WorldWideScience

Sample records for boreholes

  1. Borehole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature derived from boreholes drilled into the Earth crust. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional summary...

  2. On Boreholes and PBO Borehole Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, M. T.; Mee, M. W.

    2003-12-01

    Borehole tensor strainmeters (GTSM) installed in Australia and California have established a baseline of data spanning more than twenty years. The current baseline of data allows characterisation of a moderate number of instruments in a range of very different environments in a way which defines reasonable performance expectations for the upcoming PBO deployments. A generic understanding of effects which result from the process of installation of the instrument in a stressed rock mass emerges. This indicates that, provided due allowance is made for experimentally determined borehole recovery effects, the contribution of borehole strain meters more than adequately fills the observational gap between high stability/long term geodetic measurements of strain and strain rates and high resolution/high frequency seismic observations of earth deformation processes. The various strain relief processes associated with the installation procedures and borehole recovery effects associated with pre-existing stress fields will be documented. Procedures for calibration of the total borehole inclusion and for progressive removal of effects due to rock anisotropy and visco-elastic creep of the grout and rock close to the borehole from far field tectonic effects will be defined and illustrated with examples. Observed deviations from these processes will be shown to be small and consistent with otherwise observed or implied fault motions. Full details of these borehole induced processes are, however, difficult to determine in the early years following installation, particularly if there is significant tectonic activity at the time. Once quantified for each site, the effects can be robustly removed from data streams.

  3. Geophysical borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  4. Identifying borehole geology projects

    OpenAIRE

    Brearley, S.D.

    2004-01-01

    Over the years, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has amassed a large collection of paper borehole logs from a variety of sources in the UK. This has partly occurred in response to various legal statutes requiring companies to lodge copies of this information with the BGS, as well as resulting from commercial storage contracts and voluntary donations. These hardcopy records, together with other geological and contextual documents, comprise BGS’ National Geological Records Cen...

  5. Directional borehole antenna - Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A directional antenna has been developed for the borehole radar constructed during phase 2 of the Stripa project. The new antenna can determine the azimuth of a strong reflector with an accuracy of about 3 degrees as confirmed during experiments in Stripa, although the ratio of borehole diameter to wavelength is small, about 0.03. The antenna synthesizes the effect of a loop antenna rotating in the borehole from four signals measured in turn by a stationary antenna. These signals are also used to calculate an electric dipole signal and a check sum which is used to examine the function of the system. The theory of directional antennas is reviewed and used to design an antenna consisting of four parallel wires. The radiation pattern of this antenna is calculated using transmission line theory with due regard to polarization, which is of fundamental importance for the analysis of directional data. In particular the multipole expansion of the field is calculated to describe the antenna radiation pattern. Various sources of error, e.g. the effect of the borehole, are discussed and the methods of calibrating the antenna are reviewed. The ambiguity inherent in a loop antenna can be removed by taking the phase of the signal into account. Typical reflectors in rock, e.g. fracture zones an tunnels, may be modelled as simple geometrical structures. The corresponding analysis is described and exemplified on measurements from Stripa. Radar data is nowadays usually analyzed directly on the computer screen using the program RADINTER developed within the Stripa project. An algorithm for automatic estimation of the parameters of a reflector have been tested with some success. The relation between measured radar data and external coordinates as determined by rotational indicators is finally expressed in terms of Euler angles. (au)

  6. Control system for borehole tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordon, E.E.

    1987-03-10

    A control assembly is described for use with a tool including one or more subassemblies adapted for controlling and/or monitoring various events within a borehole and actuating instrumentation positioned on the earth's surface for actuating the tool. The assembly comprises: control means connected to the tool for selectively actuating one or more of the subassemblies within the tool, the control means being adapted for operation within the borehole, power supply means connected to the tool for supplying electrical power to the control means for operation thereof independent of the surface actuating instrumentation, communication means connected to the surface actuating instrumentation for communicating therewith, and connection means for selectively connecting the communication means to the control means while the tool and the control means connected thereto are within the borehole to establish communication between the control means and the surface actuating instrumentation. The connection means is adapted for operation within the borehole.

  7. Safety valve for offshore borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, H.L.; Randermann, E. Jr.; Musik, O.J.

    1977-10-06

    The invention concerns a new and improved submarine safety valve with a valve element which rotate, which can be used, in emergencies, to separate the wound-up piping which extends into the borehole and to close the production line.

  8. Exploratory borehole Leuggern: geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Leuggern borehole was drilled in the Plateau Jura of Canton Aargau. The drill-site lies on land administered by the borough of Leuggern, and is located some 13 km to the north of Brugg. Drilling work lasted from July 9, 1984, until February 10, 1985. Isolated short sections were drilling using a centre-bit, but otherwise a roller-bit was used exclusively and the sedimentary cover and crystalline basement were cored virtually continuously down to the maximum depth of 1688.90 m. The 22.26 m thick sedimentary succession is subdivided into Quarternary, Upper, Middle and Lower Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein. The Upper Muschelkalk includes approximately 10 m of Trigonodus Dolomite in fully dolomitised Plattenkalk-facies. The Lower Muschelkalk is developed in its typical uniform mud-marl facies. The basement lies beneath the Bundsandstein, which rests in sharply discordant contact above the basement. The crystalline basement at Leuggern was overprinted by several post-metamorphic, post-granitic, tectonic-hydrothermal events. Later events are recorded by solution cavities and mineral fracture fillings which grew freely into open fractures. Despite problems with orientation of the core sketches, structural analyses yielded interesting results. The following petrophysical parameters were determined for the various basement lithologies: rock and grain density; total and effective porosity; internal and external specific surface and thermal conductivity. The effect of the hydrothermal alteration on these parameters is generally considerable. The location of water inflow was accomplished by means of 'fluid logging' and core inspection. A total of 35 inflow points were registered, of which 29 were clearly identifiable on the core itself. Four different types of flow systems could be characterised. (author) 22 tabs., 109 refs

  9. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Exploratory borehole Kaisten. Geology - appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kaisten borehole was the fifth (after Boettstein, Weiach, Riniken and Schafisheim) in Nagra's deep drilling programme in Northern Switzerland. It is located within the community of Kaisten, Canton Aargau, approximately 3 km south-west of Laufenburg railway station. The final depth of the borehole was 1306 m. Drilling began on 13th February 1984, continued up to 27th June 1984 and was carried out almost exclusively using the conventional rotary drilling method. With the exception of a 5.5 m-long section in the Muschelkalk and two shallow centering boreholes, the whole drilled section was cored. From a depth of 321.5 m in the Crystalline, removal of cores was done by wire core drilling. The wide range of field and laboratory investigations carried out included stratigraphic-sedimentological and mineralogical-petrographic programmes, as well as different petrophysical, geochemical and isotope geochemistry investigation. This report is a summary of all data acquired up to the end of December 1986. Beneath a sedimentary cover just 300 m thick, with Muschelkalk at the top and Permian at the base, the Kaisten borehole entered the crystalline basement at a depth of 296.5 m; investigations were carried out down to a depth of 1306 m. (author) 55 figs., 42 tabs

  11. Detecting a fluid-filled borehole using elastic waves from a remote borehole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoming; Cao, Jingji; Li, Zhen; Su, Yuanda

    2016-08-01

    The interaction of a fluid-filled borehole with incident elastic waves is an important topic for downhole acoustic measurements. By analyzing the wave phenomena of this problem, one can simulate the detection of a borehole target using a source-receiver system in a remote borehole. The analysis result shows that the wave signals from the target borehole are of sufficient amplitude even though the borehole size is small compared to wavelength. Consequently, the target borehole can be detected when the two boreholes are far away from each other. The result can be utilized to provide a method for testing downhole acoustic imaging tools. PMID:27586782

  12. MWD tool for deep, small diameter boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buytaert, J.P.R.; Duckworth, A.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring a drilling parameters while drilling a borehole in an earth formation, wherein the borehole includes a small diameter deep borehole portion and a large diameter upper borehole portion. It includes small diameter drillstring means for drilling the deep borehole portion; sensor means, disposed within the small diameter drillstring means, for measuring a drilling parameter characteristic of the deep portion of the borehole while drilling the deep portion of the borehole and for providing sensor output signals indicative of the measured parameter; an upper drillstring portion extending between the surface of the formation and the small diameter drillstring means, the upper drillstring portion including a large diameter drillstring portion; data transmission means disposed within the large diameter drillstring portion and responsive to the sensor output.

  13. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  14. High-temperature borehole instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

    1985-10-01

    A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Exploratory borehole Weiach. Working programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive geophysical borehole logging programme will serve to verify the results of the core analysis and comlement the core data. Numerous borehole logs are to be registered with different types of tools. These allow one to determine various parameters essential for the full description of the rock sequences penetrated. A first category of logs enables the petrographical identification of the different rock types and indicates porous zones that are either water- or hydrocarbon bearing. A second category provides data e.g. on the degree of pore and fracture fill, rock density and rock temperature, natural gamma radiation and rock-mechanical properties. Other logs measure strike and dip of the sedimentary layers and the position of rock fractures. A fourth category provides information on the diameter and the deviation of the borehole, the quality of casing cementations and the position of casing joints. In addition, well shooting surveys will supply exact values of seismic velocities for the various rock units; data that are needed for the depth correction of the reflection profiles from Nagra's regional seismic network. With numerous hydrological tests ranging from an open-hole production test of the Muschelkalk aquifer to labelled slug tests in low-permeability crystalline sections, the hydraulic conditions of deep groundwater flow will be investigated. The recovered water samples will undergo full physical and geochemical analysis. Furthermore, their isotope content is to be measured in order to estimate the age of the various formation waters. To round off the scientific investigations, a series of rock-mechanical and geotechnical laboratory tests will provide characteristic values to be applied eventually in the design and construction of shafts and caverns for an underground repository

  16. Exploratory borehole Riniken. Working programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive geophysical borehole logging programme will serve to verify the results of the core analysis and comlement the core data. Numerous borehole logs are to be registered with different types of tools. These allow one to determine various parameters essential for the full description of the rock sequences penetrated. A first category of logs enables the petrographical identification of the different rock types and indicates porous zones that are either water- or hydrocarbon-bearing. A second category provides data e.g. on the degree of pore and fracture fill, rock density and rock temperature, natural gamma radiation and rock-mechanical properties. Other logs measure strike and dip of the sedimentary layers and the position of rock fractures. A forth category provides information on the diameter and the deviation of the borehole, the quality of casing cementations and the position of casing joints. In addition, well shooting surveys will supply exact values of seismic velocities for the various rock units; data that are needed for the depth correction of the reflection profiles from Nagra's regional seismic network. With numerous hydrological tests ranging from a production test of the Muschelkalk aquifer to labelled slug tests in low-permeability crystalline sections, the hydraulic conditions of deep groundwater flow will be investigated. The recovered water samples will undergo full physical and geochemical analysis. Furthermore, their isotope content is to be measured in order to estimate the age of the various formation waters and their time of residence in the subsurface. To round off the scientific investigations, a series of rock-mechanical and geotechnical laboratory tests will provide characteristic values to be applied eventually in the design and construction of shafts and caverns for an underground repository

  17. Exploratory borehole Leuggern. Working program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive geophysical borehole logging programme will serve to verify the results of the core analysis and complement the core data. Numerous borehole logs are to be registered with different types of tools. These allow one to determine various parameters essential for the full description of the rock sequences penetrated. A first category of logs enables the petrographical identification of the different rock types and indicates porous zones that are either water- or hydrocarbon-bearing. A second category provides data e.g. on the degree of pore and fracture fill, rock density and rock temperature, natural gamma radiation and rock-mechanical properties. Other logs measure strike and dip of the sedimentary layers and the position of rock fractures. A fourth category provides information on the diameter and the deviation of the borehole, the quality of casing cementations and the position of casing joints. In addition, well shooting surveys will supply exact values of seismic velocities for the various rock units; data that are needed for the depth correction of the reflection profiles from Nagra's regional seismic network. With numerous hydrological tests ranging from a production tests of the Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein aquifers to labelled slug-tests in low-permeability crystalline sections, the hydraulic conditions of deep groundwater flow will be investigated. The recovered water samples will undergo full physical and geochemical analysis. Furthermore, their isotope content is to be measured in order to estimate the age of the various formation waters and their time of residence in the subsurface. To round off the scientific investigations, a series of rock-mechanical and geotechnical laboratory tests will provide characteristic values to be applied eventually in the design and construction of shafts and caverns for an underground repository

  18. Exploratory borehole Kaisten. Working program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next well on the Nagra drilling programme, Kaisten, lies at the southern border of the Rhine valley. An extensive geophysical borehole logging programme will serve to verify the results of the core analysis and complement the core data. Numerous borehole logs are to be registered with different types of tools. These allow one to determine various parameters essential for the full description of the rock sequences penetrated. A first category of logs enables the petrographical identification of the different rock types and indicates porous zones that are either water- or hydrocarbon-bearing. A second category provides data e.g. on the degree of pore and fracture fill, rock density and rock temperature, natural gamma radiation and rock-mechanical properties. Other logs measure strike and dip of the sedimentary layers and the position of rock fractures. A fourth category provides information on the diameter and the deviation of the borehole, the quality of casing cementations and the position of casing joints. In addition, well shooting surveys will supply exact values of seismic velocities for the various rock units; data that are needed for the depth correction of the reflection profiles from Nagra's regional seismic network. With numerous hydrological tests ranging from production tests of the Buntsandstein aquifer to labelled slug-tests in low-permeability crystalline sections, the hydraulic conditions of deep groundwater flow will be investigated. The recovered water samples will undergo full physical and geochemical analysis. Furthermore, their isotope content is to be measured in order to estimate the age of the various formation waters and their time of residence in the subsurface

  19. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  20. SNG-log in borehole Ermelund-208

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    A Spectral Natural Gamma-ray log has been run in a borehole in Ermelunden. The vertical distribution of Th, U, and K is similar to that observed in neighbouring boreholes. A new measuring and data processing technique was used and the probes own background signal was determined. Surprisingly...

  1. Backtracking urbanization from borehole temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Peter; Rivera, Jaime A.; Blum, Philipp; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2016-04-01

    The thermal regime in shallow ground is influenced by various factors such as short and long term climatic variations, atmospheric urban warming, land use change and geothermal energy use. Temperature profiles measured in boreholes represent precious archives of the past thermal conditions at the ground surface. Changes at the ground surface induce time-dependent variations in heat transfer. Consequently, instantaneous and persistent changes such as recent atmospheric climate change or paving of streets cause perturbations in temperature profiles, which now can be found in depths of hundred meters and even more. In our work, we focus on the influence of urbanization on temperature profiles. We inspect profiles measured in borehole heat exchanger (BHE) tubes before start of energy extraction. These were obtained at four locations in the city and suburbs of Zurich, Switzerland, by lowering a specifically developed temperature logging sensor in the 200-400 m long tubes. Increased temperatures indicate the existence of a subsurface urban heat island (SUHI). At the studied locations groundwater flow can be considered negligible, and thus conduction is the governing heat transport process. These locations are also favorable, as long-term land use changes and atmospheric temperature variations are well documented for more than the last century. For simulating transient land use changes and their effects on borehole temperature profiles, a novel analytical framework based on the superposition of Green's functions is presented. This allows flexible and fast computation of the long term three-dimensional evolution of the thermal regime in shallow ground. It also facilitates calibration of unknown spatially distributed parameter values and their correlation. With the given spatial and temporal discretization of land use and background atmospheric temperature variations, we are able to quantify the heat contribution by asphalt and buildings. By Bayesian inversion it is

  2. Geophysical borehole logging test procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of geophysical borehole logging from the At-Depth Facility (ADF) is to provide information which will assist in characterizing the site geologic conditions and in classifying the engineering characteristics of the rock mass in the vicinity of the ADF. The direct goals of borehole logging include identification of lithologic units and their correlation from hole to hole, identification of fractured or otherwise porous or permeable zones, quantitative or semi-quantitative estimation of various formation properties, and evaluation of factors such as the borehole diameter and orientation. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  3. A directional antenna for borehole radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The borehole radar system developed during phase II of the International Stripa Project has been successfully applied to mapping fracture zones up to 100 meters from the borehole in granite. The techniques previously used to determine the orientation of fracture zones (single hole reflection, crosshole reflection, crosshole tomography) have been supplemented with a directional antenna, which makes it possible to determine the orientation from measurements in a single borehole. The antenna works by synthesizing four signals to produce directional information. Tests performed in Stripa show that the resolution of the antenna is about 50

  4. Geophysical logging of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive geophysical borehole logging survey was carried out on each of three deep boreholes drilled at the Harwell research site. KOALA and PETRA computer programs were used to analyse and interpret the logs to obtain continuous quantitative estimates of the geological and hydrogeological properties of the sequences penetrated at the Harwell site. Quantitative estimates of the mineral composition and porosity of the cores samples were made. (UK)

  5. Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P R Sorensen

    Full Text Available Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m. These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3 at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied.

  6. Working programme for MIU-4 borehole investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Kunio; Nakano, Katsushi; Metcalfe, R.; Ikeda, Koki; Goto, Jun-ichi; Amano, Kenji; Takeuchi, Shinji; Hama, Katsuhiro; Matsui, Hiroya [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    1999-08-01

    Surface-based investigations have now been carried out since 1997 according to the Master Plan of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) (PNC, 1996). The specific goals of the surface-based investigations are: To acquire information necessary for understanding the undisturbed deep geological environment as a background of the MIU and for predicting the effects of the construction of underground facilities. To establish methodologies for evaluating predictions. To formulate detailed design concepts for underground facilities and to plan scientific investigations during the construction of the MIU. In addition, appropriate, systematic methodologies for investigating the deep subsurface should be developed through the surface-based investigations. It is expected that the surface-based investigations with further borehole investigations will last until March 2002. However, the construction of the MIU was provisionally planned to commence in the 2000 financial year. JNC has drilled four 1,000m-deep boreholes and one 400m-deep borehole at the MIU site (JNC's land of about 140,000m{sup 2}) in Akeyo-cho, Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture. In the surface-based investigations, specifically three 1,000m-deep boreholes, MIU-1, MIU-2 and MIU-3, have been drilled. Investigations in these boreholes have characterised mainly the geological structure and hydrogeological features of the deep geological environment. In addition, JNC has been developing investigation techniques and improving equipment for these investigations. At the time of writing, a series of borehole investigations are being carried out in the MIU-3 borehole. The MIU-3 borehole investigations aim mainly at characterising the Tsukiyoshi fault that intersects the crystalline basement in the site. (J.P.N.)

  7. Borehole stability in densely welded tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of boreholes, or more generally of underground openings (i.e. including shafts, ramps, drifts, tunnels, etc.) at locations where seals or plugs are to be placed is an important consideration in seal design for a repository (Juhlin and Sandstedt, 1989). Borehole instability or borehole breakouts induced by stress redistribution could negate the effectiveness of seals or plugs. Breakout fractures along the wall of repository excavations or exploratory holes could provide a preferential flowpath for groundwater or gaseous radionuclides to bypass the plugs. After plug installation, swelling pressures exerted by a plug could induce radial cracks or could open or widen preexisting cracks in the rock at the bottom of the breakouts where the tangential compressive stresses have been released by the breakout process. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine experimentally the stability of a circular hole in a welded tuff sample subjected to various external boundary loads. Triaxial and biaxial borehole stability tests have been performed on densely welded Apache Leap tuff samples and Topopah Spring tuff samples. The nominal diameter of the test hole is 13.3 or 14.4 mm for triaxial testing, and 25.4 mm for biaxial testing. The borehole axis is parallel to one of the principal stress axes. The boreholes are drilled through the samples prior to applying external boundary loads. The boundary loads are progressively increased until breakouts occur or until the maximum load capacity of the loading system has been reached. 74 refs

  8. Study on sealing of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographical research on the problem of the backfilling and sealing of boreholes, shafts and tunnels for radioactive waste disposal has been carried out. Various materials - both natural and artificial - like clay, industrial cement, polymer concrete, geothermical and magnesium cement have been examined. Their main physico-chemical and durability characteristics have been examined. The problem of the interaction between the sealing and the geological environment has been also dealt. The final subject discussed in the bibliography is the damage caused to the host formation by the excavation of shafts and tunnels. The laboratory tests have been performed on a natural clay and other types of material (cement grout, cement grout with expansive additive, cement mortar and remoulded clay) which have been used as plug materials. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are the following: - The permeability of the cement is lower than the permeability of the clay; - no adhesion was observed between clay and cement mortar, with or without expansive additive, when cured under different ambient conditions, but without any application of load; - When curing took place under load, good adhesion was observed between the clay and the cement mortar; - The flow of water in a specimen consisting of a clay core surrounded by remoulded clay is larger than in the natural clay. These results seem to be caused by the different permeabilities of the remoulded and undisturbed clay and not to depend on flow at the contact between the two materials. A remote instrumentation package for the in situ evaluation of the performance of a plug, has been developed. In order to get rid of the uncertainty associated with the infiltration of the cables through the plug a wireless data transmission system, based on acoustic waves, has been developed

  9. BASIMO - Borehole Heat Exchanger Array Simulation and Optimization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Borehole heat exchangers represent a well-established technology, which pushes for new fields of applications and novel modifications. Current simulation tools cannot - or only to some extent - describe features like inclined or partly insulated boreholes unless they run fully discretized models of the borehole heat exchangers. However, fully discretized models often come at a high computational cost, especially for large arrays of borehole heat exchangers. We present a tool, which uses one dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for the borehole heat exchangers coupled with a numerical finite element model for the subsurface heat transport. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh bypasses the limitations of structured grids for borehole path geometries, while the thermal resistance and capacity model is improved to account for borehole heat exchanger properties changing with depth. The presented tool benefits from the fast analytical solution of the thermal interactions within the boreholes while still allowing for a detailed consideration of the borehole heat exchanger properties.

  10. Developments of borehole strain observation outside China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱泽华; 石耀霖

    2004-01-01

    Borehole strain observation is playing an increasingly important role in the study on the crustal movements. It hasbeen used by many countries such as China, USA, Japan, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Iceland and Italy, in research fields of plate tectonics, earthquake, volcanic eruption, dam safety, oil field subsidence, mining collapse andso on. Borehole strainmeter has been improved rapidly and tends to get more and more components included inone probe. Based on observations by this kind of instruments, studies on seismic strain step, slow earthquake,earthquake precursor and volcanic eruption forecasting have made remarkable achievements. In the coming years,borehole strain observation is going to become one major geodetic means, together with GPS and InSAR.

  11. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  12. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function.

  13. Borehole radar and BIPS investigations in boreholes at the Boda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A. [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    As part of the studies conducted in the Boda area, measurements with borehole radar, borehole TV (BIPS) and deviation measurements were performed during May 2000. The investigations were carried out in four percussion-drilled boreholes with a total length of 514 m. Two boreholes are vertical and two are directed into and below the cave area. The BIPS measurement showed the presence of 14 open fractures. Largest apparent aperture width of open fractures was 133 mm. In the lowest part in boreholes 2, 3, and 4, particles in suspension deteriorated the visibility. BIPS has revealed a dominating subhorizontal fracture set and another striking NW to N-S with a dip close to vertical. Possible but very uncertain is a third fracture set striking NE and dipping steeply towards S. The open and partly open fractures forms an average block size 11 m wide and 6 m high, while the length of the block is uncertain. Of 98 borehole radar reflectors interpreted to intersect within BIPS-mapped sections, 90 were possible to combine with BIPS-mapped structures, i.e. 92% of the radar reflectors. The fractured rock around Boda is a shallow feature, since borehole radar and BIPS measurements shows no evidence of increased fracturing or the presence of caves at larger depth in the Boda area. The result indicates that the formation of the superficial fracture system (with caves included) at Boda in all probability is connected to glacial action, such as banking.

  14. Characterization of crystalline rocks in deep boreholes. The Kola, Krivoy Rog and Tyrnauz boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB studies, as one alternative, the feasibility of disposing of spent nuclear fuel in very deep boreholes. As a part of this work NEDRA has compiled geoscientific data from three superdeep boreholes within the former Soviet Union. The holes considered were: the Kola borehole, 12261 m deep and located on the Kola Peninsula, the Krivoy Rog borehole, 5000 m deep and located in Ukraine, and the Tyrnauz borehole, 4001 m deep and located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. These boreholes all penetrate crystalline formations, but major differences are found when their tectonic environments are compared. Excluding the uppermost horizon affected by surface phenomena, data do not indicate any general correlation between depth and the state of rock fracturing, which is instead governed by site specific, lithological and tectonical factors. This applies also to fracture zones, which are found at similar frequencies at all depths. As opposed to the structural data, the hydrogeological and hydrochemical information reveals a vertical zonation, with clear similarities between the three boreholes. An upper zone with active circulation and fresh or slightly mineralized groundwaters reaches down 1000-2000 m. The interval from 1000-2000 m down to 4000-5000 m can be characterized as a transition zone with lower circulation rates and gradually increasing mineralisation. Below 4000-5000 m, strongly mineralized, stagnant, juvenile or metamorphogenic waters are found. Geothermal data verify the existence of this zonation. 28 figs, 30 tabs

  15. Exploratory borehole Kaisten. Geology - text volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kaisten borehole was the fifth (after Boettstein, Weiach, Riniken and Schafisheim) in Nagra's deep drilling programme in Northern Switzerland. It is located within the community of Kaisten, Canton Aargau, approximately 3 km south-west of Laufenburg railway station. The final depth of the borehole was 1306 m. Drilling began on 13th February 1984, continued up to 27th June 1984 and was carried out almost exclusively using the conventional rotary drilling method. With the exception of a 5.5 m-long section in the Muschelkalk and two shallow centering boreholes, the whole drilled section was cored. From a depth of 321.5 m in the Crystalline, removal of cores was done by wire core drilling. The wide range of field and laboratory investigations carried out included stratigraphic-sedimentological and mineralogical-petrographic programmes, as well as different petrophysical, geochemical and isotope geochemistry investigation. This report is a summary of all data acquired up to the end of December 1986. Beneath a sedimentary cover just 300 m thick, with Muschelkalk at the top and Permian at the base, the Kaisten borehole entered the crystalline basement at a depth of 296.5 m; investigations were carried out down to a depth of 1306 m. (author) 6 tabs., 122 refs

  16. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The h

  17. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  18. Development of the Borehole Disposal Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa (Necsa) initiated the Borehole Disposal Concept (BDC) with a view to improving radioactive waste management practices in Africa. An IAEA Technical Cooperation project was launched to investigate the technical feasibility and economic viability of a borehole for the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources. Phase III of the project was completed by the end of 2004, and the main objective of this phase was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the concept by means of a practical demonstration. The disposal concept consists of a 260 mm diameter borehole drilled to a depth of up to 100 m in which stainless steel disposal containers are emplaced and backfilled with cement. Each disposal container contains a source within a stainless steel capsule within a containment barrier. Included in the terms of reference of Phase III were the design and the evaluation of the disposal concept. The evaluation included container materials, backfill materials and a generic post-closure safety assessment. The post-closure safety assessment and the associated derivation of activity limits showed that, through the use of multiple physical and chemical barriers, the BDC provides an appropriate degree of long term safety. Furthermore, the safety of the disposal concept is not reliant on an extended period of institutional control, and owing to its small 'footprint', the likelihood of direct human intrusion into the borehole is small. An international peer review team positively assessed the technical feasibility, economic viability and overall safety of the concept, and thus concluded the development phase of the project. The Member States of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) have decided to proceed to Phase IV of the project with the main aim to implement the borehole disposal technology. (author)

  19. Simulation of the thermal borehole resistance in groundwater filled borehole heat exchanger using CFD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M. Gustafsson, L. Westerlund

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The thermal borehole resistance in a groundwater-filled borehole heat exchanger (BHE is affected of both conductive and convective heat transfer through the borehole water. To calculate this heat transport, different models are required compared to calculation of only conductive heat transfer in a back-filled BHE. In this paper some modelling approximations for groundwater-filled, single U-pipe BHEs were investigated using a 3D CFD model. The purpose is to find approximations that enable to construct a fast, simple model including the convective heat transfer that may be used in thermal response test analyses and BHE design programs. Both total heat transfer calculations (including convective and conductive heat transport and only conductive heat transfer calculations were performed for comparison purposes. The approximations that are investigated are the choice of boundary condition at the U-pipe wall and using a single pipe in the middle of the borehole instead of the U-pipe. For the total heat transfer case, it is shown that the choice of boundary condition hardly affects the calculated borehole thermal resistance. For the only conductive heat transfer case, the choice of boundary condition at the pipe wall gives large differences in the result. It is also shown that using an annulus model (single pipe in the middle of the borehole results in similar heat transfer as the U-pipe model provided that the equivalent radius is chosen appropriately. This approximation can radically decrease the number of calculation cells needed.

  20. Simulation of the thermal borehole resistance in groundwater filled borehole heat exchanger using CFD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, A-M. [Department of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Westerlund, L. [Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The thermal borehole resistance in a groundwater-filled borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is affected of both conductive and convective heat transfer through the borehole water. To calculate this heat transport, different models are required compared to calculation of only conductive heat transfer in a back-filled BHE. In this paper some modelling approximations for groundwater-filled, single U-pipe BHEs were investigated using a 3D CFD model. The purpose is to find approximations that enable to construct a fast, simple model including the convective heat transfer that may be used in thermal response test analyses and BHE design programs. Both total heat transfer calculations (including convective and conductive heat transport) and only conductive heat transfer calculations were performed for comparison purposes. The approximations that are investigated are the choice of boundary condition at the U-pipe wall and using a single pipe in the middle of the borehole instead of the U-pipe. For the total heat transfer case, it is shown that the choice of boundary condition hardly affects the calculated borehole thermal resistance. For the only conductive heat transfer case, the choice of boundary condition at the pipe wall gives large differences in the result. It is also shown that using an annulus model (single pipe in the middle of the borehole) results in similar heat transfer as the U-pipe model provided that the equivalent radius is chosen appropriately. This approximation can radically decrease the number of calculation cells needed.

  1. Design parameters for borehole strain instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Michael T.; Hart, Rhodes

    1985-01-01

    The response of a borehole strain meter to hydrostatic and shear deformations in an isotropic medium is calculated to facilitate optimum instrument design and produce instrument response factors for parameters typically encountered in installed instruments. Results for an empty borehole are first compared with results for an instrument in intimate contact with the surrounding rock. The effects of the grout used to install the instrument are then examined. Where possible, analytic forms for the response factors are given. Results for typical installations are then presented in graphical form for optimizing instrument design in an environment of known elastic parameters. Alternatively, the results may be applied in the measurement of unknown strain signals, to correct for instrument response or to provide in-situ estimates of the elastic properties of the environment by examination of observed strain response to known strain signals.

  2. Examination of simulated borehole specimens. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the contact between portland cement grout and surrounding rock will be of prime importance if grout is used to seal boreholes for the isolation of nuclear waste. The contact will need to be tight and relatively impermeable. In the study reported herein, simulated borehole (SBH) specimens were prepared and tested in the laboratory. The specimens consisted of grout poured into a hole in sections of anhydrite rock core that had been grouted into a steel pipe to provide restraint. The study was largely devoted to investigating methods of avoiding artifacts during preparation of these SBH specimens for study of the grout-to-rock contact. The work was conducted and is reported in two parts. The first part was a study in which only large round SBH specimens (about 6 by 6 in.) were used, while the second also included some smaller round SBH specimens

  3. High-precision multicomponent borehole deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Michael T.

    1984-12-01

    An instrument capable of deep borehole measurement of vector plane strain to 0.3 nstrain and tilt to 1.0 nrad has been developed for deployment in crustal deformation and earthquake prediction studies. The instrument has been deployed in California where shear strains dominate the deformation. The 125-mm-diam package is grouted in 175-mm boreholes at depths of approximately 200 m. The wall thickness and the grout thickness are chosen to match instrument strength to expected rock parameters. The instrument is capable of flat response from dc to 10 Hz on any single channel. The electronics package is stable to three parts in 108 over the temperature range 10 to 45° C. Reliable shear strain data is available immediately on installation when simple volume strain meters show only bond curing effects or thermal recovery signals.

  4. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  5. Near Field Investigation of Borehole Heat Exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative and renewable energy source, the shallow geothermal energy evolving as one of the most popular energy source due to its easy accessibility and availability worldwide, and the ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are the most frequent applications for extracting the energy from the shallow subsurface. As the heat extraction capacity of the GSHP system applications arises, the design of the borehole heat exchangers (BHE), which is the connected part of the system in the grou...

  6. Nitrate concentrations in the Morestead borehole, Twyford

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.; Chilton, P J; Newell, A. J.; Butcher, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes work carried out at Morestead, Twyford as part of a BGS research project “Nitrate Mass Balance in the Saturated Zone”. The project aimed to evaluate the role of the diffusive exchange of nitrate between fracture water and porewater in the saturated zone of the aquifer. The approach adopted attempted to obtain a mass balance for the catchment to a public supply borehole by comparing nitrogen released from the soil with nitrogen held in the aquifer and nitro...

  7. Geophysical borehole logging in Lavia borehole - results and interpretation of sonic and tube wave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB has been contracted by Industrial Power Company LTD, TVO to perform geophysical logging in a borehole at Lavia in Western Finland. The logging has been conducted by Swedish Geological Co, SGAB in accordance with an agreement for cooperation with SKB. The depth of the borehole is 1001 m, diameter 56 mm and inclination 10-20 degrees to the vertical. The aim of the logging was to determine the various geophysical parameters in the borehole in order to interpret and understand the rock mass properties in the vicinity of the borehole. According to the contract the report covers the following main objectives: a technical description of the field work and the equipment used; a review of the theoretical base for the sonic and tube wave methods; an interpretation and presentation of the results obtained by sonic and tube wave mesurements. The evaluation of the sonic and tube wave measurements shows good correlation. On a qualitative basis there seems to be a correlation between tube wave generating points, the relative tube wave amplitudes and the hydraulic conductivity measurements performed as hydraulical tests between packers in the borehole. The low velocity anamalies in the sonic log are mainly caused by tectonic features like fractures and fracture zones but to some extent also by contacts between granite and diorite. The estimation of elastic properties of the rock mass from observation of tube wave velocity are in accordance with laboratory determinations made on core samples. (author)

  8. Effect of borehole design on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Amirpasha; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Treichel, Andrea; Zimmermann, Egon; Kelter, Matthias; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a sophisticated non-invasive tool to investigate the subsurface in engineering and environmental studies. To increase the depth of investigation, EIT measurements can be made in boreholes. However, the presence of the borehole may affect EIT measurements. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements using 2,5-D and 3D finite element modeling and unstructured meshes. To investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements, a variety of scenarios were designed. In particular, the effect of the water-filled borehole, the PVC casing, and the gravel filter were investigated relative to complex resistivity simulations for a homogenous medium with chain and electrode modules. It was found that the results of the complex resistivity simulations were best understood using the sensitivity distribution of the electrode configuration under consideration. In all simulations, the sensitivity in the vicinity of the borehole was predominantly negative. Therefore, the introduction of the water-filled borehole caused an increase in the real part of the impedance, and a decrease (more negative) in the imaginary part of the simulated impedance. The PVC casing mostly enhanced the effect of the water-filled borehole described above, although this effect was less clear for some electrode configuration. The effect of the gravel filter mostly reduced the effect of the water-filled borehole with PVC casing. For EIT measurements in a single borehole, the highest simulated phase error was 12% for a Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 0.33 m. This error decreased with increasing electrode spacing. In the case of cross-well configurations, the error in the phase shit was as high as 6%. Here, it was found that the highest errors occur when both current electrodes are located in the same borehole. These results indicated that cross-well measurements are less affected by the

  9. Borehole Paleoclimatology: In search of a minimum depth criterion for terrestrial borehole temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G.; Nickerson, N. R.

    2010-12-01

    One important uncertainty in borehole paleoclimatology that has been overlooked is the degree to which ground surface temperature (GST) reconstructions depend on the maximum depth of the profile. Because the vast majority of measured borehole temperature profiles are acquired from boreholes of opportunity, the maximum measurement depth in data used for paleoclimatic studies varies considerably (beginning at depths as shallow as 100-150 m and extending to depths of more than 1 km). The depth of the borehole is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. Here we illustrate how the minimum depth of a temperature-depth profile impacts the estimation of the climatic transient and the resultant GST reconstruction. In particular, we attempt to quantitatively illustrate the effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of borehole temperature logs of different depths. Our results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. We show that borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths provide the most robust GST reconstructions and are preferable for inferring past climatic variations at the ground surface. Furthermore, we find that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths

  10. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed

  12. Exploratory borehole Schafisheim. Programme of work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive geophysical borehole logging programme will serve to verify the results of the core analysis and complement the core data. Numerous borehole logs are to be registered with different types of tools. These allow one to determine various parameters essential for the full description of the rock sequences penetrated. A first category of logs enables the petrographical identification of the different rock types and indicates porous zones that are either water- or hydrocarbon-bearing. A second category provides data e.g. on the degree of pore and fracture fill, rock density and rock temperature, natural gamma radiation and rock-mechanical properties. Other logs measure strike and dip of the sedimentary layers and the position of rock fractures. A fourth category provides information on the diameter and the deviation of the borehole, the quality of casing cementations and the position of casing joints. In addition, well shooting surveys will supply exact values of seismic velocities for the various rock units; data that are needed for the depth correction of the reflection profiles from Nagra's regional seismic network. With numerous hydrological tests ranging from a production tests of the triassic Muschelkalk aquifer to labelled slug tests in low-permeability crystalline sections, the hydraulic conditions of deep groundwater flow will be investigated. The recovered water samples will undergo full physical and geochemical analysis. Furthermore, their isotope content is to be measured in order to estimate the age of the various formation waters and their time of residence in the various aquifers. To round off the scientific investigations, a series of rock-mechanical and geotechnical laboratory tests will provide characteristic values to be applied eventually in the design and construction of shafts and caverns for an underground repository

  13. Nuclear borehole probes - theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a summary of the theoretical and expeimental work on borehole probes that has been performed since 1971 at The Department of Electrophysics, The Technical University of Denmark. The first part of the report concerns the use of a spectral natural gamma-ray probe (SNG-probe), which is used for measurements of the spectral distribution of the gamma-rays of the geological strata around a borehole. In general the spectrum is divided into three parts - the gamma-rays from potassium-40, from thorium-232 and daughters, and from uranium-238 and daughters. A set of curves showing the intensities of the gamm-radiation from K, Th, and U versus depth is called a SNG-log. If proper calibrated, the SNG-log gives the concentration of Th, U, and K in the formation surrounding the borehole. Initially the basis for an interpretation of SNG-logs is discussed. Then follows a description og some SNG-problems designed and built by The Department of Electrophysics, and a discussion of the calibration of SNG-probes. Some examples of SNG-logs are presented, and some general comments on the use of SNG-logs are given. The second part of the report concerns mainly the development of theoretical models for neutron-neutron probes, gamma-gamma probes, and pulsed-neutron probes. The purpose of this work has been to examine how well the models correlate with measured results and - where reasonable agreement is found - to use the models in studies of the factors that affect the probe responses in interpretation of experimental results and in probe design. (author)

  14. Borehole plugging telemetry system. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the development of a through-the-earth electromagnetic communication system which was designed to demonstrate that a physical property could be measured deep in the earth and the data received at the surface by wireless telemetry. This system was configured to be placed in a borehole and sealed in place thus preventing the establishment of a pathway between a deep geologic nuclear waste repository and the biosphere. This report contains a detailed description of the downhole and wellhead telemetry electronics, the downhole sensor electronics, integrated system operation, test results, conclusions, and recommendations

  15. A combined surface and borehole seismic survey at the COSC-1 borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) focuses on the mid Paleozoic Caledonide Orogen in Scandinavia in order to better understand orogenic processes, from the past and in recent active mountain belts. The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision. Surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of the Caledonian structure, including the allochthon and the underlying autochthon, as well as the shallow W-dipping décollement surface that separates the two and consist of a thin skin of Cambrian black shales. During spring/summer 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was drilled to approx. 2.5 km depth near the town of Åre (western Jämtland/Sweden) with nearly 100 % of core recovery and cores in best quality. After the drilling was finished, a major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Besides a high resolution zero-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) experiment also a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP survey took place. For the latter the source points were distributed along three profile lines centered radially around the borehole. For the central part up to 2.5 km away from the borehole, a hydraulic hammer source was used, which hits the ground for about 20 s with an linear increasing hit rate. For the far offset shots up to 5 km, explosive sources were used. The wavefield of both source types was recorded in the borehole using an array of 15 three-component receivers with a geophone spacing of 10 m. This array was deployed at 7 different depth levels during the survey. At the same time the wavefield was also recorded at the surface by 180 standalone three-component receivers placed along each of the three up to 10 km long lines, as well as with a 3D array of single-component receivers in the central part of the survey area around the borehole. Here

  16. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  17. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  19. The borehole disposal of spent sources (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on 'The Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Hospitals and Other Nuclear Applications' hosted by the Atomic Energy Corporation of SA Ltd. (AEC), now NECSA, during July/August 1995, the African delegates reviewed their national radioactive waste programmes. Among the issues raised, which are common to most African countries, were the lack of adequate storage facilities, lack of disposal solutions and a lack of equipment to implement widely used disposal concepts to dispose of their spent sources. As a result of this meeting, a Technical Co-operation (TC) project was launched to look at the technical feasibility and economic viability of such a concept. Phase I and II of the project have been completed and the results can be seen in three reports produced by NECSA. The Safety Assessment methodology used in the evaluation of the concept was that developed during the ISAM programme and detailed in Van Blerk's PhD thesis. This methodology is specifically developed for shallow land repositories, but was used in this case as the borehole need not be more than 100m deep and could fit into the definition of a shallow land disposal system. The studies found that the BOSS concept would be suitable for implementation in African countries as the borehole has a large capacity for sources and it is possible that an entire country's disused sources can be placed in a single borehole. The costs are a lot lower than for a shallow land trench, and the concept was evaluated using radium (226) sources as the most limiting inventory. The conclusion of the initial safety assessment was that the BOSS concept is robust, and provides a viable alternative for the disposal of radium needles. The concept is expected to provide good assurance of safety at real sites. The extension of the safety assessment to other types of spent sources is expected to be relatively straightforward. Disposal of radium needles

  20. Borehole-to-borehole geophysical methods applied to investigations of high level waste repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion focuses on the use of borehole to borehole geophysical measurements to detect geological discontinuities in High Level Waste (HLW) repository sites. The need for these techniques arises from: (a) the requirement that a HLW repository's characteristics and projected performance be known with a high degree of confidence; and (b) the inadequacy of other geophysical methods in mapping fractures. Probing configurations which can be used to characterize HLW sites are described. Results from experiments in which these techniques were applied to problems similar to those expected at repository sites are briefly discussed. The use of a procedure designed to reduce uncertainty associated with all geophysical exploration techniques is proposed; key components of the procedure are defined

  1. Investigations of the Stenlille-4 borehole logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains analyses of the Stenlille-4 borehole logs. They include an interpretation of nuclear logs by use of the NULIP-5 programme. Furhter a number of possible clay indicators has been investigated. The TDT-logs have been analysed to obtain Σa for pure clay and sand. The relation between the natural gamma count rate and the volume percent of clay has been investigated. Finally a number of cross plots has been made. From these the density of pure sand and clay and the absorption cross section of sand, clay, and salt water has been obtained. The analyses seem to confirm that the interpretation programme NULIP-5 yields consistent results. (author)

  2. Temperature profiles in the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat flow at Harwell is estimated at 45 mWm-2 (milli Watt per metre squared is the unit of heat flow). Thermal conductivity values for the formations penetrated range from 1.0 to 4.6 Wm-1 K-1. The temperature profiles recorded in the boreholes enable the vertical groundwater flow patterns within two poorly permeable mudrock units to be evaluated. The two mudrock units act as leaky barriers each separating a pair of aquifer units which induce a vertical hydraulic gradient across the mudrocks. The flow velocity results for the upper mudrock units derived from the temperature profile are compatible with values for groundwater potential derived from hydraulic data (10-9 ms-1 from the temperature profile and 10-12 ms-1 from the hydraulic observations). The results from the lower mudrock sequence are incompatible and this may be due to some other overiding influence upon the temperature profile. (author)

  3. Borehole plugging by compaction process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; MacGowan, C.; Nolan, E.; Morey, R.; Palty, A.

    1976-08-01

    The requirements of an overall program to preserve the integrity of a repository formation are documented. The repository is intended to be in stable earth stratum used as a safe and permanent storage area for nuclear waste material. These wastes represent an environmental hazard for a period of up to 200,000 years. An engineering analysis, a reliability and quality-assurance program, and a development program for borehole plugging by compaction process, using natural earthen materials, are presented. Part 1 provides the engineering analysis of downhole compaction methods and related instrumentation along with a recommended development plan from concept through a pilot in-situ experiment. Part 2 provides a reliability and quality-assurance program from laboratory testing of materials through an in-situ experiment.

  4. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beltrami

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500–600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 yr BP. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500–600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  5. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G. S.; Nickerson, N.

    2011-07-01

    A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST) reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 yr BP. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500-600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  6. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beltrami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500–600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 ybp. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500–600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  7. 3 D inversion of borehole gravity data using cokriging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Meixia; HUANG Danian; XU Bowen

    2014-01-01

    Borehole gravity has been used in mineral exPloration recently with the advent of slim-hole gravime-ters. It is logical to Perform inversion to utilize the information in the newly acquired data. The inversions were carried out by using cokriging,which is a geostatistical method of estimation that minimizes the error variance by aPPlying cross-correlation between several variables. In this study the estimated densities are derived by using boreholes gravity and known densities along the borehole. This method does not need iterative Process and comPutes efficiently. The selection of examPles demonstrates that this method has the ability to include Physical ProPerty from borehole measurements in the inversion. The synthetic examPles demonstrate the density variation along a borehole can be well determined without dePth constraints in the inversion. The resolution of the reco-vered model can be further imProved by including the densities along the borehole for inversion. However,this caPability decreases dramatically with the increasing of distance between the anomalous body and the borehole.

  8. Design of technique for foliation measurements from borehole images, borehole OL-KR12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva carries out investigations and preparations for spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finnish bedrock in Olkiluoto. The orientation and location of the bedrock foliation, its relation to brokenness and other foliation-related bedrock properties are important factors in planning the facilities for final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel, and in assessing the functionality and safety of the facilities. The borehole optical imaging (BIP, OPTV) has become one of the central data sets of site investigations available from several Olkiluoto deep boreholes. The data was assessed to be suitable for detailed foliation mapping. This work aimed at development of foliation observations and classifications, and verified the observations from core. The report will describe the work and give recommendations for similar later approach. OL- KR12 was selected due to its central location, favourable near- perpendicular orientation with respect to known site-scale foliation (160/45), reasonable length (795.34 m, covering the depth level of the planned depository facilities), and abundant fractures (to compare with orientation of the foliation), as well as because a higher resolution OPTV image was available from it. The type, intensity, location and local orientation of foliation and the rock type containing the foliation were acquired. The concordance between the foliation and rock banding was also collected as a separate parameter. The acquisition of parameters was performed with several parallel methods to find out the best possible working procedure. In the main results of comparison, three different principles were found: 1. the initially 10 meter long borehole TV images were appended to form images of longer depth intervals (30-100 meters) before the foliation measurements. 2. The person performing measurements should be concentrating on one parameter at a time, each phase performed in defined sequence, 3. After measurements, the data must be carefully revised from the drill

  9. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  10. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  11. Prediction of multi-borehole undermine coalbed gas drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-gang

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing the flow character of a single drainage borehole in its effecting time and the correlative theory introduced, the reason for "inflexion" appearance in the flow character curve of the single draining borehole in a multi-borehole was studied. Tak-ing the theory of permeation fluid mechanics and so on as basis, the coalbed gas flow model was set up, and the numerical simulation analyzer was built for undermine gas products. With the results from the analyzer, the gas capacity could be calculated under different conditions and comparisons made with the site measurement data.

  12. Research borehole drilling activity for boreholes DH-18, DH-19, DC-12, DC-13, DC-14, DC-15, and deepening of existing borehole DC-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This report is an environmental evaluation of the impacts of proposed borehole drilling activities at the Hanford Site, northwest of Richland, Washington. The proposed action is to drill six research boreholes ranging in depth from 137 to 1372 meters (m) (250 to 4500 +- feet (ft)). In addition, an existing borehole (DC-7) will be extended from 1249 to 1524 m (4099 to 5000 +- ft). The purpose of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) borehole drilling activities is to collect data on in situ rock formations that are considered potentialy suitable for nuclear waste repositories. The technical program efforts necessary to identify and qualify specific underground waste facility sites in candidate rock formations include geologic and hydrologic studies (seismicity and tectonics, rock structure and stratigraphy, lithology, etc.). Borehole drilling is an integral part of the geological studies and is essential to a thorough understanding of potentially suitable geologic formations. The purpose of the proposed drilling activities is to obtain data for evaluating Columbia River basalts that are being evaluated by the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program to determine their suitability potential for nuclear waste repositories. Unavoidable impact to the environment is limited primarily to the clearing of land needed for access and drilling operations. Considerations exercised during site preparation, drilling, and subsequent site restoration will limit modification of the natural environment to the minimum required for accomplishment of test objectives.

  13. Seismic investigations for high resolution exploration ahead and around boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Ruediger; Kopf, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Deep reservoirs usually will be explored with a surface seismic survey often in combination with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD which can improve the velocity model of the underground. Reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are often characterized by small-scale structures. Additionally, with depth the need for exploration methods with a high resolution increases because standard methods like borehole seismic measurements cannot improve their resolution with depth. To localize structures with more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. Within the project SPWD - Seismic Prediction While Drilling a new exploration method will be developed. With an implementation of seismic sources and receivers in one device an exploration method ahead and around the borehole will be enabled. Also, a high resolution independent from the depth will be achieved. Therefore active and powerful seismic sources are necessary to reach an acceptable penetration depth. Step by step seismic borehole devices were developed, which can be used under different conditions. Every borehole device contains four seismic sources and several three-component geophones. A small distance between actuators and geophones allows detecting also the high frequency content of the wave field reflected at geological structures. Also, exploration with a high resolution is possible. A first borehole device was developed for basic conditions in horizontal boreholes without special terms to temperature or pressure. In a mine first methodical measurements for the initiated wave field were performed. Therefor an existing seismic test area at the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg was extended with boreholes. In the seismic test area, consisting of a dense geophone array with three-component geophone anchors, two horizontal and one vertical borehole was drilled. To achieve a radiation pattern in predefined directions by constructive

  14. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  15. Piceance Basin Oil Shale Data: Assays, Boreholes and Formation Tops

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This database contains Oil Shale Assays, Borehole Locations and Formation Tops that were used in support of the 2009 Oil Shale Assessment (Survey Fact Sheet...

  16. An acoustic imaging system of migration technique used in borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Weijun; WU Nan; SUN Jian; ZHANG Hailan

    2008-01-01

    In order to detect the damage of casing boreholes, an acoustic imaging method with a two-dimensional ultrasonic array was presented. Each element of the array independently emits down ultrasonic waves, the echoes received by all elements are sampled and transmitted to a computer on ground surface, where the dynamic migration method is used to form a 2 or 3-dimensional image of the situation in the borehole. The numerical simulation and experiment are conducted that demonstrate a high imaging accuracy with a small number of elements used in array. Since the delay circuits used in the traditional phased array imaging system is not needed in this system, and all data process could be completed in a ground system,the complexity and the volume of system in borehole may be significantly simplified, which is critical to the borehole instrument.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Two Borehole Heat Exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi Pagola, Maria; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines key results from a comparative study of two different pipe borehole heat exchanger (BHE) configurations. The work was carried out by VIA University College and in collaboration with GM Plast A/S....

  18. Borehole sealing literature review of performance requirements and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, all potential pathways for radionuclide release to the biosphere must be effectively sealed. This report presents a summary of the literature up to August 1982 and outlines the placement, mechanical property and durability-stability requirements for borehole sealing. An outline of the materials that have been considered for possible use in borehole sealing is also included. Cement grouts are recommended for further study since it is indicated in the literature that cement grouts offer the best opportunity of effectively sealing boreholes employing present technology. However, new and less well known materials should also be researched to ensure that the best possible borehole plugging system is developed. 78 refs

  19. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-04-18

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

  20. Application of Borehole SIP Technique to Sulfide Mineral Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changryol; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Samgyu; Sung, Nak Hoon; Shin, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    In the study, SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) well logging probe system was developed to rapidly locate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals in the boreholes. The newly developed SIP logging probe employed the non-polarizable electrodes, consisting of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and water (H2O), instead of existing copper electrodes, leading to eliminating the EM coupling effect in the IP surveys as much as possible. In addition, the SIP logging system is designed to make measurements down to maximum 500 meters in depth in the boreholes. The SIP well logging was conducted to examine the applicability of the SIP probe system to the boreholes at the ore mine in Jecheon area, Korea. The boreholes used in the SIP logging are known to have penetrated the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals from the drilling investigations. The ore mine of the study area is the scarn deposits surrounded by the limestone or lime-silicate rocks in Ordovician period. The results of the SIP well logging have shown that the borehole segments with limestone or lime-silicate rocks yielded the insignificant SIP responses while the borehole segments with sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite) provided the significant phase shifts of the SIP responses. The borehole segments penetrating the metal ore body, so-called cupola, have shown very high response of the phase shift, due to the high contents of the sulfide mineral pyrite. The phase shifts of the SIP response could be used to estimate the grade of the ore bodies since the higher contents of the sulfide minerals, the higher magnitudes of the phase shifts in the SIP responses. It is, therefore, believed that the borehole SIP technique can be applied to investigate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals, and that could be used to estimate the ore grades as a supplementary tool in the future.

  1. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Optical instruments for a combined seismic and geodetic borehole observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, Mark; Agnew, Duncan; Berger, Jonathan; Hatfield, William; Wyatt, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Optical interferometry offers displacement sensing with the unusual combination of high sensitivity, linearity, and wide dynamic range, and it can be adapted to high temperature environments. We have applied interferometric technology to inertial seismic instruments and to optical fibers for strain measurements. When combining these methods into a single borehole package the result is a system that provides three components of observatory quality seismic recordings, two components of tilt, gravity, and vertical strain. The borehole package is entirely passive with the need for only optical fibers to connect the sensor sonde with surface electronics. One of the sensors in the system is an optical fiber strainmeter, which consists of an optical fiber cable elastically stretched between two borehole anchor points separated by 100 m or more. The fiber's length is recorded optically, enabling sub-nanostrain detection of crustal deformations. A second sensor system uses laser interferometry to record the displacements of inertial mechanical suspensions - spring-mass for the vertical component and pendulums for the horizontal components - housed in a borehole sonde. The combined system is able to measure vertical and horizontal ground velocities, gravity, and tilt with sensitivities that compare favorably with any existing borehole system over time scales from 10 Hz to many days; because the downhole components are entirely passive, the instrument will have a long lifetime and could be made usable at high downhole temperatures. The simplicity and longevity of the metal and glass borehole sonde make it suitable for permanent cementation into a borehole to achieve good coupling and stability. Several versions of the borehole inertial system have been deployed on land with excellent results, and a number of our optical fiber strainmeters have been deployed - both onshore and offshore. The combined system is currently under development.

  3. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young's modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs

  4. Exploratory boreholes Boettstein, Weiach, Riniken, Schafisheim, Kaisten, Leuggern: gas measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of hydrocarbon gas, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide measured during the drilling of the Nagra boreholes are correlated with various drilling and drilling fluid parameters and presented in both graphic and tabular form. The Permocarboniferous in the Weiach borehole and the Muschelkalk in the Schafisheim borehole show clear positive gas anomalies. The hydrocarbon gas concentrations in the Crystalline were many times higher than those in the overlying sediments. Based on gas measurements (gas content and composition) for deep groundwaters and rock samples, it can be concluded for the Crystalline that gases penetrated from the rock formation through the borehole wall and into the drilling fluid and are also released from the crushed rock during the drilling process. Measurements of hydrogen and carbon isotopes on the gases from the Crystalline of the Weiach and Schafisheim boreholes indicate that the gases originated thermocatalytically from organic fossil material; their presence could therefore be explained by, e.g., migration from the Permocarboniferous. On the other hand, the higher deuterium and C-13 values in the Crystalline zone of Boettstein and Leuggern boreholes indicate rather that the hydrocarbon gases have an abiotic origin. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 26 refs

  5. Thermal modelling of borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy stores; Zur thermischen Modellierung von Erdwaermesonden und Erdsonden-Waermespeichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Dan

    2011-07-15

    The thermal use of the underground for heating and cooling applications can be done with borehole heat exchangers. This work deals with the further development of the modelling of thermal transport processes inside and outside the borehole as well as with the application of the further developed models. The combination of high accuracy and short computation time is achieved by the development of three-dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for borehole heat exchangers. Short transient transport processes can be calculated by the developed model with a considerable higher dynamic and accuracy than with known models from literature. The model is used to evaluate measurement data of a thermal response test by parameter estimation technique with a transient three-dimensional model for the first time. Clear advantages like shortening of the test duration are shown. The developed borehole heat exchanger model is combined with a three-dimensional description of the underground in the Finite-Element-Program FEFLOW. The influence of moving groundwater on borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy stores is then quantified.

  6. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  8. Experimental Investigation of Near-Borehole Crack Plugging with Bentonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, R. A.; Islam, M. N.; Bunger, A.

    2015-12-01

    The success of the disposal of nuclear waste in a deep borehole (DBH) is determined by the integrity of the components of the borehole plug. Bentonite clay has been proposed as a key plugging material, and its effectiveness depends upon its penetration into near-borehole cracks associated with the drilling process. Here we present research aimed at understanding and maximizing the ability of clay materials to plug near-borehole cracks. A device was constructed such that the borehole is represented by a cylindrical chamber, and a near-borehole crack is represented by a slot adjacent to the center chamber. The experiments consist of placing bentonite clay pellets into the center chamber and filling the entire cavity with distilled water so that the pellets hydrate and swell, intruding into the slot because the cell prohibits swelling in the vertical direction along the borehole. Results indicate that the bentonite clay pellets do not fully plug the slot. We propose a model where the penetration is limited by (1) the free swelling potential intrinsic to the system comprised of the bentonite pellets and the hydrating fluid and (2) resisting shear force along the walls of the slot. Narrow slots have a smaller volume for the clay to fill than wider slots, but wider slots present less resistive force to clay intrusion. These two limiting factors work against each other, leading to a non-monotonic relationship between slot width and intrusion length. Further experimental results indicate that the free swelling potential of bentonite clay pellets depends on pellet diameter, "container" geometry, and solution salinity. Smaller diameter pellets possess more relative volumetric expansion than larger diameter pellets. The relative expansion of the clay also appears to decrease with the container size, which we understand to be due to the increased resistive force provided by the container walls. Increasing the salinity of the solution leads to a dramatic decrease in the clay

  9. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  10. Deep borehole excavation by hydrostatic-decompression/suction spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhle, J.L. [California State Univ., Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1996-09-01

    Any deep drilling system that seeks to abrade or claw its way through deeply buried rock is highly energy-intensive and very much like trying to cut a pane of glass with a hacksaw. Since rock is very weak in tension, it should require far less energy input to fail the rock at the bottom of a deep borehole if the rock were subjected to tensional loads. Furthermore, a significant amount of elastic energy is stored in the matrix of deeply buried rock, and a large amount of hydraulic and pneumatic energy is stored in the pore-fluids of deeply buried rock. Given the relative ease of inducing deep-borehole breakouts by means of minor downward adjustments in drilling fluid density, and given the stress-relief core-disking effects associated with deep coring operations, the rock at the bottom of a deep borehole should readily destroy itself by means of its own self-contained energy if a deliberate and concerted effort were made to induce a rockburst at the bottom of the borehole. A drilling apparatus has recently been designed and prototyped which is intended to excavate rock at the bottom of a deep borehole by means of hydrostatic-decompression and suction-spallation effects. The initial test results are presented and evaluated.

  11. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  12. Geology and Geophysics of new boreholes at the FEBEX site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, R.; Perez-Estaun, A. [Inst. Jaume Almera, CSIC (Spain); Missana, T.; Buil, B.; Garralon, A.; Gomez, J. [CIEMAT (Spain); Suso, J.; Carretero, G.; Bueno, J.; Martinez, L. [AITEMIN (Spain); Hernan, P. [ENRESA (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Geophysical data has been acquired to characterized the fracture network of the surrounding volume within the FEBEX gallery. The geophysic data include new borehole logging such as Natural Gamma and Borehole Ground Penetrating radar and cross hole ultrasonic tomography. The preliminary processing and integration of these different data sets indicates that the GPR record can provide images of the fractures, specially if they are fluid filled. The GPR is specially sensitive to the water content as it directly affects the electrical conductivity and the dielectric permittivity Therefore it is adequate for mapping water conductive fractures of the crystalline rock. The correlation of the anomalies measured by the natural gamma can be correlated with the 'diffractions' in the GPR and the fractures imaged by the borehole televiewer. The cross hole ultrasonic tomography data is under processing and no interpretations have been attempted yet.

  13. Drilling surveillance and geomechanical experiments in deep boreholes in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the CEC Programme on Radioactive Waste Disposal (1985-1990), in situ experiments in the Asse II salt mine in Germany are conducted. This report describes the work of the 600 m borehole project performed during the contracting period August 1986 - December 1990. During this period measurement devices for measurement of rock mechanical parameters have been developed and were made operational. For the drilling of the boreholes a new technique has been developed. One main subject of investigation was to develop an on-line method to determine the gas content in the flushing air during drilling operation. The method used worked satisfactorily and the test showed that this surveillance method could be used during dry-drilling of deep emplacement boreholes in a future repository. For the second experiment the Variable Pressure Device (VPD) has been constructed to measure the elastic and time-dependent response of the salt on pressure changes. 37 refs., 49 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Consequence assessment of hydrological communications through borehole plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the effect of borehole plug integrity on consequence assessments performed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The study is based on scenarios described in the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix K, for the WIPP, US Department of Energy, October 1980. The flow rates through a borehole, assumed to penetrate the waste storage location and to connect underlying and overlying aquifers, are determined as a function of the hydraulic conductance of the plugs. Similar calculations are performed for multiple boreholes communicating with the aquifers. It is concluded that low permeability plugs (less than 1 md) are not essential to satisfy public health and safety requirements at the WIPP, but rather that such plugs act as a redundant barrier in the multiple barrier isolation concept

  15. Method of monitoring core sampling during borehole drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, A.; Barnes, D.; Gennings, T.L.

    1991-04-30

    This paper describes a method of monitoring the acquisition of a core sample obtained from a coring tool on a drillstring in a borehole. It comprises: measuring the weight of a portion of the drillstring at a pre-selected borehole depth when the drillstring is off bottom to define a first measurement; drilling to acquire a core sample; measuring the weight of a portion of the drillstring at a pre-selected borehole depth when the drillstring is off-bottom to define a second measurement; determining the difference between the first and second measurements, the difference corresponding to the weight of the core sample; and comparing the measured core sample weight to a calculated weight of a full core sample to determine if the core sample has been acquired.

  16. 2005 CNPC S&E International Seminar on Borehole Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From 23rd to 24th in September, the 2005 CNPC S&E International Seminar on Borehole Technology was held in Beijing. Invited by CNPC S&E, 68 honorable guests from 14 countries in Central Asia, Africa, North and South Americas and Southeast Asia and more than 100 representatives for the embassies in the People's Republic of China from 13 countries discussed the trend,progress and utilization of borehole technology and the service strength of CNPC's borehole technology together.The honorable attendees can further know the technical strength of CNPC S&E through this communication,and therefore find out the best cooperation way to create a higher value for the oil company in one hand, and improve the force and popularity of CNPC S&E in the international market on the other hand.

  17. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  18. Interpretation of hydraulic testing at the Weiach borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of hydrogeologic interpretations of all analyzable single packer, double packer, and H-log tests conducted in the Weiach borehole. Ten of the 37 technically successful tests were conducted using a single packer configuration. One test of the Upper Muschelkalk was configured using temporary casing with an external casing packer to conduct a drawdown-recovery test in the isolated zone. Twenty-six intervals were tested using a double packer configuration. Nineteen of these intervals were tested using a hydraulic test tool (HTT). Seven of these intervals were tested using a drill-stem test (DST) tool and drill-stem test methods and one test was completed with a DST tool used to isolate the test interval for a pumping sequence. Three H-log tests were completed near the bottom of the borehole with the HTT and double packer configuration. All the tests were completed with one or more of the following test methodologies at each test interval: slug tests, pulse tests, drill-stem tests (DST) and pumping tests. The tests discussed in this report cover the section of the borehole from apparent depth (along the borehole length) of 188.0 m to the bottom of the borehole at 2482.2 m. The testing occurred within the Malm, Dogger, Lias, Keuper, Muschelkalk, Buntsandstein, Perm, Karbon, and Crystalline Groups. A discussion of the testing and interpretation methods is presented. Data analysis was performed using the INTERA Graph Theoretic Field Model (GTFM) which permits borehole pressure history and thermally-induced pressure effects to be incorporated into the simulatons, and Hornergraphical techniques. (author) 32 figs., 10 tabs., 37 refs

  19. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of ∼100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole ∼45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  20. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Improvements of U-pipe Borehole Heat Exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña, José

    2010-01-01

    The sales of Ground Source Heat Pumps in Sweden and many other countries are having a rapid growth in the last decade. Today, there are approximately 360 000 systems installed in Sweden, with a growing rate of about 30 000 installations per year. The most common way to exchange heat with the bedrock in ground source heat pump applications is circulating a secondary fluid through a Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE), a closed loop in a vertical borehole. The fluid transports the heat from the groun...

  2. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  3. Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffey, T.W.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geophysical Technology Dept.

    1997-08-01

    The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

  4. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole

  5. Strengthening Borehole Configuration from the Retaining Roadway for Greenhouse Gas Reduction: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Xue; Nong Zhang; Xiaowei Feng; Xigui Zheng; Jiaguang Kan

    2015-01-01

    A monitoring trial was carried out to investigate the effect of boreholes configuration on the stability and gas production rate. These boreholes were drilled from the retaining roadway at longwall mining panel 1111(1) of the Zhuji Coalmine, in China. A borehole camera exploration device and multiple gas parameter measuring device were adopted to monitor the stability and gas production rate. Research results show that boreholes 1~8 with low intensity and thin casing thickness were broken at ...

  6. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ''infinite'' in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE's Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors

  7. Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.

  8. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  9. SNG-logs and core measurements in boreholes at Skagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral Natural Gamma logs (SNG-logs) have been used in boreholes at Skagen (Jutland, Denmark) in order to elucidate some geologic reasons for the town Skagen sinking into the ground. Results of measurements - the SNG-logs and core measurements - are reported and discussed in the present report. (EG)

  10. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, John T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  11. Development of a mobile borehole investigation software using augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Kim, S.; Park, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the most developing technologies in smartphone and IT areas. While various applications have been developed using the AR, there are a few geological applications which adopt its advantages. In this study, a smartphone application to manage boreholes using AR has been developed. The application is consisted of three major modules, an AR module, a map module and a data management module. The AR module calculates the orientation of the device and displays nearby boreholes distributed in three dimensions using the orientation. This module shows the boreholes in a transparent layer on a live camera screen so the user can find and understand the overall characteristics of the underground geology. The map module displays the boreholes on a 2D map to show their distribution and the location of the user. The database module uses SQLite library which has proper characteristics for mobile platforms, and Binary XML is adopted to enable containing additional customized data. The application is able to provide underground information in an intuitive and refined forms and to decrease time and general equipment required for geological field investigations.

  12. Borehole Logging for Uranium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Nyegaard, P.; Christiansen, E. M.;

    1980-01-01

    -iodide, and the photomultiplier gain was stabilized electronically using barium-133 (133 Ba) reference gamma rays. The downhole measurements were carried out at depth intervals of 25 cm, and for each stationary position of the borehole probe, counts were accumulated for 100 sec in four energy windows. The calibration constants...

  13. Seismic signatures of partial saturation on acoustic borehole modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, G.E.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Van Dongen, M.E.H.

    2007-01-01

    We present an exact theory of attenuation and dispersion of borehole Stoneley waves propagating along porous rocks containing spherical gas bubbles by using the Biot theory. An effective frequency-dependent fluid bulk modulus is introduced to describe the dynamic (oscillatory) behavior of the gas bu

  14. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  15. Sealing of investigation boreholes, Phase 4 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Luleaa Technical University, Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [El-Tekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Associates, Goeteborg (Sweden); Ekman, Lennart [LE Geokonsult AB, Baelinge (Sweden)

    2011-09-15

    The report describes the outcome of Phase 4 of the project 'Sealing of investigation boreholes', which deals with 1) characterization and planning of borehole sealing, 2) performance and quality assessment, 3) sealing of large diameter holes, and 4) interaction of clay and concrete plugs. A specific goal was to find ways to characterize, plan and seal of boreholes so that their impact on the overall hydraulic performance of the repository rock can predicted and controlled. The work comprised selection of representative 'reference holes' at the Laxemar and Forsmark sites for development of a general programme for planning and simulating implementation of borehole plugging campaigns, considering also cost issues. A second aim was to define and quantify the role of seals in the reference holes for finding out how important sealing really is. A third was to test a practical way to seal large diameter boreholes and a fourth to find out how concrete matures and performs in contact with smectite clay. The study demonstrated, in conclusion, the need for developing techniques for preparing deep boreholes before lasting seals are installed in them, since poor sealing can short-circuit hydraulically important fracture zones intersected by the holes. The practically oriented sealing activities showed that the technique developed for tight sealing of large-diameter boreholes is practical and feasible. The issue of chemical stability was investigated by testing the performance and constitution of a plug consisting of CBI concrete in contact with smectite-rich seals for almost three years. This study showed that none of them underwent substantial degradation in this period of time, but chemical reactions and thereby generated changes in physical behaviour of the plug components had taken place, particularly in the clay. The rate of degradation is, however, not yet known. It was concluded from this study that it is suitable to carry out a corresponding

  16. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  17. Zero-Offset VSP in the COSC-1 borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Felix; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Buske, Stefan; Hedin, Peter; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2015-04-01

    As support for the COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), an extensive seismic survey took place during September and October 2014 in and around the newly drilled borehole COSC-1. The main aim of the COSC project is to better understand orogenic processes in past and recently active mountain belts. For this an approx. 2.5 km deep borehole, with nearly 100% core recovery, was drilled in the Scandinavian Caledonides, close to the town of Åre in western Jämtland/Sweden. The seismic survey consisted of a high resolution zero-offset VSP (vertical seismic profiling) and a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP experiment with receivers at the surface and in the borehole. For the zero-offset VSP (ZVSP) a hydraulic hammer source (VIBSIST 3000) was used and activated over a period of 20 seconds as a sequence of impacts with increasing hit frequency. For each source point, 25 seconds of data were recorded. The wavefield was recorded in the borehole by 15 three-component receivers using a Sercel Slimwave geophone chain with an inter-tool spacing of 10 meters. The ZVSP was designed to result in a geophone spacing of 2 meters over the whole borehole length. The source was about 30 meters away from the borehole and thus, provides a poor geometry to rotate 3C-data in greater depths. For this reason, a check shot position was defined in about 1.9 km distance to the borehole. With this offset shots, it is possible to rotate the components of the 3C receivers and to concentrate the S-wave energy on one component and thus, increase the signal-to-noise ratio of S-wave events. This offset source point was activated periodically for certain depth positions of the geophone chain. The stacked ZVSP-data show a high signal-to-noise ratio and good data quality. Frequencies up to 150 Hz were recorded. On the vertical component, clear direct P-wave arrivals are visible. Several P-wave reflections occur below 1600 meters depth. After rotating the components

  18. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (@@@ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste's decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  19. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL BOREHOLE MEASUREMENTS AT STRIPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.; Paulsson, B.; Rachiele, R.; Andersson, L.; Schrauf, T.; Hustrulid, W.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.A.

    1979-05-01

    Four different systems of borehole instrumentation have been employed thus far at an experimental site at Stripa, Sweden where a series of hydrological and thermo-mechanical experiments are being conducted to examine the suitability of granitic rock for the storage of radioactive waste materials. Asuite of seven logs--neutron, gamma-gamma, resistivity, gamma ray, sonic, caliper, and temperature--operated in a borehole of 380-m depth located eleven zones where the rock permeability is expected to be enhanced due to the presence of open fractures. The sonic waveform record proved especially useful in this regard. Borehole measurements were also acquired in a large number of boreholes from 5- to 14-m length located in experimental drifts some 340-m underground. Here several physical properties, including the porosity, density, sonic velocity, and borehole rugosity, are generally quite uniform, with the exception of a few local chloritic zones and a few minor fractures. However, in situ determinations of the mechanical modulus with the CSM cell indicate substantial variability, with some apparent fracture control. Uranium and thorium concentrations are quite high in the Stripa granite, with local fluctuations associated with mineralogical changes as revealed by the gamma-ray log. Adifferential resistance probe appears promising as a sensitive detector of fine fracturing. Across-hole ultrasonic system indicates variations of a few percent in compressional- and shear-wave velocities, reflecting the presence of fractures and changes in fracture characteristics as the rock is heated in a simulated storage test. The geophysical and mechanical data are being compared with the results from core and television logging, with hydrological test data on static pressure and injection permeability, and with displacements induced by thermal loading.

  20. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lester, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Brady, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, B. W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  1. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  2. Detection of buried pipes by polarimetric borehole radar; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru maisetsukan no kenshutsu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nakauchi, T. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    If the borehole radar is utilized for detection of buried pipes, the underground radar measurement becomes possible even in the situation where the mesurement on the earth surface is difficult, for example, such a place as under the road where there is much traffic. However, since buried pipes are horizontally installed and the existing borehole radar can send/receive only vertical polarization, the measurement conducted comes to be poor in efficiency from a viewpoint of the polarization utilization. Therefore, by introducing the polarimetric borehole radar to the detection of buried pipes, a basic experiment was conducted for the effective detection of horizontal buried pipes. Proposing the use of a slot antenna which can send/receive horizontal polarization in borehole in addition to a dipole antenna which sends/receives vertical polarization, developed was a step frequency type continuous wave radar of a network analyzer basis. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that reflection from buried pipes is largely dependent on polarization. Especially, it was found that in the slot dipole cross polarization mesurement, reflection from buried pipes can be emphasized. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Target reservoirs for the exploitation of hydrocarbons or hot water for geothermal energy supply can comprise small layered structures, for instance thin layers or faults. The resolution of 2D and 3D surface seismic methods is often not sufficient to determine and locate these structures. Borehole seismic methods like vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and seismic while drilling (SWD) use either receivers or sources within the borehole. Thus, the distance to the target horizon is reduced and higher resolution images of the geological structures can be achieved. Even these methods are limited in their resolution capabilities with increasing target depth. To localize structures more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. The project SPWD -- Seismic Prediction While Drilling aims at s the development of a borehole prototype which combines seismic sources and receivers in one device to improve the seismic resolution. Within SPWD such a prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The SPWD-wireline prototype is divided into three main parts. The upper section comprises the electronic unit. The middle section includes the upper receiver, the upper clamping unit as well as the source unit and the lower clamping unit. The lower section consists of the lower receiver unit and the hydraulic unit. The total length of the prototype is nearly seven meters and its weight is about 750 kg. For focusing the seismic waves in predefined directions of the borehole axis the method of phased array is used. The source unit is equipped with four magnetostrictive vibrators. Each can be controlled independently to get a common wave front in the desired direction of exploration. Source signal frequencies up to 5000 Hz are used, which allows resolutions up to one meter. In May and September 2013 field tests with the SPWD-wireline prototype have been carried out at the KTB Deep Crustal Lab in Windischeschenbach (Bavaria). The aim was to proof the

  4. Borehole cylindrical noise during hole-surface and hole-hole resistivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiensky, James L.; Nimmer, Robin; Binley, Andrew M.

    2004-04-01

    Drilled boreholes generally are the only feasible means to access the subsurface for the emplacement of downhole electrodes for most hole-hole and hole-surface resistivity experiments. However, the very existence of the borehole itself creates the potential for significant noise due to the inevitable conductivity contrast that develops between the borehole walls and the formation. Borehole cylindrical noise develops whenever a current source is placed in a drilled borehole. Borehole geometries may range from nearly perfect cylinders to highly, irregular, rugose holes in consolidated rock, to relatively minor, collapsed, disturbed zones in caving sediments. Boreholes in non-caving formations generally are filled with artificial, conductive materials to afford crucial, electrical continuity between downhole electrodes and the borehole walls. Filled boreholes form cylindrically shaped heterogeneities that create significant noise due to preferential current flow up and down the conductive columns. Selected conditions are simulated with a finite difference model to illustrate the significance of borehole cylindrical noise on hole-hole and hole-surface mise-à-la-masse electrical potentials near a current electrode. Mise-à-la-masse electrical potentials measured during a field tracer experiment also are presented. These measurements are used to illustrate significant errors may develop in the interpretation of apparent resistivity estimates out to a distance of several meters from the current source if borehole cylindrical noise is not recognized and accounted for in the analysis of electrical potential data.

  5. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  6. Performance of a Borehole XRF Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; WIllard-Schmoe, Ella

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole XRF Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program. It will be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary performance metrics for the instrument are the lower limits of detection over a wide range of the periodic table. Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight parts-per-million for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  7. Borehole observations of continuous strain and fluid pressure: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Linde, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain is expansion, contraction, or distortion of the volcanic edifice and surrounding crust. As a result of magma movement, volcanoes may undergo enormous strain prior to and during eruption. Global Positioning System (GPS) observations can in principle be used to determine strain by taking the difference between two nearby observations and dividing by the distance between them. Two GPS stations 1 km apart, each providing displacement information accurate to the nearest millimeter, could detect strain as small as 2 mm km-1, or 2 × 10-6. It is possible, however, to measure strains at least three orders of magnitude smaller using borehole strainmeters. In fact, it is even possible to measure strains as small as 10-8 using observations of groundwater levels in boreholes.

  8. Waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) borehole plugging program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests and experiments described attempt to provide a mix of borehole (with limited access) and in-mine (with relatively unlimited access) environments in which assessment of the various issues involved can be undertaken. The Bell Canyon Test provides the opportunity to instrument and analyze a plug in a high pressure region. The Shallow Hole Test permits application of best techniques for plugging and then access to both the top and bottom of the plug for further analysis. The Diagnostic Test Hole permits recovery of bench scale size samples for analysis and establishes an in-borehole laboratory in which to conduct testing and analysis in all strata from the surface into the salt horizon. The additional in mine experiments provide the opportunity to investigate in more detail specific effects on plugs in the salt region and allows evaluation of instrumentation systems

  9. Method and apparatus for borehole fluid influx detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosso, D.S.

    1988-03-22

    This patent describes an apparatus for detection of fluid influx in a borehole in which a drill string is positioned, the drill string cooperating with the wall of the borehole to define an annulus, and in which drilling fluid is circulated from the surface through the interior of the drill string and into the annulus back to the surface, including: means for generating a coherent energy signal at a downhole location and propagation the signal as a primary signal in the drilling fluid in the drill string and as a secondary signal in the drilling fluid in the annulus; means for detecting the primary signal; means for detecting the secondary signal; means for measuring the difference between at least one selected parameter of the primary signal with the same selected parameter of the secondary signal, and means for determining changes in the measured difference between the selected parameter of the primary and secondary signals wherein fluid influx into the annulus is determined.

  10. Comparing plume characteristics inferred from cross-borehole geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Eline Bojsen; Binley, Andrew; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms;

    2012-01-01

    significantly influences results of the moment analysis. We compare results of three cross-borehole geophysical approaches for imaging tracer migration arising from a point injection of water in the unsaturated zone: three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), two-dimensional ground...... of resolution. The flow patterns are compared to geological information from a coring obtained at the site and it is concluded that the diversion of water in the lateral direction can be caused by a few thin layers of contrasting geological composition. Mass balance calculations based on moment analysis......Three cross-borehole geophysical methods are used to image water migration in the unsaturated zone after a point injection of water. Mass balance calculations and moment analysis highlight the differences in resolution between the methods. The choice of moisture content threshold value...

  11. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal borehole televiewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  12. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal Borehole Televiewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  13. New UK in-situ stress orientation for northern England and controls on borehole wall deformation identified using borehole imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Fellgett, Mark W.; Waters, Colin N.

    2016-04-01

    The nascent development of a UK shale gas industry has highlighted the inadequacies of previous in-situ stress mapping which is fundamental to the efficacy and safety of potential fracturing operations. The limited number of stress inversions from earthquake focal plane mechanisms and overcoring measurements of in-situ stress in prospective areas increases the need for an up-to-date stress map. Borehole breakout results from 36 wells with newly interpreted borehole imaging data are presented. Across northern England these demonstrate a consistent maximum horizontal stress orientation (SHmax) orientation of 150.9° and circular standard deviation of 13.1°. These form a new and quality assured evidence base for both industry and its regulators. Widespread use of high-resolution borehole imaging tools has facilitated investigation of micro-scale relationships between stress and lithology, facilitating identification of breakouts as short as 25 cm. This is significantly shorter than those identified by older dual-caliper logging (typically 1-10+ m). Higher wall coverage (90%+ using the highest resolution tools) and decreasing pixel size (down to 4mm vertically by 2° of circumference) also facilitates identification of otherwise undetectable sub-centimetre width Drilling Induced Tensile Fractures (DIFs). Examination of borehole imaging from wells in North Yorkshire within the Carboniferous Pennine Coal Measures Group has showed that even though the stress field is uniform, complex micro-stress relationships exist. Different stress field indicators (SFI) are significantly affected by geology with differing failure responses from adjacent lithologies, highlighted by borehole imaging on sub-metre scales. Core-log-borehole imaging integration over intervals where both breakouts and DIFs have been identified allows accurate depth matching and thus allows a synthesis of failure for differing lithology and micro-structures under common in-situ conditions. Understanding these

  14. The geomicrobiology of the Harwell and Altnabreac boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste repositories in deep environments are likely to contain autochthonous and allochthonous microbial populations which may influence near and far-field conditions. Studies of boreholes in argillaceous and crystalline formations at research sites in the U.K. have revealed the presence of several types of contaminant microorganisms which could affect the integrity of materials used in repository construction, alter the geochemistry and may encourage the release of radionuclides from the near-field environment. (author)

  15. Final interpretation of hydraulic testing at the Siblingen borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of the interpretation of hydraulic testing in the sedimentary and crystalline rocks of the Siblingen borehole. Hydraulic tests were performed between September 1988 and April 1989 in single packer, double packer and open hole configurations. A total number of thirty one separate intervals covering about 90% of the Siblingen borehole length were tested. Preliminary field analyses documented in 'Quick-Look' Reports were performed for all intervals tested. Detailed interpretations were conducted for 16 selected intervals and documented in stand-alone reports. The results of both types of analysis are included in this final report. Data analysis was performed using the ITA Transient Interactive Analysis System (TRIAS) and the INTERPRET analysis code of Scientific Software-Intercomp. Representative test interval parameters including hydraulic conductivity, test interval static pressure and equivalent freshwater hydraulic head are interpreted and recommended. Since no reliable in-situ estimation of the specific storage value was possible it was calculated directly from the input parameters. For the crystalline rock 1.5-6 ms-1 to 2.0-4 ms-1 for the sedimentary aquifers and from 5.1-11 ms-1 to 4.0-4 ms-1 for the crystalline rock. Formation pressures and corresponding hydraulic heads were estimated for 26 of the 31 test intervals. The determined equivalent freshwater heads range from 462 m asl. for the Muschelkalk aquifer on top to 436 m asl. for the lowest part of crystalline rock. Relatively high hydraulic conductivities encoutered in the Siblingen borehole are expected to minimize the influence of the pretest borehole pressure history on the test data. There, pressure history was generally not included in the analysis. This report also contains a brief description of the testing equipment and performance as well as testing and analysis methods use for the determination of hydrogeologic parameters. (author) figs., tabs., 40 refs

  16. Quality control of radioactive waste disposal container for borehole project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explained quality control of radioactive disposal container for the borehole project. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) is one of the quality tool used for evaluating the product. The disposal container is made of 316L stainless steel. The suitable NDT method for this object is radiography, ultrasonic, penetrant and eddy current testing. This container will be filled with radioactive capsules and cement mortar is grouted to fill the gap. The results of NDT measurements are explained and discussed. (author)

  17. Resistivity probes for borehole measuring. Resistivitetssonder til borehulsmaalinger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.

    1990-09-01

    Various aspects of resistivity measurements in boreholes are dealt with. The models used were point electrode models and infinite uniform media. This simplification of the geometry meant that relations between the resistivity, the currents and the voltage could be expressed analytically, thus giving a better understanding of the measuring principle. The possibilities for the interpretion of the resistivity logs are handled with special regard to oil and gas detection. It is claimed that resistivity logs are very informative in this respect. (AB).

  18. Canister design for deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste

    OpenAIRE

    Hoag, Christopher Ian.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to design a canister for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste in deep borehole repositories using currently available and proven oil, gas, and geothermal drilling technology. The canister is suitable for disposal of various waste forms, such as fuel assemblies and vitrified waste. The design addresses real and perceived hazards of transporting and placing high-level waste, in the form of spent reactor fuel, into a deep igneous rock env...

  19. Practical evaluation of borehole heat exchanger models in TRNSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Thorén, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    Vertical ground source heat pumps are established and still growing on the global market. The modelling of these systems is important for system design and optimization. This is an active field of research, and many models are often built into system simulation software such as TRNSYS. With the intention of having a better sensibility for existing TRNSYS tools, three different cases are simulated with several TRNSYS tools, so called Types. A Thermal Response Test, a large borehole field of an...

  20. Cross borehole electromagnetic tomography : scoping study and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    P. B. Wilkinson

    2005-01-01

    Cross-borehole electromagnetic tomography is a non-contact geophysical method that can be used to generate images of the electrical properties of the subsurface. It is rather underutilised for site-scale investigation, due to the broad range of frequencies over which it must respond and the complicated nature of the electromagnetic fields in this range. However, such a system would find applications in a wide variety of environments, from fracture characterisation in highly resistive crystall...

  1. MAW and HTR fuel element test disposal in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kernforschungsanlage Juelich, KFA, (Nuclear Research Center Juelich) has been handling a project since 1983 on 'Further Development of the Borehole Technology for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Salt, with the Examples of Dissolver Sludge, Fuel Element Claddings, Fuel Hardware und HTR Fuel Elements'. The project is sponsored by the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie, BMFT, (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) under the identification number KWA 5302 3 and bears the short title 'MAW and HTR Fuel Element Test Disposal in Boreholes'. The major objective of the project is to develop a technique for the disposal of the above mentioned wastes in unlined boreholes in salt and to test this technique in the Asse salt mine. The Institut fuer Chemische Technologie der Nuklearen Entsorgung, ICT (Institute of Chemical Technology) at the KFA is responsible for the scientific and organizational management of the project. The Institut fuer Tieflagerung, IfT, (Institute for Underground Disposal) of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH, GSF, (Society for Radiological and Environmental Research) is responsible for the geomechanical and mining activities in the project. It supervises the in-situ experiments, and as the owner of the Asse salt mine, it submits applications for the experiments to the licensing authorities. Geomechanical calculations are being carried out by the Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, BGR, (Federal Institute for Geological Sciences and Natural Resources). (orig./RB)

  2. Hydraulic conductivity explored by factor analysis of borehole geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Norbert Péter

    2015-08-01

    A multivariate statistical method is presented for providing hydrogeological information on groundwater formations. Factor analysis is applied to borehole logs in Hungary and the USA to estimate the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity of rocks intersected by the borehole. Earlier studies showed a strong correlation between a statistical variable extracted by factor analysis and shale volume in primary porosity rocks. Hydraulic conductivity as a related quantity can be derived directly by factor analysis. In the first step, electric and nuclear logs are transformed into factor logs, which are then correlated to hydraulic properties of aquifers. It is shown that a factor explaining the major part of variance of the measured variables is inversely proportional to hydraulic conductivity. By revealing the regression relation between the above quantities, an estimate for hydraulic conductivity can be given along the entire length of the borehole. Synthetic modeling experiments and field cases demonstrate the feasibility of the method, which can be applied both in primary and secondary porosity aquifers. The results of factor analysis show consistence with those of the Kozeny-Carman method and hydraulic aquifer tests. The application of the statistical analysis of well logs together with independent ground geophysical and hydrogeological methods serves a more efficient exploration of groundwater resources.

  3. Borehole geophysical investigations of Lavia deep testhole, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Goverment's decision in principle in 1983 Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is making preparations for all the steps of final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plants. Before the actual site investigation phase, TVO drilled a deep borehole in Lavia, Western Finland. The borehole is used during 1984-85 for testing investigation techniques and methods used for bedrock characterization. Borehole geophysical loggings performed in Lavia consisted of galvanic electrical, transient electromagnetic, radiometric, temperature, seismic and magnetic msurements. This composite survey provided both lithological and structural information of rock mass. The neutron-neutron, density, natural gamma radiation and susceptibility methods characterized rock type. Fracturing and its type could be interpreted most effectively with resistivity, acoustic P-wave velocity and density logs. Temperature and tube-wave measurements revealed several fractured zones related to possible water flow in rock. Lavia investigations indicated that a high quality of instrumentation and careful calibration are necessary for site investigations. The large amount of log data also requires efficient data collection and processing systems both in the field and laboratory. (author)

  4. Equipment and Experimental Technique For Temperature Measurements In Deep Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoforov, A.

    The technique of temperature measurements is highly informative since any dynami- cal processes in the boreholes and in the vicinities are accompanied by thermal effects. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes are briefly dis- cussed in the report. It includes a deep instrument, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. The temperature dependent frequency modulated signal is used in deep instrument. A cable of original construction was developed for chute-lift operations. It has a signal and power channel at the same time and play the depth me- ter. The surface recording unit includes power supply for deep instruments, receiver, frequency meter and indicator. A personal computer is used for the measurement nu- merical control. Energy for the electronics is supplied by a car battery. Self sufficiency and high accuracy are specialities of the equipment. Using the technique and equip- ment we made the experimental study of temperature in the boreholes of the East European platform, Middle Asia, West Siberia, Kamchatka and other regions. Most of our temperatures and temperature gradients have been used for mapping.

  5. Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

  6. Site Guidelines for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassani, D.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Freeze, G. A.; MacKinnon, R. J.; Perry, F.

    2015-12-01

    The US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) is initiating a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), without use of any radioactive waste, to evaluate the geoscience of the approach and technical capabilities for implementation. DOE has identified Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as the Technical Lead for the UFDC DBFT Project, with the role of supporting DOE in (i) developing the overall DBFT Project Plan, (ii) management and integration of all DBFT Project activities, and (iii) providing Project technical guidance to DOE, other DOE National Laboratories, and university partners. The DBFT includes drilling one Characterization Borehole (CB-8.5" diameter), followed by an optional Field Test Borehole (FTB), to a depth of about 5,000 m (16,400 feet) into crystalline basement rock in a geologically stable continental location. The DBFT CB will be drilled and completed to facilitate downhole scientific testing and analyses. If site conditions are found to be favorable, DOE may drill the larger-diameter (17") FTB to facilitate proof-of-concept of handling, emplacement, and retrieval activities using surrogate waste containers. Guidelines for favorable DBFT site geohydrochemical and geomechanical conditions will be discussed and status of the DBFT Project will be provided. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6426A.

  7. Borehole prompt gamma neutron activation and comparison with Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP code Borehole PGNAA experiment comparison with MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabpour, M. [Gamma Irradiation Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahriari, M. [Physics Department, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarifian, V.; Moghadam, K.K. [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    A borehole experiment using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been performed in a large sample box having a volume of 1 m{sup 3}. Brine solutions having a salt concentration in the range of 0-10 wt% of sodium chloride has been used. Chlorine prompt gamma spectral response as a function of the salt concentrations have been obtained. A simulation of the above experiments has also been carried out using the MCNP4A Monte Carlo code. Comparison of the experimental spectral response versus the simulated MCNP4A data has produced excellent agreement. In view of the good benchmark data it is proposed that due to the inherent problems associated with the ordinary calibration procedures for the borehole logging tools, one could employ a combined calibration/simulation scheme to circumvent these difficulties and achieve more effective results.

  8. Geophysical borehole logging, dummy-sonding and optical imaging of the borehole OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging, dummy-sonding and optical imaging surveys of the borehole OL-KR24 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during 1.10.2005 - 4.10.2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are caliper survey and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of surveys, interpretation and processing of the data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of magnetized ore bodies based on three-component borehole magnetic and directional borehole seismic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil, Christopher; Neuhaus, Martin; Hördt, Andreas; Giese, Rüdiger; Krüger, Kay; Jurczyk, Andreas; Juhlin, Christopher; Juhojuntti, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades magnetic prospecting using total field data was used with great success for localization and characterization of ferromagnetic ore bodies. Especially borehole magnetic measurements reveal important constraints on the extent and depth of potential mining targets. However, due to the inherent ambiguity of the interpretation of magnetic data, the resulting models of the distribution of magnetized material, such as iron ore bodies, are not entirely reliable. Variations in derived parameters like volume and estimated ore content of the expected body have significant impact on the economic efficiency of a planned mine. An important improvement is the introduction of three-component borehole magnetic sondes. Modern tools comprise orientation modules which allow the continuous determination of the tool's heading regardless of the well inclination and independent of the magnetic field. Using the heading information the recorded three-component magnetic data can be transferred from the internal tool's frame to the geographic reference frame. The vector information yields a more detailed and reliable description of the ore bodies compared to total field or horizontal and vertical field data. Nevertheless complementary information to constrain the model is still advisable. The most important supplementary information for the interpretation of magnetic data is the knowledge of the structural environment of the target regions. By discriminating dissimilar rock units, a geometrical starting model can be derived, constraining the magnetic interpretation and leading to a more robust estimation of the rock magnetizations distribution. The most common approach to reveal the lithological setting rests upon seismic measurements. However, for deep drilling targets surface seismic and VSP lack the required spatial resolution of 10s of meters. A better resolution is achieved by using directed sources and receivers inside the borehole. Here we present the application of

  10. Long-term pumping test in borehole KR24 flow measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhiainen, P.; Poellaenen, J. [PRG-Tec Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    The Difference Flow method can be used for the relatively fast determination of transmissivity and hydraulic head in fractures or fractured zones in cored boreholes. In this study, the Difference Flow method was used for hydraulic crosshole interference tests. The tests were performed in boreholes KR24 (pumped borehole) KR4, KR7, KR8, KRlO, KR14, KR22, KR22B, KR26, KR27, KR27B, KR28 and KR28B at Olkiluoto during the first and second quarters of 2004. The distance between the boreholes varies from approximately tens of meters to hundreds of meters. All the measurements were carried out in open boreholes, i.e. no packers were used. For interpretation, a normal single hole test was first performed in each borehole. Flow rates and drawdown were first measured both without pumping and with pumping the borehole under test. For practical reasons, the data set is neither complete nor similar in all tested boreholes. Connected flow to borehole KR24 was detected in all these boreholes. These flow responses were concentrated on a few zones. (orig.)

  11. The State of the Art of the Borehole Disposal Concept for High Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an alternative of the high-level radioactive waste disposal in the subsurface repository, a deep borehole disposal is reviewed by several nuclear advanced countries. In this study, the state of the art on the borehole disposal researches was reviewed, and the possibility of borehole disposal in Korean peninsula was discussed. In the deep borehole disposal concept radioactive waste is disposed at the section of 3 - 5 km depth in a deep borehole, and it has known that it has advantages in performance and cost due to the layered structure of deep groundwater and small surface disposal facility. The results show that it is necessary to acquisite data on deep geologic conditions of Korean peninsula, and to research the engineering barrier system, numerical modeling tools and disposal techniques for deep borehole disposal.

  12. High-density support matrices: Key to the deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, F.G.F.; McTaggart, N.A.; Travis, K.P.; Burley, D; Hesketh, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Deep (4–5 km) boreholes are emerging as a safe, secure, environmentally sound and potentially cost-effective option for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, including plutonium. One reason this option has not been widely accepted for spent fuel is because stacking the containers in a borehole could create load stresses threatening their integrity with potential for releasing highly mobile radionuclides like 129I before the borehole is filled and sealed. This problem can be overcome by u...

  13. Challenges and opportunities for fractured rock imaging using 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Judith; Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-02-02

    There is an increasing need to characterize discrete fractures away from boreholes to better define fracture distributions and monitor solute transport. We performed a 3D evaluation of static and time-lapse cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data sets from a limestone quarry in which flow and transport are controlled by a bedding-plane feature. Ten boreholes were discretized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, and 2D panel measurements were inverted for a 3D distribution of conductivity. We evaluated the benefits of 3D versus 2.5D inversion of ERT data in fractured rock while including the use of borehole regularization disconnects (BRDs) and borehole conductivity constraints. High-conductivity halos (inversion artifacts) surrounding boreholes were removed in static images when BRDs and borehole conductivity constraints were implemented. Furthermore, applying these constraints focused transient changes in conductivity resulting from solute transport on the bedding plane, providing a more physically reasonable model for conductivity changes associated with solute transport at this fractured rock site. Assuming bedding-plane continuity between fractures identified in borehole televiewer data, we discretized a planar region between six boreholes and applied a fracture regularization disconnect (FRD). Although the FRD appropriately focused conductivity changes on the bedding plane, the conductivity distribution within the discretized fracture was nonunique and dependent on the starting homogeneous model conductivity. Synthetic studies performed to better explain field observations showed that inaccurate electrode locations in boreholes resulted in low-conductivity halos surrounding borehole locations. These synthetic studies also showed that the recovery of the true conductivity within an FRD depended on the conductivity contrast between the host rock and fractures. Our findings revealed that the potential exists to improve imaging of fractured

  14. Numerical simulation on heat transfer performance of vertical U-tube with different borehole fill materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Heat exchange performance of vertical U-tube heat exchanger was studiedwith two different borehole fill materials and CFD software. Borehole surface temperature and water temperature distribution were simulated on the condition of continuous operation for 8 h in winter with inlet water temperature being 10 ℃. The results show that there is no obvious difference on heat exchanger performance between the two different borehole fill materials.

  15. Geologic and geochemical results from boreholes drilled in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2007 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Cheryl; Susong, David; Heasler, Henry; Mencin, David; Johnson, Wade; Conrey, Rick; Von Stauffenberg, Jennipher

    2016-06-01

    Between 2007 and 2008, seven Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) boreholes ranging in depth from about 200 to 800 feet deep were drilled in and adjacent to the Yellowstone caldera in Yellowstone National Park, for the purpose of installing volcano monitoring instrumentation. Five of the seven boreholes were equipped with strainmeters, downhole seismometers, and tiltmeters. Data collected during drilling included field observations of drill cuttings, stratigraphy within the boreholes, water temperature, and water and drill cuttings samples from selected depths.

  16. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  17. Polarimetric borehole radar measurement near Nojima fault and its application to subsurface crack characterization; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru Nojima danso shuhen no chika kiretsu keisoku jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Miwa, T.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ikeda, R. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Makino, K. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Practical application of subsurface crack characterization by the borehole radar measurement to which the radar polarimetric method was introduced was attempted to measuring objects for which the borehole radar has not been much used, for example, the inside of low loss rock mass or fracture zone where cracks tightly exist. A system was trially manufactured which makes the radar polarimetric measurement possible in the borehole at a 1000m depth and with a about 10cm diameter, and a field experiment was conducted for realizing the subsurface crack characterization near the Nojima fault. For the measuring experiment by the polarimetric borehole radar, used were Iwaya borehole and Hirabayashi borehole drilled in the north of Awaji-shima, Hyogo-ken. In a comparison of both polarization systems of Hirabayashi borehole, reflected waves at depths of 1038m and 1047m are relatively stronger in both polarization systems than those with the same polarization form and at different depths, whereas reflected waves around a 1017m depth are strong only as to the parallel polarization system. Characteristics of the polarization in this experiment indirectly reflect crack structures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Safety analysis of stability of surface gas drainage boreholes above goaf areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-zhou; LI Xiao-hong

    2007-01-01

    As longwall caving mining method prevails rapidly in China coal mines, amount of gas emission from longwall faces and goaf area increased significantly. Using traditional gas drainage methods, such as drilling upward holes to roof strata in tailgate or drilling inseam and cross-measure boreholes, could not meet methane drainage requirements in a gassy mine. The alternative is to drill boreholes from surface down to the longwall goaf area to drain the gas out. As soon as a coal seam is extracted out, the upper rock strata above the goaf start to collapse or become fractured depending upon the rock characteristics and the height above the coal seam. During overlying rock strata being fractured,boreholes in the area may be damaged due to ground movement after the passage of the longwall face. The sudden damage of a borehole may cause a longwall production halt or even a serious mine accident. A theoretical calculation of the stability of surface boreholes in mining affected area is introduced along with an example of determination of borehole and casing diameters is given for demonstration. By using this method for the drilling design, the damage of surface boreholes caused by excessive mining induced displacement can be effectively reduced if not totally avoided. Borehole and casing diameters as well as characteristics of filling materials can be determined using the proposed method by calculating the horizontal movement and vertical stain at different borehole depths.

  19. CFD-modelling of natural convection in a groundwater-filled borehole heat exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, A-M.; Westerlund, L.; Hellström, G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In design of ground-source energy systems the thermal erformance of the borehole heat exchangers is important. In Scandinavia, boreholes are usually not grouted but left with groundwater to fill the space between heat exchanger pipes and borehole wall. The common U-pipe arrangement in a groundwater-filled BHE has been studied by a three-dimensional, steady-state CFD model. The model consists of a three meter long borehole containing a single U-pipe with surrounding bedrock...

  20. Study of fissured-rock seepage flow with isotope tracer method in single borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建生; 董海洲

    2001-01-01

    A systematic summary is presented describing the application of isotope tracer method in detecting seepage flow in a single borehole. In a single borehole, many hydraulic coefficients, such as flow velocity, direction of flow, vertical flow etc., can be obtained by using isotope tracer method. There are three conditions if a fissure intersects a borehole: vertical, parallel and tilt. According to each different condition, the formulation of flow velocity deduced by isotope dilution method is different. At the same time, well theory of blended borehole about fissure groups including single fissure group and multi-fissure groups, has also been discussed.

  1. Borehole camera technology and its application in the Three Gorges Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y.; Sheng, Q.; Ge, X.R. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Wuhan (China); Law, K.T. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The China's Three Gorges Project is the world's largest hydropower project, consisting of a 1,983-meter long and 185-meter high dam and 26 power generating units. Borehole examination has been conducted at the site to ensure stability of the slope of the ship lock used for navigation. This paper describes 2 systems for borehole inspection and viewing. Both methods of camera borehole technology provide a unique way for geologic engineers to observe the condition inside a borehole. The Axial-View Borehole Television (AVBTV) provides real-time frontal view of the borehole ahead of the probe, making it possible to detect where holes are blocked and to see cracks and other distinctive features in the strata. The Digital Panoramic Borehole Camera System (DPBCS) can collect, measure, save, analyze, manage and displace geological information about a borehole. It can also be used to determine the orientation of discontinuity, generate unrolled image and virtual core graph and conduct statistical analysis. Both camera systems have been demonstrated successfully at the Three Gorges Project for qualitative description of the borehole as well as for quantitative analysis of cracks existing in the rock. It has been determined that most of the cracks dip in the same general direction as the northern slope of the permanent ship lock of the Three Gorges Project. 12 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  2. Instrument for orientation of a deflection in a borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vechkhaizer, Ya.I.; Buslaev, V.F.; Khafizof, Z.Kh.; Shafikov, F.Kh.

    1981-05-17

    The instrument contains a diamagnetic pipe, a dipmeter with a cylindrical ring, and a framework installed in it, an azimuthal rheochord with magnetic arrow, and an extender with a locknut. To shorten the lowering and raising operations and increase the reliability of orientation of the deflector in vertical and inclined borehole shafts it is equipped with an additional deflector with a cylindrical ring. Installed in it is an additional famework. The extender with locknut is placed between the main and auxillary dipmeters. The frameworks of both dipmeters are arrested with rings with the aid of fixers; the azimuthal rheochords are installed according to one generatrix.

  3. Interpretation of hydraulic testing at the Schafisheim borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of hydrogeologic interpretations of the analyzable single packer, double packer, and H-log tests conducted in the Schafisheim borehole. A brief discussion of the testing and interpretation methods is also presented. Data analysis was performed using the INTERA Graph Theoretic Field Model (GTFM) which permits borehole pressure history and thermally-induced pressure effects to be incorporated into the simulations. Formation pressures (and corresponding equivalent freshwater heads) were determined for 11 of the test intervals. The calculated equivalent freshwater heads were at 370 m a.s.l. (Malm) and 444 m a.s.l. (Muschelkalk) for the sedimentary units, and were in a tight range from 366 m a.s.l. to 370 m a.s.l. in the crystalline portion of the borehole. Hydraulic conductivities were estimated for 37 different hydraulic tests in the Schafisheim borehole. A detailed analysis was performed for 16 intervals, and a less in-depth review was conducted of an additional 21 low permeability intervals (Interval 1972.6 was tested twice). Interpreted hydraulic conductivities ranged from 5.0E-06 ms-1 to less than 1.0E-12 ms-1. Zones of high hydraulic conductivity (greater than 1.0E-09 ms-1) were observed at the following approximate true vertical depths: 552.9 m to 563.0 m, 1,227.6 to 1,286.9 m, 1,564.1 m to 1,607.6 m, 1,882.8 m to 1,903.3 m, and 1,953.7 m to 2,005.8 m. A base case specific storage of 1.0E-07 m-1 was generally used for the crystalline rock. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for some tests to determine the uncertainty in the best estimate of K related to the choice of specific storage. In these cases, specific storage was varied by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude from the base case value. (author) figs., tabs., 29 refs

  4. Water inflow into boreholes during the Stripa heater experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.H.; Rachiele, R.; Remer, J.S.; Carlsson, H.

    1981-04-01

    During the operation of three in-situ heater experiments at Stripa, Sweden, groundwater flowed into many of the instrumentation and heater boreholes. These flows were recovered and measured routinely. The records of water inflow indicate two origins: inflow attributed to local hydrological pressure gradients, and water migration from cracks closing under the rapidly increasing, thermal-induced stress changes. The latter component appeared as a main pulse that occurred when the heaters were turned on, and lasted about 30 to 40 days, steadily declining over the next several months, and decreasing sharply when heater power was decreased or stopped. The magnitude of the total inflow per hole ranged over more than five decades, from 0.1 to over 10,000 liters over the 500 to 600 day time periods. When plotted against the logarithm of total volume, the frequency distribution displays a normal curve dependence with a mean of approximately 10 liters. Of this amount, 1 to 2 liters of flow into 38-mm-diam boreholes accompanied an increase in applied heat load. These amounts are compatible with rock porosities of a fraction of one percent. Inflow into the 3.6 and 5.0 kW heater holes peaked within 3 to 6 days after heater turn on, then declined to zero inflow, with no further inflow measured for the remainder of the experiments. In the heater holes of the time-scaled experiment, which operated at 1.125 kW or less, the initial pulse of inflow took much longer to decay, and 7 of 8 heater holes continued to flow throughout the experiment. The packing off and isolation of a borehole some 40 m distant in the ventilation drift dramatically increased the inflow into the heater holes in one of the three heater experiments. This demonstrated the existence of permeable flow paths among a number of boreholes. The records of water inflow demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of the nature of fluid flow and storage in fractured crystalline rock.

  5. Current trends in nuclear borehole logging techniques for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a consultants' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Ottawa, Canada, 2-6 November 1987 in order to assess the present technical status of nuclear borehole logging techniques, to find out the well established applications and the development trends. It contains a summary report giving a comprehensive overview of the techniques and applications and a collection of research papers describing work done in industrial institutes. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Ceramic Borehole Seals for Nuclear Waste Disposal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, B.; Coates, K.; Wohletz, K.; Dunn, S.; Patera, E.; Duguid, A.; Arnold, B.; Zyvoloski, G.; Groven, L.; Kuramyssova, K.

    2015-12-01

    Sealing plugs are critical features of the deep borehole system design. They serve as structural platforms to bear the weight of the backfill column, and as seals through their low fluid permeability and bond to the borehole or casing wall. High hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures, high mineral content water, and elevated temperature due to the waste packages and geothermal gradient challenge the long term performance of seal materials. Deep borehole nuclear waste disposal faces the added requirement of assuring performance for thousands of years in large boreholes, requiring very long term chemical and physical stability. A high performance plug system is being developed which capitalizes on the energy of solid phase reactions to form a ceramic plug in-situ. Thermites are a family of self-oxidized metal/oxide reactions with very high energy content and the ability to react under water. When combined with engineered additives the product exhibits attractive structural, sealing, and corrosion properties. In the initial phase of this research, exploratory and scaled tests demonstrated formulations that achieved controlled, fine grained, homogeneous, net shape plugs composed predominantly of ceramic material. Laboratory experiments produced plug cores with confined fluid permeability as low as 100 mDarcy, compressive strength as high as 70 MPa (three times the strength of conventional well cement), with the inherent corrosion resistance and service temperature of ceramic matrices. Numerical thermal and thermal/structural analyses predicted the in-situ thermal performance of the reacted plugs, showing that they cooled to ambient temperature (and design strength) within 24 to 48 hours. The current development effort is refining the reactant formulations to achieve desired performance characteristics, developing the system design and emplacement processes to be compatible with conventional well service practices, and understanding the thermal, fluid, and structural

  7. Detection of unexploded ordnance by PGNAA based borehole-logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a borehole-logging system, based on prompt-gamma-neutron-activation-analysis (PGNAA), for explosive detection was studied by Monte-Carlo simulations. The prompt gamma of nitrogen, which is a constituent of common explosive, was used to identify the unexploded ordnance (UXO). Our results show that the minimum counting time depends on the soil moisture, the cladding thickness and the explosive composition. In conjunction with the standard detection by magnetometry, the PGNAA is a promising analytical technique for definitive identification of deep buried UXOs. (author)

  8. Kinetics of desorption of iodine from borehole waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of mass transfer during iodine desorption by air from water-salt systems and borehole waters of different composition has been studied. With an aid of laboratory installation with film column and sprinkled walls the region of the process procedure in a wide range of phases, concentrations (aqueous iodine solution, sodium chloride solution) and temperatures is determined. Calculation and experimental values of kinetic parameters are obtained. It follows from the data analysis that the process of iodine desorption is complicated by reversible reaction of complexing, its rate being higher than the rate of mass transfer

  9. The bed-borehole relationship; La liaison couche-trou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veillon, D.

    2000-07-01

    This book presents in a theoretical and practical way, a large synthesis of the state of the knowledge about the bed-borehole relationship. Some geological and reservoir engineering considerations are recalled first. Then the different modes of bed-hole connection are examined successively with the completion fluids, the perforation of liners, the control and restoring of cementations, the treatment of matrices, the deep treatment using hydraulic fracturing, the control of sand incomes and other various methods of bed treatment. (J.S.)

  10. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m3 (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment

  11. An Effective Method for Borehole Imaging of Buried Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Di Donato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection and imaging of buried tunnels is a challenging problem which is relevant to both geophysical surveys and security monitoring. To comply with the need of exploring large portions of the underground, electromagnetic measurements carried out under a borehole configuration are usually exploited. Since this requires to drill holes in the soil wherein the transmitting and receiving antennas have to be positioned, low complexity of the involved apparatus is important. On the other hand, to effectively image the surveyed area, there is the need for adopting efficient and reliable imaging methods. To address these issues, in this paper we investigate the feasibility of the linear sampling method (LSM, as this inverse scattering method is capable to provide almost real-time results even when 3D images of very large domains are built, while not requiring approximations of the underlying physics. In particular, the results of the reported numerical analysis show that the LSM is capable of performing the required imaging task while using a quite simple measurement configuration consisting of two boreholes and a few number of multiview-multistatic acquisitions.

  12. Measuring in-situ stress in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrofracturing method of in-situ stress measurement is the only technique which has been proven to be reliable in boreholes below depths of 300 m. The method has been used in a variety of applications at depths of up to 5000m, and in a range of borehole diameters. The equipment used is composed of standard components from proven and long-established oil industry well-logging tools and is simple to operate. This is preferable to the delicate electrical devices used in the overcoring stress measurement method. Electrical components are difficult to waterproof, very small strains are monitored and the tendency of electrical circuits to drift, due to a variety of effects, makes interpretation of the results difficult. However, the interpretation of hydrofracturing test results is often not easy. Many factors can prevent ideal fracturing behaviour from occurring, in which case conventional analyses will yield incorrect answers. The complete state of stress can often not be determined and sweeping assumptions are commonly made about principal stress direction, which cannot always be subsequently verified. (author)

  13. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs

  15. Resolving the Younger Dryas Event Through Borehole Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, John Francis

    One of the most striking features of the ice core records from Greenland is a sudden drop in oxygen isotope values (delta O-18) between approximately 11,500 and 10,700 years ago. This Younger Dryas event was an intense return to ice age conditions during a time of general de-glaciation. As recorded in the ice cores, temperatures in Greenland cooled by roughly seven degrees Kelvin. W. Broecker and R. Fairbanks have proposed competing explanations for the cooling and cause of this "aborted ice age." One supposes that the seven degree cooling is real and results from a shutdown in the North Atlantic ocean circulation; the other, that it is largely fictitious and records an intrusion of isotopically light glacial meltwater into the ice core records. Using optimal control methods and heat flow modelling, the author makes a valiant but ultimately futile attempt to distinguish the Younger Dryas event in the ice sheet temperatures measured at Dye 3, South Greenland. The author discusses the prospects for attempting the same in the new Summit boreholes in Central Greenland: how that will require more accurate temperature measurements, a coupled thermo-mechanical model, and a refined uncertainty analysis. He concludes by discussing how borehole temperature analysis may improve the climate histories determined from ice cores.

  16. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas E.; Parra, Jorge O.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance is selected to match the overall density of the detector package with the underground formation, yet still have relatively low melting point and rigid enough to transmit vibrations to accelerometers in the seismic detector. To minimize voids in the meltable substance upon solidification, the meltable substance is selected for minimum shrinkage, yet still having the other desirable characteristics. Heaters are arranged in the meltable substance in such a manner to allow the lowermost portion of the meltable substance to cool and solidify first. Solidification continues upwards from bottom-to-top until the top of the meltable substance is solidified and the seismic detector is ready for use. To remove, the heaters melt the meltable substance and the detector package is pulled from the borehole.

  17. Borehole locations and top surface altitudes of each of the 16 hydrostratigraphic layers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina (pp1773_unit_alt_boreholes)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Point data pp1773_unit_alt_boreholes represent the 309 locations of various types of boreholes that were used to determine the altitudes of each of the 16...

  18. Automatic generation of groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from AEM resistivity and boreholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, N.; Christiansen, A. V.;

    2014-01-01

    and heterogeneity, which spatially scarce borehole lithology data may overlook, are well resolved in AEM surveys. This study presents a semi-automatic sequential hydrogeophysical inversion method for the integration of AEM and borehole data into regional groundwater models in sedimentary areas, where sand/ clay...

  19. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  20. Immobilized low-activity waste site borehole 299-E17-21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.; Horton, D.G.

    1998-08-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is the group at the Hanford Site responsible for the safe underground storage of liquid waste from previous Hanford Site operations, the storage and disposal of immobilized tank waste, and closure of underground tanks. The current plan is to dispose of immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) in new facilities in the southcentral part of 200-East Area and in four existing vaults along the east side of 200-East Area. Boreholes 299-E17-21, B8501, and B8502 were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site in support of the Performance Assessment activities for the disposal options. This report summarizes the initial geologic findings, field tests conducted on those boreholes, and ongoing studies. One deep (480 feet) borehole and two shallow (50 feet) boreholes were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site. The primary factor dictating the location of the boreholes was their characterization function with respect to developing the geohydrologic model for the site and satisfying associated Data Quality Objectives. The deep borehole was drilled to characterize subsurface conditions beneath the ILAW site, and two shallow boreholes were drilled to support an ongoing environmental tracer study. The tracer study will supply information to the Performance Assessment. All the boreholes provide data on the vadose zone and saturated zone in a previously uncharacterized area.

  1. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  2. An analysis of the lithology to resistivity relationships using airborne EM and boreholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian A.S.; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Møller, Ingelise

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the relationship between dense airborne skyTEM resistivity data and sparse lithological borehole data. Understanding the resistivity structure of the subsurface is of great importance to hydrogeological surveys and to ensure a high standard for groundwater quality. Borehole ...

  3. On the use of borehole radar measurements for 3D assessment of structures in rock volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, S.A. [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    Construction of a three-dimensional model of an area, for example a site for radioactive waste disposal, requires subsurface extrapolation of surface data and interpolation of subsurface and surface data. Such structural interpretation is based on local information in the perspective of the regional structural setting of the site. The SKB borehole radar, which can detect structures within a radius of 15 to 25 m around the borehole, is one of the most important sources of geometrical information from boreholes. Directional borehole radar measurements produce information on the angle ({alpha}) at which a feature intersects the borehole and the location (azimuth) relative to the borehole. Although the azimuthal information is important for the subsequent interpretation, the critical parameter that determines whether the feature is detected by the radar appears to be the {alpha}-angle. In this paper, the performance of the radar tool concerning {alpha}-angles is studied. The reason for undertaking the study was that predicted low angle intersections between boreholes and structures were not identified. This suggests that the relationship between the sampled population and the target population needs to be investigated. The analysed data sets comprise 307 reflectors from the Romuvaara site in Finland and 307 reflectors from the cored boreholes in the Hard Rock Laboratory at Aespoe. In the Aespoe bedrock, the shape of the frequency histogram displaying the {alpha}-angles is very consistent throughout the area. A brief comparison of amplitudes and reflectivity shows that the shape of the frequency histogram is tool-dependent rather than depending on the physical properties of the zones. The potential of the borehole radar to detect structures intersecting the borehole at very high angles is low due to the transmitter-receiver configuration of the tool. In the Aespoe radar data, the range of the borehole radar appears to be narrower than expected, with very few radar

  4. 200-ZP-1 operable unit borehole summary report for FY 1995 and FY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document details the well construction, sampling, analyses, and geologic character of the Ringold Formation fluvial unit E gravels as encountered in 16 boreholes in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. These boreholes were drilled by Water Development Hanford Corporation during fiscal years 1995 and 1996. Two of the sixteen boreholes were abandoned; the remaining 14 boreholes were completed as functioning production and compliance wells. The borehole logs and well summary sheets included as Appendices A and B of this document, respectively, depict and describe the vadose zone stratigraphic units encountered during the course of drilling. Appendix C contains the results of sieve analyses conducted on samples obtained via resonant sonic coring and standard split-spoon methods. The sieve analyses were the driver behind the majority of the well designs. Also, for completeness, Appendices D and E contain the well design calculations and the well development process

  5. Thermal Performance Analysis of a Geologic Borehole Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagin, Lauren [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-16

    The Brazilian Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) proposed a design for the disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) based on the IAEA Borehole Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources (BOSS) design that would allow the entirety of Brazil’s inventory of DSRS to be disposed in a single borehole. The proposed IPEN design allows for 170 waste packages (WPs) containing DSRS (such as Co-60 and Cs-137) to be stacked on top of each other inside the borehole. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal performance of a conservative approach to the IPEN proposal with the equivalent of two WPs and two different inside configurations using Co-60 as the radioactive heat source. The current WP configuration (heterogeneous) for the IPEN proposal has 60% of the WP volume being occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source and the remaining 40% as vacant space. The second configuration (homogeneous) considered for this project was a homogeneous case where 100% of the WP volume was occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source. The computational models for the thermal analyses of the WP configurations with the Co-60 heat source considered three different cooling mechanisms (conduction, radiation, and convection) and the effect of mesh size on the results from the thermal analysis. The results of the analyses yielded maximum temperatures inside the WPs for both of the WP configurations and various mesh sizes. The heterogeneous WP considered the cooling mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation. The temperature results from the heterogeneous WP analysis suggest that the model is cooled predominantly by conduction with effect of radiation and natural convection on cooling being negligible. From the thermal analysis comparing the two WP configurations, the results suggest that either WP configuration could be used for the design. The mesh sensitivity results verify the meshes used and results obtained from the thermal analyses were close to being

  6. Elastic wave scattering to characterize heterogeneities in the borehole environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Hei, Chuang; Su, Yuan-Da

    2016-04-01

    Scattering due to small-scale heterogeneities in the rock formation surrounding a wellbore can significantly change the acoustic waveform from a logging measurement which in turn can be used to characterize the formation heterogeneities. This study simulates the elastic heterogeneity scattering in monopole and dipole acoustic logging and analyse the resulting effects on the waveforms. The results show that significant coda waves are generated in both monopole and dipole waveforms and the dipole coda is dominated by S-to-S scattering, which can be effectively utilized to diagnose the heterogeneity in the rock formation. The coda wave modelling and analysis were used to characterize dipole acoustic data logged before and after fracturing a reservoir interval, with significant coda wave in the after-fracturing data indicating fracturing-induced heterogeneous property change in the rock volume surrounding the borehole.

  7. Fissures and boreholes plugging in fractured geologic deposits (granites)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives the results of bench-scale experiments and field tests, destined to describe the bentonite behavior in fractured scale models and in boreholes, and to allow to study the rock weathering phenomenons under specific conditions. Dry and compact bentonite, used for exploratory drilling plugging, in crystalline rock deposits and in contact with groundwater, show hydration, swelling and mobility properties with penetration in conducting fractures. The purpose of this work is to define the procedure of clay weathering after the swelling phase, under groundwater circulation effect, to estimate plugs longevity. This study is prepared for the European Atomic Energy Community cost-sharing research program on radioactive waste management and disposal. 63 refs., 100 figs., 30 tabs., 17 plates

  8. Calibration and control modules for gamma-ray borehole loggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calibration pad for quantitative evaluation of gamma-ray logs, developed and constructed by CNEA is described. The facility is composed of a set of mineralized modules with which it is intended to reproduce the natural variable conditions found in boreholes drilled for uranium mineral exploration, such as the ore concentration, rock's density and porosity, water content, etc. The facility is able to operate under different radiometric models, as follow: 1) gross-count gamma-ray models; 2) gamma-spectrometer models; 3) neutronic-fission models, and 4) models for determination of magnetic susceptibility, density, neutron-neutron, etc. The gathered information allows the adequate quantitative radiometric evaluation of the ore bodies crossed by exploration holes, and also allows the correlation of gamma-ray logs obtained by different logger-equipments. The paper includes the description of the project development and the standards established for the facility's operation. (M.E.L.)

  9. Rock stress orientation measurements using induced thermal spalling in slim boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Eva [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    In the planning and design of a future underground storage for nuclear waste based on the KBS-3 method, one of the aims is to optimize the layout of deposition tunnels such that the rock stresses on the boundaries of deposition holes are minimized. Previous experiences from heating of larger scale boreholes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AHRL) gave rise to the idea that induced borehole breakouts using thermal loading in smaller diameter boreholes, could be a possible way of determining the stress orientation. Two pilot experiments were performed, one at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and one at ONKALO research site in Finland. An acoustic televiewer logger was used to measure the detailed geometrical condition of the borehole before and after heating periods. The acoustic televiewer gives a value for each 0.7 mm large pixel size around the borehole periphery. The results from the loggers are presented as images of the borehole wall, and as curves for the maximum, mean and minimum values at each depth. Any changes in the borehole wall geometry may thus be easily detected by comparisons of the logging result images. In addition, using an optical borehole televiewer a good and detailed realistic colour picture of the borehole wall is obtained. From these images the character of the spalls identified may be evaluated further. The heating was performed in a 4 m long section, using a heating cable centred in an 8 m deep vertical borehole, drilled from the floor of the tunnels. For the borehole in the Q-tunnel of AHRL the results from the loggings of the borehole before the heating revealed that breakouts existed even before this pilot test due to previous heating experiments at the site (CAPS). Quite consistent orientation and the typical shape of small breakouts were observed. After the heating the spalling increased slightly at the same locations and a new spalling location also developed at a deeper location in the borehole. At ONKALO three very small changes

  10. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic

  11. On Thermally Interacting Multiple Boreholes with Variable Heating Strength: Comparison between Analytical and Numerical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The temperature response in the soil surrounding multiple boreholes is evaluated analytically and numerically. The assumption of constant heat flux along the borehole wall is examined by coupling the problem to the heat transfer problem inside the borehole and presenting a model with variable heat flux along the borehole length. In the analytical approach, a line source of heat with a finite length is used to model the conduction of heat in the soil surrounding the boreholes. In the numerical method, a finite volume method in a three dimensional meshed domain is used. In order to determine the heat flux boundary condition, the analytical quasi-three-dimensional solution to the heat transfer problem of the U-tube configuration inside the borehole is used. This solution takes into account the variation in heating strength along the borehole length due to the temperature variation of the fluid running in the U-tube. Thus, critical depths at which thermal interaction occurs can be determined. Finally, in order to examine the validity of the numerical method, a comparison is made with the results of line source method.

  12. Single-borehole measuring method for broken rock zone in gently inclined thin layer weakness structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-fa; ZHOU Ke-ping; LONG Teng-teng; GAO Feng

    2008-01-01

    According to the structural characteristics of gently inclined thin layer rock mass in which lots of weak interlayer existed, the concept of gently inclined thin layer weakness structure was proposed. If single-borehole measuring method of the acoustic along the conventional arrangement mode was used in measuring the broken rock zone in this structure, the change of the relationship curves (Vp-L) between acoustic p-wave velocity (Vp) and borehole depth (L) would present the irregular feature due to the mechanical characteristics of layered rock mass and harmful effects of weak interlayers, and the scope of broken rock zone couldn't be defined quickly. Based on the analysis of the mechanical characteristics of layered rock mass, the propagation rule of acoustic and distributions characteristics of plastic zone and slip zone in layered rock mass, new arrangement mode of acoustic measuring boreholes for broken rock zone in gently inclined thin layer weakness structure was proposed. Namely, the measuring boreholes in two sides were parallel to the strata, the measuring boreholes in the roof and floor perpendicular to the strata. Besides the controlling depth of the measuring boreholes in the scope of the large plastic zones or the large slip zones should be increased. Engineering exampleshowed that new acoustic measuring boreholes arrangement mode had the better applicability and could determine the scope of the broken rock zone in the gently inclined thin layer weakness structure quickly.

  13. Inversion of waveforms from Xiangtang borehole seismic array for soil dynamic property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-liang; JIN Xing; TAO Xia-xin; WEI Yong-xiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the site soil response of the Xiangtang borehole seismic array under real strong ground motion, reveal the site response, verify the technique of borehole exploration, and improve the precision of in-situ test and laboratory test, this paper presents a new approach, which is composed of two methods. One is the layered site seismic response method, whose layer transform matrix is always real. The other is a global-local optimization technique, which uses genetic algorithm (GA)-simplex method. An inversion of multi-component waveforms of P, SV and SH wave is carried out simultaneously. By inverting the records of three moderate and small earthquakes obtained from the Xiangtang borehole array (2# ) site, the soil dynamic characteristic parameters, including P velocity, damping ratio and frequency-dependent coefficient b, which has not been given in previous literatures, are calculated. The results show that the soil S wave velocity of the Xiangtang 2# borehole is generally greater than that obtained from the 1994 in-situ test, and is close to the velocity of the 3# borehole, which is more than 200 m away from the 2# borehole. Meanwhile, perceptible soil nonlinear behavior under peak ground motion of about 60×10-2 m/s2 is detected by the inversion analysis. The presented method can be used for studying the soil response of other borehole array sites.

  14. Features of gamma-logging using in conditions of contamination of boreholes walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the radioactive contamination of soil around 'Ukryttya' object is concentrated basically on pre-accident surface, which was closed by clean soil layers during liquidation of the accident consequences. During building of foundations for New Safe Confinement a lot of boreholes were drilled for sheet piling. These boreholes were used for gamma-logging to assess soil contamination with radionuclides, forecast of radioactive waste quantities, which will appear after deleting soil from the pit, and doses to the staff at the reaching the active layer of soil. Measurements of a gamma-field have been carried out almost in five hundred boreholes. In processing of gamma-logging data in these boreholes increased values of exposure dose rate below the active layer and on the bottom of some boreholes were discovered. As a result, it was found that the additional radiation below the active layer in most part of boreholes is completely explained by the strain radiation f tom active layer and by pouring out radioactive soil from upper layers to the bottom of boreholes

  15. Room Q data report: Test borehole data from April 1989 through November 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pore-pressure and fluid-flow tests were performed in 15 boreholes drilled into the bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation from within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The tests measured fluid flow and pore pressure within the Salado. The boreholes were drilled into the previously undisturbed host rock around a proposed cylindrical test room, Room Q, located on the west side of the facility about 655 m below ground surface. The boreholes were about 23 m deep and ranged over 27.5 m of stratigraphy. They were completed and instrumented before excavation of Room Q. Tests were conducted in isolated zones at the end of each borehole. Three groups of 5 isolated zones extend above, below, and to the north of Room Q at increasing distances from the room axis. Measurements recorded before, during, and after the mining of the circular test room provided data about borehole closure, pressure, temperature, and brine seepage into the isolated zones. The effects of the circular excavation were recorded. This data report presents the data collected from the borehole test zones between April 25, 1989 and November 25, 1991. The report also describes test development, test equipment, and borehole drilling operations

  16. Causes of Borehole Failure in Complex Basement Terrains: ABUAD Case Study, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1 Ogundana, A.K , 2 Aladesanmi A. O., 3 Okunade A., 4Olutomilola O.O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of primary causes of borehole failure has being conducted using Afe Babalola University as a case study. A total of fourteen boreholes (namely borehole 1-14 were studied, vertical electrical soundings, depth sounding, flushing and pump testing were conducted on each of the boreholes to establish their status at the time of the study and possible evaluation of the groundwater potential of the wells. Four out of the fourteen boreholes (borehole 1-4 are productive and in-use, while the remaining ten (borehole 5-14 are out-of-use and abandoned for various. The productive holes were able to support continuous flow of water for over 3 hours without drop in volume of water flow. Seven of the holes (boreholes 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12 & 14 failed and were abandoned because of low yield (could not flow beyond 5 minutes, while the remaining three (boreholes 7, 10 & 13 failed and were abandoned due to wrong location and improper completion, caving/formation problems, and wrong installation/completion respectively. Proper well completion is essential in areas prone to caving and other formation related problems. Air drilling should be avoided in areas with thick and loose overburden. Right mixture of drilling mud should be applied to secure the hole wall while flushing should be continuous throughout drilling in such formation. Casing should be done immediately and such holes should be lined and grouted. Timers should be installed on low yield wells and regulated/programmed for 5 or 10 minutes flow depending on the recharge rate. Pump rating for installation should be strictly based on well recharge rate. Productive wells should be properly maintained and monitored for optimal performance.

  17. Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

    2007-02-01

    During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

  18. Experimental research on sealing of boreholes, shafts and ramps in welded tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuenkajorn, K. [Rock Engineering International, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Laboratory and in-situ experiments have been conducted to determine the mechanical and hydraulic performance of cement borehole seals in densely welded Apache Leap tuff. Test results indicate that under saturated conditions, commercial expansive cement can provide good bond strength and adequate hydraulic performance for borehole seal under changing stress conditions. The cement seal should be installed at the intact portion of the opening, and should have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than four. Drying increases borehole plug permeability and decreases mechanical and hydraulic bonds at the plug-rock interface. In-situ testing indicates that installation procedure may significantly affect the cement plug performance.

  19. The measurement of the vertical component of hydraulic conductivity in single cased and uncased boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project summarised in the paper aimed to assess the different existing methods of measuring vertical hydraulic conductivity in single boreholes by carrying out some actual field testing. The measurements are relevant to the disposal of radioactive waste into argillaceous rocks, where the primary geological barrier to potential leachate migration is the mudrock. Also the prime parameter of interest in the assessment of mudrocks is the vertical component of hydraulic conductivity. A description of the methods of test analysis and interpretation is given. The experimental programme for open borehole testing and cased borehole testing is described, along with the practical and theoretical considerations. (U.K.)

  20. Controlled drilling technology for HLW management. Directional drilling and mechanics/stress measurements in the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2000, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has been conducting the project on controlled drilling and the logging/measurement technologies in its boreholes. Especially borehole pressure meter and bore hole stress measurement apparatus which can apply to the controlled drilling system was developed. The bore hole was drilled to the 1000 m long in order to intersect the Omagari fault located at Horonobe town in Hokkaido and its core recovery was 99.8% as of FY. 2011. Using borehole logging/measurement/survey, the geological, hydrological, geo-mechanical, geophysical and geochemical data were collected and the Omagari fault was characterized. (author)

  1. Simple, affordable, and sustainable borehole observatories for complex monitoring objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Lange, M.; Fleischmann, T.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Seiter, C.; Wefer, G.

    2015-05-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost-effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. Here we report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: the development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MARUM-MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerat) seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, University of Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit), is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. In these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: the CORK-A (A stands for autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference); the CORK-B (B stands for bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) and utilises a hot-stab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hot-stab connection from beneath in which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect porewater in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner

  2. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  3. Drilling, logging, and testing information from borehole UE-25 UZ number-sign 16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borehole UE-25 UZ number-sign 16 is the first of two boreholes that may be used to determine the subsurface structure at Yucca Mountain by using vertical seismic profiling. This report contains information collected while this borehole was being drilled, logged, and tested from May 27, 1992, to April 22, 1994. It does not contain the vertical seismic profiling data. This report is intended to be used as: (1) a reference for drilling similar boreholes in the same area, (2) a data source on this borehole, and (3) a reference for other information that is available from this borehole. The reference information includes drilling chronology, equipment, parameters, coring methods, penetration rates, completion information, drilling problems, and corrective actions. The data sources include lithology, fracture logs, a list of available borehole logs, and depths at which water was recorded. Other information is listed in an appendix that includes studies done after April 22, 1994

  4. Drilling, logging, and testing information from borehole UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamir, F.; Thordarson, W.; Kume, J.; Rousseau, J. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Branch; Long, R. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Cunningham, D.M. Jr. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Borehole UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 is the first of two boreholes that may be used to determine the subsurface structure at Yucca Mountain by using vertical seismic profiling. This report contains information collected while this borehole was being drilled, logged, and tested from May 27, 1992, to April 22, 1994. It does not contain the vertical seismic profiling data. This report is intended to be used as: (1) a reference for drilling similar boreholes in the same area, (2) a data source on this borehole, and (3) a reference for other information that is available from this borehole. The reference information includes drilling chronology, equipment, parameters, coring methods, penetration rates, completion information, drilling problems, and corrective actions. The data sources include lithology, fracture logs, a list of available borehole logs, and depths at which water was recorded. Other information is listed in an appendix that includes studies done after April 22, 1994.

  5. Numerical Modeling of a Shallow Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catolico, N.; Ge, S.; Lu, N.; McCartney, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) combined with solar thermal energy harvesting is an economic technological system to garner and store energy as well as an environmentally-sustainable alternative for the heating of buildings. The first community-scale BTES system in North America was installed in 2007 in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), about 35 miles south of Calgary, Canada. The BTES system involves direct circulation of water heated from solar thermal panels in the summer into a storage tank, after which it is circulate within an array of 144 closed-loop geothermal heat exchangers having a depth of 35 m and a spacing of 2.5 m. In the winter the circulation direction is reversed to supply heat to houses. Data collection over a six year period indicates that this system can supply more than 90% of the winter heating energy needs for 52 houses in the community. One major challenge facing the BTES system technology is the relatively low annual efficiency, i.e., the ratio of energy input and output is in the range of 15% to 40% for the system in Drake Landing. To better understand the working principles of BTES and to improve BTES performance for future applications at larger scales, a three-dimensional transient coupled fluid and heat transfer model is established using TOUGH2. The time-dependent injection temperatures and circulation rate measured over the six years of monitoring are used as model input. The simulations are calibrated using soil temperature data measured at different locations over time. The time-dependent temperature distributions within the borehole region agree well with the measured temperatures for soil with an intrinsic permeability of 10e-19 m2, an apparent thermal conductivity of 2.03 W/m°C, and a volumetric heat capacity of 2.31 MJ/m-3°C. The calibrated model serves as the basis for a sensitivity analysis of soil and operational parameters on BTES system efficiency preformed with TOUGH2. Preliminary results suggest 1) BTES

  6. Observation and Scaling of Microearthquakes from TCDP Borehole Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Ma, K.; Oye, V.; Tanaka, H.

    2009-12-01

    Microearthquakes with magnitude down to 0.5 were detected by the Taiwan Chelungpu-ault Drilling Project Borehole Seismometers (TCDPBHS). A location software (MIMO) was used to determine P- and S-wave onset times, incidence and azimuth angles for the locations of the microevents. Regardless of the large co-seismic slip of 12 m at the drill site during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, our studies show very less seismicity near the drill site from the TCDPBHS recording. The microevents clustered at a depth of 8-10 km, where the 30 degree dipping of the Chelungpu thrust fault becomes flat to a decollement of the Taiwan fold-and-thrust tectonic structure. As a continuous GPS survey did not observe post-slip at the large slip region, and as no seismicity was observed near the drill site, we suggest that the thrust belt above the decollement during the interseismic period is locked. A Fluid Injection Test (FIT) pumping high pressure fluid into hole C with hole A as observation well was carried out at the TCDP boreholes in November 2006, and January, March and April 2007. Compared with background seismicity in November 2007, the observation did not show significant correlation of the FIT related seismicity, despite the distinct observations on the arrival of gas and chemical monitoring through FIT. It is possible that the injected fluid rate of FIT experiments is too deficient to trigger microevents. The low fluid rate indicated the low permeability of the fault zone. We also examined the scaling of the source parameters of the small earthquakes in stress drops and seismic moments. The source parameters of 150 microevents were examined from the source spectra using Brune ω-2 model for a constant Q model. The scaling of the magnitude to the Brune stress drop is a significant positive correlation. However, there has been a debate that this positive relationship might be biased for without Q correction. Fortunately, we had observed 65 clusters showing similar waveforms. The path

  7. Observation of hydraulic heads in the Nagra boreholes in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the Nagra drilling programme in Northern Switzerland, hydraulic pressures and heads have been observed in the different aquifers encountered in the deep boreholes. The data originate from measurements carried out during the drilling and test phases in the individual boreholes and from long-term monitoring of hydraulic pressures and heads in selected borehole intervals using multipacker systems. The results provide information on regional water flow patterns in Northern Switzerland and surrounding areas and are used to calibrate groundwater models. A regional picture of freshwater heads with relevant equipotential lines is presented for the Muschelkalk aquifer. The article also gives the freshwater heads for the Buntsandstein and the crystalline basement which were observed in the Nagra boreholes. (author) 2 tabs., 12 figs., 8 refs

  8. Borehole geophysical investigation of a formerly used defense site, Machiasport, Maine, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carole D.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole geophysical logs in 18 boreholes and interpreted the data along with logs from 19 additional boreholes as part of an ongoing, collaborative investigation at three environmental restoration sites in Machiasport, Maine. These sites, located on hilltops overlooking the seacoast, formerly were used for military defense. At each of the sites, chlorinated solvents, used as part of defense-site operations, have contaminated the fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole geophysical techniques and hydraulic methods were used to characterize bedrock lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties. In addition, each geophysical method was evaluated for effectiveness for site characterization and for potential application for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of remediation efforts. Results of borehole geophysical logging indicate the subsurface is highly fractured, metavolcanic, intrusive, metasedimentary bedrock. Selected geophysical logs were cross-plotted to assess correlations between rock properties. These plots included combinations of gamma, acoustic reflectivity, electromagnetic induction conductivity, normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. The combined use of acoustic televiewer (ATV) imaging and natural gamma logs proved to be effective for delineating rock types. Each of the rock units in the study area could be mapped in the boreholes, on the basis of the gamma and ATV reflectivity signatures. The gamma and mean ATV reflectivity data were used along with the other geophysical logs for an integrated interpretation, yielding a determination of quartz monzonite, rhyolite, metasedimentary units, or diabase/gabbro rock types. The interpretation of rock types on the basis of the geophysical logs compared well to drilling logs and geologic mapping. These results may be helpful for refining the geologic framework at depth. A stereoplot of all fractures

  9. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, B.N.P. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  10. Borehole data package for the 100-K area ground water wells, CY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borehole, hydrogeologic and geophysical logs, drilling, as-built diagrams, sampling, and well construction information and data for RCRA compliant groundwater monitoring wells installed in CY 1994 at the 100-K Basins

  11. Classification of hydraulic borehole mining technological processes during pay zone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relevance of the work is defined by the need of solid mineral deposits development by hydraulic borehole mining. The main advantage of the method is that the extraction of minerals could be carried out in difficult geological conditions, excluding tunneling of mine workings and quarries construction. The article presents a generalized and systematic classification of hydraulic borehole mining technological processes during pay zones development. According to the classification three groups of technological processes were defined: main, auxiliary and hydraulic borehole cutting head monitoring. The main technological processes are: rocks fracturing, suction and lifting of the slurry to the surface, delivery of the slurry to the slurry pump. Auxiliary processes include: cleaning of intake ports of slurry retrieval device, drilling of pilot hole and maintenance of mining chambers roof sustainability. To hydraulic borehole cutting head monitoring processes refer: operation modes control, tripping operation and rotation

  12. Method for measurement of azimuth of a borehole while drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPersio, R.D.; Cobern, M.E.

    1989-03-21

    A method is described for determining the azimuth angle of a borehole being drilled by instruments contained downhole in the drillstring, including the steps of: sensing with accelerometer means, during a period of nonrotation of the drillstring, the components of Gx, Gy and Gz of the total gravity field Go at the location of the instrument; sensing with magnetometer means, during a period of nonrotation of the drillstring, the components of Hx, Hy and Hz of the total magnetic field Ho at the location of the instrument; the components Gz and Hz being along the axis of the drillstring, the components Gx and the components and Gy being orthogonal to Gz and the components Hx and Hy being orthogonal to Hz; rotating the magnetometer means with the drillstring and obtaining the parameter Hzr which is the Hz component of the magnetic field at the location of the instrument during rotation of the drillstring; determining Ho from values Hx, Hy and Hz sensed during nonrotation of the drillstring; determining the inclination angle of the drillstring; determining the dip angle of the magnetic field; determining the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the axis of the drillstring at the location of the instrument from Ho and Hzr; and determining the azimuth angle.

  13. Response of borehole extensometers to explosively generated dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercially available, hydraulically anchored, multiple-point borehole extensometers (MPBX) were evaluated with respect to response to dynamic loads produced by explosions. This study is part of the DOE-funded Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C), currently being conducted in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. The SFT-C is an investigation of the feasibility of short-term storage and retrieval of spent nuclear reactor fuel assemblies at a plausible repository depth in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies are stored at a depth of 420 m for three to five years, and will then be retrieved. MPBX units are used in the SFT-C to measure both excavation-induced and thermally induced rock displacements. Long-term reliability of extensometers in this hostile environment is essential in order to obtain valid data during the course of this test. Research to date shows conclusively that extensometers of this type continue to function reliably even though subjected to accelerations of 1.8 g; research also implies that they function well though subjected to accelerations in excess of 100 g. MPBX survivability during the first four months of testing at ambient temperatures was about 90 percent

  14. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  15. Analysis of induced temperature anomalies along borehole heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Michael; Schelenz, Sophie; Stollberg, Reiner; Gossel, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Over the last years, the thermal use of the shallow subsurface for heat generation, cooling, and thermal energy storage has increased. However, the injection or extraction of heat potentially drives changes in the subsurface temperature regime; especially in urban areas. The presented case study investigates the intensive use of borehole heat exchangers (BHE) and their potential thermal impacts on subsurface temperatures, as well as thermal interactions between individual BHE's for a residential neighborhood in Cologne, Germany. Based on on-site subsurface parameterization, a 3D subsurface model was designed, using the finite element software FEFLOW (DHI WASY). The model contains five BHE, extracting 8.2 kW, with a maximum BHE depth of 38 m, whereby the thickness of the unsaturated zone is 22 m. The simulated time span is 10 years. This study focusses on two questions: How will different BHE arrangements vary in terms of temperature plume formation and potential system interaction and what is the influence of seasonal subsurface heat storage on soil and ground water temperatures.

  16. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  17. The CO2SINK Boreholes for Geological Storage Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Förster

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s first onshore scientific carbon dioxide storage testing project CO2SINK (CO2 Storage by Injection into a Natural saline aquifer at Ketzin is performed in a saline aquifer in NE Germany. The major objectives of CO2SINK are the advancement of the science and practical processes for underground storage of carbon dioxide, and the provision of operational field results to aid in the development of standards for CO2 geological storage. Three boreholes (one injection well and two observation wells have been drilled in2007, each to a depth of about 800 m. The wells are completed as “smart” wells containing a variety of permanent downhole sensing equipment, which has proven its functionality during its baseline surveys. The injection of CO2 is scheduled for spring 2008 and is intended to last up to two years to allow for monitoring of migration and fate of the injected gas through a combination of downhole monitoring with surface geophysical surveys. This report summarizeswell design, drilling, coring, and completion operations.

  18. The Device for Communication in the Tool for Measurement in Boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Slankamenac

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an implementation and test of the device for communication between Telemetry system and Surface unit with the tool for measurement of pipe diameter, fluid velocity and direction of flow in the borehole (Calliper-Fullbore Flowmeter - CFF are presented. This communication is done according to SIPLOS (Simultaneous Production Logging String protocol and it is used by Hotwell company [1] as a part of a larger system for borehole investigations.

  19. Improvement of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Design Based on Experimental and Modelling Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lanini, Sandra; Delaleux, Fabien; Py, Xavier; Olivès, Régis; Nguyen, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Underground Thermal Energy Storage appears to be an attractive solution for solar thermal energy storage. The SOLARGEOTHERM research project aimed to evaluate the energetic potential of borehole thermal energy storage by means of a full-scale experimental device and heat transfer models. Analysis of the experimental data showed that a single borehole is not efficient for storage. Models showed that the heat transfer fluid in the geothermal probe lost 15 per cent of its energy at a depth of 10...

  20. Natural gamma logging of borehole I on Vernagtferner (Oetztal Alps, Austria)

    OpenAIRE

    Drost, W.; Hofreiter, G.

    1982-01-01

    Natural gamma logging was executed in borehole I on the Vernagtferner (Oetztal Alps, Austria) down to a depth of 60 m below surface. The radioactivity profile reflects the atmospheric injection history. Above a borehole depth of 28 m the log is enriched in bomb produced 137CS along with 4°K and elements of the uranium series. The highest gamma level, which originates from 1963 precipitation with high fallout load, is found in a depth of 18.5 m.

  1. Evaluation of Thermal Anomalies in Multi-Boreholes Field Considering the Effects of Groundwater Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Shibin Geng; Yong Li; Xu Han; Huiliang Lian; Hua Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of multiple boreholes (multi-BHEs) field is evaluated by considering the groundwater flow. Optimization strategies are presented to mitigate thermal anomalies in the BHEs field. This study shows that groundwater flow greatly improves the heat transfer but causes thermal anomalies downstream. To overcome this problem, a heat transfer model is established for multi-boreholes based on temperature field superposition and moving finite line source model (MFLS). The M...

  2. Recent boreholes in the attenuated Carboniferous strata of the Blaenavon-Pontypool area, Gwent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, W.J.; Jones, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    Five IGS boreholes, sunk in 1971 in the Blaenavon-Pontypool area of the east crop of the South Wales coalfield, have greatly increased the amount of information available on the attenuated basal Westphalian and Namurian sequence. Although hitherto though to be absent in parts of this area, a thin but consistent Namurian succession of late Rat2-Gat1 age has been proved every where. Dinantian rocks proved in the boreholes fit the pattern of Namurian overstep towards the east.

  3. Quantification of Natural Gradient Flow Using Active Fiber Optic DTS in Sealed Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, T. I.; Parker, B. L.; Munn, J. D.; Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature has been used for many years to characterize flow in fractured rock systems. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was adopted by the oil/gas industry over two decades ago for monitoring processes in deep fractured rock environments. Improvements in DTS system resolutions, methodology advancements, and improved data processing techniques have caused recent popularity for shallow fractured rock hydrogeologic applications. A powerful advance in DTS methodology is the use of response data collected during active cable heating. When applied to borehole applications active heating creates a thermal disequilibrium in the aquifer system that enhances the detection of groundwater flow. Active DTS has been applied to open borehole environments; however, characterization methods based on open borehole measurements are limited in that only the effects of unnatural flow (i.e. vertical cross-connection and redistribution of flow creating local, induced flows) can be observed. To characterize natural gradient flow processes borehole effects need to be minimized.The literature shows borehole sealing using flexible impervious fabric liners creates a static water column in the well that eliminates the negative effects of cross-connection. Measurements in this sealed environment have been shown by others to be representative of natural gradient flow conditions, rather than the conditions created by the borehole short circuiting units or fractures with varying hydraulic head. A new method for flow system characterization using active DTS in sealed boreholes has been developed with excellent prospects for quantitation of natural gradient groundwater fluxes and related hydraulic properties. This project demonstrates the utility of using an analytical solution for calculating apparent thermal conductivities and natural gradient groundwater fluxes at depth-discrete intervals observed continuously along a borehole using active DTS. Groundwater flux data can then be

  4. Research on borehole stability of shale based on seepage-stress-damage coupling model

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofeng Ran; Yuezhi Wang; Shanpo Jia

    2014-01-01

    In oil drilling, one of the most complicated problems is borehole stability of shale. Based on the theory of continuum damage mechanics, a modified Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion according to plastic damage evolution and the seepage-stress coupling is established. Meanwhile, the damage evolution equation which is based on equivalent plastic strain and the permeability evolution equation of shale are proposed in this paper. The physical model of borehole rock for a well in China western oilfie...

  5. Evaluation of technology for large- and small-diameter boreholes to characterize crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing methods that have been used in large- and small-diameter boreholes (152 and 76 mm [6 and 3 in.]) were evaluated on their ability to characterize crystalline rocks. The methods evaluated included in-hole geomechanical, geophysical, and geohydrologic techniques and associated laboratory core tests; specific emphasis was on techniques that might be used in a field characterization program involving a small number of deep (up to 1500 m [5000 ft]) boreholes. Each technique was evaluated with regard to its effectiveness and limitations, applicability to the acquisition of data for anticipated rock conditions, and adequacy for assessing the required rock/hydrologic characteristics. Many pertinent case histories that helped to assess applicability were reviewed. A principal objective of the evaluations was to assess whether the techniques would be equally useful in both large- and small-diameter boreholes. Of the techniques evaluated, most are suitable for use in both large- and small-diameter boreholes. Borehole logging, hydrologic testing, and core-testing techniques provide suitable results in both borehole diameters. Geomechanical testing techniques provide suitable data in smaller diameter boreholes and have been designed for application at primarily shallow depths. The results of this study will be of use to the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD) in determining to what degree it is appropriate to use drilling, sampling, and testing techniques in small-diameter boreholes as opposed to large-diameter methods, while at the same time collecting adequate data for characterizing crystalline rock environments for potential use as a high-level radioactive waste repository. Additionally, further developmental work and specific testing techniques are recommended

  6. Development of the Borehole 2-D Seismic Tomography Software Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. D.; Syahputra, A.; Fatkhan, F.; Sule, R.; Hendriyana, A.

    2011-12-01

    We developed 2-D borehole seismic tomography software that we called "EARTHMAX-2D TOMOGRAPHY" to image subsurface physical properties including P-wave and S-wave velocities between two boreholes. We used Graphic User Interface (GUI) facilities of MATLAB programming language to create the software. In this software, we used travel time of seismic waves from source to receiver by using pseudo bending ray tracing method as input for tomography inversion. We can also set up a model parameterization, initial velocity model, ray tracing processes, conduct borehole seismic tomography inversion, and finally visualize the inversion results. The LSQR method was applied to solve of tomography inversion solution. We provided the Checkerboard Test Resolution (CTR) to evaluate the model resolution of the tomography inversion. As validation of this developed software, we tested it for geotechnical purposes. We then conducted data acquisition in the "ITB X-field" that is located on ITB campus. We used two boreholes that have a depth of 39 meters. Seismic wave sources were generated by impulse generator and sparker and then they were recorded by borehole hydrophone string type 3. Later on, we analyzed and picked seismic arrival time as input for tomography inversion. As results, we can image the estimated weathering layer, sediment layer, and basement rock in the field depicted by seismic wave structures. More detailed information about the developed software will be presented. Keywords: borehole, tomography, earthmax-2D, inversion

  7. Results of prototype borehole instrumentation at the Hydrologic Research Facility, area 25, NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 12+ meter (40 feet) deep, dry-augured boreholes, located adjacent to the Hydrologic Research Facility (HRF) calibration laboratory in Area 25, Nevada Test Site (NTS), were instrumented in October, 1991, and a third in February, 1992. Four instrument stations located at depths of 3.0, 6.1, 9.1, and 12.2 meters (m) were established in each borehole in order to evaluate instrumentation that will be used in the deep unsaturated-zone borehole-instrumentation program at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Yucca Mountain is being evaluated as a potential site for the storage of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain borehole-instrumentation program is designed to measure and monitor the unsaturated-zone fluid (liquid and gas) flow potential gradients and flow processes in the unsaturated-zone. To date, results of the HRF prototype borehole instrumentation program indicate that the stability and operational reliability of the sensors selected for use at Yucca Mountain will be adequate to sustain a long-term, in-situ monitoring program; one that is expected to last from three to five years. Data from the HRF borehole instrumentation experiment also indicate that sensor accuracy and precision are sufficient to measure the state variables (pneumatic pressure, temperature, vapor pressure and water potential) needed to quantify water, water vapor, gas, and heat flux in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain

  8. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-10-01

    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

  9. A borehole stability study by newly designed laboratory tests on thick-walled hollow cylinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S. Hashemi; N. Melkoumian; A. Taheri

    2015-01-01

    abstract At several mineral exploration drilling sites in Australia, weakly consolidated formations mainly consist of sand particles that are poorly bonded by cementing agents such as clay, iron oxide cement or calcite. These formations are being encountered when drilling boreholes to the depth of up to 200 m. To study the behaviour of these materials, thick-walled hollow cylinder (TWHC) and solid cylindrical synthetic specimens were designed and prepared by adding Portland cement and water to sand grains. The effects of different parameters such as water and cement contents, grain size distribution and mixture curing time on the characteristics of the samples were studied to identify the mixture closely resembling the formation at the drilling site. The Hoek triaxial cell was modified to allow the visual monitoring of grain debonding and borehole breakout processes during the laboratory tests. The results showed the sig-nificance of real-time visual monitoring in determining the initiation of the borehole breakout. The size-scale effect study on TWHC specimens revealed that with the increasing borehole size, the ductility of the specimen decreases, however, the axial and lateral stiffnesses of the TWHC specimen remain un-changed. Under different confining pressures the lateral strain at the initiation point of borehole breakout is considerably lower in a larger size borehole (20 mm) compared to that in a smaller one (10 mm). Also, it was observed that the level of peak strength increment in TWHC specimens decreases with the increasing confining pressure.

  10. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR43 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 1000.26 m and 45.01 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in July - October 2006. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 1103 m{sup 3} and 16 m{sup 3} in boreholes OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, respectively. Measured volumes of the returning water were 916m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR43 and 13m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR43B. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 131 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 37 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.19. The main rock types are veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss

  11. TERO thermal property measurements in boreholes KAV01 and KLX06 In Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal properties in situ were measured in two SKB boreholes in the Oskarshamn study site, Sweden. The TERO56 logging device of Posiva Oy designed for determining thermal properties of rocks in 56 mm boreholes was applied. The measurement is based on conduction of heat from a cylindrical source placed in a borehole. When the probe is heated, its temperature as a function of time depends on the applied heating power, heat losses into rock, and the thickness of the water layer between the probe and borehole wall. Temperatures are also dependent on the internal structure of the probe and its material properties. The TERO56 probe is a hollow 1630 mm long aluminium cylinder whose outer diameter is 50 mm. The length of the heating section is 1500 mm. Heating is done from the inner surface of the cylinder with a maximum power of 22 W. The probe temperature is monitored with 28 thermistors placed in lines along the probe. Mild flow of borehole fluid in the measurement section is prevented with soft silicon rubber packers. Measurements of rock thermal properties were carried out in Oskarshamn in boreholes KAV01 (56 mm diameter) and KLX06 (76 mm). Measurements in borehole KAV01 were not possible at the depths originally selected for the measurements (199-366 m). This was due to the active flow in the borehole, which could not be prevented with the silicon rubber packers. However, at deeper layers (508-617 m) where there was no flow, the measurements were successful, and thermal properties typical for granitoids were obtained. Inverted values of thermal conductivity range from 3.14 to 3.49 W m-1 K-1, and diffusivity in the range of 1.21 to 1.98*10-6 m2s-1. In borehole KLX06 (diameter 76 mm) the measurements (at depths 199-286 m) did not yield useful results because of non-conductive conditions, which we attribute to free thermal convection in the thick annulus of water between the probe and the borehole wall. (orig.)

  12. Cyclic high temperature heat storage using borehole heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boockmeyer, Anke; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the German energy supply towards mainly renewable energy sources like wind or solar power, termed "Energiewende", makes energy storage a requirement in order to compensate their fluctuating production and to ensure a reliable energy and power supply. One option is to store heat in the subsurface using borehole heat exchangers (BHEs). Efficiency of thermal storage is increasing with increasing temperatures, as heat at high temperatures is more easily injected and extracted than at temperatures at ambient levels. This work aims at quantifying achievable storage capacities, storage cycle times, injection and extraction rates as well as thermal and hydraulic effects induced in the subsurface for a BHE storage site in the shallow subsurface. To achieve these aims, simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites is performed. A detailed, high-resolution numerical simulation model was developed, that accounts for all BHE components in geometrical detail and incorporates the governing processes. This model was verified using high quality experimental data and is shown to achieve accurate simulation results with excellent fit to the available experimental data, but also leads to large computational times due to the large numerical meshes required for discretizing the highly transient effects. An approximate numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly was therefore developed for use in larger scale simulations. The approximate numerical model still includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with a deviation of less than 2% from the fully discretized model. Simulation times are reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. This model is then used to investigate achievable storage capacity, injection and extraction rates as well as induced effects for

  13. Results of borehole investigation in -500m access/research gallery-north. 13MI38∼13MI44 boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological, hydraulic and geochemical data such as rock mass classification, groundwater inflow points and the volume, water pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and results of water analysis were obtained from boreholes (13MI38∼13MI44) in the -500m Access/Research Gallery-North of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). In addition to data acquisition, monitoring systems were installed to observe hydrochemical changes in the groundwater, and rock strain during and after the groundwater recovery experiment. Biotite granite (Toki granite) with medium to coarse-grained equigranular texture is characterized around the -500m Access/Research Gallery-North. Rock mass classification is mostly B class and CH to CM at the fracture zone. Density of fracture in core description is small, and was 2.3 n/m in 13MI38 borehole. Maximum water inflow during drilling borehole was 78 L/min in 13MI38 borehole. Hydraulic conductivity in intact zone ranges from 2.3E-11 to 8.2E-08m/s at low inflow part, and from 1.9E-07 to 9.2E-06m/s at high inflow part, respectively. Groundwater chemistry riches in Na and Cl ion with the concentration ranging from 160 to 220 mg/L, from 280 to 600 mg/L, respectively. The digital data is attached on CD-ROM. (J.P.N.)

  14. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196, and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28, and 4.52. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the second of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. Finally, the measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared with a nearby borehole drilled in 1993, 299- W10-196, through the tank T-106 leak plume.

  15. Optimization of CPMG sequences for NMR borehole measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ronczka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuklear Magnetic Resonance (NMR can provide key information such as porosity and permeability for hydrological characterization of geological material. Especially the NMR transverse relaxation time T2 is used to estimate permeability since it reflects a pore-size dependent relaxation process. The measurement sequence (CPMG usually used consists of several thousands of electromagnetic pulses to densely record the relaxation process. These pulses are equidistantly spaced by a time constant τ. In NMR borehole applications the use of CPMG sequences for measuring the transverse relaxation time T2 is limited due to requirements on energy consumption. It is state of the art to conduct at least two sequences with different echo spacings (τ for recording fast and slow relaxing processes that correspond to different pore-sizes. For the purpose to reduce the amount of energy used for conducting CPMG sequences and to obtain both, slow and fast, decaying components within one sequence we tested the usage of CPMG sequences with an increasing τ and a decreasing number of pulses. A synthetic study as well as laboratory measurements on samples of glass beads and granulate of different grain size spectra were conducted to evaluate the effects of of an increasing τ spacing, e.g. an enhanced relaxation due to diffusion processes. The results are showing broadened T2 distributions if the number of pulses is decreasing and the mean grain size is increasing, which is mostly an effect of a significantly shortened acquisition time. The shift of T2 distributions to small decay times in dependence of the τ spacing and the mean grain size distribution is observable. We found that it is possible to conduct CPMG sequences with an increased τ spacing. According to the acquisition time and enhanced diffusion the sequence parameters (number of pulses and τmax has to be chosen carefully. Otherwise the underestimated relaxation time (T2 will lead to misinterpretations.

  16. Borehole dilatometer installation, operation, and maintenance at sites in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myren, G.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In response to concerns about the potential hazard of Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, the USGS began efforts in 1998 to add four high-resolution borehole sites. Located at these sites are; strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, accelerometers and other instrumentation. These instruments are capable of providing continuous monitoring of the magma movement under Mauna Loa. Each site was planned to provide multi-parameter monitoring of volcanic activity. In June of 2000, a contract was let for the core drilling of three of these four sites. They are located at Hokukano (west side of Mauna Loa) above Captain Cook, Hawaii; at Mauna Loa Observatory (11,737 feet near the summit), and at Mauna Loa Strip Road (east side of Mauna Loa). Another site was chosen near Halema'uma u' and Kilauea's summit, in the Keller deep well. (See maps). The locations of these instruments are shown in Figure 1 with their latitude and longitude in Table 1. The purpose of this network is to monitor crustal deformation associated with volcanic intrusions and earthquakes on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. This report describes the methods used to locate sites, install dilatometers, other instrumentation, and telemetry. We also provide a detailed description of the electronics used for signal amplification and telemetry, plus techniques used for instrument maintenance. Instrument sites were selected in regions of hard volcanic rock where the expected signals from magmatic activity were calculated to be a maximum and the probability of earthquakes with magnitude 4 or greater is large. At each location, an attempt was made to separate tectonic and volcanic signals from known noise sources for each instrument type.

  17. Radiological consequences of accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    In this report, an analysis of the radiological consequences of potential accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is presented. The results presented should be seen as coarse estimates of possible radiological consequences of a canister being stuck in a borehole during disposal rather than being the results of a full safety analysis. In the concept for deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel developed by Sandia National Laboratories, the fuel is assumed to be encapsulated in mild steel canisters and stacked between 3 and 5 km depth in boreholes that are cased with perforated mild steel casing tubes. The canisters are joined together by couplings to form strings of 40 canisters and lowered into the borehole. When a canister string has been emplaced in the borehole, a bridge plug is installed above the string and a 10 metres long concrete plug is cast on top of the bridge plug creating a floor for the disposal of the next sting. In total 10 canister strings, in all 400 canisters, are assumed to be disposed of at between 3 and 5 kilometres depth in one borehole. An analysis of potential accidents during the disposal operations shows that the potentially worst accident would be that a canister string is stuck above the disposal zone of a borehole and cannot be retrieved. In such a case, the borehole may have to be sealed in the best possible way and abandoned. The consequences of this could be that one or more leaking canisters are stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater. In the case of a leaking canister being stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater, the potential radiological consequences are likely to be dominated by the release of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) of the radionuclide inventory, i.e. the fraction of the radionuclides that as a consequence of the in-core conditions are present in the annulus between the fuel pellets and the cladding or on the grain boundaries of the UO{sub 2} matrix

  18. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  19. Installation of borehole seismometer for earthquake characteristics in deep geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep geological disposal is currently accepted as the most appropriate method for permanently removing spent nuclear fuel from the living sphere of humans. For implementation of deep geological disposal, we need to understand the geological changes that have taken place over the past 100,000 years, encompassing active faults, volcanic activity, elevation, ubsidence, which as yet have not been considered in assessing the site characteristics for general facilities, as well as to investigate and analyze the geological structures, fracture systems and seismic responses regarding deep geological environment about 500 meters or more underground. In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) have installed the deep borehole earthquake observatory at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep geological environment on June, 2014 in Andong area. This paper will show the status of deep borehole earthquake observatory and the results of background noise response characteristics of these deep borehole seismic data as a basic data analysis. We present here the status of deep borehole seismometer installation by KHNP. In order to basic data analysis for the borehole seismic observation data, this study shows the results of the orientation of seismometer and background noise characteristics by using a probability density function. Together with the ground motion data recorded by the borehole seismometers can be utilized as basic data for seismic response characteristics studies with regard to spent nuclear fuel disposal depth and as the input data for seismic hazard assessment that

  20. Vadose Zone Characterization and Monitoring Beneath Waste Disposal Pits Using Horizontal Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLin, S. G.; Newman, B. D.; Broxton, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Vadose zone characterization and monitoring immediately below landfills using horizontal boreholes is an emerging technology. However, this topic has received little attention in the peer-reviewed literature. The value of this approach is that activities are conducted below the waste, providing clear and rapid verification of containment. Here we report on two studies that examined the utility of horizontal boreholes for environmental characterization and monitoring under radioactive waste disposal pits. Both studies used core sample analyses to determine the presence of various radionuclides, organics, or metals. At one borehole site, water content and pore-water chloride concentrations were also used to interpret vadose zone behavior. At another site, we examined the feasibility of using flexible membrane liners in uncased boreholes for periodic monitoring. For this demonstration, these retrievable liners were air-injected into boreholes on multiple occasions carrying different combinations of environmental surveillance equipment. Instrument packages included a neutron logging device to measure volumetric water at regular intervals, high-absorbency collectors that wicked available water from borehole walls, or vent tubes that were used to measure air permeability and collect air samples. The flexible and retrievable liner system was an effective way to monitor water content and collect air permeability data. The high-absorbency collectors were efficient at extracting liquid water for contaminant analyses even at volumetric water contents below 10 percent, and revealed vapor-phase tritium migration at one disposal pit. Both demonstration studies proved that effective characterization and periodic monitoring in horizontal boreholes is both feasible and adaptable to many waste disposal problems and locations.

  1. Installation of borehole seismometer for earthquake characteristics in deep geological environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Hee; Choi, Weon Hack; Cho, Sung Il; Chang, Chun Joong [KHNP CRI, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Deep geological disposal is currently accepted as the most appropriate method for permanently removing spent nuclear fuel from the living sphere of humans. For implementation of deep geological disposal, we need to understand the geological changes that have taken place over the past 100,000 years, encompassing active faults, volcanic activity, elevation, ubsidence, which as yet have not been considered in assessing the site characteristics for general facilities, as well as to investigate and analyze the geological structures, fracture systems and seismic responses regarding deep geological environment about 500 meters or more underground. In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) have installed the deep borehole earthquake observatory at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep geological environment on June, 2014 in Andong area. This paper will show the status of deep borehole earthquake observatory and the results of background noise response characteristics of these deep borehole seismic data as a basic data analysis. We present here the status of deep borehole seismometer installation by KHNP. In order to basic data analysis for the borehole seismic observation data, this study shows the results of the orientation of seismometer and background noise characteristics by using a probability density function. Together with the ground motion data recorded by the borehole seismometers can be utilized as basic data for seismic response characteristics studies with regard to spent nuclear fuel disposal depth and as the input data for seismic hazard assessment that

  2. Evolution of stress-induced borehole breakout in inherently anisotropic rock: Insights from discrete element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, K.; Kwok, C. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand the mechanisms controlling the initiation, propagation, and ultimate pattern of borehole breakouts in shale formation when drilled parallel with and perpendicular to beddings. A two-dimensional discrete element model is constructed to explicitly represent the microstructure of inherently anisotropic rocks by inserting a series of individual smooth joints into an assembly of bonded rigid discs. Both isotropic and anisotropic hollow square-shaped samples are generated to represent the wellbores drilled perpendicular to and parallel with beddings at reduced scale. The isotropic model is validated by comparing the stress distribution around borehole wall and along X axis direction with analytical solutions. Effects of different factors including the particle size distribution, borehole diameter, far-field stress anisotropy, and rock anisotropy are systematically evaluated on the stress distribution and borehole breakout propagation. Simulation results reveal that wider particle size distribution results in the local stress perturbations which cause localization of cracks. Reduction of borehole diameter significantly alters the crack failure from tensile to shear and raises the critical pressure. Rock anisotropy plays an important role on the stress state around wellbore which lead to the formation of preferred cracks under hydrostatic stress. Far-field stress anisotropy plays a dominant role in the shape of borehole breakout when drilled perpendicular to beddings while a secondary role when drilled parallel with beddings. Results from this study can provide fundamental insights on the underlying particle-scale mechanisms for previous findings in laboratory and field on borehole stability in anisotropic rock.

  3. Measurement of the thermal performance of a Borehole Heat Exchanger while injecting air bubbles in the groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada i Oliveras, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    The most common way to exchange heat with the ground in Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) applications is with borehole heat exchangers (energy col-lectors in vertical wells). These boreholes contain the pipe with the secondary fluid of the GSHP and they are often filled with natural groundwater. It has been recently discovered that injecting air bubbles in the groundwater side of the boreholes increases the efficiency of the heat transfer. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the thermal change...

  4. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, March 1994 to June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes lithologic logging of core from boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conducted from March 1994 to June 1994. Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium and colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, and Tertiary Calico Hills Formation. Logging results are presented in a table of contact depths for core from unsaturated zone neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphic lithologic logs for core from north ramp geology (NRG) boreholes

  5. Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Urik, Joseph; Lukes, Joseph; Kobr, Miroslav; Mares, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Application of the cross-borehole flow method, in which short pumping cycles in one borehole are used to induce time-transient flow in another borehole, demonstrated that a simple hydraulic model can characterize the fracture connections in the bedrock mass between the two boreholes. The analysis determines the properties of fracture connections rather than those of individual fractures intersecting a single borehole; the model contains a limited number of adjustable parameters so that any correlation between measured and simulated flow test data is significant. The test was conducted in two 200-m deep boreholes spaced 21 m apart in the Melechov Granite in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Transient flow was measured at depth stations between the identified transmissive fractures in one of the boreholes during short-term pumping and recovery periods in the other borehole. Simulated flows, based on simple model geometries, closely matched the measured flows. The relative transmissivity and storage of the inferred fracture connections were corroborated by tracer testing. The results demonstrate that it is possible to assess the properties of a fracture flow network despite being restricted to making measurements in boreholes in which a local population of discrete fractures regulates the hydraulic communication with the larger-scale aquifer system.

  6. Measurements and Design Calculations for a Deep Coaxial Borehole Heat Exchanger in Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Dijkshoorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the feasibility of an installation for space heating and cooling the building of the university in the center of the city Aachen, Germany, with a 2500 m deep coaxial borehole heat exchanger (BHE. Direct heating the building in winter requires temperatures of 40°C. In summer, cooling the university building uses a climatic control adsorption unit, which requires a temperature of minimum 55°C. The drilled rocks of the 2500 m deep borehole have extremely low permeabilities and porosities less than 1%. Their thermal conductivity varies between 2.2 W/(m·K and 8.9 W/(m·K. The high values are related to the quartzite sandstones. The maximum temperature in the borehole is 85°C at 2500 m depth, which corresponds to a mean specific heat flow of 85 mW/m2–90 mW/m2. Results indicate that for a short period, the borehole may deliver the required temperature. But after a 20-year period of operation, temperatures are too low to drive the adsorption unit for cooling. In winter, however, the borehole heat exchanger may still supply the building with sufficient heat, with temperatures varying between 25 and 55°C and a circulation flow rate of 10 m3/h at maximum.

  7. System for obtaining high-integrity borehole fluid samples. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-integrity borehole fluid sampling system has been developed by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, prime contractor for the US Department of Energy Grand Junction Area Office as a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Through the use of a high-pressure positive-displacement pump of stainless steel coupled to a Teflon delivery line, the system is designed for delivery of an uncontaminated and unfractionated fluid sample to the surface from depths of up to 300 meters. Inflatable packers may be used to isolate a zone of interest from which the representative sample is subsequently pumped. Specially designed sample receivers are used for storage of the sample under conditions comparable to downhole pressure conditions. In contrast to systems using conventional packer systems developed primarily for the oil industry, this system is capable of sealing uncased boreholes having large borehole caliper variations without the necessity of withdrawing the tool to change the packers. In addition, this new system does not introduce foreign material into the borehole since the system uses only resident borehole fluids to effect packer inflation. Thus, long-term sampling programs may be accomplished without compromising the integrity of subsequent sample acquisition

  8. Numerical study on scanning radiation acoustic field in formations generated from a borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Xiaohua; ZHANG Hailan; QIAO Wenxiao; JU Xiaodong

    2005-01-01

    Numerical study on scanning radiation acoustic field in formations generated by linear phased array transmitters in a fluid-filled borehole is carried out using a real axis integration (RAI) method. The main lobe width of the acoustic beams and the incident angle on the borehole wall can be controlled by means of adjusting parameters, such as the element number and the delay time between the neighboring array elements of linear phased array transmitter. The steered angle of longitudinal waves generated in the formation satisfies the Snell's law for plane waves when the incident angle on the borehole wall is less than the first critical angle. When the lobe width of the acoustic beams is narrow and the steered angle is less than the first critical angle, the acoustic field in the formation can be approximately calculated given that the linear phased array is put in the formation without borehole. The technique of scanning radiation acoustic field can be applied to enhancing investigation resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in crosswell seismic survey and borehole acoustic reflection imaging.

  9. Measurement of displacements in large boreholes with a strain-gauged proving ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strain-gauged proving-ring transducer was designed and deployed to measure small diametral displacements in 0.61-m diameter by 4.9-m deep boreholes in rock. The rock surrounding the boreholes was previously heated by storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and electrical resistance heaters. Borehole displacement measurements were made subsequent to removal of the spent fuel assemblies to document the rock response and to provide data for comparison with thermal-stress calculations. A transducer was designed to measure displacements in the range of 10 to 100 μm, to function in a time-varying temperature regime of 300 to 600C at a relative humidity of 100%, to be of low stiffness, and to be easily and quickly installed. The strain-gauged proving-ring technology provided a viable means of recording displacements in large (0.61 m) diameter boreholes in rock which are subjected to a time-varying thermal field. Design of a relatively simple transducer to measure borehole displacements was moderately successful. Inadquate environmental protection of the strain gauges resulted in 6 of 14 transducers failing with a mean life of 85 days. The surviving transducers performed adequately, based on comparisons of pretest and post-test calibration results. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Geostatistical Borehole Image-Based Mapping of Karst-Carbonate Aquifer Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukop, Michael C; Cunningham, Kevin J

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of the character and spatial distribution of porosity in carbonate aquifers is important as input into computer models used in the calculation of intrinsic permeability and for next-generation, high-resolution groundwater flow simulations. Digital, optical, borehole-wall image data from three closely spaced boreholes in the karst-carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida are used in geostatistical experiments to assess the capabilities of various methods to create realistic two-dimensional models of vuggy megaporosity and matrix-porosity distribution in the limestone that composes the aquifer. When the borehole image data alone were used as the model training image, multiple-point geostatistics failed to detect the known spatial autocorrelation of vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes, which were only 10 m apart. Variogram analysis and subsequent Gaussian simulation produced results that showed a realistic conceptualization of horizontal continuity of strata dominated by vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes. PMID:26174850

  11. Single-valued definition of the multivalued function for borehole acoustic waves in transversely isotropic formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is useful to extract all components, including compressional, shear, and guided waves, from the full waveforms when we investigate the acoustic log data. The component waves can be simulated by calculating the contributions from poles and branch points of the borehole acoustic function according to Cauchy’s theorem. For such an algorithm to be implemented, the multivalued function for the borehole wave field in the frequency-axial-wavenumber domain has to be rendered single-valued first. Assuming that the borehole axis is parallel to the symmetry axis of transverse isotropy, this paper derives the branch points of the borehole acoustic function. We discover that the number and the locations of those branch points are determined by the relation among the formation parameters c33, c44, ε, and δ. Thus the single-valued definitions in the acoustic-wave computation are sorted into two different cases. After building the Riemann surface related to each radial wavenumber, we give the single-valued definition of the borehole acoustic function inside and on the integration contour based on the radiation condition. In a formation with δ > ε + c44/2c33, if we choose the integration contour and the single-valued definition of the acoustic function in the way used in isotropic cases, the simulation results of component waves will be wrong.

  12. Expert modelling of a geological cross-section from boreholes: sources of uncertainty and their quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Lark

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a designed experiment to quantify sources of uncertainty in the expert interpretation of a geological cross-section. A group of 28 geologists participated in the experiment. Each interpreted borehole records which included three Palaeogene bedrock units, including the target unit for the experiment: the London Clay. The set of boreholes was divided into batches from which validation boreholes had been withheld; as a result we obtained 129 point comparisons between the interpreted elevation of the base of the London Clay and its observed elevation in a borehole not used for that particular interpretation. Analysis of the results showed good general agreement between the observed and interpreted elevations, with no evidence of systematic bias. Between-site variation of the interpretation error was spatially correlated, and the variance appeared to be stationary. The between-geologist component of variance was smaller overall, and depended on distance to the nearest borehole. There was also evidence that the between-geologist variance depends on the degree of experience of the individual. We used the statistical model of interpretation error to compute confidence intervals for any one interpretation of the base of the London Clay on the cross-section, and to provide uncertainty measures for decision support in a hypothetical route-planning process. The statistical model could also be used to quantify error-propagation in a full 3-D geological model produced from interpreted cross sections.

  13. A novel TRNSYS type for short-term borehole heat exchanger simulation: B2G model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel dynamic borehole heat exchanger model is presented. • Theoretical approach for model parameters calculation is described. • The short-term model is validated against experimental data of a real GSHP. • Strong dynamic conditions due to the ON–OFF regulation are investigated. - Abstract: Models of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are used as an aid for the correct design and optimization of the system. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop models which correctly reproduce the dynamic thermal behavior of each component in a short-term basis. Since the borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is one of the main components, special attention should be paid to ensuring a good accuracy on the prediction of the short-term response of the boreholes. The BHE models found in literature which are suitable for short-term simulations usually present high computational costs. In this work, a novel TRNSYS type implementing a borehole-to-ground (B2G) model, developed for modeling the short-term dynamic performance of a BHE with low computational cost, is presented. The model has been validated against experimental data from a GSHP system located at Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. Validation results show the ability of the model to reproduce the short-term behavior of the borehole, both for a step-test and under normal operating conditions

  14. Geostatistical borehole image-based mapping of karst-carbonate aquifer pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Sukop,; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the character and spatial distribution of porosity in carbonate aquifers is important as input into computer models used in the calculation of intrinsic permeability and for next-generation, high-resolution groundwater flow simulations. Digital, optical, borehole-wall image data from three closely spaced boreholes in the karst-carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida are used in geostatistical experiments to assess the capabilities of various methods to create realistic two-dimensional models of vuggy megaporosity and matrix-porosity distribution in the limestone that composes the aquifer. When the borehole image data alone were used as the model training image, multiple-point geostatistics failed to detect the known spatial autocorrelation of vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes, which were only 10 m apart. Variogram analysis and subsequent Gaussian simulation produced results that showed a realistic conceptualization of horizontal continuity of strata dominated by vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal Performance: Influence of Regional Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. R.; Hammond, G. E.; Freeze, G. A.; Hadgu, T.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term waste isolation at a deep borehole disposal facility is most favorable at a site where the crystalline basement is hydraulically isolated and groundwater flow is negligible. Site suitability guidelines include evidence of lack of fluid flow in basement, for example lack of significant topographic relief, or evidence of ancient and/or saline groundwater at depth. However, lack of local topographic relief does not preclude regional hydraulic gradients created by recharge and discharge at distant outcrops; and precisely because of hydraulic isolation, the crystalline basement has the potential to be over- or under-pressured relative to overlying units. In the absence of previous boreholes in the area of a potential site, hydraulic gradients at depth are difficult to predict, and the possibility remains that a deep borehole drilled for the disposal of waste will encounter vertical or lateral driving forces for fluid flow. This study asks the question: How large a driving force can be tolerated while still maintaining repository performance? We use PFLOTRAN (an open source, massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code) and a 3-D model domain (representing a disposal borehole in crystalline basement overlain by sedimentary strata) to examine the influence of horizontal and vertical hydraulic gradients on the long-term performance of a deep borehole radioactive waste repository. Simulations include steady-state lateral hydraulic gradients and transient vertical hydraulic gradients, and predict radionuclide concentrations in an overlying aquifer to quantify the potential influence of regional hydraulic gradients on repository performance.

  16. How much do terrain effects impact the IHFC borehole paleoclimate data set?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, S.; Gosnold, W.

    2005-12-01

    Comparison of measured T-z profiles in the IHFC borehole-climate database with synthetic T-z profiles generated from the NCDC Climate Division annual data reveals some good agreement and some problems in linking the ground surface temperature (GST) with the surface air temperature (SAT). The change from the long-term annual mean temperature occurred several decades prior to the beginning of the instrumental record. The magnitude of change, warming or cooling, recorded in borehole data is greater than predicted by the meteorological data. Although the ensemble approach to analysis of the borehole data set has been generally accepted, this analysis indicates that the data could be greatly improved by consideration of terrain effects on the ground surface temperature. In this case, terrain effect implies all possible noise signals in the near surface thermal regime, e.g., topography, groundwater, deforestation, and urbanization. This research is supported by NSF ATM-038384

  17. {sup 14}C dating of soil samples from the Unzen volcano scientific drilling boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Sheng E-mail: s.xu@suerc.gla.ac.uk; Hoshizumi, Hideo; Ochiai, Yoji; Aoki, Harumi; Uto, Kozo

    2004-08-01

    Soil samples were collected from the upper layers of two Unzen volcano Scientific Drilling Project boreholes and dated by radiocarbon using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The humic soils underlying volcanic related lahar flow deposits at a depth of 56.42 m of the USDP-1 borehole gave a {sup 14}C age of 18.8 ka BP, suggesting that the accumulation of the lahar flow deposits was caused by the Kureishibaru pyroclastic eruption (19 ka BP) dated at the surface. The humic soils underlying a pyroclastic flow deposit at depths of 71.60-71.90 m of the USDP-2 borehole gave {sup 14}C ages of 27.5 and 29.3 ka BP at the top and bottom layers, respectively. This reveals that the initial activity of Fugendake volcano occurred around 27 ka BP and the collapse of Myokendake volcano around 29 ka BP.

  18. Failure development around a borehole in an orthorhombic thermo-elastoplastic rock medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłacik, Alicja; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    The elastic anisotropy of a rock medium is one of the main factors affecting stress distribution around the borehole. It governs the initiation and propagation of the technologically induced compressive and tensile failure zones, and reopening of natural mechanical discontinuities. We conducted a two-dimensional analysis of failure around a pressurized horizontal borehole in an orthorhombic elastic rock medium subject to variable far-field loads. The analytical solution to the thermoelastic problem was derived. An elastoplastic finite element method code was developed using MILAMIN platform (milamin.org) and implemented in MATLAB. Various yield functions were used, including von Mises, Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager and Hoek-Brown failure criteria. The analysis was augmented by introducing rock heterogeneities and discrete mechanical discontinuities in the vicinity of the borehole.

  19. High-density support matrices: Key to the deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibb, F.G.F. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.gibb@sheffield.ac.uk; McTaggart, N.A.; Travis, K.P.; Burley, D. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hesketh, K.W. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., B709 Springfields, Preston PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Deep (4-5 km) boreholes are emerging as a safe, secure, environmentally sound and potentially cost-effective option for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, including plutonium. One reason this option has not been widely accepted for spent fuel is because stacking the containers in a borehole could create load stresses threatening their integrity with potential for releasing highly mobile radionuclides like {sup 129}I before the borehole is filled and sealed. This problem can be overcome by using novel high-density support matrices deployed as fine metal shot along with the containers. Temperature distributions in and around the disposal are modelled to show how decay heat from the fuel can melt the shot within weeks of disposal to give a dense liquid in which the containers are almost weightless. Finally, within a few decades, this liquid will cool and solidify, entombing the waste containers in a base metal sarcophagus sealed into the host rock.

  20. Borehole Summary Report for the 216-B-2-2 Ditch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this borehole summary report is to provide the results of the drilling and sampling as a data package. The 216-B-2-2 Ditch borehole data will be evaluated with other existing data during remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan development for the Gable Mountain Pond/B-Pond and Ditches Cooling Water Group (200-CW-1 ). Additional characterization needs for the ditch, as well as for the 200-CW-1 Waste Group in general, will be defined in an RI/FS work plan for the 200-CW-1 Waste Group planned for preparation in fiscal year 1999. After characterization activities have been completed for the waste group, the information (including the 216-B-2-2 borehole data) will be collectively evaluated and documented in a remedial investigation report

  1. Rock stress measurements in the deep boreholes at Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Eurajoki and Konginkangas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, H. [Renco Ab (Sweden); Leijon, B. [Nuclear Waste Management (Sweden). Section of SKB

    1990-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing rock stress measurements, conducted in five boreholes are presented. The boreholes are located in different site investigation areas in Finland: Kuhmo-Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi-Veitsivaara, Sievi-Syyry, Eurajoki-Olkiluoto and Konginkangas-Kivetty. The aim of the measurements was to provide rock stress data, forming input to the site selection process for an underground facility for disposal of high level radioactive waste from the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. A summary is given of the theoretical background to the hydrofracturing method, whilst the equipment and experimental procedures used in the present case are described in more detail. All results obtained are presented and subjected to critical discussion. The final stress parameters evaluated are magnitudes and directions of the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses. Testing was successfully completed according to the clan at Syyry, Olkiluoto and Kivetty. Testing was partly successful at Romuvaara but unsuccessful in the borehole at Veitsivaara.

  2. Study of Performance on Recharging the Borehole by Means of Exhaust-air Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su; FAHL(E)N Per

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the performance analysis of recharging the borehole by means of exhaust-air energy is carried out. The results show that a vertical borehole used as heat source for a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) can be recharged in high efficiency. With equal heat transfer capabilities of exhaust-air coil and borehole collector, the system provides a maximum overall efficiency. However, due to ground infinite capacity, the optimum brine flow rate is different from conventional twoexchanger system. The recharging system provides two peak overall efficiencies when the capacity ratio Cr = 5 for laminar flow and Cr = 15 for turbulent flow respectively.The overall efficiency is independent of exhaust-air temperature and undisturbed ground temperature,although the fluid properties depend on temperature. In practical system lower ethyl percentage brine should be chosen if the freezing point meets the system request,which can provide a higher overall efficiency.

  3. Practical borehole logging procedures for mineral exploration, with emphasis on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borehole logging is a basic tool in the exploration for and delineation of uranium deposits. This manual describes recommended procedures for carrying out borehole logging, concentrating on practical aspects of the operation of interest to those actually involved in day-to-day field work. The book begins with a discussion of boreholes and then deals with gamma ray logging as the main method of interest. Information is also provided on other techniques including resistance, spontaneous potential, density and neutron logging. Field procedures are described, and examples of logs and interpretations are given. The appendices provide information on calibration procedures and correction factors, a glossary of useful terms and some relevant basic data regarding drill holes and drilling

  4. Underground nuclear radiation measurements-gamma ray borehole logging- application to uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-ray borehole logging plays a leading role in uranium exploration programs and more so in the estimation of the geological impulse response function in gamma ray intensity which is solely responsible to delineate the radioactive horizons. In the past several attempts have been made to estimate this function numerically, theoretically and heuristically too based on the controlled experiments. However, the present work is an attempt to determine/estimate this geological function by directly using the data of radioactive borehole logging. It is interesting to note in this study that the results obtained by this approach are not only nearer to the results obtained by the earlier attempts but also encourage to study further in detail under different geological formations. The present model is applied to the gamma ray borehole logging in the areas of Yellapur area, Nalgonda dist., A.P, India for the estimation of the geological function and uranium exploration. (author)

  5. Methodology study of Posiva difference flow meter in borehole KLX02 at Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Hansson, Kent [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Rouhiainen, Pekka [PRG-Tec Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    As a co-operative work between SKB and Posiva, the Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow Meter was tested in borehole KLX02 at Laxemar. Two field campaigns were carried out, Campaign 1 in February-March 2000 and Campaign 2 in May-June 2000. In both Campaigns, the borehole interval 200-1,400 m in borehole KLX02 was measured. Conventional borehole flow meters measure the cumulative flow along a borehole. However, the changes of flow with depth are generally more interesting and useful. The name 'Difference Flow Meter' is due to that the flow meter directly measures these changes of flow along the borehole. The main measurement methods of difference flow logging are sequential and over- lapping flow logging, respectively. In Finland, where the method is developed, the terms normal mode and detailed mode, are used for sequential and overlapping flow logging, respectively. In sequential logging, both the thermal pulse-and thermal dilution methods are sed to measure flow, which results in a lower measurement limit of flow. In overlapping flow logging, only the thermal dilution method is used to speed up the measurement but at a higher measurement limit. The faster measurement rate allows for shorter test sections, i. e. a more detailed screening of the flow differences along a borehole. The methodology study has shown that it is possible to determine the transmissivity of interpreted conductive fractures by different combinations (pairs) of data from overlapping flow logging at different draw downs applied in the hole. Good consistency of calculated transmissivities from different drawdown combinations was generally obtained. In addition, in KLX02, the specific flow rate (Q/s) at each logging sequence was found to be a good estimator of transmissivity. However, this may not be the case in boreholes where large head variations occur along the hole. This study has also shown that the undisturbed freshwater head of the interpreted conductive fractures also may be

  6. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N.; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Christiansen, A. V.;

    2014-01-01

    We present an automatic method for parameterization of a 3-D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models through an inverse optimization, with the objective of further detailing of geological models, or as direct input into groundwater models...... and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey...... resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity data set...

  7. High-density support matrices: Key to the deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep (4-5 km) boreholes are emerging as a safe, secure, environmentally sound and potentially cost-effective option for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, including plutonium. One reason this option has not been widely accepted for spent fuel is because stacking the containers in a borehole could create load stresses threatening their integrity with potential for releasing highly mobile radionuclides like 129I before the borehole is filled and sealed. This problem can be overcome by using novel high-density support matrices deployed as fine metal shot along with the containers. Temperature distributions in and around the disposal are modelled to show how decay heat from the fuel can melt the shot within weeks of disposal to give a dense liquid in which the containers are almost weightless. Finally, within a few decades, this liquid will cool and solidify, entombing the waste containers in a base metal sarcophagus sealed into the host rock

  8. Interpretation of hydraulic testing in crystalline rock at the Leuggern borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of hydrogeologic interpretations of all analyzable single packer, double packer, and H-log tests conducted in the crystalline rock in the Leuggern borehole. Testing of the Muschelkalk at 74.95 to 117.85 m depth is discussed by Schmassmann (1985). Test 217.9S, which is discussed in this report, contains 14.51 m of Buntsandstein and 4.79 m into the top of the crystalline. A discussion of the testing and interpretation methods is presented. Data analysis was performed using borehole pressure history and thermally-induced pressure effects to be incorporated into the simulations. Formatio pressure (and corresponding equivalent freshwater heads) were determined for 12 test intervals where testing was performed soon after drilling and the formation had an intermediate to high hydraulic conductivity. The calculated equivalent freshwater heads were between 363 m ASL near the top of the crystalline to about 356 m ASL at the bottom of the borehole. Hydraulic conductivities were estimated for 81 intervals, covering the entire crystalline rock portion of the Leuggern borehole. Interpreted hydraulic conductivities ranged from 2.0E-14 to 1.0E-6 ms-1. A base case specific storage of 2.2E-7 m-1 was estimated for the crystalline rock. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for some tests to determine the uncertainty in the best estimate of hydraulic conductivity related to the choice of specific storage. In these cases, specific storage was varied by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude from the base case value. The measured temperature in the borehole ranged from about 19oC at the top of the crystalline rock to about 66oC at the bottom of the borehole. The temperature increases approximately linearly with depth at a gradient of approximately 3.4oC/100 m. (author) 17 figs., 7 tabs., 40 refs

  9. The ICDP Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project: preliminary overview of borehole geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Liberty, Lee M.; Kessler, James E.; Kuck, Jochem; Kofman, Randolph; Bishop, Ross; Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Champion, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    Hotspot: The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project was undertaken to better understand the geothermal systems in three locations across the Snake River Plain with varying geological and hydrological structure. An extensive series of standard and specialized geophysical logs were obtained in each of the wells. Hydrogen-index neutron and γ-γ density logs employing active sources were deployed through the drill string, and although not fully calibrated for such a situation do provide semi-quantitative information related to the ‘stratigraphy’ of the basalt flows and on the existence of alteration minerals. Electrical resistivity logs highlight the existence of some fracture and mineralized zones. Magnetic susceptibility together with the vector magnetic field measurements display substantial variations that, in combination with laboratory measurements, may provide a tool for tracking magnetic field reversals along the borehole. Full waveform sonic logs highlight the variations in compressional and shear velocity along the borehole. These, together with the high resolution borehole seismic measurements display changes with depth that are not yet understood. The borehole seismic measurements indicate that seismic arrivals are obtained at depth in the formations and that strong seismic reflections are produced at lithological contacts seen in the corresponding core logging. Finally, oriented ultrasonic borehole televiewer images were obtained over most of the wells and these correlate well with the nearly 6 km of core obtained. This good image log to core correlations, particularly with regards to drilling induced breakouts and tensile borehole and core fractures will allow for confident estimates of stress directions and or placing constraints on stress magnitudes. Such correlations will be used to orient in core orientation giving information useful in hydrological assessments, paleomagnetic dating, and structural volcanology.

  10. Fracture characterization at the Conoco Borehole Test Facility using shear-wave anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, S.A. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); MacBeth, C.D.; Queen, J.; Rizer, W.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two multi-component near-offset VSP experiments are used, in conjunction with borehole data, to characterise the subsurface fracture system at the Conoco Borehole Test Facility, Oklahoma. Time delays between the fast and slow split shear-waves are observed to correlate with the heavily fractured sandstone formations. Inversion of the shear-wave splitting estimates is achieved using a Genetic Algorithm which incorporates an anisotropic ray tracing scheme. The inversion results suggest that the fracture orientation is sub-vertical. A method of determining fracture dip using an opposite azimuth VSP method is suggested.

  11. The use of progression cavity pumps in the exploitation of geothermal energy from deep boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Vukelić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we aim to demonstrate the use of progression cavity pumps in the exploitation of geothermal energy from deep boreholes. The progression cavity pumps presented in the article are the kind generally used to extract oil from deep boreholes. The former provide a very large amount of power while overcoming the pressure elevations of extraction. Their capacity is relatively small, up to 0,005 m3/s. It is expedient to use such pumps during the exploitation of geothermal energy when we do not have sufficiently powerful centrifugal pumps at our disposal and when the exploitation of thermal water is intended for the purposes of health tourism.

  12. Finite line-source model for borehole heat exchangers. Effect of vertical temperature variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandos, Tatyana V.; Fernandez, Esther; Santander, Juan Luis G.; Isidro, Jose Maria; Perez, Jezabel; Cordoba, Pedro J. Fernandez de [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montero, Alvaro; Urchueguia, Javier F. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    A solution to the three-dimensional finite line-source (FLS) model for borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) that takes into account the prevailing geothermal gradient and allows arbitrary ground surface temperature changes is presented. Analytical expressions for the average ground temperature are derived by integrating the exact solution over the line-source depth. A self-consistent procedure to evaluate the in situ thermal response test (TRT) data is outlined. The effective thermal conductivity and the effective borehole thermal resistance can be determined by fitting the TRT data to the time-series expansion obtained for the average temperature. (author)

  13. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR39 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 502.97 m and 45.11 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in August- October 2005. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR39 and OL-KR39B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 415m{sup 3} and 25 m{sup 3} and the measured volumes of the returning water were 175 m{sup 3} and 7 m{sup 3} in boreholes OLKR39 and OL-KR39B, respectively. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 110 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 49 GP a and the average Poisson' s ratio is 0.25. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fracture is the most common

  14. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR3B at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 530.60 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in summer 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock in the area, where a new shaft with a diameter of 3 m is planned to be located. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR38. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 473m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 38m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR38. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Devitool Peewee. The results of the EMS measurements indicate that borehole OL-KR38 deviates 1.02 m south and 0.58 m west from the target point at the borehole depth of 525 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 106

  15. Disposition of excess weapon plutonium in deep boreholes - site selection handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Woldegabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H.; Rowley, J.

    1996-09-01

    One of the options for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology needed to begin designing this means of disposition already exists, and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous United States. There are even more potential sites for this option within Russia. The successful design of a borehole system must address two criteria: (1) how to dispose of 50 metric tons of weapons plutonium while making it inaccessible for unauthorized retrieval, and (2) how to prevent contamination of the accessible biosphere, defined here as the Earth`s surface and usable groundwaters.

  16. Performance analysis on borehole energy storage system including utilization of solar thermal and photovoltaic energies; Taiyonetsu hikari riyo wo fukumu borehole energy chozo system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yamaguchi, A. [Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A permanent borehole energy storage system utilizing solar energy and waste heat from coolers is simulated, to be used as an air conditioning system for super-tall buildings. A 100m-long pipe is buried vertically into the ground, and a heat medium is caused to circulate in the pipe for the exchange of heat with the soil. Thirty borehole units are used, each measuring 9m{times}9m (with the pipe pitch being 3m). Solar cells occupying half of the wall surface facing south and solar collectors installed on the roof supply electric power and heat for cooling and warming. Heat in the ground is transferred mainly by conduction but also is carried by water and gas in movement. So, an analysis is carried out using an equation in which heat and water move at the same time. Because waste heat from cooling and warming systems is accumulated in the ground and none is discharged into the air, big cities will be protected from warming (from developing heat islands). As compared with the conventional boiler-aided air conditioning system, a hybrid borehole system incorporating solar collectors and solar cells will bring about an 80% reduction in CO2 emission and annual energy consumption. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1321 - Permits for firing more than 20 boreholes and for use of nonpermissible blasting units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use of nonpermissible blasting units. 75.1321 Section 75.1321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1321 Permits for firing more than 20 boreholes and for use of nonpermissible blasting units. (a) Applications for permits for firing more than 20 boreholes in...

  18. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2006-10-18

    The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to Tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. Sediments from borehole 299-E27-22 were considered to be background uncontaminated sediments against which to compare contaminated sediments for the C Tank Farm characterization effort. This report also presents our interpretation of the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the A-AX, C and U Waste Management Area field investigation report(a) in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. A core log was generated for both boreholes and a geologic evaluation of all core samples was performed at the time of opening. Aliquots of sediment from the borehole core samples were analyzed and characterized in the laboratory for the following parameters: moisture content, gamma-emitting radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Two key radiocontaminants

  19. Impact of maximum borehole depths on ground warming patterns: A spatial analysis over the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, Hugo; Matharoo, Gurpreet S.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2013-04-01

    Past variations in the Earth's surface energy balance are preserved in the terrestrial subsurface and can be inferred from borehole temperature-depth profiles. These profiles are used to reconstruct past ground surface temperature (GST) histories. Recent work by Beltrami et al. (2011) has shown that estimated GST histories can be significantly impacted by the maximum depth of the borehole temperature measurement. In the present study, we use temperature-depth profiles measured at 558 sites distributed between 30o N and 60o N in the Northern Hemisphere. For each site, the background steady-state temperature profile is estimated using progressively deeper maximum depths of truncation. Additionally, GST histories are reconstructed using multiple maximum depth truncations. In order to control on the influence of the geographical sampling, shallow boreholes are dropped from the analysis once their depth is surpassed. The estimated temperature changes over 50-yr intervals are evaluated in these reconstructions as a function of the maximum truncation depth in the database. Similarly, the total terrestrial heat gain is also estimated using progressive depths of truncations. All calculations show a significant dependence on the maximum depths of the borehole profiles and further indicate the importance of this factor in estimates of past temperature and heat content histories derived from geothermal data. Further, calculations also show that the ground has warmed by 0.5o over last 100 years consistent with the earlier studies by Beltrami and Bourlon (2004).

  20. Research on Deep Joints and Lode Extension Based on Digital Borehole Camera Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zengqiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Structure characteristics of rock and orebody in deep borehole are obtained by borehole camera technology. By investigating on the joints and fissures in Shapinggou molybdenum mine, the dominant orientation of joint fissure in surrounding rock and orebody were statistically analyzed. Applying the theory of metallogeny and geostatistics, the relationship between joint fissure and lode’s extension direction is explored. The results indicate that joints in the orebody of ZK61borehole have only one dominant orientation SE126° ∠68°, however, the dominant orientations of joints in surrounding rock were SE118° ∠73°, SW225° ∠70° and SE122° ∠65°, NE79° ∠63°. Then a preliminary conclusion showed that the lode’s extension direction is specific and it is influenced by joints of surrounding rock. Results of other boreholes are generally agree well with the ZK61, suggesting the analysis reliably reflects the lode’s extension properties and the conclusion presents important references for deep ore prospecting.

  1. SNG-log in borehole P7 in Faxe Chalk Quarry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    A spectral natural gamma-ray log in a 190 m borehole in Faxe chalk quarry confirms that Danish bryozoan and corallic limestones contain very low levels of natural radioactivity. Due to the low content of natural radioactivity it has been possible to observe the influence from cosmic radiation...

  2. Comprehensive borehole management for shorter drilling time; Umfassendes Bohrfortschrittsmanagement zur Verkuerzung der Bohrprojektdauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrlich, M. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    In 2006, the trademarked ExxonMobil Fast Drill Process (FDP) was introduced also in the German ExxonMobil boreholes. The process is to maximize the drilling speed for every meter drilled. The process makes it possible to ensure borehole management on the basis of quantitative data and in consideration of all phases that are relevant for sinking a borehole. The FDP is used world-wide in all ExxonMobil drilling departments. More than 1.35 million meters are drilled annually in many different boreholes with different geological conditions, drilling profiles and international sites. The results were similar in many cases, with a significant increase in ROP and drill bit life, and with less damage caused by vibrations. FDP was developed on the basis of real time monitoring of the specific mechanical energy (MSE) required for drilling. MSE monitoring was found to be an effective tool dor detecting inefficient functioning of the drill bit and the overall system. To make operation more efficient, the causes must be identified and measures must be taken accordingly, taking into account the potential risks involved in such measures. MSE monitoring is a tool while FDPL is a broad management process ensuring that MSE and many other data sources are used effectively for optimisation of the ROP. Consequent implementation of the process resulted in a significant increase of the ROP. The major elements required for achieving this goal are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Quality Water Analysis of Public and Private Boreholes (A Case Study of Azare Town, Bauchi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Abubakar1 , I.M. Lawal2 , I. Hassan3 , A. H. Jagaba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of public and private borehole water supply sources in katagun Local Government Area (Azare of Bauchi State, Nigeria, was conducted in order to examine their qualities. A total of 10 water samples collected from 3 randomly selected private and 7 functional public boreholes in the area were analysed using standard analytical techniques and instruments. Most of the physicochemical parameters of samples from the two sources were within the acceptable limits of the World Health Organisation (WHO for drinking water. E.coli for all samples was 0.00 except for A9 where the value is 1×10-4 which mean sample A9 have traces of bacterial. There was no growth of indicator organism in samples from the both boreholes. From the findings, it is recommended that both private borehole and public water supply in the area are safe for consumption except for sample A9 which need be properly treated before human consumption and other domestic purposes.

  4. Sustained high basal motion of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by borehole deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luethi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.;

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high am...

  5. Analysis of ground water from boreholes, river water and precipitation in the Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, ground water from boreholes, river water and precipitation have been periodically analyzed for the environmental monitoring since the fiscal year 2001. This report shows the data set of water chemistry since the fiscal year 2001 to the fiscal year 2006. (author)

  6. Advanced Coupled Simulation of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Above Ground Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Bastian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel O.; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage in borehole heat exchanger arrays is a promising technology to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. These systems usually consist of several subsystems like the heat source (e.g. solarthermics or a combined heat and power plant), the heat consumer (e.g. a heating system), diurnal storages (i.e. water tanks), the borehole thermal energy storage, additional heat sources for peak load coverage (e.g. a heat pump or a gas boiler) and the distribution network. For the design of an integrated system, numerical simulations of all subsystems are imperative. A separate simulation of the borehole energy storage is well-established but represents a simplification. In reality, the subsystems interact with each other. The fluid temperatures of the heat generation system, the heating system and the underground storage are interdependent and affect the performance of each subsystem. To take into account these interdependencies, we coupled a software for the simulation of the above ground facilities with a finite element software for the modeling of the heat flow in the subsurface and the borehole heat exchangers. This allows for a more realistic view on the entire system. Consequently, a finer adjustment of the system components and a more precise prognosis of the system's performance can be ensured.

  7. Characterization of earthquake fault by borehole experiments; Koseinai sokutei ni yoru jishin danso no kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishizawa, O.; Kuwahara, Y.; Kiguchi, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A borehole was excavated to penetrate the Nojima fault at the Hirabayashi area, to investigate the underground structures of the fault by observation of the cores and well logging. The borehole was excavated from 74.6m east of the fault surface. Soil is of granodiorite from the surface, and fault clay at a depth in a range from 624.1 to 625.1m. Observation of the cores, collected almost continuously, indicates that the fault fracture zone expands in a depth range from 557 to 713.05m. The well logging experiments are natural potential, resistivity, density, gamma ray, neutron, borehole diameter, microresistivity and temperature. They are also for DSI- and FMI-observation, after expansion of the borehole. The well logging results indicate that resistivity, density and elastic wave velocity decrease as distance from fault clay increases, which well corresponds to the soil conditions. The BHTV and FMI analyses clearly detect the fault clay demarcations, and show that elastic wave velocity and BHTV results differ at above and below the fault. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Analysis of Geo-Temperature Restoration Performance under Intermittent Operation of Borehole Heat Exchanger Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent operation can improve the coefficient of performance (COP of a ground source heat pump (GSHP system. In this paper, an analytical solution to analyze the geo-temperature restoration performance under intermittent operation of borehole heat exchanger (BHE fields is established. For this purpose, the moving finite line source model is combined with the g-function and the superposition principle. The model takes into account the heat transfer along the borehole, thermal interference between BHEs, and the influence of groundwater flow. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with an experiment carried out under intermittent operation. The model makes it possible to analyze the geo-temperature restoration performance and its influencing factors, such as BHE spacing, heat flow rate, operation mode, and groundwater flow. The main conclusions of this work are as follows. The heat transfer along the borehole should be considered when analyzing the geo-temperature restoration performance. When the BHE spacing increases, the soil temperature change decreases and the heat recovery improves. Therefore, adequate borehole separation distance is essential in the case of a multiple BHE system with unbalanced load. The presence of groundwater flow is associated with interference between the BHEs, which should not be ignored. In the case of long-term operation, the groundwater flow is beneficial to the geo-temperature recovery process, even for downstream BHEs. Finally, a greater groundwater flux leads to a better geo-temperature recovery.

  9. Computer modeling and laboratory experiments of a specific borehole to surface electrical monitoring technique (BSEMT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, J.A.C.; Zhang, X.; Abdul Fattah, R.

    2011-01-01

    Geophysical monitoring of the dynamical behavior of subsurface reservoirs (oil, gas, CO2) remains an important issue in geophysical research. A new idea for reservoir monitoring based on electrical resistivity tomography was developed at TNO. The essential element of the so-called BSEMT (Borehole to

  10. Geostatistical analysis of the relationship between airborne electromagnetic data and borehole lithological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian; Møller, Ingelise; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2015-01-01

    We present a large-scale study of the relationship between dense airborne SkyTEM resistivity data and sparse lithological borehole data. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data contains information about subsurface geology and hydrologic properties; however extracting this information is not trivial....

  11. Measurements of shock-induced guided and surface acoustic waves along boreholes in poroelastic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, G.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Van Dongen, M.E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic experiments on the propagation of guided waves along water-filled boreholes in water-saturated porous materials are reported. The experiments were conducted using a shock tube technique. An acoustic funnel structure was placed inside the tube just above the sample in order to enhance the ex

  12. Letter Report: Borehole Flow and Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth at Well ER-12-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phil L. Oberlander; Charles E. Russell

    2005-12-31

    Borehole flow and fluid temperature during pumping were measured at well ER-12-4 at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. This well was constructed to characterize the carbonate aquifer. The well is cased from land surface to the total depth at 1,132 m (3,713 ft bgs) below ground surface (bgs). The screened section of the well consists of alternating sections of slotted well screen and blank casing from 948 to 1,132 m bgs (3,111 to 3,713 ft bgs). Borehole flow velocity (LT-1) with depth was measured with an impeller flowmeter from the top of the screened section to the maximum accessible depth while the well was pumped and under ambient conditions. A complicating factor to data interpretation is that the well was not filter packed and there is upward and downward vertical flow in the open annulus under ambient and pumping conditions. The open annulus in the well casing likely causes the calculated borehole flow rates being highly nonrepresentative of inflow from the formation. Hydraulic conductivities calculated under these conditions would require unsupportable assumptions and would be subject to very large uncertainties. Borehole hydraulic conductivities are not presented under these conditions.

  13. Letter Report: Borehole Flow and Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth at Well ER-12-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Oberlander; C. Russell

    2005-09-01

    Borehole flow and fluid temperature during pumping were measured at well ER-12-3 at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. This well was constructed to characterize the carbonate aquifer. The well is cased from land surface to the total depth at 1,487 m (4,880 ft) below ground surface (bgs). Slotted screen is placed in an upper screened section from 1,095 to 1,160 m bgs (3,591 to 3,805 ft bgs) and in the lower screened section from 1,278 to 1,474 m bgs (4,191 to 4,834 ft bgs). Borehole flow velocity (LT-1) with depth was measured with an impeller flowmeter from the top of the screened section to the maximum accessible depth while the well was pumped and under ambient conditions. A complicating factor to data interpretation is that the well was not filter packed and there is significant upward and downward vertical flow in the open annulus under ambient and pumping conditions. The open annulus and large vertical flow velocities in the well casing result in the measured borehole flow rates being potentially highly nonrepresentative of conditions in the aquifer. Hydraulic conductivities calculated under these conditions would require unsupportable assumptions and would be subject to very large uncertainties. Borehole hydraulic conductivities are not presented under these conditions.

  14. Moving to Google Cloud: Renovation of Global Borehole Temperature Database for Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y.; Huang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Borehole temperature comprises an independent archive of information on climate change which is complementary to the instrumental and other proxy climate records. With support from the international geothermal community, a global database of borehole temperatures has been constructed for the specific purpose of the study on climate change. Although this database has become an important data source in climate research, there are certain limitations partially because the framework of the existing borehole temperature database was hand-coded some twenty years ago. A database renovation work is now underway to take the advantages of the contemporary online database technologies. The major intended improvements include 1) dynamically linking a borehole site to Google Earth to allow for inspection of site specific geographical information; 2) dynamically linking an original key reference of a given borehole site to Google Scholar to allow for a complete list of related publications; and 3) enabling site selection and data download based on country, coordinate range, and contributor. There appears to be a good match between the enhancement requirements for this database and the functionalities of the newly released Google Fusion Tables application. Google Fusion Tables is a cloud-based service for data management, integration, and visualization. This experimental application can consolidate related online resources such as Google Earth, Google Scholar, and Google Drive for sharing and enriching an online database. It is user friendly, allowing users to apply filters and to further explore the internet for additional information regarding the selected data. The users also have ways to map, to chart, and to calculate on the selected data, and to download just the subset needed. The figure below is a snapshot of the database currently under Google Fusion Tables renovation. We invite contribution and feedback from the geothermal and climate research community to make the

  15. MODELING OF THE GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT AROUND A DEEP BOREHOLE NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lubchenko; M. Rodríguez-Buño; E.A. Bates; R. Podgorney; E. Baglietto; J. Buongiorno; M.J. Driscoll

    2015-04-01

    The concept of disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock is gaining renewed interest and consideration as a viable mined repository alternative. A large amount of work on conceptual borehole design and preliminary performance assessment has been performed by researchers at MIT, Sandia National Laboratories, SKB (Sweden), and others. Much of this work relied on analytical derivations or, in a few cases, on weakly coupled models of heat, water, and radionuclide transport in the rock. Detailed numerical models are necessary to account for the large heterogeneity of properties (e.g., permeability and salinity vs. depth, diffusion coefficients, etc.) that would be observed at potential borehole disposal sites. A derivation of the FALCON code (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) was used for the thermal-hydrologic modeling. This code solves the transport equations in porous media in a fully coupled way. The application leverages the flexibility and strengths of the MOOSE framework, developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The current version simulates heat, fluid, and chemical species transport in a fully coupled way allowing the rigorous evaluation of candidate repository site performance. This paper mostly focuses on the modeling of a deep borehole repository under realistic conditions, including modeling of a finite array of boreholes surrounded by undisturbed rock. The decay heat generated by the canisters diffuses into the host rock. Water heating can potentially lead to convection on the scale of thousands of years after the emplacement of the fuel. This convection is tightly coupled to the transport of the dissolved salt, which can suppress convection and reduce the release of the radioactive materials to the aquifer. The purpose of this work has been to evaluate the importance of the borehole array spacing and find the conditions under which convective transport can be ruled out as a radionuclide transport mechanism

  16. Cross-borehole ERT monitoring of a tracer injection into chlorinated-solvent contaminated fractured mudstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Slater, L. D.; Johnson, T. C.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Imbrigiotta, T. E.; Johnson, C. D.; Lacombe, P.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Shapiro, A. M.; Tiedeman, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to monitor remedial injections in contaminated fractured rock to determine if targeted areas have been reached and to monitor treatment effectiveness. While detailed information can be obtained at boreholes, these locations are limited; determining connectivity in fracture networks is difficult and borehole monitoring locations may miss the injection entirely. The primary and secondary domains in fractured rock have hydraulic conductivities that differ by orders of magnitude such that tracer injections commonly have rapid breakthrough followed by extended tailings. Often, it is presumed that the tracer is transported into dead-end pore spaces or unknown inter-connected networks and/or sorbed into the primary porosity. Cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), guided by information from borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic testing, has the potential to monitor the fate of tracer injections between borehole locations. ERT has been under-exploited in fractured rock due to: (1) a lack of available 3D codes, (2) a lack of computing resources to accommodate a large number of model parameters, and (3) limitations of regularization constraints used in ERT modeling for representing fractured rock settings along with a full understanding of these constraints. Recognizing numerous advances in ERT imaging and building on our previous studies, we present results from a field-scale ERT experiment in fractured rock. We use ERT to monitor a conductive tracer injection in a fractured mudstone at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in New Jersey. A custom-built electrode array included inflatable bladders to isolate fractures within each borehole and allowed for discrete water sampling and injection. By injecting the tracer in pulses and collecting 3D ERT measurements following each pulse, we were able to (1) avoid rapid breakthrough and large dilution rates and thus maintain a high conductivity contrast, and (2) characterize ambient flow by

  17. Areal and Shear Strain Coupling of PBO Borehole Strainmeters From Teleseismic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeloffs, E.; McCausland, W.

    2007-12-01

    In order to compare borehole strainmeter data with tectonic models, we must know the coupling parameters relating elastic deformation of the strainmeter to strain in the surrounding rock. At least two coupling parameters are required: the ratios of instrument areal and shear strain to formation areal and shear strain, respectively. These coupling parameters depend on the relative elastic moduli of the formation, grout, and strainmeter, and typical elastic moduli yield nominal coupling parameters of 1.5 and 3. More accurate coupling parameters must be determined by analyzing each strainmeter's response to a known deformation source after the instrument has been grouted into the borehole. Borehole strainmeters installed by the National Science Foundation-funded Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) consist of four gauges, sampled at 20 Hz, that measure extension along distinct azimuths. Teleseismic Love and Rayleigh waves that produce fractional gauge elongations > 10-7 , such as those from the M8.3 Kuril Islands earthquake of November 15, 2006, can be used to constrain the coupling parameters. A planar Love or Rayleigh wave is expected to have a simple strain field that produces the same waveform on all four gauges of a strainmeter. The two-parameter coupling model is consistent with the variation of surface wave amplitudes as functions of azimuth for the borehole strainmeter data analyzed to date, although most of the PBO strainmeters require that differences in the relative gains of the four gauges be estimated as well. Fits to the data can be improved for some strainmeters by allowing for two distinct shear strain coupling parameters, and/or for a small (grout with a relatively low elastic modulus. Surface waves are well recorded by some strainmeters that do not record earth tides, demonstrating that for some borehole strainmeter installations, coupling may decrease at long periods.

  18. BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND PUBLIC PERCEPTION ABOUT DRINKING WATER OF BOREHOLES IN ARIB (AIN DEFLA, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Hamaidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water from boreholes in Arib (Ain Defla, south-west of Algeria was investigated to ascertain its quality status and suitability for drinking and domestic uses. Fifty six water samples were collected from four boreholes. The analyses of the Coliform counts obtained from various boreholes samples ranged between 0 and 200 CFU/ 100 ml with regard to total Coliforms and between 0 and 8 CFU/ 100 ml with regard to fecal Coliforms. Three of the boreholes samples showed contamination by Streptococcus sp. Pathogens like Salmonella were not identified but some low levels of sulfite-reducing bacteria was found. The interviews were done to assess perceptions on water taste problems, odour, colour, and turbidity and health problems. The respondents were taken from people in the community using random sampling technique. Sixty people were sampled at each area surrounding the boreholes. It was found out that 43.3% of the respondents rated their drinking water safe for consumption as well as absence of illness after drinking as indicators for judging the quality of the water. The others respondents (56.7% reported having at least some concerns with safety of their water.  More  than 20% of the households reported at least one household member having suffered some water related illness in the past two years. Respondents were asked to judge the quality of the water, based on four sensory characteristics of drinking water. Many respondents rated the smell (33.3%, taste (20%, colour (23.3% and turbidity (23.3%. These results showed that all the samples did not satisfy the WHO requirements for bacteriological characteristics in human consumption.

  19. Geothermal climate change observatory in south India 1: Borehole temperatures and inferred surface temperature histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Roy, Sukanta

    Temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes contain records of changes in surface ground temperature over the past few centuries. We have recently set up a geothermal climate change observatory at the Choutuppal campus of National Geophysical Research Institute (17.29 °N, 78.92 °E) to measure subsurface temperature changes on annual to decadal timescales and quantify how well they track surface temperature changes. The site is located about 60 km to the east of Hyderabad in south India, in a designated reserved forest land and far from potential urban heat islands. In April 2009, two boreholes were drilled to depths of 210 m and 21 m respectively after careful site selection to minimize perturbations to the subsurface temperatures on account of groundwater flow in the borehole, large thermal conductivity contrasts and rugged topography. Temperature measurements in the two holes are being carried out periodically. Analysis of equilibrium temperature-depth profile in the 210 m deep borehole reveals at least two ongoing events that started during the past Century: (i) surface ground warming of 0.5 ± 0.1 °C over the past 92 ± 7 years, and (ii) a more recent cooling of ∼1 °C over the past ∼39 years, probably representing local changes to surface vegetation caused by the presence of a thicker grass cover throughout the year inside the campus since 1967 AD compared to the short cropping of grass outside it. The inferred surface ground warming is consistent with estimates from temperature measurements in three other boreholes (170-300 m deep) distributed in a 10 × 5 km 2 area in the vicinity of the observatory (mean: 0.5 ± 0.1 °C over the past 93 ± 21 years), and is characteristic of the Interior Peninsula region of south India.

  20. Effective Stress and Permeability Redistributions Induced by Successive Roadway and Borehole Excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengyong; Zhou, Fubao; Liu, Yingke; Xia, Tongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Methane extraction from in-seam boreholes is the main approach for recovering methane in China. However, the methane concentration for this method is generally lower than 30 %, which incurs a risk of methane outbursts during pipeline transportation. To increase the methane concentration, we first conducted permeability experiments to investigate the relationships between the permeability and the effective stress at different stages in the complete effective stress-strain process. We then adopted FLAC3D software to calculate the stress distributions around roadways and boreholes after their consecutive excavations and thereby divided the coal mass around the roadway and borehole according to different effective stress stages to understand the gas flow characteristics. The results show that the coal mass along the radial direction of the roadway and borehole can be sequentially divided into four zones, including the full flow zone (FFZ), the transitive flow zone (TFZ), the flow-shielding zone (FSZ), and the in situ rock flow zone (IRFZ), which have been proven correct by field experiments. The methane in the IRFZ was difficult to extract because of the low permeability of coal mass in this zone. The permeability of the FSZ was lower than that of the IRFZ. The permeability along the interface between the FSZ and TFZ was nearly one time as low as that of the IRFZ, while the permeability of the FFZ was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the IRFZ. This four-zone division demonstrates the decaying mechanism of methane extraction concentration and flow in the in-seam borehole and can provide theoretical guidance for improvement of methane extraction.

  1. Effect of Stresses and Strains of Roadway Surrounding Rocks on Borehole Airtightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, many high gas and outburst mines have poor gas drainage effects. An important reason influencing the gas drainage effect is a poor hole-sealing effect. Most studies on gas drainage borehole sealing focus on local and foreign borehole sealing methods, borehole sealing equipment, and borehole sealing materials. Numerical simulations of initial drilling sealing depth are insufficient because studies on this subject are few. However, when the initial sealing depth of the borehole is not chosen reasonably, air can enter the gas drainage drill hole through the circumferential crack of roadway surrounding rocks under the influence of suction pressure of the drainage system. This phenomenon ultimately affects the hole-sealing effect. To improve the drilling hole sealing of gas drainage boring, we deduced the expression formulas of the crushing zone, plastic zone, and elastic zone around the coal-seam floor stone drift and conducted a stress–strain analysis of the coal-seam floor stone drift of the 2145 working surfaces of the Sixth Coal Mine of Hebi Coal Mine Group Company by using theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and on-scene verification. Finally, we obtain the initial drilling sealing depth, which is a main contribution of this study. The results prove the following. The performed hole-sealing process with an initial drilling sealing depth of 8 m has a gas drainage efficiency of 55%. Compared with the previous 6.8 m initial drilling sealing depth with a gas drainage efficiency of less than 30%, which was adopted by the mine, the initial sealing depth of 8 m chosen in the numerical simulation is reasonable and conforms to the actual situation on the spot. Therefore, the initial drilling sealing depth chosen in the numerical simulation will produce practical and effective guidance to study the field hole-sealing depth.

  2. Can ice sheet models contribute to the understanding of deep borehole temperature profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Volker; Tarasov, Lev; Mottaghy, Darius; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Majorowicz, Jacek; Safanda, Jan; Demezhko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    It has been argued many times that deep boreholes in Northern America and Europe have recorded basal ice sheet conditions during the last glacial cycle. However, though most of the very deep and well documented boreholes available today belong into this group, systematic investigations of this effects have been rare, and are only now emerging (Matharoo et al., Rath et al., in prep.). Here we present some early results from a case study in Northern Europe,analyzing several well-known deep boreholes in the light of the recent ice sheet model of Tarasov et al.(2008). These boreholes include temperature profiles from the Kola SG3 (Russia, >4000 m) Outokumpu (Finland, 2500 m), Udryn (Poland, 2250 m), Torun (Poland, 2920 m), and Czeszowo (Poland, 3450 m). All of these data have been independently investigated before with forward and inverse methods. For this study, we have chosen a very simple approach. Starting from a small ensemble of ground surface temperatures derived from the data-calibrated glacial Systems Model, we employed an 1D subsurface model based on the best available knowledge on local geology and climatic conditions. The synthetic borehole temperature profiles derived are then compared to the observations, and discussed with respect to earlier interpretations. Several problems related to this approach are discussed: (1) the imperfect representation of local subsurface conditions, e.g., the assumption of 1D structure; (2) the role of the driving climate, which will determine the conditions under ice-free conditions; (3) the well-known imperfect coupling of surface air and ground temperatures. We believe that this contribution will be the base for in-depth discussions, and could be seminal for further investigations.

  3. Site characterization and validation - monitoring of saline tracer transport by borehole radar measurements - phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the radar/saline tracer experiment was to provide data for a description on the geometry of the flow paths in the vicinity of the planned validation drift. Saline tracer was injected into zone H through borehole C2 where it intersects the zone. Radar tomography was made in three borehole sections surrounding the injection borehole (W1-C5, C1-C5, and W1-C1). Reference radar tomography measurements were made prior to injection of saline tracer and were repeated 7 times after start of injection. Saline tracer with a concentration of 2% was injected with a flow rate of 200 ml/min. The first arrival was observed in borehole D4 approximately 10 h after start of injection and the mean residence time was approximately 40 h. The distance between the injection point and the sampling point in the D-boreholes is approximately 25 m. The injected tracer only caused minor increases in the radar attenuation. The maximum increase in attenuation due to saline tracer was 25 dB/km or approximately 5% of the normal attenuation of the Stripa granite. In spite of the small changes in amplitude the difference tomograms displayed consistent anomalies both with respect to location and evaluation with time. The difference tomograms showed a nonuniform spread of tracer with time. The tracer appears to follow a few preferred flow paths where some of these paths are linked to the intersection of two minor features (fractures or fracture zones) intersecting zone H. Tracer was also observed to be transported through these zones out of zone H. Radar difference tomography together with saline tracer injection has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing the groundwater flow system through fractured rocks. (au)

  4. Borehole radar survey at the granite quarry mine, Pocheon, Kyounggi province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Seong Jun; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il; Shin, In Chul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Borehole radar survey in combination with the reflection and tomography methods was conducted at the Donga granite quarry mine of Pocheon area in Kyounggi province. The purpose of radar survey in quarry mine is to delineate the inhomogeneities including fractures and to estimate the freshness of rock. 20 MHz was adopted as the central frequency for the radar reflection and tomography surveys for the longer distance of penetration. The reflection survey using the direction finding antenna was also conducted to get the information on the spatial orientation of reflectors. Besides the various kinds of radar borehole survey, two surface geophysical methods, dipole-dipole resistivity survey and ground penetrating radar, were also applied to delineate the hidden parts of geological structures which was confirmed by geological mapping. The reflection data processing package, RADPRO ver. 2.2, developed continuously through in this study, was used to process the borehole reflection radar data. The new programs to process radar reflection data using directional antenna were devised and used to calculate and image the orientation of reflectors. The major dip angle of fractured zones were determined from the radar reflection images. With the aid of direction finding antenna and the newly developed algorithm to image the orientation of reflectors, it was possible to get the three dimensional attitudes of reflectors. Detailed interpretation results of the surveyed area are included in this report. Through the interpretation of borehole reflection data using dipole and direction finding antenna, we could determine the orientation of the major fractured zone, the boundary of two mining areas. Many of hidden inhomogeneities were found by borehole radar methods. By the image of direction finding antenna, it was confirmed that nearly all of them were located at the outside of the planned mining area or were situated very deeply. Therefore, the surveyed area consists of very fresh and

  5. Drilling of deep boreholes and associated geological investigations. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for the final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 metres in the winter of 1984. The choice of drilling method and equipment depends on the geological circumstances and the target of the investigation. The most common drilling methods used with the investigations of nuclear waste disposal are diamond core drilling and percussion drilling. The Precambrian bedrock outcropping in Finland exists also in Sweden and Canada, where deep boreholes have been done down to more than 1000 metres using diamond core drilling. This method can be also used in Finland and equipment for the drilling are available. One of the main targets of the investigation is to clarify the true strike and dip of fractures and other discontinuities. The methods used abroad are taking of oriented cores, borehole television survey and geophysical measurements. TV-survey and geophysical methods seem to be most favourable in deep boreholes. Also the accurate position (inclination, bearing) of the borehole is essential to know and many techniques are used for measuring of it. Investigations performed on the core samples include core logging and laboratory tests. For the core logging there is no uniform practice concerning the nuclear waste investigations. Different counries use their own classifications. All of these, however, are based on the petrography and fracture properties of the rock samples. Laboratory tests (petrographical and rock mechanical tests) are generally performed according to the recommendations of international standards. The large volumes of data obtained during investigations require computer techniques which allow more comprehensive collection, storage and processing of data. This kind of systems are already used in Sweden and Canada, for instance, and they could be utilize in Finland

  6. Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS) Updated User’s Guide for Web-based Data Access and Export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-09-24

    The Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS) is a prototype web-based graphical user interface (GUI) for viewing and downloading borehole geologic data. The HBGIS is being developed as part of the Remediation Decision Support function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project, managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington. Recent efforts have focused on improving the functionality of the HBGIS website in order to allow more efficient access and exportation of available data in HBGIS. Users will benefit from enhancements such as a dynamic browsing, user-driven forms, and multi-select options for selecting borehole geologic data for export. The need for translating borehole geologic data into electronic form within the HBGIS continues to increase, and efforts to populate the database continue at an increasing rate. These new web-based tools should help the end user quickly visualize what data are available in HBGIS, select from among these data, and download the borehole geologic data into a consistent and reproducible tabular form. This revised user’s guide supersedes the previous user’s guide (PNNL-15362) for viewing and downloading data from HBGIS. It contains an updated data dictionary for tables and fields containing borehole geologic data as well as instructions for viewing and downloading borehole geologic data.

  7. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196 and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2004-09-01

    This report contains geologic, geochemical, and physical characterization data collected on sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. The measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared to a nearby borehole 299-W10-196 placed through the plume from the 1973 T-106 tank leak. This report also presents the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the T Tank Farm. Sediment samples were characterized for: moisture content, gamma-emission radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, radionuclide and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Overall, our analyses showed that common ion exchange is a key mechanism that influences the distribution of contaminants within that portion of the vadose zone affected by tank liquor. We observed slight elevated pH values in samples from borehole C4104. The sediments from the three boreholes, C4104, C4105, and 299-W10-196 do show that sodium-, nitrate-, and sulfate-dominated fluids are present below tank T-106 and have formed a salt plume. The fluids are more dilute than tank fluids observed below tanks at the SX and BX Tank Farms and slightly less than those from the most saline porewater found in contaminated TX tank farm sediments. The boreholes could not penetrate below the gravel-rich strata of the Ringold Formation Wooded Island member (Rwi) (refusal was met at about 130 ft bgs); therefore, we could not identify the maximum vertical penetration of the tank related plumes. The moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, and technetium-99 profiles versus depth in the three

  8. Conductive fracture mapping. A study on the correlation between borehole TV- and radar images and difference flow logging results in borehole KLX02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A.; Ludvigson, Jan-Erik [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This study presents an attempt to correlate images from borehole-TV (BIPS) and borehole radar with interpreted flow anomalies from Difference Flow Meter logging (DIFF). The measurements were performed in the interval 200-400 m in borehole KLX02 at Laxemar. In total, 59 flow anomalies were interpreted by the DIFF-log in this borehole interval. However, 14 flow anomalies were below the rigorous measurement limit for the actual flow meter and are thus regarded as uncertain. In total, 261 features were primarily interpreted by the BIPS-characterization in the borehole interval 200-400 m but only 12 radar reflectors. The low number of interpreted radar reflectors most likely depends on the low frequency of the antenna used in this case which gave a poor depth resolution. The total number of fractures recorded by the core mapping in this interval was 374 (279 in the rock together with 95 fractures in interpreted crush zones). Prior to the correlation analysis it was necessary to adjust the length scales of the BIPS-measurements relative to the length scale of the Difference Flow logging due to non-linear stretching of logging cables etc to achieve the necessary resolution of the depth scale.This adjustment was done by comparing the distances between clearly identified single features in the BIPS-images with the corresponding distances between clearly identified flow anomalies. The BIPS-measurements consist of 5 independent logging sequences in the studied borehole interval, which resulted in 'jumps' when comparing the non-conform length scales of the different sequences. All of the 59 flow anomalies could be correlated (matched) with BIPS-features with varying degree of certainty. A majority of the correlated BIPS-features was classified as open fractures or fractures with cavities. Most of the flow anomalies below the measurement limit were correlated to veins in the rock. In the correlation between borehole radar reflectors and BIPS-features, the calculated

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR DYNAMIC INITIAL SHOCK PARAMETERS OF COUPLING CHARGE ON BOREHOLE WALL UNDER THE ACTION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪芝芳; 李玉民

    1996-01-01

    According to detonation theory and hydrodynamic principle, a physical model has been set up in this paper. Based on the model a methodology for calculating dynamic initial shock parameters such as shock pressure p,,, shock wave velosity Dm etc. of coupling charge on borehole wall has ben developed. The shock parameters have been calculated when high explosives works on granite, limestone and marble respectively. The magnitude of every parameter on borehole wall has been obtained from ignited dot to the end of borehole along axial direction. Some important conclusions are also gained.

  10. A COMPARISON BETWEEN ZERO-OFFSET AND VERTICAL RADAR PROFILING GPR TECHNIQUES WITH EMPHASIS ON PROBLEMATIC BOREHOLE EFFECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Vignoli, Giulio; Cassiani, Giorgio;

    -filled borehole within a higher permittivity surrounding soil. This event has a velocity intermediate between the soil and air speed values, and interferes with the picking of first arrivals in the VRP mode. The numerical simulations are performed with different borehole diameters, confirming that the velocity...... propagates from source to receiver, through the unsaturated zone. Once the borehole effects are accounted for, the comparison between the ZOP and VRP permittivity profiles is reasonable and reveals the different resolution of these techniques, focusing on the information that can be inferred for hydrological...

  11. Protecting coastal abstraction boreholes from seawater intrusion using self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Malcolm; Butler, Adrian; MacAllister, Donald John; Vinogradov, Jan; Ijioma, Amadi; Jackson, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether the presence and transport of seawater can influence self-potentials (SPs) measured within coastal groundwater boreholes, with a view to using SP monitoring as part of an early warning system for saline intrusion. SP data were collected over a period of 18 months from a coastal groundwater borehole in the fractured Chalk of England. Spectral analysis of the results shows semi-diurnal fluctuations that are several orders of magnitude higher than those observed from monitoring of the Chalk more than 60 km inland, indicating a strong influence from oceanic tides. Hydrodynamic and geoelectric modelling of the coastal aquifer suggests that observed pressure changes (giving rise to the streaming potential) are not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the observed SP fluctuations. Simulation of the exclusion-diffusion potential, produced by changes in concentration across the saline front, is required to match the SP data from the borehole, despite the front being located some distance away. In late summer of 2013 and 2014, seawater intrusion occurred in the coastal monitoring borehole. When referenced to the shallowest borehole electrode, there was a characteristic increase in SP within the array, several days before any measurable increase in salinity. The size of this precursor increased steadily with depth, typically reaching values close to 0.3 mV in the deepest electrode. Numerical modelling suggests that the exclusion-diffusion potential can explain the magnitude of the precursor, but that the polarity of the change in SP cannot be replicated assuming a homogeneous aquifer. Small-scale models of idealised Chalk blocks were used to simulate the effects of discrete fractures on the distribution of SP. Initial results suggest that comparatively large reductions in voltage can develop in the matrix ahead of the front, in conjunction with a reduced or absent precursor in the vicinity of a fracture. Geophysical logging indicates the presence of a

  12. Microbial diversity within Juan de Fuca ridge basement fluids sampled from oceanic borehole observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappé, M.

    2012-12-01

    Three generations of sampling and instrumentation platforms known as Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories affixed to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes are providing unrivaled access to fluids originating from 1.2-3.5 million-years (Myr) old basaltic crust of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Borehole fluid samples obtained via a custom seafloor fluid pumping and sampling system coupled to CORK continuous fluid delivery lines are yielding critical insights into the biogeochemistry and nature of microbial life inhabiting the sediment-covered basement environment. Direct microscopic enumeration revealed microbial cell abundances that are 2-41% of overlying bottom seawater. Snapshots of basement fluid microbial diversity and community structure have been obtained through small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene cloning and sequencing from five boreholes that access a range of basement ages and temperatures at the sediment-basement interface. SSU rRNA gene clones were derived from four different CORK installations (1026B, 1301A, 1362A, and 1362B) accessing relatively warmer (65°C) and older (3.5 Myr) ridge flank, and one location (1025C) accessing relatively cooler (39°C) and younger (1.2 Myr) ridge flank, revealing that warmer basement fluids had higher microbial diversity. A sampling time-series collected from borehole 1301A has revealed a microbial community that is temporally variable, with the dominant lineages changing between years. Each of the five boreholes sampled contained a unique microbial assemblage, however, common members are found from both cultivated and uncultivated lineages within the archaeal and bacterial domains, including meso- and thermophilic microbial lineages involved with sulfur cycling (e.g Thiomicrospira, Sulfurimonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus). In addition, borehole fluid environmental gene clones were also closely related to uncultivated lineages

  13. Drilling and the associated borehole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are boreholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes will mostly aim to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular at identifying water conductive fractured zones and at providing information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH3 was drilled in September 2005. The length of the borehole is 145.04 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orientate core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the borehole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the borehole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increments. Water loss tests (Lugeon tests) and a pressure build-up test were used to give background information for the grouting design. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the pilot hole PH3 included the field work of all the surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. One of the objectives of the

  14. Permanent installation of fibre-optic DTS cables in boreholes for temperature monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninges, J.; Schrötter, J.; Erbas, K.; Böde, S.; Huenges, E.

    2003-04-01

    Temperature measurements have become an important tool for the monitoring of dynamic processes in the subsurface both in academia and industry. An innovative experimental design for the monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of temperature along boreholes was developed and successfully applied under extreme arctic conditions during a field experiment, which was carried out within the framework of the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program*. Three 40 m spaced, 1200 m deep wells were equipped with permanent fibre-optic sensor cables and the variation of temperature was measured deploying the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology. The used DTS system enables the simultaneous online registration of temperature profiles along the three boreholes with a maximum spatial resolution of 0.25 m and a minimum sampling interval of 7 sec. After an individual calibration of the fibre-optic sensor cables a resolution of 0.3 °C of the measured temperature data could be achieved. A special feature of the experiment design is the installation of the sensor cables outside the borehole casing. The fibre-optic cables were attached to the outer side of the casing at every connector within intervals of approx. 12 m with cable clamps. The clamps enable a defined positioning of the cable around the perimeter of the casing and are protecting the cable from mechanical damage during installation. After completion the sensor cables are located in the cement annulus between casing and borehole wall. As an example of the performance of the described temperature logging technology data from the reaming of a 300 m thick cement plug inside the borehole is displayed, offering a unique opportunity to explore thermal processes in the near vicinity of a borehole during drilling. The temperature changes image the progress of the drill bit as well as changes in the mud circulation. Furthermore, local effects can be observed that relate to local thermal properties and technical

  15. Three dimensional numerical modeling for investigation of fracture zone filled with water by borehole radar; Borehole radar ni yoru gansui hasaitai kenshutsu no sanjigen suchi modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hasegawa, K.; Yabuuchi, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Water bearing fracture zones existing in rock mass largely influence the underground water flow and dynamic property of rock mass. The detailed survey of the location and size of water bearing fracture zones is an important task in the fields such as civil engineering, environment and disaster prevention. Electromagnetic waves of high frequency zones can be grasped as a wave phenomenon, and the record obtained in the actual measurement is wave forms of time series. In the exploration using borehole radar, this water bearing fracture zone becomes the reflection surface, and also becomes a factor of damping in the transmitted wave. By examining changes which these give to the observed wave forms, therefore, water bearing fracture zones can be detected. This study made three dimensional numerical modeling using the time domain finite difference method, and obtained the same output as the observed wave form obtained using borehole radar. By using this program and changing each of the parameters such as frequency and resistivity in the homogeneous medium, changes of the wave forms were observed. Further, examples were shown of modeling of detection of water bearing fracture zones. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the TX Tank Farm: Boreholes C3830, C3831, C3832 and RCRA Borehole 299-W10-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28,4.43, and 4.59. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in April 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C3830, C3831, and C3832 in the TX Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-10-27 installed northeast of the TY Tank Farm.

  17. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.7 and 4.25. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2006. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at the Hanford Site. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. This report also presents the interpretation of data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the WMA A-AX, C, and U field investigation report in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.

  18. Influence of degree of saturation on the borehole sealing performance of an expansive cement grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength measures of expansive cement grout borehole plugs cast in welded tuff cylinders is investigated as a function of the degree of saturation of the plugged rock cylinder and of borehole size. Details on experimental procedure regarding rock cylinder and cement grout preparation, sample curing conditions, experimental apparatus, sample loading, mechanical characterization of the rock, and cement grout, along with procedures for the determination of the sample saturation assuming uniform saturation, and strength measures are presented. The extrapolated axial strengths to a plug radius of 100 mm show that the more saturated samples show higher strengths as compared to the dry samples. The strength measures decrease with increasing plug radius, obeying a power law

  19. A successful borehole drilled by cryogenic drilling in an arid, unconsolidated soil with boulders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, P.; Simon, R.D.; Cooper, G.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1997-07-01

    An 80 foot deep borehole was drilled using a novel cryogenic drilling method. The freeze while drilling technique stabilizes the borehole wall while drilling by using conventional air rotary methods but with low temperature nitrogen gas (as cold as {minus}196 C) as the drilling fluid. The location of the field test was a semi-arid alluvial unconsolidated sedimentary formation at the Aerojet, Inc. site in Rancho Cordova, California. The geology was a sandy soil matrix containing cobbles and boulders. The test goal was to drill to 100 feet (30 m), but the test was terminated at 80 feet due to a failure of the swivel shaft and drill bit resulting from the very rough drilling conditions. No safety, technical, or operational problems were encountered that could prevent cryogenic drilling from becoming a standard technique for drilling in unstable near-surface formations.

  20. Finite element modeling of borehole heat exchanger systems. Part 2. Numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diersch, H.-J. G.; Bauer, D.; Heidemann, W.; Rühaak, W.; Schätzl, P.

    2011-08-01

    Single borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and arrays of BHE are modeled by using the finite element method. Applying BHE in regional discretizations optimal conditions of mesh spacing around singular BHE nodes are derived. Optimal meshes have shown superior to such discretizations which are either too fine or too coarse. The numerical methods are benchmarked against analytical and numerical reference solutions. Practical application to a borehole thermal energy store (BTES) consisting of 80 BHE is given for the real-site BTES Crailsheim, Germany. The simulations are controlled by the specifically developed FEFLOW-TRNSYS coupling module. Scenarios indicate the effect of the groundwater flow regime on efficiency and reliability of the subsurface heat storage system.

  1. Borehole data package for well 699-37-47A, PUREX Plant Cribs, CY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new groundwater monitoring well (699-37-47A) was installed in 1996 as a downgradient well near the PUREX Plant Cribs Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility at Hanford. This document provides data from the well drilling and construction operations, as well as data from subsequent characterization of groundwater and sediment samples collected during the drilling process. The data include: well construction documentation, geologist's borehole logs, results of laboratory analysis of groundwater samples collected during drilling and of physical tests conducted on sediment samples collected during drilling, borehole geophysics, and results of aquifer testing including slug tests and flowmeter analysis. This well (699-37-47A) was constructed in support of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-24-00H and interim milestone M-24-35 (Ecology et al. 1994), and was funded under Project W-152

  2. Full 3-D numerical modeling of borehole electric image logging and the evaluation model of fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A full 3-D finite element method numerical modeling program is written based on the principle and technical specification of borehole electric image well logging tool. The response of well logging is computed in the formation media model with a single fracture. The effect of changing fracture aperture and resistivity ratio to the logging response is discussed. The identification ability for two parallel fractures is also present. A quantitative evaluation formula of fracture aperture from borehole electric image logging data is set up. A case study of the model well is done to verify the accuracy of the for-mula. The result indicates that the formula is more accurate than the foreign one.

  3. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-6: Data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results are presented for bulk and mechanical properties measurements on specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-6 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Measurements have been performed on four thermal/mechanical units, TCw, PTn, TSw1 and TSw2. On each specimen the following bulk properties have been reported: dry bulk density, saturated bulk density, average grain density, and porosity. Unconfined compression to failure, confined compression to failure, and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on selected specimens recovered from the borehole. In addition, compressional and shear wave velocities were measured on specimens designated for unconfined compression and confined compression experiments. Measurements were conducted at room temperature on nominally water saturated specimens; however, some specimens of PTn were tested in a room dry condition. The nominal strain rate for the fracture experiments was 10-5 s -1

  4. New technologies in the drilling of gas boreholes; Neue Techniken bei der Erstellung von Gasbohrloechern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achilles, P. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Abt. TB3-Bergtechnik; Korf, P. [DSK Anthrazit Ibbenbueren GmbH, Ibbenbueren (Germany)

    2001-04-12

    With the requirements on the high-output workings the need for further acceleration of the drilling of gas boreholes has also become a priority. In the past gas boreholes in the floor and roof were drilled exclusively by the rotary drilling method, which conceals many disadvantages. In a research and development project gas drilling technology was to be adapted to the current rates of advance. (orig.) [German] Mit den Anforderungen an die heutigen Hochleistungsabbaubetriebe ist auch die Notwendigkeit einer weiteren Beschleunigung der Gasbohrarbeiten vordringlich geworden. Gasbohrloecher im Liegenden und Hangenden wurden in der Vergangenheit ausschliesslich mit dem drehenden Bohrverfahren hergestellt, welches jedoch aus heutiger Sicht eine Vielzahl von Nachteilen birgt. Im Rahmen eines F+E-Programms sollte die Gasbohrtechnik mit Hilfe der Schlagbohrtechnik den heutigen Abbaugeschwindigkeiten angepasst werden. (orig.)

  5. Elastic waves along a cylindrical borehole in a poroelastic medium saturated by two immiscible fluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Arora; S K Tomar

    2007-06-01

    The propagation of elastic waves along a cylindrical borehole filled with/without liquid and embedded in an infinite porous medium saturated by two immiscible fluids has been studied. The theory of porous media saturated by two immiscible fluids developed by Tuncay and Corapcioglu (1997) is employed. Frequency equations determining the phase velocity of axial symmetric waves are obtained. It is found that the surface waves along cylindrical borehole are dispersive. The dispersion equation of Rayleigh-type surface waves along the boundary of a poroelastic solid half-space saturated by two immiscible fluids is also obtained. Some special cases have been deduced and the dispersion curves are obtained numerically for a peculiar model. It is found that the density of fluids affects the Rayleigh mode.

  6. Simulation of density curve for slim borehole using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda, E-mail: scorrea@nuclear.ufrj.b [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste (CCMAT/UEZO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Inaya C.B., E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ) Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro; Rocha, Paula L.F., E-mail: ferrucio@acd.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2010-07-01

    Borehole logging for formation density has been an important geophysical measurement in oil industry. For calibration of the Gamma Ray nuclear logging tool, numerous rock models of different lithology and densities are necessary. However, the full success of this calibration process is determined by a reliable benchmark, where the complete and precise chemical composition of the standards is necessary. Simulations using the Monte Carlo MCNP have been widely employed in well logging application once it serves as a low-cost substitute for experimental test pits, as well as a means for obtaining data that are difficult to obtain experimentally. Considering this, the purpose of this work is to use the code MCNP to obtain density curves for slim boreholes using Gamma Ray logging tools. For this, a Slim Density Gamma Probe, named TRISOND{sup R}, and a 100 mCi Cs-137 gamma source has been modeled with the new version of MCNP code MCNPX. (author)

  7. Accuracy and borehole influences in pulsed neutron gamma density logging while drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Huawei [College of Geo-Resources and Information, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Sun Jianmeng [College of Geo-Resources and Information, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Wang Jiaxin [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Gardner, Robin P., E-mail: gardner@ncsu.edu [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A new pulsed neutron gamma density (NGD) logging has been developed to replace radioactive chemical sources in oil logging tools. The present paper describes studies of near and far density measurement accuracy of NGD logging at two spacings and the borehole influences using Monte-Carlo simulation. The results show that the accuracy of near density is not as good as far density. It is difficult to correct this for borehole effects by using conventional methods because both near and far density measurement is significantly sensitive to standoffs and mud properties. - Highlights: > Monte Carlo evaluation of pulsed neutron gamma-ray density tools. > Results indicate sensitivity of the tool to standoff and mudcake properties. > Accuracy of far spaced detector is better than near spaced.

  8. Hydrogeological characterisation using cross-borehole ground penetration radar and electrical resistivity tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2007-01-01

    Water and solute transport through the unsaturated zone have a major quantitative impact on the high-quality groundwater resources available for exploitation. The protection of these valuable resources requires an accurate understanding of the unsaturated processes in order to produce reliable...... decision tools. This Ph.D. thesis was initiated with the objective of determining unsaturated hydraulic parameters at a scale more appropriate than traditional laboratory derived parameterization. Unsaturated flow and transport processes were therefore studied at a field site in Denmark. The field site...... was characterized by ~30 m thick unsaturated zone consisting mainly of sands of varying coarseness. Following an instrumentation of 16 boreholes two geophysical methods (cross-borehole ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography) were applied during natural precipitation and forced infiltration...

  9. Visual texture for automated characterisation of geological features in borehole televiewer imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sit, Waleed; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Marelli, Matteo; Al-Ataby, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Detailed characterisation of the structure of subsurface fractures is greatly facilitated by digital borehole logging instruments, the interpretation of which is typically time-consuming and labour-intensive. Despite recent advances towards autonomy and automation, the final interpretation remains heavily dependent on the skill, experience, alertness and consistency of a human operator. Existing computational tools fail to detect layers between rocks that do not exhibit distinct fracture boundaries, and often struggle characterising cross-cutting layers and partial fractures. This paper presents a novel approach to the characterisation of planar rock discontinuities from digital images of borehole logs. Multi-resolution texture segmentation and pattern recognition techniques utilising Gabor filters are combined with an iterative adaptation of the Hough transform to enable non-distinct, partial, distorted and steep fractures and layers to be accurately identified and characterised in a fully automated fashion. This approach has successfully detected fractures and layers with high detection accuracy and at a relatively low computational cost.

  10. New borehole-derived results on temperatures at the base of the Fennoscandian ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Volker; Vogt, Christian; Mottaghy, Darius; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Tarasov, Lev

    2014-05-01

    During the last few years, a data base of deep boreholes (>1000 m )in the area of the Fennoscandian ice sheet has been collected, including boreholes from Russia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Norway. All of these are supposed to have recorded local basal ice conditions during the last glacial cycle. However, at each of these sites we are confronted with particular problems of interpretation. Here, we will concentrate on two very deep boreholes, namely the Outokumpu ICDP borehole (OKU, ≡2500 m) and a set of boreholes of intermediate depth (up to 1300 m) in the immediate meighborhood of the Kola superdeep borehole SG3. In the first case, OKU, we have developed a strategy combining the use of a traditional variational inversion of thye Tikhonov type, with a MCMC approach for the exploration of the associated uncertainty. A wide distribution around the result of the variational approach was chosen, with a time dependent temporal correlation length reflecting the loss of resolution back in time. The results fit very well with region independent results from different proxies, multi-proxy reconstructions, and instrumental data. They also are consistent with surface temperatures derived from recent calibrated ice sheet models. The SAT-GST offset independently derived from shallow borehole observations in the area was a crucial step to obtain theses results. The second case, SG3, has been studied a long time, and no final result was obtained regarding the question whether the observed heat flow density profile is caused by paleoclimate, fluid flow, or both. Earlier studies, as well as forward modelling using the results of the aforementioned ice sheet model indicate that paleoclimate alone can not explain the observations. We tested the model derived from the set of shallow boreholes against the temperature log from the main superdeep SG3, which, in contrast to these, transects the main high-permeability zone. The comparison led to a favorable results, and is also

  11. Borehole seismic in crystalline environment at the COSC-project in Central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Almqvist, Bjarne; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Buske, Stefan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2016-04-01

    As support for the COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), an extensive seismic survey took place during September and October 2014 in and around the newly drilled 2.5 km deep COSC-1 borehole. The main aim of the COSC project is to better understand orogenic processes in past and recently active mountain belts. For this, the Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved case of Paleozoic collision of the Laurentia and Baltica continental plates. Surface geology and geophysical data provide knowledge about the geometry of the Caledonian structure. The reflectivity geometry of the upper crust was imaged by regional seismic data and the resistivity structure by magnetotelluric methods. The crustal model was refined by seismic pre-site surveys in 2010 and 2011 to define the exact position of the first borehole, COSC-1. The completely cored COSC-1 borehole was drilled in Central Sweden through the Seve Nappe Complex, a part of the Middle Allochthon of the Scandinavian Caledonides that comprises units originating from the outer margin of Baltica. The upper 2350 m consist of alternating layers of highly strained felsic and calc-silicate gneisses and amphibolites. Below 1710 m the mylonite content increases successively and indicates a high strain zone of at least 800 m thickness. At ca. 2350 m, the borehole leaves the Seve Nappe Complex and enters underlying mylonitised lower grade metasedimentary units of unknown tectonostratigraphic position. The seismic survey consisted of three parts: a limited 3D-survey, a high resolution zero-offset VSP (vertical seismic profile) and a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP (MSP) experiment with sources and receivers along three surface profiles and receivers at seven different depth levels of the borehole. For the zero-offset VSP (ZVSP) a hydraulic hammer source was used and activated over a period of 20 s as a sequence of impacts with increasing hit frequency. The wave field was recorded with 3

  12. Preliminary Borehole Disposal In Medium Flow Hydrogeological Condition Using IAEA Screening Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screening tool developed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been used to provide means of improving the capacity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in assessing the potential sites for Borehole Disposal for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. It allows the isolation provided by the capsule and disposal container to be evaluated. In addition, it has a conservative model of radionuclide transport with no retardation of radionuclide. Hence, rapid decisions can be made by providing an early indication of the potential suitability of sites based on their hydro-chemical characteristics. The objective of this paper is to identify and determine the types and radionuclide activities of inventory that can be disposed in the borehole. The results of the analysis show the volume of gas doses occur from the disposal and time taken for the cement to be corroded. (author)

  13. Localization and spatial orientation of planar discontinuities in the crystalline - results from the borehole Boettstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boettstein-well showed that all groundwater-flow systems in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland are - in one way or the other - linked to planar discontinuities (fractures, shear zones or dykes). The location and spatial orientation of such discontinuities is therefore an important prerequisite for the safety analysis of a future repository. Today the acquisition of structural data in a borehole no longer depends on drillcores alone, the autcrops of fractures and other discontinuities can be detected on the borehole wall, if modern wireline imaging systems are used. This article compares the performance of these tools in a crystalline environment and tries to assess the respective merits of core data on the one hand and geophysical records on the other. (author)

  14. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Thermal structure of the deep Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiner, Niels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available nformation on temperature, temperature gradients, thermal conductivity and heat flow from the c. 3.5 km deep Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands is presented and analysed. The upper 2450 m of the drilled sequence consists of thick tholeiitic basalt flows and the deeper parts of hyaloclastites and thin beds of basalt. Temperature data originate from high precision temperature logging a long time after drilling to a depth of 2175 m (the original Lopra-1 borehole and from commercial temperature logs measured a short time after drilling to a depth of 3430 m (Lopra-1/1A. The high-precision temperature log determines accurately levels of inflow of groundwater to the borehole and significantthermal disturbances to a depth of c. 1250 m. Below 1300 m, no significant disturbances are seen and interval temperature gradients for large depth intervals show only small variations between 28 and 33°C/km. The mean least-squares gradient for the depth interval of 1400–3430 m is 31.4°C/ km. In clear contrast to these overall very homogeneous, large-interval, mean temperature gradients, great local variability, between gradients of 20–25°C/km and 45°C/km, was observed between about 1300 and 2175 m (maximum depth of the high-resolution temperature log. These gradient variations are interpreted to be due to thermal conductivity variations and to reflect varying secondary mineralisation and mineral alterations.A preliminary analysis of the Lopra-1/1A temperature–depth function in terms of long-term palaeoclimatic signals indicates subsurface temperatures below about 1300 m to be in equilibrium with mean surface temperatures significantly below zero during the last glacial period. A subsequent temperature increase of 12–16°C occurred at around the termination of the last glaciation. The measured temperatures (some after correction and the thermal regime below 1300 m seem to represent conductive equilibrium conditions without significant disturbances

  15. Correction of steel casing effect for density log using numerical and experimental methods in the slim borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun; Kim, Jongman [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Byeongho [Heesong Geotek Co. Ltd., B-120 UrymLionsValley A-Building, 146-8 Sangdaewondong, Chungwongu, Seongnam City, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea, 462-807 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-10

    Density log is widely applied for a variety of fields such as the petroleum exploration, mineral exploration, and geotechnical survey. The logging condition of density log is normally open holes but there are frequently cased boreholes. The primary calibration curve by slim hole logging manufacturer is normally the calibration curves for the variation of borehole diameter. In this study, we have performed the correction of steel casing effects using numerical and experimental methods. We have performed numerical modeling using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code based on Monte Carlo method, and field experimental method from open and cased hole log. In this study, we used the FDGS (Formation Density Gamma Sonde) for slim borehole with a 100 mCi 137Cs source, three inch borehole and steel casing. The casing effect between numerical and experimental method is well matched.

  16. Drilling and completion specifications for Wanapum (Type W) and Grande Ronde (Type GR) multilevel piezometer nest boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanapum (Type W) and Grande Ronde (Type GR) multilevel piezometer boreholes will provide information on hydraulic heads in seven horizons adjacent to the reference repository location. In addition, the boreholes will be used to determine horizontal and vertical flow rates, and identify possible geologic structures.. This specification includes details for drilling, piezometer design, hydrologic testing, and hydrochemical sampling of the boreholes. It includes drilling requirements, design, and installation procedures for the Type W and Type GR-series piezometer nests, intervals selected for head monitoring and schedules for drilling and piezometer installation. Specific drilling and piezometer installation specifications for the first two boreholes in this series, DC-23W and DC-23GR, are also included. 5 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Storage of nuclear waste in very deep boreholes: Feasibility study and assessment of economic potential. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I concentrates on quality assurance-related questions such as geological prerequisities at great depth. Part II concentrates on the engineering aspects of the very deep borehole concept (VDH). (orig.)

  18. Heat transfer in borehole heat exchangers and the contribution of groundwater flow

    OpenAIRE

    Liuzzo Scorpo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of geothermal heat by ground source heat pumps is presently growing throughout Europe and the world. In Italy, at the end of 2010, borehole heat exchangers covered most of the 30% of the total energy used for space conditioning, showing an increase of 50%compared to 2005. The forecasts for 2015 suggest a further increase in the direct uses of the geothermal heat exceeding 50% compared to 2010 and a corresponding increase in the geothermal energy consumption. The possibilit...

  19. Fractured bedrock investigation by using high-resolution borehole images and the Distributed Temperature Sensing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Radioti, Georgia; Delvoie, Simon; Radu, Jean-Pol; Nguyen, Frédéric; Charlier, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the fracturing of the bedrock and its possible heterogeneous distribution in situ, four boreholes equipped with double-U geothermal pipes of 100 m long were installed on the campus of the University of Liege (Liege, Belgium) over a surface area of 32 m². The bedrock, which starts at a depth approximately of 8 m, is quite fractured and consists mainly of siltstone and shale interbedded with sandstone. Different geophysical methods are applied at two different phas...

  20. A Study on the Pressure Relief Scope and the Stress Variation of Hydraulic Flushing Borehole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F.Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the variation of the pressure relief scope and the stress around hydraulic flushing borehole, the theory of coalrock damage was utilized to distinguish the interaction area of water-jet and coal-rock into the coal-rock crushing area, the water-jet pressure stagnation area, the transition area and the original stress recovery area of coal-rock. Based on the actual occurrence conditions of the coal seam, the pressure variation and relief scope around the hydraulic flushing borehole were analyzed and simulated by RFPA2D-Flow software. The results showed that a relief area with the radius of 5.0 ~ 6.0 m around the borehole formed due to the hydraulic flushing with the pressure relief of 0.038 ~ 6.545 MPa, and the maximum principal stress is 15.85 MPa with a distance of 6.8 m from the inspected hole where stress concentration appeared. After hydraulic flushing test, the diameter (441.8 ~ 1171.6 mm of the hole which can be an expression of coal crushing area size, was calculated based on the examination of the coal amount through the trial process, and it can be drawn that the pressure relief area must be larger than that of the coal-rock crushing area. Meanwhile, the measured pressures relief range(5.96 ~ 6.62 m is basically consistent with the numerical simulation result (5.0 ~ 6.0 m which verified the accuracy of the simulation analysis, according to the distance from the inspection drilling to the hydraulic flushing borehole and the decreased degree of the gas content in the inspection hole by the way of Gas Content.

  1. Gas Membrane Sensor Technique for Long Term Gas Measurements in Deep Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, M.; Erzinger, J.; Kujawa, Chr.; Co2-Sink Group

    2009-04-01

    The direct determination of the gas composition in subsurface brines in deep boreholes is necessary for the characterization of existing fluids and the monitoring of changes of reservoir gases during industrial use. The conventional methods used for this purpose were mostly expensive and sophisticated techniques and typically involve the collection of discrete samples that are transported to a laboratory for analyses. Alternatively, the presented new gas membrane sensor technique allows for a permanent collection of gas in the subsurface and the continuous conduction of the gathered gas through a special borehole cable with subsequent real time analyses at the surface. The system is easy to handle, avoids complex mechanical components and therefore reduces costs. The main component of the gas sensor is a tube-shaped membrane, together with a piezoresistive pressure and temperature transmitter and two stainless steel capillaries embedded in a borehole cable for the gas transport to the surface. A filler material prevents the membrane from collapsing inwardly under pressures exceeding 200 bars. The practicability of our method was tested by comprehensive laboratory experiments at different pressures, temperatures and salt concentrations and by comparing the results with literature data on gas permeation coefficients and activation energies gained by the conventional "time-lag" method. By taking into account the permeability coefficient for carbon dioxide in the used polydimethylsiloxan membrane, the Henry-law coefficient and the salting out effect the quantification of dissolved carbon dioxide in deep borehole brines is possible. The described method was successful applied at the scientific carbon dioxide storage test site in Ketzin, Germany. Changes in the reservoir gas composition were monitored and the breakthrough of injected carbon dioxide and krypton gas tracer into the observation well were recorded.

  2. Borehole Breakout. Bibliographic Synthesis L'ovalisation des trous de forages. Synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauer P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural borehole breakout (borehole cross-section elongation due to the fracturing and spalling of well walls has been used in recent years to determine the direction of stress in the Earth's crust. Its performances and scope of application are compared to those of other methods used in boreholes. An initial selection of information obtained by different logging tools appeared necessary to prevent any contamination of measurements by phenomena independent of deformation under stress. The principal parameters governing the amplitude and frequency of the phenomenon are reviewed. The outlook for the future of the method are examined, including the recent development of research on borehole breakout by the plastic deformation of the surrounding formations. L'ovalisation naturelle des trous de forages par fracturation et écaillage des parois du puits est utilisée, depuis quelques années, pour déterminer la direction des contraintes dans la croûte. Ses performances et son champ d'application sont comparés à ceux des autres méthodes utilisées dans les forages. Une sélection initiale de l'information fournie par les différents outils diagraphiques apparaît nécessaire, pour éviter toutes contaminations des mesures par des phénomènes indépendants de la déformation sous contraintes. Les principaux paramètres contrôlant l'ampleur et la fréquence du phénomène sont passés en revue. Enfin, les perspectives concernant l'avenir de la méthode, et parmi celles-ci le développement récent de l'étude de l'ovalisation par la déformation plastique de l'encaissant, sont examinées.

  3. Ground source energy in crystalline bedrock - increased energy extraction by using hydraulic fracturing in boreholes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramstad, Randi Kalskin

    2004-01-01

    The use of improved equipment and methodology can result in considerable reductions in the drilling costs for medium- to large sized ground source heat pump system in crystalline bedrock. The main point has been to use special techniques within hydraulic fracturing to create a larger heat exchange area in the bedrock, and thus a greater energy extraction per borehole. The energy extraction is based on circulating groundwater.Stimulation with hydraulic fracturing is a well known technique in o...

  4. The presence of Lower Miocene (Eggenburgian in borehole 575 Cetea (East of Borod Basin, NW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Petrescu

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The microfloral record evidenced in borehole 575 Cetea is very rich, consisting of 114 taxa, some of them being new species for the Tertiary of Romania. At the same time, it includes species of Eggenburgian age of the host rocks. The whole microflora assemblage suggests a forest-type vegetation developed in a warm, subtropical climate, characteristic for the Eggenburgian age of the Early Miocene. The Eggenburgian of Romania shows the same microfloral features as the Eggenburgian of Central Paratethys.

  5. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995-1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100-150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85-90 mW m-2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m-2) are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90-100 mW m-2) are also observed in the peninsular (western) part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60-70 mW m-2) are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  6. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Erkan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995–1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100–150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85–90 mW m−2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m−2 are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90–100 mW m−2 are also observed in the peninsular (western part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60–70 mW m−2 are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  7. Borehole paleoclimatology – the effect of deep lakes and "heat islands" on temperature profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Kutasov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that changes in ground surface temperatures could be caused by many non-climatic effects. In this study we propose a method based on utilization of Laplace equation with nonuniform boundary conditions. The proposed method makes possible to estimate the maximum effect of deep lakes and "heat islands" (areas of deforestation, urbanization, farming, mining and wetland drainage on the borehole temperature profiles.

  8. Borehole paleoclimatology ? the effect of deep lakes and "heat islands" on temperature profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Balobaev, V. T.; Kutasov, I. M.; L. V. Eppelbaum

    2008-01-01

    International audience It is known that changes in ground surface temperatures could be caused by many non-climatic effects. In this study we propose a method based on utilization of Laplace equation with nonuniform boundary conditions. The proposed method makes possible to estimate the maximum effect of deep lakes and "heat islands" (areas of deforestation, urbanization, farming, mining and wetland drainage) on the borehole temperature profiles.

  9. Response functions and thermal influence for various multiple borehole configurations in ground coupled heat pump systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pešl, Metka; Goričanec, Darko

    2012-01-01

    Ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) utilizes the immense renewable storage capacity of the ground as a heat source or sink to provide space heating, cooling, and domestic hot water. GCHP systems are generally comprised of watersource heat pumps and ground heat exchangers (GHEs). Consisting of closedloop of pipes buried in boreholes, ground heat exchangers (GHEs) are devised for extraction or injection of thermal energy from/into the ground. Despite the low energy and lower maintenance benefits of...

  10. The assessment of borehole cement sealing characteristics by acoustic waveform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acoustic waveform analysis has been used to provide a quantitative analysis of the effectiveness of cement grouting for sealing three adjacent boreholes drilled at Harwell, Oxon, as part of a research programme into the disposal of radioactive wastes into argillaceous formations. Results indicate that bonding at cement/casing and cement/formation interfaces would be inadequate for sealing a radioactive waste repository and the use of a backfilling material such as bentonite is advocated. (U.K.)

  11. Evidence for a little ice age and recent warming from a borehole temperature data inversion procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we apply our analytical theory, published earlier in this journal, to obtain information on the earth surface temperature history from some borehole temperature data. Compared to the results of the five different methods applied to the same temperature data, our method seems to be easier, assumption-free, and yields internally consistent results. The results suggest a cooling a few centuries ago, followed by a continuing warming up to these days, in agreement with a little ice age scenario

  12. Landfill gas monitoring at borehole wells using an autonomous environmental monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Kiernan, Breda M.; Beirne, Stephen; Fay, Cormac; Diamond, Dermot

    2008-01-01

    An autonomous environmental monitoring system(Smart Landfill) has been constructed for the quantitative measurement of the components of landfill gas found at borehole wells at the perimeter of landfill sites. The main components of landfill gas are the greenhouse gases, methane and carbon dioxide and have been monitored in the range 0-5 % volume. This monitoring system has not only been tested in the laboratory but has been deployed in multiple field trials and the data collected successf...

  13. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-08-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  14. To evaluation of fractured tectonics associated with underground nuclear cavity of 5RTK borehole at Karachaganak salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using of archive material, results of mercury measurements, seismic survey, neutron gamma-logging of the used and control-observation boreholes at Lira object, the morphology evaluation of fractured-permeable zones connected with the underground cavity formed after a peaceful nuclear test conducted in the 5RTK borehole was carried out. Preliminary solid model of fractured zones resulted from explosion in the rock block enclosing the studied underground cavity was made. (author)

  15. Acoustoelastic effects on mode waves in a fluid-filled pressurized borehole in triaxially stressed formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping'en Li; Youquan Yin; Xianyue Su

    2006-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear theory of acoustoelasticity,considering the triaxial terrestrial stress,the fluid static pressure in the borehole and the fluid nonlinear effect jointly,the dispersion curves of the monopole Stoneley wave and dipole flexural wave propagating along the borehole axis in a homogeneous isotropic formation are investigated by using the perturbation method.The relation of the sensitivity coefficient and the velocity-stress coefficient to frequency are also analyzed.The results show that variations of the phase velocity dispersion curve are mainly affected by three sensitivity coefficients related to third-order elastic constant.The borehole stress concentration causes a split of the flexural waves and an intersection of the dispersion curves of the flexural waves polarized in directions parallel and normal to the uniaxial horizontal stress direction.The stress-induced formation anisotropy is only dependent on the horizontal deviatoric terrestrial stress and independent of the horizontal mean terrestrial stress,the superimposed stress and the fluid static pressure.The horizontal terrestrial stress ratio ranging from 0 to 1 reduces the stress-induced formation anisotropy.This makes the intersection of flexural wave dispersion curves not distinguishable.The effect of the fluid nonlinearity on the dispersion curve of the mode wave is small and can be ignored.

  16. Acoustic–electromagnetic effects of tectonic movements of the crust – borehole survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Uvarov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Borehole radiophysical properties are briefly described. Borehole investigation of lithosphere acoustic-electromagnetic radiation was carried out in a seismically active region. Four main types of anomalies of acoustic-electromagnetic radiation were distinguished. They correspond to shear and bulk relaxations of tectonic stress. Stability of phase relations of acoustic and electromagnetic signals in the region of anomalies was detected that allows us to state their coherence. It was concluded that the reason of mutual coherence of acoustic and electromagnetic signals is the magnetoelastic effect of the casing pipe. A mechanism of generation of rock self-induced vibrations during tectonic stress relaxation causing acoustic-electromagnetic emission was suggested. It was concluded that "sigmoid" anomalies may correlate with excitation of eigen vibrations in a fracture cavity during brittle shear relaxation of rock tectonic stress. An explanation of the change of anomalous "sigmoid" signal frequency was given. It is considered to be the result of growth of rock fracture cavity and the decrease of tectonic stress relaxation. It was concluded that a borehole, cased in a steel pipe, together with a system of inductance coils and a hydrophone is the effective sounding sensor for acoustic fields of interior deep layers. It may be applied to investigate and to monitor the geodynamic activity, in particular, in earthquake forecasts and in monitoring of hydrocarbon deposits during their production.

  17. Poro-thermoelastic borehole stress analysis for determination of the in situ stress and rock strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Qingfeng; Ghassemi, Ahmad [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The in situ stress state and rock strength are key parameters in a number of problems concerning petroleum and geothermal reservoir development, particularly in well stimulation and optimum wellbore trajectory analyses. Inversion techniques utilized to determine the in situ stress and rock strength based on the observation of borehole failure and its analysis often assume elastic rock behavior. However, when drilling through high-pressure and high-temperature rocks, coupled poro-thermo-mechanical processes result in a time-dependent stress and pore pressure distribution around the borehole. In this work, the poro-thermoelastic effects on borehole failure are studied and their impact on wellbore stability and the estimations of the in situ maximum horizontal stress and rock strength using wellbore failure data are investigated. It is shown that coupled poro-thermo-mechanical effects influence both failure mode and potential. Also, when considering shear failure, neglecting heating and cooling effects will underestimate and overestimate rock strength, respectively. Therefore, for accurate assessment of wellbore stability and inversion of wellbore failure data, poroelastic and thermal factors should be considered. (author)

  18. Site study plan for borehole search and characterization, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site study plan describes the Borehole Search and Characterization field activities to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/Local regulatory requirements and repository program requirements. Air and ground surveys, an extensive literature search, and landowner interviews will be conducted to locate wells within and adjacent to the proposed nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County. Initially, the study will center around the planned Exploratory Shaft Facilities location and will expand outward from that location. Findings from this study may lead to preparation of a new site study plan to search suspected borehole locations, and excavate or reenter known boreholes for additional characterization or remedial action. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. The Technical Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program. Data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Site study plan for borehole search and characterization, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-22

    This site study plan describes the Borehole Search and Characterization field activities to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/Local regulatory requirements and repository program requirements. Air and ground surveys, an extensive literature search, and landowner interviews will be conducted to locate wells within and adjacent to the proposed nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County. Initially, the study will center around the planned Exploratory Shaft Facilities location and will expand outward from that location. Findings from this study may lead to preparation of a new site study plan to search suspected borehole locations, and excavate or reenter known boreholes for additional characterization or remedial action. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. The Technical Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program. Data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Research on borehole stability of shale based on seepage-stress-damage coupling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil drilling, one of the most complicated problems is borehole stability of shale. Based on the theory of continuum damage mechanics, a modified Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion according to plastic damage evolution and the seepage-stress coupling is established. Meanwhile, the damage evolution equation which is based on equivalent plastic strain and the permeability evolution equation of shale are proposed in this paper. The physical model of borehole rock for a well in China western oilfield is set up to analyze the distribution of damage, permeability, stress, plastic strain and displacement. In the calculation process, the influence of rock damage to elastic modulus, cohesion and permeability is involved by writing a subroutine for ABAQUS. The results show that the rock damage evolution has a significant effect to the plastic strain and stress in plastic zone. Different drilling fluid density will produce different damage in its value, range and type. This study improves the theory of mechanical mechanism of borehole collapse and fracture, and provides a reference for the further research of seepage-stress-chemical-damage coupling of wall rock.

  1. Geostatistical methods for rock mass quality prediction using borehole and geophysical survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Rubin, Y.; Sege, J. E.; Li, X.; Hehua, Z.

    2015-12-01

    For long, deep tunnels, the number of geotechnical borehole investigations during the preconstruction stage is generally limited. Yet tunnels are often constructed in geological structures with complex geometries, and in which the rock mass is fragmented from past structural deformations. Tunnel Geology Prediction (TGP) is a geophysical technique widely used during tunnel construction in China to ensure safety during construction and to prevent geological disasters. In this paper, geostatistical techniques were applied in order to integrate seismic velocity from TGP and borehole information into spatial predictions of RMR (Rock Mass Rating) in unexcavated areas. This approach is intended to apply conditional probability methods to transform seismic velocities to directly observed RMR values. The initial spatial distribution of RMR, inferred from the boreholes, was updated by including geophysical survey data in a co-kriging approach. The method applied to a real tunnel project shows significant improvements in rock mass quality predictions after including geophysical survey data, leading to better decision-making for construction safety design.

  2. High-resolution seismic exploration methods for boreholes and tunnels: experiments, results and test site design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, R.; Harms, U.; Jaksch, K.; Krüger, K.

    2012-12-01

    While surface to ground seismic exploration methods are well known, the utilization of seismic waves for underground surveying is less developed. The major challenge in subsurface seismics is the spatial ambiguity of the recorded wave field due to limited aperture of seismic source and receiver survey geometry. We developed novel imaging techniques and the appropriate measurement systems like phased array borehole sources for directional enhancement of seismic wave energy. Different procedures such as 3-component Kirchhoff-Migration and Fresnel-Volume-Migration were tested and improved to enhance the spatial resolution. The goal of these new approaches is to advance instruments for the detection of small-scale tectonic features or lithological changes in boreholes and tunnels. The key component for the experiments was the setup of our underground lab 150 m below surface (education and research mine Reiche Zeche, TU Freiberg, SE Germany). Surrounded by three galleries, the site comprises a block of homogeneous high-grade gneisses of about 50 m width and 100 m length ensuring constant environmental conditions. Along the galleries thirty 3-component geophones are anchored 1-2 m deep with a distance of 4-9 m from each other. Within this test site, two horizontal 8 ½" boreholes (20 and 30 m long) as well as a vertical hole (70 m depth) allow for 3D nearfield seismic experiments for high-resolution exploration and monitoring of geological structures.

  3. A comparative study of metal contamination in soil using the borehole method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, T L; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Shahadat, Mohammad; Wong, Y S; Syakir, Muhammad I; Omar, A K Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The present study deals with possible contamination of the soil by metal ions which have been affecting the environment. The concentrations of metal ions in 14 borehole samples were studied using the ICP-OES standard method. The degree of contamination was determined on the basis of single element pollution index (SEPI), combined pollution index (CPI), soil enrichment factor (SEF), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). Geo-accumulation indices and contamination factors indicated moderate to strong contaminations for eight boreholes (BL-1, BL-2, BL-6, BL-8, BL-9, BL-10, BL-12, and BL-13) while the rest were extremely contaminated. Among all the boreholes, BL-3 and BL-11 demonstrated the highest level of Cd(II) and Pb(II) which were found the most polluted sites. The level of metal contamination was also compared with other countries. The development, variation, and limitations regarding the regulations of soil and groundwater contamination can be provided as a helpful guidance for the risk assessment of metal ions in developing countries.

  4. Finite element modeling of borehole heat exchanger systems. Part 1. Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diersch, H.-J. G.; Bauer, D.; Heidemann, W.; Rühaak, W.; Schätzl, P.

    2011-08-01

    Single borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and arrays of BHE are modeled by using the finite element method. The first part of the paper derives the fundamental equations for BHE systems and their finite element representations, where the thermal exchange between the borehole components is modeled via thermal transfer relations. For this purpose improved relationships for thermal resistances and capacities of BHE are introduced. Pipe-to-grout thermal transfer possesses multiple grout points for double U-shape and single U-shape BHE to attain a more accurate modeling. The numerical solution of the final 3D problems is performed via a widely non-sequential (essentially non-iterative) coupling strategy for the BHE and porous medium discretization. Four types of vertical BHE are supported: double U-shape (2U) pipe, single U-shape (1U) pipe, coaxial pipe with annular (CXA) and centred (CXC) inlet. Two computational strategies are used: (1) The analytical BHE method based on Eskilson and Claesson's (1988) solution, (2) numerical BHE method based on Al-Khoury et al.'s (2005) solution. The second part of the paper focusses on BHE meshing aspects, the validation of BHE solutions and practical applications for borehole thermal energy store systems.

  5. Novel wireless sensor system for dynamic characterization of borehole heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Julio; Montero, Álvaro; Torres, José; Soret, Jesús; Martínez, Guillermo; García-Olcina, Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    The design and field test of a novel sensor system based in autonomous wireless sensors to measure the temperature of the heat transfer fluid along a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is presented. The system, by means of two special valves, inserts and extracts miniaturized wireless sensors inside the pipes of the borehole, which are carried by the thermal fluid. Each sensor is embedded in a small sphere of just 25 mm diameter and 8 gr weight, containing a transceiver, a microcontroller, a temperature sensor and a power supply. A wireless data processing unit transmits to the sensors the acquisition configuration before the measurements, and also downloads the temperature data measured by the sensor along its way through the BHE U-tube. This sensor system is intended to improve the conventional thermal response test (TRT) and it allows the collection of information about the thermal characteristics of the geological structure of subsurface and its influence in borehole thermal behaviour, which in turn, facilitates the implementation of TRTs in a more cost-effective and reliable way. PMID:22164005

  6. Tidal modulation of temperature oscillations monitored in borehole Yaxcopoil-1 (Yucatán, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Bodri, Louise; Safanda, Jan

    2009-05-01

    For better understanding of temperature state in the subsurface, temperature-depth logs can be suitably completed by high-resolution long-run temperature-time monitoring at selected depths. The results of temperature monitoring at three depth levels in borehole Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico (April/May 2006) proved that even when a borehole is in "fully" stabilized conditions, temperature may exhibit certain unrest resembling irregular oscillations in the order of hundredths or (in the extreme case) even first tenths of degree. Two novel methods for detection of the weak fingerprints of stable periodic components in long noisy records, namely the RQI (Recurrence Quantification Interval) analysis and the HiCum (Histograms Cumulation) were used to isolate the constituents with tidal periodicities from temperature oscillations measured in borehole Yaxcopoil-1. Both analyses revealed that temperature series contain perceptible tidal component. The field data were correlated with the simulated synthetic tides. The comparison of staked HiCum records for the theoretical gravity tide and monitored temperature shows significant positive linear correlation between both variables. There is a small lag between two signals corresponding to ~ 25 min phase difference.

  7. Novel Wireless Sensor System for Dynamic Characterization of Borehole Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo García-Olcina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The design and field test of a novel sensor system based in autonomous wireless sensors to measure the temperature of the heat transfer fluid along a borehole heat exchanger (BHE is presented. The system, by means of two specials valves, inserts and extracts miniaturized wireless sensors inside the pipes of the borehole, which are carried by the thermal fluid. Each sensor is embedded in a small sphere of just 25 mm diameter and 8 gr weight, containing a transceiver, a microcontroller, a temperature sensor and a power supply. A wireless data processing unit transmits to the sensors the acquisition configuration before the measurements, and also downloads the temperature data measured by the sensor along its way through the BHE U-tube. This sensor system is intended to improve the conventional thermal response test (TRT and it allows the collection of information about the thermal characteristics of the geological structure of subsurface and its influence in borehole thermal behaviour, which in turn, facilitates the implementation of TRTs in a more cost-effective and reliable way.

  8. Portable processor based data acquisition system for gamma-ray borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low power portable processor based data acquisition unit for gross and spectral gamma-ray logging was designed, developed and fabricated for in-situ quantitative measurement of radioactive elemental concentrations in boreholes, trenches, radioactive out crops and mines. The software incorporated in the system corrects for inter-channel contributions and does arithmetic calculations using count rates obtained for a preset time in potassium, uranium, thorium and total channels and displays the radio-elemental concentrations as well as uncorrected count rates in the channels on the front panel Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Self-test diagnostic software along with appropriate audio-visual indications alleviates the operator problem normally encountered with conventional analog count-rate meters used so far. Bore-hole logging sonde with built-in multichannel analyser is being developed to acquire gamma-ray spectrums in a bore-hole for computation of radio-elemental concentrations, uranium/thorium discrimination and for study of lithology and stratigraphic correlation. This paper describes the hardware and software features developed for the system. (author). 1 ref., 2 figs

  9. Determination of the geotechnical properties of mudrocks from geophysical logging of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geotechnical properties of mainly argillaceous strata at depth in borehole HW3 at Harwell, Oxfordshire have been determined using a variety of borehole geophysical logging techniques. The aim of this work was to assess the usefulness of such techniques for the indirect measurement of the geotechnical properties of the rocks and the subsequent bearing that such knowledge would have on the design of a site investigation programme for the deep disposal of non heat emitting radioactive waste. The borehole was logged by Seismograph Services Ltd over the interval from 165 - 551 m., whilst open and mud filled. Seven different geophysical logs were run: caliper, formation density, neutron-neutron, natural-gamma, 3D velocity, spontaneous potential, single point resistance and 16''/64'' normal resistivity. The logs that were of any use in determining geotechnical properties were the neutron-neutron, the formation density and the sonic log. It is suggested that in these types of formation the sonic log, once calibrated for the particular circumstances, could be used to provide a useful downhole strength log. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the ground surface Enthalpy balance from bedrock shallow borehole temperatures (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a quartzite outcrop in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth hourly temperature profiles from: (i the cooling periods of the frost seasons of 2000 to 2005, and (ii the warming periods of the thaw seasons of 2002–2003, 2003–2004 and 2004–2005, were studied. In this modelling approach, heat gains and losses across ground surface are considered to be the causes for the 0°C isotherm movement. A methodological approach to calculate the Enthalpy change based on the thermodynamic analysis of the ground during the cooling and warming periods is proposed. The Enthalpy change is equivalent to the heat exchange through the ground surface during each season, thus enabling to describe the interaction ground-atmosphere and providing valuable data for studies on permafrost and periglacial processes. The bedrock density is considered to be constant in the borehole and initial isothermal conditions at 0°C are assumed to run the model. The final stages correspond to the temperatures at the end of the cooling and warming periods (annual minima and maxima.

  11. Effect of multiple and delayed jet impact and penetration on concrete target borehole diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M J; Baum, D W; Kuklo, R M; Simonson, S C

    2001-01-26

    The effect of multiple and delayed jet impact and penetration on the borehole diameter in concrete targets is discussed in this paper. A first-order principle of shaped-charge jet penetration is that target hole volume is proportional to the energy deposited in the target by the jet. This principle is the basis for the relation that target borehole diameter at any depth along the penetration path is proportional to the jet energy deposited in the target at that location. Our current research shows that the 'jet energy per unit hole volume constant' for concrete can be substantially altered by the use of multiple and delayed jet impacts. It has been shown that enhanced entrance crater formation results from the simultaneous impact and penetration of three shaped-charge jets. We now demonstrate that enhanced borehole diameter is also observed by the simultaneous impact and penetration of multiple shaped-charge jets followed by the delayed impact and penetration of a single shaped-charge jet.

  12. A new capacitive borehole tiltmeter for crustal deformation measurement and its performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Liheng; Li Tao; Chen Zheng; Li Hong

    2015-01-01

    Borehole inclinometers are important observation instruments used to measure ground tilt movement and monitor crustal deformation of solid tides and geological landslide disasters. They are widely used in oil exploration, mineral resource drilling, well logging, exploration and other fields. There is potential for development of rock stress strain monitoring tools. Many types of tiltmeters have been installed, such as SQ-7, FSQ, VS and JB. However, these tiltmeters are generally installed in a deep cave to avoid the inter-ference of temperature, humidity, and human activities. With the urbanization of human society, suitable installation locations are difficult to find. To solve the problem, a two-component borehole tiltmeter, named the CBT-type tiltmeter, is proposed in this paper. It can be installed in a borehole less than 500 m deep to eliminate environmental influences. The tiltmeter is composed of two sophisticated gravitational swing and two capacitive transducers. From preliminary theory and experiment analysis, its linear correlation coefficient is higher than 0.99, its co-seismic response is rapid and its noise level is up to 10-4 arc seconds in practice.

  13. Synthesis of borehole geophysical data at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suite of borehole-geophysical logs, supported by core data, was used to describe the rock matrix and fractures in a granitic pluton near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. The site is being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, as an underground research laboratory to conduct geotechnical research and to validate predictive models as part of Canada's nuclear-fuel, waste-management program. However, the site is not planned to be used for waste disposal. Geophysical well logs were used to distinguish and correlate rock types and fractures between drill holes. Two significant fracture zones that are two of the major zones of ground-water movement at the site were identified by acoustic-televiewer logs. A new heat-pulse flowmeter provided repeatable measurements of very low-velocity, vertical flow in drill holes which enabled the identification of specific fractures that were transmitting water. Borehole gamma spectra showed that some fractures are enriched in uranium, and others may be depleted. This study demonstrates some of the advantages of synthesizing available borehole-geophysical logs at a site in fractured plutonic rocks and indicates how this information can contribute to an understanding of the geophysical conditions at the site

  14. The U-tube: A new paradigm in borehole fluid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, B. M.

    2009-10-01

    Fluid samples from deep boreholes can provide insights into subsurface physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Recovery of intact, minimally altered aliquots of subsurface fluids is required for analysis of aqueous chemistry, isotopic composition, and dissolved gases, and for microbial community characterization. Unfortunately, for many reasons, collecting geofluids poses a number of challenges, from formation contamination by drilling to maintaining integrity during recovery from depths. Not only are there substantial engineering issues in retrieval of a representative sample, but there is often the practical reality that fluid sampling is just one of many activities planned for deep boreholes. The U-tube geochemical sampling system presents a new paradigm for deep borehole fluid sampling. Because the system is small, its ability to integrate with other measurement systems and technologies opens up numerous possibilities for multifunctional integrated wellbore completions. To date, the U-tube has been successfully deployed at four different field sites, each with a different deployment modality, at depths from 260 m to 2 km. While the U-tube has proven to be highly versatile, these installations have resulted in data that provide additional insights for improving future U-tube deployments.

  15. Characterization of the microbial community in a legacy borehole in the igneous ocean crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, E. C.; Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. F.; Reid, R.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The deep subsurface continues to hold promise as a significant reservoir of the Earth's microbiota. However, the extent and nature of microbial communities in the subsurface is still uncertain. Current efforts at elucidating the scope of deep subsurface communities include development of methods for enumeration of cells and characterization of metabolic niches. These methods typically rely on bulk analysis of extracted core material or in situ enrichment studies. Legacy boreholes, such as 395A, which have been isolated from the overlying ocean and sediment, have been proposed as good model systems to study the subsurface in its native state. However, current methods for exploring these environments do not allow for real-time analysis and, in the case of molecular work which rely on dyes to produce fluorescence signals, can be challenging due to issues such as mineral auto-fluorescence and non-specific binding. The Deep Exploration Biosphere Investigative tool (DEBI-t) was developed to explore legacy boreholes and provide near real-time characterization of borehole environments. DEBI-t utilizes deep ultraviolet (224nm) excitation to induce fluorescence (280nm - 400nm) enabling detection and classification of microbes and organics in their native environment, without the need for tagging or sample processing. This capability will be discussed using results from IODP Expedition 336.

  16. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson Geophysical Services

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  17. Comparison of particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing for locating additional boreholes considering combined variance minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani-Mohammadi, Saeed; Safa, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Hadi

    2016-10-01

    One of the most important stages in complementary exploration is optimal designing the additional drilling pattern or defining the optimum number and location of additional boreholes. Quite a lot research has been carried out in this regard in which for most of the proposed algorithms, kriging variance minimization as a criterion for uncertainty assessment is defined as objective function and the problem could be solved through optimization methods. Although kriging variance implementation is known to have many advantages in objective function definition, it is not sensitive to local variability. As a result, the only factors evaluated for locating the additional boreholes are initial data configuration and variogram model parameters and the effects of local variability are omitted. In this paper, with the goal of considering the local variability in boundaries uncertainty assessment, the application of combined variance is investigated to define the objective function. Thus in order to verify the applicability of the proposed objective function, it is used to locate the additional boreholes in Esfordi phosphate mine through the implementation of metaheuristic optimization methods such as simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization. Comparison of results from the proposed objective function and conventional methods indicates that the new changes imposed on the objective function has caused the algorithm output to be sensitive to the variations of grade, domain's boundaries and the thickness of mineralization domain. The comparison between the results of different optimization algorithms proved that for the presented case the application of particle swarm optimization is more appropriate than simulated annealing.

  18. Non-linear degradation model of cement barriers in a borehole repository for disused radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharbieh, Heidar K., E-mail: heidar.gharbieh@tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Disposal Research, Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Cota, Stela, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Narrow diameter borehole facilities (a few tens of centimeters), like the BOSS concept developed by the IAEA, provide a safe and cost effective disposal option for radioactive waste and particularly disused sources. The BOSS concept (borehole disposal of sealed radioactive sources) comprises a multi-barrier system of cement grout and stainless steel components. In order to predict the long-time performance of the cement barriers as an input of a future safety assessment under the specific hydrochemical and hydrological conditions, a non-linear degradation model was developed in this work. With the assistance of the program 'PHREEQC' it describes the change of the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity with time, which also let to conclusions concerning the change of the sorption capacity of the cement grout. This work includes the theoretical approach and illustrates the non-liner degradation by means of an exemplary water composition found in the saturated zone and the dimensions of the backfill made of cement grout representing a barrier of the BOSS borehole facility. (author)

  19. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S. [Swedish Geological Co., Uppsala (Sweden)

    1991-05-01

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole.

  20. Experimental Study of Crack Initiation and Extension Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing in a Tree-Type Borehole Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure hydraulic fracturing technology in coal and coal bed methane mines can lead to roof and floor damage, and fracture initiation disorder that leads to a “blank area”, and other issues. A new method of hydraulic fracturing is proposed to increase the homogeneous permeability of coal in underground coalmines. Numerical and other simulation tests for different forms of a tree-type, branched borehole model are presented. The results show that the branched array causes cracks to initiate from the bottom of the array, and these extend along the direction of the adjacent boreholes. Generally, as the number of branched boreholes increases, the coal seam fracture network also increase, improving the distribution of the fracture network, making the fracturing effect better. The branched boreholes appear to reduce initiation pressure and, with increasing branches, the initiation pressure decreases. A model with four tree-type, branched boreholes leads to a reduction in initiation pressure of 69%. In terms of permeability improvement technology in underground coalmines, a branched hydraulic fracturing borehole array has the advantages of reducing initiation pressure, controlling crack initiation and extension, enhancing the fracturing effect and reducing the destruction of the roof and floor.

  1. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole

  2. Behavior of crushed salt under heat source in boreholes in a salt mine (Amelie Mine, Alsace Potash Mines, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of thermomechanical interaction between rock salt and crushed salt, used as a backfilling material at the final stage of radioactive waste disposal in salt formations, led to perform an in situ test at the Amelie Mine(The Alsace Potash Mines in France). The field tests site is located at a depth of 520m and the tests were performed in six parallel boreholes. Five boreholes were backfilled using three types of crushed salt, changing by their grain size (fine = 0.4 mm; natural = 1 mm; coarse = 2 mm). The sixth borehole was not backfilled in order to witness for rock salt behavior without backfilling confinement. Except the first borehole used as a pilot test, the four backfilled boreholes were heated during four months with two levels of heat output (1.6 kW, then 2.2 kW). Cooling was also followed during four months after heating interruption. The maximum of temperature obtained on the wall of the backfilled boreholes was about 1000C during the first field test and 1300C during the second. The thermal diffusivity of rock mass and the coefficient of heat exchange by convection are studied. In spite of the case that the crushed salt thermal conductivity is initially ten times less than of rock salt, no excessive temperature concentration was obtained on the heat sources

  3. Forsmark site characterisation - Borehole KFM22 and KFM23: Derivation of porewater data by diffusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waber, H. N. [Rock Water Interaction, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Smellie, J. A. T. [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    Within the Detum Project (Detailed Investigations in Forsmark) a 'Methodology comparison for porewater extraction and characterisation techniques' was initiated. This has centred on two shallow boreholes drilled at Soederviken within the northern part of the Forsmark characterisation site. The comparison includes different methodologies to characterise the chemical and isotopic composition of porewater residing in the connected pore space of the rock matrix. The present report describes the chemical and isotopic information of the porewater obtained by out-diffusion experiments and the diffusive isotope equilibration technique applied to originally water saturated drillcore samples. In addition, petrophysical data and solute transport properties of the rock matrix, all necessary for porewater characterisation, have also been elaborated. Specially conditioned drillcore samples were obtained from depths of less than 100 m from boreholes KFM22 and KFM23. Porewater has been extracted successfully from seven samples by laboratory out-diffusion and diffusive isotope exchange methods. The methodology to extract and analyse the porewater is outlined and the analytical data are tabulated. The data are critically reviewed for potential experimental artefacts and their significance with respect to in situ conditions. The connected pore space in the core material representing borehole KFM22 and KFM23 was measured on different types of originally saturated drillcore samples using gravimetric and isotope mass balance methods. Out-diffusion experiments were performed on kg-sized drillcore samples to derive the in situ concentration of the chemically conservative compounds chloride and bromide. The attainment of equilibrium conditions in the out-diffusion experiments was monitored by the concentration change of chloride and bromide as a function of time. The water isotope composition of porewater was determined by the diffusive isotope equilibration technique and by

  4. Forsmark site characterisation - Borehole KFM22 and KFM23: Derivation of porewater data by diffusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Detum Project (Detailed Investigations in Forsmark) a 'Methodology comparison for porewater extraction and characterisation techniques' was initiated. This has centred on two shallow boreholes drilled at Soederviken within the northern part of the Forsmark characterisation site. The comparison includes different methodologies to characterise the chemical and isotopic composition of porewater residing in the connected pore space of the rock matrix. The present report describes the chemical and isotopic information of the porewater obtained by out-diffusion experiments and the diffusive isotope equilibration technique applied to originally water saturated drillcore samples. In addition, petrophysical data and solute transport properties of the rock matrix, all necessary for porewater characterisation, have also been elaborated. Specially conditioned drillcore samples were obtained from depths of less than 100 m from boreholes KFM22 and KFM23. Porewater has been extracted successfully from seven samples by laboratory out-diffusion and diffusive isotope exchange methods. The methodology to extract and analyse the porewater is outlined and the analytical data are tabulated. The data are critically reviewed for potential experimental artefacts and their significance with respect to in situ conditions. The connected pore space in the core material representing borehole KFM22 and KFM23 was measured on different types of originally saturated drillcore samples using gravimetric and isotope mass balance methods. Out-diffusion experiments were performed on kg-sized drillcore samples to derive the in situ concentration of the chemically conservative compounds chloride and bromide. The attainment of equilibrium conditions in the out-diffusion experiments was monitored by the concentration change of chloride and bromide as a function of time. The water isotope composition of porewater was determined by the diffusive isotope equilibration technique and by isotope mass

  5. Impact and mitigation of borehole related effects in permanent crosshole resistivity imaging: An example from the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Florian M.; Bergmann, Peter; Rücker, Carsten; Wiese, Bernd; Labitzke, Tim; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2015-12-01

    Geoelectrical methods are particularly suited for CO2 injection monitoring due to their high sensitivity to fluid displacement processes in porous rock formations. The use of borehole electrodes is favorable for deep storage horizons. Yet data acquisition based on permanently installed borehole electrodes can be challenged by the finite extent of the electrodes, unintended borehole deviation and complex borehole completion. Such conditions can lead to systematic errors in the electrical data sets, distortions of tomograms, and ultimately misinterpretations. We systematically analyze the effects of different borehole related error sources on tomographic inversion results and present respective methods for mitigation. Specifically, we incorporate the finite extent of the ring electrodes and the borehole completion into the electrical finite-element models and discuss the opportunity to infer borehole deviations solely based on geoelectrical data by means of a coupled inversion. While the finite extent of ring electrodes can be neglected if the electrode spacing is sufficiently large (> 5 m), different borehole completion materials used to fill the well annulus can cause potentially strong resistivity contrasts between the borehole completion and the rock formation, i.e., close to the electrodes. Resulting inversion artifacts are generally less severe when the borehole completion is more resistive compared to the surrounding rock. It is also shown that 2.5D inversion approaches are not adequate for imaging injection experiments in the presence of borehole completion. Unintended borehole deviation can result in geometric errors. Especially, vertical electrode shifts cause strong and localized inversion artifacts. Coupled inverse schemes potentially provide the opportunity to infer electrode shifts solely based on geoelectrical data provided the availability of high quality measurements (saturation from time-lapse geoelectrical measurements.

  6. Thermal and exhumation histories from borehole thermochronometer samples in the Swiss Molasse Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Ehlers, Todd; Enkelmann, Eva; Becker, Jens K.; Schnellmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, significant interest has emerged to better understand the links between the foreland basin evolution and the erosion history of the Alps. For this, the European Alps are indeed a well-suited study region since the hinterland and the Swiss Molasse basin erosion rates and timing were extensively studied using basin analysis, and low-temperature thermochronology 1-4,5,6. However, the driving mechanisms for the post-Miocene erosion of the Swiss Molasse basin remains controversial, and several papers discuss whether global climatic changes1 or local variations of base level7,8,9 have controlled the erosion of the basin. With this study, we add quantitative constraints on the late-stage history of the basin by presenting new AFT and AHe dataset (respectively 16 and 19 samples) from two boreholes located ~30 km apart from each other, one located close to the center (Sonnengarten, depth of 3500 m) and one located to the North (Benken, depth of 100 m) of the basin. The data are derived from Triassic to Pliocene sand deposits as well as the underlying gneissic basement rocks and both AFT and AHe results are ranging from Pliocene to Triassic ages. The two dataset present very different age patterns which make the direct interpretation difficult. Therefore, thermal models using the QTQt software10,11 have been performed. This software is capable to evaluate cooling rates and timing using multiple samples from a single borehole. To test the robustness of the simulations, several runs for each borehole based on different data sets were performed, and showed some discrepancies between the resulting thermal histories. We provide, based on the simulations results, the most probable erosion estimates which are in the same range as the ones proposed in previous studies in the basin. For the borehole Benken, we reproduce a long and slow erosion phase starting at 23 Ma, with an overall estimate of the amount of eroded sediments ranging between 1.2 to 2 km. For the

  7. LIBSLog: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) based logging tool for exploration of boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Chu, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel downhole instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in terrestrial and non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized LIBS analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars and Europa. The system can also be deployed in a wireline configuration as a logging probe, called LIBSLog. The LIBSLog could be lowered into existing boreholes and scan the borehole wall with depth. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. The results for lunar simulant NU-LHT-2M show a value for the concentration of iron ranging between 2.29% and 3.05% depending on the atomic line selected. The accepted value for the sample analyzed is 2.83%, showing the capability for the system in development to provide qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis in real-time.

  8. A preliminary study on correlation between thermal infrared radiation of land surface and borehole strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Ma, J.; Liu, P.; Liu, L.; Jiang, J.

    2007-12-01

    To predict earthquake by using thermal infrared radiation (TIR) is attended widely in recent years although there are still some basic problems to be solved. In fact, earthquake is only one kind of fault activity. Not all fault motions could generate earthquakes. Therefore the shift of research focus from seeking seismic precursors to monitoring processes of current tectonic activity through satellite remote sensing will provide more definite physical evidence and more chances. However, one of the problems that we have to know is how to obtain physical relation between TIR and tectonic deformation. In order to construct physical relation between TIR and tectonic deformation, some works on theoretic analyses and results of borehole strain are accomplished: Firstly, theoretic relation between volume strain and temperature is built up according to tensor decomposition with thermodynamics and elastic strain theory. As for elastic body, there exists definite linear relation between volume strain increment(Δθ) and temperature increment(Δ T): Δ T=α TΔθ, where α is constant and T is initial temperature. Namely, TIR produced by volume change is positive correlated with volume strain increment. Secondly, correlation between land surface TIR and borehole strain is analyzed by taking an example for borehole strain data more than 10 years from Kuerle and Shuimogou stations in Xing Jiang, located nearby Tiemenguan fault and Bogda fault in Tianshan area, respectively. Result indicates that strains are accorded with TIR when volume strain is dominant. When deviatoric strain is dominant, strain of one direction is positively related with TIR while another direction is negative. Consequently, tensor decomposition is helpful to analyze correlation between thermal infrared radiation and crust deformation if strain tensor is decomposed into spherical tensor related with volume strain and deviatoric tensor related with shape change. In sum, there exists definite physical

  9. Influence of Capillary Heterogeneity on Leakage of CO2 from a Borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecker, F.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the leakage of CO2 from a borehole using a macroscopic invasion percolation (MIP) model that incorporates capillary, buoyancy, and viscous forces. The model is being applied to the shallow subsurface of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) test pilot plant in Cranfield, MS at the Denbury Resources, Inc. site. Denbury is injecting CO2 for enhanced oil recovery and to demonstrate the sequestration of high volumes of CO2. Modeling shallow leakage pathways is important for predicting the long-term performance at CO2 sequestration sites. The MIP model differs from invasion percolation (IP) through the definition of macro, near-pore scale capillarity. Here, individual pore throats and necks are not considered. Instead, a near pore-scale block is defined and characterized by a local threshold spanning pressure (a local block-scale breakthrough pressure) that represents the behavior of the subscale network. The model domain is discretized into an array of grid blocks with assigned spanning pressures. An invasion pressure for each block is then determined by the sum of spanning pressure, buoyance forces, and viscous forces. An IP algorithm sorts the invadable blocks, selects the block connected to the growing cluster with the lowest invasion pressure, and invades it. For this investigation, we simulate the conditions surrounding a leak in the casing of a well into the shallow sediments present at the Cranfield site. The model domain includes the borehole annular space and the surrounding sediment. CO2 is introduced at the bottom of the domain into the annular materials. The properties of the annular materials and the host sediments are systematically varied to evaluate the impact of capillary heterogeneity on CO2 transport pathways. Varying degrees of stratification are included in the host sediments. The strength of the average capillary force between the sediments and the annular space are varied to determine the conditions

  10. Fast and slow flexural waves in a deviated borehole in homogeneous and layered anisotropic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

    2010-04-01

    Dipole acoustic fields in an arbitrarily deviated well penetrating a homogeneous as well as a stratified transversely isotropic formation are simulated using a 3-D finite-difference time-domain algorithm in cylindrical coordinates. The modelling results show that a dipole source can excite a fast- and a slow-flexural mode due to the shear wave anisotropy when the borehole is inclined with respect to the symmetry axis of transverse isotropy. Both flexural slownesses change with the wellbore deviation angle. The splitting of flexural modes is prominent in full wave arrays when the shear anisotropy is strong enough. It is revealed that the dipole orientation influences the relative amplitudes of the fast- and slow-flexural waves but it has no effect on their slownesses or phases. In a vertical well parallel to the symmetry axis, the two flexural waves degenerate and propagate at the same speed. The degenerated flexural wave travels approximately at the shear speed along the borehole wall except in a few formations. Our study shows, for example, that it is about 10 per cent slower than the shear wave in Mesaverde clayshale 5501. Even in that kind of formations, however, extraction of the fast- and slow-shear velocities from the flexural modes is still possible if the borehole deviation is large enough. To examine the effect of layering, we modelled the full waves in a formation with a sandwich. When the well is perpendicular to the layer interfaces, reflection is obvious and can be recognized. It becomes weaker or even invisible as the deviation angle increases, so it is difficult to detect a thin layer embedded in a formation directly from reflected waves. The sandwich can, instead, be recognized from the irregularity in the spectra of the full waveforms displayed versus depth. [Correction added after online publication 25th February 2009; the original spelling of `homogenous' in the title has been corrected to `homogeneous'.[

  11. Subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the U.S. Beaufort Margin: 2. Borehole constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn; Herman, Bruce M.; Brothers, Laura L.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Borehole logging data from legacy wells directly constrain the contemporary distribution of subsea permafrost in the sedimentary section at discrete locations on the U.S. Beaufort Margin and complement recent regional analyses of exploration seismic data to delineate the permafrost's offshore extent. Most usable borehole data were acquired on a ∼500 km stretch of the margin and within 30 km of the contemporary coastline from north of Lake Teshekpuk to nearly the U.S.-Canada border. Relying primarily on deep resistivity logs that should be largely unaffected by drilling fluids and hole conditions, the analysis reveals the persistence of several hundred vertical meters of ice-bonded permafrost in nearshore wells near Prudhoe Bay and Foggy Island Bay, with less permafrost detected to the east and west. Permafrost is inferred beneath many barrier islands and in some nearshore and lagoonal (back-barrier) wells. The analysis of borehole logs confirms the offshore pattern of ice-bearing subsea permafrost distribution determined based on regional seismic analyses and reveals that ice content generally diminishes with distance from the coastline. Lacking better well distribution, it is not possible to determine the absolute seaward extent of ice-bearing permafrost, nor the distribution of permafrost beneath the present-day continental shelf at the end of the Pleistocene. However, the recovery of gas hydrate from an outer shelf well (Belcher) and previous delineation of a log signature possibly indicating gas hydrate in an inner shelf well (Hammerhead 2) imply that permafrost may once have extended across much of the shelf offshore Camden Bay.

  12. Comparison between radar data and geophysical, geological and hydrological borehole paramenters by multivariate analysis of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the present work is to study the correlation between radar reflectors and geophysical, geological and hydraulical parameters from the boreholes. An additional objective is to show what information can be gained by the borehole radar with respect to waterflow and geological structures in crystalline rock. The tool for making the data modelling is Multivariate Data Analysis (SIMCA). For the data modelling there are two algorithms available in the SIMCA software. One for Principal Component analysis and one for Partial Least Squares regression analysis (PLS and PLS2). The PLS method gives the best result for the purpose of correlation between radar intensity and other variables. The result from the Principal Components, PLS, and PLS2 analysis shows that the strongest correlations results in a division between highly fractured rock and low fractured rock at all sites. Also, PLS and PLS2 analysis show that there is a good correlation between high radar intensity and highly fractured rock in the boreholes at all sites. The correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity is more ambiguous. Two of the investigated sites. Stripa and Finnsjoen, exhibit good correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity, while the correlation at Aevroe is lower and at Saltsjoetunnel it is poor. Hydraulic conductivity was not included in the analysis of the Klipperaas data. The best correlaiton in the data from Klipperaas was obtained between radar intensity and fractured lithological contracts. The degree of correlation between radar intensity and lithological contacts at the other four sites was lower than for Klipperaas. (24 figs., 37 tabs., 30 refs)

  13. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY WORK OF U-SHAPE BOREHOLE HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Filatau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady numerical model of borehole heat exchanger heat regime was developed. General numerical modeling results are borehole heat flux, heat carrier inlet temperature and average soil temperature distribution. Proposed model is based on solution of heat conduction equation in transient plane axially symmetric formulation with boundary conditions for borehole heat exchanger and undisturbed soil domain. Solution method is finite difference method. Numerical model is verified with comparisons numerical results and experimental data from developed laboratory installation for simulation unsteady heat regime of horizontal positioned U-shape ground heat exchanger in sand medium.Cooling of water is organized in ground exchanger in experiment. Experiment includes two steps. Thermal properties of sand is determined at the first stage. Thermal conductivity of sand is determined by stationary plate method, thermal diffusivity is determined by regular regime method using cylindrical calorimeter. Determined properties are used further in processing of experimental results at second step for analysis of transient work of ground heat exchanger. Results of four experiments are analyzed with different duration and time behavior of mass flow and heat carrier temperature. Divergences of experimental and simulated results for temperature of heat carrier changes in the range 0,5–1,8 %, for sand temperature in the range 1,0–2,3 %, for heat flux in the range 3,6–5,4 %. Experimental results can be used for validation of other simulation methods of ground heat exchangers. Presented numerical model can be used for analyzing of heat supply systems with heat pumps.

  14. Mapping uncertainties through the POM-SAT model of climate reconstruction from borehole data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Bartlett

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain information about the ground surface temperature (GST history of a locale and can be employed in climate reconstruction. The borehole method of climate reconstruction assumes that the dominant heat transport mechanism in the upper few hundred meters of the earth's crust is conduction; mathematically, conduction is a compressive (information losing mapping from the temperature-time space of GST to the temperature-depth profile (T−z. Because the mapping is compressive, multiple GST histories can map into the same T−z profile; the solution suffers from non-uniqueness. One means of dealing with the non-uniqueness problem is to limit the number of parameters sought in the solution space. However, even when only a single parameter (the pre-observation mean GST, or POM is sought in the inversion, a certain amount of a priori information must be introduced prior to inverting for a GST history. In the POM-SAT method, a priori information introduced includes the surface-air temperature history (SAT, the thermal diffusivity of the conductive medium, and the reducing parameter used to remove the background (non-climatic heat flux. I perform a set of Monte Carlo analyses to investigate how uncertainties in these a priori model parameters are mapped into the solution space of the POM-SAT method of climate reconstruction. Results indicate that uncertainties in the thermal diffusivity are generally reduced by an order of magnitude when mapped to the POM. Uncertainties in the SAT time series are approximately equivalent in magnitude to their projection onto the POM. However, uncertainties in the adjustment for the background (non-climatic thermal regime are magnified by an order of magnitude in the POM solution-space. These results suggest a degree of prudence should be exercised in interpreting surface temperature histories from reduced borehole data.

  15. Effect of radon transport in groundwater upon gamma-ray borehole logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granitic rock at an experimental waste storage site at Stripa, Sweden, is unusually high in natural radioelements (40 ppM uranium) with higher concentrations occurring locally in thin chloritic zones and fractures. Groundwater seeping through fractures into open boreholes is consequently highly anomalous in its radon content, with activity as high as one microcurie per liter. When total count gamma-ray logs are run in boreholes where groundwater inflow is appreciable, the result is quite unusual: the radon daughter activity in the water adds considerably to the contribution from the rock, and in fact often dominates the log response. The total gamma activity increases where radon-charged groundwater enters a borehole, and remains at a high level as the water flows along the hole in response to the hydraulic gradient. As a consequence, the gamma log serves as a flow profile, locating zones of water entry (or loss) by an increase (or decrease) in the total gamma activity. A simple model has been developed for flow through a thin crack emanating radon at a rate E showing that the radon concentration of water entering a hole is E/Λh, where Λ is the radon decay rate and h the crack aperture, assuming that the flow rate and crack source area are such that an element of water resides within the source area for several radon half-lives or more. Concentration measurements can provide a measurement of the inflow rate. Data from the 127-mm holes in the time-scale drift behave in this fashion

  16. Deep Boreholes Seals Subjected to High P,T conditions - Proposed Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporuscio, F.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole experimental work will constrain the P,T conditions which "seal" material will experience in deep borehole crystalline rock repositories. The rocks of interest to this study include mafic (amphibolites) and silicic (granitic gneiss) end members. The experiments will systematically add components to capture discrete changes in both water and EBS component chemistries. Experiments in the system wall rock-clay-concrete-groundwater will evaluate interactions among components, including: mineral phase stability, metal corrosion rates and thermal limits. Based on engineered barrier studies, experimental investigations will move forward with three focusses. First, evaluation of interaction between "seal" materials and repository wall rock (crystalline) under fluid-saturated conditions over long-term (i.e., six-month) experiments; which reproduces the thermal pulse event of a repository. Second, perform experiments to determine the stability of zeolite minerals (analcime-wairakitess) under repository conditions. Both sets of experiments are critically important for understanding mineral paragenesis (zeolites and/or clay transformations) associated with "seals" in contact with wall rock at elevated temperatures. Third, mineral growth at the metal interface is a principal control on the survivability (i.e. corrosion) of waste canisters in a repository. The objective of this planned experimental work is to evaluate physio-chemical processes for 'seal' components and materials relevant to deep borehole disposal. These evaluations will encompass multi-laboratory efforts for the development of seals concepts and application of Thermal-Mechanical-Chemical (TMC) modeling work to assess barrier material interactions with subsurface fluids and other barrier materials, their stability at high temperatures, and the implications of these processes to the evaluation of thermal limits.

  17. On the Fidelity of “CORK” Borehole Hydrologic Observatory Pressure Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keir Becker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term formation pressure monitoring in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP boreholes using evolving Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK hydrologic observatory technology has led to unanticipated applications as a result of the growing duration of recording intervals and the improvement of measurement fidelity. Current capabilities provide geologically meaningful observations over a broad range of time scales from static state to 1 Hz, allowing investigations of many coupled hydrologic, geodynamic, and seismologic phenomena. In this review, we present observations that provide constraints on current limits to recording fidelity, and examples of how leakage can affect pressure observations.

  18. Delineation of fault systems on Langeland, Denmark based on AEM data and boreholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Westergaard, Joakim Hollenbo; Pytlich, Anders

    2016-01-01

    protection zones to prevent groundwater contamination from urban development and agricultural sources in agreement with The EU Water Framework Directive. The mapping campaign involved a dense data acquisition typically comprising boreholes, electromagnetic surveys – both airborne and land based...... and geoelectrical surveys. The data serve as basis for constructing 3D hydrogeological and groundwater models from which site-specific protection zones are establish. At present time dense geophysical mapping covers approximately 45 % of Denmark. Based on a dense Airborne ElectroMagnetic (AEM) survey in combination...

  19. Assessment of the properties of disused sealed radioactive sources for disposal in a borehole facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes arise from applications in which radioactive materials are used. Medicine, industries and agriculture are examples of areas where radioactive materials are used. Most of the radioactive materials used in nuclear applications are in the form of sealed radioactive sources (SRS). After a number of usages, the SRS may no longer be useful enough for its original purpose and will be considered as a disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS). DSRS are potentially dangerous to human health and the environment, and therefore important to manage them safely. Currently in Ghana, DSRS are collected and stored awaiting a final disposal option. There are ongoing plans to implement the Borehole Disposal of Disused Sealed Sources (BOSS) system in Ghana as a final disposal option. There are, however, concerns about the number of DSRS disposal packages that can safely be disposed in a narrow borehole underground in a long term without posing any harm to people and the environment. It is therefore necessary to assess the properties of DSRS that need to be placed into the borehole to determine the safety of this disposal option. For this study, 160 DSRS were selected from the DSRS inventory. The present activity, volume, A/D ratio and thermal output of all the DSRS were determined. The SIMBOD database tool was used to determine the number of capsules and disposal packages that will be required with respect to the DSRS registered into it. Also, verification measurements to confirm the DSRS inventory data were conducted. The assessment have shown that DSRS used in this study would require a total of seven (7) capsules. The estimated total activity of the disposal packages were below the waste acceptance criteria and the thermal output for each disposal package were also below the 50W limit. One borehole with an estimated length of 57 m will be safe to dispose the DSRS used in this study. The verification measurements confirmed the confirmed the DSRS inventory data. It

  20. 3D subsurface geological modeling using GIS, remote sensing, and boreholes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoura, Katerina; Konstantopoulou, Maria; Kyriou, Aggeliki; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos; Depountis, Nikolaos

    2016-08-01

    The current paper presents the combined use of geological-geotechnical insitu data, remote sensing data and GIS techniques for the evaluation of a subsurface geological model. High accuracy Digital Surface Model (DSM), airphotos mosaic and satellite data, with a spatial resolution of 0.5m were used for an othophoto base map compilation of the study area. Geological - geotechnical data obtained from exploratory boreholes and the 1:5000 engineering geological maps were digitized and implemented in a GIS platform for a three - dimensional subsurface model evaluation. The study is located at the North part of Peloponnese along the new national road.

  1. Device for introducing a mould with high activity waste into a borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device works with a remotely operated grab, suspended on a rope to grip the mould, and a lifting equipment for moving the rope with a grab and the suspended mould from a shielding and transport container into the borehole. The device is arranged on a mobile crane with four-wheel steering, which carries a rotating frame with a vertical axis and a swivel cantilever which can be moved around a horizontal axis. There is a rope deflection roller at the end at the swirl cantilever. The lifting equipment for the rope sits above the rotating frame. (orig.)

  2. Geological interpretation of borehole image and sonic logs. A case study from the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahle, C. [Eriksfiord GmbH, Walldorf (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Borehole imagers and dipole sonic tools form the ideal pair of instruments for observation and evaluation of structural tilt, faulting and fracturing as well as sediment transport direction and depositional architecture. In addition, the stress field can be inverted in combination with rock mechanical data. The structural tilt and its variation along the well are evaluated in stereograms and projections along the well trace. Changes in structural tilt are attributed to fault block rotation as well as angular unconformities. Fault zones are usually easily recognised in borehole images by e.g. juxtaposition of different strata/facies and deformation of adjacent layering. Integration with micro-scale core data as well as macro-scale seismics, if available, is of vital importance. Furthermore, calibration against core observations is helpful for e.g. fracture characterisation. The stress field orientation is interpreted from breakout and drilling-induced fractures, which are usually easy to detect in borehole images. However, in case of slanted and highly deviated wells the full stress tensor including the stress magnitudes is necessary to evaluate the stress field orientation. The full stress tensor is inverted by utilising rock mechanical data from core measurement and/or from empirical relations with elastic properties such as Poission's ratio and Young's modulus with respect to breakout and drilling-induced fractures. In addition, the stress field can be simulated using numerical methods to match the current observations. Sedimentary features such as cross-beds or slumps may indicate sediment transport directions after the data set was corrected for structural tilt. Image facies and their stacking patterns in combination with standard petrophysical curves are interpreted with respect to the depositional environment and included in a sequence stratigraphic framework. A correlation with core observations provides important calibration of the image facies

  3. Safety assessment of a borehole type disposal facility using the ISAM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improving Long-term of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM), three example cases were developed. The aim was to test the ISAM safety assessment methodology using as realistic as possible data. One of the Test Cases, the Borehole Test Case (BTC), related to a proposed future disposal option for disused sealed radioactive sources. This paper uses the various steps of the ISAM safety assessment methodology to describe the work undertaken by ISAM participants in developing the BTC and provides some general conclusions that can be drawn from the findings of their work. (author)

  4. South Pole glacial climate reconstruction from multi-borehole laser particulate stratigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Sanchez, Juan; Christov, Asen; Montaruli, Teresa; Rameez, Mohamed; IceCube Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory and its prototype, AMANDA, were built in South Pole ice, using powerful hot-water drills to cleanly bore >100 holes to depths up to 2500 m. The construction of these particle physics detectors provided a unique opportunity to examine the deep ice sheet using a variety of novel techniques. We made high-resolution particulate profiles with a laser dust logger in eight of the boreholes during detector commissioning between 2004 and 2010. The South Pole laser logs...

  5. Simulation of wave propagation in boreholes and radial profiling of formation elastic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shihong

    Modern acoustic logging tools measure in-situ elastic wave velocities of rock formations. These velocities provide ground truth for time-depth conversions in seismic exploration. They are also widely used to quantify the mechanical strength of formations for applications such as wellbore stability analysis and sand production prevention. Despite continued improvements in acoustic logging technology and interpretation methods that take advantage of full waveform data, acoustic logs processed with current industry standard methods often remain influenced by formation damage and mud-filtrate invasion. This dissertation develops an efficient and accurate algorithm for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in fluid-filled boreholes in the presence of complex, near-wellbore damaged zones. The algorithm is based on the generalized reflection and transmission matrices method. Assessment of mud-filtrate invasion effects on borehole acoustic measurements is performed through simulation of time-lapse logging in the presence of complex radial invasion zones. The validity of log corrections performed with the Biot-Gassmann fluid substitution model is assessed by comparing the velocities estimated from array waveform data simulated for homogeneous and radially heterogeneous formations that sustain mud-filtrate invasion. The proposed inversion algorithm uses array waveform data to estimate radial profiles of formation elastic parameters. These elastic parameters can be used to construct more realistic near-wellbore petrophysical models for applications in seismic exploration, geo-mechanics, and production. Frequency-domain, normalized amplitude and phase information contained in array waveform data are input to the nonlinear Gauss-Newton inversion algorithm. Validation of both numerical simulation and inversion is performed against previously published results based on the Thomson-Haskell method and travel time tomography, respectively. This exercise indicates that the

  6. Borehole seismic monitoring of CO2 storage within a saline aquifer at Ketzin, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    J. Götz

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about borehole seismic monitoring of CO2 storage within a saline aquifer at Ketzin, Germany. CO2 storage is part of the process ’Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS)’. As a greenhouse gas, CO2 contributes to the global warming, therefore efforts are made to slow down the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CCS is considered because ”fossil fuels are the dominant form of energy utilised in the world (86 %) and account for 75% of current anthropoge...

  7. Safety assessment of the disposal of sealed radiation sources in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory (RNML) at the Nuclear Energy Research Institute (NERI) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is developing the concept of a repository for disused sealed radiation sources in a deep borehole. Several thousands disused sealed radiation sources are stored at NERI awaiting the decision on final disposal and tens of thousands are still under the possession of the licensees. A significant fraction of these sources are long-lived and will require final disposal in a geological repository. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss suitable safety assessment strategies for the repository concept and to illustrate a rational approach for a long-term safety assessment methodology. (author)

  8. Composition Optimization of Glass-Like Casing and Its Novel Application in Mending Instable Borehole Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-jun Li; Yu Wang; Bao-lin Liu; Chun Yang

    2015-01-01

    A glass-like casing was developed to mend the instable borehole due to its great similarities in compositions and structure. In order to boost the casing’s mechanical properties and lower its cost, different wt% additions of aluminum and quartz sand are added into the composition. Based on the outcomes of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), it is suggested to be sintered at the temperature of 700°C. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that aluminum and SiO2 are its main crystalli...

  9. Change in Seismic Attenuation of the Nojima Fault Zone Measured Using Spectral Ratios from Borehole Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Y.; Tadokoro, K.; Nishigami, K.; Mori, J.

    2006-12-01

    We measured the seismic attenuation of the rock mass surrounding the Nojima fault, Japan, by estimating the P-wave quality factor, Qp, using spectral ratios derived from a multi-depth (800 m and 1800 m) seismometer array. We detected an increase of Qp in 2003-2006 compared to 1999-2000. Following the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the project "Fault Zone Probe" drilled three boreholes to depths of 500 m, 800 m, 1800 m, in Toshima, along the southern part of the Nojima fault. The 1800-m borehole was reported to reach the fault surface. One seismometer (TOS1) was installed at the bottom of the 800-m borehole in 1996 and another (TOS2) at the bottom of 1800-m borehole in 1997. The sampling rate of the seismometers is 100 Hz. The slope of the spectral ratios for the two stations plotted on a linear-log plot is -π t^{*}, where t^{*} is the travel time divided by the Qp for the path difference between the stations. For the estimation of Qp, we used events recorded by both TOS1 and TOS2 for periods of 1999-2000 and 2003-2006. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectral ratios, we first calculated spectra ratios between TOS1 and TOS2 for each event and averaged the values over the earthquakes for each period. We used the events that occurred within 10 km from TOS2, and the numbers of events are 74 for 1999-2000 and 105 for 2003-2006. Magnitudes of the events range from M0.5 to M3.1. The average value of Qp for 1999-2000 increased significantly compared to 2003-2006. The attenuation of rock mass surrounding the fault in 2003-2006 is smaller than that in 1999-2000, which suggests that the fault zone became stiffer after the earthquake. At the Nojima fault, permeability measured by repeated pumping tests decreased with time from the Kobe earthquake, infering the closure of cracks and a fault healing process occurred The increase of Qp is another piece of evidence for the healing process of the Nojima fault zone. u.ac.jp/~kano/

  10. Optical imaging of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38 at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and preliminary processing of the images. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality through example images. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD format. The images are also attached to the appendix CD of this report in Adobe Acrobat PDF-format. (orig.)

  11. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 1. Hydraulic conditions adjacent to the well bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Thomas, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Temperature and formation resistivity logs obtained in borehole KP-1 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project indicate that the adjacent formation is characterized by several zones of distinctly different average temperature and water salinity. A series of hydraulic analyses and water sampling programs were conducted to rule out the possibility of local hydraulic effects associated with the presence of the borehole in the generation of these apparent groundwater zones. Hydraulic tests and sampling with the borehole cased to a depth of 710 m and open below that depth indicate that the deep aquifer contains seawater at a temperature nearly identical to that of the open ocean at the same depth. Various analyses give estimates of aquifer transmissivity of about 10-3 m2/s in the vicinity of the borehole. Isolation of this deeper aquifer from the overlying groundwater zones was investigated by perforating the casing at six locations and then measuring the changes in water level in the borehole, in the salinity of the fluid column, in the temperature profile of the fluid column, and in the rate of flow in the fluid column induced by the perforations. These results positively confirm that the zones of distinctly different formation properties indicated on the temperature and resistivity logs are not caused by flow in or around casing. Flow and fluid column salinity induced by the perforations also confirm significant differences between the hydraulic heads and geochemistry of the different groundwater zones inferred from the well logs.

  12. STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF DRILL STRINGS WITH INTERNAL FLOWS OF LIQUIDS IN THE CHANNELS OF HORIZONTAL BORE-HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrusenko E.N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with elaboration of new technologies of hydrocarbons extraction from shales, in the oil and gas industry, the great attention is payed to the problems of drilling inclined and horizontal bore-holes. The peculiarities of these bore-hole drivage consist in essential influence of friction and contact forces on proceeding of drilling processes. In this paper, the problem about bifurcational buckling and small bending vibration of a rotating drill string lying in the channel of a horizontal bore-hole is stated. With allowance made for friction forces and additional constraint reactions, differential equations are deduced, their eigen-value solutions describing stability and vibration of the drill string of finite and infinite lengths are received.

  13. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, August 1993 to February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.; Buesch, D.C.

    1995-05-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being investigated as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report summarizes the lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain that was done from August 1993 to February 1994 by the Rock Characteristics Section, Yucca Mountain Project Branch, US Geological Survey (USGS). Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium/colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, Tertiary Calico Hills Formation and Tertiary Prow Pass Tuff. We present criteria used for recognition of stratigraphic contacts, logging results as tables of contact depths for core from neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphical lithologic logs for core from non-UZN boreholes, and descriptions of several distinctive nonwelded tuffs recognized in the PTn hydrogeologic unit of the Paintbrush Group.

  14. Difference flow and electric conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, boreholes KR1, KR2, KR4, KR7, KR8, KR12 and KR14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P. [PRG-Tec Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    The Posiva Flow Log/Difference flow method can be used for the relatively fast determination of water conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored boreholes. In this method, a flow meter and a connected flow guide are used. This report presents the principles and results of the measurements carried out in boreholes KRI, KR2, KR4, KR7, KR8, KR12 and KR14 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between November 2002 and June 2004. All boreholes mentioned above had been measured earlier in their entirety. The measurements in this campaign were performed for control. Some borehole zones that proved to be intact in the previous measurements were not measured. The measuring program varied according to boreholes. The section length of the flow guide was 10 m, 2 m and 0.5 m. The flow into the borehole or from the borehole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths. In most of the boreholes, this was carried out both during pumping and in natural (unpumped) conditions. Transmissivity (T) and hydraulic head of zones are calculated for the results, if a measurement in natural conditions was performed. The device also includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was always measured in connection with flow measurements, and it was registered when the tool was moving. The electric conductivity of fracture-specific water (EC) was measured in chosen fractures in some of the boreholes. The fractures were chosen on the basis of the measured flow from the fracture to the borehole. The EC of the borehole water was also measured. (orig.)

  15. Borehole plugging of man-made accesses to a basalt repository: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the status of work currently in progress for the Basalt Borehole Plugging Program (BBPP). The primary objectives of the BBPP outlined in this report have been met during this first phase of work. These objectives included: (1) the preparation of a preliminary list of candidate plug materials; (2) a description of available machinery capable of placing candidate plug materials; and (3) the development of physical and geochemical testing programs to help evaluate the chemical stability and physical properties of candidate plug materials. The most significant finding from work to date is that given reasonable regulatory criteria, nothing has been identified which would prevent design of a plug system to seal manmade openings leading to a nuclear waste repository in Columbia River basalt for significantly long periods of time (on the order of thousands of years). Work accomplished to date indicates that this plug system can be designed using both natural and manufactured materials and can be emplaced with existing placement machinery and modifications of that machinery. The objectives of Task II are to conduct laboratory tests to evaluate the suitability of preferred candidate materials for plugging boreholes in the proposed repository, select plug system(s), initiate preconceptual machinery design for the placement of materials in plug system(s), and prepare a preliminary Task II report. As with Task I project organization, Task II is divided into subtasks that are identified by written subtask work summaries

  16. Pleistocene pollen stratigraphy from borehole 81/34, devil's hole area, central north sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Sten R.

    1998-09-01

    Twelve pollen assemblage zones are identified in a 229 m deep borehole (BH 81/34) from the Devil's Hole area in the central North Sea (British sector). The sediment from this borehole is Early to Late Pleistocene in age and the observation of massulae from Azolla filiculoides in sediment with reversed polarity indicates an age younger than the Olduvai geomagnetic event for the entire sequence. The Early Pleistocene sediments were at least partly deposited in the vicinity of a river outlet and can be correlated either with the Eburonian or the Menapian cold stage and with the Bavel interglacial and the Linge glacial within the Bavelian stage in the Dutch stratigraphy. The Middle Pleistocene sequence contains an interval rich in Abies, Picea and Pinus, probably deposited during the end of either Cromerian Complex interglacial IV (Noordbergum) or possibly the Holsteinian. The uppermost 80 m of the core contains high frequencies of pre-Quaternary and deteriorated palynomorphs indicating extensive glacial or glaciofluvially reworked sediment.

  17. Borehole Investigation of the Effectiveness of Grout Injection Technology on Coal Mine Subsidence Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Dayang; Xu, Jialin; Wang, Binglong; Teng, Hao

    2015-11-01

    Grout injection into the horizontal fracture at the bed separation of an overburden is used as a surface subsidence control measure in coal-producing countries such as Poland, China, and Australia. However, the stiffness and distribution of the grouting mass in the post-injected overburden, as well as its effect on surface subsidence control, have not been investigated. To address these issues, two surface boreholes were drilled into the post-injected overburden above a longwall panel on the study site. It was found that the fly ash injected more than 7 months previously had become compacted. More than 90 % of the total fill was concentrated in the main injection section (MIS) of the overburden (thickness of 4.8-18.4 m). The MIS was located between the bottom of the injection borehole and the key stratum immediately above. Following injection, the central gob area received the maximum possible compression and served as the foundation of the support for the grout, allowing the grout to restrain the deformation of the strata above it, thus reducing surface subsidence. The results of this investigation may facilitate future injection design, thus improving the control of surface subsidence.

  18. A modular subsurface borehole-tower for deep vadose zone monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most urgent contemporary societal challenges ranging from climate change to ecosystem services and food security are strongly linked to processes taking place in the vadose zone. The growing interest in this critical zone prompted a massive deployment of eco-hydrological networks (TERENO, CZO, and more) focusing on long term and highly resolved monitoring of key variables such as soil moisture, pressure, temperature, gas fluxes and more. A challenge in all these endeavors remains the reliable and consistent acquisition of variables to depths of eco-hydrological interest (a few meters in some cases), especially soil moisture. In the absence of off-the-shelf sensor systems capable of vertically resolved acquisition of these variables, we developed a prototype of a modular borehole-based tower for simultaneous monitoring of water content, temperature, oxygen and CO2 gas concentrations, and potentially other variables (relative humidity, capillary pressure). The modular tower is made up of 1.5 m sections of 75 mm PVC tubing with TDR waveguides mounted on outer walls. Each paired waveguides (0.15 m in length) were installed on two opposing sides of inflatable sections along the modular unit to ensure contact with the borehole walls. Oxygen and CO2 are measured using solid-state and optical gas sensors that could be periodically calibrated for potential drift. A prototype that could be extended to 6 m depth and preliminary calibration results will be presented (as a potential design for future CZO's). We welcome suggestions for expansion and improvements.

  19. The measurement of the vertical component of hydraulic conductivity in single-cased and uncased boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project aimed to assess the different existing methods of measuring vertical hydraulic conductivity in single boreholes by carrying out some actual field testing. A review of existing techniques for both field practice and analysis of the results is reported. After consideration of the various techniques a combination method of testing is proposed. A set of equipment to carry out this combination of tests was designed and built. The uncased testing revealed that it was possible to derive a value for vertical hydraulic conductivity. The doublet method, however, was not particularly successful and numerical simulation was cumbersome. The type-curve approach of appraising whether or not analysis concepts were appropriate proved the most robust method. It is clear that reconnaissance measurements of environmental pressure are very useful in defining where detailed testing should take place. The second phase of testing through perforations proved very difficult. There were many problems associated with location both of the wireline testing system within the borehole and especially of the previous measurements. However, analysis of the results in terms of skin indicated that the perforations produced a negative skin. The measurement of vertical hydraulic conductivity cannot at the moment be regarded as routine

  20. Physico-Chemical and Microbial Analysis of Selected Borehole Water in Mahikeng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobina Palamuleni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is generally considered a “safe source” of drinking water because it is abstracted with low microbial load with little need for treatment before drinking. However, groundwater resources are commonly vulnerable to pollution, which may degrade their quality. An assessment of microbial and physicochemical qualities of borehole water in the rural environs of Mahikeng town, South Africa, was carried out. The study aimed at determining levels of physicochemical (temperature, pH, turbidity and nitrate and bacteriological (both faecal and total coliform bacteria contaminants in drinking water using standard microbiology methods. Furthermore, identities of isolates were determined using the API 20E assay. Results were compared with World Health Organisation (WHO and Department of Water Affairs (DWAF-SA water quality drinking standards. All analyses for physicochemical parameters were within acceptable limits except for turbidity while microbial loads during spring were higher than the WHO and DWAF thresholds. The detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Klebsiella species in borehole water that was intended for human consumption suggests that water from these sources may pose severe health risks to consumers and is unsuitable for direct human consumption without treatment. The study recommends mobilisation of onsite treatment interventions to protect the households from further possible consequences of using the water.

  1. Evaluation and improvement of economic efficiency in the sphere of bore-hole drilling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Natalia V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important requirements for the methods and technologies, especially in the extractive industry, is cost-effective use of resources. The amount of exploration and industrial bore-hole drilling for various purposes is increasing in today’s world. Since drilling is the main type of exploration, it is necessary to improve the technology and to reduce costs. The article discusses an alternative to the existing method of bore-hole drilling developed in Tomsk Polytechnic University on the basis of the discovery made by scientists of the University. Electric pulse drilling technology is an innovation with the estimated base of evidence. The technique consists of rock breaking without drilling in it. This technology is fundamentally different from the existing ones; therefore, its application requires modification and updating of all operation systems. High barriers to entry and introduction to the industry are specific to electric pulse drilling. The authors concluded that the technology of electric pulse drilling provides an alternative of production methods and tools, which allows finding the best option to reduce costs and thereby to increase resource efficiency of production or project.

  2. Deep borehole disposition of surplus fissile materials-The site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One option for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology exists to immediately begin the design of this means of disposition and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous US. The borehole system utilizes mainly natural barriers to preven migration of Pu and U to the Earth's surface. Careful site selection ensures favorable geologic conditions that provide natural long-lived migration barriers; they include deep, extremely stable rock formations, strongly reducing brines that exhibit increasing salinity with depth, and most importantly, demonstrated isolation or non-communication of deep fluids with the biosphere for millions of years. This isolation is the most important characteristic, with the other conditions mainly being those that will enhance the potential of locating and maintaining the isolated zones. Candidate sites will probably be located on the craton in very old Precambrian crystalline rocks, most likely the center of a granitic pluton. The sites will be located in tectonically stable areas with no recent volcanic or seismic activity, and situated away from tectonic features that might become active in the near geologic future

  3. Borehole Heat Exchangers: heat transfer simulation in the presence of a groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelotti, A.; Alberti, L.; La Licata, I.; Antelmi, M.

    2014-04-01

    The correct design of the Borehole Heat Exchanger is crucial for the operation and the energy performance of a Ground Source Heat Pump. Most design methods and tools are based on the assumption that the ground is a solid medium where conduction is the only heat transfer mechanism. In turn in regions rich in groundwater the groundwater flow influence has to be assessed, by including the convection effects. In this paper a numerical model of a 100 m U-pipe in a saturated porous medium is presented. The model is created adopting MT3DMS coupled to MODFLOW. A Darcy flow is imposed across the medium. The typical operation of a Borehole Heat Exchanger operating both in winter and in summer is simulated for two years, under different groundwater velocities. The energy injected to and extracted from the ground is derived as a function of the Darcy velocity and compared with the purely conductive case. Temperature fields in the ground at key moments are shown and discussed. From both the energy and the aquifer temperature field points of view, the velocity ranges for respectively negligible and relevant influence of the groundwater flow are identified.

  4. MICROPROCESSOR-BASED DATA-ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR A BOREHOLE RADAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jerry A.; Wright, David L.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient microprocessor-based system is described that permits real-time acquisition, stacking, and digital recording of data generated by a borehole radar system. Although the system digitizes, stacks, and records independently of a computer, it is interfaced to a desktop computer for program control over system parameters such as sampling interval, number of samples, number of times the data are stacked prior to recording on nine-track tape, and for graphics display of the digitized data. The data can be transferred to the desktop computer during recording, or it can be played back from a tape at a latter time. Using the desktop computer, the operator observes results while recording data and generates hard-copy graphics in the field. Thus, the radar operator can immediately evaluate the quality of data being obtained, modify system parameters, study the radar logs before leaving the field, and rerun borehole logs if necessary. The system has proven to be reliable in the field and has increased productivity both in the field and in the laboratory.

  5. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  6. Borehole images while drilling : real-time dip picking in the foothills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, D. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Brezsnyak, F. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Roth, J. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Alberta Foothills drilling environment is a structurally complex thrust belt with slow costly drilling and frequent plan changes after logging. The cross sections are not always accurate due to poor resolution. Therefore, the placement of the wellbore is crucial to success. This presentation showed borehole images from drilling in the Foothills. Topics that were addressed included the Foothills drilling environment; target selection; current well placement methods; and current well performance. Borehole images included resistivity images and density images. The presentation addressed why real-time images should be run. These reasons include the ability to pick dips in real-time; structural information in real time allows for better well placement; it is easier to find and stay in producing areas; reduced non-productive time and probability of sidetracks; and elimination of pipe conveys logs. Applications in the Alberta Foothills such as the commercial run for GVR4 were also offered. Among the operational issues and lessons learned, it was determined that the reservoir thickness to measurement point distance ratio is too great to avoid exiting the sweet spot and that the survey calculation error cause image offset. It was concluded that GVR is a drillers tool for well placement. figs.

  7. The borehole dilatometer network of Mount Etna: A powerful tool to detect and infer volcano dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, A.; Linde, A.; Currenti, G.; Sacks, S.; Sicali, A.

    2016-06-01

    A network of four borehole dilatometers has been installed on Etna in two successive phases (2010-2011 and 2014). The borehole dilatometers are installed in holes drilled at depths usually greater than 100 m, and they measure the volumetric strain of the surrounding rock with a nominal precision up to 10-11 in a wide frequency range (10-7-25 Hz). Here we describe the characteristics of the network and the results of the in situ calibrations obtained after the installations by different methods. We illustrate short-term strain changes recorded during several lava fountains erupted by Etna during 2011-2013, and we also show signal changes recorded at all four stations during the lava fountain on 28 December 2014. Analytical and numerical computations constrained the eruptions source depth and also its volume change that is related to the magma volume emitted. Finally, we show the potential of the signal in the medium term to reveal strain changes related to different phases of the volcanic activity.

  8. IODP Expedition 340T: Borehole Logging at Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Blackman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 340T returned to the 1.4-km-deep Hole U1309D at Atlantis Massif to carry out borehole logging including vertical seismic profiling (VSP. Seismic, resistivity, and temperature logs were obtained throughout the geologic section in the footwall of this oceanic core complex. Reliable downhole temperature measurements throughout and the first seismic coverage of the 800–1400 meters below seafloor (mbsf portionof the section were obtained. Distinct changes in velocity, resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility characterize the boundaries of altered, olivine-rich troctolite intervals within the otherwise dominantly gabbroic se-quence. Some narrow fault zones also are associated with downhole resistivity or velocity excursions. Small deviations in temperature were measured in borehole fluid adjacent to known faults at 750 mbsf and 1100 mbsf. This suggests that flow of seawater remains active along these zones of faulting and rock alteration. Vertical seismic profile station coverage at zero offsetnow extends the full length of the hole, including the uppermost 150 mbsf, where detachment processes are expected to have left their strongest imprint. Analysis of wallrock properties, together with alteration and structural characteristics of the cores from Site U1309, highlights the likely interplay between lithology, structure, lithospheric hydration, and core complex evolution.

  9. Neutron transport measurements and source monitor development for uranium borehole logging sonde. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part discusses the design and results of a 252Cf-neutron and a 14-MeV neutron benchmark experiment for verifying previously developed theoretical methods for use in the design of a neutron logging tool for uranium borehole exploration. The second part discusses the Science Applications, Inc. (SAI) development of a fast fission monitor for measuring 14-MeV neutrons for a D-T borehole sonde in a high neutron moderating and absorbing environment. The 14-MeV pulsed neutron monitor was used in carrying out the 14-MeV neutron benchmark experiment, and a variation on the method of quantitatively counting many events in one burst of pileup counts, developed for the 14-MeV-pulsed neutron monitor, was employed in successfully counting the epithermal neutrons produced by a short (2 μs) burst of 14-MeV neutrons. Thus, the development of the 14-MeV-neutron monitor and the measurements with 14-MeV neutrons were intimately related

  10. Analytical analysis of borehole experiments for the estimation of subsurface thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso Lembcke, Luis G.; Roubinet, Delphine; Gidel, Floriane; Irving, James; Pehme, Peeter; Parker, Beth L.

    2016-05-01

    Estimating subsurface thermal properties is required in many research fields and applications. To this end, borehole experiments such as the thermal response test (TRT) and active-line-source (ALS) method are of significant interest because they allow us to determine thermal property estimates in situ. With these methods, the subsurface thermal conductivity and diffusivity are typically estimated using asymptotic analytical expressions, whose simplifying assumptions have an impact on the accuracy of the values obtained. In this paper, we develop new analytical tools for interpreting borehole thermal experiments, and we use these tools to assess the impact of such assumptions on thermal property estimates. Quite importantly, our results show that the simplifying assumptions of currently used analytical models can result in errors in the estimated thermal conductivity and diffusivity of up to 60% and 40%, respectively. We also show that these errors are more important for short-term analysis and can be reduced with an appropriate choice of experimental duration. Our results demonstrate the need for cautious interpretation of the data collected during TRT and ALS experiments as well as for improvement of the existing in-situ experimental methods.

  11. Geotechnical borehole testing report, Holtzclaw No. 1 well (PD-10), Palo Duro Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydraulic fracture tests were performed at five locations in the Holtzclaw No. 1 well. The rock units tested consisted of limestone, salt, anhydrite, and siltstone. Test zones were selected based on core logs, geophysical logs, and borehole televiewer logs. The orientations of the induced hydraulic fractures could not be determined by the borehole televiewer but were determined with impression packers. Horizontal stresses measured in the limestone, siltstone, and anhydrite are less than the overburden stress; the ratio being 0.6 to 0.7. The horizontal stress ranges from 1.14 to 1.37, although the latter value may be an overestimate. The relative magnitudes of the stresses are in agreement with results reported by other investigators, but the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress (N30/degree/E--N45/degree/E) does not agree with reported data from farther south in the Midland Basin. The minimum horizontal stress and the vertical stress in the salt are approximately equal to each other and to the overburden weight. The maximum horizontal stress in the salt could not be determined. The data obtained do suggest that the horizontal stresses are unequal, with the maximum horizontal stress oriented northeast. Rock tensile strengths calculated from the hydraulic fracture tests agreed well with laboratory results in the anhydrite and limestone zones. Tensile strength estimates in the salt were substantially higher than laboratory test results. 24 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Influence of borehole-eccentred tools on wireline and logging-while-drilling sonic logging measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David

    2013-02-13

    We describe a numerical study to quantify the influence of tool-eccentricity on wireline (WL) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sonic logging measurements. Simulations are performed with a height-polynomial-adaptive (hp) Fourier finite-element method that delivers highly accurate solutions of linear visco-elasto-acoustic problems in the frequency domain. The analysis focuses on WL instruments equipped with monopole or dipole sources and LWD instruments with monopole excitation. Analysis of the main propagation modes obtained from frequency dispersion curves indicates that the additional high-order modes arising as a result of borehole-eccentricity interfere with the main modes (i.e., Stoneley, pseudo-Rayleigh and flexural). This often modifies (decreases) the estimation of shear and compressional formation velocities, which should be corrected (increased) to account for borehole-eccentricity effects. Undesired interferences between different modes can occur at different frequencies depending upon the properties of the formation and fluid annulus size, which may difficult the estimation of the formation velocities. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  13. FLOZ-the computer program for the primary interpretation of nuclear borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the FLOZ program for nuclear well logging data interpretation. Program has been written in FORTRAN 1900 language for ODRA 1300 computers. The description of the program possibilities and the ways of its application are given. Short presentation of the interpretation method used here and the description of the program work with its complete listing, together with the explanatory commentaries are also presented. The type of interpretation performed by the program depends upon the kind of nuclear logging of interest. For neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma logging the program introduces the corrections for the following disturbing factors: the ratemeter time constant, the logging speed, the apparatus dead time, the gamma-ray background. The gamma-ray logging is corrected for the following disturbing factors: ratemeter time constant, the logging speed, the apparatus dead time of tool, borehole radius, gamma-ray absorbtion in the borehole liquid and the finite thickness of the layers. The calibration constant for gamma-ray probe can be introduced for calculations of radioactivity ore grades. The log deflections being the input data for the FLOZ program, are taken from specially prepared magnetic tape. The results of interpretation are written on magnetic tape, according to the X3GY system for the ODRA 1300 computers. The method of interpretation which is applicated in program FLOZ was elaborated by Prof. J.A. Czubek from Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow. (author)

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove approximately98% of the waste, approximately3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing borehole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team

  15. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Fractured Rocks around the In-DEBS Test Borehole at the Underground Research Facility (KURT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nak-Youl; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2016-04-01

    In the concept of the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes, canisters including high-level wastes are surrounded by engineered barrier, mainly composed of bentonite, and emplaced in disposal holes drilled in deep intact rocks. The heat from the high-level radioactive wastes and groundwater inflow can influence on the robustness of the canister and engineered barrier, and will be possible to fail the canister. Therefore, thermal-hydrological-mechanical (T-H-M) modeling for the condition of the disposal holes is necessary to secure the safety of the deep geological disposal. In order to understand the T-H-M coupling phenomena at the subsurface field condition, "In-DEBS (In-Situ Demonstration of Engineered Barrier System)" has been designed and implemented in the underground research facility, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) in Korea. For selecting a suitable position of In-DEBS test and obtaining hydrological data to be used in T-H-M modeling as well as groundwater flow simulation around the test site, the fractured rock aquifer including the research modules of KURT was investigated through the in-situ tests at six boreholes. From the measured data and results of hydraulic tests, the range of hydraulic conductivity of each interval in the boreholes is about 10-7-10-8 m/s and that of influx is about 10-4-10-1 L/min for NX boreholes, which is expected to be equal to about 0.1-40 L/min for the In-DEBS test borehole (diameter of 860 mm). The test position was determined by the data and availability of some equipment for installing In-DEBS in the test borehole. The mapping for the wall of test borehole and the measurements of groundwater influx at the leaking locations was carried out. These hydrological data in the test site will be used as input of the T-H-M modeling for simulating In-DEBS test.

  16. Barometric response functions from borehole water level records and quantification of aquifer vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odling, N. E.; Serrano, R. P.; Hussein, M.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.

    2013-12-01

    In confined and semi-confined aquifers, borehole water levels respond to fluctuations in barometric pressure and this response can be used to estimate the properties of aquifer confining layers. We use this response as indicator of groundwater vulnerability for the semi-confined Chalk aquifer in East Yorkshire, UK. Time series data of borehole water levels are corrected for Earth tides and recharge, and barometric response functions (BRFs) estimated using cross-spectral deconvolution-averaging techniques. The resulting BRFs are fitted using a theoretical model of the BRF gain and phase for a semi-confined aquifer (Rojstaczer, 1988) to obtain confining layer properties. For all of the boreholes, non-zero hydraulic diffusivities for the confining layer were found indicating that the aquifer is semi-confined. A ';characteristic time scale' based on the hydraulic and pneumatic diffusivities of the confining layer is introduced as a measure of the degree of aquifer confinement and therefore groundwater vulnerability. The analytical model assumes that the confining layer and aquifer are homogeneous. However, in nature, confining layers are heterogeneous and groundwater vulnerability dominated by the presence of high diffusivity, high flow pathways through the confining layer to the aquifer. A transient numerical model (MODFLOW) was constructed to test the impact of such heterogeneities on the BRF. In the model, an observed barometric pressure time series is used as a boundary condition applied to the upper surface of the top unit of the model (representing the confining layer) and BRFs determined from the time series of model heads in the bottom unit (representing the aquifer). The results from a numerical model with a homogeneous confining layer were found to accurately reproduce the BRFs from a modified version of the analytical model. The introduction of a localized, high diffusive block in the confining layer was found to modify the BRF, reducing the gain amplitude

  17. A Preliminary Assessment of a Deep Borehole disposal of Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Younmyoung; Jeon, Jongtae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of such radioactive waste as spent nuclear fuels (SFs) and other waste forms has been investigating mainly at Sandia National Labs for the US DOE as an alternative option. DBD can give advantages over less deep geological disposal since the disposal of wastes at a great depth where a low degree of permeability in the potentially steady rock condition will be beneficial for nuclide movement. Groundwater in the deep basement rock can even have salinity and less chance to mix with groundwater above. The DBD concept is quite straightforward and even simple: Waste canisters are simply emplaced in the lower 2 km part of the borehole down to 5 km deep. Through this study, a conceptual DBD is assessed for a similar case as the US DOE's approach, in which 400 SF canisters are to be emplaced at a deep bottom between 3km and 5km depths, upon which an additional 1km-thick compacted bentonite is overbuffered, and the remaining upper part of the borehole is backfilled again with a mixture of crushed rock and bentonite. Then, the total 5km-deep borehole has three zones: a disposal zone at the bottom 2km, a buffer zone at the next 1km, and backfill zone at the rest top 2km, as illustrated conceptually in Fig. 1. To demonstrate the feasibility in view of long-term radiological safety, a rough model for a safety assessment of this conceptual deep borehole repository system, providing detailed models for nuclide transport in and around the geosphere and biosphere under normal nuclide release scenarios that can occur after a closure of the repository, has been developed using GoldSim. A simple preliminary result in terms of the dose exposure rate from a safety assessment of the DBD is also presented and compared to the case of direct disposal of SFs in a KBS-3V vertical type repository, carried out in previous studies. For different types and shapes of repositories at each different depth, direct comparison between a DBD and a KBS-3 type disposal of

  18. Combined Borehole Seismic and Electromagnetic Inversion For High-Resolution Petrophysical Assessment Of Hydocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; G. Michael Hoversten; Ki Ha Lee; Gregory Newman; Kurt Nihei

    2008-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed between January 2005 and December 2007, under DOE research contract DE-FC26-04NT15507. The project is was performed by the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering of The University of Texas at Austin and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Office (NETL) and the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO). During the three-year project, we developed new methods to combine borehole sonic and electromagnetic (EM) measurements for the improved assessment of elastic and petrophysical properties of rock formations penetrated by a well. Sonic measurements consisted of full waveform acoustic amplitudes acquired with monopole and dipole sources, whereas EM measurements consisted of frequency-domain voltages acquired with multi-coil induction systems. The combination of sonic and EM measurements permitted the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties in the presence of mud-filtrate invasion. It was conclusively shown that the combined interpretation of sonic and EM measurements reduced non-uniqueness in the estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties and improved the spatial resolution of the estimations compared to estimations yielded separately from the two types of measurements. Moreover, this approach enabled the assessment of dynamic petrophysical properties such as permeability, as it incorporated the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in the interpretation of the measurements. The first part of the project considered the development of fast and reliable numerical algorithms to simulate borehole sonic waveforms in 2D, 3D, and radial 1D media. Such algorithms were subsequently used in the quantitative estimation of elastic properties jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. In the second part of the project we developed a new algorithm to estimate water saturation, porosity, and dry-rock elastic moduli jointly from borehole sonic and

  19. Using stochastic borehole seismic velocity tomography and Bayesian simulation to estimate Ni, Cu and Co grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Lorenzo; Gloaguen, Erwan; Rondenay, Stephane; Leite, André; McDowell, Glenn; Wheeler, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In the mining industry, classic methods to build a grade model for ore deposits are based on kriging or cokriging of grades for targeted minerals measured in drill core in fertile geological units. As the complexity of the geological geometry increases, so does the complexity of grade estimations. For example, in layered mafic or ultramafic intrusions, it is necessary to know the layering geometry in order to perform kriging of grades in the most fertile zones. Without additional information on geological framwork, the definition of fertile zones is a low-precision exercise that requires extensive experience and good ability from the geologist. Recently, thanks to computer and geophysical tool improvements, seismic tomography became very attractive for many application fields. Indeed, this non-intrusive technique allows inferring the mechanical properties of the ground using travel times and amplitude analysis of the transmitted wavelet between two boreholes, hence provide additional information on the nature of the deposit. Commonly used crosshole seismic velocity tomography algorithms estimate 2D slowness models (inverse of velocity) in the plane between the boreholes using the measured direct wave travel times from the transmitter (located in one of the hole) to the receivers (located in the other hole). Furthermore, geophysical borehole logging can be used to constrain seismic tomography between drill holes. Finally, this project aims to estimate grade of economically worth mineral by integrating seismic tomography data with respectively drill core measured grades acquired by Vale Inco for one of their mine sites in operation. In this study, a new type algorithm that combines geostatistical simulation and tomography in the same process (namely stochastic tomography) has been used. The principle of the stochastic tomography is based on the straight ray approximation and use the linear relationship between travel time and slowness to estimate the slowness

  20. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of cores from a 26 meter deep borehole drilled in Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, António; Vieira, Gonçalo; Ramos, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    During the month of January of 2008 a borehole (Permamodel-Gulbenkian 1 — PG1) 26 m deep was drilled on the top of Mount Reina Sofia (275 m a.s.l.) near the Spanish Antarctic Station of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Cores from1.5 mto about 26mdeepwere collected formeasuring several physical properties. The objective of the present work is to report the values of the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity that were measured in the cores fromthe borehole and the heat p...

  1. The use of borehole geophysical logs and hydrologic tests to characterize plutonic rock for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of an igneous rock body for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste will likely require the drilling and testing of a number of deep investigative boreholes in the rock body. Although coring of at least one hole at each Research Area will be essential, methods for making in situ geophysical and hydrological measurements can substitute for widespread coring and result in significant savings in time and money. A number of borehole methods have been applied to the investigation of plutonic rocks at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Canada

  2. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Borehole seismic studies of a volcanic succession from the Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands, northern North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowper, David

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Extruded basalt flows overlying sedimentary sequences present a challenge to hydrocarbon exploration using reflection seismic techniques. The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well on the Faroese island of Suðuroy allowed us to study the seismic characteristics of a thick sequence of basalt flows from well logs and borehole seismic recordings. Data acquired during the deepening operation in 1996 are presented here.The re-entry well found that the seismic event at 2340 m, prognosed from the pre-drill Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP as a decrease in impedance, was not base basalt and the deepened well remainedwithin the lower series basalts. Nonetheless, compressional and shear sonic logs and a density log were recorded over the full open hole interval. These allowed a firm tie to be made with the reflectedwavefield from a new VSP. The sonic logs show a compressional to shear wavespeed ratio of 1.84 which is almost constant with depth. Sonic compressional wavespeeds are 3% higher than seismicvelocities, suggesting dispersion in the basalt flows. Azimuthal anisotropy was weakly indicated by the shear sonic log but its orientation is consistent with the directions of mapped master joints in the vicinity of the well.The VSP downgoing compressional wavelet shows good persistence, retaining a dominant period of 28 ms at 3510 m depth. Average vertical velocity is 5248 m/s, higher than previously reported.Attenuation can largely be modelled by geometrical spreading and scattering loss, consistent with other studies. Within the piled flows, the effective Q from scattering is about 35. Elastic layeredmedium modelling shows some hope that a mode-converted shear wave may be observed at moderate offsets. Like its predecessor, the 1996 VSP indicates a decrease in impedance below the final depth ofthe well. However, it is unlikely to be basement or sediment and is probably an event within the volcanic sequence.

  3. Model experiments on imaging subsurface fracture permeability by pulsed Doppler borehole televiewer; Pulse doppler borehole televiewer ni yoru kiretsu tosuisei hyoka ni kansuru model jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Y.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports model experiments to evaluate flow rates of fluids passing through a fracture by using a Doppler borehole televiewer (DBHTV). A supersonic transducer disposed on a well axis transmits transmission pulses, and a transducer receives scattered waves generated by particulates in water and waves reflected on a well wall. This signal is applied with time gating to extract only the scattered waves from particulates in the vicinity of the well wall. Deriving spectra in the recorded Doppler signal obtains flow velocity components in the direction of the well radius. A model was made with a polyvinylchloride pipe with a diameter of 14.6 cm to simulate a well, to which an aluminum pipe with an inner diameter of 2 mm is connected to be used as a simulated fracture, and mud water is circulated in the pipe. The result of deriving a passed flow volume in this model by integrating flow rate distribution derived by using the above method to a predetermined range in the vicinity of the fracture showed a good proportional relationship with actual flow rate in the simulated fracture. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  4. System and method to create three-dimensional images of non-linear acoustic properties in a region remote from a borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  5. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  6. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  7. Chicxulub Impact Crater and Yucatan Carbonate Platform - Stratigraphy and Petrography of PEMEX Borehole Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Cirlos, A. G.; Perez-Drago, G.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Chicxulub impact crater is the best preserved of the three large multi-ring structures documented in the terrestrial record. Chicxulub, formed 65 Ma ago, is associated with the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary layer and the impact related to the organism extinctions and events marking the boundary. The crater is buried under Tertiary sediments in the Yucatan carbonate platform in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The structure was initially recognized from gravity and magnetic anomalies in the PEMEX exploration surveys of the northwestern Yucatan peninsula. The exploration program included eight deep boreholes completed from 1952 through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large complex impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the PEMEX decades-long exploration program. However, despite frequent use of PEMEX information and core samples, significant parts of the database and cores remain to be evaluated, analyzed and incorporated with results from recent efforts. Access to PEMEX Core Repository has permitted to study the cores and collect new samples from some of the boreholes. We analyzed cores from Yucatan-6, Chicxulub-1, Sacapuc-1, Ticul-1, Yucatan-1 and Yucatan-4 boreholes to make new detailed stratigraphic correlations and petrographic characterization, using information from PEMEX database and the recent studies. In C-1 cores, breccias show 4-8 cm clasts of fine grained altered melt dispersed in a medium to coarse grained matrix composed of pyroxene and feldspar with little macroscopic alteration. Clasts contain 0.2 to 0.1 cm fragments of silicate material (basement) that show variable degrees of digestion. Melt samples from C-1 N10 comes from interval 1,393-1,394 m, and show a fine-to-medium grained coherent microcrystalline groundmass. Melt and breccias in Y-6 extend from about 1,100 m to more than 1,400 m. Sequence is well sorted, with an apparent gradation in both the lithic and melt clasts. In this presentation we report on

  8. Safety considerations in the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in borehole facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in medicine, industry and research for a wide range of purposes. They can contain different radionuclides in greatly varying amounts. At the end of their useful lives, they are termed 'disused sources' but their activity levels can still be quite high. They are, for all practical purposes, another type of radioactive waste that needs to be disposed of safely. Disused sealed radioactive sources can represent a significant hazard to people if not managed properly. Many countries have no special facilities for the management or disposal of radioactive waste, as they have no nuclear power programmes requiring such facilities. Even in countries with developed nuclear programmes, disused sealed sources present problems as they often fall outside the common categories of radioactive waste for which disposal options have been identified. As a result, many disused sealed sources are kept in storage. Depending on the nature of the storage arrangements, this situation may represent a high potential risk to workers and to the public. The IAEA has received numerous requests for assistance from Member States faced with the problem of safely managing disused sealed sources. The requests have related to both technical and safety aspects. Particularly urgent requests have involved emergency situations arising from unsafe storage conditions and lost sources. There is therefore an important requirement for the development of safe and cost-effective final disposal solutions. Consequently, a number of activities have been initiated by the IAEA to assist Member States in the management of disused sealed sources. The objective of this report is to address safety issues relevant to the disposal of disused sealed sources, and other limited amounts of radioactive waste, in borehole facilities. It is the first in a series of reports aiming to provide an indication of the present issues related to the use of borehole disposal facilities to safely disposal

  9. Orientation uncertainty goes bananas: An algorithm to visualise the uncertainty sample space on stereonets for oriented objects measured in boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigsson, Martin; Munier, Raymond

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of structure orientations are afflicted with uncertainties which arise from many sources. Commonly, such uncertainties involve instrument imprecision, external disturbances and human factors. The aggregated uncertainty depends on the uncertainty of each of the sources. The orientation of an object measured in a borehole (e.g. a fracture) is calculated using four parameters: the bearing and inclination of the borehole and two relative angles of the measured object to the borehole. Each parameter may be a result of one or several measurements. The aim of this paper is to develop a method to both calculate and visualize the aggregated uncertainty resulting from the uncertainty in each of the four geometrical constituents. Numerical methods were used to develop a VBA-application in Microsoft Excel to calculate the aggregated uncertainty. The code calculates two different representations of the aggregated uncertainty: a 1-parameter uncertainty, the ‘minimum dihedral angle’, denoted by Ω; and, a non-parametric visual representation of the uncertainty, denoted by χ. The simple 1-parameter uncertainty algorithm calculates the minimum dihedral angle accurately, but overestimates the probability space that plots as an ellipsoid on a lower hemisphere stereonet. The non-parametric representation plots the uncertainty probability space accurately, usually as a sector of an annulus for steeply inclined boreholes, but is difficult to express numerically. The 1-parameter uncertainty can be used for evaluating statistics of large datasets whilst the non-parametric representation is useful when scrutinizing single or a few objects.

  10. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12–2...

  11. Hydrologic testing during drilling: application of the flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging method to drilling of a deep borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Berthet, Theo; Juhlin, Christopher; Niemi, Auli

    2016-09-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrologic testing during the drilling period. It is only done when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid due to penetration of a large-transmissivity zone. The paper proposes the possibility of conducting flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their hydraulic properties. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The method has been applied to the drilling of a 2,500-m borehole at Åre, central Sweden, firstly when the drilling reached 1,600 m, and then when the drilling reached the target depth of 2,500 m. Results unveil eight hydraulically active zones from 300 m down to borehole bottom, with depths determined to within the order of a meter. Further, the first set of data allows the estimation of hydraulic transmissivity values of the six hydraulically conductive zones found from 300 to 1,600 m, which are very low and range over one order of magnitude.

  12. Drilling of deep large boreholes for ultimate storage of waste materials dangerous to the environment in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new EH 1202 drilling machine was developed in the specially financed project 'Further development and testing of dry drilling technology' and the SBK 600 drilling head modified and put into service as SBK 602. The results of the entire technical development and testing of dry drilling technology are not only important for the drilling of boreholes for heat-generating radioactive waste. (orig.)

  13. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12...

  14. On the problem of efficiency of geophysical investigations in active well equipped with sucker-rod borehole pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are given of an analysis of the data on integrated geophysical investigations (radioactive ones inclusive) in active wells operated by sucker-rod borehole pumps. The analysis makes it possible to select the optimum set of measurements for such wells depending on the degree of flooding, the output, the nature of flooding of layers, and the mineral content of the deposit water

  15. A multi-scale case study of natural fracture systems in outcrops and boreholes with applications to reservoir modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal-van Koppen, J.K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fractured reservoirs are notoriously difficult to characterize because the resolution of seismic data is too low to detect fractures whereas borehole data is detailed but sparse. Therefore, outcrops can be of great support in gaining knowledge of the three-dimensional geometry of fracture networks,

  16. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole USGS 140 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole USGS 141 was drilled and constructed as a monitor well without coring. Boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 are separated by about 375 feet (ft) and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geophysical and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 required 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel well screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed about 50 ft into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, between 496 and 546 ft below land surface (BLS) at both sites. Following construction and data collection, dedicated pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Borehole USGS 140 was cored continuously, starting from land surface to a depth of 543 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole USGS 140 was about 98 and 65 percent, respectively. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, about 32 basalt flows and 4 sediment layers were collected from borehole USGS 140 between 34 and 543 ft BLS. Basalt texture for borehole USGS 140 generally was described as aphanitic, phaneritic, and porphyritic; rubble zones and flow mold structure also were described in recovered core material. Sediment layers, starting near 163 ft BLS, generally were composed of fine-grained sand and silt with a lesser amount of clay; however, between 223 and 228 ft BLS, silt

  17. Scientific investigation in deep boreholes at the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory, northeastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1994 to 1996, the preliminary investigation carried out by Andra, identified a sector favourable for hosting a laboratory in argillaceous Callovo-Oxfordian formation which has a thickness of 130 m and lies more than 400 m below ground level. In November 1999 Andra began building an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) with a 3D seismic survey over 4 km2. From 2000 to 2004, large programs of boreholes were carried out on site and on the sector in order to define the characteristics of formations, to improve the regional geological and hydrogeological knowledge and to provide an accurate definition of structural features in Callovo-Oxfordian argillites and Dogger limestones. These drilling programs have provided a fine characterization of the argillites on the laboratory area and a good correlation of geological properties at a sector scale. (author)

  18. Novel Chemically-Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealants (Ceramicretes) for Arctic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Godwin A. Chukwu; Gang Chen; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic borehole sealant, i.e. Ceramicrete, has many advantages over conventionally used permafrost cement at Alaska North Slope (ANS). However, in normal field practices when Ceramicrete is mixed with water in blenders, it has a chance of being contaminated with leftover Portland cement. In order to identify the effect of Portland cement contamination, recent tests have been conducted at BJ services in Tomball, TX as well as at the University of Alaska Fairbanks with Ceramicrete formulations proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The tests conducted at BJ Services with proposed Ceramicrete formulations and Portland cement contamination have shown significant drawbacks which has caused these formulations to be rejected. However, the newly developed Ceramicrete formulation at the University of Alaska Fairbanks has shown positive results with Portland cement contamination as well as without Portland cement contamination for its effective use in oil well cementing operations at ANS.

  19. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G - Newton's constant, and a dimensionless constant alpha. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that alpha is the fine structure constant ~1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of alpha. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the "dark-matter" effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.

  20. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: GN — Newton’s constant, and a dimensionless constant α. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that α is the fine structure constant ≈ 1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of α. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the “dark-matter” effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.

  1. Deep borehole investigations on the southwest side of the Asse anticline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of five deep borings on the south-west side of the Asse anticline, the roof rock strata series in the vicinity of the mine building erected eastwestwards, and potentials aquiferous geologic horizons were investigated. A seismic cross profile gives a survey of the whole geologic structure of the Asse salt mine. Geologic and hydrogeologic explorations of the roof rock were carried out to analyse the characteristic formation and stratification of the rock strata adjacent to the Zechstein salt anticline in respect of their water-carrying and water-impounding features, as well as the saliniferous interstratification in the Keuper, Middle Shell-lime and Upper Bunter. Geomechanic and sediment-petrographic laboratory investigations on drill cores made it possible to determine the stiffness and jointing of the roof rock strata. Using borehole measurements, rock parameters measured in situ by geophysical methods were determined and the roof rock lithology described. (HP)

  2. Thermal Fracturing of Geothermal Wells and the Effects of Borehole Orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Hals, Kjetil M D

    2012-01-01

    An enhanced geothermal system (EGS) expands the potential of geothermal energy by enabling the exploitation of regions that lack conventional hydrothermal resources. The EGS subsurface system is created by engineering enhanced flow paths between injection and production wells. Hydraulic stimulation of existing fracture networks has been successfully achieved for unconventional geothermal resources. More recently proposed concepts increase the use of drilled wellbores in hard rock to connect the injection and production wells. The present work investigates the long-term thermal effects of deviated geothermal wellbores and studies how the cooling of the borehole wall results in thermally induced tensile fractures. The results show that induced fractures are created by a combination of in situ and thermal stresses, and that the extent to which thermally induced tensile wall fractures are created largely depends on how the wellbores are oriented with respect to the pre-existing stresses of the reservoir. If the s...

  3. THREE-COMPONENT BOREHOLE MAGNETOMETER PROBE FOR MINERAL INVESTIGATIONS AND GEOLOGIC RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James H.; Olson, Gary G.

    1985-01-01

    A small-diameter three-component fluxgate magnetometer probe with gyroscopic and inclinometer orientation has been developed to meet U. S. Geological Survey design and performance specifications for measurement of the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field in vertical and inclined boreholes. The orthogonal fluxgate magnetometer elements have a measurement resolution of 10 nanoteslas (nT) and a range of plus or minus 80,000 nT. The gyroscope has an effective resolution of one degree, and the orthogonal inclinometers, 0. 1 degree. The magnetometer probe has been field tested in several holes drilled through volcanic rocks in Nevada. Results indicate that reversals of polarization can be detected, and some rock units in this area appear to be characterized by unique magnetic signatures.

  4. From arteries to boreholes: Steady-state response of a poroelastic cylinder to fluid injection

    CERN Document Server

    Auton, Lucy C

    2016-01-01

    The radially outward flow of fluid into a porous medium occurs in many practical problems, from transport across vascular walls to the pressurisation of boreholes. As the driving pressure becomes non-negligible relative to the stiffness of the solid structure, the poromechanical coupling between the fluid and the solid has an increasingly strong impact on the flow. For very large pressures or very soft materials, as is the case for hydraulic fracturing and arterial flows, this coupling can lead to large deformations and, hence, to strong deviations from a classical, linear-poroelastic response. Here, we study this problem by analysing the steady-state response of a poroelastic cylinder to fluid injection. We consider the qualitative and quantitative impacts of kinematic and constitutive nonlinearity, highlighting the strong impact of deformation-dependent permeability. We show that the wall thickness (thick vs. thin) and the outer boundary condition (free vs. constrained) play a central role in controlling th...

  5. Assessment of impact of borehole heat exchanger design on heat extraction/rejection efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gornov V.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the impact of design of borehole heat exchanger (BHE as one of the main elements of a geothermal heat pump system on its efficiency in the ground heat extraction/rejection. Four BHE modifications are considered: coaxial with metal and polyethylene outside tube as well as single and double U-shaped structures of polyethylene tubes. Numerical modeling resulted to data on the efficiency of these BHE modifications for rejection heat into ground (heat pump system in cooling mode, and ground heat extraction (heat pump system in heating mode. Numerical values were obtained and BHEs were ranked according to their efficiency in both operation modes. Besides, additional calculations were made for the most common modification - double U-shaped design - in the ground heat extraction mode for various tube sizes with various wall thicknesses.

  6. Improved vertical optical fiber borehole strainmeter design for measuring Earth strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Scott; Wyatt, Frank K; Zumberge, Mark A; Hatfield, William

    2015-11-01

    Fiber-based interferometers provide the means to sense very small displacements over long baselines, and have the advantage of being nearly completely passive in their operation, making them particularly well suited for geophysical applications. A new 250 m, interferometric vertical borehole strainmeter has been developed based completely on passive optical components. Details of the design and deployment at the Piñon Flat Observatory are presented. Power spectra show an intertidal noise level of -130 dB (re. 1 ϵ(2)/Hz), consistent within 1-3 dB between redundant components. Examination of its response to Earth tides and earthquakes relative to the areal strain recorded by an orthogonal pair of collocated, 730 m horizontal laser strainmeters yield a Poisson's ratio for local near surface material of 0.25 that is consistent with previous results. PMID:26628152

  7. Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zagorodnov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.74 m and 447.65 m (bedrock were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.. Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is −14.78 °C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15. A minimum temperature of −15.8 °C is measured at 173 m depth and basal temperature is estimated to be −10.2 °C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9 × 103 kg m−2 a−1 and basal heat flux (q of 88 mW m−2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15 over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique. From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=−16.2 °C prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to −14.2 °C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15 ≥ −15 °C. To facilitate

  8. Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zagorodnov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.18 m and 447.73 m (bedrock were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.. Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is −14.78°C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15. A minimum temperature of −15.8°C is measured at 173 m depth, and basal temperature is estimated to be −10.2°C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9×103 kg m−2 a−1 and basal heat flux (q of 88 mW m−2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15 over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique (Tikhonov and Samarskii, 1990. From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=−16.2°C prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to −14.2°C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15≥−15

  9. Analysis of borehole expansion and gallery tests in anisotropic rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Closed-form solutions are used to show how rock anisotropy affects the variation of the modulus of deformation around the walls of a hole in which expansion tests are conducted. These tests include dilatometer and NX-jack tests in boreholes and gallery tests in tunnels. The effects of rock anisotropy on the modulus of deformation are shown for transversely isotropic and regularly jointed rock masses with planes of transverse isotropy or joint planes parallel or normal to the hole longitudinal axis for plane strain or plane stress condition. The closed-form solutions can also be used when determining the elastic properties of anisotropic rock masses (intact or regularly jointed) in situ. ?? 1991.

  10. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, R T

    2006-01-01

    A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G - Newton's constant, and a dimensionless constant - alpha. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that alpha is the fine structure constant 1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of alpha. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the `dark-matter' effect in spiral galaxies, demonstrates the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning.

  11. EDXRF analysis of coal, shale and sandstone from boreholes of Jharia and Ranchi coal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major and trace element concentrations of relevant elements e.g. Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Rb and Sr in the coal, shale and sandstone samples collected in boreholes from two coalfields, i.e, Jharia and near Ranchi were estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXRF). The elemental profile in the coal samples reflected the elemental compositions determined in the shale and sandstone. Sulphur level in the coal samples, an important parameter for quality of coal was measured to be 0.93% w/w from Jharia field which was nearly two folds higher than the coal samples from Ranchi (0.5% w/w) area. Some of the trace elements in Ranchi coal were found to be significantly higher than the Jharia coal, which can be attributed to its higher grade and also difference in Provenance. (author)

  12. Simulation of borehole induction using the hybrid extended Born approximation and CG-FFHT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong Qing; Liu, Qing Huo

    2000-07-01

    We propose the hybridization of the extended Born approximation (EBA) with the conjugate-gradient fast Fourier Hankel transform (CG-FFHT) method to improve the efficiency of numerical solution of borehole induction problems in axisymmetric media. First, we use the FFHT to accelerate the EBA as a nonlinear approximation to induction problems, resulting in an algorithm with O(N log2 N) arithmetic operations, where N is the number of unknowns in the problem. This improved EBA is accurate for most formations encountered. Then, for formations with extremely high contrasts, we utilize this improved EBA as a partial preconditioner in the CG-FFHT method to solve the problem accurately with few iterations. The seamless combination of these two approaches provides an automatic way toward the efficient and accurate modeling of induction measurements in axisymmetric media.

  13. Improved vertical optical fiber borehole strainmeter design for measuring Earth strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Scott; Wyatt, Frank K.; Zumberge, Mark A.; Hatfield, William

    2015-11-01

    Fiber-based interferometers provide the means to sense very small displacements over long baselines, and have the advantage of being nearly completely passive in their operation, making them particularly well suited for geophysical applications. A new 250 m, interferometric vertical borehole strainmeter has been developed based completely on passive optical components. Details of the design and deployment at the Piñon Flat Observatory are presented. Power spectra show an intertidal noise level of -130 dB (re. 1 ɛ2/Hz), consistent within 1-3 dB between redundant components. Examination of its response to Earth tides and earthquakes relative to the areal strain recorded by an orthogonal pair of collocated, 730 m horizontal laser strainmeters yield a Poisson's ratio for local near surface material of 0.25 that is consistent with previous results.

  14. A FORTRAN algorithm for correcting normal resistivity logs for borehole diameter and mud resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Henry

    1978-01-01

    The FORTRAN algorithm described in this report was developed for applying corrections to normal resistivity logs of any electrode spacing for the effects of drilling mud of known resistivity in boreholes of variable diameter. The corrections are based on Schlumberger departure curves that are applicable to normal logs made with a standard Schlumberger electric logging probe with an electrode diameter of 8.5 cm (3.35 in). The FORTRAN algorithm has been generalized to accommodate logs made with other probes with different electrode diameters. Two simplifying assumptions used by Schlumberger in developing the departure curves also apply to the algorithm: (1) bed thickness is assumed to be infinite (at least 10 times larger than the electrode spacing), and (2) invasion of drilling mud into the formation is assumed to be negligible. * The use of a trade name does not necessarily constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  15. A hybrid method for estimating the state of stress in ICDP-sponsored deep vertical boreholes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimson, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has been the method of choice for estimating the state of stress around deep vertical boreholes for the last four decades, starting with the Rangely, Colorado and the Michigan Basin measurements (Haimson, Tectonophysics, 1975; JGR, 1977). However, recently considerable controversy has developed regarding the reliability of the maximum horizontal stress σH as derived from the classical interpretation of HF recorded data, especially at great depths. In addition, in very deep holes, HF tests are sometimes incomplete, yielding only estimates of the minimum horizontal stress σh magnitude (example: KTB, Germany; see Brudy et al, JGR 1997). As a result, an alternative hybrid method for constraining all three principal in situ stresses and their directions around deep vertical boreholes has been developed and used at several ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) sites. It involves HF tests for estimating σh, provided hydrofractures are vertical. The vertical stress σv is computed from the weight of the overlying strata. Assessing σH and its direction involves the use of geophysical logging such as the Borehole Acoustic Televiewer or the Formation Micro Imager. They capture oriented images of borehole breakouts, from which the oriented breakout span as it varies with depth is obtained. Laboratory true triaxial tests on specimens prepared out of core samples render the appropriate strength criterion for rock at the borehole wall. Using the condition of limit equilibrium between the local state of stress at the breakout-borehole intersections and the strength criterion, a non linear equation emerges from which the maximum horizontal principal stress is derived, thus completing the estimation of the prevailing state of stress. The use of this hybrid method is restricted to deep vertical boreholes that produce vertical hydrofractures and in which breakouts develop, with dimensions not affected by the drilling mud. Two ICDP

  16. Analyses and field tests of the hydraulic performance of cement grout borehole seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three tests are presented and analyzed in detail for determining the hydraulic properties of borehole seals as applicable to disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Two consist of monitoring the rate of injection of water at constant pressure into an injection zone at one end of a seal and monitoring the collection rate or rate of flow into a free-draining collection zone at the other end. The third test is performed by shutting in the collection zone and monitoring the buildup in hydraulic head. One-dimensional and axisymmetric three-dimensional flow models are presented for analyzing test results. In the one-dimensional models, the seal is assumed to be a homogeneous and isotropic porous medium, and the rock is assumed to be impermeable. In the axisymmetric models, the seal and the surrounding rock mass are taken as homogeneous and isotropic porous media. The equation for saturated, confined ground-water flow is assumed to apply. The hydraulic properties of the seal are expressed by its hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. In the axisymmetric models, the conductivity and specific storage of the rock mass are included in the formulation. A fourth test, a tracer travel-time test, is presented as a means for detecting any high-velocity flow path through or around the seal. Detailed and specific recommendations are given for conducting borehole seal tests. In principle, these methods also should be applicable to testing shaft seals and tunnel dams. In practice, complications will be encountered for the implementation of the tests on a much larger scale, but these complications should be resolvable. 154 refs., 79 figs., 38 tabs

  17. Estimation of horizontal stress magnitudes in a reservoir using sonic data from a deviated borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Bikash K.; Wendt, Anke S.

    2013-04-01

    Geomechanical analysis of sonic data from a deviated wellbore requires rotation of the formation principal stresses to those referred to the wellbore measurement axes. Sonic data and wellbore stability are influenced by these rotated stresses. Inversion of sonic data for formation stress magnitudes has been performed on a deviated wellbore located in the North Sea. The well azimuth is about 36.5 degrees from the maximum horizontal stress direction and a deviation of 35.2 degrees from the vertical. The logged interval comprised gas/condensate in the upper part, and water in the lower part. Production of the reservoir caused a decrease of pore pressure of up to 13.4 MPa in the gas zone and almost no reduction in the pore pressure in the water zone. The new inversion algorithm estimates the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses using radial profiles of the three shear stiffness moduli in the two axial and cross-sectional planes of a deviated borehole. This algorithm inverts differences in the far-field shear moduli together with the two difference equations obtained from radial profiles of the dipole shear moduli in the two axial planes between near and far radial positions from the borehole surface. Results for estimated horizontal stress magnitudes obtained in the depleted areas of the well showed significant differences from the nearly isotropic stress state before production. Estimates of stress magnitudes after depletion showed a sharp increase in differences among the three principal stresses from 2% before production to a ratio of overburden to minimum horizontal stress in the order of 10% to 20% and maximum to minimum horizontal stresses from 5% to 10%. The redistribution of formation stresses in depleted reservoirs is important for maintaining geomechanical reservoir and wellbore stability and has a considerable impact on reservoir management and subsequent drilling and completion decisions. Acknowledgement Schlumberger gratefully acknowledges the

  18. Geothermal measurements in the pilot-boreholes of the China Continental Scientific Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The geothermal measurements in the piIot-boreholes of the China Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) indicate that the temperature gradients in the target area of the deep drilling range from 19 to 26℃/km, which is lower than that (25-30℃/km) for the global continental area and similar to that for the KTB (21-28℃/km). Thermal conductivity measurements for 44 core samples show that the ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks have 50% higher thermal conductivity (with a mean of 3.94±1.26 W/mK) than that for the average value of the upper crust.The measured heat flow values vary between 76 and 80 mW/m2, higher than that for the global continental area (65±1.6 mW/m2) and the continental China (61±15.5 mW/m2)as well as the adjacent North Jiangsu Basin (68 mW/m2), but lower than that below 1000 m in the KTB (85 mW/m2). The elevated heat flow in the pilot-boreholes can be attributed to the lateral heat concentration due to higher rock thermal conductivity of the UHP belt than that of the adjacent rocks. Lower deep temperature in the target area of the deep drilling can be expected due to the lower measured temperature gradient, which means that the Sulu area is geothermally suitable for continental deep drilling.

  19. Stochastic estimation of aquifer geometry using seismic refraction data with borehole depth constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Hubbard, S.S.; Gaines, D.; Korneev, V.; Baker, G.; Watson, D.

    2010-09-01

    We develop a Bayesian model to invert surface seismic refraction data with depth constraints from boreholes for characterization of aquifer geometry and apply it to seismic and borehole datasets collected at the contaminated Oak Ridge National Laboratory site in Tennessee. Rather than the traditional approach of first inverting the seismic arrival times for seismic velocity and then using that information to aid in the spatial interpolation of wellbore data, we jointly invert seismic first arrival time data and wellbore-based information, such as depths of key lithological boundaries. We use a staggered-grid finite-difference algorithm with second order accuracy in time and fourth order accuracy in space to model seismic full waveforms and use an automated method to pick the first arrival times. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to draw many samples from the joint posterior probability distribution, on which we can estimate the key interfaces and their associated uncertainty as a function of horizontal location and depth. We test the developed method on both synthetic and field case studies. The synthetic studies show that the developed method is effective at rigorous incorporation of multiscale data and the Bayesian inversion reduces uncertainty in estimates of aquifer zonation. Applications of the approach to field data, including two surface seismic profiles located 620 m apart from each other, reveal the presence of a low-velocity subsurface zone that is laterally persistent. This geophysically-defined feature is aligned with the plume axis, suggesting it may serve as an important regional preferential flow pathway.

  20. Test-bench system for a borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianping; Ju, Xiaodong; Qiao, Wenxiao; Lu, Junqiang; Men, Baiyong; Liu, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool (BAAR) is a new generation of imaging logging tool, which is able to investigate stratums in a relatively larger range of space around the borehole. The BAAR is designed based on the idea of modularization with a very complex structure, so it has become urgent for us to develop a dedicated test-bench system to debug each module of the BAAR. With the help of a test-bench system introduced in this paper, test and calibration of BAAR can be easily achieved. The test-bench system is designed based on the client/server model. The hardware system mainly consists of a host computer, an embedded controlling board, a bus interface board, a data acquisition board and a telemetry communication board. The host computer serves as the human machine interface and processes the uploaded data. The software running on the host computer is designed based on VC++. The embedded controlling board uses Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Machines 7 (ARM7) as the micro controller and communicates with the host computer via Ethernet. The software for the embedded controlling board is developed based on the operating system uClinux. The bus interface board, data acquisition board and telemetry communication board are designed based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and provide test interfaces for the logging tool. To examine the feasibility of the test-bench system, it was set up to perform a test on BAAR. By analyzing the test results, an unqualified channel of the electronic receiving cabin was discovered. It is suggested that the test-bench system can be used to quickly determine the working condition of sub modules of BAAR and it is of great significance in improving production efficiency and accelerating industrial production of the logging tool.

  1. On the use of hydration heat for quality management of borehole heat exchanger grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suibert Oskar Seibertz, Klodwig; Händel, Falk; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing energy transition from conventional, fossil fuel based energy generation, over to renewable energy sources led to an increase in geothermal energy use. Different systems for extracting heat from the subsurface are in use, whereas a commonly used system is the borehole heat exchanger (BHE). A BHE generally consist of a closed loop pipe system through which a heat exchanging fluid is circulated. The BHE is surrounded by grouting. The grouting, focus of this work, has two main objectives to fulfill: Firstly, to thermally couple the subsurface and the BHE pipes; and, secondly, to protect the pipes and to prevent the heat exchanging fluid from entering the subsurface in case of BHE mechanical failure. Therefore, to provide proper functionality, efficiency, and safety of a BHE, it has to be guaranteed that the grouting does not have defects. The hardening reaction (hydration) of the grouting is exothermic, whereas the grouting is mostly a variant of (thermally enhanced) cement. The hydration temperature depends on the type of grout as well as the possible dilutions (resulting in defects) of the grouting material by water, air or drilling debris, and the thermal transport potential of the subsurface. Therefore the quality of the grouting can be investigated by temperature measurements during the hardening process. To validate this further, tests on field and laboratory scale were conducted. For laboratory testing, different columns were built in which different defects of BHE grouting and pipes were simulated. For defect simulation isolation and mixing with drilling debris were chosen, representing inclusions of water and/or air during cement casting as well as partial collapse of the borehole. The temperature changes during installation and hardening of the grouting are measured by fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). This allows for temporal and spatial high resolution, continuous temperature measurements at the interface of pipe to grout

  2. Thermal dispersivity based calibration of a numerical borehole heat exchanger model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Valentin; Bayer, Peter; Bisch, Gerhard; Klaas, Norbert; Braun, Jürgen; Blum, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Shallow geothermal energy is used worldwide as a heat and/or cooling source for buildings. The most often used technique to exploit energy from the subsurface is ground source heat pump systems in combination with a borehole heat exchanger (BHE). The BHE consists either of one U-pipe, two U-pipes or a coaxial pipe, which are inserted in a borehole. The remaining void space is filled with a grouting material to improve the thermal connection between the pipes and the subsurface and to protect the subsurface if there is a leakage in the pipes. In the pipes, a heat carrier fluid is circulated to establish a thermal gradient around the BHE and thus promote conductive heat transfer. This causes a temperature anomaly in the subsurface. Extension and magnitude of such temperature anomalies do not only depend on the amount of exchanged energy, but also on the characteristics of the ground and the installed ground source heat pump system itself. In this study, we developed a high-resolution finite element BHE model to simulate the heat propagation from a BHE to the subsurface or vice versa. First, the resulting heat propagation predicted by the numerical model is compared to the analogous analytical solutions. Then the numerical model is calibrated based on a large-scale geothermal tank experiment. The tank has a size of 9m × 6m × 4.5m (length × width × depth), and it hosts a layered artificial aquifer with four BHEs, which are surrounded by a dense temperature sensor network (> 150 PT-100 temperature sensors). In the tank, a hydraulic gradient can be established and thus groundwater flow can be imitated. By calibrating the numerical model, the sensitivity of longitudinal and transversal dispersivity values is evaluated. Our analysis cannot prove that the commonly assumed ratio of 1:10 between transversal and longitudinal dispersivity is correct. Rather, it is shown that there exists a wide range of possible parameter value combinations.

  3. Surface and borehole electromagnetic imaging of conducting contaminant plumes. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The EM source field is produced by induction coil (magnetic dipole) transmitters deployed at the surface or in boreholes. Vertical and horizontal component magnetic field detectors are deployed in other boreholes or on the surface. Sources and receivers are typically deployed in a configuration surrounding the region of interest. The goal of this procedure is to image electrical conductivity variations in the earth, much as x-ray tomography is used to image density variations through cross-sections of the body. Although such EM field techniques have been developed and applied, the algorithms for inverting the magnetic data to produce the desired images of electrical conductivity have not kept pace. One of the main reasons for the lag in the algorithm development has been the fact that the magnetic induction problem is inherently three dimensional: other imaging methods such as x-ray and seismic can make use of two-dimensional approximations that are not too far from reality, but the author does not have this luxury in EM induction tomography. In addition, previous field experiments were conducted at controlled test sites that typically do not have much external noise or extensive surface clutter problems often associated with environmental sites. To use the same field techniques in environments more typical of cleanup sites requires a new set of data processing tools to remove the effects of both noise and clutter. The goal of this project is to join theory and experiment to produce enhanced images of electrically conducting fluids underground, allowing better localization of contaminants and improved planning strategies for the subsequent remediation efforts. After explaining the physical context in more detail, this report will summarize the progress made in the first year of this project: (1) on code development and (2) on field tests of

  4. Negative hysteresis effect observed during calibration of the US Bureau of Mines borehole deformation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Bureau of Mines borehole deformation gauge (BMG) was designed in the early 1960's to allow rock stress measurements by the overcoring method. Since that time it has become a de facto standard against which the performance of other borehole deformation gauges is often judged. However, during recent in situ stress studies in the Climax Stock at the Nevada Test Site a strange ''negative hysteresis'' in the order of 300 to 500 microstrains was observed in standard calibration data. Here, the relaxation curve lies below the indentation (compression) curves as if the system were to somehow respond with an energy release. Therefore, a precision micro-indentation apparatus has been designed and used to perform a series of tests allowing a better understanding of the BMG button to cantilever interaction. Results indicate that the hysteresis effect is caused by differential motion between the button base and the cantilever resulting from the geometric motion inherent in the cantilever. The very large apparent hysteresis is mainly caused by cycling opposing cantilevers through the instrument's entire dynamic range, and the fundamental imprecision inherent in use of the standard micrometers to calibrate the BMG. Laboratory mean hysteresis magnitudes for a polished cantilever typically range from 3 to 25 microstrain for 100 and 1000 microstrain relaxations on 1000 microstrain deflection loops intended to simulate typical field data. The error percentage is thought to remain fairly constant with deformation loop size, and is sufficiently small such that it can be safely ignored. The hysteresis effect can probably be reduced, and instrument stability improved by machining a small 90 degree cone in the cantilever in which a slightly larger mating cone on the base of the indentation button would reside. 5 refs. 26 figs., 1 tab

  5. Blended head analyses to reduce uncertainty in packer testing in fractured-rock boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patryk; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2016-02-01

    Open boreholes in fractured rock often cross-connect fractures with differing hydraulic head and the head differences between these fractures cause vertical flow in the water column. This cross-connection has potential to bias transmissivity ( T) values obtained from straddle packer tests. This study demonstrates how measurements of the blended head in the open-hole segments above and below the straddle-packer test interval can be used to correct packer tests for cross-connection effects. A pressure response observed in the open-hole segment above and/or below the packers isolating a test interval during a hydraulic test indicates short-circuiting of water from the injection interval through the vertically connected fracture network to the open-hole segments, resulting in the overestimation of T. A method is presented using blended head concepts to minimize this error using a trial-and-error procedure to determine the short-circuiting flow rate to account for the head conditions in the open-hole segments during each hydraulic test. Observed differences between the measured head and the calculated blended head in the open-hole segments above and below the test interval are attributed to cross-connection effects around the 1-m-long packers. The head and corrected T values determined from packer tests are used to estimate the flow in and out of the open hole at each of the intervals tested for assessing the cross-connection effects under open borehole conditions. Understanding open-hole flow dynamics gives insight about the potential for vertical cross connection of chemical constituents caused by the open hole.

  6. Air - Ground - Bedrock Temperature Coupling, Its Monitoring at Borehole Climate Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermák, V.

    2012-04-01

    Reconstructing ground surface temperature (GST) histories from present-day temperature-depth logs is now generally accepted as one of the independent and physically justified method to obtain information about the past climate history on the time scale of hundreds to thousands years. Any temperature change at the Earth`s surface slowly propagates downward and deeper we go farther back in time the measured temperature carries certain memory on what has happened on the surface in the past. Due to diffusive character of the process, however, the resolution quickly decreases for the remote events and the reconstructed GST at a given moment is a weighted average of temperature over a certain period of time. For better understanding of the temperature state in the subsurface T(z) logs can be suitably completed with long-run temperature-time monitoring at selected depth intervals, namely within the near-surface active layer affected by seasonal temperature variations (usually uppermost 30-40 m). In addition to GST inversions applied on deep T(z) profiles existing all over the world, several permanent borehole climate observatories were actually established in the last two decades to test the validity of the assumption that GST variations track the SAT (surface air temperature) changes as well as to study various environmental/local effects, such as the vegetation cover type/change, rain/snow precipitation, thawing/melting/freezing, etc. which controls the whole heat transfer process. Long-term monitoring of the shallow subsurface temperature field in suitably geographically located sites may additionally also help to understand the different conditions in e.g. urban vs. countryside environments and to assess the potential anthropogenic contribution to the present-day warming rate within the natural climate variability. This presentation summarizes main results obtained at the Czech borehole sites since 1992 completed with brief comparison of similar results collected

  7. Borehole geophysics as applied to the management of radioactive waste: site selection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting research on borehole geophysics, including the application of well logging to the investigation of radioactive waste disposal sites. During the past 14 years, eight such sites have been studied. Geophysical well logging provides in situ measuring techniques which can be used to supplement conventional coring and water sampling techniques in both site-selection studies and in the monitoring of operating disposal sites. Some of the advantages of well logging over conventional techniques include the relatively large volume of rock investigated and the ability to measure temporal changes. Logging also reduces the amount of expensive coring required. Logs provide a continuous record of data that can be correlated from hole to hole. Data from geophysical logs can be interpreted in terms of lithology, elastic moduli, bulk density, porosity, moisture content, water quality, and the location and orientation of fractures. After a site is in use, borehole geophysics provides a means to monitor changes in moisture content, water level, and radionuclide concentration in either cased or open holes. Water samples, usually taken by conventional methods through wells, provide data only on the permeable intervals below the water table. Gamma spectral logging techniques provide data on the vertical and lateral distribution of contaminants. Radionuclides that have migrated have been identified at several sites. Detection limits on the order of 0.2 picocuries per gram have been attained for 60Co and 137Cs. A number of other gamma-emitting radioisotopes can be identified using in-hole gamma spectrometry

  8. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. A joint TEM-HLEM geophysical approach to borehole sitting in deeply weathered granitic terrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meju, M A; Fontes, S L; Ulugergerli, E U; La Terra, E F; Germano, C R; Carvalho, R M

    2001-01-01

    The accurate location of aquiferous fracture zones in granite beneath a > 50 m thick weathered mantle in semi-arid regions is a major hydrogeological problem. It is expected that the zone of intensive fracturing will be more susceptible to weathering and thus be characterized by the thickest development of saprolite, a good electrically conductive target for deep-probing electromagnetic systems. The single-loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) technique is well known to have the capability for detecting concealed steep mineralized targets in mining environments and can be adapted to this hydrogeological problem. We propose that combining the conventional frequency-domain horizontal-loop electromagnetic (HLEM) and single-loop TEM is an effective practical approach to locating concealed aquiferous fracture zones. In the supporting case studies presented here, we deployed multifrequency HLEM profiling (with 50 m transmitter-receiver separation) and TEM soundings with contiguous 10 or 20 m sided loops along the survey lines in a granitic terrain affected by deep (> 50 m) weathering in northeast Brazil. A somewhat layered structure consisting of resistive hardpan/leached zone, conductive saprolite, and resistive basement is identifiable in the typical TEM depth sounding data. We obtained coincident HLEM and TEM anomalies at all the sites, enabling a relatively straightforward selection of potential drilling positions. Simple resistivity-depth transformation of the TEM data was done for each site, yielding an approximate section from which drilling depths were estimated. All of the boreholes located were successful. Although our results appear to indicate that the single-loop TEM method could be used independently for borehole sitting in deeply weathered granitic terrains and that the weathering profile over granite can be mapped using TEM depth soundings of appropriate observational bandwidth, we recommend a joint electromagnetic approach for optimal well sitting.

  10. Justification Of The Use Of Boreholes For Disposal Of Sealed Radiological Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarling, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Soon there will be only 14 states in two compacts that are able to dispose of Low Level Waste (LLW): the Northwest and Rocky Mountain compact with disposal options in Richland, Washington, and the Atlantic compact with disposal options in Barnwell, South Carolina. How do states not in one of the two compacts dispose of their LLW? The Off-Site Source Recovery Project can take possession and dispose of some of the unwanted transuranic sources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, there will be no path forward for states outside of the two compacts for disposal of their non-transuranic LLW. A solution that has been much discussed, debated and researched, but has not been put into wide scale practice, is the borehole disposal concept. It is the author's position that companies that drill and explore for oil have been disposing of sources in borehole-like structures for years. It should be noted that these companies are not purposely disposing of these sources, but the sources are irretrievable and must be abandoned. Additionally, there are Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations that must be followed to seal the well that contains the lost and abandoned source. According to the NRC Event Notification Reports database, there were a minimum of 29 reports of lost and abandoned sources in oil wells between December 1999 and October 2006. The sources were lost at depths between 2,018-18,887 feet, or 600-5,750 meters. The companies that are performing explorations with the aid of sealed radiological sources must follow regulation 10 CFR Part 39. Subsection 15 outlines the procedures that must be followed if sources are determined to be irretrievable and abandoned in place. If the NRC allows and has regulations in place for oil companies, why can't states and/or companies be allowed to dispose of LLW in a similar fashion?

  11. Interpretation of chemical and isotopic data from boreholes in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of pore water from boreholes at Yucca Mountain indicate that unsaturated-zone pore water has significantly larger concentrations of chloride and dissolved solids than the saturated-zone water or perched-water bodies. Chemical compositions are of the calcium sulfate or calcium chloride types in the Paintbrush Group (Tiva Canyon, Yucca Mountain, Pah Canyon, and bedded tuffs), and sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type water in the Calico Hills Formation. Tritium profiles from boreholes at Yucca Mountain indicate tritium-concentration inversions (larger tritium concentrations are located below the smaller tritium concentration in a vertical profile) occur in many places. These inversions indicate preferential flow through fractures. Rock-gas compositions are similar to that of atmospheric air except that carbon dioxide concentrations are generally larger than those in the air. The delta carbon-13 values of gas are fairly constant from surface to 365.8 meters, indicating little interaction between the gas CO2 and caliche in the soil. Model calculations indicate that the gas transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain agrees well with the gas-diffusion process. Tritium-modeling results indicate that the high tritium value of about 100 tritium units in the Calico Hills Formation of UZ-16 is within limits of a piston-flow model with a water residence time of 32 to 35 years. The large variations in tritium concentrations with narrow peaks imply piston flow or preferential fracture flow rather than matrix flow. In reality, the aqueous-phase flow in the unsaturated zone is between piston and well-mixed flows but is closer to a piston flow

  12. Microseismic Monitoring Using Surface and Borehole Seismic Stations in an Oil Field, North Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hussain, I.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Kindy, F.

    2009-05-01

    Five shallow borehole seismic stations were installed to monitor microearthquake activities in a carbonate oil field in northern Oman since 1999. This shallow network of seismic station operated continuously until 2002 after which intermittent seismic recording took place due to lack of maintenance and failure of some stations. The objectives of the study are to determine the microseismic parameters in the oil field and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of these events to evaluate possible triggering mechanism. Well over 400 microearthquakes per year were recorded in the first three years of operation and after that the level of seismic recording fell to less than 200 microearthquakes per year due to failure of some stations. In March 2008, temporary seismic experiment consisting of five near surface seismic stations were installed in the oil field to augment the shallow network station and to evaluate surface installment of seismic instrument to monitor microseismic activities. It has been recognized that microearthquakes data such as size, spatial, and temporal distribution provide information on the pressure waves initiated by either production of or injection of fluids into reservoirs. A total of 44 local microearthquake events were analyzed and located during the temporary seismic stations deployment using a non-linear location software that allows the use of variable accurate velocity model of the subsurface. The events location is confined to oil field reservoir boundary during the recording period and more events occurring at shallow depth. The correlation coefficient between gas production and number of events is the higher compared with the oil production or water injection. The focal plane solution for the largest event in the sequence indicates normal faulting with extensional stress consistent with the existing mapped normal faults in the oil field. Microseismic signal clearly detected by the collocated sensors of the near surface

  13. Modelling of thermally driven groundwater flow in a facility for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report calculations are presented of buoyancy driven groundwater flow caused by the emission of residual heat from spent nuclear fuel deposited in deep boreholes from the ground surface in combination with the natural geothermal gradient. This work has been conducted within SKB's programme for evaluation of alternative methods for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The basic safety feature of disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is that the groundwater at great depth has a higher salinity, and hence a higher density, than more superficial groundwater. The result of this is that the deep groundwater becomes virtually stagnant. The study comprises analyses of the effects of different inter-borehole distances as well as the effect of different permeabilities in the backfill and sealing materials in the borehole and of different shapes of the interface between fresh and saline groundwater. The study is an update of a previous study published in 2006. In the present study, the facility design proposed by Sandia National Laboratories has been studied. In this design, steel canisters containing two BWR elements or one PWR element are stacked on top of each other between 3 and 5 kilometres depth. In order to host all spent fuel from the current Swedish nuclear programme, about 80 such holes are needed. The model used in this study comprises nine boreholes spaced 100 metres alternatively 50 metres apart in a 3{Chi}3 matrix. In one set of calculations the salinity in the groundwater was assumed to increase from zero above 700 metres depth to 10% by weight at 1500 metres depth and below. In another set, a sharper salinity gradient was applied in which the salinity increased from 0 to 10% between 1400 and 1500 metres depth. A geothermal gradient of 16 deg C/km was applied. The heat output from the spent fuel was assumed to decrease by time in manner consistent with the radioactive decay in the fuel. When the inter-borehole distance decreased from

  14. Emplacement technology for the direct disposal of spent fuel into deep vertical boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early sixties it was decided to investigate salt formations on its suitability to host heat generating radioactive waste in Germany. In the reference repository concept consequently the emplacement of vitrified waste canisters in deep vertical boreholes inside a salt mine was considered whereas spent fuel should be disposed of in self shielding casks (type POLLUX) in horizontal drifts. The POLLUX casks, 65 t heavy carbon steel casks, will be laid down on the floor of a horizontal drift in one of the disposal zones to be constructed in the salt dome at the 870 m level. The space between casks and drift walls will be backfilled with crushed salt. The transport, the handling und the emplacement of POLLUX casks were subject of successfully performed demonstration and in situ tests in the nineties and resulted in an adjustment of the atomic law. The borehole disposal concept comprises the emplacement of unshielded canisters with vitrified HLW in boreholes with a diameter of 60 cm and a depth of up to 300 m. In order to facilitate the fast encapsulation of the waste canister by the host rock (rock salt), no lining of the boreholes is planned. With regard to harmonize and optimize the emplacement technology for both categories of packages (vitrified waste and spent fuel) alternatives were developed. In this context the borehole emplacement technique for consolidated spent fuel as already foreseen for high-level reprocessing waste was reconsidered. This review resulted in the design of a new disposal package, a fuel rod canister (type 'BSK 3'), and an appropriate modified transport and emplacement technology. This concept (called BSK 3-concept) provides the following optimization possibilities: (i) A new steel canister of the same diameter (43 cm) as the standardized HLW canisters applied for high-level waste and compacted technological waste from reprocessing abroad can be filled with fuel rods of 3 PWR or 9 BWR fuel assemblies. (II) The standardized canister

  15. Elastic anisotropy and borehole stress estimation in the Seve Nappe Complex from the COSC-1 well, Åre, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Quinn; Almquist, Bjarne; Ask, Maria; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Zappone, Alba

    2015-04-01

    The Caledonian orogeny, preserved in Scandinavia and Greenland, began with the closure of the Iapetus Ocean and culminated in the collision of Baltica and Laurentia cratons during the middle Paleozoic. The COSC scientific drilling project aims at understanding the crustal structure and composition of the Scandinavian Caledonides. The first well of the dual phase drilling program, completed in Summer of 2014, drilled through ~2.5 km of the Seve Nappe Complex near the town of Åre, Sweden. Newly acquired drill core and borehole logs provide fresh core material for physical rock property measurements and in-situ stress determination. This contribution presents preliminary data on compressional and shear wave ultrasonic velocities (Vp, Vs) determined from laboratory measurements on drill cores, together with in-situ stress orientation analysis using image logs from the first borehole of the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides project (COSC-1). An hydrostatically oil pressurized apparatus is used to test the ultrasonic Vp and Vs on three orthogonally cut samples of amphibolite, calcium bearing and felsic gneiss, meta-gabbro, and mylonitic schist from drill core. We measure directional anisotropy variability for each lithology using one sample cut perpendicular to the foliation and two additional plugs cut parallel to the foliation with one parallel to the lineation and the other perpendicular. Measurements are performed using the pulse transmission technique on samples subjected to hydrostatic pressure from 1-350 MPa at dry conditions. We present preliminary results relating Vp and Vs anisotropy to geologic units and degree of deformation. Additionally, we use acoustic borehole televiewer logs to estimate the horizontal stress orientation making use of well developed techniques for observed borehole breakouts (compressive failure) and drilling induced fractures (tensile failure). Preliminary observations show that very few drilling-induced tensile

  16. 25 years long-term deformation at Mt. Etna Continuous Borehole Tilt and Vertical GPS Displacements recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Alessandro; Bonforte, Alessandro; Gambino, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    In the 1980s, shallow borehole tilt measurements saw a reprise in the monitoring of geodynamic active areas, while from the beginning of the 1990s the Global Positioning System (GPS) development also provided the opportunity to repeat geodetic measurements in geodynamic and volcanic areas. At Mt. Etna, the continuous measurements from shallow borehole tiltmeters have been successfully used to infer the mechanisms of magma accumulation and intrusive processes that foreran and accompanied the several eruptions occurring during the last thirty years on this very active volcano. The long-term deformation, associated with unrest and/or eruptive phases, is expected to be larger than tectonic deformation and therefore significant long-lived trends could be detected. For the first time, we present 25 years (1990 - 2014) of continuous borehole tilt recorded at Etna volcano at different stations and vertical displacement periodically measured by GPS. We analyze long-term series that comprise several main flank eruptions, which we believe are unique in the landscape of instrumental monitoring of geodynamic active areas. The good similarity of the patterns obtained from the two independent long-term measurements (borehole tilt and GPS) confirms the long-term stability of the borehole signals, the overall reliability of vertical GPS variations and provides robust support to the interpretation on the volcano dynamics. The tilt and GPS data series reveal that during this lengthy period, there were two primary volcanic phases: i) a major recharging in the period 1994 - 2001 that culminated with the two major explosive-effusive flank eruptions in 2001 and 2002-2003, and ii) a subsequent prolonged period of re-equilibrium that was accompanied by three other effusive flank eruptions and 44 episodes of lava fountains in 2011-2013. This highlights that, in the long-term (tens of years), a single strong recharge phase may not imply a following single main eruption, but could even

  17. MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AT THE BOREHOLE OBSERVATORY ON THE COSTA RICA RIFT FLANK (OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM HOLE 896A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eNigro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbiology of subsurface, hydrothermally-influenced basaltic crust flanking mid-ocean ridges has remained understudied, due to the difficulty in accessing the subsurface environment. The instrumented boreholes resulting from scientific ocean drilling offer access to samples of the formation fluids circulating through oceanic crust. We analyzed the phylogenetic diversity of bacterial communities of fluid and microbial mat samples collected in situ from the observatory at Ocean Drilling Program Hole 896A, drilled into ~6.5-million-year-old basaltic crust on the flank of the Costa Rica Rift in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from borehole fluid and from a microbial mat coating the outer surface of the fluid port revealed both unique and shared phylotypes. The dominant bacterial clones from both samples were related to the autotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing genus Thiomicrospira. Both samples yielded diverse gamma- and alphaproteobacterial phylotypes, as well as members of the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Analysis of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO genes (cbbL and cbbM from the sampling port mat and from the borehole fluid demonstrated autotrophic carbon assimilation potential for in-situ microbial communities; most cbbL genes were related to those of the sulfur-oxidizing genera Thioalkalivibrio and Thiomicrospira, and cbbM genes were affiliated with uncultured phyloytypes from hydrothermal vent plumes and marine sediments. Several 16S rRNA gene phylotypes from the 896A observatory grouped with phylotypes recovered from seawater-exposed basalts and sulfide deposits at inactive hydrothermal vents, but there is little overlap with hydrothermally-influenced basaltic boreholes 1026B and U1301A on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, suggesting that site-specific characteristics of Hole 896A (i.e. seawater mixing into borehole fluids affect the microbial community

  18. A scaled down laboratory experiment of cross-borehole pulse radar signatures for detection of a terminated tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Jung, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Se-Yun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2016-09-01

    In the cross-borehole pulse radar signatures measured near the front end of a terminated tunnel, the time-of-arrival (TOA) with fully penetrated tunnel is significantly shortened due to the relatively fast pulse propagation in an empty tunnel compared with the TOA obtained without a tunnel. To analyze the TOA variation with the protrusion length of the terminated tunnel from the line-of-sight between two antennas or boreholes, additional borehole pairs are required around the terminated tunnel in spite of their high construction costs. As an alternative, a laboratory scaled down experiment, which has a high ability to simulate different underground configurations, is designed for investigation into the TOA effects of tunnel termination. A round ceramic rod with a careful selection of its dielectric constant is immersed in pure water in a water tank and used to simulate the tunnel in the experiment. Coaxial fed dipole antennas with balanced wire and ferrite cores are used not only to suppress borehole-guided waves but also to generate a symmetric radiation pattern. The accuracy of the laboratory scaled down experiment is verified by the symmetricity of the measured diffraction pattern of the fully penetrated ceramic rod. Then, the TOA variation is measured for the protrusion length of the ceramic rod relative to the line-of-sight between two antennas from  +80 mm to  -80 mm with an equal step of 5 mm. Based on the scaled down experimental measurements of the TOA, it is found that a tunnel 1.2 m away from the measuring cross-borehole section closely approaches the scaled up variation curve under the same conditions of the protrusion length.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Boris, G.F.

    1999-10-07

    A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove {approx}98% of the waste, {approx}3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing bore hole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team.

  20. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole TAN-2271 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole TAN-2272 was partially cored between 210 and 282 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) then drilled and constructed as a monitor well. Boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 are separated by about 63 ft and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geologic, geophysical, and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 required 10-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 9.9-in. diameter open-hole completion below the casing to total depths of 282 and 287 ft BLS, respectively. Depth to water is measured near 228 ft BLS in both boreholes. Following construction and data collection, temporary submersible pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels.Borehole TAN-2271 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 33 ft BLS) to a depth of 284 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole TAN-2271 was better than 98 percent. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, material examined from 33 to 211ft BLS primarily consists of two massive basalt flows that are about 78 and 50 ft in thickness and three sediment layers near 122, 197, and 201 ft BLS. Between 211 and 284 ft BLS, geophysical data and core material suggest a high occurrence of fractured and vesicular basalt. For the section of aquifer tested, there are two primary fractured aquifer intervals: the first between 235 and