/m{sup 3}) and a hydraulic conductivity of less than E-12 m/s, which is estimated to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the bulk conductivity of the surrounding rock mass (Pusch 2008). This provides excellent sealing of all parts of the holes deeper than about 1-2 m below the tunnel floor. Groundwater flow in the rock around the clay plugs can cause some minor erosion but this effect is deemed negligible considering the coagulating effect on released clay particles by the brackish Aespoe water. Inspection of the closed upper borehole ends showed accumulation of some very dilute mineral suspension after a few days. A careful analysis of the mineral content showed that it did not contain smectite particles, hence certifying that erosion of the clay plugs in the holes had not taken place. The particles were

  14. STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF DRILL STRINGS WITH INTERNAL FLOWS OF LIQUIDS IN THE CHANNELS OF HORIZONTAL BORE-HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrusenko E.N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with elaboration of new technologies of hydrocarbons extraction from shales, in the oil and gas industry, the great attention is payed to the problems of drilling inclined and horizontal bore-holes. The peculiarities of these bore-hole drivage consist in essential influence of friction and contact forces on proceeding of drilling processes. In this paper, the problem about bifurcational buckling and small bending vibration of a rotating drill string lying in the channel of a horizontal bore-hole is stated. With allowance made for friction forces and additional constraint reactions, differential equations are deduced, their eigen-value solutions describing stability and vibration of the drill string of finite and infinite lengths are received.

  15. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, August 1993 to February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.; Buesch, D.C.

    1995-05-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being investigated as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report summarizes the lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain that was done from August 1993 to February 1994 by the Rock Characteristics Section, Yucca Mountain Project Branch, US Geological Survey (USGS). Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium/colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, Tertiary Calico Hills Formation and Tertiary Prow Pass Tuff. We present criteria used for recognition of stratigraphic contacts, logging results as tables of contact depths for core from neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphical lithologic logs for core from non-UZN boreholes, and descriptions of several distinctive nonwelded tuffs recognized in the PTn hydrogeologic unit of the Paintbrush Group.

  16. Borehole images while drilling : real-time dip picking in the foothills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, D. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Brezsnyak, F. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Roth, J. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Alberta Foothills drilling environment is a structurally complex thrust belt with slow costly drilling and frequent plan changes after logging. The cross sections are not always accurate due to poor resolution. Therefore, the placement of the wellbore is crucial to success. This presentation showed borehole images from drilling in the Foothills. Topics that were addressed included the Foothills drilling environment; target selection; current well placement methods; and current well performance. Borehole images included resistivity images and density images. The presentation addressed why real-time images should be run. These reasons include the ability to pick dips in real-time; structural information in real time allows for better well placement; it is easier to find and stay in producing areas; reduced non-productive time and probability of sidetracks; and elimination of pipe conveys logs. Applications in the Alberta Foothills such as the commercial run for GVR4 were also offered. Among the operational issues and lessons learned, it was determined that the reservoir thickness to measurement point distance ratio is too great to avoid exiting the sweet spot and that the survey calculation error cause image offset. It was concluded that GVR is a drillers tool for well placement. figs.

  17. MICROPROCESSOR-BASED DATA-ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR A BOREHOLE RADAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jerry A.; Wright, David L.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient microprocessor-based system is described that permits real-time acquisition, stacking, and digital recording of data generated by a borehole radar system. Although the system digitizes, stacks, and records independently of a computer, it is interfaced to a desktop computer for program control over system parameters such as sampling interval, number of samples, number of times the data are stacked prior to recording on nine-track tape, and for graphics display of the digitized data. The data can be transferred to the desktop computer during recording, or it can be played back from a tape at a latter time. Using the desktop computer, the operator observes results while recording data and generates hard-copy graphics in the field. Thus, the radar operator can immediately evaluate the quality of data being obtained, modify system parameters, study the radar logs before leaving the field, and rerun borehole logs if necessary. The system has proven to be reliable in the field and has increased productivity both in the field and in the laboratory.

  18. An automated method to build groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Marker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale integrated hydrological models are important decision support tools in water resources management. The largest source of uncertainty in such models is the hydrostratigraphic model. Geometry and configuration of hydrogeological units are often poorly determined from hydrogeological data alone. Due to sparse sampling in space, lithological borehole logs may overlook structures that are important for groundwater flow at larger scales. Good spatial coverage along with high spatial resolution makes airborne time-domain electromagnetic (AEM data valuable for the structural input to large-scale groundwater models. We present a novel method to automatically integrate large AEM data-sets and lithological information into large-scale hydrological models. Clay-fraction maps are produced by translating geophysical resistivity into clay-fraction values using lithological borehole information. Voxel models of electrical resistivity and clay fraction are classified into hydrostratigraphic zones using k-means clustering. Hydraulic conductivity values of the zones are estimated by hydrological calibration using hydraulic head and stream discharge observations. The method is applied to a Danish case study. Benchmarking hydrological performance by comparison of simulated hydrological state variables, the cluster model performed competitively. Calibrations of 11 hydrostratigraphic cluster models with 1–11 hydraulic conductivity zones showed improved hydrological performance with increasing number of clusters. Beyond the 5-cluster model hydrological performance did not improve. Due to reproducibility and possibility of method standardization and automation, we believe that hydrostratigraphic model generation with the proposed method has important prospects for groundwater models used in water resources management.

  19. Borehole plugging of man-made accesses to a basalt repository: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O' Rourke, J.E.; Niccum, M.R.

    1979-09-01

    This report describes the status of work currently in progress for the Basalt Borehole Plugging Program (BBPP). The primary objectives of the BBPP outlined in this report have been met during this first phase of work. These objectives included: (1) the preparation of a preliminary list of candidate plug materials; (2) a description of available machinery capable of placing candidate plug materials; and (3) the development of physical and geochemical testing programs to help evaluate the chemical stability and physical properties of candidate plug materials. The most significant finding from work to date is that given reasonable regulatory criteria, nothing has been identified which would prevent design of a plug system to seal manmade openings leading to a nuclear waste repository in Columbia River basalt for significantly long periods of time (on the order of thousands of years). Work accomplished to date indicates that this plug system can be designed using both natural and manufactured materials and can be emplaced with existing placement machinery and modifications of that machinery. The objectives of Task II are to conduct laboratory tests to evaluate the suitability of preferred candidate materials for plugging boreholes in the proposed repository, select plug system(s), initiate preconceptual machinery design for the placement of materials in plug system(s), and prepare a preliminary Task II report. As with Task I project organization, Task II is divided into subtasks that are identified by written subtask work summaries.

  20. Influence of borehole-eccentred tools on wireline and logging-while-drilling sonic logging measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David

    2013-02-13

    We describe a numerical study to quantify the influence of tool-eccentricity on wireline (WL) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sonic logging measurements. Simulations are performed with a height-polynomial-adaptive (hp) Fourier finite-element method that delivers highly accurate solutions of linear visco-elasto-acoustic problems in the frequency domain. The analysis focuses on WL instruments equipped with monopole or dipole sources and LWD instruments with monopole excitation. Analysis of the main propagation modes obtained from frequency dispersion curves indicates that the additional high-order modes arising as a result of borehole-eccentricity interfere with the main modes (i.e., Stoneley, pseudo-Rayleigh and flexural). This often modifies (decreases) the estimation of shear and compressional formation velocities, which should be corrected (increased) to account for borehole-eccentricity effects. Undesired interferences between different modes can occur at different frequencies depending upon the properties of the formation and fluid annulus size, which may difficult the estimation of the formation velocities. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  1. Seasonal and daily variation of radon at 10 m depth in borehole, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, V M; Arora, B R; Barbosa, S M; Kumar, Naresh; Kamra, Leena

    2011-07-01

    Mostly accepted and widely reported radon (Rn(222)) measurements, a tool for earthquake precursor research, is a part of multi-parametric geophysical observation in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya for earthquake related studies. Radon is being recorded continuously at an interval of 15 min at 10 m depth in a 68 m deep borehole. Three years high resolution 15 min data at 10 m depth shows a complex trend and has a strong seasonal effect along with some diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day recurring trends. A well-defined seasonal pattern is prominent with a high emanation in summer and low values in winter accounting for about a 30% decrease in count values in winter when the atmospheric temperature is very low at this station located 1.90 km above mean sea level. Diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day trends in this time-series are mainly observed during April-May and October-November. This is the period of spring and autumn when there is a high contrast in day-night atmospheric temperature. Hence the high fluctuation in Rn concentration is mainly caused by the temperature contrast between the air-column inside the borehole and the atmosphere above the earth's surface.

  2. Seasonal and daily variation of radon at 10 m depth in borehole, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M., E-mail: vchoubey@wihg.res.i [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India); Arora, B.R. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India); Barbosa, S.M. [University of Lisbon, IDL, Campo Grande, Edificio C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Kumar, Naresh; Kamra, Leena [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Mostly accepted and widely reported radon (Rn{sup 222}) measurements, a tool for earthquake precursor research, is a part of multi-parametric geophysical observation in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya for earthquake related studies. Radon is being recorded continuously at an interval of 15 min at 10 m depth in a 68 m deep borehole. Three years high resolution 15 min data at 10 m depth shows a complex trend and has a strong seasonal effect along with some diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day recurring trends. A well-defined seasonal pattern is prominent with a high emanation in summer and low values in winter accounting for about a 30% decrease in count values in winter when the atmospheric temperature is very low at this station located 1.90 km above mean sea level. Diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day trends in this time-series are mainly observed during April-May and October-November. This is the period of spring and autumn when there is a high contrast in day-night atmospheric temperature. Hence the high fluctuation in Rn concentration is mainly caused by the temperature contrast between the air-column inside the borehole and the atmosphere above the earth's surface.

  3. A modular subsurface borehole-tower for deep vadose zone monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most urgent contemporary societal challenges ranging from climate change to ecosystem services and food security are strongly linked to processes taking place in the vadose zone. The growing interest in this critical zone prompted a massive deployment of eco-hydrological networks (TERENO, CZO, and more) focusing on long term and highly resolved monitoring of key variables such as soil moisture, pressure, temperature, gas fluxes and more. A challenge in all these endeavors remains the reliable and consistent acquisition of variables to depths of eco-hydrological interest (a few meters in some cases), especially soil moisture. In the absence of off-the-shelf sensor systems capable of vertically resolved acquisition of these variables, we developed a prototype of a modular borehole-based tower for simultaneous monitoring of water content, temperature, oxygen and CO2 gas concentrations, and potentially other variables (relative humidity, capillary pressure). The modular tower is made up of 1.5 m sections of 75 mm PVC tubing with TDR waveguides mounted on outer walls. Each paired waveguides (0.15 m in length) were installed on two opposing sides of inflatable sections along the modular unit to ensure contact with the borehole walls. Oxygen and CO2 are measured using solid-state and optical gas sensors that could be periodically calibrated for potential drift. A prototype that could be extended to 6 m depth and preliminary calibration results will be presented (as a potential design for future CZO's). We welcome suggestions for expansion and improvements.

  4. Enhancement of Cross-Borehole Pulse Radar Signature on a Partially Water-Filled Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-borehole pulse radar has been employed to detect a deeply located empty tunnel. In this paper, effects of underground water collected in the bottom of an empty tunnel on cross-borehole pulse radar signatures are analyzed numerically. B-scan images, stacks of received pulses, are calculated by applying the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method for 6 different heights of water from the bottom to the half height inside an empty tunnel. The most important features of an empty tunnel, the fastest time of peak (TOP and time of arrival (TOA extracted from the B-scan images, are slowed considerably depending on the increased height of water inside the tunnel. To compensate the weak TOP like that of an empty tunnel, a relation curve is formulated only utilizing measurable parameters of the fastest TOP and the fastest TOA. Then, a unified curve including the effects of two granites with the low and high dielectric properties is derived to cover widely varied dielectric properties of underground rocks. Based on the fastest TOP of an empty tunnel, the average difference between the fastest TOP of an empty tunnel and that of a partially water-filled tunnel decreases from 22.92% to 2.59% after enhancement.

  5. A new look at multiphase invasion with applications to borehole resistivity interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, K.; Howard, A. Q.; Protázio, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    In well log interpretation, it is frequently necessary to correct logs for invasion. Invasion occurs in permeable formations when there is a radial differential pressure (RDP) between the borehole and formation. Other factors on which invasion depend include saturation, mobility, pressure (RDP) and capillary pressure, permeability and viscosity of fluids, and temperature transient effects associated with the mud filtrate injected into the formation. Thus, simulation of realistic invasion is not an easy task. This work reviews the famous Buckley-Leverett mathematical model in cylindrical coordinates appropriate for borehole geometries. The model predicts multiphase invasion in porous media when gravity, capillary pressure, and mud cake can be neglected. One application is to correct logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline resistivity logs for time-dependent invasion and formation temperature effects. This is important, for example, when there are possible large differences in formation and mud temperature. Modeling studies show these effects can be large enough to noticeably influence resistivity logs. However, after correction, difference in LWD and wireline logs arising from the time-dependent heat process are explained. Thus, the method, when coupled to a time-dependent heat flow model, and a response function formulation of resistivity, yields new insight into the influence of thermal and electrical transients in log interpretation.

  6. Downhole measurements in the AND-1B borehole, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, R.; Williams, T.; Henrys, S.; Crosby, T.; Hansaraj, D.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive set of downhole measurements was collected in the AND-1B drillhole as part of the on-ice scientific programme defined for the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) Project. Geophysical logs were recorded over two operation phases and consisted of calliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, induction resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma activity, acoustic televiewer, borehole deviation, and dipmeter. In addition, two standard vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and one walk-away VSP were obtained. Radioactive logs (porosity and density) were not run because of unstable borehole conditions. Although the total depth of the hole is 1285 metres below seafloor (mbsf), the depth range for in situ measurements was limited by the length of the wireline (1018 mbsf) and by the nullification of some geophysical logs due to the presence of steel casing. A depth correction was derived to account for systematic discrepancies in depth between downhole measurements and cores; consequently, log responses can be directly compared to core properties. The resulting data are amenable to studies of cyclicity and climate, heat flux and fluid flow, and stricture and stress. When integrated with physical properties and fractures measured on the core, this information should play a significant role in addressing many of the scientific objectives of the ANDRILL programme.

  7. The borehole dilatometer network of Mount Etna: A powerful tool to detect and infer volcano dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, A.; Linde, A.; Currenti, G.; Sacks, S.; Sicali, A.

    2016-06-01

    A network of four borehole dilatometers has been installed on Etna in two successive phases (2010-2011 and 2014). The borehole dilatometers are installed in holes drilled at depths usually greater than 100 m, and they measure the volumetric strain of the surrounding rock with a nominal precision up to 10-11 in a wide frequency range (10-7-25 Hz). Here we describe the characteristics of the network and the results of the in situ calibrations obtained after the installations by different methods. We illustrate short-term strain changes recorded during several lava fountains erupted by Etna during 2011-2013, and we also show signal changes recorded at all four stations during the lava fountain on 28 December 2014. Analytical and numerical computations constrained the eruptions source depth and also its volume change that is related to the magma volume emitted. Finally, we show the potential of the signal in the medium term to reveal strain changes related to different phases of the volcanic activity.

  8. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  9. Combined Borehole Seismic and Electromagnetic Inversion For High-Resolution Petrophysical Assessment Of Hydocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; G. Michael Hoversten; Ki Ha Lee; Gregory Newman; Kurt Nihei

    2008-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed between January 2005 and December 2007, under DOE research contract DE-FC26-04NT15507. The project is was performed by the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering of The University of Texas at Austin and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Office (NETL) and the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO). During the three-year project, we developed new methods to combine borehole sonic and electromagnetic (EM) measurements for the improved assessment of elastic and petrophysical properties of rock formations penetrated by a well. Sonic measurements consisted of full waveform acoustic amplitudes acquired with monopole and dipole sources, whereas EM measurements consisted of frequency-domain voltages acquired with multi-coil induction systems. The combination of sonic and EM measurements permitted the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties in the presence of mud-filtrate invasion. It was conclusively shown that the combined interpretation of sonic and EM measurements reduced non-uniqueness in the estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties and improved the spatial resolution of the estimations compared to estimations yielded separately from the two types of measurements. Moreover, this approach enabled the assessment of dynamic petrophysical properties such as permeability, as it incorporated the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in the interpretation of the measurements. The first part of the project considered the development of fast and reliable numerical algorithms to simulate borehole sonic waveforms in 2D, 3D, and radial 1D media. Such algorithms were subsequently used in the quantitative estimation of elastic properties jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. In the second part of the project we developed a new algorithm to estimate water saturation, porosity, and dry-rock elastic moduli jointly from borehole sonic and

  10. A Preliminary Assessment of a Deep Borehole disposal of Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Younmyoung; Jeon, Jongtae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of such radioactive waste as spent nuclear fuels (SFs) and other waste forms has been investigating mainly at Sandia National Labs for the US DOE as an alternative option. DBD can give advantages over less deep geological disposal since the disposal of wastes at a great depth where a low degree of permeability in the potentially steady rock condition will be beneficial for nuclide movement. Groundwater in the deep basement rock can even have salinity and less chance to mix with groundwater above. The DBD concept is quite straightforward and even simple: Waste canisters are simply emplaced in the lower 2 km part of the borehole down to 5 km deep. Through this study, a conceptual DBD is assessed for a similar case as the US DOE's approach, in which 400 SF canisters are to be emplaced at a deep bottom between 3km and 5km depths, upon which an additional 1km-thick compacted bentonite is overbuffered, and the remaining upper part of the borehole is backfilled again with a mixture of crushed rock and bentonite. Then, the total 5km-deep borehole has three zones: a disposal zone at the bottom 2km, a buffer zone at the next 1km, and backfill zone at the rest top 2km, as illustrated conceptually in Fig. 1. To demonstrate the feasibility in view of long-term radiological safety, a rough model for a safety assessment of this conceptual deep borehole repository system, providing detailed models for nuclide transport in and around the geosphere and biosphere under normal nuclide release scenarios that can occur after a closure of the repository, has been developed using GoldSim. A simple preliminary result in terms of the dose exposure rate from a safety assessment of the DBD is also presented and compared to the case of direct disposal of SFs in a KBS-3V vertical type repository, carried out in previous studies. For different types and shapes of repositories at each different depth, direct comparison between a DBD and a KBS-3 type disposal of

  11. a Comparison Between Zero-Offset and Vertical Radar Profiling Gpr Techniques with Emphasis on Problematic Borehole Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M.; Vignoli, G.; Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive geophysical techniques are increasingly used to study the unsaturated zone. In particular, cross-hole methods can are able to infer more detailed information about the subsoil than surface measurements. Two borehole Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques are discussed in our contribution: Zero-Offset Profiling (ZOP) and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP). We make a direct comparison of these methods in a field case (Trecate site, Northern Italy), to explore each method's capabilities and limitations. Our analysis is focused on the results in the vadose zone and shows that the dielectric relative permittivity profiles recovered from ZOP and VRP first-break inversions are in strong disagreement, providing very different permittivity profiles. The analysis of synthetic radargrams shows the presence of an electromagnetic (EM) wave established by the joint presence of the air-filled borehole within a higher permittivity surrounding soil. This event has a velocity intermediate between the soil and air speed values, and interferes with the picking of first arrivals in the VRP mode. The numerical simulations are performed with different borehole diameters, confirming that the velocity of the first recorded event depends on the ratio between the wave length in air and the finite dimension of the borehole. Once these arrivals in the simulated VRP radargrams are recognized, their contribution can be removed by picking the "direct" arrivals, that correspond to the waves that directly propagates from source to receiver, through the unsaturated zone. Once the borehole effects are accounted for, the comparison between the ZOP and VRP permittivity profiles is reasonable and reveals the different resolution of these techniques, focusing on the information that can be inferred for hydrological characterizations. Thus, VRP surveys in vadose zone must be accurately interpreted, as the electromagnetic waves may propagate via guided modes along the borehole. Neglecting this

  12. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Fractured Rocks around the In-DEBS Test Borehole at the Underground Research Facility (KURT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nak-Youl; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2016-04-01

    In the concept of the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes, canisters including high-level wastes are surrounded by engineered barrier, mainly composed of bentonite, and emplaced in disposal holes drilled in deep intact rocks. The heat from the high-level radioactive wastes and groundwater inflow can influence on the robustness of the canister and engineered barrier, and will be possible to fail the canister. Therefore, thermal-hydrological-mechanical (T-H-M) modeling for the condition of the disposal holes is necessary to secure the safety of the deep geological disposal. In order to understand the T-H-M coupling phenomena at the subsurface field condition, "In-DEBS (In-Situ Demonstration of Engineered Barrier System)" has been designed and implemented in the underground research facility, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) in Korea. For selecting a suitable position of In-DEBS test and obtaining hydrological data to be used in T-H-M modeling as well as groundwater flow simulation around the test site, the fractured rock aquifer including the research modules of KURT was investigated through the in-situ tests at six boreholes. From the measured data and results of hydraulic tests, the range of hydraulic conductivity of each interval in the boreholes is about 10-7-10-8 m/s and that of influx is about 10-4-10-1 L/min for NX boreholes, which is expected to be equal to about 0.1-40 L/min for the In-DEBS test borehole (diameter of 860 mm). The test position was determined by the data and availability of some equipment for installing In-DEBS in the test borehole. The mapping for the wall of test borehole and the measurements of groundwater influx at the leaking locations was carried out. These hydrological data in the test site will be used as input of the T-H-M modeling for simulating In-DEBS test.

  13. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Borehole seismic studies of a volcanic succession from the Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands, northern North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowper, David

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Extruded basalt flows overlying sedimentary sequences present a challenge to hydrocarbon exploration using reflection seismic techniques. The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well on the Faroese island of Suðuroy allowed us to study the seismic characteristics of a thick sequence of basalt flows from well logs and borehole seismic recordings. Data acquired during the deepening operation in 1996 are presented here.The re-entry well found that the seismic event at 2340 m, prognosed from the pre-drill Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP as a decrease in impedance, was not base basalt and the deepened well remainedwithin the lower series basalts. Nonetheless, compressional and shear sonic logs and a density log were recorded over the full open hole interval. These allowed a firm tie to be made with the reflectedwavefield from a new VSP. The sonic logs show a compressional to shear wavespeed ratio of 1.84 which is almost constant with depth. Sonic compressional wavespeeds are 3% higher than seismicvelocities, suggesting dispersion in the basalt flows. Azimuthal anisotropy was weakly indicated by the shear sonic log but its orientation is consistent with the directions of mapped master joints in the vicinity of the well.The VSP downgoing compressional wavelet shows good persistence, retaining a dominant period of 28 ms at 3510 m depth. Average vertical velocity is 5248 m/s, higher than previously reported.Attenuation can largely be modelled by geometrical spreading and scattering loss, consistent with other studies. Within the piled flows, the effective Q from scattering is about 35. Elastic layeredmedium modelling shows some hope that a mode-converted shear wave may be observed at moderate offsets. Like its predecessor, the 1996 VSP indicates a decrease in impedance below the final depth ofthe well. However, it is unlikely to be basement or sediment and is probably an event within the volcanic sequence.

  14. Model experiments on imaging subsurface fracture permeability by pulsed Doppler borehole televiewer; Pulse doppler borehole televiewer ni yoru kiretsu tosuisei hyoka ni kansuru model jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Y.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports model experiments to evaluate flow rates of fluids passing through a fracture by using a Doppler borehole televiewer (DBHTV). A supersonic transducer disposed on a well axis transmits transmission pulses, and a transducer receives scattered waves generated by particulates in water and waves reflected on a well wall. This signal is applied with time gating to extract only the scattered waves from particulates in the vicinity of the well wall. Deriving spectra in the recorded Doppler signal obtains flow velocity components in the direction of the well radius. A model was made with a polyvinylchloride pipe with a diameter of 14.6 cm to simulate a well, to which an aluminum pipe with an inner diameter of 2 mm is connected to be used as a simulated fracture, and mud water is circulated in the pipe. The result of deriving a passed flow volume in this model by integrating flow rate distribution derived by using the above method to a predetermined range in the vicinity of the fracture showed a good proportional relationship with actual flow rate in the simulated fracture. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  15. System and method to create three-dimensional images of non-linear acoustic properties in a region remote from a borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  16. A Novel Method for Borehole Blockage Removal and Experimental Study on a Hydraulic Self-Propelled Nozzle in Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolong Ge

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When coal bed methane (CBM drainage boreholes cross fractured, soft, or water-swelling strata, they collapse and block frequently. Borehole blockages result in a rapid decrease in CBM extraction ability, which leads to a reduction in CBM output and threatens coal mine safety production. To solve these problems, a novel method that uses a self-propelled water-jet nozzle to dredge blocked boreholes in coal seams has been proposed on the basis of the existing technology. Based on a theoretical analysis of the reason for borehole caving and the theory of blockage removal, we optimized the nozzle inlet pressure and selected an appropriate high-pressure resin pipe. A field experiment on the blockage removal of blocked CBM drainage boreholes using the proposed method was run in the Fengchun coal mine, Qijiang, Chongqing, southwest China. In this field trial, the time spent to unblock a borehole varied between 18.52 and 34.98 min, which is much shorter than using a drilling rig. After blockage removal, the average pure volume of the methane drainage of a single borehole was increased from 0.03 L/min to ~1.91–7.30 L/min, and the methane drainage concentration of a single borehole increased from 5% to ~44%–85%. The extraction effect increased significantly.

  17. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  18. Characterization from borehole wall and X-ray scan images of heterogeneities in carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, V.; Pezard, P. A.; Garing, C.; Gouze, P.; Camoin, G.; Lapointe, P.

    2009-12-01

    Salt water intrusion in coastal reservoirs is highly influenced by geological and petrophysical structures. In particular, heterogeneities and anisotropy in porous media (karst, vug) control fluid transport and dispersion. To develop new strategies for the quantitative description and analysis of fluid flow and salt transport in coastal aquifers, a new experimental site was developed in SE Mallorca (Spain) in the context of the ALIANCE EC project (2002-2005). Multi-scalar quantitative and descriptive methods (from µm to m) are developed to identify and map microstructures, heterogeneities and their hydrogeological impact on the reservoir. The objective of this study is to better understand the link between geological and hydrogeological properties of heterogeneous reservoir. The Mallorcan site cuts the Miocene carbonate reef platform and is located 6 km inland, where a salt wedge transition is found from 60 to 80 m depth. The geological structure includes large multi-scale heterogeneities, often bound to lateral facies variations. This experimental site provides thus a unique laboratory to study saltwater intrusion processes and develop new downhole investigation methods. This study focuses on borehole geophysical measurements and images, and X-ray core scan images. New image analysis methods have been developed to better characterize heterogeneities in terms of size distribution, aspect ratio and porosity. Optical and acoustic borehole wall images offer a continuous insight into meso-scale porosity (such as karstic channels and megapores) from mm to 100 m scale. X-ray cores scans were obtained from a tomography scanner by TOTAL. These two methodologies from RX tomography scans and borehole wall images are compared and discussed. Petrophysical parameters were extracted from X-ray images with a dedicated 3D data analysis software. The scan images lead to the identification and quantification of the micro- and vuggy porosity. It is found that the distribution of

  19. Chicxulub Impact Crater and Yucatan Carbonate Platform - Stratigraphy and Petrography of PEMEX Borehole Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Cirlos, A. G.; Perez-Drago, G.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Chicxulub impact crater is the best preserved of the three large multi-ring structures documented in the terrestrial record. Chicxulub, formed 65 Ma ago, is associated with the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary layer and the impact related to the organism extinctions and events marking the boundary. The crater is buried under Tertiary sediments in the Yucatan carbonate platform in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The structure was initially recognized from gravity and magnetic anomalies in the PEMEX exploration surveys of the northwestern Yucatan peninsula. The exploration program included eight deep boreholes completed from 1952 through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large complex impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the PEMEX decades-long exploration program. However, despite frequent use of PEMEX information and core samples, significant parts of the database and cores remain to be evaluated, analyzed and incorporated with results from recent efforts. Access to PEMEX Core Repository has permitted to study the cores and collect new samples from some of the boreholes. We analyzed cores from Yucatan-6, Chicxulub-1, Sacapuc-1, Ticul-1, Yucatan-1 and Yucatan-4 boreholes to make new detailed stratigraphic correlations and petrographic characterization, using information from PEMEX database and the recent studies. In C-1 cores, breccias show 4-8 cm clasts of fine grained altered melt dispersed in a medium to coarse grained matrix composed of pyroxene and feldspar with little macroscopic alteration. Clasts contain 0.2 to 0.1 cm fragments of silicate material (basement) that show variable degrees of digestion. Melt samples from C-1 N10 comes from interval 1,393-1,394 m, and show a fine-to-medium grained coherent microcrystalline groundmass. Melt and breccias in Y-6 extend from about 1,100 m to more than 1,400 m. Sequence is well sorted, with an apparent gradation in both the lithic and melt clasts. In this presentation we report on

  20. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  1. Workshop on borehole measurements and interpretation in scientific drilling - identification of problems and proposals for their solution: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, D.L.; Traeger, R.K. (eds.)

    1984-03-01

    Critical instrumentation needs for borehole-oriented, geoscience research were identified in a program consisting of formal presentations, psoter sessions and a workshop. The proceedings include results of the workshops, abstracts of the papers and poster sessions, and the attendance list. Details of any of the presentations should be obtained from the individual authors. Separate entries were prepared for individual presentations.

  2. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12...

  3. Hydrologic testing during drilling: application of the flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging method to drilling of a deep borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Berthet, Theo; Juhlin, Christopher; Niemi, Auli

    2016-09-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrologic testing during the drilling period. It is only done when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid due to penetration of a large-transmissivity zone. The paper proposes the possibility of conducting flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their hydraulic properties. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The method has been applied to the drilling of a 2,500-m borehole at Åre, central Sweden, firstly when the drilling reached 1,600 m, and then when the drilling reached the target depth of 2,500 m. Results unveil eight hydraulically active zones from 300 m down to borehole bottom, with depths determined to within the order of a meter. Further, the first set of data allows the estimation of hydraulic transmissivity values of the six hydraulically conductive zones found from 300 to 1,600 m, which are very low and range over one order of magnitude.

  4. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12–2...

  5. Radon variability in borehole from Multi-Parametric Geophysical Observatory of NW Himalaya in relation to meteorological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamra, Leena; Choubey, V M; Kumar, Naresh; Rawat, Gautam; Khandelwal, D D

    2013-02-01

    Radon has been measured continuously at an interval of 15 min at 10 m depth in a 68 m deep borehole. Five years of high resolution data of radon sampled at 15 min shows a complex trend with strong seasonal and diurnal trends. This temporal variation of radon has high emanation during summer and low concentration in winter. Diurnal radon variability was observed mainly during March-June and September-November each year. The existence of these diurnal periodicities in radon is related to the borehole temperature gradient i.e. difference between external atmospheric and internal borehole temperature at 10 m depth in the air column. The measured radon values are characterized by a diurnal cycle with a maximum in the afternoon and a minimum in the morning in all the seasons except in winter and during rainy periods. Minimum radon variations are recorded in the winter months primarily in December and January. Sudden unsystematic jumps in radon counts are observed each year in the rainy period (July and August). The atmospheric temperature was found to positively correlate with radon emanation. The data set of the borehole indicates a good correlation between atmospheric temperature and radon concentration that is observed throughout the year except in the rainy season. The spectra of radon and atmospheric temperature time series of 5 years data clearly show prominent and clear peaks at 1 and 2 cycles per day.

  6. A multi-scale case study of natural fracture systems in outcrops and boreholes with applications to reservoir modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal-van Koppen, J.K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fractured reservoirs are notoriously difficult to characterize because the resolution of seismic data is too low to detect fractures whereas borehole data is detailed but sparse. Therefore, outcrops can be of great support in gaining knowledge of the three-dimensional geometry of fracture networks,

  7. Deep-sea borehole seismological observatories in the western Pacific: temporal variation of seismic noise level and event detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kaiho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Seismological networks provide critical data for better understanding the dynamics of the Earth; however, a great limitation on existing networks is the uneven distribution of stations. In order to achieve a more uniform distribution of seismic stations, observatories must be constructed in marine areas. The best configuration for oceanic seismic observatories is thought to be placement of seismometers in deep boreholes. Two deep-sea borehole seismological observatories (WP-1 and WP-2 were constructed in the western Pacific and form the initial installations of a 1000 km span network. At present, seismic records of more than 400 total days were retrieved from both the WP-1 and WP-2. Long-term variations in broadband seismic noise spectra (3mHz - 10 Hz in the western Pacific were revealed from these records, and the data showed that ambient seismic noise levels in borehole observatories are comparable to those of the quietest land seismic stations. In addition, there is little temporal variation of noise levels in periods greater than 10 seconds. Due to this low seismic noise environment, many teleseismic events with magnitudes greater than 5 were recorded. It is confirmed that seismic observation in deep-sea borehole gives the best environment for earthquake observation in marine areas.

  8. Water quality analysis of the commercial boreholes in Mubi Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria: geographic information system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayomi, Ikusemoran; Elisha, Ibrahim

    2011-12-01

    It is observed that most of the commercial boreholes in Mubi Metropolis are located along River Yedzeram which is the main river that runs across the town. Unfortunately, due to the geographical location of the town in savanna region with minimal water supply, water related small scale industries such as sachet water, block making, irrigation agriculture, cloth dying, car wash and other pollution activities such as mechanical workshops and public toilets are also located along the same River Yedzeram. Moreover, the inhabitants of the town either dump their refuse in the River or spread it on their farmlands as there is no provision of refuse dump site by the government. Therefore, five parameters (Nitrate, Magnesium, Copper, Calcium and Iron) were used to test thewater quality of water samples that were collected from twenty two commercial boreholes along the river, using the standard examination of water and waste water of the World Health Organization to determine the water quality of the boreholes. The study revealed that only eight out of the twenty two boreholes are of good quality, while the others are either of bad quality or not portable. ArcGIS 9.2 and ILWIS 3.3 software were used to analyze the laboratory results through the use of SQL queries. It was recommended that the government should provide portable water, establish water quality control board and make use of GIS for creation of database and analysis.

  9. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole USGS 140 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole USGS 141 was drilled and constructed as a monitor well without coring. Boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 are separated by about 375 feet (ft) and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geophysical and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 required 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel well screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed about 50 ft into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, between 496 and 546 ft below land surface (BLS) at both sites. Following construction and data collection, dedicated pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Borehole USGS 140 was cored continuously, starting from land surface to a depth of 543 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole USGS 140 was about 98 and 65 percent, respectively. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, about 32 basalt flows and 4 sediment layers were collected from borehole USGS 140 between 34 and 543 ft BLS. Basalt texture for borehole USGS 140 generally was described as aphanitic, phaneritic, and porphyritic; rubble zones and flow mold structure also were described in recovered core material. Sediment layers, starting near 163 ft BLS, generally were composed of fine-grained sand and silt with a lesser amount of clay; however, between 223 and 228 ft BLS, silt

  10. Analysis of borehole expansion and gallery tests in anisotropic rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Closed-form solutions are used to show how rock anisotropy affects the variation of the modulus of deformation around the walls of a hole in which expansion tests are conducted. These tests include dilatometer and NX-jack tests in boreholes and gallery tests in tunnels. The effects of rock anisotropy on the modulus of deformation are shown for transversely isotropic and regularly jointed rock masses with planes of transverse isotropy or joint planes parallel or normal to the hole longitudinal axis for plane strain or plane stress condition. The closed-form solutions can also be used when determining the elastic properties of anisotropic rock masses (intact or regularly jointed) in situ. ?? 1991.

  11. Borehole Seismic Monitoring of Injected CO2 at the Frio Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.; Hoversten, G.M.; Peterson, JohnE.; Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-04-21

    As part of a small scale sequestration test (about 1500 tonsof CO2) in a saline aquifer, time-lapse borehole seismic surveys wereconducted to aid in characterization of subsurface CO2 distribution andmaterial property changes induced by the injected CO2. A VSP surveydemonstrated a large increase (about 75 percent) in seismic reflectivitydue to CO2 injection and allowed estimation of the spatial extent of CO2induced changes. A crosswell survey imaged a large seismic velocitydecrease (up to 500 m/s) within the injection interval and provided ahigh resolution image of this velocity change which maps the subsurfacedistribution of CO2 between two wells. Numerical modeling of the seismicresponse uses the crosswell measurements to show that this small CO2volume causes a large response in the seismic reflectivity. This resultdemonstrates that seismic detection of small CO2 volumes in salineaquifers is feasible and realistic.

  12. Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zagorodnov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.74 m and 447.65 m (bedrock were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.. Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is −14.78 °C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15. A minimum temperature of −15.8 °C is measured at 173 m depth and basal temperature is estimated to be −10.2 °C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9 × 103 kg m−2 a−1 and basal heat flux (q of 88 mW m−2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15 over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique. From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=−16.2 °C prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to −14.2 °C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15 ≥ −15 °C. To facilitate

  13. Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zagorodnov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.18 m and 447.73 m (bedrock were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.. Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is −14.78°C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15. A minimum temperature of −15.8°C is measured at 173 m depth, and basal temperature is estimated to be −10.2°C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9×103 kg m−2 a−1 and basal heat flux (q of 88 mW m−2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15 over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique (Tikhonov and Samarskii, 1990. From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=−16.2°C prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to −14.2°C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15≥−15

  14. THREE-COMPONENT BOREHOLE MAGNETOMETER PROBE FOR MINERAL INVESTIGATIONS AND GEOLOGIC RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James H.; Olson, Gary G.

    1985-01-01

    A small-diameter three-component fluxgate magnetometer probe with gyroscopic and inclinometer orientation has been developed to meet U. S. Geological Survey design and performance specifications for measurement of the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field in vertical and inclined boreholes. The orthogonal fluxgate magnetometer elements have a measurement resolution of 10 nanoteslas (nT) and a range of plus or minus 80,000 nT. The gyroscope has an effective resolution of one degree, and the orthogonal inclinometers, 0. 1 degree. The magnetometer probe has been field tested in several holes drilled through volcanic rocks in Nevada. Results indicate that reversals of polarization can be detected, and some rock units in this area appear to be characterized by unique magnetic signatures.

  15. Novel Chemically-Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealants (Ceramicretes) for Arctic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Godwin A. Chukwu; Gang Chen; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic borehole sealant, i.e. Ceramicrete, has many advantages over conventionally used permafrost cement at Alaska North Slope (ANS). However, in normal field practices when Ceramicrete is mixed with water in blenders, it has a chance of being contaminated with leftover Portland cement. In order to identify the effect of Portland cement contamination, recent tests have been conducted at BJ services in Tomball, TX as well as at the University of Alaska Fairbanks with Ceramicrete formulations proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The tests conducted at BJ Services with proposed Ceramicrete formulations and Portland cement contamination have shown significant drawbacks which has caused these formulations to be rejected. However, the newly developed Ceramicrete formulation at the University of Alaska Fairbanks has shown positive results with Portland cement contamination as well as without Portland cement contamination for its effective use in oil well cementing operations at ANS.

  16. Phase-based dispersion analysis for acoustic array borehole logging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assous, Said; Elkington, Peter; Linnett, Laurie

    2014-04-01

    A phase-based dispersion analysis method for velocity (slowness) extraction from guided waves recorded by an acoustic borehole logging tool in a geological formation is presented. The technique consists of acquiring waveforms from an array of receivers distributed along the tool and constructing the dispersion characteristic by processing in the frequency domain and exploiting phase information to measure the travel time for each frequency component. The approach is nonparametric and completely data-driven and provides high resolution estimates that do not rely on velocity guesses or assumptions regarding the type of modes. Results are free of the aliases and spurious modes which are characteristic of some prior approaches. Examples of dispersion estimation curves are presented using synthesized flexural waves and field data from wireline dipole sonic tools; results are compared with those from the weighted spectral semblance (WSS) and amplitude and phase slowness estimation (APES) methods to demonstrate the effectiveness and utility of the proposed method.

  17. Methane drainage with horizontal boreholes in advance of longwall mining: an analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabello, D.P.; Felts, L.L.; Hayoz, F.P.

    1981-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center has implemented a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of coalbed methane as an energy resource. The program is directed toward solution of technical and institutional problems impeding the recovery and use of large quantities of methane contained in the nation's minable and unminable coalbeds. Conducted in direct support of the DOE Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, this study analyzes the economic aspects of a horizontal borehole methane recovery system integrated as part of a longwall mine operation. It establishes relationships between methane selling price and annual mine production, methane production rate, and the methane drainage system capital investment. Results are encouraging, indicating that an annual coal production increase of approximately eight percent would offset all associated drainage costs over the range of methane production rates and capital investments considered.

  18. Thermal Fracturing of Geothermal Wells and the Effects of Borehole Orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Hals, Kjetil M D

    2012-01-01

    An enhanced geothermal system (EGS) expands the potential of geothermal energy by enabling the exploitation of regions that lack conventional hydrothermal resources. The EGS subsurface system is created by engineering enhanced flow paths between injection and production wells. Hydraulic stimulation of existing fracture networks has been successfully achieved for unconventional geothermal resources. More recently proposed concepts increase the use of drilled wellbores in hard rock to connect the injection and production wells. The present work investigates the long-term thermal effects of deviated geothermal wellbores and studies how the cooling of the borehole wall results in thermally induced tensile fractures. The results show that induced fractures are created by a combination of in situ and thermal stresses, and that the extent to which thermally induced tensile wall fractures are created largely depends on how the wellbores are oriented with respect to the pre-existing stresses of the reservoir. If the s...

  19. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, R T

    2006-01-01

    A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G - Newton's constant, and a dimensionless constant - alpha. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that alpha is the fine structure constant 1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of alpha. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the `dark-matter' effect in spiral galaxies, demonstrates the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning.

  20. From arteries to boreholes: Steady-state response of a poroelastic cylinder to fluid injection

    CERN Document Server

    Auton, Lucy C

    2016-01-01

    The radially outward flow of fluid into a porous medium occurs in many practical problems, from transport across vascular walls to the pressurisation of boreholes. As the driving pressure becomes non-negligible relative to the stiffness of the solid structure, the poromechanical coupling between the fluid and the solid has an increasingly strong impact on the flow. For very large pressures or very soft materials, as is the case for hydraulic fracturing and arterial flows, this coupling can lead to large deformations and, hence, to strong deviations from a classical, linear-poroelastic response. Here, we study this problem by analysing the steady-state response of a poroelastic cylinder to fluid injection. We consider the qualitative and quantitative impacts of kinematic and constitutive nonlinearity, highlighting the strong impact of deformation-dependent permeability. We show that the wall thickness (thick vs. thin) and the outer boundary condition (free vs. constrained) play a central role in controlling th...

  1. Acoustic Borehole Images for Fracture Extraction and Analysis in Second Pre-pilot Drillhole of CCSD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Changchun; Shi Ge; Pan Lingzhi

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging logging provides continuous and oriented images of structures vs. depth. In the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project, acoustic borehole images were recorded in the second pre-pilot drillhole which penetrates the metamorphic rocks. This paper focuses on fracture evaluation of the drillhole with these images. Both least square fit and a modified Hough transform are used for fracture extraction, and 269 fractures were mapped in the interval from 69.5 to 1 020 m. Most fractures dip steeply, with an average angle of 54°.Fracture dip directions are dominantly in the range of 220°-280° above the depth of 267 m, but 80°-120°in the lower zones. These observations may indicate the differences in structural movements or in-situ stress fields between the upper and lower zones in the drillhole.

  2. Report on the Test and Evaluation of the Kinemetrics/Quanterra Q730B Borehole Digitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KROMER,RICHARD P.; MCDONALD,TIMOTHY S.

    1999-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated the Kinemetrics/Quanterra Q730B-bb (broadband) and Q730B-sp (short period) borehole installation remote digitizers. The test results included in this report were for response to static and dynamic input signals, seismic application performance, data time-tag accuracy, and reference signal generator (calibrator) performance. Most test methodologies used were based on IEEE Standards 1057 for Digitizing Waveform Recorders and P1241 (Preliminary Draft) for Analog to Digital Converters; others were designed by Sandia specifically for seismic application evaluation and for supplementary criteria not addressed in the IEEE standards. When appropriate, test instrumentation calibration is traceable to the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST).

  3. On the use of hydration heat for quality management of borehole heat exchanger grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suibert Oskar Seibertz, Klodwig; Händel, Falk; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing energy transition from conventional, fossil fuel based energy generation, over to renewable energy sources led to an increase in geothermal energy use. Different systems for extracting heat from the subsurface are in use, whereas a commonly used system is the borehole heat exchanger (BHE). A BHE generally consist of a closed loop pipe system through which a heat exchanging fluid is circulated. The BHE is surrounded by grouting. The grouting, focus of this work, has two main objectives to fulfill: Firstly, to thermally couple the subsurface and the BHE pipes; and, secondly, to protect the pipes and to prevent the heat exchanging fluid from entering the subsurface in case of BHE mechanical failure. Therefore, to provide proper functionality, efficiency, and safety of a BHE, it has to be guaranteed that the grouting does not have defects. The hardening reaction (hydration) of the grouting is exothermic, whereas the grouting is mostly a variant of (thermally enhanced) cement. The hydration temperature depends on the type of grout as well as the possible dilutions (resulting in defects) of the grouting material by water, air or drilling debris, and the thermal transport potential of the subsurface. Therefore the quality of the grouting can be investigated by temperature measurements during the hardening process. To validate this further, tests on field and laboratory scale were conducted. For laboratory testing, different columns were built in which different defects of BHE grouting and pipes were simulated. For defect simulation isolation and mixing with drilling debris were chosen, representing inclusions of water and/or air during cement casting as well as partial collapse of the borehole. The temperature changes during installation and hardening of the grouting are measured by fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). This allows for temporal and spatial high resolution, continuous temperature measurements at the interface of pipe to grout

  4. Test-bench system for a borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianping; Ju, Xiaodong; Qiao, Wenxiao; Lu, Junqiang; Men, Baiyong; Liu, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool (BAAR) is a new generation of imaging logging tool, which is able to investigate stratums in a relatively larger range of space around the borehole. The BAAR is designed based on the idea of modularization with a very complex structure, so it has become urgent for us to develop a dedicated test-bench system to debug each module of the BAAR. With the help of a test-bench system introduced in this paper, test and calibration of BAAR can be easily achieved. The test-bench system is designed based on the client/server model. The hardware system mainly consists of a host computer, an embedded controlling board, a bus interface board, a data acquisition board and a telemetry communication board. The host computer serves as the human machine interface and processes the uploaded data. The software running on the host computer is designed based on VC++. The embedded controlling board uses Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Machines 7 (ARM7) as the micro controller and communicates with the host computer via Ethernet. The software for the embedded controlling board is developed based on the operating system uClinux. The bus interface board, data acquisition board and telemetry communication board are designed based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and provide test interfaces for the logging tool. To examine the feasibility of the test-bench system, it was set up to perform a test on BAAR. By analyzing the test results, an unqualified channel of the electronic receiving cabin was discovered. It is suggested that the test-bench system can be used to quickly determine the working condition of sub modules of BAAR and it is of great significance in improving production efficiency and accelerating industrial production of the logging tool.

  5. Fault zone hydrogeologic properties and processes revealed by borehole temperature monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution borehole temperature monitoring can provide valuable insight into the hydrogeologic structure of fault zones and transient processes that affect fault zone stability. Here we report on results from a subseafloor temperature observatory within the Japan Trench plate boundary fault. In our efforts to interpret this unusual dataset, we have developed several new methods for probing hydrogeologic properties and processes. We illustrate how spatial variations in the thermal recovery of the borehole after drilling and other spectral characteristics provide a measure of the subsurface permeability architecture. More permeable zones allow for greater infiltration of cool drilling fluids, are more greatly thermally disturbed, and take longer to recover. The results from the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) observatory are consistent with geophysical logs, core data, and other hydrologic observations and suggest a permeable damage zone consisting of steeply dipping faults and fractures overlays a low-permeability clay-rich plate boundary fault. Using high-resolution time series data, we have also developed methods to map out when and where fluid advection occurs in the subsurface over time. In the JFAST data, these techniques reveal dozens of transient earthquake-driven fluid pulses that are spatially correlated and consistently located around inferred permeable areas of the fault damage zone. These observations are suspected to reflect transient fluid flow driven by pore pressure changes in response to dynamic and/or static stresses associated with nearby earthquakes. This newly recognized hydrologic phenomenon has implications for understanding subduction zone heat and chemical transport as well as the redistribution of pore fluid pressure which influences fault stability and can trigger other earthquakes.

  6. Stochastic estimation of aquifer geometry using seismic refraction data with borehole depth constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Hubbard, S.S.; Gaines, D.; Korneev, V.; Baker, G.; Watson, D.

    2010-09-01

    We develop a Bayesian model to invert surface seismic refraction data with depth constraints from boreholes for characterization of aquifer geometry and apply it to seismic and borehole datasets collected at the contaminated Oak Ridge National Laboratory site in Tennessee. Rather than the traditional approach of first inverting the seismic arrival times for seismic velocity and then using that information to aid in the spatial interpolation of wellbore data, we jointly invert seismic first arrival time data and wellbore-based information, such as depths of key lithological boundaries. We use a staggered-grid finite-difference algorithm with second order accuracy in time and fourth order accuracy in space to model seismic full waveforms and use an automated method to pick the first arrival times. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to draw many samples from the joint posterior probability distribution, on which we can estimate the key interfaces and their associated uncertainty as a function of horizontal location and depth. We test the developed method on both synthetic and field case studies. The synthetic studies show that the developed method is effective at rigorous incorporation of multiscale data and the Bayesian inversion reduces uncertainty in estimates of aquifer zonation. Applications of the approach to field data, including two surface seismic profiles located 620 m apart from each other, reveal the presence of a low-velocity subsurface zone that is laterally persistent. This geophysically-defined feature is aligned with the plume axis, suggesting it may serve as an important regional preferential flow pathway.

  7. Geothermal measurements in the pilot-boreholes of the China Continental Scientific Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The geothermal measurements in the piIot-boreholes of the China Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) indicate that the temperature gradients in the target area of the deep drilling range from 19 to 26℃/km, which is lower than that (25-30℃/km) for the global continental area and similar to that for the KTB (21-28℃/km). Thermal conductivity measurements for 44 core samples show that the ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks have 50% higher thermal conductivity (with a mean of 3.94±1.26 W/mK) than that for the average value of the upper crust.The measured heat flow values vary between 76 and 80 mW/m2, higher than that for the global continental area (65±1.6 mW/m2) and the continental China (61±15.5 mW/m2)as well as the adjacent North Jiangsu Basin (68 mW/m2), but lower than that below 1000 m in the KTB (85 mW/m2). The elevated heat flow in the pilot-boreholes can be attributed to the lateral heat concentration due to higher rock thermal conductivity of the UHP belt than that of the adjacent rocks. Lower deep temperature in the target area of the deep drilling can be expected due to the lower measured temperature gradient, which means that the Sulu area is geothermally suitable for continental deep drilling.

  8. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. Borehole environmental tracers for evaluating net infiltration and recharge through desert bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, D.K.; Gardner, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Permeable bedrock aquifers in arid regions are being increasingly developed as water supplies, yet little is generally known about recharge processes and spatial and temporal variability. Environmental tracers from boreholes were used in this study to investigate net infiltration and recharge to the fractured Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Vadose zone tracer profiles at the Sand Hollow study site in southwestern Utah look similar to those of desert soils at other sites, indicating the predominance of matrix flow. However, recharge rates are generally higher in the Navajo Sandstone than in unconsolidated soils in similar climates because the sandstone matrix allows water movement but not root penetration. Water enters the vadose zone either as direct infiltration of precipitation through exposed sandstone and sandy soils or as focused infiltration of runoff. Net infiltration and recharge exhibit extreme spatial variability. High-recharge borehole sites generally have large amounts of vadose zone tritium, low chloride concentrations, and small vadose zone oxygen-18 evaporative shifts. Annual net-infiltration and recharge rates at different locations range from about 1 to 60 mm as determined using vadose zone tritium, 0 to 15 mm using vadose zone chloride, and 3 to 60 mm using groundwater chloride. Environmental tracers indicate a cyclical net-infiltration and recharge pattern, with higher rates earlier in the Holocene and lower rates during the late Holocene, and a return to higher rates during recent decades associated with anomalously high precipitation during the latter part of the 20th century. The slightly enriched stable isotopic composition of modern groundwater indicates this recent increase in precipitation may be caused by a stronger summer monsoon or winter southern Pacific El Nin??o storm track. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  10. Justification Of The Use Of Boreholes For Disposal Of Sealed Radiological Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarling, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Soon there will be only 14 states in two compacts that are able to dispose of Low Level Waste (LLW): the Northwest and Rocky Mountain compact with disposal options in Richland, Washington, and the Atlantic compact with disposal options in Barnwell, South Carolina. How do states not in one of the two compacts dispose of their LLW? The Off-Site Source Recovery Project can take possession and dispose of some of the unwanted transuranic sources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, there will be no path forward for states outside of the two compacts for disposal of their non-transuranic LLW. A solution that has been much discussed, debated and researched, but has not been put into wide scale practice, is the borehole disposal concept. It is the author's position that companies that drill and explore for oil have been disposing of sources in borehole-like structures for years. It should be noted that these companies are not purposely disposing of these sources, but the sources are irretrievable and must be abandoned. Additionally, there are Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations that must be followed to seal the well that contains the lost and abandoned source. According to the NRC Event Notification Reports database, there were a minimum of 29 reports of lost and abandoned sources in oil wells between December 1999 and October 2006. The sources were lost at depths between 2,018-18,887 feet, or 600-5,750 meters. The companies that are performing explorations with the aid of sealed radiological sources must follow regulation 10 CFR Part 39. Subsection 15 outlines the procedures that must be followed if sources are determined to be irretrievable and abandoned in place. If the NRC allows and has regulations in place for oil companies, why can't states and/or companies be allowed to dispose of LLW in a similar fashion?

  11. High-Resolution Flow Logging for Hydraulic Characterization of Boreholes and Aquifer Flow Zones at Contaminated Bedrock Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. H.; Johnson, C. D.; Paillet, F. L.

    2004-05-01

    In the past, flow logging was largely restricted to the application of spinner flowmeters to determine flow-zone contributions in large-diameter production wells screened in highly transmissive aquifers. Development and refinement of tool-measurement technology, field methods, and analysis techniques has greatly extended and enhanced flow logging to include the hydraulic characterization of boreholes and aquifer flow zones at contaminated bedrock sites. State-of-the-art in flow logging will be reviewed, and its application to bedrock-contamination investigations will be presented. In open bedrock boreholes, vertical flows are measured with high-resolution flowmeters equipped with flexible rubber-disk diverters fitted to the nominal borehole diameters to concentrate flow through the measurement throat of the tools. Heat-pulse flowmeters measure flows in the range of 0.05 to 5 liters per minute, and electromagnetic flowmeters measure flows in the range of 0.3 to 30 liters per minute. Under ambient and low-rate stressed (either extraction or injection) conditions, stationary flowmeter measurements are collected in competent sections of the borehole between fracture zones identified on borehole-wall images. Continuous flow, fluid-resistivity, and temperature logs are collected under both sets of conditions while trolling with a combination electromagnetic flowmeter and fluid tool. Electromagnetic flowmeters are used with underfit diverters to measure flow rates greater than 30 liters per minute and suppress effects of diameter variations while trolling. A series of corrections are applied to the flow-log data to account for the zero-flow response, bypass, trolling, and borehole-diameter biases and effects. The flow logs are quantitatively analyzed by matching simulated flows computed with a numerical model to measured flows by varying the hydraulic properties (transmissivity and hydraulic head) of the flow zones. Several case studies will be presented that demonstrate

  12. Modelling of thermally driven groundwater flow in a facility for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report calculations are presented of buoyancy driven groundwater flow caused by the emission of residual heat from spent nuclear fuel deposited in deep boreholes from the ground surface in combination with the natural geothermal gradient. This work has been conducted within SKB's programme for evaluation of alternative methods for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The basic safety feature of disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is that the groundwater at great depth has a higher salinity, and hence a higher density, than more superficial groundwater. The result of this is that the deep groundwater becomes virtually stagnant. The study comprises analyses of the effects of different inter-borehole distances as well as the effect of different permeabilities in the backfill and sealing materials in the borehole and of different shapes of the interface between fresh and saline groundwater. The study is an update of a previous study published in 2006. In the present study, the facility design proposed by Sandia National Laboratories has been studied. In this design, steel canisters containing two BWR elements or one PWR element are stacked on top of each other between 3 and 5 kilometres depth. In order to host all spent fuel from the current Swedish nuclear programme, about 80 such holes are needed. The model used in this study comprises nine boreholes spaced 100 metres alternatively 50 metres apart in a 3{Chi}3 matrix. In one set of calculations the salinity in the groundwater was assumed to increase from zero above 700 metres depth to 10% by weight at 1500 metres depth and below. In another set, a sharper salinity gradient was applied in which the salinity increased from 0 to 10% between 1400 and 1500 metres depth. A geothermal gradient of 16 deg C/km was applied. The heat output from the spent fuel was assumed to decrease by time in manner consistent with the radioactive decay in the fuel. When the inter-borehole distance decreased from

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Boris, G.F.

    1999-10-07

    A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove {approx}98% of the waste, {approx}3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing bore hole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team.

  14. MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AT THE BOREHOLE OBSERVATORY ON THE COSTA RICA RIFT FLANK (OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM HOLE 896A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eNigro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbiology of subsurface, hydrothermally-influenced basaltic crust flanking mid-ocean ridges has remained understudied, due to the difficulty in accessing the subsurface environment. The instrumented boreholes resulting from scientific ocean drilling offer access to samples of the formation fluids circulating through oceanic crust. We analyzed the phylogenetic diversity of bacterial communities of fluid and microbial mat samples collected in situ from the observatory at Ocean Drilling Program Hole 896A, drilled into ~6.5-million-year-old basaltic crust on the flank of the Costa Rica Rift in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from borehole fluid and from a microbial mat coating the outer surface of the fluid port revealed both unique and shared phylotypes. The dominant bacterial clones from both samples were related to the autotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing genus Thiomicrospira. Both samples yielded diverse gamma- and alphaproteobacterial phylotypes, as well as members of the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Analysis of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO genes (cbbL and cbbM from the sampling port mat and from the borehole fluid demonstrated autotrophic carbon assimilation potential for in-situ microbial communities; most cbbL genes were related to those of the sulfur-oxidizing genera Thioalkalivibrio and Thiomicrospira, and cbbM genes were affiliated with uncultured phyloytypes from hydrothermal vent plumes and marine sediments. Several 16S rRNA gene phylotypes from the 896A observatory grouped with phylotypes recovered from seawater-exposed basalts and sulfide deposits at inactive hydrothermal vents, but there is little overlap with hydrothermally-influenced basaltic boreholes 1026B and U1301A on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, suggesting that site-specific characteristics of Hole 896A (i.e. seawater mixing into borehole fluids affect the microbial community

  15. A scaled down laboratory experiment of cross-borehole pulse radar signatures for detection of a terminated tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Jung, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Se-Yun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2016-09-01

    In the cross-borehole pulse radar signatures measured near the front end of a terminated tunnel, the time-of-arrival (TOA) with fully penetrated tunnel is significantly shortened due to the relatively fast pulse propagation in an empty tunnel compared with the TOA obtained without a tunnel. To analyze the TOA variation with the protrusion length of the terminated tunnel from the line-of-sight between two antennas or boreholes, additional borehole pairs are required around the terminated tunnel in spite of their high construction costs. As an alternative, a laboratory scaled down experiment, which has a high ability to simulate different underground configurations, is designed for investigation into the TOA effects of tunnel termination. A round ceramic rod with a careful selection of its dielectric constant is immersed in pure water in a water tank and used to simulate the tunnel in the experiment. Coaxial fed dipole antennas with balanced wire and ferrite cores are used not only to suppress borehole-guided waves but also to generate a symmetric radiation pattern. The accuracy of the laboratory scaled down experiment is verified by the symmetricity of the measured diffraction pattern of the fully penetrated ceramic rod. Then, the TOA variation is measured for the protrusion length of the ceramic rod relative to the line-of-sight between two antennas from  +80 mm to  -80 mm with an equal step of 5 mm. Based on the scaled down experimental measurements of the TOA, it is found that a tunnel 1.2 m away from the measuring cross-borehole section closely approaches the scaled up variation curve under the same conditions of the protrusion length.

  16. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole TAN-2271 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole TAN-2272 was partially cored between 210 and 282 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) then drilled and constructed as a monitor well. Boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 are separated by about 63 ft and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geologic, geophysical, and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 required 10-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 9.9-in. diameter open-hole completion below the casing to total depths of 282 and 287 ft BLS, respectively. Depth to water is measured near 228 ft BLS in both boreholes. Following construction and data collection, temporary submersible pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels.Borehole TAN-2271 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 33 ft BLS) to a depth of 284 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole TAN-2271 was better than 98 percent. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, material examined from 33 to 211ft BLS primarily consists of two massive basalt flows that are about 78 and 50 ft in thickness and three sediment layers near 122, 197, and 201 ft BLS. Between 211 and 284 ft BLS, geophysical data and core material suggest a high occurrence of fractured and vesicular basalt. For the section of aquifer tested, there are two primary fractured aquifer intervals: the first between 235 and

  17. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole TAN-2271 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole TAN-2272 was partially cored between 210 and 282 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) then drilled and constructed as a monitor well. Boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 are separated by about 63 ft and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geologic, geophysical, and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 required 10-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 9.9-in. diameter open-hole completion below the casing to total depths of 282 and 287 ft BLS, respectively. Depth to water is measured near 228 ft BLS in both boreholes. Following construction and data collection, temporary submersible pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels.Borehole TAN-2271 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 33 ft BLS) to a depth of 284 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole TAN-2271 was better than 98 percent. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, material examined from 33 to 211ft BLS primarily consists of two massive basalt flows that are about 78 and 50 ft in thickness and three sediment layers near 122, 197, and 201 ft BLS. Between 211 and 284 ft BLS, geophysical data and core material suggest a high occurrence of fractured and vesicular basalt. For the section of aquifer tested, there are two primary fractured aquifer intervals: the first between 235 and

  18. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  19. Numerical simulation of flow in deep open boreholes in a coastal freshwater lens, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja

    2012-01-01

    The Pearl Harbor aquifer in southern O‘ahu is one of the most important sources of freshwater in Hawai‘i. A thick freshwater lens overlays brackish and saltwater in this coastal aquifer. Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells (DMWs) commonly are used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness. However, vertical flow in DMWs can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer or in an aquifer without a DWM. Substantial borehole flow and displacement of salinity in DMWs over several hundred feet have been observed in the Pearl Harbor aquifer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from DMWs. A numerical modeling approach incorporated aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge and withdrawal rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with both the natural regional flow system and groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results indicate that, with all other factors being equal, greater withdrawal rates, closer withdrawal locations, or higher hydraulic conductivities of the well cause greater borehole flow and displacement of salinity in the well. Borehole flow caused by the natural groundwater-flow system is five orders of magnitude greater than vertical flow in a homogeneous aquifer, and borehole-flow directions are consistent with the regional flow system: downward flow in inland recharge areas and upward flow in coastal discharge areas. Displacement of salinity inside the DMWs associated with the regional groundwater-flow system ranges from less than 1 to 220 ft, depending on the location and assumed hydraulic conductivity of the well. For example, upward displacements of the 2 percent and 50 percent salinity depths in a well in the coastal discharge part of the flow system are 17 and 4.4 ft, respectively, and the average salinity difference between aquifer and borehole is 0

  20. Review of geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report a compilation of recent geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in Sweden is presented. The goal of the study has been limited to identifying and briefly describing such geoscientific information of relevance to disposal in deep boreholes that was not available at the time when previous compilations were made. Hence, the study is not to be regarded as a general up-date of new geoscientific information. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes has been studied in Sweden since the second half of the 1980s. The currently studied concept has been proposed by Sandia National Laboratories in the USA. In this concept the spent fuel elements are encapsulated in cylindrical steel canisters that are joined together in strings of 40 canisters and lowered into five kilometres deep boreholes. Ten such strings are stacked between three and five kilometres depth separated from each other by concrete plugs. The study started with a review of boreholes that have been reported after the previous reviews that were published in 1998 and 2004. A total of 12 boreholes of potential relevance were identified. Further study showed that only four out of these holes penetrated into crystalline rock. Two of these were deemed to be less relevant because they were drilled in areas with much higher geothermal gradient than in the parts of the Fennoscandian shield that realistically could host a Swedish deep borehole repository. Of the two remaining boreholes, only one, a geoscientific hole drilled at Outokumpu in Finland, is associated with a reasonably complete geoscientific data set. It is worth mentioning that a large part of this hole is drilled through meta sedimentary rock (mica schist) rather than granitic rock. The information collected and reviewed has been gathered under the headings hydraulic conditions, geothermal conditions, hydrogeochemical conditions, bacteriological activity and rock mechanical properties. Only

  1. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy including identification of uranium phases and hydrochemical characterisation of groundwater in borehole KFR106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern [WSP Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Kersti [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    This report presents the fracture mineralogy and hydrochemistry of borehole KFR106. The most abundant fracture minerals in the examined drill core samples are clay minerals, calcite, quartz and adularia; chlorite is also common but is mostly altered and found interlayered with corrensite. The most common clay mineral is a mixed layer clay consisting of illite-smectite. Pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, barite (-celestine) and hematite are also commonly found in the fractures, but usually in trace amounts. Other minerals identified in the examined fractures are U-phosphate, pitchblende, U(Ca)-silicate, asphaltite, biotite, monazite, fluorite, titanite, sericite, xenotime, rutile and (Ca, REEs)-carbonate. Uranium has been introduced, mobilised and reprecipitated during at least four different episodes: 1) Originally, during emplacement of U-rich pegmatites, probably as uraninite. 2) At a second event, uranium was mobilised under brittle conditions during formation of breccia/cataclasite. Uraninite was altered to pitchblende and partly coffinitised. Mobilised uranium precipitated as pitchblende closely associated with hematite and chlorite in cataclasite and fracture sealings prior to 1,000 Ma. 3) During the Palaeozoic U was remobilised and precipitated as U-phosphate on open fracture surfaces. 4) An amorphous U-silicate has also been found in open fractures; the age of this precipitation is not known but it is inferred to be Palaeozoic or younger. Groundwater was sampled in two sections in borehole KFR106 with pumping sequences of about 6 days for each section. The samples from sections KFR106:1 and KFR106:2 (260-300 m and 143-259 m borehole length, i.e. -261 and -187 m.a.s.l. mid elevation of the section, respectively) were taken in November 2009 and yielded groundwater chemistry data in accordance with SKB chemistry class 3 and 5. In section KFR106:1 and KFR106:2, the chloride contents were 850 and 1,150 mg/L and the drilling water content 6 and 4%, respectively

  2. Directional location of buried objects using three-component magnetic borehole data demonstrated for the case of a drill string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, S.; Virgil, C.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.

    2016-06-01

    One of the main applications of magnetic field measurements in boreholes is the detection of unexploded ordnance or buried utility structures like pipes or tiebacks. Even though the advantage of fully oriented magnetic vector measurements have long been recognized and could significantly reduce costs and risks, the tools used for those purposes typically measure only the total magnetic field, the vertical and horizontal components or gradients thereof. The Göttingen Bohrloch Magnetometer uses three fibre optic gyros to record its orientation and thus enables us to compute high-quality three-component magnetic vector data regardless of borehole orientation. The measurements described in this paper were run in the scientific borehole Cuxhaven Lüdingworth 1/1A, which was drilled as a part of the `Coastal Aquifer Test field' project to study the dynamics of the saltwater/freshwater interface. As the drill string got stuck during drilling of the first borehole, a second hole was drilled in the immediate vicinity. The drill string lies at a depth between 80 and 114 m at a distance of only 2.5 m southeast of the borehole used for the measurements, making it an ideal target to demonstrate the benefits of vector magnetic surveys. Although the theories to calculate magnetic fields of objects with different shapes is well established and do not need to be tested, they almost exclusively include approximations of the geometry. It is not obvious whether these approximations are suited to describe real data, or whether additional effects or refinements have to be considered. We use both a simplified monopole model and a cylinder model to fit the data and are able to determine the position of the drill string within a statistical error of approximately 10 cm. Additionally, we show that the location of the drill string could not have been determined by measurements of the total field or its horizontal and vertical component alone and that those methods would require the drilling

  3. Remote Borehole Strainmeter Sites: Power system optimization improves data quality and increases equipment uptime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, E.; Gallaher, W.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, D. B.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Johnson, W.; Fox, O.; Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Borehole strainmeter network consists of 74 sites, spanning the west coast of North America from Anza, California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Several instruments are installed at each site (including Gladwin Tensor Strainmeter, 3-component geophone, barometer, and rain gauge), with associated data storage and communications equipment. Selected sites also are co-located with high-precision GPS, tiltmeter, pore pressure sensor and metpack. The peak load for a site with VSAT communications is approximately 65W. Most sites are AC powered with battery backup systems. 21 sites are located in remote areas where AC power is unavailable; of these, 18 use solar panels and batteries as the primary power source. During O&M phase of PBO, two issues have brought the borehole solar sites into focus. First, most solar sites cannot continuously operate throughout the winter months because of inclement weather and local topography that blocks the solar array, which results in data loss. Second, high frequency noise is introduced into the instrument data stream by the solar charging system. Reducing noise levels at higher frequencies would decrease the detection threshold for short term transients, such as aseismic creep events, thus allowing researchers to leverage the overlap between simultaneous seismometer and strainmeter observations. Several improvements have been made to optimize the power system as well as decrease noise. TriStar TS-MPPT-60 solar controllers have been installed, which optimize solar flux by tracking and responding to the solar array maximum power point. The battery charge algorithm is designed to provide gains of up to 15% efficiency during winter months. In addition, the new solar controllers have been engineered to limit noise, and also feature remote network interfaces and data logging capability. For those sites where topography impacts the function of the solar power system, methanol fuel cells

  4. a New Application of a Fiber Optic Gyro in Magnetic Borehole Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, J. B.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.

    2002-12-01

    A borehole magnetometer from the Institute of Geophysics, University of Goettingen, Germany, was employed in Hole 1203A on Detroit Seamount. The tool consists of three fluxgate sensors which log the two horizontal (X, Y) and the vertical (Z) component of the magnetic induction with depth. For the first time, a fiber optic angular rate sensor was employed in a borehole tool to measure the rotation history during a log run in combination with fluxgate sensors. This rate sensor is an unconventional gyro since it does not have a spinning wheel. This is why it is free from the effects of gravity-induced errors, and with no moving parts, this sensor is insensitive to shock and vibration. It detects and measures angular rates by measuring the frequency difference between two contra-rotating light beams. A magnetic log was run in Hole 1203A on Detroit seamount from the rig floor to the total depth at 925 mbsf. The rotation history of the tool is determined by the accumulation of the rate during a log run. In Hole 1203A the tool rotated almost 60 times about its vertical body axis between the rig floor and the bottom of the hole. On its run back to the floor the tool followed nearly the same rotation history as on the downward run. Aligning to the ship axis and double checking the orientation with the initial orientation enabled changes in the heading of the ship and the Earth's rotation, which also affects the angular rate to be taken into account. It revealed that the difference between the initial and final orientation was less than 5 degrees. During the log run many strongly magnetized layers were encountered in the volcanic basement, which correlate well with sequences of massive and pillowed basalts recovered in the drill core. The anomalous field variations of the vertical component always points towards negative values, which indicates a general magnetic polarisation direction parallel to the present geomagnetic field. The natural remanent magnetization and

  5. A New Application of A Fiber Optic Technique In Magnetic Borehole Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, J. B.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.; Shipboard Party Leg 197, Odp

    A borehole magnetometer from the Institute of Geophysics, University of Goettingen, Germany, was employed in Hole 1203A on Detroit Seamount. The tool consists of three fluxgate sensors which log the two horizontal (X, Y) and the vertical (Z) compo- nent of the magnetic flux density at depth. For the first time, a fiber optic angular rate sensor was employed in a borehole tool to measure the rotation history during a log run. This rate sensor is an unconventional gyro since it does not have a spinning wheel. It has a small volume, low weight and requires only little power (2VA). Free from the effects of gravity-induced errors, and with no moving parts, this sensor is insensitive to shock and vibration. It detects and measures angular rates by measuring the fre- quency difference between two contra-rotating light beams. These travel through a fiber coil 110 m in length to a detector, which converts the light into an output signal for the electronics. A magnetic log was run in Hole 1203A on Detroit seamount from the rig floor to the total depth at 925 mbsf. For the first time the angular rate about the vertical spin axis was measured using the fiber optic gyro in combination with flux- gate sensors. The rotation history of the tool is determined by the accumulation of the rate during a log run. Before starting the log run the magnetic components of the tool were aligned to the ship axis on the rig floor. In Hole 1203A the tool rotated almost 60 times about its vertical body axis between the rig floor and the bottom of the hole. On its run back to the floor the tool followed nearly the same rotation history as on the downward run. After the tool was returned to the rig floor, it was aligned again to double check the orientation with the initial orientation. This check enabled changes in the heading of the ship and the Earth's rotation, which also affects the angular rate, to be taken into account. Preliminary results indicate that the difference between the initial and

  6. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy and geochemistry of borehole sections sampled for groundwater chemistry and Eh. Results from boreholes KFR01, KFR08, KFR10, KFR19, KFR7A and KFR105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Grabo (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report is part of the complementary site investigations for the future expansion of SFR. The report presents the results obtained during a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of fracture minerals in drill cores from borehole section sampled for groundwater chemistry and where downhole Eh measurements have been performed. The groundwater redox system comprises not only the water, but also the bedrock/fracture mineral system in contact with this water. It is thus important to gain knowledge of the solid phases in contact with the groundwater, i.e. the fracture minerals. The samples studied for mineralogy and geochemistry, here reported, were selected to represent the fracture surfaces in contact with the groundwater in the sampled borehole sections and will give input to the hydrogeochemical model (SFR SDM). The mineralogy was determined using SEM-EDS and XRD and the geochemistry of fracture filling material was analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-QMS. The most common fracture minerals in the samples are mixed layer clay (smectite-illite), illite, chlorite, calcite, quartz, adularia and albite. Other minerals identified in the borehole sections include laumontite, pyrite, barite, chalcopyrite, hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, muscovite, REE-carbonate, allanite, biotite, asphaltite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, uranium phosphate, uranium silicate, Y-Ca silicate, monazite, xenotime, harmotome and fluorite. There are no major differences between the fracture mineralogy of the investigated borehole sections from SFR and the fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site investigation area. The four fracture mineral generations distinguished within the Forsmark site investigation are also found at SFR. However, some differences have been observed: 1) Barite and uranium minerals are more common in the SFR fractures, 2) clay minerals like mixed layer illite-smectite and illite dominates in contrast to Forsmark where corrensite is by far the most common clay mineral and, 3

  7. Borehole model for simulation transport geothermal heat with heat pipe system and with forced circulation of heat carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Richard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the call OPVaV-2008/2.2/01-SORO Operational Programme Research and Development - knowledge and technology transfer from research and development into practice (ITMS-26220220057, whose strategic goal is "Device to use low-potential geothermal heat without forced circulation of heat carrier deep in the well "in the Department of Energy laboratory techniques to construct a simulator of transport low potential of geothermal energy in comparative test-drilling in the laboratory. The article describes a device that was designed as a scale model of two deep boreholes each of which withdraws the earth's heat by heat transfer technology and heat carrier. Device using forced circulation of heat carrier will respond in the construction of equipment currently used to transport heat from deep borehole. As the heat carrier will be used CO2. Facilities without using forced circulation of heat carrier, the new technology, which will be used as heat carrier ammonia (NH3.

  8. Monitoring CO2 gas-phase migration in a shallow sand aquifer using cross-borehole ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Rune Nørbæk; Sonnenborg, T.O.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding potential pathways of gaseous CO2 into and through the shallow subsurface from deep geological storage is one of many requirements related to risk assessment of a carbon capture and storage (CCS) site. In this study, a series of field experiments were carried out at a site located...... in Vrøgum in western Denmark. Up to 45 kg of gaseous CO2 was injected into a shallow aquifer approximately 8 m below the groundwater table. In the upper 6 m, the aquifer consisted of fine Aeolian sand underlain by coarser glacial sand. The migration of the gaseous CO2 was tracked using cross-borehole ground...... penetrating radar (GPR). A total of six GPR-boreholes were installed around the injection well and in the dominant flow direction of the groundwater. The GPR measurements were collected before, during, and after the CO2-injection. The GPR method proved to be very sensitive to desaturation of the aquifer when...

  9. Thermal-Hydrology Simulations of Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste in a Single Deep Borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of thermal-hydrology were carried out for the emplacement of spent nuclear fuel canisters and cesium and strontium capsules using the PFLOTRAN simulator. For the cesium and strontium capsules the analysis looked at disposal options such as different disposal configurations and surface aging of waste to reduce thermal effects. The simulations studied temperature and fluid flux in the vicinity of the borehole. Simulation results include temperature and vertical flux profiles around the borehole at selected depths. Of particular importance are peak temperature increases, and fluxes at the top of the disposal zone. Simulations of cesium and strontium capsule disposal predict that surface aging and/or emplacement of the waste at the top of the disposal zone reduces thermal effects and vertical fluid fluxes. Smaller waste canisters emplaced over a longer disposal zone create the smallest thermal effect and vertical fluid fluxes no matter the age of the waste or depth of emplacement.

  10. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole C3103 Located in the 216-B-7A Crib Near the B Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes data collected from samples in borehole C3103. Borehole C3103 was completed to further characterize the nature and extent of vadose zone contaminants supplied by intentional liquid discharges into the crib 216-B7A/7B between 1954 and 1967. These cribs received dilute waste streams from the bismuth phosphate fuel reprocessing program in the 1950's and decontamination waste in the 1960's. Elevated concentrations of several constituents were primarily measured at different depth intervals. The primary radionuclides present in this borehole are cesium-137 and uranium near the top of the borehole. Chemical characteristics attributed to wastewater-soil interaction at different locations within this zone are elevated pH, sodium, fluoride, carbonate nitrate, and sulphate

  11. Locations and summary of types of data available by borehole or other underground openings, Mercury Core Library and Data Center, Nye County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geospatial data set represents about 2,500 locations of boreholes, shafts, tunnels, and drifts on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) where rock-samples have...

  12. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 µg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70–100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93–99%) in particulates (>0.45 µm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560–13,000 mg/kg of As and 14–35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5–20 mmole/mole) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000–100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1,300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ18O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater. PMID:24842411

  13. Borehole Data Package for Calendar Year 2000-2001 RCRA Wells at Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Duane G.; Hodges, Floyd N.

    2001-08-15

    This document compiles information of the drilling and construction, well development, pump installation, and sediment and groundwater sampling applicable to the installation of five new RCRA wells in calendar year 2000 - 2001. Appendix A contains the Well Summary Sheets (as-built diagrams); the Well Construction Summary Reports, and the geologist's logs; Appendix B contains physical properties data; and Appendix C contains the borehole geophysical logs.

  14. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W; Nielsen, Martha G; Schalk, Charles W; Johnson, Carole D; Marvinney, Robert G; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 μg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 μm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 mg/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ(18)O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater.

  15. Lithological Conditions at the Box Canyon Site: Results of Drilling, Coring and Open Borehole Measurements 1995-1997 Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, D.; Faybishenko, B.; Holland, P.; Knutson, C.; Mesa, M.; Sisson, B.

    1998-09-01

    DOE faces the remediation of several contaminated sites in unsaturated fractured basalt where organic and radioactive wastes have migrated downward through fracture pathways that are difficult, if not impossible, to detect. Perched water zones located above zones of low permeability (massive basalt) create a complicated system of hydraulic baffles. Because of these large scale heterogeneities, the characterization of the lithology of the rock and the geometry of the subsurface fracture pattern is a crucial step in the development of a conceptual model of fluid flow and chemical transport, and eventually the design of a remediation system. The purpose of this data report is to compile and document the results of drilling and lithological studies conducted in open boreholes at the Box Canyon site. Lithological templates are included for each well and contain data such as drilling date, drilling method, logging method, well coordinates, Lithological log, gamma measurements, caliper measurements, core run and recovery depth, vesicular intervals, single fracture depths and descriptions, fracture zone depth and descriptions, and general comments about the borehole lithology. The lithological features were mapped for each borehole. The gamma and caliper measurements are presented as separate plots using greater resolution. Color core photos and core descriptions are also included. TV logging was used to map the lithology of the boreholes that were not cored (E, R, and T wells). This information will be further used to create a comprehensive lithological model of the subsurface. The TV logging of cored wells was viewed to compare the resolution and accuracy of TV logging to core logging. The TV logging method accurately showed large scale features such as zones of vesicularity, large fractures, fracture zones, rubble zones, and massive basalt zones, but it was difficult to detect hairline fractures, fracture orientation, and mineralization of fractures. Also, all depth

  16. Compositional Data for Bengal Delta Sediment Collected from a Borehole at Rajoir, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Yount, James C.; Uddin, Md. Nehal; Muneem, Ad. Atual; Lowers, Heather; Berry, Cyrus J.; Whitney, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Processes active within sediment of the Bengal basin have attracted world concern because of the locally high content of arsenic dissolved in ground water drawn from that sediment. Sediment samples were collected from a borehole in the town of Rajoir, Rajoir upazila, Madaripur district, Bangladesh, to investigate the processes contributing to arsenic contamination. The samples were mineralogically and chemically analyzed to determine compositional variations related to the arsenic content of the sediment. Mineralogy of the sediment was determined using powder X-ray diffraction. Bulk chemical composition was measured by Combustion; Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy; Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence; and Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Sediment was treated with 0.5 N HCl and resulting solutions were analyzed, primarily to evaluate the abundance and oxidation state of acid-soluble iron. Acid-volatile sulfide, acid-soluble sulfate, and reducible sulfide were also measured on a few samples. Sediment sampled at Rajoir is typically unlithified, gray, micaceous, feldspathic arenaceous sand with a few silt and clay layers. Arsenic content of the sediment ranges from 0.6 to 21 ppm with a median of 1.2 ppm.

  17. The stress peak at the borehole of point-fitted IGU with undercut anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Tibolt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The highest transparency in glass facades is obtained with point fitted glass units. Point fitted insulating glass units minimize thermal bridging and lead to glass facades with better energy efficiency. Though, insufficient knowledge is present to offer a design method for point fittings in insulating glass. Therefore research has been carried out to extend the existing SLG-design-method (Linear superposition of local and global stress components of Beyer for point fitted single and laminated glass to insulation glass units. This paper presents the first results of this research campaign. Load bearing tests on point fittings in single glazing have been conducted. A finite element model of the point fitting is calibrated by strain comparison. A test campaign for the deviation of a material law for silicone, used as secondary sealant in the edge seal system, is presented. The verified FE-model is implemented in a selected insulation glass unit, and the influence of the edge distance of the point fitting, as well as the edge bond stiffness and geometry on the stress peak at the borehole is investigated. In addition, the size of the so called ‘local area’ is adjusted for insulation glass units.

  18. Final report on decommissioning boreholes and wellsite restoration, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    In 1978, eight salt domes in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi were identified for study as potential locations for a nuclear waste repository as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. Three domes were selected in Mississippi for ``area characterization`` phase study as follows: Lampton Dome near Columbia, Cypress Creek Dome near New Augusta, and Richton Dome near Richton. The purpose of the studies was to acquire geologic and geohydrologic information from shallow and deep drilling investigations to enable selection of sites suitable for more intensive study. Eleven deep well sites were selected for multiple-well installations to acquire information on the lithologic and hydraulic properties of regional aquifers. In 1986, the Gulf Coast salt domes were eliminated from further consideration for repository development by the selection of three candidate sites in other regions of the country. In 1987, well plugging and restoration of these deferred sites became a closeout activity. The primary objectives of this activity are to plug and abandon all wells and boreholes in accordance with state regulations, restore all drilling sites to as near original condition as feasible, and convey to landowners any wells on their property that they choose to maintain. This report describes the activities undertaken to accomplish these objectives, as outlines in Activity Plan 1--2, ``Activity Plan for Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Test Hole Sites in Mississippi.``

  19. Numerical simulation and development of data inversion in borehole ultrasonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, V.; Balland, C.; Verdel, T.

    2011-04-01

    The major function of underground nuclear waste disposal is to avoid the migration of radionucleides towards the biosphere during their active period. This function can be deteriorated by the EDZ (excavated damaged zone) around the excavation. The EDZ analysis is therefore crucial in the performance assessment of the storage. The paper deals with the determination of the EDZ around a nuclear waste storage cavity using borehole ultrasonic imaging (azimuthal tomography). Indeed, before processing experimental data obtained with this tool, it is necessary to establish that data can be satisfactorily inverted. This analysis is based on a method that is able to sound and image the rock mass velocity field. The velocity field is numerically simulated (3D geomechanical modeling) based on an assumption on the relationship between stress and velocity fields. In order to evaluate a radial velocity profile starting from inter-sensor distance and their corresponding traveltimes, different ray tracing algorithms are tested using synthetic data. These tests led to a simple and fast approach (implemented in a Mathematica package) to process a large quantity of data.

  20. Borehole petrophysical chemostratigraphy of Pennsylvanian black shales in the Kansas subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doveton, J.H.; Merriam, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    Pennsylvanian black shales in Kansas have been studied on outcrop for decades as the core unit of the classic Midcontinent cyclothem. These shales appear to be highstand condensed sections in the sequence stratigraphic paradigm. Nuclear log suites provide several petrophysical measurements of rock chemistry that are a useful data source for chemostratigraphic studies of Pennsylvanian black shales in the subsurface. Spectral gamma-ray logs partition natural radioactivity between contributions by U, Th, and K sources. Elevated U contents in black shales can be related to reducing depositional environments, whereas the K and Th contents are indicators of clay-mineral abundance and composition. The photoelectric factor log measurement is a direct function of aggregate atomic number and so is affected by clay-mineral volume, clay-mineral iron content, and other black shale compositional elements. Neutron porosity curves are primarily a response to hydrogen content. Although good quality logs are available for many black shales, borehole washout features invalidate readings from the nuclear contact devices, whereas black shales thinner than tool resolution will be averaged with adjacent beds. Statistical analysis of nuclear log data between black shales in successive cyclothems allows systematic patterns of their chemical and petrophysical properties to be discriminated in both space and time. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Seismic Wave Velocities in Deep Sediments in Poland: Borehole and Refraction Data Compilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polkowski Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary cover has significant influence on seismic wave travel times and knowing its structure is of great importance for studying deeper structures of the Earth. Seismic tomography is one of the methods that require good knowledge of seismic velocities in sediments and unfortunately by itself cannot provide detailed information about distribution of seismic velocities in sedimentary cover. This paper presents results of P-wave velocity analysis in the old Paleozoic sediments in area of Polish Lowland, Folded Area, and all sediments in complicated area of the Carpathian Mountains in Poland. Due to location on conjunction of three major tectonic units - the Precambrian East European Craton, the Paleozoic Platform of Central and Western Europe, and the Alpine orogen represented by the Carpathian Mountains the maximum depth of these sediments reaches up to 25 000 m in the Carpathian Mountains. Seismic velocities based on 492 deep boreholes with vertical seismic profiling and a total of 741 vertical seismic profiles taken from 29 seismic refraction profiles are analyzed separately for 14 geologically different units. For each unit, velocity versus depth relations are approximated by second or third order polynomials.

  2. Evidence for non-self-similarity of microearthquakes recorded at a Taiwan borehole seismometer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Yu; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Kanamori, Hiroo; Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Lapusta, Nadia; Tsai, Victor C.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the relationship between seismic moment M0 and source duration tw of microearthquakes by using high-quality seismic data recorded with a vertical borehole array installed in central Taiwan. We apply a waveform cross-correlation method to the three-component records and identify several event clusters with high waveform similarity, with event magnitudes ranging from 0.3 to 2.0. Three clusters—Clusters A, B and C—contain 11, 8 and 6 events with similar waveforms, respectively. To determine how M0 scales with tw, we remove path effects by using a path-averaged Q. The results indicate a nearly constant tw for events within each cluster, regardless of M0, with mean values of tw being 0.058, 0.056 and 0.034 s for Clusters A, B and C, respectively. Constant tw, independent of M0, violates the commonly used scaling relation formula>math id="TM0001" notation="LaTeX">{t_w} ∝ M_0^{1/3}math>formula>. This constant duration may arise either because all events in a cluster are hosted on the same isolated seismogenic patch, or because the events are driven by external factors of constant duration, such as fluid injections into the fault zone. It may also be related to the earthquake nucleation size.

  3. Horizontal principal stress orientation in the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) transect from borehole breakouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverno, A.; Saito, S.; Vannucchi, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) drilled the Pacific margin of the Middle America Trench just north of where the Cocos Ridge enters the subduction zone, resulting in basal erosion of the upper plate. Here we report the orientations of the maximum horizontal principal stress (SHmax) from borehole breakouts detected by logging-while-drilling and wireline downhole measurements. All SHmax directions were estimated in the sediment cover of the margin, above the deeper rocks of the deformed margin wedge. We observe three overall SHmax orientations: NNE-SSW (25° azimuth) in the deepest interval drilled at the upper slope Site U1379; ENE-WSW (82°) in the rest of Site U1379 and in Site U1413, also drilled in the upper slope; and NNW-SSE (157°) in the mid-slope Site U1378. Our preferred interpretation is that the deepest interval of Site U1379 records the stress conditions in the underlying margin wedge, as SHmax is parallel to the direction of the Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence and of the compressional axes of plate boundary fault earthquakes. The variable SHmax directions observed elsewhere are likely due to the effect of a network of normal faults that subdivide the sediment cover into a number of independently deforming blocks. In addition, the observed SHmax directions may be influenced by the subducting Cocos Ridge, which acts as an indenter causing oblique deformation, and by the transition to seismogenic subduction along the plate boundary fault.

  4. Borehole temperatures reveal a changed energy budget at Mill Island, East Antarctica over recent decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Roberts

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A borehole temperature record from the Mill Island (East Antarctic icecap reveals a large surface warming signal manifested as a 0.75 K temperature difference over the approximate 100 m depth below the seasonally varying zone. The temperature profile shows a break in gradient between 49 and 69 m depth, which we model with inverse numerical simulations, indicating that surface warming started around the austral summer of 1980/1981 AD ± 5 yr. This warming of approximately 0.37 K per decade is large by Antarctic standards and is only exceeded in regions of the Antarctic Peninsula. While this warming may reflect regional scale air temperature increases, the lack of comparable trends for other East Antarctic sites suggests local influences are largely responsible for the observed trend. Alteration of the surface energy budget arising from changes in radiation balances due to local cloud, the amount of liquid deposition and local air temperatures associated with altered air/sea exchanges potentially play a key role at this location due to the proximity of the Shackleton Ice Shelf and sea-ice zone.

  5. Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

  6. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  7. Thermal Efficiency Comparison of Borehole Heat Exchangers with Different Drillhole Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Priess

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal efficiency of borehole heat exchangers (BHE is of crucial importance for the design and optimization of ground source heat pump (GSHP system. This paper investigates thermal efficiency of a BHE with three drillhole diameters: 121 mm, 165 mm and 180 mm. The BHE was installed in a GSHP system of an office building located in Nuremberg, Germany. Thermal properties and hydraulic properties of the ground where the BHE was installed have been measured by thermal response tests as well as pumping tests. Furthermore, the evaluation of thermal performance is made possible by monitoring operation of the GSHP system. Using the recorded data, thermal exchange rates have been calculated and compared in a daily period as well as a seasonal period. The daily statistics indicate that the thermal exchange rate of the BHE increases with larger drillhole diameter. For the seasonal cooling performance, the amount of thermal exchange of BHE with 165 mm and 180 mm diameters was found to be 3.2% and 7.1% larger than that of the BHE with 121 mm diameter, respectively. These findings provide helpful suggestions for the design of future GSHP systems to achieve higher energy-efficiency.

  8. Study on Engineering Design and Cost Performance of Borehole Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ground source heat pump (GSHP is an environmentally friendly and energy-efficient technology, and the investigations on the simulation models of borehole heat exchanger (BHE have made progress. However, the researches on engineering design and economic performance based on the simulation models of BHE are a few. This paper firstly describes the interior and exterior heat transfer according to the existing achievements, and the corresponding characteristics of models are explained. Afterwards, the detailed design procedures of BHE size are provided and the cost performance is highlighted. Accordingly, an actual engineering project which employs GSHP system as the air conditioning system is researched; the necessary expenses on BHE, heat pump units, and indoor end equipment are all taken into account. The initial investment, operating cost, and other factors that exert influences on the cost performance are demonstrated. In addition, comparisons between different systems are conducted to show the advantages of GSHP. By means of thermal transfer analysis and the design of engineering project, the practicability, energy saving, and environmental protection of GSHP are brought into play, which means the promotion of this technology is the general trend of development of air condition system.

  9. Thermophilic fermentative bacteria from a deep borehole in granitic rock in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewzyk, Ulrich; Szewzyk, Regine; Stenstroem, Thor-Axel

    1997-07-01

    A borehole drilled to a final depth of 6779 m in granitic rock in Gravberg, Sweden, was sampled and examined for the presence and activity of anaerobic bacteria. The application of anaerobic enrichment and isolation techniques resulted in pure cultures of various fermenting bacteria. Growth in enrichment cultures was observed only in those cultures inoculated from water samples from a depth of 3500 m. Pure cultures of anaerobic, fermenting bacteria were obtained with the following substrates: glucose, starch, xylane, ethanol, and lactate. All isolated bacteria were so far undiscribed bacteria by means of their physiological properties. One strain of the glucose fermenting bacteria was further characterized concerning its phylogenetic position and was found to be closest related to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum. However, by means of its characteristic metabolism, it was clearly separated from C. thermohydrosulfuricum. No sulfate-reducing or methanogenic bacteria were found in any of the samples. Fermentative bacteria growing in the presence of hematite often reduced the iron and induced the formation and deposition of insoluble iron sulfides.

  10. Borehole temperatures reveal a changed energy budget at Mill Island, East Antarctica, over recent decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A borehole temperature record from the Mill Island (East Antarctica icecap reveals a large surface warming signal manifested as a 0.75 K temperature difference over the approximate 100 m depth in the zone of zero annual amplitude below the seasonally varying zone. The temperature profile shows a break in gradient around 49 m depth, which we model with inverse numerical simulations, indicating that surface warming started around the austral summer of 1980/81 AD ±5 yr. This warming of approximately 0.37 K per decade is consistent with trends seen in both instrumental and other reconstructions for Antarctica and, therefore, suggests that regional- rather than local-scale processes are largely responsible. Alteration of the surface energy budget arising from changes in radiation balances due to local cloud, the amount of liquid deposition and local air temperatures associated with altered air/sea exchanges also potentially plays a role at this location due to the proximity of the Shackleton Ice Shelf and sea-ice zone.

  11. Studies of Arsenic Mobilization with Iron, Manganese and Copper in Borehole Sediments of the River Padma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarifuzzaman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggested that there is a strong interrelation between As, Fe and Mn in their occurring, transport and exposure to the environment. In this context, a comparative study was conducted in this current experiment to correlate As, Fe, Cu and Mn by determining their concentration in sediments (upper & bore hole at different depths in the river Padma. Six locations were selected as sampling sites from entering point (upstream and end point (downstream of the river Padma. Sampling was carried out by borehole technique at several depths ranging from 1 meter to 5 meters. The samples were digested with HClO4- HNO3 acid mixture of ratio 2:3 in an acid digestion bomb. Arsenic was determined by HVG-AAS technique and Fe, Mn and Cu were determined by Flame-AAS technique. Large amount of Fe has been obtained, which has endorsed the previous assumptions of the relations of As with Fe. The small correlation value in case of As, Fe and Mn indicates that not all the minerals of arsenic and Mn but only hydroxides of Fe and Mn interfere with As. The small amount of Cu obtained indicated that any relation between sources and exposure of As and Cu and their interaction is yet to be found out.

  12. Variations in geoacoustic emissions in a deep borehole and its correlation with seismicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Storcheus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous geoacoustic emission (GAE measurements were acquired using a three-component geophone placed in a borehole at a depth of near 1000 m at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky starting in August 2000. Using geophones consisting of magneto-elastic crystal ferromagnetic sensors, and installed at such a depth allows measurement of natural geoacoustic background with signal amplitude less than 1×10-4 m/s3 in frequency band from 3 to 1500 Hz. According to the data from a 4-year survey period the characteristics of diurnal geoacoustic variations change before every earthquake with MLH? 5.0 that occurs at a distance of less than 300 km from the observation point or before each earthquake with MLH?5.5 occurring at distance R?550 km from the observation point. The changes in GAE regime correlate with the strongest earthquakes that occurred during survey period. Measurements of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth were carried out simultaneously with the help of an underground electric antenna. The behavior of GAE in aseismic periods appears to be related to the effect of diurnal variations of the natural electromagnetic field.

  13. Sustained High Basal Motion of the Greenland Ice Sheet Revealed by Borehole Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luthi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.; Hoffman, Matthew, J.; Catania, Ginny A.; Hawley, Robert L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Kristensen, Steen S.

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high amount of basal motion contribution to surface velocity of 44-73 percent in winter, and up to 90 percent in summer. Measured ice deformation rates show an unexpected variation with depth that can be explained with the help of an ice-flow model as a consequence of stress transfer from slippery to sticky areas. This effect necessitates the use of high-order ice-flow models, not only in regions of fast-flowing ice streams but in all temperate-based areas of the GrIS. The agreement between modeled and measured deformation rates confirms that the recommended values of the temperature-dependent flow rate factor A are a good choice for ice-sheet models.

  14. ASCAT vs. borehole data for extracting seasonal freeze/thaw cycling in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamborn, G.; Bartsch, A.; Heim, B.; Günther, F.; Overduin, P.

    2012-04-01

    Freeze-thaw (F/T) cycling in soil is a main driver of physical weathering in polar latitudes. The higher the amount of F/T is during a season the greater is the production of debris that will result from rock breakdown. The ASCAT sensor (Advanced SCATterometer aperture radar on board of Metop) provides an estimate of seasonal F/T due to a daily coverage of northern latitudes at >50°. It operates at 5.255 GHz (C-band) and is sensitive to detect frozen and unfrozen conditions in soil. Whereas the spring signatures suffer from a snow melt response that dominates much of the backscatter, the autumn signals with little to no snow cover can be validated using borehole temperature data. We use temperature time series of two sites in the Russian Arctic (El'gygytgyn Impact Crater, mountainous Chukotka; Mamontovy Klyk, northern Yakutian lowland) for comparing satellite derived F/T with ground truth derived F/T. On the basis of error bars we examine the potential to create a pan-arctic map that aids interpreting the physical weathering dynamics in the north.

  15. Three-dimensional modeling of borehole data cored from engineering rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Manchao; LI Xueyuan; LIU Bin; XU Nengxiong

    2007-01-01

    Vast data from the drilling and geophysical prospecting are reliable original information to describe the space state of engineering rock mass,and one of the main difficulties in three-dimensional (3D) modeling of engineering rock mass is the processing of the primary data.From the viewpoint of 3D modeling,the engineering rock masses are classified as four basic types according to their geometric characteristics of geologic structure:(1) continuum rock mass;(2) discontinuous rock mass;(3) overturned fold rock mass and (4) intrusive rock mass.Because drilling data are very important to describe the characters of multi-scale of the spatial data for rock mass,the rule of how to process drilling data is developed to help appropriately display them in the viewpoint of 3D space.According to the characteristics of rock mass layers,the processing method of drilling data for 3D modeling of engineering rock masses,along with the layer thicknesses,is also proposed,including the evaluation rules and the extensive direction for original borehole data.By this method,the typical 3D data modeled is completed and the model form of the engineering rock mass is developed.By this example,it is finally verified that the method presented is successful and feasible to process 3D engineering rock mass.

  16. A simple pendulum borehole tiltmeter based on a triaxial optical-fibre displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawah, P.; Chéry, J.; Boudin, F.; Cattoen, M.; Seat, H. C.; Plantier, G.; Lizion, F.; Sourice, A.; Bernard, P.; Brunet, C.; Boyer, D.; Gaffet, S.

    2015-11-01

    Sensitive instruments like strainmeters and tiltmeters are necessary for measuring slowly varying low amplitude Earth deformations. Nonetheless, laser and fibre interferometers are particularly suitable for interrogating such instruments due to their extreme precision and accuracy. In this paper, a practical design of a simple pendulum borehole tiltmeter based on laser fibre interferometric displacement sensors is presented. A prototype instrument has been constructed using welded borosilicate with a pendulum length of 0.85 m resulting in a main resonance frequency of 0.6 Hz. By implementing three coplanar extrinsic fibre Fabry-Perot interferometric probes and appropriate signal filtering, our instrument provides tilt measurements that are insensitive to parasitic deformations caused by temperature and pressure variations. This prototype has been installed in an underground facility (Rustrel, France) where results show accurate measurements of Earth strains derived from Earth and ocean tides, local hydrologic effects, as well as local and remote earthquakes. The large dynamic range and the high sensitivity of this tiltmeter render it an invaluable tool for numerous geophysical applications such as transient fault motion, volcanic strain and reservoir monitoring.

  17. Borehole Breakouts Induced in Arkosic Sandstones and a Discrete Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Moon, T.; Haimson, B. C.

    2016-04-01

    A series of laboratory drilling experiments were conducted on two arkosic sandstones (Tenino and Tablerock) under polyaxial far-field stress conditions (σ h ≠ σ H ≠ σ v ). V-shaped breakouts, aligned with the σ h direction and revealing stress-dependent dimensions (width and length), were observed in the sandstones. The microscale damage pattern leading to the breakouts, however, is different between the two, which is attributed to the difference in their cementation. The dominant micromechanism in Tenino sandstone is intergranular microcracking occurring in clay minerals filling the spaces between clastic grains. On the other hand, intra- and transgranular microcracking taking place in the grain itself prevails in Tablerock sandstone. To capture the grain-scale damage and reproduce the failure localization observed around the borehole in the laboratory, we used a discrete element (DE) model in which a grain breakage algorithm was implemented. The microparameters needed in the numerical model were calibrated by running material tests and comparing the macroscopic responses of the model to the ones measured in the laboratory. It is shown that DE modeling is capable of simulating the microscale damage of the rock and replicating the localized damage zone observed in the laboratory. In addition, the numerically induced breakout width is determined at a very early stage of the damage localization and is not altered for the rest of the failure process.

  18. Instrumented borehole drilling for interface identification in intricate weathered granite ground engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuoying Tan; Meifeng Cai; Z.Q. Yue; L.G.Tham; C.F.Lee

    2007-01-01

    The successful application in drilling for HK simple weathered granite foundation has revealed its further use in instrumented drilling system as a ground investigation tool in the detection of other lithology formations, geohazards, underground water, and boundary of orebody. To expand the further use and test the accuracy in identification of formation, an R-20 rotary-hydraulic drill rig was instrumented with a digital drilling process monitoring system (DPM) for drilling in an intricate decomposed granite site.In this test ground, the boreholes revealed that the weathered granite alternately changes between moderate and strong. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the penetrating parameters, indicates the effective thrust force, rotary speed, flushing pressure, penetrating rate, and displacement of the bit fluctuate at ground interfaces. It shows that the parameters get a good response with the change of rock strength at the interfaces, which can reveal the change of the intricate granite formation. Besides, a variable-slope method has been established, for identification of dominative and subsidiary interfaces in the granite site. The result from a t-test shows that the confidence of the instrumented drilling system in identification of the geotechnical interfaces is up to 99%.

  19. Temperature field and heat flow of the Danish-German border region − borehole measurements and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    parameterization with a spatial distribution of rock thermal conductivity and new heat-flow values. The latter one are used to setup the numerical lower boundary condition. Measured heat flow and borehole temperature observations (59 values from 24 wells) are used to constrain the modelling results (calibration...... and validation). The prediction uncertainties between observed and modelled temperatures at deep borehole sites are small (rms = 3.5 °C). For eight deep boreholes, new values of terrestrial surface heat flow are derived, ranging between 72 and 84 mW/m² (mean of 80 ± 5 mW/m²). Those values are up to 20 m......W/m² higher than low values reported in some previous studies for this region. Heat flow from the mantle is estimated to be between 33 and 40 mW/m² (q1–q3; mean of 37 ± 7 mW/m²). Pronounced lateral temperature variations are caused mainly by complex geological structures, including a large amount of salt...

  20. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of granite and its effects on borehole stability in high temperature and three-dimensional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Bao-lin; Zhu, Hai-yan; Yan, Chuan-liang; Li, Zhi-jun; Wang, Zhi-qiao

    2014-01-01

    When exploiting the deep resources, the surrounding rock readily undergoes the hole shrinkage, borehole collapse, and loss of circulation under high temperature and high pressure. A series of experiments were conducted to discuss the compressional wave velocity, triaxial strength, and permeability of granite cored from 3500 meters borehole under high temperature and three-dimensional stress. In light of the coupling of temperature, fluid, and stress, we get the thermo-fluid-solid model and governing equation. ANSYS-APDL was also used to stimulate the temperature influence on elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability. In light of the results, we establish a temperature-fluid-stress model to illustrate the granite's stability. The compressional wave velocity and elastic modulus, decrease as the temperature rises, while poisson ratio and permeability of granite increase. The threshold pressure and temperature are 15 MPa and 200 °C, respectively. The temperature affects the fracture pressure more than the collapse pressure, but both parameters rise with the increase of temperature. The coupling of thermo-fluid-solid, greatly impacting the borehole stability, proves to be a good method to analyze similar problems of other formations.

  1. Large Permafrost Warming in Northern Alaska During the 1990's Determined from GTN-P Borehole Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior currently maintains 9 automated active-layer monitoring stations and an array of 21 deep boreholes in northern Alaska as part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P). The GTN-P network is used both for climate change detection and for documenting the sensitivity of permafrost to climate change; GTN-P is one component of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), which in turn is part of the long-term Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During August 2002, temperatures were re-measured in the majority of the DOI/GTN-P boreholes to determine the present thermal state of deep permafrost in northern Alaska. A preliminary comparison with earlier temperature logs from the borehole array shows that permafrost on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain and Alaskan Arctic Foothills has warmed ~ 3 K since the late 1980's. This warming of the Arctic cryosphere coincides with the shift in atmospheric dynamics described by the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) that also began in the late 1980's.

  2. Use of polyurethane resins for sealing test boreholes at Cogema Vendee. [France]. Utilisation de resines polyurethane pour l'etanchement des sondages a Cogema-Vendee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourscher, M.

    1989-11-01

    The mining division is briefly described. The main problem for mining development is an important flow rate of water at a pressure of 0 to 10 bars through exploratory boreholes. Use of polyurethane resin reacting with water was retained but taking account of flow rate and pressure a new method was developed using a polyamide sleeve, allowing reaction and expansion before dilution by flowing water. Cost is estimated at 4683 FF/borehole.

  3. Drainage borehole with high directional accuracy using directional drilling equipment modified for the mining industry; Wasserloesungsbohrung mit hoher Zielgenauigkeit unter Einsatz einer fuer den Bergbau modifizierten Richtbohrausruestung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, Matthias [MICON Drilling GmbH, Nienhagen (Germany)

    2009-01-29

    To carry out a drainage project it was necessary to divert water from an abandoned mine and direct it to an existing drainage system. To ensure that the borehole required for this purpose terminates accurately in a roadway a borehole meeting a high requirement on constant drilling and directional accuracy was necessary. Hence a combination of existing drilling equipment and directional drilling specifically adapted to these requirements was used. (orig.)

  4. Coseismic offsets recorded by borehole strainmeters from the 2014, Mw 6.0 South Napa, California earthquake: Reconciling tidal calibrations with earthquake source models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J. O.

    2015-12-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts-per-billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets in tidally-calibrated strains have RMS deviation of 130 ppb from strains predicted by previously published moment tensor derived from seismic data. Here, I show that the large misfit can be reduced by a combination of better tidal calibration and better modeling of the strain field from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in-situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain-tides predicted by a model. Although borehole strainmeters accurately measure the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point-source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 to 18 ppb. This suggests that calibrations derived solely from tidal models limits the accuracy of borehole strainmeters. On the other hand, the revised calibration derived here becomes testable on strain measurements from future, large Bay area events.

  5. Site selection for drinking-water pumping boreholes using a fuzzy spatial decision support system in the Korinthia prefecture, SE Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakos, Andreas K.; Voudouris, Konstantinos S.; Lambrakis, Nikolaos I.

    2014-12-01

    The implementation of a geographic information system (GIS)/fuzzy spatial decision support system in the selection of sites for drinking-water pumping boreholes is described. Groundwater is the main source of domestic supply and irrigation in Korinthia prefecture, south-eastern Greece. Water demand has increased considerably over the last 30 years and is mainly met by groundwater abstracted via numerous wells and boreholes. The definition of the most "suitable" site for the drilling of new boreholes is a major issue in this area. A method of allocating suitable locations has been developed based on multicriteria analysis and fuzzy logic. Twelve parameters were finally involved in the model, prearranged into three categories: borehole yield, groundwater quality, and economic and technical constraints. GIS was used to create a classification map of the research area, based on the suitability of each point for the placement of new borehole fields. The coastal part of the study area is completely unsuitable, whereas high values of suitability are recorded in the south-western part. The study demonstrated that the method of multicriteria analysis in combination with fuzzy logic is a useful tool for selecting the best sites for new borehole drilling on a regional scale. The results could be used by local authorities and decision-makers for integrated groundwater resources management.

  6. Evaluation of geophysical logs and video surveys in boreholes adjacent to the Berkley Products Superfund Site, West Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Between February 1998 and April 1998, geophysical logs were collected in nine boreholes adjacent to the Berkley Products Superfund Site, West Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, Pa. Video surveys were conducted on four of the nine boreholes. The boreholes range in depth from 320 to 508 feet below land surface, are completed open holes, have ambient vertical flow of water, and penetrate a series of interbedded siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate units. The purpose of collecting geophysical-log data was to help determine horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources and to aid in the placement of permanent borehole packers. The primary contaminants were derived from paint waste that included pigment sludges and wash solvents. The chlorinated volatile organic compounds probably originated from the wash solvents. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-resistivity and fluid-temperature logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to verify the locations of water-producing or water-receiving zones and to measure rates of flow between water-bearing fractures. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller's logs, permanent multiple-packer systems were installed in each borehole to obtain depth specific water samples from one or more water-bearing fractures in each borehole.

  7. Joint Geophysical Assessments of Geothermal Potential from a Deep Borehole in the Canadian Shield Rocks of NE Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kueck, J.; Moeck, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Part of the feasibility study for geothermal development in Northern Alberta consists of investigating the presence of subsurface fluid pathways in the crystalline basement rocks. The deepest borehole drilled in Northeastern Alberta has a depth of 2350 m and offers substantial depth coverage to study the basement rocks. Due to the limited cores available for this deep borehole, a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs and borehole seismic methods are used to provide subsurface characterization of the basement in addition to the existing surface seismic reflection data. Interpretation of the geophysical logs indicate potential fracture zones at different depths that could serve as zones with enhanced fluid potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. Fractures within the subsurface tend to be aligned by the deviatoric stress in the subsurface and their orientations can be imaged using the Formation MicroImager (FMI) log. Two sets of vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired in the deep borehole in July 2011. First, a high resolution zero-offset VSP was acquired to measure the seismic responses at the borehole. Upgoing tube waves can be identified and attributed to fracture zones interpreted from the geophysical logs. Since VSP data contains higher frequency content, the final corridor stack from the zero-offset VSP offers greater resolution in correlating seismic reflections with the primary reflectors and multiples interpreted from the surface seismic reflection data. The second set of VSP data is a multi-azimuth, multi-depth walk-away VSP acquired using three-component receivers placed at depths of 800 and 1780 m. The degree of seismic anisotropy in the crystalline basement can be revealed by analyzing the first arrivals at different geophone depths. Using an assumption that the presence of fractures causes P-wave reflection anisotropy, interpretation from the walk-away VSP can be used as a method for gross fracture detection

  8. A Green's function approach for assessing the thermal disturbance caused by drilling deep boreholes in rock or ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge of subsurface temperatures in sedimentary basins, fault zones, volcanic environments and polar ice sheets is of interest for a wide variety of geophysical applications. However, the process of drilling deep boreholes in these environments to provide access for temperature and other measurements invariably disturbs the temperature field around a newly created borehole. Although this disturbance dissipates over time, most temperature measurements are made while the temperature field is still disturbed. Thus, the measurements must be ‘corrected’ for the drilling-disturbance effect if the undisturbed temperature field is to be determined. This paper provides compact analytical solutions for the thermal drilling disturbance based on 1-D (radial) and 2-D (radial and depth) Green's functions (GFs) in cylindrical coordinates. Solutions are developed for three types of boundary conditions (BCs) at the borehole wall: (1) prescribed temperature, (2) prescribed heat flux and (3) a prescribed convective condition. The BC at the borehole wall is allowed to vary both with depth and time. Inclusion of the depth dimension in the 2-D solution allows vertical heat-transfer effects to be quantified in situations where they are potentially important, that is, near the earth's surface, at the bottom of a well and when considering finite-drilling rates. The 2-D solution also includes a radial- and time-dependent BC at the earth's surface to assess the impact of drilling-related infrastructure (drilling pads, mud pits, permanent shelters) on the subsurface temperature field. Latent-heat effects due to the melting and subsequent refreezing of interstitial ice while drilling a borehole through ice-rich permafrost can be included in the GF solution as a moving-plane heat source (or sink) located at the solid–liquid interface. Synthetic examples are provided illustrating the 1-D and 2-D GF solutions. The flexibility of the approach allows the investigation of thermal

  9. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiang [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9 W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College and Graduate Center, City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W. [U.S. Geological Survey, Maine Water Science Center, 196 Whitten Road, Augusta, ME 04330 (United States); Johnson, Carole D. [U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Geophysics, 11 Sherman Place, Unit 5015, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Marvinney, Robert G. [Maine Geological Survey, 93 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333 (United States); Stute, Martin [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9 W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Zheng, Yan, E-mail: yan.zheng@qc.cuny.edu [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9 W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College and Graduate Center, City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 μg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70–100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93–99%) in particulates (> 0.45 μm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560–13,000 mg/kg of As and 14–35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5–20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000–100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ{sup 18}O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater. - Highlights: • Most Fe and some As exist as particulates in the tested borehole and fracture water.

  10. Closure of the Spent Fuel Repository in Forsmark - Studies of alternative concepts for sealing of ramp, shafts and investigation boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, Bjoern [SKB AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Luterkort, David [SGI, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Roland [Miljoe- och Energikonsult AB, Ekeroe (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    In March 2011, SKB submitted applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for the construction and operation of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark. An important supporting document for the application under the Nuclear Activities Act was the SR-Site safety assessment. As a part of the work with the application and as background material for SR-Site, SKB prepared production reports, including the closure production report. The closure production report presented definitions, requirements and design premises, a reference design and the initial state for repository closure. SR-Site evaluated the reference design and related design premises that were presented in the closure production report. SR-Site thereby concluded that the design premises on which the reference design were based are adequate. Relaxing the requirements would require additional sensitivity analyses focusing on the hydraulic properties of the access, main and transport tunnels. SR-Site further concluded that the reference design could likely be simplified without violating the current design premises. Furthermore, additional simplifications could probably be made if the design premises could be revised. This has been studied in the project 'Closure - concept studies', whose results are presented in this report. SR-Site also evaluated the reference design for investigation boreholes that is presented in the production report. The evaluation showed that the impact of improper borehole seals is very moderate. Further, SR-Site concludes that the current design premises are appropriate but possibly too strict, since even open boreholes seem to have a limited impact on the groundwater flow in the repository. Since it might be difficult to inspect the outcome of the current design of borehole sealing, it could be of interest to assess whether a solution that may result in higher effective permeability of the borehole seals would provide sufficiently

  11. Characterization and interpretation of a fractured rocky massif from borehole data. Boreholes of geothermal project at Soultz-sous-Forets and other examples of unidirectional sampling; Caracterisation et interpretation d`un volume rocheux fracture a partir de donnees de forages. Les forages geothermiques de Soultz-sous-Forets et autres exemples d`echantillonnages unidirectionnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezayes, CH.

    1995-12-18

    In this thesis, we study fractures from borehole data on two sites: in one, located at Soultz-sous-Forets (Alsace) in the Rhine graben, boreholes reach a delta Jurassic series forming a petroleum reservoir. At Soultz, fractures have been studied on cores and borehole images. Striated faults present on cores permit to determine the tectonic history of the granite, completed by field study in Vosges Massif. This history corresponds to the Rhine graben history knowing by different authors. The analysis of vertical induced fractures observed on borehole images indicates a present-day NW-SE to NNW-SSE compression. These variations of stress direction are confirmed by others in situ measurements, as hydraulic injection, micro-seismicity, etc... On cores and borehole images, numerous fractures have been observed. Most of them are linked to the E-W distension, which permits the Rhine graben opening at Oligocene. At greatest scale, in quartz minerals, the micro-fractures are constitute by fluid inclusion trails. Several sets are related to the E-W distension, but others sets are linked to compressive stages. These sets are not observed on cores. This is a under-sampling of some fractures by the boreholes, but theses fractures exit into to rock massif. On borehole images, fracture density is weakest than the cores, however the set organisation is the same. At Ravenscar, the distribution of fracture spacing along different unidirectional sampling shows a exponential negative law. However, the fracture density varies with sampling. (author) 199 refs.

  12. Investigation of sulphide in core drilled boreholes KLX06, KAS03 and KAS09 at Laxemar and Aespoe Chemical-, microbiological- and dissolved gas data from groundwater in four borehole sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosdahl, Anette (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Pedersen, Karsten; Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden)); Wallin, Bill (Geokema AB (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report describes a study performed during 2009 which focused on the production of sulphide (microbial sulphate reduction) in deep groundwater that was implemented in the core drilled boreholes KLX06, -475 to 482 meter above sea level, m a s l, KAS03,-97 to 241 and -613 to 984 m a s l, and KAS09, -96 to -125 m a s l, at Laxemar and Aspo. The study aimed to increase knowledge of background groundwater levels of sulphide and its variations in time and space through the analysis of sulphide and parameters related to sulphide production. Sampling of groundwater was conducted in three core drilled boreholes of varying age as time series with continuous pumping and as single samples. The analysis program covered chemical parameters (pH, chloride, sulphate, iron, and organic carbon), dissolved gas composition, stable isotopes in groundwater (delta2H, delta18O, delta34S, delta13C), stable isotopes of gaseous compounds (delta2H, delta13C, delta18O), microbiological parameters (sulphate- and iron reducing bacteria, SRB and IRB), phthalates and low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOA). The sampling in KLX06 was carried out as time series with a 9 week pause in pumping. When the water volume discharged was about 150 times that of the packer-isolated borehole section, sulphides decreased from 7 mg L-1 to 0.05 mg L-1 and the salinity increased from 740 to 1,480 mg L-1. After a 9 weeks pause in pumping, the sulphide concentration and salinity again approached the original values, i.e. 7 mg L-1 of sulphide and 450 mg L-1 of chloride. The SRB and IRB showed high concentrations that were reduced during pumping in the borehole. The water in the standpipe which has a different water composition than the groundwater, also showed similar high concentrations of sulphide and SRB. The standpipe is a plastic pipe in the wider upper part of the borehole; connected with the tube from the packer of the borehole section and used to accommodate a filter and a groundwater pump when collecting

  13. Sedimentology, Petrography and Microfacies of the Paleogene Carbonate Sequence - Yaxcopoil-1 Borehole (Chicxulub, Yucatan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Sanchez, E.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-05-01

    Chicxulub crater is one the three largest known impact craters on Earth, formed 66 Ma-old, with multi-ring basin morphology. Crater is located in northwestern Yucatan, southern Gulf of Mexico, with rim diameter of 200 km and crater center at Chicxulub Perto in the coastline. It is buried beneath the carbonate and evaporitic Cenozoic sequence. Study of the structure requires geophysics and drilling, with several boreholes drilled in the peninsula. The Yaxcopoil-1 borehole was drilled south of Merida, about 62 km from center, as part of the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Program. One of the main objectives was to determine the role of the Chicxulub impact event in the K/Pg mass extinction and boundary events. We present a sedimentological and petrological study of the carbonate sequence in the interval from 404 m to 792 m overlying the K/Pg boundary. The well reached a depth of 1510.6 m. In this interval, we identified twelve units marked by different lithological and sedimentological changes, and supplemented by thin section analysis. Facies are composed mainly of marls, argillaceous, limestones, dolomitized limestones, calcareous breccias and calcarenites with shales thin beds. From the microfacies study we observed several major changes in the microfacies. From bottom of the sequence several textural changes cyclic from mudstone to bioclastic planktic foraminiferal wackestone, bioclastic packstone and some bioclastic grainstone. Two textures dominated in the calcareous sequence: bioclastic wackestone and packstone microfacies. From the microfacies study, we derived inferences on stable environmental conditions. We observed benthic and planktic foraminiferal layers. The benthic foraminifera strongly depend on environmental parameters, such as nutrient supply or oxygenation of the sea bottom water in the Paleocene and Eocene. Changes suggest occurrence of a progradational event, with a relative increase in sea level very slowly, with the sediment enough to overcome

  14. Three dimensional modeling and inversion of Borehole-surface Electrical Resistivity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, D.; Liu, Y.; Qin, M.

    2013-12-01

    After a long time of exploration, many oil fields have stepped into the high water-cut period. It is sorely needed to determining the oil-water distribution and water flooding front. Borehole-surface electrical resistivity tomography (BSERT) system is a low-cost measurement with wide measuring scope and small influence on the reservoir. So it is gaining more and more application in detecting water flooding areas and evaluating residual oil distribution in oil fields. In BSERT system, current is connected with the steel casing of the observation well. The current flows along the long casing and transmits to the surface through inhomogeneous layers. Then received electric potential difference data on the surface can be used to inverse the deep subsurface resistivity distribution. This study presents the 3D modeling and inversion method of electrical resistivity data. In an extensive literature, the steel casing is treated as a transmission line current source with infinite small radius and constant current density. However, in practical multi-layered formations with different resistivity, the current density along the casing is not constant. In this study, the steel casing is modeled by a 2.5e-7 ohm-m physical volume that the casing occupies in the finite element mesh. Radius of the casing can be set to a little bigger than the true radius, and this helps reduce the element number and computation time. The current supply point is set on the center of the top surface of the physical volume. The homogeneous formation modeling result shows the same precision as the transmission line current source model. The multi-layered formation modeling result shows that the current density along the casing is high in the low-resistivity layer, and low in the high-resistivity layer. These results are more reasonable. Moreover, the deviated and horizontal well can be simulated as simple as the vertical well using this modeling method. Based on this forward modeling method, the

  15. Dynamics of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets using the borehole, radio sounding and space observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Markov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on data of measurements in deep ice boreholes, as well as of radar and space geodetic observations in Antarctica and Greenland, a number of new features of the ice mass transport had been revealed. Note that these features do not correspond to the traditional but still hypothetical notions (ideas of the monotonous and uniform spatial changes in the ice sheet dynamics. Using results of the long-term monitoring of the borehole coordinate axes at the Vostok station (down to 1920 m, east profile Vostok – Vostok 1 – Pionerskaya – Mirny (1409 km, down to the depth of 450 m, and analysis of radar sections, Russian specialists revealed the following: a the Antarctic ice sheet has stratified changes in speed and a fan-like change in the flow direction along the depth; b plastic firn layer has individual parameters of dynamics and actually flows down from more monolithic body of the ice sheet (the flow directions differ by 30–80°; c in some places inside the sheet, the underlying ice masses flow faster than the upper ones. Researchers from the United States and Denmark registered on the radar sections of the lowest third of the ice domes in the central regions of the Antarctica (AGAP and Greenland (NEEM some folded structures, which were not typical of ice sheets (vertical amplitude of the folds is about 400 m, inclination of the wings is about 45 degrees or more. The tectonic analysis we have performed allows making a conclusion that a genesis of these ice structures is identical to the diapir folds and to diapirs which are formed at a displacement of lower plastic ice masses by the upper monolithic ones, or to echelon folds of crumpling of lower ice layers at their faster flow along original bed as compared with the overlying ice mass. This makes possible to suggest that a turbulent ice flow can occur in the spacious near-bottom and the most plastic area, and a model of the ice sheet dynamics is considered as extruding of

  16. Modelling of temperature in deep boreholes and evaluation of geothermal heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta; Sundberg, Anders (GEO INNOVA AB, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    This report presents modelling of temperature and temperature gradients in boreholes in Laxemar and Forsmark and fitting to measured temperature data. The modelling is performed with an analytical expression including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat flow, internal heat generation and climate events in the past. As a result of the fitting procedure it is also possible to evaluate local heat flow values for the two sites. However, since there is no independent evaluation of the heat flow, uncertainties in for example thermal conductivity, diffusivity and the palaeoclimate temperature curve are transferred into uncertainties in the heat flow. Both for Forsmark and Laxemar, reasonably good fits were achieved between models and data on borehole temperatures. However, none of the general models achieved a fit within the 95% confidence intervals of the measurements. This was achieved in some cases for the additional optimised models. Several of the model parameters are uncertain. A good model fit does not automatically imply that 'correct' values have been used for these parameters. Similar model fits can be expected with different sets of parameter values. The palaeoclimatically corrected surface mean heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar is suggested to be 61 and 56 mW/m2 respectively. If all uncertainties are combined, including data uncertainties, the total uncertainty in the heat flow determination is judged to be within +12% to -14% for both sites. The corrections for palaeoclimate are quite large and verify the need of site-specific climate descriptions. Estimations of the current ground surface temperature have been made by extrapolations from measured temperature logging. The mean extrapolated ground surface temperature in Forsmark and Laxemar is estimated to 6.5 deg and 7.3 deg C respectively. This is approximately 1.7 deg C higher for Forsmark, and 1.6 deg C higher for Laxemar compared to data in the report SKB-TR-06-23. Comparison with

  17. Vesiculation of rhyolite magma in the IDDP-1 borehole at Krafla, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewick, Laura; Tuffen, Hugh; Owen, Jacqueline; Kennedy, Ben; Eichelberger, John; Zierenberg, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In 2009 the IDDP-1 borehole at Krafla, Iceland unexpectedly intersected rhyolitic magma at 2.1 km depth [1,2], providing unprecedented opportunities to investigate silicic melt formation and storage, and potential for powerful geothermal energy production. A key objective is to constrain the nature of the rhyolitic melt and its response to drilling. As no intact core was extracted, evidence is fragmental - from glassy rhyolitic clasts retrieved from the cuttings. These exhibit a range of glass colours, vesicularities and phenocryst contents [1,2]. Here we use benchtop infra-red spectroscopy and petrological microscopy to characterise the H2O concentrations and bubble number densities within diverse glassy clasts, complemented by 1 Atm bubble growth experiments with a heated stage to investigate vesicle growth. Juvenile glassy clasts were divided into three categories (brown>banded>very dark glass). H2O concentrations within clasts showed some spatial variability, with enrichment towards bubble-rich areas that may be resorption-related but could not be adequately characterised with a benchtop source. However, mean values ranged from 1.41-1.68 wt %, with no statistically significant difference between clast types. This is broadly consistent with previous studies [1,2]. Bubble growth rates in all clast types were determined during isothermal dwells at 600, 650 and 700 °C, for which bubbles grew at 0.03-0.09, 0.11-0.31, and 0.46-0.82 μm s-1 respectively. The highest growth rates were measured for the most water-rich clast analysed - a banded clast with mean H2O of 1.68 wt %, and initially-larger bubbles also grew more rapidly. Measured bubble number densities (BNDs) range from 10[11.7] m-3 in banded clasts to 10[13.1] m-3 in very dark clasts, corresponding to decompression rates of ~0.1-1 MPa/s [3], although experimentation on IDDP-1 magma is needed to properly calibrate BNDs as a decompression rate meter. Nonetheless, such decompression rates suggest nucleation

  18. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, W.; Dunn, S.D.; Walsh, R. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A large national cost is incurred in remediating near-surface contamination such as surface spills, leaking buried pipelines, and underground storage tank sites. Many of these sites can be contained and remediated using enhanced natural venting, capitalizing on barometric pumping. Barometric pumping is the cyclic movement experienced by soil gas due to oscillations in atmospheric pressure. Daily variations of 5 millibars are typical, while changes of 25 to 50 millibars can occur due to major weather front passage. The fluctuations can cause bulk vertical movement in soil gas ranging from centimeters to meters, depending on the amplitude of the pressure oscillation, soil gas permeability, and depth to an impermeable boundary such as the water table. Since the bulk gas movement is cyclic, under natural conditions no net advective vertical movement occurs over time. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., is developing an engineered system to capitalize on the oscillatory flow for soil contaminant remediation and containment. By design, the system allows normal upward movement of soil gas but restricts the downward movement during barometric highs. The earth`s surface is modified with a sealant and vent valve such that the soil gas flow is literally {open_quotes}ratcheted{close_quotes} to cause a net upward flow over time. A key feature of the design is that it does not require boreholes, resulting in a very low cost remediation effort and reduced personnel exposure risk. In the current phase (Phase I) the system`s performance is being evaluated. Static and transient analysis results are presented which illustrate the relative magnitude of this advective movement compared to downward contaminant diffusion rates. Calculations also indicate the depth of influence for various surface and soil configurations. The system design will be presented, as well as a cost assessment compared to conventional techniques.

  19. Seismic velocities and geologic logs from boreholes at three downhole arrays in San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Warrick, Richard E.; Liu, Hsi-Ping; Westerlund, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (1704 PST), has reinforced observations made by Wood and others (1908) after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, that poor ground conditions (soft soil) increase the likelihood of shaking damage to structures. Since 1908 many studies (for example Borcherdt, 1970, Borcherdt and Gibbs, 1976, Borcherdt and Glassmoyer, 1992) have shown that soft soils amplify seismic waves at frequencies that can be damaging to structures. Damage in the City of San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquake was concentrated in the Marina District, the Embarcadero, and the China Basin areas. Each of these areas, to some degree, is underlain by soft soil deposits. These concentrations of damage raise important questions regarding the amplification effects of such deposits at damaging levels of motion. Unfortunately, no strong-motion recordings were obtained in these areas during the Loma Prieta earthquake and only a limited number (< 10) have been obtained on other soft soil sites in the United States. Consequently, important questions exist regarding the response of such deposits during damaging earthquakes, especially questions regarding the nonlinear soil response. Towards developing a data set to address these important questions, borehole strong-motion arrays have been installed at three locations. These arrays consist of groups of wide-dynamic-range pore-pressure transducers and three-component accelerometers, the outputs of which are recorded digitally. The arrays are designed to provide an integrated set of data on ground shaking, liquifaction-induced ground failure, and structural response. This report describes the detailed geologic, seismic, and material-property determinations derived at each of these sites.

  20. Anomalous fluid emission of a deep borehole in a seismically active area of Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinicke, J., E-mail: heinicke@physik.tu-freiberg.de [Saechsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Arbeitsstelle an der TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Italiano, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Koch, U. [Saechsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Arbeitsstelle Bad Brambach, 09599 Bad Brambach (Germany); Martinelli, G. [ARPA Emilia Romagna, 42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Telesca, L. [Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, CNR, 85050 Tito (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The Miano borehole, 1047 m deep, is located close to the river Parma in the Northern Apennines, Italy. A measuring station has been installed to observe the discharge of fluids continuously since November 2004. The upwelling fluid of this artesian well is a mixture of thermal water and CH{sub 4} as main components. In non-seismogenic areas, a relatively constant fluid emission would be expected, perhaps overlaid with long term variations from that kind of deep reservoir over time. However, the continuous record of the fluid emission, in particular the water discharge, the gas flow rate and the water temperature, show periods of stable values interrupted by anomalous periods of fluctuations in the recorded parameters. The anomalous variations of these parameters are of low amplitude in comparison to the total values but significant in their long-term trend. Meteorological effects due to rain and barometric pressure were not detected in recorded data probably due to reservoir depth and relatively high reservoir overpressure. Influences due to the ambient temperature after the discharge were evaluated by statistical analysis. Our results suggest that recorded changes in fluid emission parameters can be interpreted as a mixing process of different fluid components at depth by variations in pore pressure as a result of seismogenic stress variation. Local seismicity was analyzed in comparison to the fluid physico-chemical data. The analysis supports the idea that an influence on fluid transport conditions due to geodynamic processes exists. Water temperature data show frequent anomalies probably connected with possible precursory phenomena of local seismic events.

  1. Logistical Support for the Installation of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS and Borehole Strainmeter Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnik, C.; Austin, K.; Coyle, B.; Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Walls, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008. Such a broad network presents significant logisitical challenges, including moving supplies, equipment, and personnel around 6 million square kilometers, and this requires accurate tracking and careful planning. The PBO logistics chain includes the PBO headquarters at UNAVCO in Boulder, Colorado and five regional offices in the continental United States and Alaska, served by dozens of suppliers spread across the globe. These offices are responsible for building and maintaining sites in their region. Most equipment and supplies first arrive in Boulder, where they are tagged and entered into a UNAVCO-wide equipment database, assembled and quality checked as necessary, and sent on to the appropriate regional office. Larger items which are costly to store and ship from Boulder, such as batteries or long sections of stainless steel pipe and bar required for monuments, are shipped directly from the supplier to each region as needed. These supplies and equipment are also tracked through the ordering, delivery, installation, and maintenance cycle via Earned Value Management techniques which allow us to meet NSF and other Federal procurement rules. Early prototypes and assembly configurations aid the development of material and supply budgets. A thorough understanding of Federal procurement rules at project start up is critical as the project moves forward.

  2. Preferential flow characterization in fractured aquifer by injecting dissolved oxygen in boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Michele; Donnaloia, Mietta; Masciopinto, Costantino; Pennetta, Luigi; Robbins, Gary; Vitale, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    A new approach to identify contributing fractures and wellbore flow in fractured and karst aquifers is presented. It is time efficient, low cost and based on a benign tracer: the dissolved oxygen (DO). The method was already applied by other scientists to test fractured crystalline rock wells. The DO method consists in elevating water DO concentration in a borehole by bubbling air at assigned water depths using a porous polypropylene tube (bubbler) connected to a compressed air tank with tubing. After the aeration, the resulting profile should be a linear increase in DO with depth due to the effects of water pressure on oxygen solubility. Any changes in the DO profile will be then observed when water flows into and through the well. DO dilution can be used to locate inflowing fractures and to define active flow zones in wells. If there is no change in the DO profile, a "dead zones" in the well is present, that is to say no flow is taking place or can be identified. The DO tests in this work have been carried out in the industrial area of Bari, at the experimental station, constituted by five wells drilled at the CNR-IRSA. The wells penetrate karstic limestone. Results show enhanced flow through at depths between 32 and 37 meters below the water level: DO concentrations decrease until they reach values close to 0 mg/l. DO curves show also the presence of inflowing fractures, as testified by the decrease in the DO concentrations due to the effects of water dilution, at depths of 4 and 9 meters (below the water table) in the north well, at 4 and 10 meters in the central well, and at 30 meters in the south well. The benefits of utilizing DO as a tracer include ease of accessibility, low cost and time-efficiency as well as non-toxic nature of the tracer and no impact on flow conditions.

  3. Regression methodology in groundwater composition estimation with composition predictions for Romuvaara borehole KR10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkonen, A.; Korkealaakso, J.; Pitkaenen, P. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy selected five investigation areas for preliminary site studies (1987Ae1992). The more detailed site investigation project, launched at the beginning of 1993 and presently supervised by Posiva Oy, is concentrated to three investigation areas. Romuvaara at Kuhmo is one of the present target areas, and the geochemical, structural and hydrological data used in this study are extracted from there. The aim of the study is to develop suitable methods for groundwater composition estimation based on a group of known hydrogeological variables. The input variables used are related to the host type of groundwater, hydrological conditions around the host location, mixing potentials between different types of groundwater, and minerals equilibrated with the groundwater. The output variables are electrical conductivity, Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, K, Fe, Cl, S, HS, SO{sub 4}, alkalinity, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 13}C, Al, Sr, F, Br and I concentrations, and pH of the groundwater. The methodology is to associate the known hydrogeological conditions (i.e. input variables), with the known water compositions (output variables), and to evaluate mathematical relations between these groups. Output estimations are done with two separate procedures: partial least squares regressions on the principal components of input variables, and by training neural networks with input-output pairs. Coefficients of linear equations and trained networks are optional methods for actual predictions. The quality of output predictions are monitored with confidence limit estimations, evaluated from input variable covariances and output variances, and with charge balance calculations. Groundwater compositions in Romuvaara borehole KR10 are predicted at 10 metre intervals with both prediction methods. 46 refs.

  4. Investigation of sulphide in core drilled boreholes KLX06, KAS03 and KAS09 at Laxemar and Aespoe Chemical-, microbiological- and dissolved gas data from groundwater in four borehole sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosdahl, Anette (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Pedersen, Karsten; Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden)); Wallin, Bill (Geokema AB (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report describes a study performed during 2009 which focused on the production of sulphide (microbial sulphate reduction) in deep groundwater that was implemented in the core drilled boreholes KLX06, -475 to 482 meter above sea level, m a s l, KAS03,-97 to 241 and -613 to 984 m a s l, and KAS09, -96 to -125 m a s l, at Laxemar and Aspo. The study aimed to increase knowledge of background groundwater levels of sulphide and its variations in time and space through the analysis of sulphide and parameters related to sulphide production. Sampling of groundwater was conducted in three core drilled boreholes of varying age as time series with continuous pumping and as single samples. The analysis program covered chemical parameters (pH, chloride, sulphate, iron, and organic carbon), dissolved gas composition, stable isotopes in groundwater (delta2H, delta18O, delta34S, delta13C), stable isotopes of gaseous compounds (delta2H, delta13C, delta18O), microbiological parameters (sulphate- and iron reducing bacteria, SRB and IRB), phthalates and low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOA). The sampling in KLX06 was carried out as time series with a 9 week pause in pumping. When the water volume discharged was about 150 times that of the packer-isolated borehole section, sulphides decreased from 7 mg L-1 to 0.05 mg L-1 and the salinity increased from 740 to 1,480 mg L-1. After a 9 weeks pause in pumping, the sulphide concentration and salinity again approached the original values, i.e. 7 mg L-1 of sulphide and 450 mg L-1 of chloride. The SRB and IRB showed high concentrations that were reduced during pumping in the borehole. The water in the standpipe which has a different water composition than the groundwater, also showed similar high concentrations of sulphide and SRB. The standpipe is a plastic pipe in the wider upper part of the borehole; connected with the tube from the packer of the borehole section and used to accommodate a filter and a groundwater pump when collecting

  5. Use of processed resistivity borehole imaging to assess the insoluble content of the massively bedded Preesall Halite NW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Evans, David J.

    2013-04-01

    With the decline of the UK's remaining conventional reserves of natural gas and associated growth of imports, the lack of adequate storage capacity is a matter of concern for ensuring energy security year-round. In a number of countries, subsurface caverns for gas storage have been created by solution mining of massive halite deposits and similar storage facilities are likely to become an important part of the UK's energy infrastructure. Crucial to the economic viability of such facilities is the percentage of insoluble material within the halite intervals, which influences strongly the relationship between cavern sump and working volumes: successful development of these caverns is dependent upon maximising the efficiency of cavern design and construction. The purity of a massive halite sequence can only be assessed either by direct means (i.e. coring) or indirectly by downhole geophysical logs The use of conventional geophysical logs in subsurface exploration is well established but literature generally relies on a very low resolution tools with a typical vertical logging sample interval of 15 centimetres. This means that such tools provide, at best, a "blurred" view of the sedimentary successions penetrated by the borehole and that discrete narrow bands of insoluble material will not be identifiable or distinguishable from zones of "dirtier" halite with disseminated mud materials. In 2008, Halite-Energy Group (formerly Canatxx Gas Storage Ltd) drilled the Burrows Marsh #1 borehole and acquired resistivity borehole imaging (FMI) logs through the Triassic Preesall Halite in the Preesall Saltfield, NW England. In addition to near full circumferal imaging capability, rather than a single measurement per increment, FMI logs allows millimetre to centimetre scale imaging of sedimentary features, that is one to two orders of magnitude higher vertical resolution. After binary segmentation of the FMI images to achieve a simple halite-insoluble ("mud") separation these were

  6. 3D reflection seismic imaging at the 2.5 km deep COSC-1 scientific borehole, central Scandinavian Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Peter; Almqvist, Bjarne; Berthet, Théo; Juhlin, Christopher; Buske, Stefan; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Krauß, Felix; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Alm, Per-Gunnar

    2016-10-01

    The 2.5 km deep scientific COSC-1 borehole (ICDP 5054-1-A) was successfully drilled with nearly complete core recovery during spring and summer of 2014. Downhole and on-core measurements through the targeted Lower Seve Nappe provide a comprehensive data set. An observed gradual increase in strain below 1700 m, with mica schists and intermittent mylonites increasing in frequency and thickness, is here interpreted as the basal thrust zone of the Lower Seve Nappe. This high strain zone was not fully penetrated at the total drilled depth and is thus greater than 800 m in thickness. To allow extrapolation of the results from downhole logging, core analysis and other experiments into the surrounding rock and to link these with the regional tectonic setting and evolution, three post-drilling high-resolution seismic experiments were conducted in and around the borehole. One of these, the first 3D seismic reflection land survey to target the nappe structures of the Scandinavian Caledonides, is presented here. It provides new information on the 3D geometry of structures both within the drilled Lower Seve Nappe and underlying rocks down to at least 9 km. The observed reflectivity correlates well with results from the core analysis and downhole logging, despite challenges in processing. Reflections from the uppermost part of the Lower Seve Nappe have limited lateral extent and varying dips, possibly related to mafic lenses or boudins of variable character within felsic rock. Reflections occurring within the high strain zone, however, are laterally continuous over distances of a kilometer or more and dip 10-15° towards the southeast. Reflections from structures beneath the high strain unit and the COSC-1 borehole can be followed through most of the seismic volume down to at least 9 km and have dips of varying degree, mainly in the east-west thrust direction of the orogen.

  7. Data Qualification Report: Flow Meter Survey Data From Borehole UE-25c#3 For Use On The Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Wilson

    2001-02-28

    This Data Qualification Report uses corroborating data methods according to Attachment 2 of AP-SIII.2Q, Rev. 00, ICN 3, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data'', to qualify flowing interval data from a borehole spinner log. This report was prepared in accordance with Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000005, Rev. 00. These data were collected under the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) document but are unqualified because unqualified software was used in data reduction. The unqualified flow log was run in Borehole UE-25c No.3 in 1995. Corroborative evidence is available from independent flow logs run in the same borehole in 1984 by an earlier investigator. This corroborative support is unusually strong because it represents a second measurement of the same data. The corroborating data agree well with the data being qualified and support the adequacy of the data. The unqualified software, the TERRASTATION code by Terrasciences Inc., is widely used and accepted by the technical community for non-project applications. The widespread acceptance of the software further supports the adequacy of the data. In view of the evidence provided by the corroborating data and general acceptance of the software, the Data Qualification Team has concluded that the flowing interval data considered in this report are adequate for generalized use. These data are qualified for use by the YMP and can be appropriately used in a wide variety of applications, so long as consideration is given to accuracy, precision, and representativeness of the data for an intended use in a technical product.

  8. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  9. Calculation of elastic properties in lower part of the Kola borehole from bulk chemical compositions of core samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babeyko, A.Yu.; Sobolev, S.V. [Shmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany); Sinelnikov, E.D. [Shmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Smirnov, Yu.P. [Scientific Center SG-3, Zapoliarniy (Russian Federation); Derevschikova, N.A. [Shmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-01

    In-situ elastic properties in deep boreholes are controlled by several factors, mainly by lithology, petrofabric, fluid-filled cracks and pores. In order to separate the effects of different factors it is useful to extract lithology-controlled part from observed in-situ velocities. For that purpose we calculated mineralogical composition and isotropic crack-free elastic properties in the lower part of the Kola borehole from bulk chemical compositions of core samples. We use a new technique of petrophysical modeling based on thermodynamic approach. The reasonable accuracy of the modeling is confirmed by comparison with the observations of mineralogical composition and laboratory measurements of density and elastic wave velocities in upper crustal crystalline rocks at high confining pressure. Calculations were carried out for 896 core samples from the depth segment of 6840-10535m. Using these results we estimate density and crack-free isotropic elastic properties of 554 lithology-defined layers composing this depth segment. Average synthetic P-wave velocity appears to be 2.7% higher than the velocity from Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP), and 5% higher than sonic log velocity. Average synthetic S-wave velocity is 1.4% higher than that from VSP. These differences can be explained by superposition of effects of fabric-related anisotropy, cracks aligned parallel to the foliation plain, and randomly oriented cracks, with the effects of cracks being the predominant control. Low sonic log velocities are likely caused by drilling-induced cracking (hydrofractures) in the borehole walls. The calculated synthetic density and velocity cross-sections can be used for much more detailed interpretations, for which, however, new, more detailed and reliable seismic data are required.

  10. Using borehole core analysis to reveal Late Quaternary paleoearthquakes along the Nankou-Sunhe Fault,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Nankou-Sunhe Fault is a buried active normal fault that traverses the urban area of Beijing.Its seismic risks have caused considerable concerns.This paper studies paleoearthquakes along this fault by analyzing and correlating bore-hole cores obtained from triple-tube coring,incorporating experience acquired from trenching.As a result,a model for identifying earthquake-derived colluvium by sediment-core analysis is proposed.Triple-tube coring technique is useful to collect continuous undis-turbed soil core near the Nankou-Sunhe Fault.By identifying fault-scarp colluviums,determining cumulative displacement,and analysing stratum thickening on the hanging wall,we are able to establish a preliminary paleoearthquake sequence consisting of 13 surface-rupturing events since 60 ka.The seismic history can be divided into three periods based on different recurrence intervals.Between 60 and 40 ka,three earthquakes occurred with recurrence interval of ~10 ka.From 40 to 25 ka,there were six earthquakes with the recurrence interval of about 2.5 ka.In the last 25 ka,four earthquakes have taken place with the recurrence interval varying considerably.The recurrence interval between the last three events is ~5 ka.Smaller recurrence intervals correspond to stages of faster fault slip.The coseismic displacement of a single event is 0.8 to 2.2 m,average 1.4 m,largely equivalent to moment magnitudes 6.7-7.1.This study demonstrates the feasibility of bore-hole drilling in investigating paleoearthquakes along normal faults.It also suggests that closely spaced boreholes with continuous undisturbed cores are essential for reconstructing the complete paleoearthquake sequence.

  11. Geophysical logs and water-quality data collected for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B, and a Kimama water supply well near Kimama, southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, a research consortium led by scientists from Utah State University began drilling the first of three continuously cored boreholes on the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho. The goals of this effort, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, are to study the interaction between the Earth's crust and mantle, to identify potential geothermal energy sources, and to track the evolution of the Yellowstone hotspot on the Snake River Plain. The first borehole, located near Kimama, Idaho, is about 50 miles southwest of the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory. Because geohydrologic data are scarce for that area of the central Snake River Plain, the Kimama borehole, completed in January 2011, provided a unique opportunity to collect geophysical and water-chemistry data from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, downgradient of the laboratory. Therefore, in conjunction with the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory Project Office conducted geophysical logging and collected water samples at the Kimama site. Wireline geophysical logs were collected for the diverging borehole, Kimama-1A and -1B, from land surface to 976 and 2,498 feet below land surface (BLS), respectively. Water samples were collected from Kimama-1A at depths near 460 and 830 feet BLS, and from the Kimama Water Supply (KWS) well located about 75 feet away. Geophysical log data included a composite of natural gamma, neutron, gamma-gamma dual density, and gyroscopic analysis for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B. Geophysical logs depicted eight sediment layers (excluding surficial sediment) ranging from 4 to 60 feet in thickness. About 155 individual basalt flows were identified, ranging from less than 3 feet to more than 175 feet in thickness (averaging 15 feet) for borehole Kimama-1B (0 to 2,498 feet BLS). Sediment and basalt contacts were selected based on geophysical traces and were confirmed

  12. Numerical correction of the phase error due to electromagnetic coupling effects in 1D EIT borehole measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zimmermann, E.; Huisman, J. A.; Treichel, A.; Wolters, B.; van Waasen, S.; Kemna, A.

    2012-12-01

    Spectral Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) allows obtaining images of the complex electrical conductivity for a broad frequency range (mHz to kHz). It has recently received increased interest in the field of near-surface geophysics and hydrogeophysics because of the relationships between complex electrical properties and hydrogeological and biogeochemical properties and processes observed in the laboratory with Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP). However, these laboratory results have also indicated that a high phase accuracy is required for surface and borehole EIT measurements because many soils and sediments are only weakly polarizable and show phase angles between 1 and 20 mrad. In the case of borehole EIT measurements, long cables and electrode chains (>10 meters) are typically used, which leads to undesired inductive coupling between the electric loops for current injection and potential measurement and capacitive coupling between the electrically conductive cable shielding and the soil. Depending on the electrical properties of the subsurface and the measured transfer impedances, both coupling effects can cause large phase errors that have typically limited the frequency bandwidth of field EIT measurement to the mHz to Hz range. The aim of this study is i) to develop correction procedures for these coupling effects to extend the applicability of EIT to the kHz range and ii) to validate these corrections using controlled laboratory measurements and field measurements. In order to do so, the inductive coupling effect was modeled using electronic circuit models and the capacitive coupling effect was modeled by integrating discrete capacitances in the electrical forward model describing the EIT measurement process. The correction methods were successfully verified with measurements under controlled conditions in a water-filled rain barrel, where a high phase accuracy of 2 mrad in the frequency range up to 10 kHz was achieved. In a field demonstration using

  13. Preliminary experience in the monitoring of geothermal probes by borehole logging; Erste Erfahrungen bei der bohrlochgeophysikalischen Ueberpruefung von Erdwaermesonden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Karsten [Bohrlochmessung-Storkow GmbH, Storkow (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Authorities as well as waterworks experts have long been calling for a control strategy to ensure that groundwater protection is considered in geothermal projects. So far, control options for geothermal probes were lacking, which raised doubts about the efficiency of sealing. Waterworks experts also were unable to understand why new groundwater wells or groundwater measuring fonts are subject to careful control via geophysical borehole logs while geothermal probes with a depth of 100 m and more can be installed nearby without adequate monitoring. The contribution presents a preliminary approach for monitoring and testing of shallow geothermal probes. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of past surface temperature reconstructions based on the tree-ring chronologies and borehole temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, O. V.; Nikitaev, V. G.; Pronichev, A. N.; Tyuflin, S. A.; Bukharova, T. I.

    2016-06-01

    There have been done many past surface temperature reconstructions based on the temperature measurements in rock and glacier boreholes. However, the reliability of these reconstructions connected with the uniqueness and stability properties is not studied. We carried out the reconstruction by search of the past surface temperature in form of the finite set of the Fourier series that provides the unique and stable solution. The tree-ring chronologies are used as the high-resolution proxy climate indicator to find out the dominant periods of the Fourier series. The Tikhonov regularization method is applied to solve the inverse problem.

  15. Biometric analysis of the Arkhangelskiella group in the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian of the stevns-1 borehole, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomy of the calcareous nannofossil Arkhangelskiella is revised using the results of a biometric analysis performed on 599 specimens from various stratigraphic levels throughout the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian of the Stevns-1 borehole, Denmark. Combined qualitative labelling and biometric...... in the coccolith length and in the rim width, and that the central opening is an important additional parameter allowing distinction between the different morphogroups. Biometric analysis shows, however, that the morphogroups are strongly overlapping on all measured parameters. Therefore, the three distinct...

  16. Transients in Pacific/North American Plate Boundary Deformation: Synthesis and Modeling of GPS and Borehole Strain Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Frey, H. V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report on research conducted between 1 June 1997 and 14 September 2001 entitled "Transients in Pacific/North American plate boundary deformation: Synthesis and modeling of GPS and borehole strain observations." As the project title implies, our effort involved a geodetic study of strain transients, i.e., temporal variations in deformation rates, that occur within plate boundary zones and their relationship to earthquakes and plate motions. Important transients occur during and following large earthquakes, and there are also strain transients not apparently associated with earthquakes. A particularly intriguing class of transients, for which there is a modest but growing list of examples, are preseismic anomalies. Such earthquake precursors, if further documented and understood, would have obvious importance for earthquake hazard mitigation. Because the timescales for these diverse transients range over at least 6 orders of magnitude (minutes to years), no single geodetic technique is optimum. We therefore undertook a systematic synthesis of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) and borehole strainmeter data in three areas in California where there are adequate numbers of both types of instruments (or their equivalent): the San Francisco Bay region (within the Bay Area Regional Deformation network), southern California (within the Southern California Integrated GPS Network), and Parkfield (where a two-color laser system provides a proxy for continuous GPS measurements). An integral component of our study was the elucidation of the physical mechanisms by which such transients occur and propagate. We therefore initiated the development of multiple forward models, using two independent approaches. In the first, we explored the response to specified earthquake slip in viscoelastic models that incorporated failure criteria and the geometry of major faults in California. In the second approach, we examined the dynamical response of a complex

  17. Seismic imaging in the eastern Scandinavian Caledonides: siting the 2.5 km deep COSC-2 borehole, central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Hedin, Peter; Gee, David G.; Lorenz, Henning; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project, a contribution to the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), aims to provide a deeper understanding of mountain belt dynamics. Scientific investigations include a range of topics, from subduction-related tectonics to the present-day hydrological cycle. COSC investigations and drilling activities are focused in central Scandinavia, where rocks from the middle to lower crust of the orogen are exposed near the Swedish-Norwegian border. Here, rock units of particular interest occur in the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) of the so-called Middle Allochthon and include granulite facies migmatites (locally with evidence of ultra-high pressures) and amphibolite facies gneisses and mafic rocks. This complex overlies greenschist facies metasedimentary rocks of the dolerite-intruded Sarv Nappes and underlying, lower grade Jamtlandian Nappes (Lower Allochthon). Reflection seismic profiles have been an important component in the activities to image the subsurface structure in the area. Subhorizontal reflections in the upper 1-2 km are underlain and interlayered with strong west- to northwest-dipping reflections, suggesting significant east-vergent thrusting. Two 2.5 km deep fully cored boreholes are a major component of the project, which will improve our understanding of the subsurface structure and tectonic history of the area. Borehole COSC-1 (IGSN: http://hdl.handle.net/10273/ICDP5054EEW1001), drilled in the summer of 2014, targeted the subduction-related Seve Nappe Complex and the contact with the underlying allochthon. The COSC-2 borehole will be located further east and will investigate the lower grade, mainly Cambro-Silurian rocks of the Lower Allochthon, the Jamtlandian decollement, and penetrate into the crystalline basement rocks to identify the source of some of the northwest-dipping reflections. A series of high-resolution seismic profiles have been acquired along a composite ca

  18. An electromagnetic sounding experiment in Germany using the vertical gradient of geomagnetic variations observed in a deep borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Ulrich; Spitzer, Klaus; Steveling, Erich

    2009-09-01

    We have recorded for 13 d, geomagnetic variations simultaneously on the Earth's surface and in a borehole at 832 m depth straight below, with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. In addition, geoelectric variations were observed at the same site near Bad Königshofen in Frankonia, Germany. The penetrated moderately conductive Triassic sediments lie above highly resistive Permian deposits. A presumably crystalline basement begins at 1500-1900 m depth. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the skin effect of geomagnetic variations and to derive from it the equivalent to the magnetotelluric (MT) surface impedance, using the vertical gradient (VG) method of electromagnetic (EM) sounding. In this way, we were able to reproduce all four elements of the MT impedance tensor, except for an unexplained but consistent downward shift of VG phases against MT phases by roughly 15° for the two off-diagonal elements. Hence, our tensor evaluation goes beyond the common practice, to express the skin effect by a single VG transfer function in response to a layered structure. The otherwise good agreement of VG and MT results implies that at our test site, the MT impedance tensor is largely distortion-free and that, for example, its pronounced anisotropy should be regarded as a genuine characteristic of the EM response for a laterally non-uniform or possibly anisotropic deep structure. The drilling site lies within the range of a widespread induction anomaly. We have observed the resulting variations of the vertical magnetic component at the surface and in the borehole and found them to be identical. The thus established absence of a skin effect for the vertical component allows us to treat the sedimentary layer down to the depth of the borehole instrument as a thin sheet, and the pertinent thin-sheet approximation for EM induction forms the basis of our analysis. We have derived the required estimate of conductance from the skin effect of horizontal components, noting that this estimate

  19. Hydraulic resistance to movement of a drill suspended by a cable in a bore-hole in travels

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiliev,N.I./Kudryashov, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    Equations are given for calculation of the hydraulic resistance force to movement of a drill suspended by cable and the speed of its movement as a function of the dimension and mass of the drill and properties of the hole liquid. The most significant factor influencing the hydraulic resistance during drill movement in the hole is the radial clearance between the drill and bore-hole walls. The methods of experimental study of the drill movement on the laboratory stand are described. The result...

  20. Borehole Heat Exchanger Systems: Hydraulic Conductivity and Frost-Resistance of Backfill Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbergen, Hauke; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are economic solutions for both, domestic heating energy supply, as well as underground thermal energy storage (UTES). Over the past decades the technology developed to complex, advanced and highly efficient systems. For an efficient operation of the most common type of UTES, borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems, it is necessary to design the system for a wide range of carrier fluid temperatures. During heat extraction, a cooled carrier fluid is heated up by geothermal energy. This collected thermal energy is energetically used by the heat pump. Thereby the carrier fluid temperature must have a lower temperature than the surrounding underground in order to collect heat energy. The steeper the thermal gradient, the more energy is transferred to the carrier fluid. The heat injection case works vice versa. For fast and sufficient heat extraction, even over long periods of heating (winter), it might become necessary to run the BHE with fluid temperatures below 0°C. As the heat pump runs periodically, a cyclic freezing of the pore water and corresponding ice-lens growth in the nearfield of the BHE pipes becomes possible. These so called freeze-thaw-cycles (FTC) are a critical state for the backfill material, as the sealing effect eventually decreases. From a hydrogeological point of view the vertical sealing of the BHE needs to be secured at any time (e.g. VDI 4640-2, Draft 2015). The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the BHE is influenced not only by the permeability of the grouting material itself, but by the contact area between BHE pipes and grout. In order to assess the sealing capacity of grouting materials a laboratory testing procedure was developed that measures the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the system BHE pipe and grout. The key features of the procedure are: • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity after simulation of freeze-thaw-cycle

  1. Very deep borehole. Deutag's opinion on boring, canister emplacement and retrievability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Tim [Well Engineering Partners BV, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    An engineering feasibility study has been carried out to determine whether or not it is possible to drill the proposed Very Deep Borehole concept wells required by SKB for nuclear waste disposal. A conceptual well design has been proposed. All aspects of well design have been considered, including drilling tools, rig design, drilling fluids, casing design and annulus isolation. The proposed well design is for 1168.4 mm hole to be drilled to 500 m. A 1066.8 mm outer diameter (OD) casing will be run and cemented. A 1016 mm hole will be drilled to approximately 2000 m, where 914.4 mm OD casing will be run. This annulus will be sealed with bentonite slurry apart from the bottom 100 m which will be cemented. 838.2 mm hole will be drilled to a final depth of 4000 m, where 762 mm OD slotted casing will be run. All the hole sections will be drilled using a downhole hammer with foam as the drilling fluid medium. Prior to running each casing string, the hole will be displaced to mud to assist with casing running and cementing. The waste canisters will be run on a simple J-slot tool, with integral backup system in case the J-slot fails. The canisters will all be centralised. Canisters can be retrieved using the same tool as used to run them. Procedures are given for both running and retrieving. Logging and testing is recommended only in the exploratory wells, in a maximum hole size of 311.1 mm. This will require the drilling of pilot holes to enable logging and testing to take place. It is estimated that each well will take approximately 137 days to drill and case, at an estimated cost of 4.65 Meuro per well. This time and cost estimate does not include any logging, testing, pilot hole drilling or time taken to run the canisters. New technology developments to enhance the drilling process are required in recyclable foam systems, in hammer bit technology, and in the development of robust under-reamers. It is the authors conclusion that it is possible to drill the well with

  2. Modelling the Interaction of Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers in Shallow Geothermal Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, H.; Schelenz, S.; Kist, N.; Shim, B. O.; Bucher, A.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    The utilization of Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) to transfer heat from the shallow subsurface has been a common practice for the Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system. To represent realistic application scenarios for numerical simulations of such systems, saturated and unsaturated conditions as well as heterogeneous soil properties have to be considered. Analytical solutions such as the Moving Finite Line Source (MFLS) model are not flexible enough to capture the full dynamics of the system. Furthermore, application examples with a high density of installed BHEs exist. There, temperature plumes produced by the individual BHEs may start to interact with each other and lead to lower thermal output. To simulate this interaction, a dual continuum approach has been implemented into the open-source FEM simulator OpenGeoSys (OGS). The model is capable of simulating the temperature evolution around the BHE, with the consideration of both saturated and unsaturated groundwater flow processes in the surrounding soil. Instead of imposing Dirichlet or Neumann type of boundary condition at the location of a BHE, the newly developed model allows the user to specify inflow refrigerant temperature and flow rate as the driving force of heat transport. In a benchmark with homogeneous soil properties and fully saturated condition, temperature evolution predicted by the numerical model has been verified against MFLS analytical solution. In a second benchmark, the model simulated outflow temperature is validated by comparing to field measured data from a Thermal Response Test (TRT), provided by the Korean Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) in Dajeon, South Korea. After simulating several shallow geothermal scenarios of multiple BHEs operating in close vicinity, we find that the super-imposed MFLS based analytical solution predicts similar temperature distribution, provided the heat extraction from each BHE is relatively low. However, when the heat exchange rate is

  3. Approach to increasing the quality of pressure-relieved gas drained from protected coal seam using surface borehole and its industrial application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingke Liu; Fubao Zhou; Jianlong Wang; Jun Liu

    2015-01-01

    During mining of lower protective coal seam, a surface borehole can efficiently extract not only the pressure-relieved gas from the protected layer, but also the gas from the mining layer gob. If the distance between the borehole and gob is too large, the quantity of gas drained from the protected layer decreases substantially. To solve this problem, a mathematical model for extracting pressure-relieved gas from a protected coal seam using a surface borehole was established, based on the radial gas flow theory and law of conservation of energy. The key factors influencing the quantity of gas and the drainage flow network using a surface borehole were presented. The results show that the quantity of pressure-relieved gas drained from the protected layer can be significantly increased by increasing the flow resistance of the borehole bottom. Application of this method in the Wulan Coal Mine of the Shenhua Group significantly increased the flow of pure gas and the gas concentration (by factors of 1.8 and 2.0, respectively), thus demonstrating the remarkable effects of this method.

  4. Analysis of geophysical logs from six boreholes at Lariat Gulch, former U.S. Air Force site PJKS, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hodges, Richard E.; Corland, Barbara S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and describes geophysical logs for six boreholes in Lariat Gulch, a topographic gulch at the former U.S. Air Force site PJKS in Jefferson County near Denver, Colorado. Geophysical logs include gamma, normal resistivity, fluid-column temperature and resistivity, caliper, televiewer, and heat-pulse flowmeter. These logs were run in two boreholes penetrating only the Fountain Formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age (logged to depths of about 65 and 570 feet) and in four boreholes (logged to depths of about 342 to 742 feet) penetrating mostly the Fountain Formation and terminating in Precambrian crystalline rock, which underlies the Fountain Formation. Data from the logs were used to identify fractures and bedding planes and to locate the contact between the two formations. The logs indicated few fractures in the boreholes and gave no indication of higher transmissivity in the contact zone between the two formations. Transmissivities for all fractures in each borehole were estimated to be less than 2 feet squared per day.

  5. Influence of pressure conditions and back-filling materials on the durability of bore-hole ground loops; Lebensdauer von Erdwaermesonden in Bezug auf Druckverhaeltnisse und Hinterfuellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, R. [E. Rohner, Arnegg (Switzerland); Rybach, L.; Salton, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ), Institut fuer Geophysik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the influence of the relatively high pressures found in ground loops at depths of more than 200 metres and the effects caused by overloading the ground loops. The latter can cause the back-filling between the ground loop and the surrounding rock to freeze. The report describes tests carried out on 70-metre and 265-metre deep test bore-hole installations. The results of investigations into the influence of such pressure conditions on the materials of the ground loop and their service life are presented. The results are also compared with simulations using the FRACTure and EED calculation programmes. Details are given on the bore-holes with respect to their geology and construction. The report concludes that bore-hole ground loops can be considered as being very robust components with a long service life, provided they are designed and installed according to accepted professional standards.

  6. Umbrella-type borehole heat exchangers with a high heat transfer - first practical experience; Regenschirmerdwaermesonde mit hohem Waermeuebergang - Erste Erfahrungen aus der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, C. [NEK Umwelttechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    A building at Zumikon (near Zurich) was redeveloped using novel borehole heat exchangers. The so-called `umbrella` borehole heat exchangers are connected to a brine-to-water heat pump operated with ammonia as a refrigerant. The new type of unit performs distinctly better than the usual double-U borehole heat exchangers, as has been verified by measurements. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer eine Gebaeudesanierung in Zumikon (Umgebung von Zuerich) wurden neuartige Erdwaermesonden verwendet. Die sogenannten `Regenschirmerdwaermesonden` sind mit einer Sole-Wasser-Waermepumpe verbunden, welche mit dem Kaeltemittel Ammoniak betrieben wird. Die bislang durchgefuehrten Messungen an der Anlage zeigen, dass dank der neuen Sondentechnik im Vergleich zu herkoemmlichen Doppel-U-Sonden deutlich hoehere Leistungen erzielt werden. (orig.)

  7. Use of Borehole-Radar Methods to Monitor a Steam-Enhanced Remediation Pilot Study at a Quarry at the Former Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Colette; Joesten, Peter K.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2007-01-01

    Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography surveys were used in conjunction with conventional borehole-geophysical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of borehole-radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through fractured bedrock. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), conducted surveys in an abandoned limestone quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base during a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation (SER) pilot project conducted by the USEPA, the U.S. Air Force, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection to study the viability of SER to remediate non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in fractured bedrock. Numerical modeling and field experiments indicate that borehole-radar methods have the potential to monitor the presence of steam and to measure large temperature changes in the limestone matrix during SER operations. Based on modeling results, the replacement of water by steam in fractures should produce a decrease in radar reflectivity (amplitude of the reflected wave) by a factor of 10 and a change in reflection polarity. In addition, heating the limestone matrix should increase the bulk electrical conductivity and decrease the bulk dielectric permittivity. These changes result in an increase in radar attenuation and an increase in radar-wave propagation velocity, respectively. Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography data were collected in two boreholes using 100-megahertz antennas before the start of steam injection, about 10 days after the steam injection began, and 2 months later, near the end of the injection. Fluid temperature logs show that the temperature of the fluid in the boreholes increased by 10?C (degrees Celsius) in one borehole and 40?C in the other; maximum temperatures were measured near the bottom of the boreholes. The results of the numerical modeling were used to interpret the borehole-radar data. Analyses of the

  8. Cross-polarization borehole radar system with a RF analog optical transmission link. Hikaridenso ni yoru chokko henpa bore hole radar keisoku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, T.; Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    The cross-polarization borehole radar system (BRS) was reported. The RF analogue optical transmission system (using the optical fiber cable) was introduced into the signal transmission between the sonde and the surface station to broaden the band and to heighten the S/N ratio. The sonde consisted of cable head (to transmit the trigger signal), receiving antenna, and transmitting antenna. The transmitting antenna was excited by the trigger signal from the surface to generate the pulse by the pulse generator. The signal received by the receiving antenna was sent to the oscilloscope on the surface. The field test of cross-polarization borehole system revealed that the effect of noise associated with the BRS employing the eccentric cable did not appear on the BRS. Examples of field test of the cross-polarization borehole measurement system employing the BRS were described. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Microbial borehole observatories deployed within the oceanic crust: Design considerations and initial results from long-term colonization experiments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bach, W.; Becker, K.; Fisher, A. T.; Hulme, S.; Toner, B. M.; Wheat, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    Borehole observatories developed for long-term sampling and monitoring in the subseafloor of the deep ocean must satisfy design and operation requirements that are similar to systems deployed on land. Many of these systems are used to achieve simultaneous hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological goals, requiring innovative design, installation, and operation. There are major logistical challenges for subseafloor observatories, the foremost being having to remotely access sites kilometers underwater using multiple oceanographic platforms (drill ship, surface ship, submersible, remotely-operated vehicle) and reliance on autonomous devices that are serviced only after several years. Contamination of the analytical environment is probable during installation operations, requiring vigilance during analysis for interpretation. Subseafloor observatories also require self-contained and robust instrumentation that can withstand long-term exposure to seawater at high pressures, elevated temperatures, a variety of redox conditions, and little to no access to external power. Although subseafloor borehole observatories have been in development for hydrologic monitoring for two decades, the inclusion of experimentation to examine the deep biosphere in the marine subsurface has only recently been developed. Results from some of the first microbial colonization experiments in young basaltic rocks on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge demonstrate in situ microbial-mineral interactions that can be identified using complementary geochemical and microbiological techniques. Mineral surfaces were first colonized by iron oxidizing bacteria, and as fluid composition changed, the microbial community became dominated by Firmicutes bacteria, some of which are phylogenetically similar to microbial communities observed in the terrestrial deep biosphere.

  10. Evaluation of borehole geophysical and video logs, at Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, D.J.; Conger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1996 and November 2000, geophysical logging was conducted in 27 open borehole wells in and adjacent to the Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pa., to determine casing depth and depths of water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, and zones of vertical borehole flow. The wells range in depth from 57 to 319 feet below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so that the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, fluid-temperature, and video logs. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, and fluid-resistivity logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy.

  11. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the fourth in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a slant borehole installed beneath tank SX-108 (or simply SX-108 slant borehole).

  12. Borehole geophysical monitoring of amendment emplacement and geochemical changes during vegetable oil biostimulation, Anoka County Riverfront Park, Fridley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jr., John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.; Kochiss, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a series of geophysical investigations to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient from the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The pilot project was undertaken by the U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division, for the purpose of evaluating biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil was introduced to the subsurface to serve as substrate for naturally occurring microbes, which ultimately break down chlorinated hydrocarbons into chloride, carbon dioxide, and water through oxidation-reduction reactions. In support of this effort, the USGS collected cross-borehole radar data and conventional borehole geophysical data in five site visits over 1.5 years to evaluate the effectiveness of geophysical methods for monitoring emplacement of the vegetable oil emulsion and for tracking changes in water chemistry. Radar zero-offset profile (ZOP) data, radar traveltime tomograms, electromagnetic (EM) induction logs, natural gamma logs, neutron porosity logs, and magnetic susceptibility logs were collected and analyzed.

  13. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, T. [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  14. Electrical Properties of amphiboles from the Kola super deep borehole, Russia, at mantle pressure and temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, G.; Gorbatsevich, Felix

    2012-07-01

    We present here for the first time, the temperature and pressure dependence of the electrical resistivity of ferro-actinolite amphibole from the World's deepest