Even if people may always have been bored, ‘boredom’ as a phenomenon is not a universal feature of human existence. Rather it is deeply connected to organization as a reaction to the gradual emergence in Western culture of the management and administration of time. As an acquired capacity of those...... able to tell and endure time in an organized manner, boredom is a perceived loss of meaning inferred by the lived experience of a discrepancy between the involvement with transient means in everyday life and their value in a larger vision of existence. But boredom also signifies a concurrent protest...... against such a loss, which potentially leads new possibilities with it. In this essay, I explore the connection between boredom and organization, focusing on these two interrelated aspects of the phenomenon: how boredom can be understood as an experience of a loss of meaning, but also how this loss itself...
Eren, Altay; Coskun, Hamit
The authors examined the relationships among students' levels of boredom, boredom coping strategies, epistemic curiosity, and graded performance regarding mathematics lessons, with the intention to explore the mediating roles of boredom coping strategies and epistemic curiosity in the relationship between the level of boredom and graded…
The student who appears lazy, intentionally oppositional, or who seems to willfully ignore admonitions to pay attention, apply more effort, or to stop talking to his neighbor or texting may not be making voluntary choices. These students' brains may be responding to the stress of sustained or frequent boredom. Functional neuroimaging and…
Harju, Lotta; Hakanen, Jari J.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlates of job boredom in 87 Finnish workplaces (N = 11,468) and to examine the associations between job boredom, health outcomes, and job attitudes. METHODS: We applied the Dutch Boredom Scale to measure job boredom. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis and
Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt
Few studies have examined boredom as a central experience of everyday life. This article adds to the boredom-related literature by examining the role of boredom and boredom-aversion in the everyday life of young people confined in secure care for young offenders. Data are primarily drawn from an ...
Gibson, G.S.; Morales,
Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.
The subject of this analysis deals with the concepts of travel, leisure and boredom, with emphasis on the medieval period. What was travel to a man of the Middle Ages, and was there any place in his life for leisure, and especially boredom? Either in opposition to each other or one inside the other, homo faber, homo viator and homo ludens coexist. Entering the medieval imaginarium, we inevitably enter a sphere of three layers of societal stratification (oratores, laboratores, bellatores). The...
Fahlman, Shelley A.; Mercer-Lynn, Kimberley B.; Flora, David B.; Eastwood, John D.
This article describes the development and validation of the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale (MSBS)--the first and only full-scale measure of state boredom. It was developed based on a theoretically and empirically grounded definition of boredom. A five-factor structure of the scale (Disengagement, High Arousal, Low Arousal, Inattention, and…
Havermans, Remco C; Vancleef, Linda; Kalamatianos, Antonis; Nederkoorn, Chantal
In the present study it was investigated whether boredom promotes eating and if so, whether this effect likely reflects an increased drive for rewarding stimulation (positive reinforcement) or more plainly the drive to escape boredom (negative reinforcement). In the latter case, the valence of the stimulation should not matter and people might even be willing to look for negative stimulation, for instance to hurt oneself, just to escape boredom. In two parallel experiments, it was tested whether induced boredom promotes the consumption of chocolate (Experiment 1) and whether participants likewise are more inclined to self-administer electrocutaneous stimuli (Experiment 2). In both experiments, a total of 30 participants attended two separate sessions watching a documentary for 1 h (neutral condition) and a monotonous repetition of a single clip from the same documentary for 1 h (boring condition), in balanced order. During Experiment 1, participants had free access to M&Ms and during Experiment 2 participants could freely self-administer brief electrical shocks. It was found that participants ate more M&Ms when bored but also that they more readily self-administered electrical shocks when bored. It is concluded that eating when bored is not driven by an increased desire for satisfying incentive stimulation, but mainly by the drive to escape monotony. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Igou, Eric R; Sedikides, Constantine
We formulated, tested, and supported, in 6 studies, a theoretical model according to which individuals use nostalgia as a way to reinject meaningfulness in their lives when they experience boredom. Studies 1-3 established that induced boredom causes increases in nostalgia when participants have the opportunity to revert to their past. Studies 4 and 5 examined search for meaning as a mediator of the effect of boredom on nostalgia. Specifically, Study 4 showed that search for meaning mediates the effect of state boredom on nostalgic memory content, whereas Study 5 demonstrated that search for meaning mediates the effect of dispositional boredom on dispositional nostalgia. Finally, Study 6 examined the meaning reestablishment potential of nostalgia during boredom: Nostalgia mediates the effect of boredom on sense of meaningfulness and presence of meaning in one's life. Nostalgia counteracts the meaninglessness that individuals experience when they are bored.
Eastwood, John D; Frischen, Alexandra; Fenske, Mark J; Smilek, Daniel
Our central goal is to provide a definition of boredom in terms of the underlying mental processes that occur during an instance of boredom. Through the synthesis of psychodynamic, existential, arousal, and cognitive theories of boredom, we argue that boredom is universally conceptualized as "the aversive experience of wanting, but being unable, to engage in satisfying activity." We propose to map this conceptualization onto underlying mental processes. Specifically, we propose that boredom be defined in terms of attention. That is, boredom is the aversive state that occurs when we (a) are not able to successfully engage attention with internal (e.g., thoughts or feelings) or external (e.g., environmental stimuli) information required for participating in satisfying activity, (b) are focused on the fact that we are not able to engage attention and participate in satisfying activity, and (c) attribute the cause of our aversive state to the environment. We believe that our definition of boredom fully accounts for the phenomenal experience of boredom, brings existing theories of boredom into dialogue with one another, and suggests specific directions for future research on boredom and attention. © The Author(s) 2012.
Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle
To date, habitual entrepreneurship research has mainly focused on comparing novice with habitual business founders and creating typologies. The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain the underlying reasons why habitual entrepreneurs establish new businesses repeatedly and continually....... The case based, the study identifies eight factors, which contribute to consecutive venture creation. The findings suggest that boredom and passion are necessary conditions triggering habitual entrepreneurship. Other important mechanisms included the joy of discovering and exploiting an opportunity...
Akgul, Merve Beyza
High school students who do not have leisure skills are more likely to be bored during leisure time. The aim of the study is to examine leisure boredom of high school students based on some variables (gender and income), and to investigate the relationship between leisure boredom, the presence/absence of anti-social behavior and the frequency at…
Review Leisure boredom and adolescent risk behaviour: a systematic literature review§. Lisa Wegner, Alan J Flisher. Abstract. There has been very little research investigating leisure boredom and risk behaviour among adolescents in South Africa. A systematic review of literature was conducted to synthesise current ...
This paper recognizes that we become bored in our post-modern, consumerist Western world and that boredom is related to this existence and hidden within it. Through Heidegger, it seeks to provide a way to structure our understanding of boredom and suggest ways of acknowledging its cause, and then to allow it to liberate our authentic appreciation…
esteem and locus of control individually and jointly predicted boredom proneness amongst truck drivers. The same variables jointly accounted for 67% of the proportion of the variance in boredom proneness. Results of the 2 x 2 x 2 ANOVA also ...
Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van
Boredom occurs regularly at work and can have negative consequences. This study aimed to increase insight in the antecedents and processes underlying the development of work-related boredom by (a) examining whether work-related need satisfaction and the quality-of-work motivation mediate the
van Hooff, M.L.M.; van Hooft, E.A.J.
Boredom occurs regularly at work and can have negative consequences. This study aimed to increase insight in the antecedents and processes underlying the development of work-related boredom by (a) examining whether work-related need satisfaction and the quality-of-work motivation mediate the
Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D
Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The flow of time is experienced by humans although the exact nature of time is not well understood. The importance of time in human's life is not in dispute and is reflected by several dimensions like duration, which is best representing the naive meaning of time. Psychological time serves seveal important functions which are essential for being able to act and survive in a dynamic environment. In the present paper we argue that psychological time in the form of sensing the pace of the flow of time provides important information to the executive system which control and monitor behavior. When information processing load is below an optimal level for a specific individual, a feeling of boredom is raised. Boredom is accompanied by a slowing of the felt pace of the flow of time. Boredom is a unique mental state which is linked with decreasing efficeincy in cognitive and perceptual performance and is correlated with low job satisfaction and general well-being. As such, boredom poses a threat to normal functioning. We suggest that the felt slowing in the flow of time is a signal which, similarly to pain, is aimed at alerting the executive system that resources should be recruited in order to cope with the hazardous state.
The aim of the study was to examine the influence of motivational processes on enjoyment, boredom and intention to persist in the sport context. A total of 985 sportspersons ranging in age from 10 to 16 years (14.34±2.52), and from 24 different sport modalities participated in the research. A structural equation model was ...
Cummings, Mary L; Gao, Fei; Thornburg, Kris M
We review historical and more recent efforts in boredom research and related fields. A framework is presented that organizes the various facets of boredom, particularly in supervisory control settings, and research gaps and future potential areas for study are highlighted. Given the ubiquity of boredom across a wide spectrum of work environments--exacerbated by increasingly automated systems that remove humans from direct, physical system interaction and possibly increasing tedium in the workplace--there is a need not only to better understand the multiple facets of boredom in work environments but to develop targeted mitigation strategies. To better understand the relationships between the various influences and outcomes of boredom, a systems-based framework, called the Boredom Influence Diagram, is proposed that describes various elements of boredom and their interrelationships. Boredom is closely related to vigilance, attention management, and task performance. This review highlights the need to develop more naturalistic experiments that reflect the characteristics of a boring work environment. With the increase in automation, boredom in the workplace will likely become a more prevalent issue for motivation and retention. In addition, developing continuous measures of boredom based on physiological signals is critical. Personnel selection and improvements in system and task design can potentially mitigate boredom. However, more work is needed to develop and evaluate other potential interventions. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Reijseger, Gaby; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Peeters, Maria C W; Taris, Toon W; van Beek, Ilona; Ouweneel, Else
Boredom at work is a state of employee unwell-being that is characterized by relatively low arousal and high dissatisfaction. At present little is known about boredom at work. In order to facilitate future research, the current study introduces a brief self-report questionnaire that assesses boredom at work, the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS). We argue that (1) boredom at work can be distinguished empirically from related concepts such as work engagement and job burnout; (2) boredom at work results from having an unchallenging, "passive" job; and (3) the subsequent lack of challenge in the form of boredom may result in dissatisfaction with the job and with the organization. Using data from 6315 employees, factor analysis supported the factorial and discriminant validity of the DUBS vis-à-vis engagement and burnout. As expected, structural equation modeling revealed that demands and resources were negatively associated with boredom. Moreover, boredom at work was negatively related with job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and positively with turnover intention. These findings support the validity of the DUBS. Future research may focus on underemployment as an antecedent of boredom at work, and on the effects of boredom on job performance.
van Wyk, Sumarie M.; de Beer, Leon T.; Pienaar, Jaco; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.
Orientation: Boredom at work has been shown to be a concern for individuals and organisations. At the time of this research, no validated scale was available to measure and investigate workplace boredom within the South African context. Research purpose: To determine the psychometric properties of
Tze, Virginia M. C.; Daniels, Lia M.; Klassen, Robert M.; Li, Johnson C.-H.
Although past research has shown the benefits of using approach coping in dealing with negative emotions, little is known about how students cope with a common negative achievement emotion, boredom, across cultures. Therefore, the goals of this study were to validate the Boredom Coping Scale (BCS) in Canada (n = 151, mean age = 23.29) and China (n…
Koball, Afton M; Meers, Molly R; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Domoff, Sarah E; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R
The current study explored whether eating when bored is a distinct construct from other negative emotions by revising the emotional eating scale (EES) to include a separate boredom factor. Additionally, the relative endorsement of eating when bored compared to eating in response to other negative emotions was examined. A convenience sample of 139 undergraduates completed open-ended questions regarding their behaviors when experiencing different levels of emotions. Participants were then given the 25-item EES with 6 additional items designed to measure boredom. On the open-ended items, participants more often reported eating in response to boredom than the other emotions. Exploratory factor analysis showed that boredom is a separate construct from other negative emotions. Additionally, the most frequently endorsed item on the EES was "eating when bored". These results suggest that boredom is an important construct, and that it should be considered a separate dimension of emotional eating.
Luminița Anda Mandache
Full Text Available Bruce O’Neill, in “The Space of Boredom: Homelessness in the Slowing Global Order,” focuses his attention on the ways in which Bucharest’s poor, homeless, and once productive workers experience their exclusion from the city’s post-communist and now global economy, an experience embodied by a deep sense of boredom. The analysis is built on tracing and overlapping the daily life experiences of homeless people in different corners of Bucharest. O’Neill chooses to position boredom in relation to consumption, and in so doing, defines boredom as “a window into the cultural politics of exclusion in a moment of troubled global consumerism” (p. xiii. In this review, I briefly summarize the ethnography’s main ideas and focus my attention on a few elements that seem to be minimized in O’Neill’s analysis of boredom.
Klein, Verena; Jurin, Tanja; Briken, Peer; Štulhofer, Aleksandar
Much of the research on the association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and possible clinical relevant hypersexuality up to now has been only descriptive in nature. The present study aimed to explore the relationships among hypersexuality, ED, and sexual boredom in a sample of coupled community men. An Internet-based survey was conducted in two European countries. The sample included 911 Croatian and 210 German coupled men. The survey comprised the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory, the International Index of Erectile Function and the Sexual Boredom Scale. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine how ED, solitary sexual activities and sexual boredom were associated with hypersexuality. Among Croatian and German men, hypersexuality was significantly correlated with proneness to sexual boredom and more problems with erectile function. In some men, hypersexual behavior may serve as a coping mechanism for sexual fantasy poverty-associated boredom. In addition, ED within an intimate relationship can accompany this simultaneously. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Sumarie M. van Wyk
Research purpose: To determine the psychometric properties of the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS within the South African context. Motivation for the study: No reliable and valid scale for workplace boredom was available in South Africa at the time of the current research. Boredom at work has been found to affect organisations negatively in other countries. Insights are needed into workplace boredom and how it affects the outcomes of organisations in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was utilised. A random convenience sample (N = 490 was obtained from organisations within the manufacturing and logistics sector. In order to validate the DUBS, the factor structure, construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity and scale reliability were investigated. A mediation model was also tested with structural equation modelling to ascertain predictive validity. Main findings: The results showed that the one-factor structure of the DUBS could be confirmed and that this factor had acceptable reliability. In terms of convergent validity, all of the item indicators loaded significantly on the workplace boredom construct, and the relationship between workplace boredom and work underload revealed that they were positively correlated with medium effect size. Furthermore, work engagement and organisational commitment were correlated negatively in terms of practical significance with workplace boredom. A structural mediation model showed that work underload was significantly and positively associated with boredom, which in turn had significant negative relations to both work engagement and organisational commitment. No significant direct relations were found from work underload to either work engagement or organisational commitment. Instead, bootstrapping showed that there was an indirect-only relationship from work underload to work engagement and organisational commitment through workplace boredom – indicating full
Luminița Anda Mandache
Bruce O’Neill, in “The Space of Boredom: Homelessness in the Slowing Global Order,” focuses his attention on the ways in which Bucharest’s poor, homeless, and once productive workers experience their exclusion from the city’s post-communist and now global economy, an experience embodied by a deep sense of boredom. The analysis is built on tracing and overlapping the daily life experiences of homeless people in different corners of Bucharest. O’Neill chooses to position boredom in relation to ...
In a sample of 520 Chinese high school students, the present study aimed to replicate the prior Western findings about the relationship between achievement goals and academic boredom. Our findings indicated that mastery-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals predicted academic boredom, but mastery-avoidance goals and performance-approach goals did not. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Preckel, Franzis; Götz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne
Securing appropriate challenge or preventing boredom is one of the reasons frequently used to justify ability grouping of gifted students, which has been shown to have beneficial effects for achievement. On the other hand, critics stress psychosocial costs, such as detrimental effects on academic self-concept (contrast or big-fish-little-pond effect). The effects of full-time ability grouping in special classrooms for the gifted on students' academic self-concept and their experience of boredom in mathematics classes were investigated. The sample comprised 186 ninth-grade students (106 male) from eight classes at one Austrian high school. Four of these classes were part of a gifted track beginning from school year 9 on (N=93). Students were assessed repeatedly within the first half of the school year, three times via self-report questionnaires and once by applying a standardized IQ-test. Students in gifted classes reported a decrease in maths academic self-concept which was most pronounced early in the academic year. Interventions to counterbalance the negative effect of exposure to a high-ability reference group should therefore be implemented when ability grouping begins. No evidence for the boredom hypothesis was found (higher levels of boredom among gifted students in regular classes). However, students clearly differed in the reasons they stated for experiencing boredom. Boredom attributions changed over time and supported the assumption that gifted classes provide more appropriate levels of challenge.
Willging, Cathleen E; Quintero, Gilbert A; Lilliott, Elizabeth A
We examine the experience of boredom and its relationship to troublemaking and drug use among rural youth in southwestern New Mexico. We draw on qualitative research with area youth to describe what they think about drug use and how they situate it within their social circumstances. We then locate youth drug use within globalized processes affecting this setting, including a local economic environment with limited educational and employment opportunities for youth. Drug use emerges as a common social practice that enables youth to ameliorate boredom, yet only some youth become known as troublemakers. Study findings offer insight into how dominant social institutions-schools and juvenile justice authorities-shape the construction of trouble from the perspectives of youth. We contend that boredom and troublemaking among rural youth are not simply age-appropriate forms of self-expression but instead represent manifestations of social position, political economic realities, and assessments of possible futures.
Aim: This thesis discusses the relationship between college students' boredom tendency and attribution style as well as achievement motivation. Method: The author uses scale assessment on college students of boredom tendency scale, the inner-control scale, internality-powerful others scale and chance scale draw up by Leveson, as well as…
Melton, Amanda M A; Schulenberg, Stefan E
Logotherapy, developed by Viktor Frankl, posits that when one lacks meaning in life, boredom can result. Thus, the two constructs should be inversely related. To examine this relationship, 279 students (M = 19.8 yr., SD = 2.6; 179 women, 98 men) from a university in the southern United States were administered the Purpose of Life test and the Boredom Proneness Scale. As expected, a statistically significant negative correlation was found between the scores on the two scales (r = -.71). Directions for research are offered.
Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
The literature proposes that leisure boredom may systematically increase during adolescence. Moreover, some authors assume that this hypothesized developmental trend is associated with increases in youthful delinquency and depression. Individual dispositions (e.g., temperamental disinhibition) are believed to exacerbate the relationship between…
Sulea, Coralia; van Beek, Ilona; Sarbescu, Paul; Virga, Delia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.
Drawing on the Five Factor PersonalityModel and Self-Determination Theory, the current study examines the relations between three different kinds of well-being - engagement, boredom, and burnout- and personality, and evaluates whether basic need satisfaction has an incremental contribution over
Zhou, Mingming; Kam, Chester Chun Seng
Limited research has examined the mediational role of coping strategy in students' motivation and procrastination. In this study, we examined the relationships among self-efficacy, achievement goals, boredom coping strategies and procrastination with 506 Chinese college students. Data were collected via questionnaires. Structural equation…
Full Text Available Introduction: The main aim of this study is to improve our knowledge on binge drinking behavior in adolescents. In particular, we tested a model of predictors of binge drinking focusing on boredom proneness; we also examined the predictive and mediating role of drinking expectancies on binge drinking. Methods: A questionnaire designed to assess current drinking behavior, such as binge drinking, drinking expectancies and boredom proneness, was administered to 721 Italian adolescents (61% females aged between 13 and 19 years (M = 15.98, SD = 1.61. Results: Structural equation modeling confirmed the evidence on drinking expectancies as predicted by boredom proneness and as predictive of adolescents' binge drinking. Interestingly, disinhibition and relief from pain seem to play a more important mediating role between boredom and alcohol outcome. Conversely, no mediation was found for interpersonal and social confidence expectancies on binge drinking. Conclusions: In general, the results suggest that preventative interventions on alcohol misuse should focus on personality traits and underlying drinking expectancies.
Chaney, Michael P.; Blalock, Andrew C.
The authors collected surveys from 517 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from Internet chat rooms to examine the relationships among boredom, social connectedness, and sexual addiction. The results provide addictions professionals psychosocial factors to assess when working with sexually addicted MSM. (Contains 3 tables.)
Trunnell, Eric P.; And Others
Conditions conducive to mindfulness (being fully present and engaged in life as it is actually happening) enhance experiential learning and may be compared to Buddhist traditions of meditation. Among 164 Utah college students who participated in educational outdoor experiences, meditative techniques, such as mindfulness, reduced boredom by…
Willging, Cathleen E.; Quintero, Gilbert A.; Lilliott, Elizabeth A.
We examine the experience of boredom and its relationship to troublemaking and drug use among rural youth in southwestern New Mexico. We draw on qualitative research with area youth to describe "what" they think about drug use and "how" they situate it within their social circumstances. We then locate youth drug use within…
Eren, Altay; Coskun, Hamit
Using person-centered and variable-centered analyses, this study examined the relationships between undergraduate students' time perspectives and boredom coping strategies. A total of 719 undergraduate students voluntarily participated in the study. Results of the study showed that undergraduate students' time perspectives can be reliably defined…
The article presents the results of a study whose main aim was to investigate the changes in motivation, language anxiety and boredom in learning English in "Second Life." The sample consisted of 16 second year students of English philology. The study was conducted over the period of a summer semester. During that time the participants…
Jang, Eun-Hye; Park, Byoung-Jun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sohn, Jin-Hun
The aim of the study was to examine the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise. In addition to that, it was conducted to propose approaches for emotion recognition based on physiological signals. Three emotions, boredom, pain, and surprise, are induced through the presentation of emotional stimuli and electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature (SKT), and photoplethysmography (PPG) as physiological signals are measured to collect a dataset from 217 participants when experiencing the emotions. Twenty-seven physiological features are extracted from the signals to classify the three emotions. The discriminant function analysis (DFA) as a statistical method, and five machine learning algorithms (linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), self-organizing map (SOM), Naïve Bayes algorithm, and support vector machine (SVM)) are used for classifying the emotions. The result shows that the difference of physiological responses among emotions is significant in heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), skin conductance response (SCR), mean skin temperature (meanSKT), blood volume pulse (BVP), and pulse transit time (PTT), and the highest recognition accuracy of 84.7% is obtained by using DFA. This study demonstrates the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise and the best emotion recognizer for the classification of the three emotions by using physiological signals.
Cui, Guanyu; Yao, Meilin; Zhang, Xia
Class-related boredom is commonly experienced by students and it has an impact on their learning engagement and achievements. Previous research has found that perceived teacher enthusiasm might contribute to reducing students' class-related boredom. However, the mechanism through which perceived teacher enthusiasm affects class-related boredom remains unexplored. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of perceived autonomy support and task value in the relationship between teacher enthusiasm and class-related boredom. College students ( N = 734) completed questionnaires on perceived teacher enthusiasm, boredom proneness, perceived task difficulty, perceived autonomy support, perceived task value, and class-related boredom. Results showed that after controlling for the effects of demographic variables, boredom proneness, and perceived task difficulty, both perceived autonomy support and task value fully mediated the relationship between perceived teacher enthusiasm and class-related boredom. These findings suggest that students who perceive more teacher enthusiasm might perceive more autonomy support and task value, which in turn reduce the students' class-related boredom. Limitations in the present study have also been discussed.
Is it beneficial to use Internet-communication for escaping from boredom? Boredom proneness interacts with cue-induced craving and avoidance expectancies in explaining symptoms of Internet-communication disorder.
Wegmann, Elisa; Ostendorf, Sina; Brand, Matthias
The use of online-communication applications including messengers (e.g. WhatsApp) or social networking services (e.g. Facebook) on the smartphone has turned into daily practice for billions of people, for example during waiting times. An increasing number of individuals show diminished control over their usage of these applications despite negative consequences in everyday life. This can be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigated the effect of boredom proneness on symptoms of an ICD. It further examined the mediating role of cognitive and affective mechanisms, namely expectancies to avoid negative feelings online and cue-induced craving. The results of a structural equation model (N = 148) illustrate that boredom proneness is a risk factor for the development and maintenance of an ICD as it had a significant direct effect on ICD symptoms. Furthermore, boredom proneness predicted avoidance expectancies as well as cue-induced craving. Both in turn enhanced the risk of developing ICD tendencies. Moreover, both variables mediated the effect of boredom proneness on ICD and interacted among each other. In summary, the results demonstrate that people who have a higher susceptibility to experience boredom show higher expectancies to avoid negative emotions online, which promotes higher craving reactions when being confronted with specific cues (e.g. an incoming message), and could result in ICD tendencies.
Zondag, Hessel J
This article presents a study of the relationship between narcissism, overt and covert, and seven aspects of boredom, defined as listlessness, drawn out experience of time, depletion, lack of concentration, restlessness, experience seeking, and lack of interest. The survey was conducted using questionnaires administered to 32 men and 177 women. The mean age of male respondents was 30.9 yr. (SD = 11.9), that of female respondents 30.2 yr. (SD = 12.2). In general terms, covert narcissism was found to be positively, and overt narcissism negatively, associated with boredom. The results showed a more complex pattern than was found in previous research into the relationship between narcissism and boredom and suggest that overt and covert narcissism are at opposite ends of the adjustment continuum.
Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong
The present study sought to examine the relationship between Chinese high school students' academic self-efficacy and their academic-related boredom. Another objective was to explore the moderating effects of mono-amine-oxidase type A ("MAOA") gene polymorphism on this relationship. In a sample of 514 Chinese high school students, we…
Tanaka, Ayumi; Murayama, Kou
Despite the increasing number of studies examining the correlates of interest and boredom, surprisingly little research has focused on within-person fluctuations in these emotions, making it difficult to describe their situational nature. To address this gap in the literature, this study conducted repeated measurements (12 times) on a sample of…
Harju, Lotta K.; Hakanen, Jari J.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563
Building upon the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this longitudinal study examined whether job crafting behaviors (i.e. increasing structural and social job resources and increasing challenges) predict less job boredom and more work engagement. We also tested the reverse causation effects of
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to test the predictive power of dispositional orientations, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom in physical education classes, with a sample of 459 adolescents between 13 and 18 with a mean age of 15 years (SD = 0.88. The adolescents responded to four Likert scales: Perceptions of Success Questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Sport Motivation Scale and Intrinsic Satisfaction Questionnaire in Sport. The results showed the structural regression model showed that task orientation and general self-efficacy positively predicted self-determined motivation and this in turn positively predicted more fun and less boredom in physical education classes. Consequently, the promotion of an educational task-oriented environment where learners perceive their progress and make them feel more competent, will allow them to overcome the intrinsically motivated tasks, and therefore they will have more fun. Pedagogical implications for less boredom and more fun in physical education classes are discussed.
Full Text Available Facial analysis is a promising approach to detect emotions of players unobtrusively; however approaches are commonly evaluated in contexts not related to games or facial cues are derived from models not designed for analysis of emotions during interactions with games. We present a method for automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential tool for detecting stress and boredom of players behaving naturally while playing games. Computer vision is used to automatically and unobtrusively extract 7 facial features aimed at detecting the activity of a set of facial muscles. Features are mainly based on the Euclidean distance of facial landmarks and do not rely on predefined facial expressions, training of a model, or the use of facial standards. An empirical evaluation was conducted on video recordings of an experiment involving games as emotion elicitation sources. Results show statistically significant differences in the values of facial features during boring and stressful periods of gameplay for 5 of the 7 features. We believe our approach is more user-tailored, convenient, and better suited for contexts involving games.
Full Text Available Bruce O’Neill describes homeless men and women in Bucharest who could not navigate the downward spiral which followed the meltdown of the state-run economy after 1989. Deprived of the culturally treasured anchors of work, home, and family, and unable to participate in anything recognizably meaningful, these individuals are forced into a position of malignant contemplation, even when busy surviving. It is an experience of paralyzed restlessness which resonates with the ruins they zigzag through. The Space of Boredom captures this landscape convincingly, and in elegant prose. The book moves effortlessly from the discussion of scholarly works in a number of fields, to observation of sometimes cinematic quality. It is well argued, abundantly researched, and clear about its theoretical assumptions. If some questions remain to be answered, at least to this reader, this may be an artifact of background. Assumptions, including important ones about the nature of affects, and about boredom itself, may not be shared. Some questions of this kind will be raised in the following.
Gordon, W R; Caltabiano, M L
Australia's "sporting nation" image has been challenged by adolescents' decreasing involvement in active leisure pursuits. A significant number of adolescents experience leisure boredom and dissatisfaction, which have been implicated in drug use and delinquency. Researchers have largely ignored the multivariate nature of adolescent leisure experiences. This North Queensland, Australian adolescent leisure study explored the extent to which adolescent leisure experiences were mediated by individual and situational variables. Seventy-five Cairns and 65 Atherton high school students (66 males and 74 females) were surveyed from grades 8, 10, and 12 (ages 12 to 19), during normal class periods. The Self-Rating Scale (SPS) measure of self-esteem, Sensation-Seeking Scale Form II (SSS), Leisure Boredom Scale (LBS), and a time-use inventory yielded quantitative data. Urban adolescents reported less leisure satisfaction. Participation was highest for passive leisure and lowest for active leisure. Urban adolescents reported higher social leisure, while rural adolescents engaged in more passive leisure. For both Cairns and Atherton, the heaviest substance users were those who scored low on self-esteem and high on sensation-seeking. Atherton adolescents who scored low on self-esteem but high on sensation-seeking, reported the most crime involvement. Methodological issues and implications are discussed and suggestions made for future research.
Haller, Emil J.
In addition to specific occupational skills, vocational students must learn how to interact effectively with people on the job. The author discusses how job tasks affect interaction patterns and how these interactions affect the work. (MF)
Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe
Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious videogames can be effective. Support for serious videogames, however, is not universal. An informal Web search reveals numerous skeptics. Critics question serious videogames' entertainment value and, thus, their viability. "How can serious videogames attract and maintain players," the argument goes, "if they aren't as much fun as commercial titles, or even any fun at all?" This article examines the argument that, to be effective, serious videogames should be overtly fun and comparable to commercial off-the-shelf videogames. It explores differences between game developer- and researcher-led projects and discusses ways serious videogames can avoid boring and alienating players. It concludes that direct comparisons between serious and commercial game entertainment values may be misdirected.
Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious vide...
Among other things the implications of the findings in this study include the fact that deviant behaviours can be mitigated by optimal engagement of the adolescent time. Introducing counseling programmes, leisure time activities, sporting activities in our schools and community can be an effective mechanism to accomplish ...
Haller, Max; Hadler, Markus; Kaup, Gerd
The increase in leisure time over the last century is well documented. We know much less, however, about the quality of the use of leisure time. Quite divergent predictions exist in this regard: Some authors have argued that the new, extensive free time will lead to new forms of time pressure and stress; others have foreseen an expansion of…
Siegel, Jason T; Tan, Cara N; Rosenberg, Benjamin D; Navarro, Mario A; Thomson, Andrew L; Lyrintzis, Elena A; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Jones, Natalie D
The IIFF Model (Information, Immediate and Complete Registration Mechanism, Focused Engagement, Favorable Activation) offers a checklist of considerations for interventions seeking to influence organ donor registration behavior. One aspect of the model, favorable activation, recommends considering the emotional and motivational state of a potential donor registrant. Given that most donor registrations occur at the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), we considered whether emotions experienced while at the DMV could influence registration rates. The current research effort investigated the emotions people experience while visiting the DMV, explored whether these emotions are associated with donor registration intentions, and experimentally assessed whether DMV experiences influence donor registration. Three studies were conducted through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. In Study 1, we randomly assigned participants to either recall a prior DMV experience or to a comparison condition. Emotions associated with the recalled experiences were the dependent variable. Study 2 assessed the correlations between nine different emotions and donor registration intentions. Study 3 randomly assigned participants to recall a prior frustrating DMV experience or to a comparison condition. Intention to register to donate was the dependent variable. Study 1 found that recalling a prior DMV experience was associated with more negative and less positive emotions than the comparison condition. Study 2 found that increased levels of negative emotion could be problematic, as negative emotions were associated with decreased donor intentions. Study 3 found that recalling a frustrating DMV experience resulted in significantly lower intentions to register as an organ donor (vs. a control condition). Although not all DMV experiences are negative, these data indicated a relationship between the DMV and negative emotions; an association between negative emotions and lower donor registration intentions; and, a causal relationship between negative DMV experiences and decreased registration intentions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available AIMS - The aim of this study is to investigate the medicalising of gambling problems by comparing the political discussions on gambling in the Swedish Parliament in the early 1970s and the early 2010s. DESIGN - Against a theoretical background on medicalising processes in general, and medicalisation of gambling problems in particular, we have analysed discussion protocols and parliamentary bills in the Swedish Parliament from the years 1970-1975 and 2012-2013. RESULTS - The problem descriptions of the 1970s and 2010s are, in certain respects, strikingly similar, identifying proactive operators such as the gambling companies and highlighting an inadequate legal framework. But where the MPs of the 1970s put some effort into describing the drab society which fed the need for gambling, the elected representatives of the 2010s shortcut to individual dependence. CONCLUSIONS - EU membership and the development of the Internet have made effective control and regulation impossible in the early 2010s and the political handling of the Swedish gambling problem is therefore a clear example of how market liberalisation can pave the way for individualisation, medicalisation and depoliticisation of social problems.
Whiteoak, John W; Mohamed, Sherif
Systems thinking is a philosophy currently prevalent within construction safety literature that is applied to understand and improve safety in sociotechnical systems. Among systems, the site-project organizational system is of particular interest to this paper. Using focus group and survey feedback research to learn about how safety incidents effect levels of construction workers engagement this paper reveals how a safety incident provides an opportunity to create a potential quality (productivity) upgrade within an organization. The research approach involved a qualitative study involving 27 frontline supervisors and a follow-up survey completed by 207 frontline workers in the Australian Asphalt and Pavement Industry. The focus group interviews supported the articulation of the concepts of tacit safety, explicit safety, situational awareness, foresight ability, practical intelligence and crew synergy. Our findings indicate that having regular shift changes and other job site workers being fatigued are influential on perceptions of tacit safety. An individual's foresight ability was found to be the most potent predictor of worker perceptions of work engagement. The paper explains that relatively small improvements in worker perceptions of safety can bring about significant improvements in employee engagement and productivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin Heidegger (1989-1976) was convinced that we can learn something about the way we inhabit the world by turning attention to our fundamental moods. It was one important theme of his fundamental ontology in the 1920s. There is, according to Heidegger, an intricate connection between awakening our moods and developing a reflexive stance. He…
Rummel, J. D.; Race, M. S.
It may be hoped that an initial discovery of extraterrestrial life and its disclosure will be done by accident. An event of that kind would have its own dynamic, and while communications about the discovery might be strained at times, there would be less likelihood that lines of inquiry and discourse would have already been taken by the participants and the press. In an ideal world (or worlds), the discovery would come ready-made with a picture or pictures that would be useful as an immediate verification of its reality. But such is not the way of the real world (or worlds, apparently). Lessons learned from the publication of the ALH84001 results in Science magazine are indicative of what may be a more likely scenario. Nonetheless, even that publication was held in confidence for much of the time leading up to NASA's press conference, and the science team doing the work was accordingly insulated from press inquiry while the work was underway. Envisioning a Mars sample return mission, or other, similar sort of endeavor that may involve a dedicated team of scientists—working under continual public scrutiny—it is clear that the circumstances that surround any fundamental discovery about life in the sample would be quite different. Planning for a communications strategy to support the operations of a Mars sample receiving facility (or facilities) must take those circumstances into account. An optimization of the time spent communicating the results of the facility's work should acknowledge the time and effort required, and make provisions for the work to proceed without extensive interruptions—and without being influenced by the expectations of the press or the public. This paper will discuss some of the initial planning associated with the communications strategy surrounding such a facility.
Sasho Alexander Lambevski
Full Text Available Embodying signifiers of silent suffering, frequently envenomed by envy disguised as patronising pity, enraged as a result of admiration never returned, duped by their naïve belief in gay (capitalist Eden, stress-ridden, moving through a psychosocial reality that almost never fails to disappoint, split between a deadly wish to speak in monotone with their larynxes, bodies and dicks, and a little flicker that tells them to resists this urge, too many homo men express, in the guise of the composite character I describe below, the emotional battleground created by the new bourgeoisie’s deployment of the breathtakingly beautiful masculine homo male body as a sign/image vehicle in asserting its own social domination in a late capitalist society. The character I develop here can be read as a simulation and fabulation of the homonormative new bourgeois self as a syndrome with a range of affective cripplings coming from the technologically assisted channelling of homosexual desire via the mass circulation of the imaginary of the homo new bourgeoisie.
Newhouse, Christopher Paul
The well-being of modern economies and societies is increasingly requiring citizens to possess capabilities in integrating knowledge and skills in science, technology, engineering and science to solve problems. However, by the end of schooling, the majority of Australian students show little interest in these discipline areas and have no plans to continue study or work in them; many refer to these disciplines as boring. Further, they typically have little experience in integrating knowledge and skills from these disciplines and/or in applying this to solve relevant problems. Therefore, there is a need to engage students with such learning experiences to develop their interest and capabilities, particularly during the early years of secondary schooling. This is not easy for teachers to respond to, but with the support of modern digital technologies and the new Australian curriculum, the potential is expanded and the challenge is more readily achievable. However, appropriate pedagogies need to be supported that include more authentic approaches to assessment. Learning activities need to support students to integrate knowledge and skills across discipline areas in tackling real problems, and this also needs to be reflected in how students are assessed. In this paper, I will draw on personal experience as a teacher, a review of recent literature, components of the Australian Curriculum, and findings from research projects associated with my University research centre, to argue for, and illustrate how, teachers can orchestrate powerful learning activities to promote an interdisciplinary approach to STEM.
Bolkan, San; Griffin, Darrin J.
This study was conducted to determine how various teaching behaviors influence students' emotional and cognitive experiences in class, and how these experiences relate to students' use of cell phones while considering contextual factors that might influence this outcome. Two hundred and seventy-four students responded to questions regarding their…
Frandsen, Henrik Vase
Atheism, boredom, causa sui, divinity, gift, God, icon, idol, Marion, metaphysics, negative theology, ontology, phenomenology, praise......Atheism, boredom, causa sui, divinity, gift, God, icon, idol, Marion, metaphysics, negative theology, ontology, phenomenology, praise...
Velasco Caballero, Sergio
[EN] We introduce to conscious processes that support the notion of boredom as limiting emotion of creativity and, by extension, of the artistic experience. By revealing his separatist nature of judgment before the world, the western interpretation of stigmatic boredom passes to regard it shyly as a creative effect. This is due to the use of innocent thinking that is the basis for taking consciousness of our creativity, which can be projected finally like boredom [ES] Introducción a los pr...
Kass, Steven J.; Vodanovich, Stephen J.; Khosravi, Jasmine Y.
Boredom is one of the most common complaints among university students, with studies suggesting its link to poor grades, drop out, and behavioral problems. Principles borrowed from industrial-organizational psychology may help prevent boredom and enrich the classroom experience. In the current study, we applied the core dimensions of the job…
... known cause) may be a sign of a sleep disorder. Depression , anxiety , stress , and boredom can all contribute ... tranquilizers, sleeping pills, antihistamines) Not sleeping long enough Sleep disorders (such as sleep apnea and narcolepsy ) Too much ...
Full Text Available ... Year Award Step therapy legislation Scope of practice Melanoma state reporting FSMB Interstate Compact Legislative Conference Position ... as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During spaceflight, mealtime plays a primary role in psychological well-being of the crew by contributing to stress reduction, boredom relief and group unity. During...
Full Text Available ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help ... of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you ...
... gestures may be used to get attention or manipulate others. Impulsive actions, chronic feelings of boredom or ... carried to an extreme, when they endure over time and when they interfere with healthy functioning, a ...
Full Text Available ... nails feel sore, and it can damage the tissue that makes nails grow, resulting in abnormal-looking ... as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can ...
Williams, Tim Ivor; Rose, Rebecca; Chisholm, Sarah
To compare the frequency of nail biting in 4 settings (interventions) designed to elicit the functions of nail biting and to compare the results with a self-report questionnaire about the functions of nail biting. Randomised allocation of participants to order of conditions. University Psychology Department. Forty undergraduates who reported biting their nails. Left alone (boredom), solving maths problems (frustration), reprimanded for nail biting (contingent attention), continuous conversation (noncontingent attention). Number of times the undergraduates bit their nails. Nail biting occurred most often in two conditions, boredom and frustration. Nail biting in young adults occurs as a result of boredom or working on difficult problems, which may reflect a particular emotional state. It occurs least often when people are engaged in social interaction or when they are reprimanded for the behavior.
Erz, Antonia; Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Heeris Christensen, Anna-Bertha
This study adopts an identity perspective to explore the transformational power of fashion blogging on consumer bloggers’ self-concepts. Blog post data and in-depth interviews reveal the changing self-concept of consumers who have started fashion blogging out of curiosity or boredom but, through ...... understanding of consumer bloggers in the fashion industry.......This study adopts an identity perspective to explore the transformational power of fashion blogging on consumer bloggers’ self-concepts. Blog post data and in-depth interviews reveal the changing self-concept of consumers who have started fashion blogging out of curiosity or boredom but, through...
Taylor, Frederick E.
Four authors present arguments and counter-arguments on issues in gifted education, including student boredom, the atrophying of abilities not used, advanced classes which focus on ability but are out of step with student interests, problems of social adjustment in grade-skipping, etc. All authors stress the importance of the whole child. (JDD)
Sharp, Erin Hiley; Coffman, Donna L.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Wegner, Lisa; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Catherine
Using seven waves of data, collected twice a year from the 8th through the 11th grades in a low-resource community in Cape Town, South Africa, we aimed to describe the developmental trends in three specific leisure experiences (leisure boredom, new leisure interests, and healthy leisure) and substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana)…
different but interrelated states, including sleep deprivation , physical exhaustion, time on task, visual fatigue, mental fatigue, boredom, and...8 Human Variability Example #2: Effect of Prior State on Evoked Neural...email@example.com P. Khooshabeh Cognitive Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD, USA e-mail
... intertwined. Anger, stress, grief and boredom can trigger emotional eating. If you have a history of an eating disorder, weight loss can be even trickier. To prepare for the challenges, identify any emotional issues related to food. Talk to your doctor ...
Janeja, Manpreet Kaur; Bandak, Andreas
We all wait – in traffic jams, passport offices, school meal queues, for better weather, an end to fighting, peace. Time spent waiting produces hope, boredom, anxiety, doubt, or uncertainty. Ethnographies of Waiting explores the social phenomenon of waiting and its centrality in human society...
Hackathorn, Jana; Ashdown, Brien
To teach statistics, teachers must attempt to overcome pedagogical obstacles, such as dread, anxiety, and boredom. There are many options available to teachers that facilitate a pedagogically conducive environment in the classroom. The current study examined the effectiveness of incorporating scripted stories and humor into statistical method…
This paper asks what role "play" plays in writing and how it can help a writer, whatever dread, boredom, skill, or ethnicity he/she brings to writing. Some of the ideas in the paper come from Africa, courtesy of Robert Farris Thompson. In his "philosophy of discourse" discussed in the paper, Thompson speaks of the "big…
Kunkel, Mark A.; And Others
Eighty-five gifted junior high students in a summer enrichment program responded to a probe designed to elicit their spontaneous perspectives on their experience of giftedness. Results yielded comments in the following eight constructs: confusion, boredom, perfection, ridicule, loneliness, uniqueness, burdened, and altruistic. (JDD)
Goetz, Thomas; Cronjaeger, Hanna; Frenzel, Anne C.; Ludtke, Oliver; Hall, Nathan C.
The present study investigated the relations between academic self-concepts and the emotions of enjoyment, pride, anxiety, anger, and boredom as experienced in mathematics, physics, German, and English classes (N=1710; grades 8 and 11). In line with our hypotheses derived from appraisal-based emotion theories and self-efficacy research,…
Goetz, Thomas; Nett, Ulrike E.; Martiny, Sarah E.; Hall, Nathan C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Dettmers, Swantje; Trautwein, Ulrich
In the present study (N = 553; 8th and 11th grade students; 52% female) we investigated students' enjoyment, pride, anxiety, anger, and boredom while completing homework (homework emotions), and contrasted these emotions with those experienced during class (classroom emotions). Both homework emotions and classroom emotions were assessed separately…
This thesis embarks from the idea that aesthetic appreciation of product designs is determined by simultaneously perceiving the two partially opposing dimensions of unity and variety. People actively avoid boredom by searching for variety because it challenges the senses and offers the potential of
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Sarauw, Laura Louise; Filippakou, Ourania
’ experiences of time – and critically reflects the changes that the recent policy acts in Denmark and UK may involve in their temporalities of learning. In doing so, we explore concepts of time that also allow for understanding of the learning potential in warped temporalities like boredom, procrastination...
Leptokaridou, Elisavet T.; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.
The present study examined the efficacy of autonomy-supportive teaching during elementary school physical education (PE) in influencing pupils' enjoyment, fear of failure, boredom and effort. A sample of 54 pupils attending fifth and sixth grades comprised the control group (typical instruction; n = 27) and the experimental group…
Niculescu, Alexandra C.; Templelaar, Dirk; Leppink, Jimmie; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim
Introduction: This study examined the predictive value of four learning-related emotions--Enjoyment, Anxiety, Boredom and Hopelessness for achievement outcomes in the first year of study at university. Method: We used a large sample (N = 2337) of first year university students enrolled over three consecutive academic years in a mathematics and…
psychological problems, easy availability, lack of educational and employment opportunities, boredom ... prices of drugs, packaging and distribution mechanisms, and usage patterns. All FGs were conducted in ...... A review of policy-relevant strategies and interventions to address the burden of alcohol on individuals and ...
Jun 10, 2011 ... Lack of motivation, memory lapses, boredom, and preoccupation with body weight, build and image, may ... among adolescents.7-9 However, this method relies on memory, and the participants' subjective perception ..... Red meat, pork, entrails, chicken, fish, processed meat and eggs. Fruit and vegetables.
This article analyses the relationship between time and subjectification, focusing on the temporal structures created within Danish asylum centres and politics, and on children's experiences of and reactions to open-ended waiting. Such waiting leads to existential boredom which manifests in the children as restlessness, fatigue and despair. The…
Ahmed, Wondimu; van der Werf, Greetje; Kuyper, Hans; Minnaert, Alexander
The purpose of the current study was twofold: (a) to investigate the developmental trends of 4 academic emotions (anxiety, boredom, enjoyment, and pride) and (b) to examine whether changes in emotions are linked to the changes in students' self-regulatory strategies (shallow, deep, and
R. Rehman (Rosmi)
htmlabstractCompanies and service providers are deeply interested on the impact their products have on people. Physiological sensors (GSR, ECG..) are useful means to understand the user's experience: their interest on an activity, their engagement, or their boredom. In this thesis we analyzed the
Full Text Available The study investigated the role of motivation and metacognition in the formation of cognitive and affective outcomes from participation in physical education lessons within the framework of self-determination theory. A sample of 630 adolescents (M age = 14.06, SD = .29 participated in the study. Participants completed questionnaires including measures of perceived autonomy support in PE, autonomous motivation in PE, metacognitive processes in PE, enjoyment, boredom in PE and intention for leisure-time physical activity. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that perceptions of autonomy supportive motivational climate significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions towards leisure-time physical activity. In addition autonomous motivation and metacognition significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions, whereas controlling motivation was a significant predictor of boredom. Multiple mediation modeling indicated that perceptions of autonomy supporting climate on these responses was mediated mainly by autonomous motivation and metacognition. The findings of the present study provide valuable information on the mediating role of autonomous motivation and metacognition on the effects of autonomy supportive motivational climate on students’ cognitive and affective responses during physical education lessons.
and why Training Type and quality Intent Motive Intrinsic Personal rewards to act on the threat-bragging rights, knowledge, justify skills...satisfy boredom, patriotism, or hacktivist a llegiance Extrinsic External rewards to act on the threat- fame, money--or to avoid punishment...Stakeholders Threat impact on shareholders, board of directors, or employees Culture How the threat affects legaljregulatory requirements, network
Peixoto, Francisco; Sanches, Cristina; Mata, Lourdes; Monteiro, Vera
This study analyzes the relationships between cognitive appraisals, classroom and test emotions, and math achievement in a sample of 1,219 Portuguese students from the 6th and 8th grades. Participants completed measures of perceived value, perceived competence, and seven math achievement emotions (boredom, hopelessness, anger, anxiety, enjoyment,…
"Emoticons" are simple face icons expressing common feelings such as happiness, interest and boredom and are popularly used in electronic communication. Emoticons were utilised in this study as experience sampling devices. Year 10 students selected emoticons to indicate their emotional states at set intervals during classroom tasks.…
Lovink, G.W.; Ratta, D.
Writing like Tzara is fun but we’ve left the 20th century and there is no way back. Warfare and boredom have merged on the timeline of our digital daily life. Sharing ain’t no caring. The more riots and killings, the more likes. Twitter tells us it’s yet another horrified Isis video turned viral,
Jandric, Petar; Taylor, Astra
This conversation explores unschooling through theory and personal experience of Astra Taylor, who examines deschooling alongside the continua of Freedom/Oppression, Personal Control/Personal Autonomy, Solitude/Boredom, Privilege/Social Reproduction, Socialisation/Democracy. Taylor reveals complex relationships between the main strands of her…
Boredom and failure combine in a toxic brew that propels too many young people off the graduation path. Research shows that engaged students are more likely to perform well academically, that students who are challenged are less likely to be bored and disengaged, and that high-quality instruction and meaningful activities are key factors in…
Machajewski, Szymon Tomasz
Between 2000 and 2016, the STEM industry reportedly added jobs at the rate of 28% while all jobs were growing at only 6%. However, 48% of bachelor's degree students and 69% of associate's degree students in STEM majors left their program of study between 2003 and 2009. The high attrition rate is often attributed to low student engagement, boredom,…
Olsson, Marie; Mozelius, Peter; Collin, Jonas
Courses in virtual learning environments can leave recently enrolled participants in a state of loneliness, confusion and boredom. What course content is essential in the course, where can more information be found and which assignments are mandatory? Research has stated that learner control and motivation are crucial issues for successful online…
next 10 to 20 years. Each of these programs is likely to stress the budgets and financial capabilities of the services. Nevertheless, the Air Force...Aiming High: Boredom, Drugs, Low Morale. The millennials of the U.S. nuclear missile corps are struggling to stay on high alert for a nuclear Armageddon
operational stressors are prolonged exposure to extreme temperatures, sleep deprivation , boredom, reduced quality of life, prolonged separation from family...increase of proximity meant “small unit leaders identified more with their men than with their superiors” which caused several unexpected ...possibly recycling or failing a course (Grossman 1995, 254). Although this example explains how to essentially make soldiers 60 more efficient killers
... In the example, the person chose fairly healthy portions for breakfast and lunch, and ate to satisfy hunger. The person also ate five cookies in the afternoon out of boredom rather than hunger. By 8 p.m., the person was very hungry and ate large portions of high-fat, high-calorie food at a ...
... is one of the best ways to reduce anxiety, depression, loneliness, and boredom during social distancing, quarantine, and isolation. You can: Use the ... daily activities, or using drugs or alcohol to cope—speak to a health care ... as sadness, depression, anxiety, or feel like you want to harm yourself ...
Bartlett, Robert C.
Suggests that college students must become aware of "today's malady of the soul," a new strain of boredom stemming from such factors as the decline of politics and absence of religion in people's lives. Asserts that students' belief in progress takes a toll, also noting the negative influence of nihilism. Cautions that students turn to…
Heled, Edna; Read, John
In response to an open-ended question about the causes of New Zealand's high youth suicide rate, 384 young adults most commonly cited pressure to conform and perform, followed by financial worries, abuse and neglect, problems with alcohol or drugs, and boredom. Depression was cited by 5 percent and mental illness by only 1 percent. Recommended…
A series of discussions on the present and possible future of education in Sweden is presented. The major themes covered are: the boredom of school; school and the life-cycle; the problem of examinations; a comparison of schooling and eating; a pupil centered school; experimental schools in Sicily and Oslo; the university; distinctions among the…
environment. 2.3.2 Identifying and Measuring Boredom People show expressions through channels of communication, such as body language , facial...to Response," Neruopsychologia, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 661-670, 1999.  I.H. Robertson, T. Manly, J. Andrade, B.T. Baddeley, and J. Yiend, " Oops
This literature review addresses the prevalance of drug use and abuse among college athletes and the reasons for such abuse. Among reasons cited are status, peer pressure, boredom, and performance enhancement. Possible interventions that may prevent illegal drug use are also discussed, including educating coaches and trainers to help athletes,…
Discusses how to change library information literacy classes for Generation Y students (born after 1981) to accommodate their learning styles and preferences, based on experiences at California State University, Hayward. Topics include positive outlooks toward technology; orientation toward images, not linear text; low thresholds for boredom and…
West, Mark I.
Like many a modern play theorist, both Mark Twain and Walt Disney were enchanted by the way children act out stories, in particular pirate tales. For both Twain and Disney, this fascination grew out of their small-town, midwestern boyhoods, where avid reading and fantasy play helped stave off boredom and fill emotional gaps for both of them. Even…
The phosphogypsum is a waste product by the phosphate fertilizer industry. This product is present in huge quantities. It poses a boredom that is growing. His recovery still hangs at the impurities it contains, particularly radioactive elements. This is the main object of this study. (Author)
This study was designed to investigate psychological aspects of aging among the elderly men and women in the South-South zone Nigeria. Specifically the study focused on the effect of psychological problems such as: loneliness, boredom, fear, insecurity, stress, anxiety, bereavement, cry spell, memory loss, loss of self ...
Fredricks, Jennifer; McColskey, Wendy; Meli, Jane; Mordica, Joy; Montrosse, Bianca; Mooney, Kathleen
Researchers, educators, and policymakers are focusing more on student engagement as the key to addressing low achievement, student boredom and alienation, and high dropout rates (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, and Paris 2004). As schools and districts seek to increase engagement, it is important for them to understand how it has been defined and to assess…
Anyanwu, Emeka G.
Notable challenges, such as mental distress, boredom, negative moods, and attitudes, have been associated with learning in the cadaver dissection laboratory (CDL). The ability of background music (BM) to enhance the cognitive abilities of students is well documented. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of BM in the CDL and on…
“This is how wars are fought now: by children, traumatized, hopped-up on drugs and wielding AK-47s. Children have ... It also challenges the military professional who romanticises deployment in Sub-. Saharan African states and who sees it as a means of stockpiling easy cash; of killing boredom as a career soldier in a ...
he focuses his London novels and stories to accommodate black immigrants' struggles against colour discrimination in housing and jobs in London, as well as their battle against the London weather. In fact, to say the least, his writings constitute a representation of experiences of economic hardship, racism and boredom, of ...
c) relieve boredom (23.5%), (d) curb appetite, (e) fit in with friends, (f) be like family who smoked, (g) control weight, (h) be " cool ," and (i...ventive dentistry practices of US Army dentists. Milit Med 2000; 165: 604-6. 35. United States Department of Health and Human Services: Clinical prac
Reasons children underachieve in school are examined: emotional problems, secondary gains, teacher troubles, peer pressure, boredom, fear of trying, and fear of growing up. Guidelines for parents are offered concerning involvement with homework, holding children back, rewards versus bribes, activities that boost self-esteem, and parent…
students' academic performance in senior secondary school Chemistry in Cross River State. A two group pre-test post test ... students (Experimental group) were taught with instructional materials and another forty (Control group) were taught without ... It is use to get the attention of the students and eliminate boredom.
The Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching and Learning of Environmental Studies in Primary Schools: A Case Study of Winneba. ... leads to: pupils becoming passive listeners in class, boredom, poor participation in lesson, lack of interest in the subject, absenteeism and finally poor performance in the subject matter.
Full Text Available Flow (FCF theory has received considerable attention in recent decades. In addition to flow, FCF theory proposed three influential factors, that is, boredom, frustration, and apathy. While these factors have received relatively less attention than flow, Internet applications have grown exponentially, warranting a closer reexamination of the applicability of the FCF theory. Thus, this study tested the theory that high/low levels of skill and challenge lead to four channels of flow. The study sample included 253 online gamers who provided valid responses to an online survey. Analytical results support the FCF theory, although a few exceptions were noted. First, skill was insignificantly related to apathy, possibly because low-skill users can realize significant achievements to compensate for their apathy. Moreover, in contrast with the FCF theory, challenge was positively related to boredom, revealing that gamers become bored with difficult yet repetitive challenges. Two important findings suggest new directions for FCF theory.
Nielsen, Rune Kristian; Witkowski, Emma
This paper looks at the practices of young men engaging with digital leisure activities within the physical, social, and psychological setting of a Danish Juvenile Detention Center. The study of young men's digital play prevails in game studies, yet the experiences and lifestyles captured in over...... experienced? This is the circumstance, which we directly investigate, in this early study: the digital leisure practices of incarcerated at-risk youths who experience boredom as “a part of the walls” of their short-term way of life (Torbenfeldt Bengtsson, 2012). This early study looks at how play and...... of contradictions. A setting where concerns about youth, violence and aggression in games are challenged. A period of time where gaming is a way of harnessing social capital as an alternative to former high-risk or otherwise unlawful endeavors; a situation where “leisure”, detention, and boredom are a framework...
Feij, Jan A,
Full Text Available Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same factor, are related to biologically based impulsive disorders, and have a common genetic basis. Questionnaire and biographical data obtained from 532 female and 479 male young adults (age between 18 and 30 years were analyzed using structural modeling. The results show that participants who experienced little parental care and much control were more likely to have high scores on disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. It appears that these family factors may partly explain the previously reported effects of birth order and family size on sensation seeking.
Alvarez, María Sol; Balaguer, Isabel; Castillo, Isabel; Duda, Joan L
Based on the self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), this study tested a model of the assumed sequential relationships between perceived autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and enjoyment/boredom. The hypothesized mediational roles of psychological need satisfaction and self-determined motivation were also studied. In a sample of 370 young male soccer players, path analysis results offered support for the proposed model. Total mediation was supported in the case of the psychological need satisfaction in the relationship between autonomy support and self-determined motivation, and partial mediation for self-determined motivation in the links between psychological need satisfaction and enjoyment (positive) and boredom (negative). Implications of autonomy-supportive behaviors provided by coaches for the quality of sport involvement among young athletes are discussed.
20.4% 31.1% 26.3% 23.9% Sample-adjusted values for rank and gender . Average hours reported and Percent endorsing any sleep trouble 22 Figure 5.3b...Coping Most Soldiers reported alcohol use, exercise , and sleep as the primary forms of coping with stress and boredom. Soldiers felt that alcohol use as...Factors ............................................................................... 19 5.3 Sleep
Peixoto, Francisco José Brito; Sanches, Ana Cristina Pires; Mata, Maria de Lourdes Estorninho Neves; Monteiro, Vera
This study analyzes the relationships between cognitive appraisals, classroom and test emotions and math achievement in a sample of 1219 Portuguese students from the 6th and 8th grades. Participants completed measures of Perceived Value, Perceived Competence and seven Math achievement emotions (boredom, hopelessness, anger, anxiety, enjoyment, pride and relief) experienced in two different settings: Classroom and Tests. Math achievement was obtained from school records. Results showed sign...
Alejandro García Malpica
Full Text Available The upgrade of the topic of the death slips from its romantic tradition to be inserted in the heart of the postmodernity, through the Gothic tribes, juvenile groupings linked by a «elective affiliation» where a macabre, somber revival is shared, amid an economic context of unemployment, raised by the neo-liberalism and the setting in practice of a hiperindividualism that tries to compensate the fateful future of the youths by means of the boredom.
Feij, Jan A,; Taris, Toon W.
Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same fa...
language training (language lab, library, games, music , etc. ). linguists must also learn Latin custcns, eat Lot in foods, drinks, ard basically learn the...7. LEVEL OF EDUCATION MILITAR: ______________________________ (Nivel de educacion CIVIL:_______________________________ 8. ENGLISH PROFICIENCY...boredom of many who were much happier with s(a1iWthing to do. y3 Recreation services provided boxing and softball gear, musical instrunents for a
M. Taufan Rizqi, Widya Wijaya Sriti Mayang Sari
Dense city of Surabaya and the modern wolrd can make people stressed and bored with the routine performed every day. Therefore needed a facility that can provide relaxationto soothe the mind at once pampering after a long day of work. Chocolate house in Surabaya, this is a place that can be used as a means of recreation to relieve boredom, where visitors can also get education by conducting chocolate making courses, as well as see various explanations about cocoa contained in chocolate galler...
Bhandari, Rhushabh; Parnandi, Avinash; Shipp, Eva; Ahmed, Beena; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo
Biofeedback tools generally use visualizations to display physiological information to the user. As such, these tools are incompatible with visually demanding tasks such as driving. While auditory or haptic biofeedback may be used in these cases, the additional sensory channels can increase workload or act as a nuisance to the user. A number of studies, however, have shown that music can improve mood and concentration, while also reduce aggression and boredom. Here, we propose an intervention...
programs, out of awareness of the direct emotional and negative consequences on MVC victims, as well as the productivity loss due to workplace ...with stress, boredom, and loneliness as indicated by the previous research. The majority of these studies reveal that youth, male gender and lack...military has a considerable number of young males, alcohol consumption is influenced also by the workplace culture and alcohol availability. People who
concluded that the available data offer no support 0 for the belief that boredom, monotony, or under-stimulation per se produce the syndrome of stress...astute forensic dentist as part of our group who had a nice slide presentation on the general subject of forensic dentistry identification, the techniques...and none at dawn . Focusing human factors/airports research efforts on daylight conditions, therefore, could produce a greater benefit. Additional
Woermann, Niklas; Rokka, Joonas
While the importance of the temporal dimension for both positive and negative consumption experiences has been well understood, no general theory exists to explain how consumers’ temporal experiences come about. We theorize temporal experiences as an effect of performing consumption practices in ...... of temporal drag or rush associated with experiences such as boredom and stress. We contribute to prior research on consumption experiences, waiting, and servicescapes....
the Legion of Merit and a Purple Heart earned while personally filming the attack on Midway Island. After the war, he established the Field Photo Home...qualities in others. He was profane, vulgar, drank heavily at times, and liked to play cards. At the same time, the manly Ford disliked sloppy drunks...claimed training recruits drove them to drink, most of the frontier regulars who did so simply sought escape from boredom. Those who drank heavily spent
Chumbo, Isabel (Ed.); Silva, Elisabete Mendes (Ed.)
Remember the time when you had a teacher in front of a blackboard endlessly talking, sometimes in a rambling way to students? Those days are gone. This project is a proof of that and aims at palliating students’ boredom. Interactive Teaching Materials across Culture and Technology (INTACT) intends to present an alternative way in the teaching paradigm as it intends to be a resourceful tool in the teaching/learning process. Both teachers and students can work together coopera...
Auditya Purwandini Sutarto; Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab; Nora Mat Zin
The widespread implementation of advanced and complex systems requires predominantly operators’ cognitive functions and less importance of human manual control. On the other hand, most operators perform their cognitive functions below their peak cognitive capacity level due to fatigue, stress, and boredom. Thus, there is a need to improve their cognitive functions during work. The goal of this paper is to present a psychophysiology training approach derived from cardiovascular response ...
Many challenges face English language teachers today, but two common problems in Ecuador specifically in universities are large class sizes and multi-level students. These problems can create boredom, anxiety, and over all lack of interest in English language learning. It is shown in this article how to combat these particular problems through various strategies utilized to teach to the students’ needs, help them work together and intrinsically motivate them to learn different English languag...
Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child). 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130), and team sports (n=191). A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences. PMID:26039062
Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to identify the role of academic emotions in mediating the correlation between self-efficacy and cognitive load in mathematics learning. Four hundred and eighty-seven high school students (191 boys and 296 girls were involved in the correlational study. Structural equation modelling, in particular mediation analysis, was applied to identify the mediation effect of academic emotions. The results showed that self- efficacy predicted academic emotions (namely enjoyment, anger, and boredom directly, but anxiety indirectly. Then, academic emotions predicted cognitive load: extraneous load was predicted by enjoyment, anger, and boredom; intrinsic load was predicted by enjoyment and anxiety; whereas germane load was only predicted by enjoyment. Enjoyment negatively mediated self-efficacy with extraneous load, but positively mediated self-efficacy with intrinsic and germane load. Anger negatively mediated self-efficacy with extraneous load. Boredom negatively mediated extraneous and intrinsic load. Findings of present study clarify the role of academic emotions on cognitive performance, particularly cognitive load.
Respondek, Lisa; Seufert, Tina; Stupnisky, Robert; Nett, Ulrike E.
The present study addressed concerns over the high risk of university students' academic failure. It examined how perceived academic control and academic emotions predict undergraduate students' academic success, conceptualized as both low dropout intention and high achievement (indicated by GPA). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 883 undergraduate students across all disciplines of a German STEM orientated university. The study additionally compared freshman students (N = 597) vs. second-year students (N = 286). Using structural equation modeling, for the overall sample of undergraduate students we found that perceived academic control positively predicted enjoyment and achievement, as well as negatively predicted boredom and anxiety. The prediction of dropout intention by perceived academic control was fully mediated via anxiety. When taking perceived academic control into account, we found no specific impact of enjoyment or boredom on the intention to dropout and no specific impact of all three academic emotions on achievement. The multi-group analysis showed, however, that perceived academic control, enjoyment, and boredom among second-year students had a direct relationship with dropout intention. A major contribution of the present study was demonstrating the important roles of perceived academic control and anxiety in undergraduate students' academic success. Concerning corresponding institutional support and future research, the results suggested distinguishing incoming from advanced undergraduate students. PMID:28326043
Full Text Available Grounded in the Achievement Goal Theory framework of motivation and optimal functioning, there were two objectives of this study: (a to test a model hypothesizing links between personal theories of school achievement, indices of the quality of academic engagement, wellbeing, and health-related behaviors, and (b to explore whether the hypothesized model was invariant across gender groups. A multisection questionnaire pack tapping the targeted variables was administered to 967 teenagers (475 boys and 492 girls aged between 11 to 16 years old. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that Task theory of achievement predicted positively satisfaction in school and negatively boredom in school. An Ego theory of achievement was linked to higher levels of boredom in school. Satisfaction in school corresponded to higher life satisfaction, while boredom was negatively related. Higher life satisfaction was associated with lower tobacco, alcohol and marijuana consumption, more healthy food intake and greater levels of physical activity. The results revealed partial invariance of the model by gender. The quality of adolescents’ involvement in the classroom holds important implications for adolescent’s well-being and their health related behaviors. Interventions on the creation of a task-involving motivational climate in the school are proposed to promote healthy lifestyles among young people.
Balaguer, Isabel; Duda, Joan L; Castillo, Isabel
Grounded in the Achievement Goal Theory framework of motivation and optimal functioning, there were two objectives of this study: (a) to test a model hypothesizing links between personal theories of school achievement, indices of the quality of academic engagement, wellbeing, and health-related behaviors, and (b) to explore whether the hypothesized model was invariant across gender groups. A multisection questionnaire pack tapping the targeted variables was administered to 967 teenagers (475 boys and 492 girls) aged between 11 to 16 years old. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that Task theory of achievement predicted positively satisfaction in school and negatively boredom in school. An Ego theory of achievement was linked to higher levels of boredom in school. Satisfaction in school corresponded to higher life satisfaction, while boredom was negatively related. Higher life satisfaction was associated with lower tobacco, alcohol and marijuana consumption, more healthy food intake and greater levels of physical activity. The results revealed partial invariance of the model by gender. The quality of adolescents' involvement in the classroom holds important implications for adolescent's well-being and their health related behaviors. Interventions on the creation of a task-involving motivational climate in the school are proposed to promote healthy lifestyles among young people.
Kuerbis, Alexis; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Shao, Sijing; Houser, Jessica; Muench, Frederick J; Morgenstern, Jon
By 2030, numbers and proportions of older adults with substance-use problems are expected to increase. While risk factors for problem drinking in late life have been identified, it remains unknown whether these factors drive daily drinking among older problem drinkers. This study examined the daily drivers of drinking among problem drinkers, moderated by age, utilizing ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Participants (N = 139), ages 20-73, received daily EMA online surveys completed via a smartphone prior to initiation of treatment. Multilevel modeling tested the moderating impact of age on within- and between-person relationships between drinking and focal predictors (mood, loneliness, boredom, stress, poor sleep, social factors, alcohol salience, commitment and confidence not to drink heavily). Older adults reported greater alcohol consumption when daily boredom levels were higher. Heavier drinking among younger adults was associated with poorer sleep quality. Greater daily confidence, daily commitment and daily alcohol salience did not impact drinking to the same extent for older adults as for younger adults. Greater person-level commitment predicted reduced drinking equivalently across age, but low person-level commitment predicted greater drinking among older adults compared to their younger counterparts. Older adults may have unique daily drivers of drinking that are not fully realized in current research and intervention efforts. Addressing the growing substance-use treatment needs among this population will require identifying the unique drivers of drinking among older adults, such as boredom, when compared to younger adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child. 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130, and team sports (n=191. A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.
Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Pachana, Nancy A; Wetherell, Julie L; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; Ruiz-Díaz, Miguel
Research on the behavioral correlates of anxiety in older adults is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the association of anxiety with behavioral patterns defined by health, activity, emotional and social variables. A convenience sample of 395 older adults completed measures of health, activity, emotions, social variables and experiential avoidance. Cross-sectional data were analysed using cluster analysis. Five clusters were identified: active healthy, healthy, active vulnerable, lonely inactive and frail lonely. Participants in the active healthy and healthy clusters showed the highest scores on health variables (vitality and physical function), and adaptive scores on the rest of variables. They also reported the lowest scores on anxiety and included the lowest number of cases with clinically significant anxiety levels. Active vulnerable showed high scores on social support, leisure activities and capitalization on them but low scores in vitality and physical functioning. Participants in the lonely inactive cluster reported the highest mean score in experiential avoidance and high scores on boredom and loneliness, and low scores on social support, leisure activities capitalizing on pleasant activities and health variables. Frail lonely represent a particularly vulnerable profile of participants, similar to that of lonely inactive, but with significantly lower scores on health variables and higher scores on boredom and hours watching TV. Anxiety in older adults is not only linked to poor health, but also to dysfunctional social behavior, loneliness, boredom and experiential avoidance. Maladaptive profiles of older adults with regard to these variables have been identified.
Pérez-Morales, Eugenia; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Alcántara-Jurado, Luis; Armendáriz-Anguiano, Ana; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat
Few studies have examined disinhibited eating behaviors in Mexico. However eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), defined as eating in response to the presence of palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger, is one of the more frequently examined behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between obesity and EAH among college students in a large Mexican-USA border city. Two-hundred and one sophomore college students completed the EAH questionnaire (EAH-C). Weight and height were measured. To assess reproducibility a test-retest was conducted in a subset sample (n = 20). Test-retest correlations ranged from ρ = 0.44 to 0.86, p obesity was 29 and 14 % respectively. The internal validity was assessed by Cronbach's alph. Internal consistency for all subscales was: external eating (α = 0.83), negative affect (α = 0.92) and fatigue/boredom (α = 0.86). Principal component analysis generated four subscales for the EAH-C: external eating, negative affect, fatigue and boredom. Comparing normal weight students versus obese students, normal weight students (57.1%) had higher scores on boredom subscale than obese students (p students had higher scores in the negative affect subscale than the males (p obesity.
Artino, Anthony R; La Rochelle, Jeffery S; Durning, Steven J
A challenge for medical educators is to better understand the personal factors that lead to individual success in medical school and beyond. Recently, educational researchers in fields outside medicine have acknowledged the importance of motivation and emotion in students' learning and performance. These affective factors have received less emphasis in the medical education literature. This longitudinal study examined the relations between medical students' motivational beliefs (task value and self-efficacy), achievement emotions (enjoyment, anxiety and boredom) and academic achievement. Second-year medical students (n=136) completed motivational beliefs and achievement emotions surveys following their first and second trimesters, respectively. Academic achievement was operationalised as students' average course examination grades and national board shelf examination scores. The results largely confirmed the hypothesised relations between beliefs, emotions and achievement. Structural equation modelling revealed that task value beliefs were positively associated with course-related enjoyment (standardised regression coefficient [β] = 0.59) and were negatively related to boredom (β= -0.25), whereas self-efficacy beliefs were negatively associated with course-related anxiety only (β = -0.47). Furthermore, student enjoyment was positively associated with national board shelf examination score (β = 0.31), whereas anxiety and boredom were both negatively related to course examination grade (β= -0.36 and -0.27, respectively). The overall structural model accounted for considerable variance in each of the achievement outcomes: R(2) = 0.20 and 0.14 for the course examination grade and national board shelf examination score, respectively. This study suggests that medical students' motivational beliefs and achievement emotions are important contributors to their academic achievement. These results have implications for medical educators striving to understand the
Adam Smith's theory that the marketplace can compensate workers for social inequities (i.e., hazards, boredom, etc.) in the work place is applied to the nuclear industry. The author argues that market mechanisms are unlikely to ensure adequate compensation for work-related hazards. He summarizes and critiques the neoclassical compensating-wage hypothesis, then reviews empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis in light of an alternative hypothesis derived from the literature on labor market segmentation. He challenges the assumption of perfect labor mobility and perfect information. A promising direction for further research would be a structural analysis of the emerging market for temporary workers. 13 references, 2 figures
PowerPoint™ and other slideware have the potential to be overused and abused. Presentations should be tailored using scientifically derived principles in order to maximise teaching potential. This paper applies the Mayer Multimedia Learning Theory (with its twelve evidence-based principles of multimedia design) to medical slide show presentations. The best way to avoid audience boredom or mortification is to adhere to these precepts. Presentations stand or fall on the quality, relevance, and integrity of the content. Slide shows should supplement a presentation, and not substitute for it. The key principles are brevity, cogency and clarity.
Full Text Available El aburrimiento del hombre en todos los tiempos, originó que inventase lo que hoy llamamos ocio, o sea, la manera o forma de cubrir el tiempo muerto. De ahí nacieron los miles de juegos de los que ahora disfrutamos.Through all the times, the boredom of mankind originated the invention of what we call nowadays games and entertainment, that is to say, the way of occupying our leisure time. This was the origin of the thousands of board, card and court games we presently enjoy.
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Barnett, Ronald
and solved by agendas of quality assurance and professionalisation of higher education. We need to understand better why gender issues or ethnic conflicts emerge, and why students take up arms, within an institution which is thought to be inclusive, inviting and open to all kinds of people and cultures....... And we need to study the educational potential of days of boredom or isolation, caught up in daily routines of teaching or studying which do not lead anywhere or give way to any productive work. These matters have not been sufficiently researched and conceptualised as meaningful in themselves. We aim...
Graham, Brian Russell
This article argues that Frye’s theory of leisure as an activity (distinct from the leisure industry) represents an example of meliorist thought in relation to culture. Clarifying this view involves contrasting this conclusion about Frye with the Bourdieuian perspective, which makes up the content...... of the second main section. Before turning to social class, this article considers Frye’s discussion of leisure and boredom, and his overall view of the values, activities, historic struggles and class association of three sectors: industry, politics and leisure....
In the past two decades, the field of psychiatry has seen the once dominant psychoanalytic theories overtaken by biological explanations and approaches to severe mental illness. With this change in perspective, the significance of fantasies and delusions have been reduced to being merely symptoms of psychopathology rather than reflections of human needs and motivations. Using ethnographic evidence from a long-term research project. this paper explores one method by which mentally ill homeless individuals in the Skid Row district of Los Angeles attempted to wrest meaningful lives for themselves out of an environment that featured disaffiliation, violence, boredom, and extreme poverty.
Crease, Robert P.
"I have a low boredom threshold," Tim Rowett explains, ushering in my son Alex and me. Rowett is a jovial, professorishlooking man with wire-rimmed glasses and a short, white beard. Alex and I have gone to his flat in Twickenham, on the edge of London, to see his collection of fun stuff - jokes, games, puzzles and other toys related to science. When I ask what they have in common, Rowett has a ready, if not illuminating, answer: "They're just things that make people go 'Wow!'."
Chiu, Shao-I; Lee, Jie-Zhi; Huang, Der-Hsiang
Video game addiction in children and teenagers in Taiwan is associated with levels of animosity, social skills, and academic achievement. This study suggests that video game addiction can be statistically predicted on measures of hostility, and a group with high video game addiction has more hostility than others. Both gender and video game addiction are negatively associated with academic achievement. Family function, sensation seeking, gender, and boredom have statistically positive relationships with levels of social skills. Current models of video game addiction do not seem to fit the findings of this study.
Silveri, Marisa M
The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother.
Johansen, Kamilla; Pedersen, Didde; Kragbak, Nina
Patients´ experience of source isolation - a literature review Title: Patients experience of source isolation – a literature review Authors: Nina Kragbak*, Didde Pedersen*, Kamilla Johansen* and Peter E. Jensen** *students, **lecturer, bachelor in science and Ph.D., at VIA University College....... Physical environment: Some patients felt lonely and imprison, while other patients enjoyed time alone and not having to worry about other patients. A view to the life outside the physical boundaries of the isolation helped to avoid boredom. Importance of relatives: Relatives were a major source of comfort...
Dalsgård, Anne Line; Frederiksen, Martin Demant; Højlund, Susanne
As we experience and manipulate time—be it as boredom or impatience—it becomes an object: something materialized and social, something that affects perception, or something that may motivate reconsideration and change. The editors and contributors to this important new book, Ethnographies of Youth...... and Temporality, have provided a diverse collection of ethnographic studies and theoretical explorations of youth experiencing time in a variety of contemporary socio-cultural settings. The essays in this volume focus on time as an external and often troubling factor in young people’s lives, and show how...... of Youth and Temporality use youth as a prism to understand time and its subjective experience....
Armitage, Christopher J
Emotional eating is associated with mental health problems and weight gain, but research has focussed on treatment rather than prevention. The present research tests a brief theory-based psychological intervention to reduce and prevent emotional eating in a community sample. Two hundred and forty women were randomized to a control condition in which they were asked to identify emotional eating triggers and strategies for change (a 'volitional help sheet') or to an experimental condition in which they were asked explicitly to use the volitional help sheet to link emotional eating triggers with strategies for change and so form implementation intentions. Results showed that eating in response to boredom was more common than eating in response to anxiety or depression. There was a significant condition × time interaction showing that the formation of implementation intentions resulted in significantly lower levels of emotional eating in response to boredom at follow-up (d = 0.29). The intervention shows promise in reducing and preventing emotional eating, but further research is required to refine the tool and to examine whether eating in response to anxiety or depression is more common among clinical populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Angel Abós Catalán
Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the most important problems that affect to our society due to the lack of student motivation in some school contents. The objective of this study was to study the relationship between motivational climate created by the Physical Education teacher in a teaching unit of rugby and basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and affective consequences experienced by students. A total of 77 students (M age = 15.35, SD = 0.53 of an educational institution, belonging to 4th year Secondary Education, completed the following questionnaires: Perceived of Motivational Climate Scale (EPCM, Basic Psychological Needs in Excersice Scale (BPNES, Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS-14 and the Scale of Entertainment / Boredom in Physical Education (SSI-EF. The results showed that task climate predicted positively and significantly the three basic psychological needs and self-determined forms of motivation, while the ego climate predicted amotivation. In turn, the three basic psychological needs predicted positively intrinsic motivation, while the amotivation was negatively predicted by perceived competence and social relationships. Also, it was found a positive prediction between intrinsic motivation and enjoyment, and negatively with respect to boredom, which was also predicted by amotivation. The results suggest the idea that Physical Education teachers should create a task climate, favoring the satisfaction of the psychological mediators and developing a more self-determined motivation which could trigger affective consequences like enjoyment.
El Haj, Mohamad; Jardri, Renaud; Larøi, Frank; Antoine, Pascal
Cognitive and functional compromise, as frequently observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), hinders communication and social interactions. One consequence of this hindrance may be a feeling of loneliness. Moreover, emptiness and boredom, as observed in social isolation and loneliness, may thus be compensated for by creating imagined stimuli. Conditions of loneliness may be viewed as potentially generating hallucinatory experiences. To assess this assumption, the present study explored the relationship between social isolation, loneliness, and hallucinations in a sample of 22 mild AD participants and 24 elderly, healthy controls. Participants were assessed using the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale, the UCLA Loneliness Scale, and a scale exploring contact with others and social participation. More hallucinatory experiences, social isolation, and loneliness were found in the AD group than in the healthy control group. Moreover, significant correlations were observed between hallucinations and loneliness and between hallucinations and social isolation in both groups. Finally, hallucinations were predicted by social isolation. Hallucinations may constitute a compensatory mechanism that aims to fulfil communication needs in lonely, elderly participants. Hallucinations may also be regarded as experiences that allow certain participants to escape the cycle of boredom, emptiness, and affective deprivation caused by social isolation.
Friedlander, Mathilde B.
Full Text Available Three most popular information services, Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow, vicarious for all Social Live-Streaming Services (SLSSs, are investigated to analyze their streamers' motivations and the user-generated content. Additionally, we collected demographic data (gender and age. More than 7,500 streams by users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan were observed. Main streamer motivations on SLSSs are boredom, socializing, the need to reach a specific group, the need to communicate, and fun. Important content categories on all three SLSSs are chatting, sharing information, 24/7, and 'slice of life.' We were able to identify differences between users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan as well as between the users of Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow. The main motive to stream in the U.S. is to reach a specific group, while in Japan it is socializing, and in Germany boredom. The top content category for both, YouNow as well as Periscope, is to chat; on Ustream it is 24/7 (i.e., webcams.
Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah
Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara
In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836
Martin Kopp, Mirjam Wolf, Gerhard Ruedl, Martin Burtscher
Full Text Available Despite different injury rates and injury patterns previous personality related research in the field of downhill winter sports did not subdivide between different alpine slope users. In this study, we tried to find out whether the personality trait sensation seeking differs between skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. In a cross-sectional survey 1185 persons (726 alpine skiers, 321 snowboarders and 138 ski tourers comparable in age and sex were electronically questioned with the sensation seeking scale (SSS-V comprising the four factors thrill and adventure seeking, experiences seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Kruskal-Wallis Tests revealed a significantly higher total score of the SSS-V for snowboarders in comparison to alpine skiers and ski tourers (H(2 = 41.5, p < 0.001. Ski tourers and snowboarders scored significantly higher in the dimensions “thrill- and adventure-seeking” and “experience-seeking” than alpine skiers. Furthermore, snowboarders showed higher scores in “disinhibition” related to alpine skiers and ski tourers and “boredom susceptibility” compared to alpine skiers. Data show differences in the personality trait sensation seeking in people practising different winter sports. As snowboarders showed higher SS-scores compared to alpine skiers and ski tourers prevention and information programs might benefit from a selective approach focusing on special characteristics of the respective group.
Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela
Although substantial literature discusses sensation seeking as playing a role in the relationship between baseline heart rate and aggression, few published studies have tested the relationships among these variables. Furthermore, most prior studies have focused on risk factors of aggression in men and have largely ignored this issue in women. Two samples (n = 104; n = 99) of young adult women completed measures of resting heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression. Across the two samples of females there was no evidence for the relationships of baseline heart rate with sensation seeking or with aggression that has been consistently shown in males. Boredom susceptibility and disinhibition subscales of sensation seeking were consistently significantly correlated with aggression. The lack of significance and the small effect sizes indicate that other mechanisms are also at work in affecting aggression in young adult women. Finally, it is important to consider the type of sensation seeking in relation to aggression, as only boredom susceptibility and disinhibition were consistently replicated across samples. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto
Although different personality traits have been associated with the onset and maintenance of binge eating, the role of sensation seeking is still not well documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in male and female adolescents who binge eat. 336 adolescents (196 boys and 140 girls, mean age 17.48) completed a survey composed of Binge Eating Scale, Motivation for Eating Scale, and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale. Our results showed that for female adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), Environmental and Emotional Eating. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI was a significant positive predictor of binge eating; Emotional and Physical Eating accounted for 34% of the variance. For male adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, BMI, Boredom susceptibility, Experience seeking, environmental, Social and Emotional Eating. The most significant variables that contribute to binge symptoms, were age and BMI (that accounted for 16% of the variance), Experience seeking and Boredom susceptibility (11%) and emotional eating (18%). Our results provided support for emotional motivations as significant triggers for binge eating behavior in both male and female adolescents. Although two sensation seeking dimensions were significant predictors of binge eating in males, sensation seeking was not associated to binge eating in the female subsample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recent psychological studies highlight emotional aspects, and they show an important role within individual learning processes. Hereby, positive emotions were supposed to positively influence learning and achievement processes and negative ones do the contrary. In this study, an educational unit “ecosystem lake” was used during which achievement (three tests and emotional variables (interest, well-being, anxiety and boredom; measured at the end of three pre-selected lessons were monitored. The research question was to explore correlations between emotional variables and the learning outcome of the teaching unit. Prior knowledge was regressed against the subsequent tests to account for its confounding effect. Regressions showed a highly significant influence of prior knowledge on the subsequent measurements of achievement. However, after accounting for prior knowledge, a positive correlation between interest/well-being and achievement and a negative correlation between anxiety/boredom and achievement was found. Further research and interventions should try to enhance positive emotions in biology lessons to positively influence achievement.
Stanley, Mandy; Richard, Ashley; Williams, Shoshannah
Large amounts of time spent alone by older people have been associated with loneliness and poor mental and physical health. There is a paucity of research, however, that examines time alone from an occupational perspective. In this exploratory study we explored the perspectives of older people on their time spent alone. A qualitative descriptive study design was selected. With the aim of maximising variation, five participants were recruited from retirement villages and seven participants who lived independently in the community. Participants recorded time spent alone in a time diary for three days as priming for a semi-structured in-depth interview. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Three key themes were identified: 'it is a matter of getting some balance'; 'keeping busy'; and 'the nights are the worst'. The study highlights the importance older people place on the need to manage time alone so that it is a positive and nourishing experience and to avoid experiencing extended periods of boredom potentially leading to loneliness. Older people utilise occupations to keep busy and achieve an individually acceptable level of time alone. Enabling older people to balance time spent alone by addressing barriers to participation in the community in addition to finding engaging occupations to occupy time has the potential to prevent boredom, loneliness and improve wellbeing. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Ángel Abós Catalán
Full Text Available The interpersonal style used by the teacher of Physical Education (PE in their classes can trigger consequences for students inside and outside the classroom. Grounded in self-determination theory and achievement goal theory, the aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between motivational climate and support of the basic psychological needs (BPN generated by the PE teacher in the teaching unit (TU of futsal, with consequences of enjoyment and boredom, as well as the predisposition toward EF experienced by students. The sample was composed of 70 students (32 men and 38 women year 4th of compulsory Secondary Education, aged 15 to 17 years (M age = 15.31, SD = 0.49. The variables measured at the end of the TU were: motivational climate (EPCM, support of the BPN (CANPB and affective consequences (SSI the content of futsal and the predisposition towards PE (PEPS. The results of correlation analysis showed that the task climate and support of the BPN in the TU futsal, correlated positively and significantly with enjoyment and some predisposing factors toward PE, while doing it in reverse with boredom. Therefore, given the relationship between what happens in the classroom and outside it, seems necessary that teachers of PE generates a task climate and support of the BPN in each of curricular content, to students adopt life-styles more active and healthy.
Zetty Azizatun Ni'mah
Full Text Available The inability of teachers in choosing learning strategies unvariaty will cause boredom student in learning is done, it is a serious impact on the psychological students. Because of that variation is recommended in order to maintain the level of attention, increase interest and prevent boredom in students, so students always show perseverance, enthusiasm and active participation in learning. Learning strategies as have the meaning as concrete actions or steps that must be taken by teachers and students in setting potential and resources in order to efficiently obtain results in accordance with a design that is composed systemic and systematically so as to support the achievement of objectives. The learning strategy is divided into three types: 1 a strategy of organizing learning content. 2 learning strategies delivery of content: (Exspository strategy is a learning process conducted by the teachers present the material or subject matter in the form that has been prepared in a neat, systematic and complete, so that the students stayed to listen and observe in an orderly and organized, Strategy Inquiry (startegy inkuiry, namely the delivery of teaching materials that require processing of materials by the students, 3 A management strategy of learning by teachers to create teaching and learning situation and condition so that students do learning activities optimally.
Anna D. Rowe
Full Text Available The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.
Rowe, Anna D; Fitness, Julie
The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.
Braden, Abby; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Watford, Tanya; Emley, Elizabeth
The majority of research on emotional eating has examined general emotional eating, to the exclusion of more distinct emotions such as boredom and positive emotions. The current study aimed to examine whether specific types of emotional eating (i.e., eating in response to depression (EE-D), anxiety/anger (EE-A), boredom (EE-B), and positive emotions (EE-P)) were related to a range of psychological (i.e., global psychological well-being, eating disorder symptoms, emotion regulation) and physical health variables. A sample of adults (n = 189) with overweight/obesity were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants self-reported height and weight and completed a battery of questionnaires. Correlational analyses showed that more frequent EE-D, EE-A, and EE-B were related to poorer psychological well-being, greater eating disorder symptoms, and more difficulties with emotion regulation. EE-P was not significantly related to outcome variables. In regression analyses, eating in response to depression (EE-D) was the type of emotional eating most closely related to psychological well-being, eating disorder symptoms, and emotion regulation difficulties. Exploratory analyses revealed associations between EE-D, EE-A, and EE-B and facets of emotion regulation and specific disordered eating symptoms. Findings suggest that unique patterns exist between specific types of emotional eating and psychological outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gerber, Lynn H; Narber, Cody G; Vishnoi, Nalini; Johnson, Sidney L; Chan, Leighton; Duric, Zoran
The primary aim of this study was to assess the level of engagement in computer-based simulations of functional tasks, using a haptic device for people with chronic traumatic brain injury. The objectives were to design functional tasks using force feedback device and determine if it could measure motor performance improvement. A prospective crosssectional study was performed in a biomedical research facility. The testing environment consisted of a single, interactive, stylus-driven computer session navigating virtual scenes in 3D space. Subjects had a haptic training session (TRAIN) and then had three chances to perform each virtual task: (i) remove tools from a workbench (TOOL), (ii) compose 3 letter words (SPELL), (iii) manipulate utensils to prepare a sandwich (SAND), and (iv) tool use (TUSE). Main Outcome Measures included self-report of engagement in the activities, improved performance on simulated tasks and observer estimate as measured by time to completion or number of words completed from baseline, correlations among performance measures and self-reports of boredom, neuropsychological symptom inventory (NSI), and The Purdue Peg Motor Test (PPT). Participants were 19 adults from the community with a 1 year history of non-penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) and were able to use computers. Seven had mild, 3 moderate and 9 severe TBIs. Mean score on the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS): 107 (normal range 81-117); mean NSI:32; mean PPT 54 (normal range for assembly line workers >67). Responses to intervention: 3 (15%)subjects did not repeat all three trials of the tasks; 100% reported they were highly engaged in the interactions; 6 (30%) reported they had a high level of frustration with the tasks, but completed them with short breaks. Performance measures: Comparison of baseline to post training: TOOL time decreased by (mean) 60 sec; SPELL increased by 2.7 words; TUSE time decreased by (mean) 68 sec; and SAND time decreased by (mean) 72 sec. PPT correlated
Thomas, Jessica E; O'Connell, Beverly; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J
Social interaction and participation in leisure activities are positively related to the health and well-being of elderly people. The main focus of this exploratory study was to investigate elderly peoples' perceptions and experiences of social interaction and leisure activities living in a residential aged care (RAC) facility. Six residents were interviewed. Themes emerging from discussions about their social interactions included: importance of family, fostering friendships with fellow residents, placement at dining room tables, multiple communication methods, and minimal social isolation and boredom. Excursions away from the RAC facility were favourite activities. Participants commonly were involved in leisure activities to be socially connected. Poor health, family, the RAC facility, staffing, transportation, and geography influenced their social interaction and participation in leisure activities. The use of new technologies and creative problem solving with staff are ways in which residents could enhance their social lives and remain engaged in leisure activities.
زينة صباح فليح العنيبي
Full Text Available The meaning of life, subjective state of boredom, indifference and vacuum loss, as you feel personal with pessimism and doubt in human motives, and the question most of the activities of life value and a sense of value in life, according to this vision me research study the loss of meaning in the texts of Ghazi example of the play, as it included chapter the first research problem identified the following question: how to reflect the loss of meaning as the subject of psychological educational in the theatrical text of Iraq in that it is the subject of educational theater helps the recipient (the reader to overcome the loss of meaning, suffering and pain felt by, and purified by theater, represented Recipients with dramatic personalities suffering from the loss of meaning and change its behavior and its practices function sublimated behavior, the aim of the research is the identification of the loss of meaning in the texts of Ghazi example the play, the boundaries of research stage has been included from (1990 - 2001, and concluded chapter identifying terminology. The second chapter included three admonishing me the first section examining the concept of meaning in life philosophically, while me the second topic to study the psychological motives that cause the meaning of life for the loss, while the third section me to study the loss of meaning in the personal dramas and previous studies, and identified the effects resulting from the frame Theoretical. The third chapter included the research procedures, namely, the research community, the research sample, the research tool, the research methodology. The fourth chapter contains the following results: 1 - It was clear loss of meaning in the personality through feelings of emptiness and emptiness, boredom and boredom, and helplessness to no avail. 2 - Payment of the loss of meaning in the personality to a sense of extreme loneliness and alienation and lack of value and aim in vain and lack of
Juan G Victores
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an accessible interface in the context of our work on bringing advanced robotics closer to everyday domestic users. This interface allows inexperienced users to be capable of programming an assistive robotic arm to perform a specific desired task in a household environment. The programming process is performed through the developed Web Browsable interface, within which a Task Creator Wizard plays an essential role. The robot's open architecture enables flexible multi-modal interaction. In addition to the touch buttons provided by the Web Browsable interface when presented on a touch screen, voice commands and the use of the Wii RemoteTM controller for intuitive robotic movement have also been enabled. The Web Browsable interface has been designed to provide high accessibility while taking aesthetic details into account, in order to prevent distraction caused by boredom of the user.
Agnes Dian Purnama
Full Text Available Today’s teaching and learning faces more challenges as technology keeps on updating itself. Teachers are expected to adopt as many as possible technology products to promote students’ engagement in classroom activity. Utilizing technology products may help teachers to decrease students’ boredom inside classroom since it proposes a new kind of activity. The main purpose is to create an enjoyable teaching and learning environment as well as to trigger students to be creative. By highlighting youths’ characteristics that tend to be visual and addicted to rapid information, memes and Instagram may be used as one of the strategies to develop an innovative teaching and learning process. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2017.200101
Full Text Available In this essay Lovink and Munster set forward a number of proposals for a distributed aesthetics. If new media artistic practice and aesthetic experience were most often characterised by recourse to computational culture, then distributed aesthetics is dominated by networks. Networked media and technologies help to disperse experience so that we never seem to be having our experiences in the one place anymore. However, the authors suggest, most of the images and rhetoric attempting to characterise this distributed experience are drawn from the cartographic traditions of geographic information systems and/or conceptions of biological networking and growth. These do not assist in coming to terms with the specifically social aspects of online networking. The authors speculate that a distributed aesthetics must take into account the collective and personal 'aesthesia' of online networks - the experience of labouring towards new forms of social collectivity that produces not only euphoria but also boredom and frustration.
Wood, Shaunda L.
Gifted girls in elementary school must follow the set curriculum, but their choices of extracurricular activities may indicate future subject preferences. This study attempted to explore the perceptions of gifted girls regarding how the family, home, and school environments influenced their choices to take extracurricular science classes. A mixed methodology was adopted: qualitative, to understand the girls' perceptions of influence, and quantitative, to measure their attitudes toward science. Influential factors identified in this study highlight fun as occurring with the highest frequency and four emergent factors: doubt, traditional sex roles, boredom, and group work. In addition, findings from a focused case study of a graduate electrical engineer are interwoven with the girls' perspectives of science. The varying ages and experiences with science of the participants provide interesting views. This study adds knowledge to the field of science education, specifically on withingender differences of gifted girls and women in engineering.
Alfano, Mark; Iurino, Kathryn; Stey, Paul; Robinson, Brian; Christen, Markus; Yu, Feng; Lapsley, Daniel
This paper presents five studies on the development and validation of a scale of intellectual humility. This scale captures cognitive, affective, behavioral, and motivational components of the construct that have been identified by various philosophers in their conceptual analyses of intellectual humility. We find that intellectual humility has four core dimensions: Open-mindedness (versus Arrogance), Intellectual Modesty (versus Vanity), Corrigibility (versus Fragility), and Engagement (versus Boredom). These dimensions display adequate self-informant agreement, and adequate convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity. In particular, Open-mindedness adds predictive power beyond the Big Six for an objective behavioral measure of intellectual humility, and Intellectual Modesty is uniquely related to Narcissism. We find that a similar factor structure emerges in Germanophone participants, giving initial evidence for the model's cross-cultural generalizability.
Rex P. Bringula
Full Text Available This descriptive study utilized a validated questionnaire to determine the emotions exhibited by computer gamers in cyber cafés. We determined that gamers exhibited both positive and negative emotions while playing games. We observed that gamers were inclined to be more anxious about being defeated in a game as gaming became frequent and length of years spent playing games increased. They also had the tendency to become more stressed when length of years spent playing games increased. On the other hand, other gaming behaviors were not significantly related to other emotions. We concluded that not all emotions exhibited by gamers while playing computer games could be attributed to their gaming behaviors. We recommend that other emotions such as anger, frustration, boredom, amusement, etc. be included in future research.
Full Text Available This article is intended to postulate the position of women described well by Hemingway as a girl called Jig in “Hills like White Elephants” as a marginal part of a patriarchal society. Difficulty is found in describing the exact nature of a man-woman relationship in Hemingway as the woman characters are so thinly portrayed. “Hills like White Elephants” suggests a relationship between the meaning of white elephants and the man’s attitude toward the unborn child. The relationship presents the representation of boredom, desperateness of life, the sense of lost happiness, and the awareness of the failure of love. The story also can be defined into a two-part theme. The first is a commentary about the way selfishness can corrupt a relationship. The second comments on life and what it means to bear life. Keywords: attitude, character, Hemingway, relationship, women
Full Text Available The article introduces the methodologies of the study of the everyday life of modern teenagers whiсh can simultaneously be used to traceevents occurring in real and virtual space: “Online and offline diary" and "15 minutes". The data of pilot studies showed that the teenager’s online performance is mainly presented in a form of communication in social networks. We have discovered that the on- and offline convergence of space for growth is inseparable from respondents themselves. Through the active use of social networks, a modern teenager is able to be present in different socialenvironments simultaneously. Constant checking news and posts in social networks is a new, peculiar to teenage daily ritual. The so-called "red zones", where a teenager consciously waives the possibility of "escape" into a parallel reality, are linked to significant events in everyday life, while a feeling of boredom brings to life the compensation through "getting about" in virtual space.
Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja Brinch
Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused...... by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing...... system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation...
Full Text Available This paper presents five studies on the development and validation of a scale of intellectual humility. This scale captures cognitive, affective, behavioral, and motivational components of the construct that have been identified by various philosophers in their conceptual analyses of intellectual humility. We find that intellectual humility has four core dimensions: Open-mindedness (versus Arrogance, Intellectual Modesty (versus Vanity, Corrigibility (versus Fragility, and Engagement (versus Boredom. These dimensions display adequate self-informant agreement, and adequate convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity. In particular, Open-mindedness adds predictive power beyond the Big Six for an objective behavioral measure of intellectual humility, and Intellectual Modesty is uniquely related to Narcissism. We find that a similar factor structure emerges in Germanophone participants, giving initial evidence for the model's cross-cultural generalizability.
Garcia, Gabriel Macasiray; de Castro, Butch
This study explored how unique environmental conditions in Alaska influenced occupational health and safety for Filipino fish processing workers, many of whom migrated from warm locations (e.g., the Philippines, California, and Nevada). In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 Filipino workers in one commercial fish processing company in Dutch Harbor. Results indicated that cold weather interferes with workers' job performance, increasing their risk for injury and illness, whereas the community's isolation and rural nature causes loneliness and boredom, resulting in more high-risk behaviors. Other non-environmental factors affecting worker health include roommate and supervisor concerns and culture-specific practices. Findings suggest the importance of job rotation to avoid long exposures to cold temperatures, the value of a designated individual to inform workers about company and community resources that promote healthy lifestyles, and the possible utility of a joint worker-management safety committee.
Krief, Sabrina; Jamart, Aliette; Hladik, Claude-Marcel
Coprophagy occurred during major periods of feeding on fruits of Dialium spp. (Caesalpiniaceae) in a group of orphaned chimpanzees released in Conkouati Douli National Park, Republic of Congo. Since stress, boredom or food scarcity could not explain coprophagy according to our daily behavioral and veterinary control observations, we suggest that Dialium seeds were the item of interest in the feces. Two types of Dialium seeds were commonly found in the feces after chimpanzees swallowed the mesocarp and whole seeds together. These seeds were either whole and hard or whole/broken and soft imbibed. A mechanical and/or chemical effect of the gut passage may enable the chimpanzees to chew and ingest the seeds, thus providing nutritional intake.
Four cases of coprophagy and two cases of fecal inspection were identified during the 1142 h of observing wild bonobos at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. At least 5 females in the study group practiced coprophagy and/or fecal inspection. According to our daily behavioral observations, boredom and stress, insufficient roughage, and the search for essential nutrients could not explain the coprophagy. Several episodes observed in this study indicated that bonobos might have sought and ingested certain valuable food items, such as hard Dialium seeds, in feces during relatively lean seasons. Although coprophagy occurred only rarely among wild bonobos, this practice appeared to represent a possibly adaptive feeding strategy during periods of food scarcity rather than a behavioral abnormality.
Human performance can get degraded due to boredom, distraction and fatigue in vision-related tasks such as measurement, counting etc. Vision based techniques are increasingly being employed in many scientific and engineering applications. Notable advances in this field are emerging from continuing improvements in the fields of sensors and related technologies, and advances in computer hardware and software. Automation utilizing vision-based systems can perform repetitive tasks faster and more accurately, with greater consistency over time than humans. Electronics and Instrumentation Services Division has developed vision-based systems for several applications to perform tasks such as precision alignment, biometric access control, measurement, counting etc. This paper describes in brief four such applications. (author)
Cheung, Wing-Yee; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine
We compared and contrasted nostalgia with rumination and counterfactual thinking in terms of their autobiographical memory functions. Specifically, we assessed individual differences in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking, which we then linked to self-reported functions or uses of autobiographical memory (Self-Regard, Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Intimacy Maintenance, Conversation, Teach/Inform, and Bitterness Revival). We tested which memory functions are shared and which are uniquely linked to nostalgia. The commonality among nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking resides in their shared positive associations with all memory functions: individuals who evinced a stronger propensity towards past-oriented thought (as manifested in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking) reported greater overall recruitment of memories in the service of present functioning. The uniqueness of nostalgia resides in its comparatively strong positive associations with Intimacy Maintenance, Teach/Inform, and Self-Regard and weak association with Bitterness Revival. In all, nostalgia possesses a more positive functional signature than do rumination and counterfactual thinking.
Cavanagh, Sarah R; Glode, Ryan J; Opitz, Philipp C
Nostalgia involves a fond recollection of people and events lost to time. Growing evidence indicates that nostalgia may ameliorate negative affective states such as loneliness and boredom. However, the effect of nostalgia on sadness is unknown, and there is little research on how social connectedness might impact nostalgia's effects. Grounded in a theoretical framework whereby people with lower levels of attachment insecurity benefit more from nostalgia, we exposed participants to a mortality-related sad mood and then randomly assigned them to reflect on a nostalgic or an ordinary event memory. We examined changes in mood and electrodermal activity (EDA) and found that nostalgic versus ordinary event memories led to a blunted recovery from sad mood, but that this effect was moderated by degree of attachment insecurity, such that participants with low insecurity benefited from nostalgia whereas people with high insecurity did not. These findings suggest that nostalgia's benefits may be tied to the degree of confidence one has in one's social relationships.
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and online poker gambling in a community sample of adult online poker players, when controlling for age, gender, anxiety and depression. In total, 288 online poker gamblers were recruited. Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (CPGI), sensation seeking (SSS), depression and anxiety (HADS) were evaluated. Problem online poker gamblers have higher sensation seeking scores (total, thrill and adventure, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility subscores) and depression scores than non-problem online poker gamblers. Being male, with total sensation seeking, disinhibition and depression scores are factors associated with online poker problem gambling. These findings are interesting in terms of harm reduction. For example, because disinhibition could lead to increased time and money spent, protective behavioral strategies like setting time and monetary limits should be encouraged in poker online gamblers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kamstrupp, Anne Katrine
This article explores the wow- effect as a phenomenon in science teacher education. Through ethnographic fieldwork at a teachers' college in Denmark, the author encounters a phenomenon enacted in a particular way of teaching that wows the students. The students are in the process of becoming natural science/technology and biology teachers. This article explores and theorizes the wow-effect by examining tension fields within the phenomenon between boredom and engagement, new and old technologies, and being active and sedentary. By situating this phenomenon in a discussion of theory and practice in teacher education, the author discusses how teaching according to the wow-effect is both engaging for the students as well as problematic in relation to learning certain theoretical aspects of natural science/technology and biology.
This review explores Anne Kamstrupp's "The Wow-effect in Science Teacher Education" by examining her theorized "wow-effect" as a teaching enactment that may serve to engage students, but often fails to provide deep understanding of science content. My response extends her perspective of socio-materiality as means to understand the "wow-effect" by suggesting social constructivism provides a more accurate lens to disentangle the phenomenon. I react to her position that tension fields within the phenomenon include the relationship between new and old technologies, boredom and engagement, and active and sedentary learning. In this conversation, I point to a new way of conceptualizing using digital media in the classroom as ecology of learning that may serve to decrease problems associated with the "wow-effect".
Kamstrup, Anne Katrine
science/technology and biology teachers. This article explores and theorizes the wow-effect by examining tension fields within the phenomenon between boredom and engagement, new and old technologies, and being active and sedentary. By situating this phenomenon in a discussion of theory and practice...... in teacher education, the author discusses how teaching according to the wow-effect is both engaging for the students as well as problematic in relation to learning certain theoretical aspects of natural science/technology and biology.......This article explores the wow-effect as a phenomenon in science teacher education. Through ethnographic fieldwork at a teachers’ college in Denmark, the author encounters a phenomenon enacted in a particular way of teaching that wows the students. The students are in the process of becoming natural...
Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.
The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered. (C.F.)
Chan, Wing-Yin; Ni, Dong; Pang, Wai-Man; Qin, Jing; Chui, Yim-Pan; Yu, Simon Chun-Ho; Heng, Pheng-Ann
Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is essential in many of minimally invasive surgeries or procedures, such as biopsy, drug delivery, spinal anaesthesia, etc. Accurate and safe needle insertion is a difficult task due to the high requirement of hand-eye coordination skills. Many proposed virtual reality (VR) based training systems put their emphasis on realistic simulation instead of pedagogical efficiency. The lack of schematic training scenario leads to boredom of repetitive operations. To solve this, we present our novel training system with the integration of game elements in order to retain the trainees' enthusiasm. Task-oriented scenarios, time attack scenarios and performance evaluation are introduced. Besides, some state-of-art technologies are also presented, including ultrasound simulation, needle haptic rendering as well as a mass-spring-based needle-tissue interaction simulation. These works are shown to be effective to keep the trainees up with learning.
Victoria Louise Barbour
Full Text Available Background. Fatigue after stroke is common and distressing to patients. Aims. Our aims were to explore patients' perceptions of post-stroke fatigue, including the causes of fatigue and the factors that alleviate fatigue, in a mixed methods study. Results. We interviewed 15 patients who had had a stroke and were inpatients on stroke rehabilitation wards. A substantial proportion of patients reported that their fatigue started at the time of their stroke. Various different factors were reported to improve fatigue, including exercise, good sleep, rehabilitation and rest. Fatigue influences patients' sense of “control” after their stroke. Conclusion. Our results are consistent with the possibility that poststroke fatigue might be triggered by factors that occur at the time of the stroke (e.g., the stroke lesion itself, or admission to hospital and then exacerbated by poor sleep and boredom. These factors should be considered when developing complex interventions to improve post-stroke fatigue.
Caldwell, Linda L; Bradley, Stephanie; Coffman, Donna
This manuscript focuses on how individualized components may be embedded within a universal preventive intervention (TimeWise: Taking Charge of Leisure Time) to make program delivery more effective. Leisure related variables (motivation, boredom/interest and peer and parental influence) were used to suggest ways to individualize the program. Latent Class Analysis was used to develop individualized risk and strength profiles of adolescents (N = 617). Comparisons were made between a treatment and control group. Four classes were identified: undifferentiated high, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation/amotivation, undifferentiated low. These classes were related to substance use. Membership in the intrinsic class was associated with intervention group while the extrinsic class was related to the control group. Results were useful in suggesting ways to tailor a universal prevention program.
Full Text Available A doodle is a simple drawing that is usually made to pass the time during a boring meeting, classroom lecture, or a prolonged telephonic conversation. Almost everyone has seen a doodle somewhere and many people have made such drawings. Doodling may not be of much interest to the general public as it is perceived to be a sign of disinterest, inattentiveness, or reverie. However, the act of doodling is of enduring interest to scientists as they believe that doodling research might actually reveal significant insights about the functioning of the subconscious mind. The widely held misconception about doodling as being just a way to ease one's boredom is all set to change since the findings of some recent researchers have shown that doodling might actually aid one's memory and recall performance. We hope that this review will instigate further research into this hitherto uncharted domain so that the real connotation of this seemingly mundane act can be decisively established.
Full Text Available Have you been there? Have you felt the touch of rusty steel and heard the scrunch of neat gravel paths under your feet? Have you pulled the shiny handles of hyper-insulated glass doors that lead into bright foyers with clean concrete floors and soft leather couches? Do you remember strolling through the wonderful worlds of carefully arranged exhibitions and can you recall the exciting stories an audio-guide whispered into your ears? Have you leafed through the thrilling art books on display in the gift shop? And have you recognized the extraordinary quality of their paper? Exhausted and filled with a mixture of boredom and excitement, have you tasted the cappuccino foam and the exquisite pastries, served on well-designed dishes at the museum café? Have you resonated with the atmosphere of the contemporary art gallery?
for non-Computer Science students. Weekly observations as well as surveys at the beginning and at the end of the course were made to provide insights on students’ motivation, engagement, self-perceived skills, and self-perceived emotions such as confusion, frustration, anger, boredom, curiosity, happiness...... of coding . This paper presents and instructional design aimed to introduce students to the basic concepts of programming using visual programming alone as well as visual programming to program robots. Furthermore, the instructional design was applied in a case study: an introductory programming course......, surprise and fear. The results are analyzed and discussed in relation to the influence on students’ ability to overcome the barriers mentioned above as well as students’ learning experience....
Terhemba Nom AMBE-UVA
Full Text Available The paper represents a study of students’ experience of interactivity in distance education programmes at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN. Through surveys and focus groups with students, facilitators, and administrative support staff, we found out that interactivity is a key determinant of student success rate. Majority of the students are workers in the urban areas who combine “work and learn” which is the motto of NOUN. The survey showed that majority of the students depended on their facilitators as key resource persons and on their peers or study groups both for required and voluntary interactivity to reinforce their learning. This was able to reduce loneliness, boredom and loss of community experienced in distance education. Because NOUN has not completed its Repository, Production, Distribution, and Administration Headquarters (REPRODAhq and equipped the study centers with up-to-date technological facilities, this frustrated accessibility that is dialectically linked to interactivity.
ABSTRACT This study is motivated by the fact that many students have difficulties in learning mathematics especially for junior highschool students. This study aims to know the implementation of scaffolding method based on constructivism to students’ mathematics achievement. This is an experimental study with one group pretest and posttest design. The sample were 32 students grade VIII. Data is analyzed by t-test and n-gain test. T-test result shows that sig=0,000<0,05, The average score increases 15,63 and based on N-gain test shows that students competence increases too. It means that scaffolding method based on constructivism influence students’ mathematics achievement significantly. Thus scaffolding method based on constructivism can be implemented in any instruction, because it can increase students’ achievement and students will get learning variation that can reduce boredom and motivate them to learn actively. Keywords: mathematics achievement; constructivism; scaffolding.
Jezewska, Maria; Babicz-Zielińska, Ewa; Leszczyńska, Irena; Grubman, Marta
Nutrition disorders arise from various interacting factors: cultural, environmental, genetic, physiological, and psychological. Excessive consumption of highly processed food, sugar, salt, alcohol, and saturated fats is a problem nowadays, and consumption of fish, vegetables, and fruit is insufficient. Overeating and an unbalanced diet are often accompanied by stress and a lack of physical activity. This is intensified by easy access to "comfort food", "fast food", and "junk food". The number of people suffering from overweight and obesity, so-called diseases of civilization, is increasing. Not only is being overweight a risk factor for the development many other metabolic diseases, but it also significantly worsens the quality of life. This also concerns people working at sea. Obesity is favoured by emotional eating disorders (EED), uncontrolled/compulsive eating - binge eating disorders (BED), and night eating disorders (NED). Most frequently, eating is a reaction to stress or boredom. It alleviates tension and improves the mood, also of seafarers.
Full Text Available In performing team-based projects in engineering class, students usually face many problems, such as free-riding, lack of responsibility, boredom, and insufficient initiative. This papers proposes a new method for performing team-based projects in engineering class—specifically, a gamified method for team organization using a salary auction game. On the description of the design and use of a salary auction game in engineering class, a case study conducted using a survey method is reported to validate the practical value of the proposed auction game. The salary auction game proposed in this paper demonstrates that a gamified team organization method in engineering class could be used as an effective tool to enhance motivation and to improve learning outcomes of engineering students.
The present study examined adolescents' experiences of loneliness and solitude in their responses to an online survey on self-care. Both quantitative (n = 272) and qualitative (n = 150) responses were coded for these feelings when home alone. Results indicate that adolescents experience the duality of aloneness, including both positive solitude and negative loneliness. Adolescents' responses range from embraced solitude and self-care to feelings of loneliness and rejection of time by themselves. Adolescents reporting loneliness were significantly less likely to enjoy being home alone during the day and at night (p < or = .001). Also, gender, age, and emotions such as fear, boredom, and separation anxiety are associated with loneliness among adolescents in self-care. Interventions to increase connectedness and combat loneliness during out-of-school hours are recommended.
Knust, Sonja; Stewart, Anna L
This study investigated relationships between hostility, Zuckerman's sensation seeking, and Eysenck and Eysenck's personality scales within a prison population, to explore whether they could be conceptualized in terms of two socialized and unsocialized sensation seeking factors. Participants included 79 incarcerated adult male offenders (age range = 18-62). Findings support the distinction between socialized and unsocialized sensation seeking and suggest that these factors represent more overarching personality factors. Psychoticism was a clear marker of the more broad impulsive, unsocialized sensation seeking factor, rather than representing a supertrait in its own right. This factor was also represented by lie, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility scales. Findings relating to hostility also supported such a reformulation, as unsocialized scales did cluster together to predict the unsocialized hostility factor, whereas unsocialized scales did not. The results demonstrate the need for a theoretical reformulation of the two given theories of personality.
Persons, Roy W
Forty-six seriously delinquent, incarcerated boys received individual and group therapy for 32 months. The study examined how art therapy addressed the boys' psychological needs via analysis of the boys' self-selected art productions. In descending order of frequency, the eight most frequent need themes were identity issues; need for security and tranquility; need for freedom, adventure, and fun; need for ideal parental relationships; need for affiliation and affection; erotic and sexual needs; expression of depression, childhood trauma, and other psychological problems; and religious or spiritual needs. The boys' perceptions of what was most helpful about art therapy in descending order were stress relief and relaxation, reduction of boredom, pride and self-confidence, positive recognition, working through frustration, enjoyment and fun, improvement of ability to concentrate, and the way they were treated. Three brief case histories and a description of the art therapy procedures are given. Possible implications for cognitive restructuring are discussed.
Kiforenko, Lilita; Kraft, Dirk
This paper presents results on automatic non-acted human emotion recognition using full standing body movements and postures. The focus of this paper is to show that it is possible to classify emotions using a consumer depth sensor in an everyday scenario. The features for classification are body...... joint rotation angles and meta-features that are fed into a Support Vector Machines classifier. The work of Gaber-Barron and Si (2012) is used as inspiration and many of their proposed meta-features are reimplemented or modified. In this work we try to identify ”basic” human emotions, that are triggered...... by various visual stimuli. We present the emotion dataset that is recorded using Microsoft Kinect for Windows sensor and body joints rotation angles that are extracted using Microsoft Kinect Software Development Kit 1.6. The classified emotions are curiosity, confusion, joy, boredom and disgust. We show...
Robert R. Clewis
Full Text Available This article identifies three distinct temporal notions in Hume’s aesthetics: passing the test of time, repeated viewing of a work, and the personal aging of the critic. It applies these ideas to the evaluation and enjoyment of films. It characterizes positive, negative, and ambivalent film aging, which are associated with nostalgia, boredom, and comic amusement, respectively, and which bear on our enjoyment, not evaluation, of film. The paper discusses Allen’s Zelig, Antonioni’s La Notte, Cameron’s The Terminator, Lucas’s Star Wars, Scorsese’s Taxi Driver, Spielberg’s E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial, and Renoir’s La Règle du Jeu.
Pekrun, Reinhard; Vogl, Elisabeth; Muis, Krista R; Sinatra, Gale M
Measurement instruments assessing multiple emotions during epistemic activities are largely lacking. We describe the construction and validation of the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales, which measure surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration, and boredom occurring during epistemic cognitive activities. The instrument was tested in a multinational study of emotions during learning from conflicting texts (N = 438 university students from the United States, Canada, and Germany). The findings document the reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the instrument. A seven-factor model best fit the data, suggesting that epistemically-related emotions should be conceptualised in terms of discrete emotion categories, and the scales showed metric invariance across the North American and German samples. Furthermore, emotion scores changed over time as a function of conflicting task information and related significantly to perceived task value and use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies.
Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J
The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥ 3 days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this article the issue of emotion recognition based on Polish emotional speech signal analysis was presented. The Polish database of emotional speech, prepared and shared by the Medical Electronics Division of the Lodz University of Technology, has been used for research. Speech signal has been processed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. The inputs for ANN were information obtained from signal spectrogram. Researches were conducted for three different spectrogram divisions. The ANN consists of four layers but the number of neurons in each layer depends of spectrogram division. Conducted researches focused on six emotional states: a neutral state, sadness, joy, anger, fear and boredom. The averange effectiveness of emotions recognition was about 80%.
Full Text Available The article presents the issue of emotion recognition based on polish emotional speech analysis. The Polish database of emotional speech, prepared and shared by the Medical Electronics Division of the Lodz University of Technology, has been used for research. The following parameters extracted from sampled and normalised speech signal has been used for the analysis: energy of signal, speaker’s sex, average value of speech signal and both the minimum and maximum sample value for a given signal. As an emotional state a classifier fof our layers of artificial neural network has been used. The achieved results reach 50% of accuracy. Conducted researches focused on six emotional states: a neutral state, sadness, joy, anger, fear and boredom.
Full Text Available A 38-year-old male patient was admitted to our outpatient department because of frequency and urgency incontinence. During evaluation it was detected that the patient was suffering from frequency which was progressive for one year, feeling of incontinence, and urgency incontinence. There was no urologic pathology detected in patient’s medical and family history. Neurologic consultation was requested due to his history of boredom, reluctance to do business, balance disorders, and recession for about 3 years. Brain computerized tomography (CT scan revealed that amorphous calcifications were detected in the bilaterally centrum semiovale, basal ganglia, capsula interna, thalami, mesencephalon, pons and bulbus, and the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. We have detected spontaneous neurogenic detrusor overactivity without sphincter dyssynergia after evaluating the voiding diary, cystometry, and pressure flow study. We consider the detrusor overactivity which occurred one year after the start of the neurological symptoms as the suprapontine inhibition and damage in the axonal pathways in the Fahr syndrome.
Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.
The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered.
Chambers, David W
Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.
Pani, Roberto; Sagliaschi, Samanta
In this paper were explored psychological themes underlying vandalistic graffiti by 162 Italian adolescents (154 boys, 8 girls; M age = 17.5 yr., SD = 2.3) who "felt hooked" on vandalistic graffiti and agreed to participate in an interview with a graffiti writer. Use of this interview could clarify the motivations which led these youths to write on walls, the meaning they give to that act, the emotions they feel as they write, and their perception of risks and excitement involved. Qualitative analysis of their responses suggested these adolescents present a marked excitatory-compulsive trait, report a sense of emptiness, boredom, loneliness, and a lack of internal points of reference, and adopt behaviors linked to a pressing need for immediate gratification.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Golander, Hava
This study investigated the meanings and etiologies of hallucinations in persons with dementia. Participants were 74 nursing home residents aged ≥ 65 diagnosed with dementia. Most of the reported visual and auditory hallucinations involved talking to persons who are not present, a phenomenon described as either a visual or auditory hallucination, or both. All participants who were reported to experience a hallucination had poor vision. Current results suggest that hallucination was a term staff caregivers used for the phenomena they could not easily explain, demonstrating their lack of understanding of the resident and/or the phenomena they termed hallucination. The classification of hallucinations into subtypes may not be meaningful, and most visual and auditory hallucinations were not associated with negative affect. Some hallucinations occurred out of boredom, which exacerbated the sensory deprivation experienced by these persons, thereby increasing the likelihood of hallucinations.
Raimondo Maria Pavarin
Full Text Available 1300 students (54.3% girls 13–16 years old were interviewed in the urban area of Bologna during 2010. Random effect multiple logistic regression models were used. Results show a reciprocal relationship between alcohol use, tobacco, and cannabis. Most users were offered cannabis, began using at 14 years of age, and do not believe using is very dangerous. They live with only one parent, have more than 50 euros of spending money per month, and abuse alcohol, abuse that increases relative to the intensity of cigarette smoking. Legal/illegal dichotomy seems to overturn, where alcohol becomes a “drug” and the use of tobacco, similar to other drugs, is motivated as a solution to reduce anxiety, combat boredom, relax, and to ease loneliness.
Jesús Iglesias Muñiz
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the effects of cooperative learning as a methodological tool for maths teaching. A quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent groups of students was used. A total of 33 students belonging to two year-2 Primary Education intact classes agreed to participate. One experienced a cooperative learning approach, while the other one experienced a traditional approach. Assessment was performed quantitatively through a maths’ skills test and qualitatively through children’s drawings. Quantitative results showed that the cooperative learning group reached higher math scores, while from the qualitative results emerged 3 positive categories: enjoyment, learning, group work and 3 negative: boredom/tiredness, difficult and bad behaviour. Cooperative learning seems to debilitate students’ negative perceptions on the math class.
Full Text Available This paper proposes and evaluates a multiagents system called NORA that predicts emotional attributes from learners' brainwaves within an intelligent tutoring system. The measurements from the electrical brain activity of the learner are combined with information about the learner's emotional attributes. Electroencephalogram was used to measure brainwaves and self-reports to measure the three emotional dimensions: pleasure, arousal, and dominance, the eight emotions occurring during learning: anger, boredom, confusion, contempt curious, disgust, eureka, and frustration, and the emotional valence positive for learning and negative for learning. The system is evaluated on natural data, and it achieves an accuracy of over 63%, significantly outperforming classification using the individual modalities and several other combination schemes.
Full Text Available Background: In March 2013 Facebook announced it had around 1.1 billion monthly active users, this number has been growing exponentially from 40% in 2011 and it is estimated to pass 70% mark in 2013. Most of these users being young, the impact of Facebook addiction can clearly be expected to alter their lifestyle. Objectives: •To examine the impact Facebook addiction (IV on the recreational activities (DV. •To identify the effects of Facebook addiction on the well-being of the Indian youth. Methods: Empirical research using descriptive analysis was conducted on more than 100 college students. Findings: Greater percentage of the population is at threat to get addicted or is already addicted to Facebook. Activities affected due to Facebook usage were identified and categorized. Anger, frustration, boredom and sadness were the possible variables reported by respondent incase of forceful reduction of Facebook usage.
Full Text Available Many challenges face English language teachers today, but two common problems in Ecuador specifically in universities are large class sizes and multi-level students. These problems can create boredom, anxiety, and over all lack of interest in English language learning. It is shown in this article how to combat these particular problems through various strategies utilized to teach to the students’ needs, help them work together and intrinsically motivate them to learn different English language skills, specifically grammar and sentence structure. These strategies include group work, task-based learning, the inverted or flipped classroom, role-play and intrinsic learning. The author explains how these strategies work in a specific group of university pupils in Ecuador to overcome these specific problems in a classroom, but without student participation they can be flawed.
Nowosielski, Robert J; Trick, Lana M; Toxopeus, Ryan
Distracted driving (driving while performing a secondary task) causes many collisions. Most research on distracted driving has focused on operating a cell-phone, but distracted driving can include eating while driving, conversing with passengers or listening to music or audiobooks. Although the research has focused on the deleterious effects of distraction, there may be situations where distraction improves driving performance. Fatigue and boredom are also associated with collision risk and it is possible that secondary tasks can help alleviate the effects of fatigue and boredom. Furthermore, it has been found that individuals with high levels of executive functioning as measured by the OSPAN (Operation Span) task show better driving while multitasking. In this study, licensed drivers were tested in a driving simulator (a car body surrounded by screens) that simulated simple or complex roads. Road complexity was manipulated by increasing traffic, scenery, and the number of curves in the drive. Participants either drove, or drove while listening to an audiobook. Driving performance was measured in terms of braking response time to hazards (HRT): the time required to brake in response to pedestrians or vehicles that suddenly emerged from the periphery into the path of the vehicle, speed, standard deviation of speed, standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). Overall, braking times to hazards were higher on the complex drive than the simple one, though the effects of secondary tasks such as audiobooks were especially deleterious on the complex drive. In contrast, on the simple drive, driving while listening to an audiobook lead to faster HRT. We found evidence that individuals with high OSPAN scores had faster HRTs when listening to an audiobook. These results suggest that there are environmental and individual factors behind difference in the allocation of attention while listening to audiobooks while driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Examining the relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and cigarette smoking in people with substance use disorders: a multiple mediator model.
Hruska, Bryce; Bernier, Jennifer; Kenner, Frank; Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L
Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in people with substance use disorders (SUDs) and is associated with significant physical health problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is also highly associated with both SUDs and cigarette smoking and may serve as a barrier to smoking cessation efforts. In addition, people with PTSD are more likely to hold positive smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs that smoking cigarettes results in positive outcomes); these beliefs may contribute to cigarette smoking in people with SUDs experiencing PTSD symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between PTSD symptoms and typical daily cigarette smoking/cigarette dependence symptoms in a sample of 227 trauma-exposed current smokers with SUDs (59.9% male, 89.4% Caucasian) seeking detoxification treatment services. Additionally, the indirect effects of multiple types of positive smoking outcome expectancies on these relationships were examined. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, cigarette consumption, and cigarette dependence symptoms. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were not directly related to cigarette consumption or cigarette dependence symptoms. However, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were shown to have a significant indirect effect between PTSD symptoms and cigarette consumption, while negative affect reduction, boredom reduction, and taste-sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies were all found to have significant indirect effects between PTSD symptoms and cigarette dependence symptoms. The indirect effect involving negative affect reduction outcome expectancies was statistically larger than that of taste sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies, while negative affect reduction and boredom reduction outcome expectancies were comparable in magnitude. These results suggest that expectancies that smoking can manage negative affective experiences are related to
Lu, Jinky Leilanie
In the light of global industrialization, much attention has been focused on occupational factors and their influence on the health and welfare of workers. This was a cross sectional study using stratified sampling technique based on industry sizes. The study sampled 24 industries, 6 were small scale industries and 9 each for medium and large scale industries. From the 24 industries, a total of 500 respondents for the questionnaire was taken. For occupational health and safety standards that industries have to comply with, there was low compliance among small-scale industries relative to the medium and large scale industries. Only one industry had an air cleaning device for cleaning contaminated air prior to emission into the external community. Among the 500 respondents, majority were female (88.8%), single (69.6%) and worked in the production or assembly-line station (87.4%). Sickness absenteeism was relative high among the workers in this study accounting for almost 54% among females and 48% among males. Many of the workers also reported of poor performance at work, boredom, tardiness and absenteeism. For association between work factors and personal factors, the following were found to be statistically significant at p=0.05. Boredom was associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotion, disincentives for sick leaves, poor relationship with boss and poor relationships with employers. On the other hand, poor performance was also associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotions, job insecurity, and poor relationship with employers. From the data generated, important issues that must be dealt with in work organizations include the quality of work life, and health and safety issues. Based on these findings, we can conclude that there are still issues on occupational health and safety (OHS) in the target site of export processing zones in the Philippines. There must be an active campaign for OHS in industries that are produce for the global market
Kopp, Martin; Wolf, Mirjam; Ruedl, Gerhard; Burtscher, Martin
Despite different injury rates and injury patterns previous personality related research in the field of downhill winter sports did not subdivide between different alpine slope users. In this study, we tried to find out whether the personality trait sensation seeking differs between skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. In a cross-sectional survey 1185 persons (726 alpine skiers, 321 snowboarders and 138 ski tourers comparable in age and sex) were electronically questioned with the sensation seeking scale (SSS-V) comprising the four factors thrill and adventure seeking, experiences seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Kruskal-Wallis Tests revealed a significantly higher total score of the SSS-V for snowboarders in comparison to alpine skiers and ski tourers (H(2) = 41.5, p Ski tourers and snowboarders scored significantly higher in the dimensions "thrill- and adventure-seeking" and "experience-seeking" than alpine skiers. Furthermore, snowboarders showed higher scores in "disinhibition" related to alpine skiers and ski tourers and "boredom susceptibility" compared to alpine skiers. Data show differences in the personality trait sensation seeking in people practising different winter sports. As snowboarders showed higher SS-scores compared to alpine skiers and ski tourers prevention and information programs might benefit from a selective approach focusing on special characteristics of the respective group. Key pointsIt is the very first research trying to identify differences between different types of winter sport slope usersObtained results show higher sensation seeking scores in snowboardersThese results might stimulate new approaches in educational campaigns to reduce accident rates in winter sports.
Sutapa, I. K.; Sudiarsa, I. M.
The problems that often arise in the area of Denpasar City mostly caused by parking problems at the centers of activities such as shopping centers. The problems that occur not only because of the large number of vehicles that parked but also the result of the condition of parking officers who have not received attention, there is no concern about the physical condition of parking attendants because doing night guard duty. To improve the quality of parking officer, ergonomic parking lot is improved through the application of appropriate technology with systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory approach. The general objective of the research is to know the implementation of ergonomics in parking management on the improvement of the quality of parking officer in Robinson shopping center. The indicator of the quality of the parking officer work is the decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, fatigue, workload, boredom and increasing work motivation. The study was conducted using the same subject design, involving 10 subjects as a simple random sample. Intervention is done by arrangement of ergonomic basement motorcycle parking. Measurements done before and after repair. Washing out (WO) for 14 days. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively, tested normality (shapirowilk) and homogeneity (Levene Test). For normal and homogeneous distribution data, different test with One Way Anova, different test between Period with Post Hoc. Normally distributed and non-homogeneous data, different test with Friedman Test, different test between periods using Wilcoxon test. Data were analyzed with significance level of 5%. The results showed that the implementation of ergonomic in the management of parking area of the court decreased musculoskeletal complaints by 15.10% (p ergonomics in parking management of the parking lot improves the quality of the parking officer work from: (1) decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, (2) decrease of melting rate, (3) decrease of
Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana
The relationship of circadian typology with personality has been largely studied in adults, but there are few studies exploring such relationship in adolescents. Adolescence has been associated with a greater tendency to eveningness preference, sleeping problems, poorer academic achievement, earlier substance use, or risky behaviors, and it is suggested that this association might be mediated by personality factors. Given the relevance of identifying the behavioral outcomes of young evening types to detect and prevent health problems, the present study aimed to explore, for the first time, the relationship between sensation seeking and circadian typology in an adolescent sample of 688 students (51.45% boys) from 12 to 16 yrs old. They answered the Spanish versions of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) and the Junior Sensation Seeking Scale (J-SSS), which includes four subscales measuring Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. Analyses showed that boys obtained significantly higher scores than girls on J-SSS total score and all subscales except Boredom Susceptibility, whereas evening-type adolescents of both sexes scored significantly higher than neither types and than morning types on J-SSS total score. These results indicate that evening-type adolescents show a greater desire for varied, new, complex, and intense sensations, and they are ready for experiencing more risks than morning types. The implications of this study suggest the need of being aware of individual differences in the SS trait in evening-type adolescents, as well as taking into account the wide variety of behaviors associated with it, either prosocial or antisocial, to design better preventive health and academic programs.
Hazel, Susan J.; O’Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry
Simple Summary Our attitudes to animals are linked to our beliefs about their cognitive abilities, such as intelligence and capacity to experience emotional states. In this study, undergraduate students were surveyed on their attitudes to chickens pre- and post- a practical class in which they learnt to clicker train chickens. Students were more likely to agree that chickens are intelligent and easy to teach tricks to, and that chickens feel emotions such as boredom, frustration and happiness, following the practical class. Similar workshops may be an effective method to improve animal training skills, and promote more positive attitudes to specific animal species. Abstract A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals. PMID
White, Jennifer H; Bartley, Emma; Janssen, Heidi; Jordan, Louise-Anne; Spratt, Neil
Data highlight the importance of undertaking intense and frequent repetition of activities within stroke rehabilitation to maximise recovery. An enriched environment (EE) provides a medium in which these activities can be performed and enhanced recovery achieved. An EE has been shown to promote neuroplasticity in animal models of stroke, facilitating enhanced recovery of motor and cognitive function. However, the benefit of enriching the environment of stroke survivors remains unknown. To qualitatively explore stroke survivors' experience of implementation of exposure to an EE within a typical stroke rehabilitation setting, in order to identify facilitators and barriers to participation. Semi-structured interviews with 10 stroke survivors (7 females and 3 males, mean age of 70.5 years) exposed to an EE for a 2-week period following exposure to routine rehabilitation within a stroke rehabilitation ward. An inductive thematic approach was utilised to collect and analyse data. Qualitative themes emerged concerning the environmental enrichment paradigm including: (1) "It got me moving" - perceived benefits of participation in an EE; (2) "You can be bored or you can be busy." - Attenuating factors influencing participation in an EE; (3) "I don't like to make the staff busier" - limitations to use of the EE. This study provides preliminary support for the implementation of an EE within a typical stroke rehabilitation setting from a patient perspective. Reported benefits included (1) increased motor, cognitive and sensory stimulation, (2) increased social interaction, (3) alleviation of degree of boredom and (4) increased feelings of personal control. However, participants also identified a number of barriers affecting implementation of the EE. We have previously published findings on perceptions of nursing staff working with stroke survivors in this enriched rehabilitation environment who identified that patients benefited from having better access to physical, cognitive
An important question in online learning involves how to effectively motivate and retain students in science online courses. There is a dearth of research and knowledge about the experiences of students enrolled in online science courses in community colleges which has impeded the proper development and implementation of online courses and retention of students in the online environment. This study sought to provide an understanding of the relationships among each of the following variables: self-efficacy, task value, negative-achievement emotions, self-regulation learning strategies (metacognition), learning strategy (elaboration), and course satisfaction to student's performance (course final grade). Bandura's social-cognitive theory was used as a framework to describe the relationships among students' motivational beliefs (perceived task value, self-efficacy, and self-regulation) and emotions (frustration and boredom) with the dependent variables (elaboration and overall course satisfaction). A mixed-method design was used with a survey instrumentation and student interviews. A variety of science online courses in biology, genetics, astronomy, nutrition, and chemistry were surveyed in two community colleges. Community colleges students (N = 107) completed a questionnaire during enrollment in a variety of online science online courses. Upon course completion, 12 respondents were randomly selected for follow-up in-depth interviews. Multiple regression results from the study indicate perceived task value and self-regulatory learning strategies (metacognition) were as important predictors for students' use of elaboration, while self-efficacy and the number of prior online courses was not significant predictors for students' elaboration when all four predictors were included. Frustration was a significant negative predictor of overall course satisfaction, and boredom unexpectedly emerged as a positive predictor when frustration was also in the model. In addition, the
The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning
IMPROVEMENT EFFORTS TO LEARN LESSONS ACTIVITIES CHASSIS POWER TRANSFER STANDARD COMPETENCE AND CORRECT STEERING SYSTEM WITH LEARNING METHOD DISCOVERY INQUIRY CLASS XIB SMK MUHAMMADIYAH GAMPING ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014
Full Text Available The purpose of the study to determine the increase learners' learning activities subjects chassis and power transfer competency standard steering system repair discovery learning through the implementation of class XI inquiry Lightweight Vehicle Technology SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping, Sleman academic year 2013/2014. This research including action research Research conducted at SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping XIB class academic year 2013/2014 with a sample of 26 students. Techniques of data collection using questionnaire sheet, observation sheets and documentation to determine the increase in student activity. Instrument validation study using experts judgment. Analysis using descriptive statistics using the technique . The results showed that the increased activity of the first cycle to the second cycle include an increase of 57.7 % Visual activities; Oral activities amounted to 61.6 %; Listening activities amounted to 23.04 %; Writing activities by 8.7 %; Mental activities of 73.1 %; Emotional activities of 42.3 % ( for the spirit of the students in learning activities ; Motor activities amounted to -7.7 % ( decrease negative activity . Based on these results can be known to most students in SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping gave a positive opinion on the use of inquiry and discovery learning method has a view that the use of inquiry discovery learning methods can be useful for students and schools themselves. Learners who have a good perception of the use of discovery learning method of inquiry he has known and fully aware of the standards of achievement of competence theory fix the steering system. Learning discovery learning methods on achievement of competency standards inquiry repair steering systems theory pleased with the learning process, they are also able to: 1 increase the motivation to learn, 2 improving learning achievement; 3 enhancing creativity; 4 listen, respect, and accept the opinion of the participants other students; 5 reduce boredom
Roduit, Johann A R; Eichinger, Tobias; Glannon, Walter
The ethics of human enhancement has been a hotly debated topic in the last 15 years. In this debate, some advocate examining science fiction stories to elucidate the ethical issues regarding the current phenomenon of human enhancement. Stories from science fiction seem well suited to analyze biomedical advances, providing some possible case studies. Of particular interest is the work of screenwriter Andrew Niccol (Gattaca, S1m0ne, In Time, and Good Kill), which often focuses on ethical questions raised by the use of new technologies. Examining the movie In Time (2011), the aim of this paper is to show how science fiction can contribute to the ethical debate of human enhancement. In Time provides an interesting case study to explore what could be some of the consequences of radical life-extension technologies. In this paper, we will show how arguments regarding radical life-extension portrayed in this particular movie differ from what is found in the scientific literature. We will see how In Time gives flesh to arguments defending or rejecting radical life-extension. It articulates feelings of unease, alienation and boredom associated with this possibility. Finally, this article will conclude that science fiction movies in general, and In Time in particular, are a valuable resource for a broad and comprehensive debate about our coming future.
Howie, Erin K; Campbell, Amity C; Abbott, Rebecca A; Straker, Leon M
Active video games (AVGs) have been identified as a novel strategy to improve motor skill and physical activity in clinical populations. A recent cross-over randomized trial found AVGs to be ineffective at improving motor skill and physical activity in the home-environment for children with or at-risk for developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The study purpose was to better understand why the intervention had been ineffective by examining the quantity and quality of AVG play during an AVG intervention for children with or at-risk for DCD. Participants (n=21, ages 9-12) completed the 16 week AVG intervention. Detailed quantitative and qualitative data were systematically triangulated to obtain the quantity of exposure (AVG exposure over time, patterns of exposure) and quality of use (game selection, facilitators and barriers to play). The median AVG dose (range 30-35min/day) remained relatively stable across the intervention and met the prescribed dose. Play quality was impacted by game selection, difficulty playing games, lack of time, illness, technical difficulties and boredom. The ineffectiveness of a home-based AVG intervention may be due to quality of play. Strategies to improve the quality of game play may help realize the potential benefits of AVGs as a clinical tool for children with DCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Speech emotion recognition aims at automatically identifying the emotional or physical state of a human being from his or her voice. The emotional state is an important factor in human communication, because it provides feedback information in many applications. This paper makes a comparison of two standard methods used for speaker recognition and verification: Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM and Support Vector Machines (SVM for emotion recognition. An extensive comparison of two methods: GMM and GMM/SVM sequence kernel is conducted. The main goal here is to analyze and compare influence of initial setting of parameters such as number of mixture components, used number of iterations and volume of training data for these two methods. Experimental studies are performed over the Berlin Emotional Database, expressing different emotions, in German language. The emotions used in this study are anger, fear, joy, boredom, neutral, disgust, and sadness. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the combination of GMM and SVM in order to classify sound data sequences when compared to systems based on GMM.
Pao, Tsang-Long; Chen, Yu-Te; Yeh, Jun-Heng
It is said that technology comes out from humanity. What is humanity? The very definition of humanity is emotion. Emotion is the basis for all human expression and the underlying theme behind everything that is done, said, thought or imagined. Making computers being able to perceive and respond to human emotion, the human-computer interaction will be more natural. Several classifiers are adopted for automatically assigning an emotion category, such as anger, happiness or sadness, to a speech utterance. These classifiers were designed independently and tested on various emotional speech corpora, making it difficult to compare and evaluate their performance. In this paper, we first compared several popular classification methods and evaluated their performance by applying them to a Mandarin speech corpus consisting of five basic emotions, including anger, happiness, boredom, sadness and neutral. The extracted feature streams contain MFCC, LPCC, and LPC. The experimental results show that the proposed WD-MKNN classifier achieves an accuracy of 81.4% for the 5-class emotion recognition and outperforms other classification techniques, including KNN, MKNN, DW-KNN, LDA, QDA, GMM, HMM, SVM, and BPNN. Then, to verify the advantage of the proposed method, we compared these classifiers by applying them to another Mandarin expressive speech corpus consisting of two emotions. The experimental results still show that the proposed WD-MKNN outperforms others.
Anerao Urja M, Shinde Nisha K, Khatri SM
Full Text Available Overview: As the school going children especially the adolescents’ need workout routine; it is advisable that the routine is imbibed in the school’s class time table. In India as growing number of schools provide swimming as one of the recreational activities; school staff often fails to notice the boredom that is caused by the same activity. Deep as well as shallow water running can be one of the best alternatives to swimming. Hence the present study was conducted to find out the cardiovascular response in these individuals. Methods: This was a Prospective Cross-Sectional Comparative Study done in 72 healthy school going students (males grouped into 2 according to the interventions (Deep water running and Shallow water running. Cardiovascular parameters such as Heart rate (HR, Saturation of oxygen (SpO2, Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE were assessed. Results: Significant improvements in cardiovascular parameters were seen in both the groups i.e. by both the interventions. Conclusion: Deep water running and Shallow water running can be used to improve cardiac function in terms of various outcome measures used in the study.
Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M; Frenzel, Anne C; Hall, Nathan C
Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers' reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, "real") emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers' emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.
Træen, Bente; Thuen, Frode
The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence of self-reported types of extradyadic romantic and sexual activity among adult Norwegians and to explore the role of infidelity in breaking up a permanent relationship. The results are based on 1,001 web interviews with persons ranging in age from 18 to 67 years. The majority of respondents reported having engaged in some kind of extradyadic romantic and/or sexual activity. Forty-five percent of the women and 39% of the men claimed they had experienced a previous breakup from a marriage or cohabiting relationship. Among those aged 50 years or older, the most important reasons for breaking up a previous relationship were infidelity (38%) and lost love (38%). More men (44%) than women (33%) reported infidelity. Respondents younger than 50 years were more motivated by boredom. Among respondents below the age of 50 years, the most frequently reported reasons for considering termination of a present relationship were quarreling (37%), poor sex life (29%), and "other" reasons (25%). Accordingly, infidelity was not identified as an essential factor for considering a breakup from the present relationship. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
LONG, VICKY; MARLAND, HILARY
A survey of government reports and the archives and journals of other agencies interested in industrial health in early twentieth-century Britain has led us to conclude that, in addition to apprehension about the potentially harmful impact of industrial work on the reproductive health of women, there was a great deal of interest in the health of young, unmarried girls in the workplace, particularly the factory. Adopting a broader time frame, we suggest that the First World War, with its emphasis on the reproductive health of women, was an anomalous experience in a broader trend which stressed the growing acceptability of women’s work within industry. Concern with girls’ health and welfare embraced hygiene, diet, exercise, recreation, fashion and beauty within and outside of the workplace, as well as the impact of the boredom and monotony associated with industrial work. The health problems of young women workers tended to be associated with behaviour and environment rather than biology, as were anxieties about the impact of work on morals, habits and character. Efforts to ensure that young female factory workers would be equipped to take their place as citizens and parents, we argue, often dovetailed rather than diverged with the ‘boy labour’ question. PMID:20481061
Long, Vicky; Marland, Hilary
A survey of government reports and the archives and journals of other agencies interested in industrial health in early twentieth-century Britain has led us to conclude that, in addition to apprehension about the potentially harmful impact of industrial work on the reproductive health of women, there was a great deal of interest in the health of young, unmarried girls in the workplace, particularly the factory. Adopting a broader time frame, we suggest that the First World War, with its emphasis on the reproductive health of women, was an anomalous experience in a broader trend which stressed the growing acceptability of women's work within industry. Concern with girls' health and welfare embraced hygiene, diet, exercise, recreation, fashion and beauty within and outside of the workplace, as well as the impact of the boredom and monotony associated with industrial work. The health problems of young women workers tended to be associated with behaviour and environment rather than biology, as were anxieties about the impact of work on morals, habits and character. Efforts to ensure that young female factory workers would be equipped to take their place as citizens and parents, we argue, often dovetailed rather than diverged with the 'boy labour' question.
Full Text Available Aesthetic perception and judgement are not merely cognitive processes, but also involve feelings. Therefore, the empirical study of these experiences requires conceptualization and measurement of aesthetic emotions. Despite the long-standing interest in such emotions, we still lack an assessment tool to capture the broad range of emotions that occur in response to the perceived aesthetic appeal of stimuli. Elicitors of aesthetic emotions are not limited to the arts in the strict sense, but extend to design, built environments, and nature. In this article, we describe the development of a questionnaire that is applicable across many of these domains: the Aesthetic Emotions Scale (Aesthemos. Drawing on theoretical accounts of aesthetic emotions and an extensive review of extant measures of aesthetic emotions within specific domains such as music, literature, film, painting, advertisements, design, and architecture, we propose a framework for studying aesthetic emotions. The Aesthemos, which is based on this framework, contains 21 subscales with two items each, that are designed to assess the emotional signature of responses to stimuli's perceived aesthetic appeal in a highly differentiated manner. These scales cover prototypical aesthetic emotions (e.g., the feeling of beauty, being moved, fascination, and awe, epistemic emotions (e.g., interest and insight, and emotions indicative of amusement (humor and joy. In addition, the Aesthemos subscales capture both the activating (energy and vitality and the calming (relaxation effects of aesthetic experiences, as well as negative emotions that may contribute to aesthetic displeasure (e.g., the feeling of ugliness, boredom, and confusion.
Brown, Ryan A
Rural areas and American Indian reservations are hotspots for the use of crystal methamphetamine ("meth") in the United States, yet there is little ethnographic data describing meth use in these areas. This study draws upon three years of ethnographic work conducted with American Indian and White youth in Appalachia during the height of the meth epidemic. It describes how historical, cultural, and socioeconomic processes influence vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia, and highlights the role of social relationships and meaning-making in facilitating desistance and recovery from meth use. The first section shows how crystal meth filled a particular functional niche in the lives of many young men, alleviating boredom and anomie linked to recent socioeconomic changes and labor opportunities in the region, and intersecting with local understandings of masculinity and forms of military identity. Here, ethnographic and interview data converge to illustrate how social role expectations, recent socioeconomic change, and meth's pharmacological properties converge to create vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia. The second section draws upon two American Indian narratives of desistance. These youth described recently severed social relationships and acute feelings of social isolation during the initiation of meth use. Both also described dramatic close calls with death that facilitated their eventual desistance from use, involving repaired social relationships and the establishment of new lives and hope. These interviews illustrate how changes in social relationships were linked with both initiation and desistance from meth use, and how religious interpretations of near-death experiences structured narratives of cessation and redemption.
Full Text Available In order to harmonize robotic devices with human beings, the robots should be able to perceive important psychosomatic impact triggered by emotional states such as frustration or boredom. This paper presents a new type of biocooperative control architecture, which acts toward improving the challenge/skill relation perceived by the user when interacting with a robotic multimodal interface in a cooperative scenario. In the first part of the paper, open-loop experiments revealed which physiological signals were optimal for inclusion in the feedback loop. These were heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin conductance response frequency. In the second part of the paper, the proposed controller, consisting of a biocooperative architecture with two degrees of freedom, simultaneously modulating game difficulty and haptic assistance through performance and psychophysiological feedback, is presented. With this setup, the perceived challenge can be modulated by means of the game difficulty and the perceived skill by means of the haptic assistance. A new metric (FlowIndex is proposed to numerically quantify and visualize the challenge/skill relation. The results are contrasted with comparable previously published work and show that the new method afforded a higher FlowIndex (i.e., a superior challenge/skill relation and an improved balance between augmented performance and user satisfaction (higher level of valence, i.e., a more enjoyable and satisfactory experience.
Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Rodríguez-Suárez, Nuria; Abraldes, J. Arturo; Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino
The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of the motivational climate created by the coach and perceived by a group of young handball players on their goal orientations, their beliefs regarding reasons for success and their self-satisfaction. The study participants were 159 young handball players. Players were administered a battery composed of tests to measure the above-mentioned motivational constructs. Results showed that a perceived mastery-oriented motivational climate was positively related to a task-centered goal orientation, enjoyment, and a belief that success may be achieved through effort. In contrast, a perceived performance-orientated training climate was linked to an ego-centered goal orientation, boredom, or lack of enthusiasm, and a belief that the routes of success in this sport are the abilities and the use of deception techniques. On the whole, this study underlines the educational role of the coach in young handball players. Specifically, the coach’s socializing role influences both handball player’s commitment and positive motivational profile as well as sport performance. PMID:29250011
Hasan, A. F.; Husin, M. F. Che; Hashim, M. N.; Rosli, K. A.; Roslim, F. R. A.; Abidin, A. F. Z.
Injuries in certain parts of the feet can cause a person to have difficulty in walking or running if it is not treated through physiotherapy. In Malaysia, therapy centers only provide a service or the use of basic tools that are not efficient as more sophisticated equipment requires a high cost. In fact, exercise requiring close monitoring physiotherapist are also at a high cost. Therefore, using robot therapy is a new technology that can provide an alternative way to solve this problem. The implementation of this project has produced a robotic physiotherapy which has one degree of freedom, portable and inexpensive way to help the movement of the patient's leg. It covers basic electrical circuits, mechanical components, programming and has been combined with an interactive game as the main driver. ROLEP (Robotic-Leg-Physiotherapy) is able to help patients through the therapy process. It was built using CT-UNO as its microprocessor connected to MD10-C which acted as the motor driver. The interactive game produced by using Unity game software is a key driver in getting rid of boredom and reduce pain. As a result, ROLEP designed can operate well within its range of the patient's weight. It has the advantage of portability and easy to use by the patients. ROLEP expected to help patients undergoing therapy process more efficient and interesting in the process of recovery.
Venegas, Mónica; Carrasco, Bernardita; Casas-Cordero, Romina
To ensure the effectiveness of Physical Therapy for urinary incontinence (UI), it is crucial that patients adhere to treatment in both the long and the short term. Treatment adherence may prevent symptom progression and the need for surgery, which is associated with higher costs and potential complications. Adherence is defined as carrying out a recommended behavioral modification or change. The World Health Organization (WHO) has established that adherence is a multifactorial phenomenon determined by the interaction of five dimensions, which include diverse factors that affect long-term adherence on many levels. To identify the factors that influence long-term adherence to pelvic floor exercises in women with UI. Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The sample was recruited from the "Centro Integral de Reeducación de Piso Pélvico" (CIREP), and included 61 women treated for UI at the center in 2014 and 2015. Participants completed a self-administered, 28-item questionnaire developed for this study based on the WHO five dimensions. Data analysis was performed using STATA 13.0 software. Having performed pelvic floor home exercises after discharge from Physical Therapy was significantly associated with self-rated treatment adherence (P pelvic floor exercise program (P pelvic floor exercises in women with UI; forgetting to do the exercises and boredom with the exercises were the factors most strongly related to low treatment adherence, while motivation and commitment were associated with high adherence in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boyington, Josephine E A; Schoster, Britta; Remmes Martin, Kathryn; Shreffler, Jack; Callahan, Leigh F
Increases in obesity and other chronic conditions continue to fuel efforts for lifestyle behavior changes. However, many strategies do not address the impact of environment on lifestyle behaviors, particularly healthy dietary intake. This study explored the perceptions of environment on intake of fruits and vegetables in a cohort of 2,479 people recruited from 22 family practices in North Carolina. Participants were administered a health and social demographic survey. Formative assessment was conducted on a subsample of 32 people by using focus groups, semistructured individual interviews, community mapping, and photographs. Interviews and discussions were transcribed and content was analyzed using ATLAS.ti version 5. Survey data were evaluated for means, frequencies, and group differences. The 2,479 participants had a mean age of 52.8 years, mean body mass index (BMI) of 29.4, and were predominantly female, white, married, and high school graduates. The 32 subsample participants were older, heavier, and less educated. Some prevalent perceptions about contextual factors related to dietary intake included taste-bud fatigue (boredom with commonly eaten foods), life stresses, lack of forethought in meal planning, current health status, economic status, the ability to garden, lifetime dietary exposure, concerns about food safety, contradictory nutrition messages from the media, and variable work schedules. Perceptions about intake of fruits and vegetables intake are influenced by individual (intrinsic) and community (extrinsic) environmental factors. We suggest approaches for influencing behavior and changing perceptions using available resources.
Full Text Available Children suffering a serious illness, experience enormous changes in their daily lives. Not only does the direct consequences of the disease affect the child, but also the fact of being at a hospital, or at home and not being allowed to go to school. Frequently, connections with classmates, neighbors, and sometimes even some with his relatives are lost. Furthermore, the responsibility of the state, to continue his schooling process is much harder, since different communities (family, school teachers, hospital teachers, medical doctors, psychologists… have to be coordinated. Last but not least, entertainment and enjoyment should be provided to avoid boredom and to improve their affective state. At the same time, with the development of Information and Communication Technologies, a large number of solutions have arisen that allow people to enhance their communication, education and entertainment possibilities. These technologies seem perfectly suitable to be used to tackle the problems described above. In this article, some of the special necessities of children suffering from a serious illness are pointed out, technologies available to be facilitated are described and some initiatives taking place in Spain mentioned. The SAVEH project will be described in detail.
Full Text Available Background: Woman’s orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. Objective: The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Results: Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was “Multidimensionality of women’s orgasm obstacles”. Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife’s or husband’s boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication, psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems, relational obstacles (husband’s hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children’s bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home. Conclusion: For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman’s life is necessary.
Marti, F.; San Antonio, S.
There are currently nine nuclear power plants in service in Spain; the most recent started commercial operation in 1988. Spanish legislation requires operators to have an academic technical background of at least 3 yr. The turnover rate is <5%, and in recent years, symptom-based emergency procedure has been introduced. These facts have given rise to a situation in which Spanish licensed operators are demanding more in-depth training to avoid a stagnant routine and boredom. In responding to this challenge, Tecnatom has had to significantly update its two simulators for boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PSR) plants, to ensure coverage of the emergency procedures and has had to create a tool - the Interactive Graphics Simulator - that allows these problems to be ameliorated. With a view to updating its simulators, Tecnatom initiated in 1985 a project known as advanced simulation models (MAS), which was completed at the end of 1990. The TRACS code is a real-time advanced thermohydraulic code for upgrading Tecnatom's nuclear plant simulators. The interactive graphic simulator, (SGI) is a system that provides a graphic display of the models of a full-scope simulator by means of color monitors. The two new tools used are enabling higher levels of motivation to be achieved among the plant operations personnel, especially with respect to requalification
Verhulst Frank C
Full Text Available Abstract Background As little is known about the determinants of smoking in large ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and other Western European countries, we studied the determinants of smoking young adult offspring of Turkish migrants to the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 439 Turkish adults (18–28 y in 2003. Smokers were compared with never smokers for five groups of determinants: demographic and socioeconomic factors, behavioral and emotional problems, psychosocial factors, and cultural factors. Associations were measured by prevalence rate ratios. Results Prevalences for men were 51% for daily smoking, 12% for former smoking, and 38% for never smoking. For women they were 44%, 11%, and 47%, respectively. Without adjustment for other determinants, higher prevalence was associated with: emotional problems, boredom, life events, and being male; and, specifically among women, with low self-esteem and having children. The strongest determinants of daily smoking In multivariate models were alcohol use and demographic and socio-economic factors. Of the cultural factors only strong Muslim identification was associated with lower smoking prevalence. Conclusion The high prevalence of smoking warrants action. Many of the well-known determinants of smoking in Western countries were also important among young adults from ethnic minorities. Women with children and people of a low educational level deserve special attention.
Full Text Available The paper that takes Ou Town in Hubei Province as a case, studies the influence on the socialization of left-behind children after the intrusion of the Internet café industry into rural areas by ethnographic investigation. This study figures out a large number of migrant workers crowding into urban areas left nothing but the hollowing-out in rural regions. Unfortunately, the Internet café industry makes use of this chance to scramble for the children’s market. Mentally immature left-behind children find it hard to resist the temptation because of lack of self-control, so that they waste massive amount of time and energy in the virtue world. Despite they have experienced the "pleasure", and relieved from loneliness and boredom, their interaction activities have also been involved in the online game industry chain. This does not only exert impacts on the communication among people, but also on the construction of social capital in their social interaction, which leads to the disadvantaged accumulation of social capital. The group affected by the network, inadvertently learns at school and drops out one after another, ending up in their flow-life work from one city to another.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of the motivational climate created by the coach and perceived by a group of young handball players on their goal orientations, their beliefs regarding reasons for success and their self-satisfaction. The study participants were 159 young handball players. Players were administered a battery composed of tests to measure the above-mentioned motivational constructs. Results showed that a perceived mastery-oriented motivational climate was positively related to a task-centered goal orientation, enjoyment, and a belief that success may be achieved through effort. In contrast, a perceived performance-orientated training climate was linked to an ego-centered goal orientation, boredom, or lack of enthusiasm, and a belief that the routes of success in this sport are the abilities and the use of deception techniques. On the whole, this study underlines the educational role of the coach in young handball players. Specifically, the coach’s socializing role influences both handball player’s commitment and positive motivational profile as well as sport performance.
Hoeppner, Bettina B; Kahler, Christopher W; Gwaltney, Chad J
Relapse to smoking after making a quit attempt is both common and rapid in adolescent smokers. Momentary self-efficacy (SE)-that is, momentary shifts in one's confidence in the ability to abstain from smoking-predicts the occurrence and timing of relapse among adolescent smokers. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that are associated with changes in momentary SE early in a quit attempt. This study examined the relationship between affect states (including positive, negative, and nicotine withdrawal states) and momentary SE at various stages of a quit attempt. Adolescent daily smokers interested in making a quit attempt (n = 202) completed ecological momentary assessments (EMA) each day for 1 week leading up to and 2 weeks after a quit attempt. In each assessment, they reported current SE and affect state. RESULTS of linear mixed models indicated that most of the examined affect states were related to momentary SE. Contrary to expectation, they were related to momentary SE both immediately before and after the quit attempt. Moderation effects were observed for select affect states, where higher baseline SE was related to lower momentary SE in the presence of increasing negative high activation, boredom, and difficulty concentrating. Our findings suggest that both positive and negative affect states are related to SE, and that thereby positive affect enhancement may be a promising, underutilized treatment target.
Calhoun, Patrick S; Levin, Holly F; Dedert, Eric A; Johnson, Yashika; Beckham, Jean C
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased rates of smoking although little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The current study examined expectations about smoking outcomes among smokers with and without PTSD. The sample included 96 veterans (mean age of 34 years) and included 17% women and 50% racial minorities. Smoking expectancies were measured with the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (Copeland, Brandon, & Quinn, 1995). Consistent with previous work suggesting that smokers with PTSD smoke in an effort to reduce negative affect, unadjusted analyses indicated that smokers with PTSD (n = 38) had higher expectations that smoking reduces negative affect than smokers without PTSD (d = 0.61). Smokers with PTSD also had increased expectancies associated with boredom reduction (d = 0.48), stimulation (d = 0.61), taste/sensorimotor manipulation aspects of smoking (d = 0.73), and social facilitation (d = 0.61). Results of hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that PTSD symptom severity was uniquely associated with these expectancies beyond the effects of gender and nicotine dependence. More positive beliefs about the consequences of smoking may increase risk of continued smoking among those with PTSD who smoke. Further understanding of smoking expectancies in this group may help in developing interventions tailored for this vulnerable population. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Shadur, Julia M; Ninnemann, Andrew L; Lim, Aaron; Lejuez, Carl W; MacPherson, Laura
The current study examined the prospective relationship between distress tolerance (DT) and positive and negative cigarette smoking outcome expectancies, which are reliable predictors of the onset and maintenance of smoking behaviors. Data from a longitudinal study (N = 204) examining risk behaviors in adolescence were used to assess whether DT predicts individual differences in rate of change in smoking outcome expectancies over 4 annual assessment waves through adolescence. Adolescents (mean age at first wave: 13.03 years; SD = 0.88 years) completed a behavioral task assessing DT at baseline and a self-report measure of adolescent smoking expectancies annually across 4 years. Latent growth curve models were estimated to test our hypotheses. Results showed that DT at baseline did not significantly predict initial levels of negative affect reduction (NAR) expectancies, but NAR expectancies increased more quickly over time for adolescents with lower DT. Moreover, as hypothesized, DT did not prospectively predict significant changes in smoking expectancies outside of the domain of NAR, including negative physical feelings, negative social impression, and boredom reduction expectancies. These findings suggest that DT is a useful indicator of adolescent expectancies about the consequences of cigarette smoking, particularly those focused on reducing negative affect. Thus, DT may be an important target for preventing smoking initiation among adolescents via this putative mechanism. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed within the context of observed effect sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Whittaker, Elizabeth; Flatau, Paul Robert; Swift, Wendy; Dobbins, Timothy A; Burns, Lucinda
This study compared changes in criminal justice contact, quality of life, and social connectedness over a 12-month follow-up period between participants in two Housing First configurations (scattered site [SS] and congregate site [CS]). A longitudinal, quantitative design was utilized for this ecological study. Changes in individual outcomes over time were compared for SS and CS participants who completed both baseline and 12-month follow-up surveys (N=63). The number of contacts with various types of criminal justice system channels differed significantly between SS and CS participants, decreasing significantly among SS participants and increasing significantly among CS participants. The two groups did not differ on quality-of-life outcomes or social-connectedness measures, with the exception of case management engagement, whereby a greater proportion of SS participants disengaged from this service over time compared with CS participants. At follow-up, significant within-group changes over time emerged, with increased boredom reported among SS participants, whereas CS participants reported improvements in social relationships, with fewer reporting losing their temper. The findings supported the notion that the Housing First approach has the potential to significantly improve the lives of persons who have experienced chronic homelessness, a traditionally marginalized and vulnerable group. Over time, this may result in a reduction in the use of acute services, thereby reducing societal costs. The challenge remains to identify the suitability of particular configurations of housing and support and how service delivery can optimize individual outcomes so positive outcomes are maintained in the longer term.
Full Text Available Premise of the study: Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. Methods: We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. Results: Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. Discussion: The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.
Tita Ratna Wulandari
Full Text Available Abstract Indonesian English Young Learners (IEYL really close to boredom. Therefore, the teachers are demanded to be as highly creative as possible when they are having classroom activities. To see the recent phenomena, most IEYL feel convenient to study in their English course rather than their school. This is due to the English course provides them with fun, relax, and enjoyable learning environment. In contrast, the school provides the IEYL with monotonous activities. In accordance with this problem, the writer is interested in describing five English games which might be references for school teachers. The problems of this study were: (1 what are the five English games which can help the IEYL in classroom activities? and (2 what are the procedures to apply the games in classroom activities? The findings were descriptively discussed by seeing the literature review. It is found that the games to help IEYL are: (a. Spider Web, (b. Cartoon Color, (c. Find Someone who, (d. Read-Run-Say-Listen-Write, and (e. What is it? Keywords:IEYL, LanguageGames and Classroom Activities
João Alberto Arantes do Amaral
Full Text Available In this article, we present our findings regarding promoting group drawing activities in order to facilitate the learning of systemic aspects of projects. We discuss the approach we used to engage the students and foster learning in our classes. We used group drawing activities in two project management undergraduate courses. The courses, which involved 41 students, took place during the second semester of 2016 in a public university in Brazil. We conducted qualitative research, using qualitative observation and focus group interviews. In order to gauge the effects of the use of this educational technique, we followed the five-phased qualitative analysis method, combined with a systems analysis of the data obtained from observation. Five recurrent themes emerged: 1 Making drawings in groups helps content retention and facilitates connections between the concepts explained by the professor; 2 Making drawings in groups promotes knowledge sharing among team members; 3 Making drawings in group fosters creativity and communication between students; 4 Drawing in groups reduces the students’ boredom, makes the lecture more dynamic and interesting; 5 Drawing in groups reinforces bonds between students. Our systems analysis suggests that group drawing improves student participation in classroom activities, strengthens bonds between students, and enhances learning.
Bottesi, Gioia; Cerea, Silvia; Ouimet, Allison J; Sica, Claudio; Ghisi, Marta
Etiological models of trichotillomania (TTM) conceptualize hair pulling as a dysfunctional emotion regulation strategy; accordingly, some research has found that affective states change differentially across the hair pulling cycle. We explored emotional changes in a sample of Italian individuals reporting TTM. Eighty-nine participants reporting TTM completed a 12-item section of the Italian Hair Pulling Questionnaire online and rated the extent to which they had experienced 12 affective states before, during, and after hair pulling. Overall, participants reported increased levels of shame, sadness, and frustration from pre- to post-pulling, and decreased levels of calmness after hair pulling episodes. Moreover, participants reported increased pleasure and relief across the pulling cycle, and variations in the direction of change for anger and anxiety depending on the hair pulling phase. Lastly, reported boredom decreased across the hair pulling cycle. These findings highlight the importance of considering emotional changes experienced across the pulling cycle in Italian hair pullers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The problem of professional burnout is extremely relevant in current stress management. By its nature, professional burnout is a unique type of stress syndrome that is characterized by emotional exhaustion. It leads to loss of energy and interest in one’s job. A burnout could be the result of such syndromes as – burnout and boreout. It could emerge as the reaction of the organism to the high working intensity and stress working conditions or due to the boredom and absence of the sphere for professional realization. Both syndromes negatively influence the professional activity and require serious research and an adequate approach to the study. Studies have been conducted in the higher educational environment and among production employees. The studies were conducted with the application of the existing tests for revealing the “boreout” and “burnout” syndromes. Studies have shown that the syndrome “burnout” is common among workers with free working regulations, whose work requires greater independence, initiative and responsibility. According to the results of the study, the employees who are more free in the performance of their professional duties (teachers, managers are less subjected to the boreout syndrome. For the prevention and control of professional burnout company management needs to apply the achievements of stress management.
Moreau, Axelle; Chabrol, Henri; Chauchard, Emeline
Background and aims Online Texas Hold'em poker has become a spectacular form of entertainment in our society, and the number of people who use this form of gambling is increasing. It seems that online poker activity challenges existing theoretical concepts about problem gambling behaviors. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a current overview about the population of online poker players. Methods To be selected, articles had to focus on psychopathology in a sample of online poker players, be written in English or French, and be published before November 2015. A total of 17 relevant studies were identified. Results In this population, the proportion of problematic gamblers was higher than in other forms of gambling. Several factors predicting excessive gambling were identified such as stress, internal attribution, dissociation, boredom, negative emotions, irrational beliefs, anxiety, and impulsivity. The population of online poker players is largely heterogeneous, with experimental players forming a specific group. Finally, the validity of the tools used to measure excessive or problematic gambling and irrational beliefs are not suitable for assessing online poker activity. Discussion and conclusions Future studies need to confirm previous findings in the literature of online poker games. Given that skills are important in poker playing, skill development in the frames of excessive use of online poker should be explored more in depth, particularly regarding poker experience and loss chasing. Future research should focus on skills, self-regulation, and psychopathology of online poker players.
Recent literature has touted the use of canine olfaction as a diagnostic tool for identifying pre-clinical disease status, especially cancer and infection from biological media samples. Studies have shown a wide range of outcomes, ranging from almost perfect discrimination, all the way to essentially random results. This disparity is not likely to be a detection issue; dogs have been shown to have extremely sensitive noses as proven by their use for tracking, bomb detection and search and rescue. However, in contrast to analytical instruments, dogs are subject to boredom, fatigue, hunger and external distractions. These challenges are of particular importance in a clinical environment where task repetition is prized, but not as entertaining for a dog as chasing odours outdoors. The question addressed here is how to exploit the intrinsic sensitivity and simplicity of having a dog simply sniff out disease, in the face of variability in behavior and response. There is no argument that living cells emanate a variety of gas- and liquid-phase compounds as waste from normal metabolism, and that these compounds become easureable from various biological media including skin, blood, urine, breath, feces, etc. [1, 2] The overarching term for this phenomenon from the perspective of systems biology analysis is “cellular respiration”, which has become an important topic for the interpretation and documentation of the human exposome, the chemical counterpart to the genome.
Full Text Available This study aims to explain high school students’ perceptions of cyber bullying behaviour. The work group of the study consists of 14 students (10 Male, 4 Female, who still attend various high schoolsl in Sakarya in 2010- 2011 Education Year. One of qualitative research method “phenomenology method”, which is suitable for research’s nature,had been used. In the research, in point of structure “standardized open-ended interview”, in data analysis a kind of content analysis “categorical analysis” had been used. As a result this study, cyberbullying behavior exhibited by students categorized as cyber verbal language, cyberforgery, and hiding identity. Results of this study indicated that the reasons for cyberbullying includes gaining social popularity, struggling boredom, and making revenge. The findings of this study indicate that students maintain cyberbullying to feel well, empower friendships, and enjoy his time. This study demonstrated that students feel anger, sadness, and revenge when they experience cybervictimization. What are the signs and consequences of cyber bullying, cyber bullying dealing with issues such as families, organize seminars for teachers and students
García Bengoechea, Enrique; Sabiston, Catherine M; Wilson, Philip M
The aim of this study was to provide initial evidence of validity and reliability of scores derived from the Activity Context in Youth Sport Questionnaire (ACYSQ), an instrument designed to offer a comprehensive assessment of the activities adolescents take part in during sport practices. Two studies were designed for the purposes of item development and selection, and to provide evidence of structural and criterion validity of ACYSQ scores, respectively (N = 334; M age = 14.93, SD = 1.76 years). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the adequacy of a 20-item ACYSQ measurement model, which was invariant across gender, and comprised the following dimensions: (1) stimulation; (2) usefulness-value; (3) authenticity; (4) repetition-boredom; and (5) ineffectiveness. Internal consistency reliability estimates and composite reliability estimates for ACYSQ subscale scores ranged from 0.72 to 0.91. In regression analyses, stimulation predicted enjoyment and perceived competence, ineffectiveness was significantly associated with perceived competence and authenticity emerged as a predictor of commitment in sport. These findings indicate that the ACYSQ displays adequate psychometric properties and the use of the instrument may be useful for studying selected activity-based features of the practice environment and their motivational consequences in youth sport.
Orosz, Gábor; Zsila, Ágnes; Vallerand, Robert J.; Böthe, Beáta
In 2016, Pokémon Go became the most popular smartphone game. Despite the increasing popularity of this augmented reality game, to date, no studies have investigated passion for playing Pokémon Go. On the theoretical basis of the Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP), our goal was to investigate the associations between Pokémon Go playing motives, passion, and impulsivity. A total of 621 Pokémon Go players participated in the study (54.9% female; Mage = 22.6 years, SDage = 4.4). It was found that impulsivity was more strongly associated with obsessive passion (OP) than with harmonious passion (HP). HP was associated with adaptive motives (i.e., outdoor activity, social, recreation, and nostalgia), while OP was associated with less adaptive motives (i.e., fantasy, escape, boredom, competition, and coping). Therefore, in line with the DMP, HP and OP for playing Pokémon Go can predict an almost perfectly distinguished set of adaptive or maladaptive playing motives, and OP has a noteworthy relationship with impulsivity as a determinant. PMID:29599735
Ralston, S L
Problems related to feeding behavior in horses fall into three main categories: underconsumption, overconsumption, and abnormal consumption. Anorexia may be caused by a variety of diseases and overcome by removing the underlying causes (pain, fever), and physical or chemical stimulation of appetite. "Hypophagia" may be caused by poor dentition, disease, or stress. Again, removal of the cause or stimulation by physical or chemical means may improve intakes. Acute and chronic overconsumption of feeds are reflections of the normal controls (or lack thereof) of feeding in the horse. The only reliable prevention is to limit access to feeds. Abnormal eating behaviors such as pica or coprophagy are usually caused by a dietary imbalance or boredom. Coprophagey, however, is a normal behavior in young foals. Drinking disorders are rare, the only common one being the avoidance of "strange" water. Masking water at home with specific flavors such as peppermint or vinegar may encourage the horse to drink water from other sources to which the "home" flavor has been added.
Cebolla, A; Barrada, J R; van Strien, T; Oliver, E; Baños, R
The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was developed to measure eating styles that may contribute to or attenuate the development of overweight. It comprises three scales that measure emotional, external and restrained eating. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the internal structure of the Spanish version of the DEBQ using updated psychometric techniques in a sample of women. A sample of 647 Spanish females answered the questionnaire. Both exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis were used to evaluate the factor structure of the DEBQ. Reliabilities were estimated with Cronbach's alpha. The relations between the subscales of the DEBQ and age, BMI, and scores on the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT) and the Restrained Scale-Revised (RS) were computed with Pearson correlations. Results showed that the internal structure was similar to the theoretical proposal, although items associated with boredom and idleness presented cross-loading problems. The reliability estimates were satisfactory. The Emotional and External Eating factors correlated with the BMI, and External Eating was negatively correlated with age. The Restraint factor of the DEBQ showed significant relationships with scales of the EAT-26 and RS. The dimensional validity of the DEBQ is reproduced in a Spanish sample, and the DEBQ seems to be an effective instrument for research in Spanish females. Minor modifications to the DEBQ are recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Obregón, Ana M; Valladares, Macarena; Goldfield, Gary
Studies have established a strong genetic component in eating behavior. The TaqI A1 polymorphism (rs1800497) has previously been associated with obesity and eating behavior. Additionally, this polymorphism has been associated with diminished dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) density, higher body mass, and food reinforcement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the DRD2 rs1800497 polymorphism and eating behavior in Chilean children. This was a cross-sectional study in which we selected 258 children (44% girls, 56% boys; ages 8-14 y) with a wide variation in body mass index. Anthropometric measurements were performed by standard procedures. Eating behavior was assessed using the Eating in Absence of Hunger Questionnaire (EAHQ), Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and the Food Reinforcement Value Questionnaire. Genotype of the rs1800497 was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Association of the TaqI A1 variant (T allele) with eating behavior was assessed using nonparametric tests. Compared with normal-weight children, the obese group demonstrated higher scores on the External Eating and Fatigue/Boredom subscales of the EAHQ. Higher scores were assessed in Food Responsiveness, Emotional Overeating, Enjoyment to Food and Desire to Drink subscales (P Food subscale in boys. The TaqI A1 polymorphism may be a risk factor for eating behavior traits that may predispose children to greater energy intake and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an important role because it links to the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those aspects should be integrated in teaching and learning process of English. However, the students must be able to know the meaning of each word or vocabulary of English in order to master the four skills. It is as a mean to create a sentence in daily communication to show someone’s feeling, opinion, idea, desire, etc. So that, both speakers understand what the other speaker mean. However, English as a second language in Indonesia seems very hard for the students to master vocabulary of English. It makes them not easy to be understood directly and speak fluently. The students, sometimes, get difficulties in understanding, memorizing the meaning of the vocabulary, and getting confused in using the new words. There must be an effective strategy to attract students’ interest, break the boredom, and make the class more lively. Based on the writer experience, Colourful Puzzle Game is able to make the students learn vocabulary quickly. It needs teacher’s creativity to create the materials of this game based on the class condition. The teacher just need a game board made from colourful papers, write any command and prohibition words on it. A dice is a tool to decide where the player should stop based on the number. Some pins as counter as sign of each player.
Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen
The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent form of major media in the world, it has become the second most important medium as perceived by boys and girls. No gender difference was found in adolescents' motives for using the Internet. The ranking of relative importance of motives for adolescents going online was searching for information, followed by socializing, and boredom avoidance for both boys and girls. However, a gender difference in online activities seems to persist. Searching for homework information and playing games were the most popular online activities for all adolescents. However, while girls tended to view the Internet more as a means of searching for information and e-mailing friends, boys tended to use it more for playing games and down-loading software.
Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Kałużna-Wielobób, Alina; Kłosowska, Joanna
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of skin picking behaviors in a sample of young Polish adults. Five hundred and thirty-four participants completed measurements of skin picking frequency and severity. They also retrospectively rated the intensity of affective states experienced before, during and after skin picking episodes. In total, 46.07% of the participants endorsed some forms of skin picking, and the prevalence of skin picking disorder (SPD) in the study sample amounted to 7.67%. The characteristics of skin picking episodes in young Polish adults were similar to those reported in previous studies conducted on different cultures. The results also showed that for the majority of individuals with skin picking, the intensity of particular emotions (i.e. fear, anxiety, guilt, shame, self-aversion, boredom, and sadness) decreased significantly in the period from before to after picking. Larger community studies are needed to assess the SPD prevalence in Polish general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the social background and current social situation of male abusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS. Methods We compared thirty-four AAS-abusing patients from an Addiction Centre (AC with two groups, 18 users and 259 non-users of AAS from a public gym in Orebro, Sweden. The study is based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Results Histories of a troubled childhood as well as current social disadvantage were both more frequent among the AAS users. Users also reported poor relationships with their parents and almost half of them had experienced physical or mental abuse. The AC group's experiences from school were mostly negative, and included concentration problems, boredom and learning difficulties. Their current circumstance included abuse of other drugs, battering of spouses and other criminality such as assault, illegal possession of weapons and theft. Conclusion In conclusion, this study shows that abusers of AAS often have a troubled social background. This underlines the importance of making a thorough social assessment as a part of the treatment programme. The results of the study may help in directing appropriate questions relevant to the abuse of AAS.
Tao, Vivienne Y K; Wu, Anise M S; Cheung, Shu Fai; Tong, Kwok Kit
Scale development in the extant gambling literature has been dominated by pathological gamblers, but the non- or sub-clinical gamblers have been overlooked. Moreover, most scales are predominantly based on Western samples; only a few of the scales have Chinese versions validated with Chinese samples. A rarely explored niche still exists for the development of an indigenous scale for Chinese gamblers. The current exploratory study made the first step towards such a direction by identifying factors through the construction of an indigenous Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behavior (GMAB) scale for Chinese gamblers. Preliminary items were generated primarily from focus group discussions. The items were administered through a telephone survey in which 791 randomly sampled gamblers participated. Exploratory factor analyses revealed (a) five dimensions of gambling motives, namely, self-worth, monetary gains, sensation seeking, boredom alleviation, and learning; (b) four dimensions of gambling attitudes, namely, luck and fate, attitudes toward negative consequences in gambling, techniques, and superstition; and (c) six dimensions of behavior, namely, impaired control in gambling, gambling involvement, arousal reaction, superstitious behavior, controlled gambling and casino exploration. Implications of the interplay among these factors and future research directions were discussed.
Skarberg, Kurt; Engstrom, Ingemar
The aim of this study was to investigate the social background and current social situation of male abusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). We compared thirty-four AAS-abusing patients from an Addiction Centre (AC) with two groups, 18 users and 259 non-users of AAS from a public gym in Orebro, Sweden. The study is based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Histories of a troubled childhood as well as current social disadvantage were both more frequent among the AAS users. Users also reported poor relationships with their parents and almost half of them had experienced physical or mental abuse. The AC group's experiences from school were mostly negative, and included concentration problems, boredom and learning difficulties. Their current circumstance included abuse of other drugs, battering of spouses and other criminality such as assault, illegal possession of weapons and theft. In conclusion, this study shows that abusers of AAS often have a troubled social background. This underlines the importance of making a thorough social assessment as a part of the treatment programme. The results of the study may help in directing appropriate questions relevant to the abuse of AAS.
Rotunda, Robert J; Kass, Steven J; Sutton, Melanie A; Leon, David T
The internet is an affordable and easily accessible technology that has many potential applications to psychology. Interactive technologies engage users psychologically and may facilitate adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. This research explored the Internet-use patterns, psychological characteristics, and negative consequences associated with online activities of 393 college students using the Internet Use Survey (IUS), a self-report instrument designed to administer online. Results indicated that participants spent an average of 3.3 total hours per day on the Internet during the past 12 months and used the medium for multiple purposes. Although participants reported the occurrence of some potentially negative consequences related to Internet use, the prevalence rates for most problematic behaviors were generally low. Exploratory principal component analysis of the IUS subscale that attempts to measure Internet-related impairment revealed four factors: absorption, negative consequences, disrupted sleep, and deception. All of these factors were then significantly related to a measure of boredom proneness. This research supports the necessity for multidimensional assessment (e.g., frequency and context) of Internet usage to enhance our understanding of how this new technology interfaces with users psychologically and behaviorally.
Full Text Available Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females. Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: “thrill and adventure seeking,” within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; “boredom susceptibility” is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to address the challenges of attrition in adolescent, voluntary after-school programs (ASPs. Studies show that the after-school hours are a time of elevated juvenile delinquency. Since 1998 there has been a surge in the number of ASPs throughout the United States. Despite this surge, attrition is a major concern and threat to ASPs. Moreover, youth who drop out are rarely asked about their reasons for not attending. Seventy middle school-aged individuals who were selected to participate in the Baltimore County Middle School After-School Collaboration Project (BCAP but eventually dropped out are interviewed for this study. Six primary reasons for non-attendance including: a lack of program fidelity, participation in non-family-related after-school activities, participation in family-related after-school activities, program length, boredom, and a lack of quality academic help are identified. The findings indicate a need for programming that is faithful, flexible, and narrow in terms of activities offered.
J. C. Audru
Full Text Available Martinique is a French island in the Lesser Antilles, with a high seismic hazard. In 2006, Martinican stakeholders involved in seismic safety formed the "Réplik" working group ("Aftershock" in French, the first of its kind in this region. This paper addresses a mid-term appraisal of the first seismic awareness campaign organised by Réplik from 2006 to 2011, and how it has modified, or not, local earthquake and tsunami preparedness. Despite efforts from Réplik to assess its efficiency through surveys, a growing gap is noted between the observed awareness and the actual preparedness of the public. As usual, gender, age, educational level, then boredom and saturation contribute to this discrepancy; strong cultural items may also influence the perception of actions. To remain efficient and respond to the public's expectations, Réplik must redirect its actions towards a cultural congruence of information: consideration of religion and local beliefs, comprehensive messages on TV and radio, use of the Creole language, participatory experiences and drills, and a little science. With this, the Réplik stakeholders can hope to increase Martinicans' involvement into the preparedness process, to cope quickly with a strong earthquake and this know-how can be shared with other seismically active islands in the Caribbean.
Bonnaire, Céline; Bungener, Catherine; Varescon, Isabelle
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and gambling disorder (GD) in a community sample of gamblers (when controlling for the effect of substance use, gender and age) and see whether sensation seeking scores depend on the gambling activity when comparing strategic and non-strategic gamblers. A total of 380 gamblers was recruited. First, pathological gamblers (PGs) (n =143) were compared to non-pathological gamblers (NPGs) (n =237). Second, strategic gamblers (n =93) were compared to non-strategic gamblers (n =110). Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (SOGS, DSM-IV), tobacco and alcohol use (CAGE), and sensation seeking (SSS) were evaluated. PGs have higher boredom susceptibility scores than NPGs and this factor is associated with GD. Nevertheless, the relationship between sensation seeking and GD depends on the gambling activity. In fact, sensation seeking is associated with GD in strategic gamblers only. PGs playing strategic games display different profiles from non-strategic PGs. Thus, factors associated with GD differ when the gambling activity is taken into account. These findings are consistent with the idea of it being essential to identify clinically distinct subgroups of PGs in the treatment of GD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R
Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.
Hwang, Heejin; Park, Sunhee
This study aimed to explore the relationship between the four components of sensation seeking (i.e., disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, and boredom susceptibility) and three types of smoking behavior (i.e., non-smoking, experimental smoking, and current smoking) among high school students in the Republic of Korea. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed using two models. In Model 1, the four subscales of sensation seeking were used as covariates, and in Model 2, other control factors (i.e., characteristics related to demographics, individuals, family, school, and friends) were added to Model 1 in order to adjust for their effects. In Model 1, the impact of disinhibition on experimental smoking and current smoking was statistically significant. In Model 2, the influence of disinhibition on both of these smoking behaviors remained statistically significant after controlling for all the other covariates. Also, the effect of thrill and adventure seeking on experimental smoking was statistically significant. The two statistically significant subscales of sensation seeking were positively associated with the risk of smoking behaviors. According to extant literature and current research, sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition, is strongly associated with smoking among youth. Therefore, sensation seeking should be measured among adolescents to identify those who are at greater risk of smoking and to develop more effective intervention strategies in order to curb the smoking epidemic among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A sizeable proportion of patients experiencing binge eating do not respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. We present the sequential binge (SB, a new behavioral intervention that complements CBT, and preliminary results of its effects. SB breaks up the binge into repeated identical sequences of eating separated by incremental pauses. This pattern of ingestion aims at facilitating boredom toward the ingested foods and at turning cognitive control away from binge food restriction. SB is hypothesized to reduce food intake during the binge and the number of daily binges.Prospective pilot study. Fifteen binging patients with previous unsuccessful intensive CBT were given SB as an adjunct to their treatment and were followed up for 16 weeks from admission. All patients were reassessed 47 weeks on average after discharge.SB was associated with a 44% relative reduction in the planned food intake (p<0.001, a longer consecutive binge refractory period compared to regular binges (median: 48 hours versus 4 hours, p = 0.002 and an average relative reduction by 26% of binge number the day after each SB (p = 0.004. 47% of patients reached binge abstinence for four consecutive weeks 16 weeks after the first SB.This case series shows promising evidence for the use of SB in patients with refractory binge eating. Further evaluation in a prospective randomized controlled trial would be justified.
Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai
The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Swapnil; Wallace, Ryan; Sloshower, Jordan
: Tianeptine is a tricyclic antidepressant that stimulates mu-opioid receptors at high doses. It is marketed and used across Europe and Latin America as an antidepressant, but is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. In the United States, tianeptine is sold through online health stores as a cognition enhancer, dietary supplement, or as research chemical. We report the case of a 36-year-old man with a history of major depressive disorder, responsive to sertraline, who turned to the unmonitored use of tianeptine purchased online to treat residual feelings of apathy and boredom. His use of tianeptine was marked by rapidly escalating doses and a significant withdrawal syndrome that made discontinuation of this substance difficult. This case serves as a reminder that unscheduled pharmaceutical agents are available for misuse by the general population and have the potential to cause significant harm. Therefore, medical providers must be aware of and screen for the use of such products amongst their patients.
Full Text Available This research was to give insight to English teachers and practitioners who had the same problem faced by the writer and his students especially dealing with the lack of collocation. Moreover, this research inspired particularly those who involved in teaching practices for how to improve their professionalism by implementing Lexical-Based Approach in class activities and to find the solution and hindrances for a better teaching technique in the future. For students who had problems in collocation, this Lexical-Based Approach as used in Made Frida Yulia’s Vocabulary: Lexically-Based Second Thousand Words of General Service List book might improve the awareness toward lexical phrases, chunks and collocations. For teachers and practitioners who want to use this Lexical-Based Approach in the future could use bilingual explanation that is needed for Indonesian students rather than monolingual explanation in English, try to create a good note taking habit for lexical phrases as soon as possible, and use vivid pictures or audio visuals to kill the boredom of the students
Grant, J E; Kim, S W; Brown, E
This study was constructed to compare geriatric patients seeking medication treatment for pathologic gambling disorder (PGD) with younger pathologic gamblers. This comparison study assessed three groups with PGD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition: 16 subjects over the age of 60 years, 11 subjects between the ages of 20 and 30 years, and 46 subjects between the ages of 40 and 50 years. All subjects were evaluated in terms of demographic characteristics, clinical features of PGD, and treatment history. Geriatric gamblers had a later age of onset of gambling and developed pathologic gambling over a longer period of time. Geriatric subjects were more likely to play slot machines and demonstrate less variety in their choice of gambling activity. Geriatric gamblers were also more likely to gamble secondary to boredom. Geriatric subjects were as likely as the other age groups to report slight or no response to nonpharmacologic treatment. There appear to be some differences in the clinical features of PGD among geriatric subjects, and these differences may have treatment implications.
Pivarunas, Bernadette; Kelly, Nichole R.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Cassidy, Omni; Radin, Rachel M.; Shank, Lisa M.; Vannucci, Anna; Courville, Amber B.; Chen, Kong Y.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.
Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants were 114 overweight or obese adolescents enrolled in a study of girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms were collected. An interview was administered to determine presence of binge eating episodes and a behavioral task was used to assess the reinforcing value of food relative to other non-snack food rewards. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results In analyses accounting for race, percent body fat, lean mass, height, age, and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness was associated with a lower odds of binge eating (p = .002). Controlling for the same potential confounds, mindfulness was also inversely associated with eating concern, eating in the absence of hunger in response to fatigue/boredom, and higher food reinforcement relative to physical activity (all p obesity and metabolic problems. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which mindfulness plays a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of disinhibited eating in adolescents at risk for T2D. PMID:26172157
Johanna M. Silvennoinen
Full Text Available Visual elements in user interfaces elicit emotions in users and are, therefore, essential to users interacting with different software. Although there is research on the relationship between emotional experience and visual user interface design, the focus has been on the overall visual impression and not on visual elements. Additionally, often in a software development process, programming and general usability guidelines are considered as the most important parts of the process. Therefore, knowledge of programmers’ appraisals of visual elements can be utilized to understand the web page designs we interact with. In this study, appraisal theory of emotion is utilized to elaborate the relationship of emotional experience and visual elements from programmers’ perspective. Participants (N=50 used 3E-templates to express their visual and emotional experiences of web page designs. Content analysis of textual data illustrates how emotional experiences are elicited by salient visual elements. Eight hierarchical visual element categories were found and connected to various emotions, such as frustration, boredom, and calmness, via relational emotion themes. The emotional emphasis was on centered, symmetrical, and balanced composition, which was experienced as pleasant and calming. The results benefit user-centered visual interface design and researchers of visual aesthetics in human-computer interaction.
Mackinnon, Nathalie; Bhatia, Urvita; Nadkarni, Abhijit
Quantitative evidence about the burden of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) needs to be complemented with a nuanced qualitative understanding of explanatory models to help supplement public health strategies that are too often steeped uncritically in biomedical models. The aim of this study was to identify the role of various factors in the onset and persistence of AUD and recovery from AUD. This was a qualitative study nested in a population cohort from Goa, India. In-depth interviews of men with incident, recovered, and persistent AUD covered topics such as changes in drinking habits over time, perceptions and experiences about starting/stopping drinking, and so on. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Reasons to begin drinking included social drinking, functional use of alcohol, stress, and boredom. Progression to problematic drinking patterns was characterized by drinking alone, alternating between abstinent and heavy drinking periods, and drinking based on the availability of finances. Some enablers to reduce/stop drinking included consequences of drinking lifestyle and personal resolve; some barriers included availability of alcohol at social events and stress. Some reasons for persisting heavy use of alcohol included lack of family support, physical withdrawal symptoms, peer pressure, stress, and easy availability. This article offers a strong conceptualization and nuanced understanding of AUD across a spectrum of developmental courses. This adds to the limited literature on explanatory models of AUD in India and identifies potential targets for prevention and treatment strategies for AUD in low- and middle-income country settings.
Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S.; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.
Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers’ reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, “real”) emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers’ emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26368911
Full Text Available In 2005, as well as in 1982, almost 90 percent of Swedes subscribed to the stereotype that retirement pensioners suffer from loneliness and more than half of Swedes also believed that pensioners suffer from boredom and dissatisfaction with life.Little seems to have changed for the better, or even impaired with regard to the images of the psychological conditions of pensioners, at the same time as Swedes have become somewhat more knowledgeable about the physiological/material conditions associated with aging. This follows from a 2005 follow-up of a Swedish Facts on Aging Quiz, first given in 1982. The comparatively stable pattern of stereotypes over the 23-year period indicates that stereotypes – in old, well-known or permutated forms – will prevail as long as their ageist roots do. The changes observed indicate the possibility of a future pattern of stereotypes, which combines an exaggerated “positive” image of retirement pensioners’ health and wealth, with associated envy of the “greedy geezers”, and pity for their lonely and meaningless lives.
Hoerr, S L; Nelson, R A; Essex-Sorlie, D
An intervention program was conducted for 12 postmenarche, 12-15-year-old obese girls. Weight Winners, a multicomponent and multidisciplinary after-school intervention program, was developed in which behavior modification, aerobic exercise, and modeling appropriate behaviors for weight control were emphasized. Evaluation made before and immediately after the intervention and at a nine-month follow-up suggested that the after-school treatment program was successful in: 1) reducing the rate of gain and decreasing body weight by 11% while maintaining lean tissue and resting energy expenditure (REE), and 2) improving eating and exercise behaviors. Significant changes in eating behaviors (p less than 0.05) were: more low-calorie, nutritionally dense foods were consumed; the frequency and amount eaten decreased; and the speed of eating slowed. Implementing a fee contingent on attendance and on record keeping appeared to reduce attrition. Subjects cited the Weight Winners program, aerobic exercise, changes in eating behaviors, group and family support, and encouragement and praise from the group leaders as important contributions to their success in weight control. Barriers to change were reported by participants as boredom, hunger, lack of family and peer support, and having food in sight. An increase in lean tissue was associated with both improved self-esteem (p less than 0.05) and improved self-control (p less than 0.05). Subjects who had been obese the longest were the most responsive to hunger cues (p less than 0.05).
Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett
According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual’s cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.
Susan J. Hazel
Full Text Available A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1 the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2 any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.
Patrick, Megan E; Miech, Richard A; Carlier, Carola; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Schulenberg, John E
The study describes the most common reasons for using vaporizers (such as e-cigarettes) among US adolescents and investigates how reasons for use differ by grade, lifetime cigarette use, frequency of vaporizer use, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education. Data were collected from 4066 students in the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades in 2015 as part of the Monitoring the Future study, a cross-sectional and nationally representative US survey. Common reasons for vaporizer use reported by respondents who had ever used a vaporizer were experimentation (53.0%), taste (37.2%), boredom (23.5%), having a good time (22.4%), and relaxation (21.6%). Reasons differed little across grades or parent education; reasons differed by lifetime use of regular cigarettes, frequency of vaping, gender, and race/ethnicity. Overall, results suggest that decisions to vape are based on curiosity, taste, and pleasure, rather than for reasons such as quitting regular cigarettes or substituting for regular cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Busko, Vesna; Landripet, Ivan
In spite of a growing presence of pornography in contemporary life, little is known about its potential effects on young people's sexual socialization and sexual satisfaction. In this article, we present a theoretical model of the effects of sexually explicit materials (SEM) mediated by sexual scripting and moderated by the type of SEM used. An on-line survey dataset that included 650 young Croatian men aged 18-25 years was used to explore empirically the model. Descriptive findings pointed to significant differences between mainstream and paraphilic SEM users in frequency of SEM use at the age of 14, current SEM use, frequency of masturbation, sexual boredom, acceptance of sex myths, and sexual compulsiveness. In testing the model, a novel instrument was used, the Sexual Scripts Overlap Scale, designed to measure the influence of SEM on sexual socialization. Structural equation analyses suggested that negative effects of early exposure to SEM on young men's sexual satisfaction, albeit small, could be stronger than positive effects. Both positive and negative effects-the latter being expressed through suppression of intimacy-were observed only among users of paraphilic SEM. No effect of early exposure to SEM was found among the mainstream SEM users. To counterbalance moral panic but also glamorization of pornography, sex education programs should incorporate contents that would increase media literacy and assist young people in critical interpretation of pornographic imagery.
Phillips, Kristina T; Lalonde, Trent L; Phillips, Michael M; Schneider, Maryia M
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among college students, with heavy use leading to negative outcomes. Use of marijuana for medical and recreational purposes in select U.S. states has been controversial, with concerns surrounding increased prevalence rates and harm. The current exploratory study aimed to assess marijuana use in college students in Colorado, demographic differences in frequency of use, and motives for using. College students (N = 300; 61% female) were recruited through introductory psychology courses and completed a series of questionnaires and a marijuana urine screen. Almost three-fourths of the sample reported lifetime use of marijuana. Sixty-five percent used marijuana within the last year and 29% tested positive on the urine screen. Hurdle Poisson regression models with a subset of participants (n = 117) showed non-Greek and freshman status were associated with increased number of days participants used marijuana in the last month. Problem marijuana use was positively associated with a range of motives-of note-motives focused on coping, boredom, alcohol, and food. Prevalence rates of marijuana use were high in this sample of college students in a state with legal recreational marijuana use. Particular students (eg, students who use marijuana to cope) may be at higher risk for problem marijuana use. Developing effective, tailored interventions for university students is warranted. (Am J Addict 2017;26:830-837). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Heavy alcohol consumption among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia: motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking.
Horyniak, Danielle; Higgs, Peter; Cogger, Shelley; Dietze, Paul; Bofu, Tapuwa
Little is known about substance use among resettled refugee populations. This study aimed to describe motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 self-identified African refugees recruited from street-based settings in 2012-2013. Interview transcripts were analysed inductively to identify key themes. Participants gathered in public spaces to consume alcohol on a daily or near-daily basis. Three key motivations for heavy alcohol consumption were identified: drinking to cope with trauma, drinking to cope with boredom and frustration and drinking as a social experience. Participants reported experiencing a range of health and social consequences of their alcohol consumption, including breakdown of family relationships, homelessness, interpersonal violence, contact with the justice system and poor health. Strategies for managing drinking included attending counselling or residential detoxification programmes, self-imposed physical isolation and intentionally committing crime in order to be incarcerated. These findings highlight the urgent need for targeted harm reduction education for African young people who consume alcohol. Given the importance of social relationships within this community, use of peer-based strategies are likely to be particularly effective. Development and implementation of programmes that address the underlying health and psychosocial causes and consequences of heavy alcohol use are also needed.
Mander, Luke; Baker, Sarah J; Belcher, Claire M; Haselhorst, Derek S; Rodriguez, Jacklyn; Thorn, Jessica L; Tiwari, Shivangi; Urrego, Dunia H; Wesseln, Cassandra J; Punyasena, Surangi W
Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. • We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. • Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. • The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as propriedades psicométricas do Sport Satisfation Instrument (SSI adaptado para a Educação Física (EF por meio de uma análise fatorial exploratória da estrutura bidimensional do instrumento em uma amostra espanhola. Com isso, buscou-se determinar, de maneira preliminar, se o SSI constitui um instrumento válido e fiável para ser utilizado em futuras pesquisas. O instrumento foi elaborado em um modelo teórico de dois fatores: Satisfação/Diversão e Tédio. A amostra constituiu-se de um total de 224 alunos de secundária entre 12 e 19 anos. A versão [espanhola] do instrumento adaptado para a EF demonstrou níveis aceitáveis de consistência interna.The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of Sport Satisfaction Instrument (SSI adapted physical education (PE using exploratory factor analysis of the dimensional structure of the instrument in a Spanish sample. It was intended to determine, on a preliminary basis, whether it constitutes a valid and reliable for use in future research. Was administered to a total of 224 high school students 12 to 19 years. This analysis supports the hypothesized theoretical model of two factors (satisfaction / fun and boredom. The Spanish version of the instrument for PE showed acceptable levels of internal consistency.
Full Text Available Georges Bataille’s book Story of the eye transgresses, by means of its contents, the calm, the boredom and the automatism of the daily life, with its lack of boldness and pleasure. Besides, the structure itself of the novel is extremely poetic, which sets the book in between the two genres, according to Roland Barthes, transgressing, on the other hand, the way in which novels are usually written. Other transgressions are solidified by the narrator and the teenager Simone’s behavior, which breaks the barriers imposed by the authorities or social decency. The relation between eye and egg is significant during the book and the two words begin to blend, in a symbiotic affinity. The phonetic similarity that they have turn into a semantic similarity. Thereby, the uses and the functions between both objects also alternate: a part of the human body can occupy the place of food and vice-versa. The boundaries between seeing and eating are also pushed. This present article will analyze the established relation between the food, represented in the book by the egg, the pleasures of the body and the poetic and transgressive language of the book.
Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.
Gill, Richard; Chen, Qixuan; D'Angelo, Debra; Chung, Wendy K
The ∼600-kb BP4-BP5 16p11.2 deletion has been consistently associated with obesity. We studied two heritable disinhibited eating behaviors, eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and loss of control (LOC), to better characterize the relationship between the deletion and obesity. Our study population included ninety-three 16p11.2 CNV carriers (64 with deletions and 29 with duplications) and their families. We performed analyses using linear mixed models and focused on deletion carriers. We confirmed previous associations between the 16p11.2 deletion and obesity (P affect. Conditioning BMI on the 16p11.2 deletion and each EAH behavior did not abolish the association between the deletion and obesity. LOC was underrepresented and not associated with the deletion. We report evidence that the 16p11.2 deletion may influence specific obesity-associated disinhibited eating behaviors: EAH due to external trigger and EAH due to boredom. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the temporal order of EAH behaviors and obesity related to the deletion. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Dåderman, A M; Lidberg, L
This study focuses on 19 juvenile offenders who were frequently intoxicated by flunitrazepam (FZ), almost exclusively under the brand name Rohypnol. Street names for Rohypnol tablets are Rophies, Ropies, Roofies, Ropes, Roches, Rochas, Rochas Dos, Rophs, Ropers, Ribs, R-25, Roach-2s, Trip and Fall, Remember All, Mind Erasers, Forget Pills, and the Date Rape Drug. An overdose of FZ gives an increased feeling of power and self-esteem, reduces fear and insecurity, and provides the belief that everything is possible. FZ is also associated with loss of episodic memory and with impulsive violence, particularly when combined with alcohol. The subjects were taken from a subpopulation of 47 male juvenile offenders from Swedish national correctional institutions. Background information for subjects was obtained by in-depth interviewing and personality inventories including the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Karolinska Scales of Personality. Data concerning previous criminal offenses was obtained from the Swedish National Police Board. Almost all of the FZ abusers had been previously sentenced for serious violent offenses. Our data suggest that FZ abused by psychiatrically vulnerable subjects (i.e., with high scores on boredom susceptibility and verbal aggression) poses a serious hazard both to the abusers as well as the community. Our results support the finding that FZ should be classified as a Schedule I drug (i.e., a drug similar to heavy narcotics).
Bernardo Patricio Rocco Núñez
Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia el conjunto de cuentos “Últimos atardeceres en la tierra”, “Días de 1978” y “Vagabundo en Francia y Bélgica” pertenecientes al libro Putas Asesinas(2001 de Roberto Bolaño, con el objetivo de comprender la representación de la crisis de la experiencia moderna. En este sentido, se exploran las relaciones entre la temática de la locura, el trauma del exilio chileno y el estado de aburrimiento. En consecuencia, se muestra cómo el viaje del sujeto moderno manifiesta una genealogía conceptual que haría legible la historia chilena contemporánea. This article studies the short stories “Últimos atardeceres en la tierra”, “Días de 1978” and “Vagabundo en Francia y Bélgica” belonging to Putas Asesinas (2001 by Roberto Bolaño, with the goal of understanding the representation of the crisis of the modern experience. In this sense, the relationships between the subjects of madness, the trauma of the Chilean exile and the state of boredom are explored. In short, it shows how the journey of the modern subject manifests a conceptual genealogy that would make contemporary Chilean history legible.
Full Text Available Standardization of Working Time at Cocoa Processing Unit, Rimbun Cooperative, Pidie Jaya ABSTRACT. Rimbun Cooperative is a business unit operating a chocolate factory producing several chocolate products such as cocoa fat, cocoa powder, 3 in 1 instant drinks (sachets, and chocolate bars. This research aims to measure standard times of operators in all working stations of the chocolate factory. These standards comprised the standards in roasting, peeling, pasting, pressing, powdering, powder sieving, powder mixing, dough mixing, refining, and chonching working stations. The data were directly collected using Time Study method with Stop Watch. The samples were randomly selected with five (5 repetitions; and the standard times were measured using Westinghouse Method to quantify performance and allowance factors. The result shows that standard times of operators in each working station are as follows: roasting (36 minutes, peeling (193 minutes, pasting (276 minutes, pressing (78 minutes, powdering (17 minutes, powder sieving (14 minutes, powder mixing (36 minutes, dough mixing (17 minutes, refining (30 minutes, and chonching (30 minutes. In peeling, pasting, powdering, powder sieving working stations, standard times of operators cannot be separated with working times of machines because the operators are required to run the machines (sequence. In general, standard times of operators, after calculation, are larger than direct records because during the working times, operators would not or could not use allowance factors for personal uses, such as for going to bathroom, drinking, and socializing with their colleagues as means to reduce stress or boredom.
Kubota, Natsuko; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Yanagita, Shinya; Nishijima, Takeshi; Kita, Ichiro
Yawning is often observed not only in a state of boredom or drowsiness but also in stressful emotional situations, suggesting that yawning is an emotional behavior. However, the neural mechanisms for yawning during stressful emotional situations have not been fully determined, though previous studies have suggested that both parvocellular oxytocin (OT) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are responsible for induction of yawning. Thus, using ethological observations and c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we examined whether emotional stress evoked by classical fear conditioning is involved in induction of yawning behavior in freely moving rats. Emotional stress induced yawning behavior that was accompanied by anxiety-related behavior, and caused neuronal activation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), as well as increases in activity of both OT and CRF neurons in the PVN. These results suggest that emotional stress may induce yawning behavior, in which the neuronal activation of the CeA may have a key role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Golander, Hava; Ben-Israel, Joshua; Garfinkel, Doron
One of the common symptoms of dementia is delusions. Due to a biological conceptualization of the behaviors represented as delusions, these are classified as psychotic symptoms. This is a qualitative and quantitative study aiming to describe the delusions experienced by older persons with dementia and the context of occurrence, and to elucidate their etiology. Participants were 74 nursing home residents aged 65 and over, diagnosed with dementia, from nine nursing homes in Israel. Participants with delusions were found to have significantly more difficulties in performing ADLs, and poorer vision and hearing. Based on assessment using the BEHAVE-AD, six categories of delusions were examined: 1. One's house is not one's home, 2. Theft, 3. Danger, 4. Abandonment, 5. Misidentification, and 6. Other non-paranoid. Common themes appeared across delusions including reality, disorientation, re-experience of past events, loneliness and insecurity, boredom, and trigger. Current results suggest that delusions may not represent psychotic symptoms for most participants, because they sometimes represented reality, or were neither firm nor incontrovertible. Thus, utilizing the term delusion relegates the person's behavior to the domain of severe psychiatric phenomena and precludes understanding its true meaning. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Ferane Aristrivani Sofian
Full Text Available Most Marketing Communication students are smartphone users. The students, either consciously or not, would prefer to use his/her smartphone rather than socializing with other people around. Even when in class during lectures, until it often leads to conflict between lecturer and students. In connection with the meaning, everyone will behave towards something based on the meaning of that something in his mind. Thus, this study would like to try to answer what the meaning of the smartphone for Marketing Communication students is; why they use a smartphone when lectures take place; and what their opinion in wisefully using of their smartphones. This study used a qualitative research system with a descriptive case study method. Through observation and in-depth interviews of nine informants can be seen that the meaning of a smartphone for students is as practical communication medium for sharing information and the necessities of life; teaching methods oflecturer are less attractive, boredom, always wanted to connect anytime, anywhere with friends or family, addicted to smartphones are reasons why students always want to use smartphones in class when the lecture takes place; and the wise use of smartphones by students is at the right time, do not harm others and for positive things.
Myrseth, Helga; Notelaers, Guy; Strand, Leif Åge; Borud, Einar Kristian; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold
To adapt the four-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised (GMQ-R) to measure the motivation for engaging in electronic gaming, and to validate the internal structure and investigate the criterion validity of the new Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire (EGMQ). The GMQ-R was adapted to measure motivation for playing video games and the new instrument was tested on a sample of Norwegian conscripts selected randomly from the pool of conscripts who started their military service between 2013 and 2015. The questionnaire was administered to all those who had played video games during the last 6 months and consisted of 853 gamers (86.8% men, mean age = 19.4 years). All participants completed the EGMQ, as well as other measures of gaming behaviour, gaming problems, boredom, loneliness and depression. The confirmatory factor analyses showed that the proposed EGMQ (measuring enhancement, coping, social and self-gratification motives) displayed satisfactory fit and internal consistency. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that gender emerged as a significant predictor (P gaming, loss of control and gaming problems) and the first step explained between 1 and 6.1% of the variance in the gaming behaviours. In the second step the four motivational dimensions explained an additional 5.8-38.8% of the variance. Coping and self-gratification predicted gaming problems (P Gaming Motives Questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring motives for gaming. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
van Manen, Max
In this article, I try to think through the question, "What distinguishes phenomenology in its original sense?" My intent is to focus on the project and methodology of phenomenology in a manner that is not overly technical and that may help others to further elaborate on or question the singular features that make phenomenology into a unique qualitative form of inquiry. I pay special attention to the notion of "lived" in the phenomenological term "lived experience" to demonstrate its critical role and significance for understanding phenomenological reflection, meaning, analysis, and insights. I also attend to the kind of experiential material that is needed to focus on a genuine phenomenological question that should guide any specific research project. Heidegger, van den Berg, and Marion provide some poignant exemplars of the use of narrative "examples" in phenomenological explorations of the phenomena of "boredom," "conversation," and "the meaningful look in eye-contact." Only what is given or what gives itself in lived experience (or conscious awareness) are proper phenomenological "data" or "givens," but these givens are not to be confused with data material that can be coded, sorted, abstracted, and accordingly analyzed in some "systematic" manner. The latter approach to experiential research may be appropriate and worthwhile for various types of qualitative inquiry but not for phenomenology in its original sense. Finally, I use the mythical figure of Kairos to show that the famous phenomenological couplet of the epoché-reduction aims for phenomenological insights that require experiential analysis and attentive (but serendipitous) methodical inquiry practices.
Möller, A; Hell, D; Kröber, H L
The term "sensation seeking" is part of a self-contained theory on personality psychology. It is meant to denote a disposition--peculiar to a certain personality, probably genetically founded and correlating with biological, f. e. neuroendocrine measures--to explore one's social environment in order to find new and diversified stimuli. In their work, researchers mainly refer to Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale in its fifth version (SSS-V), which distinguishes between four aspects of sensation seeking based on factor analysis of the 40 SSS-V-items. There is partly an overlapping of the phenomenon with impulsiveness and extraversion. Whereas application studies show inter alia links between sensation seeking and dangerous driving or dangerous sexual practices, data on the expression of this trait in addictive persons do not point to definitely consistent links. In forensic terms, there is on a link between "boredom susceptibility"--the inability to stand uneventful, monotonous situations--and "disinhibition"--a lack of control of impulses--figuring as subscales of the SSS-V, on the one hand, and hyperkinetic attention deficit syndromes and "disactualisation weakness", as described by Janzarik, on the other. At present, there is no German-language SSS-inventory in line with basal testing theory requirements. Because of the apparently different modi of sensation seeking influenced by other cultural traditions, such a scale must be basically adapted to the life-style in Western Europe.
Birkholz, Peter; Martin, Lucia; Willmes, Klaus; Kröger, Bernd J; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane
Vocal emotions are signaled by specific patterns of prosodic parameters, most notably pitch, phone duration, intensity, and phonation type. Phonation type was so far the least accessible parameter in emotion research, because it was difficult to extract from speech signals and difficult to manipulate in natural or synthetic speech. The present study built on recent advances in articulatory speech synthesis to exclusively control phonation type in re-synthesized German sentences spoken with seven different emotions. The goal was to find out to what extent the sole change of phonation type affects the perception of these emotions. Therefore, portrayed emotional utterances were re-synthesized with their original phonation type, as well as with each purely breathy, modal, and pressed phonation, and then rated by listeners with respect to the perceived emotions. Highly significant effects of phonation type on the recognition rates of the original emotions were found, except for disgust. While fear, anger, and the neutral emotion require specific phonation types for correct perception, sadness, happiness, boredom, and disgust primarily rely on other prosodic parameters. These results can help to improve the expression of emotions in synthesized speech and facilitate the robust automatic recognition of vocal emotions.
Bartone, P T; Adler, A B; Vaitkus, M A
U.S. military forces are increasingly involved in a variety of multinational peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. How well combat-trained units and soldiers adapt to these new roles will determine U.S. success in such operations, as well as the future health and readiness of the force. In preparing soldiers for such missions, it is critical that leaders and health care providers have a clear understanding of the nature of the stressors they are likely to encounter. This report summarizes findings from a longitudinal, descriptive case study of a U.S. Army medical unit performing a peacekeeping mission in the former Yugoslavia. The goal of the investigation was to identify key sources of stress and to delineate the effect of these stressors on the health, morale, and mental readiness of soldiers. Findings suggest a range of psychological stressors that varies somewhat across operational phases of a peacekeeping mission. Furthermore, the degree of stress experienced in various areas correlates significantly with depression, psychiatric symptoms, and low reported morale. The range of stressors is reduced and summarized in a conceptually derived model of five underlying dimensions of psychological stress salient to soldier adaptation in peacekeeping operations: isolation, ambiguity, powerlessness, boredom, and danger/threat. This model provides a useful heuristic for organizing thinking about stress in peacekeeping operations and leads to several recommendations for "countermeasures" that organizational leaders can take to maintain soldier psychological readiness during peacekeeping operations.
Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Tamal
It is a well recognized fact that manual material handling (MMH) entails enormous physical labor and associated discomfort feeling, which invariably culminate into musculoskeletal disorders. However mental fatigue, in such instances, becomes an unexplored parameter that needs definite attention during assessment of work status of MMH workers. The present study is being performed among 75 porters of a central market in Kolkata to ascertain the extent of physical and mental exhaustion among them. SF-12 health status questionnaire followed by another questionnaire involving psychosocial questions were performed among them. The analysis of both the questionnaires clearly revealed that most of the porters are under severe physical exertion as they alone carry about 120 kg load at a time and such activity is repeated at least 40 times throughout the day. They always suffer from pain and discomfort feeling at different body parts and this interferes with their normal work activity to a great extent. Moreover absenteeism means no financial return and even a day's rigourous work fetches meagre income. The inability to support family convincingly even after performing such hazardous tasks makes them feel low. Monotony, boredom, fatigue and mental trauma form an integral part of their daily work schedule.
E. Paul Cherniack
Full Text Available Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.
Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R
Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.
Pivarunas, Bernadette; Kelly, Nichole R; Pickworth, Courtney K; Cassidy, Omni; Radin, Rachel M; Shank, Lisa M; Vannucci, Anna; Courville, Amber B; Chen, Kong Y; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A; Shomaker, Lauren B
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants were 114 overweight or obese adolescents enrolled in a study of girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms were collected. An interview was administered to determine presence of binge eating episodes and a behavioral task was used to assess the reinforcing value of food relative to other nonsnack food rewards. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In analyses accounting for race, percent body fat, lean mass, height, age, and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness was associated with a lower odds of binge eating (p = .002). Controlling for the same potential confounds, mindfulness was also inversely associated with eating concern, eating in the absence of hunger in response to fatigue/boredom, and higher food reinforcement relative to physical activity (all p mindfulness are related to binge eating and associated attitudes and behaviors that may confer risk for obesity and metabolic problems. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which mindfulness plays a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of disinhibited eating in adolescents at risk for T2D. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Parham, Sophie C; Kavanagh, David J; Shimada, Mika; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie
Effective motivational support is needed in chronic disease management. This study was undertaken to improve a novel type 2 diabetes motivational intervention, (functional imagery training, FIT) based on participant feedback and results from a self-management randomised controlled trial. Qualitative inductive thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews. Open-ended questions on participant experiences of the FIT intervention content, process, most/least helpful features, suggestions for improvement and general feedback. Eight themes emerged. Participants thought FIT promoted autonomy and self-awareness. They found the intervention interesting and helpful in keeping their health on track through accountability provided by regular phone calls. However, boredom with repetitive use of imagery, feeling inadequately equipped to manage unhealthy cravings, and difficulty with the time commitment was reported by some. Supplementary written material was recommended. Several well-received features of FIT overlapped with those from traditional motivational interviewing. FIT sessions should ensure content is regularly adapted to new health-enhancing goals. After self-management behaviour becomes habitual, imagery practice could be restricted to challenging contexts. Provision of a written rationale and use of mindfulness for cravings is recommended. With these improvements, the impact of FIT on diabetic control may be substantially enhanced.
Cheok, Adrian David
Although animals and pets are so important for families and society, in modern urban lifestyles we can spend little time with our animal friends. Interactive media should be aimed to enhance not only human-to-human communication, but also human-to-animal communication. Thus, we promote a new type of inter-species media interaction which allows human users to interact and play with their small pet friends (in this case hamsters) remotely via the Internet through a mixed reality based game system “Metazoa Ludens”. We scientifically examined the effectiveness of this system in a two-pronged approach. Firstly and most importantly, the positive effects to the hamsters were ensured using Body Condition Score study. Secondly, the method of Duncan was used to assess the strength of preference of the hamsters towards Metazoa Ludens. Lastly, the effectiveness of this remote interaction with respect to the human users as a interactive gaming system with their pets/friends (hamsters) was examined based on Csikszentmihalyi's (Beyond boredom and anxiety, 1975) Flow theory. The results of both studies inform of positive remote interaction between human users and their pet friends using our research system. This research is not aimed just at providing specific experimental results on the implemented research system, but is aimed as a wider lesson for human-to-animal interactive media. Thus also the lessons learned are extrapolated and detailed in this chapter as a framework in general for human-to-animal interaction systems.
Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Brovedani, Paola; Pisano, Simone; Muratori, Pietro
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking. Recently, research suggests that youth with CU traits, similarly to adults with psychopathy, can present a low-anxious "primary" and high-anxious "secondary" variants. Our aim is to critically review the main measures of psychopathic traits, including the three main dimensions (with specific emphasis on CU traits), and the "primary/secondary" distinction, focusing on the assessment in clinical settings. An assessment procedure is proposed, based on previous literature and personal clinical experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Marx, Marcia S; Thein, Khin; Regier, Natalie G
The Unmet Needs Model states that problem behaviors of people with dementia result from unmet needs stemming from a decreased ability to communicate those needs and to provide for oneself. The purpose of this study is to describe the unmet needs of persons with dementia exhibiting behavior problems. Eighty-nine residents with dementia from six Maryland nursing homes were assessed by research assistants and nursing assistants for their unmet needs using multiple assessment tools. Three unmet needs per resident were identified on average, with informants rating boredom/sensory deprivation, loneliness/need for social interaction, and need for meaningful activity as the most prevalent needs. Discomfort was associated with higher levels of verbally agitated behaviors (e.g., complaining). Based on results and independent ratings of pain, the authors estimate notable under-detection of discomfort and pain by both types of informants. The study demonstrates methodologies for uncovering unmet needs among persons with dementia and highlights the importance of developing programs that address those unmet needs, especially social and activity needs of nursing home residents. The detection of pain, and possibly that of discomfort, may require a different methodology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah
In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.
Auditya Purwandini Sutarto
Full Text Available The widespread implementation of advanced and complex systems requires predominantly operators’ cognitive functions and less importance of human manual control. On the other hand, most operators perform their cognitive functions below their peak cognitive capacity level due to fatigue, stress, and boredom. Thus, there is a need to improve their cognitive functions during work. The goal of this paper is to present a psychophysiology training approach derived from cardiovascular response named heart rate variability (HRV biofeedback. Description of resonant frequency biofeedback - a specific HRV training protocol - is discussed as well as its supported researches for the performance enhancement. HRV biofeedback training works by teaching people to recognize their involuntary HRV and to control patterns of this physiological response. The training is directed to increase HRV amplitude that promotes autonomic nervous system balance. This balance is associated with improved physiological functioning as well as psychological benefits. Most individuals can learn HRV biofeedback training easily which involves slowing the breathing rate (around six breaths/min to each individual’s resonant frequency at which the amplitude of HRV is maximized. Maximal control over HRV can be obtained in most people after approximately four sessions of training. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of HRV biofeedback to the improvement of some cognitive functions in both simulated and real industrial operators.
Artino, Anthony R; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J
This study explored whether motivational, emotional, and behavioral aspects of self-regulated learning (SRL) are associated with academic performance in medical school. Across two academic years (2008-2009 and 2009-2010), 248 (73%) of 342 second-year students in an introductory clinical reasoning course completed surveys assessing 10 SRL constructs. Performance was operationalized as students' average grade on three course exams, and a tercile split was used to compare those in the lowest and highest third of achievement using a one-way multivariate analysis of variance. Findings revealed differences in the beliefs and emotions of the two extreme groups, F(10,136) = 2.08, P = .03. Compared with high-performing students, low performers reported lower task value (Cohen d = -0.33) and self-efficacy beliefs (d = -0.33) as well as greater anxiety (d = 0.63), frustration (d = 0.54), and boredom (d = 0.44). Low-performing medical students in a clinical reasoning course demonstrated deficiencies in key SRL measures, providing insight for future, tailored remediation strategies.
Schindler, Ines; Hosoya, Georg; Menninghaus, Winfried; Beermann, Ursula; Wagner, Valentin; Eid, Michael; Scherer, Klaus R
Aesthetic perception and judgement are not merely cognitive processes, but also involve feelings. Therefore, the empirical study of these experiences requires conceptualization and measurement of aesthetic emotions. Despite the long-standing interest in such emotions, we still lack an assessment tool to capture the broad range of emotions that occur in response to the perceived aesthetic appeal of stimuli. Elicitors of aesthetic emotions are not limited to the arts in the strict sense, but extend to design, built environments, and nature. In this article, we describe the development of a questionnaire that is applicable across many of these domains: the Aesthetic Emotions Scale (Aesthemos). Drawing on theoretical accounts of aesthetic emotions and an extensive review of extant measures of aesthetic emotions within specific domains such as music, literature, film, painting, advertisements, design, and architecture, we propose a framework for studying aesthetic emotions. The Aesthemos, which is based on this framework, contains 21 subscales with two items each, that are designed to assess the emotional signature of responses to stimuli's perceived aesthetic appeal in a highly differentiated manner. These scales cover prototypical aesthetic emotions (e.g., the feeling of beauty, being moved, fascination, and awe), epistemic emotions (e.g., interest and insight), and emotions indicative of amusement (humor and joy). In addition, the Aesthemos subscales capture both the activating (energy and vitality) and the calming (relaxation) effects of aesthetic experiences, as well as negative emotions that may contribute to aesthetic displeasure (e.g., the feeling of ugliness, boredom, and confusion).
The simulation and analogue environments used by psychologists to circumvent the difficulties of conducting research in space lack many of the unique characteristics of future explorations, especially the mission to Mars. This paper suggests that appropriate additional analogues would be the multi-year maritime and terrestrial explorations that mapped the surface of the Earth in previous centuries. These, like Mars, often involved a hazardous trek through unknown territory, flanked by extended, dangerous voyages to and from the exploration sites. Characteristic issues included interpersonal relationships under prolonged stress, stretches of boredom interspersed with intense work demands, the impossibility of rescue, resupply, or other help from home, chronic danger, physical discomfort and lack of privacy, and the crucial role of the leader. Illustrative examples of one important factor, leadership style, are discussed. The examination of such expeditions can help to identify the psychological stressors that are likely to be experienced by Mars explorers, and can also indicate countermeasures to reduce the damaging impact of those stressors.
Tompkins, C N E; Wright, N M J; Waterman, M G; Sheard, L
The United Kingdom Ministry of Justice recently highlighted the extent of buprenorphine (Subutex) misuse in English andWelsh prisons, naming it the third most misused drug overall. Yet little is known regarding how illicit buprenorphine is obtained in prison and what influences prisoners to use it. Qualitative research was used to explore prison drug using practices. Thirty men who were former prisoners with a history of injecting drug use were interviewed in depth about their illicit prison drug use, including buprenorphine. Interviews were conducted over 18 months, from August 2006 to January 2008 and were analysed using Framework. The misuse of Subutex by snorting emerged as a significant theme. Accounts suggested that the diversion of prison prescribed Subutex was widespread and prisoners used various tactics to obtain the medication. Various complex and interlinked reasons were given to explain why Subutex was snorted in prison. The main motivation for snorting was to experience a prolonged euphoric opiate effect, believed to help to combat the boredom of being in prison. The price of illicit Subutex in prison was linked to its availability, but it was generally cheaper than heroin, thus contributing to its use. Participants'narratives identified the belief that snorting Subutex in prison was not risk free, but risks were lower than continuing to use other drugs, particularly injecting illicit opiates. The implications of prison Subutex misuse for prisoners, prison medical services, commissioners, and prescribing policy and practice are discussed.
Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert W; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas
A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents' development in mathematics (Grades 5-9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting age = 11.7 years; representative sample). Structural equation modeling showed that positive emotions (enjoyment, pride) positively predicted subsequent achievement (math end-of-the-year grades and test scores), and that achievement positively predicted these emotions, controlling for students' gender, intelligence, and family socioeconomic status. Negative emotions (anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, hopelessness) negatively predicted achievement, and achievement negatively predicted these emotions. The findings were robust across waves, achievement indicators, and school tracks, highlighting the importance of emotions for students' achievement and of achievement for the development of emotions. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Chiarella, Andrew; Rahimi, Sonia
As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students’ computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner’s (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings. Findings from Study 1 showed stable and external attributions to be emotionally maladaptive (more helplessness, boredom, guilt), particularly in response to unexpected computing problems. Additionally, Study 2 found stable attributions for unexpected problems to predict more anxiety for traditional students, with both external and personally controllable attributions for minor problems proving emotionally beneficial for students in online degree programs (more hope, less anxiety). Overall, hypothesized negative effects of stable attributions were observed across both studies, with mixed results for personally controllable attributions and unanticipated emotional benefits of external attributions for academic computing problems warranting further study. PMID:29529039
Maymon, Rebecca; Hall, Nathan C; Goetz, Thomas; Chiarella, Andrew; Rahimi, Sonia
As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students' computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner's (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings. Findings from Study 1 showed stable and external attributions to be emotionally maladaptive (more helplessness, boredom, guilt), particularly in response to unexpected computing problems. Additionally, Study 2 found stable attributions for unexpected problems to predict more anxiety for traditional students, with both external and personally controllable attributions for minor problems proving emotionally beneficial for students in online degree programs (more hope, less anxiety). Overall, hypothesized negative effects of stable attributions were observed across both studies, with mixed results for personally controllable attributions and unanticipated emotional benefits of external attributions for academic computing problems warranting further study.
Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Vidrine, Damon J; Costello, Tracy J; Mazas, Carlos; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Mejia, Luz Maria; Wetter, David W
Much of the existing research on smoking outcome expectancies has been guided by the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ ). Although the original version of the SCQ has been modified over time for use in different populations, none of the existing versions have been evaluated for use among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in the United States. The present study evaluated the factor structure and predictive validity of the 3 previously validated versions of the SCQ--the original, the SCQ-Adult, and the SCQ-Spanish, which was developed with Spanish-speaking smokers in Spain--among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in Texas. The SCQ-Spanish represented the least complex solution. Each of the SCQ-Spanish scales had good internal consistency, and the predictive validity of the SCQ-Spanish was partially supported. Nearly all the SCQ-Spanish scales predicted withdrawal severity even after controlling for demographics and dependence. Boredom Reduction predicted smoking relapse across the 5- and 12-week follow-up assessments in a multivariate model that also controlled for demographics and dependence. Our results support use of the SCQ-Spanish with Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in the United States.
Sarah Rose Cavanagh
Full Text Available Nostalgia involves a fond recollection of people and events lost to time. Growing evidence indicates that nostalgia may ameliorate negative affective states such as loneliness and boredom. However, the effect of nostalgia on sadness is unknown, and there is little research on how social connectedness might impact nostalgia’s effects. Grounded in a theoretical framework whereby people with lower levels of attachment insecurity benefit more from nostalgia, we exposed participants to a mortality-related sad mood and then randomly assigned them to reflect on a nostalgic or an ordinary event memory. We examined changes in mood and electrodermal activity and found that nostalgic versus ordinary event memories led to a blunted recovery from sad mood, but that this effect was moderated by degree of attachment insecurity, such that participants with low insecurity benefited from nostalgia whereas people with high insecurity did not. These findings suggest that nostalgia’s benefits may be tied to the degree of confidence one has in one’s social relationships.
Full Text Available The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participants interacting with game elements showed higher scores in the working memory training task than participants from a control group who completed the working memory training task without the game elements. Moreover, game elements facilitated the individuals’ performance closer to their maximum working memory capacity. Finally, the perceived flow did not differ between the two groups, which indicates that game elements can induce better performance without changing the perception of being “in the zone”, that is without an increase in anxiety or boredom. This empirical study indicates that certain game elements can improve the performance and efficiency in a working memory task by increasing users’ ability and willingness to train at their optimal performance level.
Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry
A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.
Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Jurin, Tanja; Briken, Peer
Despite a growing number of studies, hypersexuality remains controversial and empirically elusive. Using a group comparison approach, this study revisited the claim that hypersexuality cannot be reliably distinguished from high sexual desire. An online survey, advertised as focusing on pornography use and sexual health, was carried out in 2014 among 1,998 Croatian men aged 18 to 60 years (M age = 34.7, SD = 9.83). Membership in the hypersexuality group (HYP; n = 57) was determined using the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory and the Hypersexual Behavior Consequences Scale. The highest values on two indicators of sexual desire/interest set membership in the high sexual desire group (HSD; n = 70). The overlap between the groups was negligible (n = 4). Compared to the rest of the sample, men in the HYP group had significantly higher odds of being single, not exclusively heterosexual, religious, depressed, prone to sexual boredom, experiencing substance abuse consequences, holding negative attitudes toward pornography use, and evaluating one's sexual morality more negatively. In contrast, the HSD group differed from controls only in reporting more positive attitudes toward pornography use. The study findings point to a distinct phenomenology of HSD and HYP in men. Clinical implications of the findings are briefly discussed.
O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G; Cappeliez, Philippe; Chaudhury, Habib; Carmel, Sara
Existing research with English-speaking samples indicates that various ways in which older adults recall their past affect both their physical and mental health. Self-positive reminiscence functions (i.e. identity, problem-solving, death preparation) correlate and predict mental health in later life whereas self-negative functions (i.e. bitterness revival, boredom reduction, intimacy maintenance) correlate and predict the physical health of older adults. For this study, we recruited 295 Israeli Holocaust survivors to ascertain if early life trauma affects these associations between reminiscence and health. In order to distinguish cross-national differences from survivor-specific effects, we also recruited two comparative samples of other older Israelis (not Holocaust survivors; n = 205) and a second comparative sample of 335 older Canadians. Three separate structural equation models were computed to replicate this tripartite reminiscence and health model. Coefficients for self-negative functions significantly differed between survivors and both Canadians and other older Israelis, and between Canadians and both Israeli samples. However, no differences were found between prosocial and self-positive functions. Moreover, the higher order structure of reminiscence and health appears largely indistinguishable across these three groups. Early life trauma does not appear to fundamentally affect associations between reminiscence and health. These findings underscore the resilience of Holocaust survivors.
Rothman, Emily F; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Burke, Nina; Jansen, Emily; Baughman, Allyson
Information about the pornography-viewing habits of urban, low-income youth of color in the United States is lacking. This study was designed to answer the following using a sample of 16- to 18-year-old urban-residing, low-income Black or Hispanic youth: (1) What types of pornography do youth report watching; where and for what purpose? (2) Do youth feel that pornography exposure has an impact on their own sexual behaviors? and (3) How do parents react to their pornography use? The following themes emerged from interviews with 23 youth: (1) Youth primarily reported watching pornography that featured one-on-one sexual intercourse but also reported having seen extreme pornography (e.g., public humiliation, incest); (2) youth reported watching pornography on home computers or smartphones, and that pornography was frequently watched in school; (3) youth reported watching for entertainment, for sexual stimulation, instructional purposes, and to alleviate boredom; many copied what they saw in pornography during their own sexual encounters; (4) pressure to make or to imitate pornography was an element of some unhealthy dating relationships; and (5) parents were generally described as unsupportive of youth's use of pornography but underequipped to discuss it. Approximately one-fifth expressed a preference for pornography featuring actors of their same race/ethnicity.
Carvalheira, Ana; Træen, Bente; Stulhofer, Aleksandar
The relation between masturbation and sexual desire has not been systematically studied. The present study assessed the association between masturbation and pornography use and the predictors and correlates of frequent masturbation (several times a week or more often) among coupled heterosexual men who reported decreased sexual desire. Analyses were carried out on a subset of 596 men with decreased sexual desire (mean age = 40.2 years) who were recruited as part of a large online study on male sexual health in 3 European countries. A majority of the participants (67%) reported masturbating at least once a week. Among men who masturbated frequently, 70% used pornography at least once a week. A multivariate assessment showed that sexual boredom, frequent pornography use, and low relationship intimacy significantly increased the odds of reporting frequent masturbation among coupled men with decreased sexual desire. These findings point to a pattern of pornography-related masturbation that can be dissociated from partnered sexual desire and can fulfill diverse purposes. Clinical implications include the importance of exploring specific patterns of masturbation and pornography use in the evaluation of coupled men with decreased sexual desire.
Rothman, Emily F.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Burke, Nina; Jansen, Emily; Baughman, Allyson
Information about pornography-viewing habits of urban, low income, youth of color in the U.S. is lacking. This study was designed to answer the following using a sample of 16-18 year old urban-residing, low income, Black or Hispanic youth: (1) What types of pornography do youth report watching, where, and for what purpose?; (2) Do youth feel that pornography exposure has an impact on their own sexual behaviors?; and (3) How do parents react to their pornography use? The following themes emerged from interviews with 23 youth: (a) Youth primarily reported watching pornography that featured one-on-one sexual intercourse, but also reported having seen extreme pornography (e.g., public humiliation, incest); (b) youth reported watching pornography on home computers or smartphones, and that pornography was frequently watched in school; (c) youth reported watching for entertainment, for sexual stimulation, instructional purposes, and to alleviate boredom; many copied what they saw in pornography during their own sexual encounters; (d) pressure to make or to imitate pornography was an element of some unhealthy dating relationships; and (e) parents were generally described as unsupportive of youths’ use of pornography, but under-equipped to discuss it. Approximately one-fifth expressed a prefererence for pornography featuring actors of their same race/ethnicity. PMID:25350847
Chiu, Yi-Chen; Huang, Chien-Ying; Kolanowski, Ann M; Huang, Hsiu-Li; Shyu, Yeaing Lotus; Lee, Shu-Hwa; Lin, Ching-Rong; Hsu, Wen-Chuin
People with cognitive impairment have been shown to engage in few structured activities. During periods of unoccupied time or boredom, these patients most likely manifest neuropsychiatric symptoms. The purposes of this study were to (1) describe the leisure-activity indicators (variety in leisure activities, appraisal of each activity's restorative function, and leisure dysfunction, i.e. failure to appreciate the importance of restorative aspects of leisure activity), of community-dwelling older Taiwanese adults with cognitive impairment, and (2) explore the relationships between these indicators and neuropsychiatric symptoms in this population. Cross-sectional. Memory disorder and geriatric psychiatric clinics of two hospitals in northern Taiwan. Patient-family caregiver dyads (N=60). Patients' dementia severity, based on Clinical Dementia Rating scores, was 0.5-2.0. Family caregivers completed the Chinese Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess patients' behavioral problems and the Restorative Activity Questionnaire to assess patients' participation in leisure activities, restorative experience, and leisure dysfunction. On average, patients participated in approximately five individual leisure activities, but very few group leisure activities. The top three leisure activities were watching TV, taking a walk, and talking to relatives and friends. The leisure activities in which participants least commonly engaged were fishing, attending cultural exhibitions, and chess/card playing. All leisure-activity indicators were significantly correlated with disease stage, global cognitive function, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Two leisure-activity indicators (leisure dysfunction and restorative experiences) were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Only leisure dysfunction significantly and consistently predicted neuropsychiatric symptoms. These results can be used by home health or community health nurses to design tailored leisure-activity plans for improving
Jyoti Mahantesh Nagmoti
Full Text Available Purpose: PowerPoint (PPT™ presentation has become an integral part of day-to-day teaching in medicine. Most often, PPT™ is used in its default mode which in fact, is known to cause boredom and ineffective learning. Research has shown improved short-term memory by applying multimedia principles for designing and delivering lectures. However, such evidence in medical education is scarce. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effect of multimedia principles on enhanced learning of parasitology. Methodology: Second-year medical students received a series of lectures, half of the lectures used traditionally designed PPT™ and the rest used slides designed by Mayer's multimedia principles. Students answered pre and post-tests at the end of each lecture (test-I and an essay test after six months (test-II which assessed their short and long term knowledge retention respectively. Students' feedback on quality and content of lectures were collected. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between post test scores of traditional and modified lectures (P = 0.019 indicating, improved short-term memory after modified lectures. Similarly, students scored better in test II on the contents learnt through modified lectures indicating, enhanced comprehension and improved long-term memory (P < 0.001. Many students appreciated learning through multimedia designed PPT™ and suggested for their continued use. Conclusions: It is time to depart from default PPT™ and adopt multimedia principles to enhance comprehension and improve short and long term knowledge retention. Further, medical educators may be trained and encouraged to apply multimedia principles for designing and delivering effective lectures.
Rasmussen, Andrew; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka; Chu, Tracy; Keatley, Eva
Immigrant parents’ perceptions of child protective services may have important implications for their engagement in public institutions that are central to their children’s well being. The current study examined West African immigrants’ perceptions of child welfare authorities and the role of disciplining and monitoring in these communities’ meaning making. A multiethnic group of 59 West African immigrants (32 parents and 27 adolescent children) living in the United States were interviewed in 18 focus groups and eight individual interviews between December 2009 and July 2010. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach; strategies for rigor included triangulation (multiple interview formats, varied composition of groups, multiple coders for each transcript), verification (follow-up interviewing, feedback to community-based organizations), and auditability. Primary among parents’ concerns were “911” (used to refer to the police and child protective authorities), the loss of collective child monitoring networks, and threats to their children posed by “American” values and neighborhood violence. Children were concerned with parents’ close monitoring that resulted in boredom and a sense that parents did not recognize them for adhering to their families’ values. Feedback from CBOs suggested that parents got their information about child protective policies from children but that although misinformed they were accurate in their negative assessment of contact. Not unlike in other urban populations, West African immigrants’ disciplinary tactics are instrumental, oriented towards protecting their children from the multiple dangers perceived in their surroundings, but may also put them at risk for contact with child protective services. Results suggest that “911” results from a “loss spiral” (Hobfoll, 1989) that begins as West Africans resettle without collective child monitoring networks, leading to increased concern for their
Rasmussen, Andrew; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka; Chu, Tracy; Keatley, Eva
Immigrant parents' perceptions of child protective services may have important implications for their engagement in public institutions that are central to their children's well being. The current study examined West African immigrants' perceptions of child welfare authorities and the role of disciplining and monitoring in these communities' meaning making. A multiethnic group of 59 West African immigrants (32 parents and 27 adolescent children) living in the United States were interviewed in 18 focus groups and eight individual interviews between December 2009 and July 2010. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach; strategies for rigor included triangulation (multiple interview formats, varied composition of groups, multiple coders for each transcript), verification (follow-up interviewing, feedback to community-based organizations), and auditability. Primary among parents' concerns were "911" (used to refer to the police and child protective authorities), the loss of collective child monitoring networks, and threats to their children posed by "American" values and neighborhood violence. Children were concerned with parents' close monitoring that resulted in boredom and a sense that parents did not recognize them for adhering to their families' values. Feedback from CBOs suggested that parents got their information about child protective policies from children but that although misinformed they were accurate in their negative assessment of contact. Not unlike in other urban populations, West African immigrants' disciplinary tactics are instrumental, oriented toward protecting their children from the multiple dangers perceived in their surroundings, but may also put them at risk for contact with child protective services. Results suggest that "911" results from a "loss spiral" (Hobfoll, 1989) that begins as West Africans resettle without collective child monitoring networks, leading to increased concern for their children's safety, and interacting with
Bhatia, Sohini S.; Wall, Kayley R.; Kerth, Chris R.; Pillai, Suresh D.
As manned space missions extend in length, the safety, nutrition, acceptability, and shelf life of space foods are of paramount importance to NASA. Since food and mealtimes play a key role in reducing stress and boredom of prolonged missions, the quality of food in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, and aroma can have significant psychological ramifications on astronaut performance. The FDA, which oversees space foods, currently requires a minimum dose of 44 kGy for irradiated space foods. The underlying hypothesis was that commercial sterility of space foods could be achieved at a significantly lower dose, and this lowered dose would positively affect the shelf life of the product. Electron beam processed beef fajitas were used as an example NASA space food to benchmark the minimum eBeam dose required for sterility. A 15 kGy dose was able to achieve an approximately 10 log reduction in Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria, and a 5 log reduction in Clostridium sporogenes spores. Furthermore, accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) to determine sensory and quality characteristics under various conditions was conducted. Using Multidimensional gas-chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (MDGC-O-MS), numerous volatiles were shown to be dependent on the dose applied to the product. Furthermore, concentrations of off -flavor aroma compounds such as dimethyl sulfide were decreased at the reduced 15 kGy dose. The results suggest that the combination of conventional cooking combined with eBeam processing (15 kGy) can achieve the safety and shelf-life objectives needed for long duration space-foods.
Panari, Chiara; Guglielmi, Dina; Ricci, Aurora; Tabanelli, Maria Carla; Violante, Francesco Saverio
The aim of this work was to introduce a new combined method of subjective and objective measures to assess psychosocial risk factors at work and improve workers' health and well-being. In the literature most of the research on work-related stress focuses on self-report measures and this work represents the first methodology capable of integrating different sources of data. An integrated method entitled St.A.R.T. (STress Assessment and Research Toolkit) was used in order to assess psychosocial risk factors and two health outcomes. In particular, a self-report questionnaire combined with an observational structured checklist was administered to 113 workers from an Italian retail company. The data showed a correlation between subjective data and the rating data of the observational checklist for the psychosocial risk factors related to work contexts such as customer relationship management and customer queue. Conversely, the factors related to work content (workload and boredom) measured with different methods (subjective vs. objective) showed a discrepancy. Furthermore, subjective measures of psychosocial risk factors were more predictive of workers' psychological health and exhaustion than rating data. The different objective measures played different roles, however, in terms of their influence on the two health outcomes considered. It is important to integrate self-related assessment of stressors with objective measures for a better understanding of workers' conditions in the workplace. The method presented could be considered a useful methodology for combining the two measures and differentiating the impact of different psychological risk factors related to work content and context on workers' health.
Luker, Julie; Lynch, Elizabeth; Bernhardsson, Susanne; Bennett, Leanne; Bernhardt, Julie
To report and synthesize the perspectives, experiences, and preferences of stroke survivors undertaking inpatient physical rehabilitation through a systematic review of qualitative studies. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched from database inception to February 2014. Reference lists of relevant publications were searched. All languages were included. Qualitative studies reporting stroke survivors' experiences of inpatient stroke rehabilitation were selected independently by 2 reviewers. The search yielded 3039 records; 95 full-text publications were assessed for eligibility, and 32 documents (31 studies) were finally included. Comprehensiveness and explicit reporting were assessed independently by 2 reviewers using the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research framework. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data regarding characteristics of the included studies were extracted by 1 reviewer, tabled, and checked for accuracy by another reviewer. All text reported in studies' results sections were entered into qualitative data management software for analysis. Extracted texts were inductively coded and analyzed in 3 phases using thematic synthesis. Nine interrelated analytical themes, with descriptive subthemes, were identified that related to issues of importance to stroke survivors: (1) physical activity is valued; (2) bored and alone; (3) patient-centered therapy; (4) recreation is also rehabilitation; (5) dependency and lack of control; (6) fostering autonomy; (7) power of communication and information; (8) motivation needs nurturing; and (9) fatigue can overwhelm. The thematic synthesis provides new insights into stroke survivors' experiences of inpatient rehabilitation. Negative experiences were reported in all studies and include disempowerment, boredom, and frustration. Rehabilitation could be improved by increasing activity within formal therapy and in free time, fostering patients' autonomy through genuinely patient
Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C
Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to introduce a new combined method of subjective and objective measures to assess psychosocial risk factors at work and improve workers’ health and well-being. In the literature most of the research on work-related stress focuses on self-report measures and this work represents the first methodology capable of integrating different sources of data. Method An integrated method entitled St.A.R.T. (STress Assessment and Research Toolkit was used in order to assess psychosocial risk factors and two health outcomes. In particular, a self-report questionnaire combined with an observational structured checklist was administered to 113 workers from an Italian retail company. Results The data showed a correlation between subjective data and the rating data of the observational checklist for the psychosocial risk factors related to work contexts such as customer relationship management and customer queue. Conversely, the factors related to work content (workload and boredom measured with different methods (subjective vs. objective showed a discrepancy. Furthermore, subjective measures of psychosocial risk factors were more predictive of workers’ psychological health and exhaustion than rating data. The different objective measures played different roles, however, in terms of their influence on the two health outcomes considered. Conclusions It is important to integrate self-related assessment of stressors with objective measures for a better understanding of workers’ conditions in the workplace. The method presented could be considered a useful methodology for combining the two measures and differentiating the impact of different psychological risk factors related to work content and context on workers’ health.
Anne M. Fenech
Full Text Available Background: This article explores whether engagement with listening occupations varies depending on the occupational role or the level of sensory stimulation presented to participants with neuropalliative conditions. Method: The study used a multiple case quasi-experimental study involving marginal-participant timesampled observations of engagement of individuals with neuropalliative conditions, with casual leisure occupations using the Individual Child Engagement Record. Data was collected using the Individual Child Engagement Record with 14 participants (who had Barthel scores averaging 7/100. The participants represented a particular sub-group of individuals with profound levels of neurological disability. Results: The time-sampled observations of engagement showed a significant difference between the scores for the control condition, engagement in a potentially active role at a music-making group, and engagement in a passive audience role when listening to an audio recording. Therefore, passively listening to an audio recording appears to be less engaging than the potentially active role offered by the music-making group for participants with neuropalliative conditions. Conclusion: The small sample size and the use of a single observer without video recording backup compromised the reliability of the data while complying with the facility’s POVA policy. Switching on an auditory recording or broadcast, while easy to arrange, may not be sufficiently engaging to prevent boredom and occupational deprivation. Consideration of an individual’s sensory, support, and role preference should be undertaken when designing leisure occupations for individuals with neuropalliative conditions rather than simply switching on an audio recording or broadcast
Britt, Thomas W; Sytine, Anton; Brady, Ashley; Wilkes, Russ; Pittman, Rebecca; Jennings, Kristen; Goguen, Kandice
Numerous authors have identified the stressors likely to be encountered on long duration space exploration missions (e.g., to Mars), including the possibility of significant crises, separation from family, boredom/monotony, and interpersonal conflict. Although many authors have noted that meaningful work may be beneficial for astronauts on these missions, none have detailed the sources of meaningful work for astronauts and how these sources may differ between astronauts. The present article identifies how engagement in meaningful work during long duration missions may mitigate the adverse effects of demands and increase the potential for benefits resulting from the missions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine NASA personnel, including astronauts, flight directors, and flight surgeons. Questions addressed sources of meaning for astronauts, characteristics of tasks that enhance vs. detract from meaning, and recommendations for enhancing meaning. Personnel mentioned contributing to humanity and the next generation, contributing to the mission, and exploration as the most meaningful aspects of their work. Characteristics of tasks that enhanced meaning included using a variety of skills, feeling personal control over their schedule, autonomy in the execution of tasks, and understanding the importance of the experiments conducted on the mission. Top recommendations to sustain meaning were insuring social needs were met through such activities as the strategic use of social media, giving astronauts autonomy as well as structure, and conducting training during transit. Implications are addressed for tailoring meaning-based interventions for astronauts participating on long duration missions and assessing the effectiveness of these interventions.Britt TW, Sytine A, Brady A, Wilkes R, Pittman R, Jennings K, Goguen K. Enhancing the meaningfulness of work for astronauts on long duration space exploration missions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):779-783.
Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja B.
Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before
Li, Wen; O'Brien, Jennifer E; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O
Studies have identified high rates and severe consequences of Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use (IA/PIU) in university students. However, most research concerning IA/PIU in U.S. university students has been conducted within a quantitative research paradigm, and frequently fails to contextualize the problem of IA/PIU. To address this gap, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study using the focus group approach and examined 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as intensive Internet users, spent more than 25 hours/week on the Internet for non-school or non-work-related activities and who reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. Students completed two IA/PIU measures (Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring the natural history of their Internet use; preferred online activities; emotional, interpersonal, and situational triggers for intensive Internet use; and health and/or psychosocial consequences of their Internet overuse. Students' self-reports of Internet overuse problems were consistent with results of standardized measures. Students first accessed the Internet at an average age of 9 (SD = 2.7), and first had a problem with Internet overuse at an average age of 16 (SD = 4.3). Sadness and depression, boredom, and stress were common triggers of intensive Internet use. Social media use was nearly universal and pervasive in participants' lives. Sleep deprivation, academic under-achievement, failure to exercise and to engage in face-to-face social activities, negative affective states, and decreased ability to concentrate were frequently reported consequences of intensive Internet use/Internet overuse. IA/PIU may be an underappreciated problem among U.S. university students and warrants additional research.
Full Text Available Introduction: Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue. To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods: Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B. For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter. At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. Results: For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture. It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Conclusion: Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts.
Harvey, J; Pearson, E S; Sanzo, P; Lennon, A E
Research indicates that 91% of Canadian children are not engaging in enough physical activity (PA) to achieve health benefits. Physical education (PE) classes have been identified as a way to improve child health by facilitating engagement in movement-based activities. The daily physical activity (DPA) initiative was created with similar intentions and requires that students participate in at least 20 min of PA daily via PE classes and/or during instructional time for other subjects. Despite recommendations that 150 min of exercise/play be incurred weekly through either avenue, nearly half of Canadian schools fail to achieve this goal. The disconnect between PA-related school policies and low reported participation rates suggests that additional research is warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of primary students regarding the facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for PA engagement at their schools. Researchers conducted nine group interviews with 53 children aged 10-12, representing six primary schools in Northwestern Ontario using a semi-structured interview format. Sessions were analysed using inductive content analysis. Participants discussed several facilitators of PA including enjoying activities (alleviating boredom and participating with others), accomplishment (skill building and enhanced self-image), and benefits in the classroom (thinking clearly and enhanced readiness to learn). Barriers to PA participation included school rules and culture (PA/PE restrictions, heavy workload, and "no work, no PA"), personal struggles (physical challenges and varied skill levels), and technology (being addictive and a replacement for being active). Recommendations for enhancing engagement that were outlined by the children centred around PE and daily physical activity (increase opportunities and involve students in planning/delivery) and recess-based themes (decrease focus on safety and make equipment more available). These
Nagmoti, Jyoti Mahantesh
PowerPoint (PPT™) presentation has become an integral part of day-to-day teaching in medicine. Most often, PPT™ is used in its default mode which in fact, is known to cause boredom and ineffective learning. Research has shown improved short-term memory by applying multimedia principles for designing and delivering lectures. However, such evidence in medical education is scarce. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effect of multimedia principles on enhanced learning of parasitology. Second-year medical students received a series of lectures, half of the lectures used traditionally designed PPT™ and the rest used slides designed by Mayer's multimedia principles. Students answered pre and post-tests at the end of each lecture (test-I) and an essay test after six months (test-II) which assessed their short and long term knowledge retention respectively. Students' feedback on quality and content of lectures were collected. Statistically significant difference was found between post test scores of traditional and modified lectures (P = 0.019) indicating, improved short-term memory after modified lectures. Similarly, students scored better in test II on the contents learnt through modified lectures indicating, enhanced comprehension and improved long-term memory (P < 0.001). Many students appreciated learning through multimedia designed PPT™ and suggested for their continued use. It is time to depart from default PPT™ and adopt multimedia principles to enhance comprehension and improve short and long term knowledge retention. Further, medical educators may be trained and encouraged to apply multimedia principles for designing and delivering effective lectures.
Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A; Severson, Joan
Child pedestrian injury is a preventable global health challenge. Successful training efforts focused on child behavior, including individualized streetside training and training in large virtual pedestrian environments, are laborious and expensive. This study considers the usability and feasibility of a virtual pedestrian environment "game" application to teach children safe street-crossing behavior via the internet, a medium that could be broadly disseminated at low cost. Ten 7- and 8-year-old children participated. They engaged in an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment and completed a brief assessment survey. Researchers rated children's behavior while engaged in the game. Both self-report and researcher observations indicated the internet-based system was readily used by the children without adult support. The youth understood how to engage in the system and used it independently and attentively. The program also was feasible. It provided multiple measures of pedestrian safety that could be used for research or training purposes. Finally, the program was rated by children as engaging and educational. Researcher ratings suggested children used the program with minimal fidgeting or boredom. The pilot test suggests an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment offers a usable, feasible, engaging, and educational environment for child pedestrian safety training. If future research finds children learn the cognitive and perceptual skills needed to cross streets safely within it, internet-based training may provide a low-cost medium to broadly disseminate child pedestrian safety training. The concept may be generalized to other domains of health-related functioning such as teen driving safety, adolescent sexual risk-taking, and adolescent substance use.
Drabek, Tomas; Boucek, Charles D; Buffington, Charles W
Universal precautions mandate that health care workers wear gloves to prevent the unintended spread of bloodborne pathogens. Gloves may affect manual dexterity, generally delaying task completion. Our previous study showed that wearing the wrong size latex surgical glove degraded manual dexterity. The use of non-sterile and non-latex gloves may limit certain risks and be more cost-effective. However, such gloves may produce different results. We hypothesized that ambidextrous vinyl examination gloves would degrade manual dexterity compared with bare hands. We studied 20 random subjects from a medical environment. Subjects performed a standard battery of Grooved Pegboard tasks while bare-handed, wearing ambidextrous non-sterile vinyl gloves that were their preferred size, a size too small, and a size too large. The order was randomized with a Latin Square design to minimize the effects of time, boredom, and fatigue on the subjects. Subjects were also invited to comment on the fit of different size gloves. Wearing vinyl gloves of both the preferred size and a size up or down failed to affect manual dexterity vs. bare hands on time to insert pegs, and pegs dropped during insertion or removal. In contrast, the time to remove pegs was reduced by wearing preferred size vinyl gloves compared with performing the task with bare hands (Pgloves that were too small caused significant hand discomfort. Vinyl gloves surprisingly do not degrade manual dexterity even when worn in ill-fitting sizes. Wearing a preferred size vinyl glove vs. bare hands may improve dexterity in selected tasks. Choosing a comfortable, large size seems the best strategy when the preferred size is unavailable. Thinner vinyl gloves may improve grip and may not degrade touch as much as latex surgical gloves and may thus represent a reasonable choice for selected tasks.
Orosz, Gábor; Benyó, Mária; Berkes, Bernadett; Nikoletti, Edina; Gál, Éva; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta
Background and aims Tinder is a geo-located online dating application, which is present in almost 200 countries and has 10 million daily users. The aim of the present research was to investigate the motivational, personality, and basic psychological need-related background of problematic Tinder use. Methods After qualitative pretest and item construction, in Study 1 (N = 414), confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to corroborate the different motivational factors behind Tinder use. In Study 2 (N = 346), the associations between Big Five traits, Tinder motivations, and problematic Tinder use were examined with structural equation modeling (SEM). In Study 3 (N = 298), the potential role of general self-esteem, relatedness need satisfaction, and frustration in relation to Tinder-use motivations and problematic Tinder use was examined with SEM. Results In Study 1, a 16-item first-order factor structure was identified with four motivational factors, such as sex, love, self-esteem enhancement, and boredom. In Study 2, problematic Tinder use was mainly related to using Tinder for self-esteem enhancement. The Big Five personality factors were only weakly related to the four motivations and to problematic Tinder use. Counterintuitively, Study 3 showed that instead of global self-esteem, relatedness need frustration was the strongest predictor of self-esteem enhancement Tinder-use motivation which, in turn, was the strongest predictor of problematic Tinder use. Discussion Four motivational factors were identified as predictors of problematic use with need frustration being a relevant background variable instead of general personality traits.
Full Text Available The use of the Web by students has increased more and more and it has become the most recurring way to find quick information for educational purposes. Given the lack, in Italy, of thorough programs for the integration of Information Literacy and Internet searches in schools and universities, the adults who are now using it are almost always self-taught. Consequently, many different approaches to the medium have spread, and with them an objective difficulty in planning Internet-research courses, since everyone has his/her own way to search and a unique perception of his/her search skills. That’s why delivering a course where every participant is forced to follow the same learning path may originate feelings of frustration, unease, or boredom, thus reducing the learning potential offered by the course. This research focuses on the Internet Search side of Information Literacy and analyzes the impact of short lessons on first and second year university students in Education at the University of Bolzano, Italy. The students are either native German-speakers or native Italian-speakers, and the research focuses, in an European perspective, on the differences in their Internet-research approaches as well. The first phase consists in interviews and test (the logs of the internet sessions are recorded by a software to find out the perception of reliability of the Internet information and the way to find it by the students. The second phase is the course in itself, which focuses on Boolean operators, information retrieval theories and exercises, and evaluation of web pages. After the course the students are interviewed and tested again, to check if their approach to internet research has changed and in which way. The results can be used to plan courses on Information Literacy and Internet Search with individualized programs, or to propose methods to assess the learning in this field.
Freddy Antonio González Ynfante
Full Text Available Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, se abordará cómo, a pesar de las múltiples ventajas que puede aportar el humor en las aulas, se omite su empleo por la existencia de ciertos prejuicios y temores. La idea no es que los docentes hagan el papel de comediantes o payasos, sino la de mediar y acercar la clase de manera pedagógica y didáctica a través del uso del humor, y sobre esto reflexionaba Platón (1992, cuando planteaba que muchas veces ayudaba una broma, en donde la seriedad oponía resistencia. Abstract. This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.
Carnevale, Franco A; Gaudreault, Josée
Emerging evidence indicates that critically ill children are particularly at risk for incurring significant psychological harm. Little is known about these children's actual experiences. The aim of the study was to examine children's experience of critical illness. The research question was: What are a critically ill child's sources of discomfort and comfort? Interpretive phenomenology was selected as the study's method. Children's accounts were examined to identify what they considered meaningful, in terms of their experienced discomfort and comfort. Data sources included formal and informal interviews with child-participants, drawings provided by some participants, and field-notes documenting observed non-verbal data. Twelve children were enrolled in the study, ranging from 3 to 17years of age; including four girls and eight boys. Although all participants were able to discuss the discomfort and comfort they experienced, they reported difficulties in remembering part or most of their experience. Some participants characterized their Pediatric Intensive Care Unit stay quite favourably or as "not that bad", while some described their experience unfavourably. Diverse types of discomforts were reported, including fears and worries, hurt and pain, invasive interventions, missing significant people, noise, food or eating problems, boredom, physical symptoms, as well as four additional discomforts reported by individual participants. Several sources of comfort were described, including parents, visitors and friends, hospital staff (principally nurses), stuffed animal/favourite blanket, entertainment and play, food, selected medical interventions, thinking of going home, being able to walk or run, sleep, waking up, gifts, along with two other comforts reported by individual participants. Embodiment and a tension between aloneness and being with were identified as the principal phenomena underlying these children's experiences. The findings complement existing knowledge
Bonar, Erin E; Goldstick, Jason E; Collins, R Lorraine; Cranford, James A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Chermack, Stephen T; Blow, Frederic C; Walton, Maureen A
Increasing rates of cannabis use among emerging adults is a growing public health problem. Intensive longitudinal data can provide information on proximal motives for cannabis use, which can inform interventions to reduce use among emerging adults. As part of a larger longitudinal study, patients aged 18-25 years (N=95) recruited from an urban Emergency Department completed daily text message assessments of risk behaviors for 28days, including daily cannabis quantity and motives. Using a mixed effects linear regression model, we examined the relationships between daily quantity of cannabis consumed and motives (i.e., enhancement, social, conformity, coping, and expansion). Participants were, on average, 22.0 years old (SD=2.2); 48.4% were male, 45.3% were African American, and 56.8% received public assistance. Results from the multi-level analysis (clustering day within individual), controlling for gender, race, and receipt of public assistance, indicated daily use of cannabis use for enhancement (β=0.27), coping (β=0.15), and/or social motives (β=0.34) was significantly associated with higher quantities of daily cannabis use; whereas expansion and conformity motives were not. Daily data show that emerging adults who use cannabis for enhancement, social, and coping motives reported using greater quantities of cannabis. Future research should examine more comprehensive cannabis motives (e.g., boredom, social anxiety, sleep) and test tailored interventions focusing on alternative cognitive/behavioral strategies to address cannabis motives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Hazan, Haim; Lerman, Yaffa; Shalom, Vera
Older persons are particularly vulnerable to loneliness because of common age-related changes and losses. This paper reviews predictors of loneliness in the older population as described in the current literature and a small qualitative study. Peer-reviewed journal articles were identified from psycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar from 2000-2012. Overall, 38 articles were reviewed. Two focus groups were conducted asking older participants about the causes of loneliness. Variables significantly associated with loneliness in older adults were: female gender, non-married status, older age, poor income, lower educational level, living alone, low quality of social relationships, poor self-reported health, and poor functional status. Psychological attributes associated with loneliness included poor mental health, low self-efficacy beliefs, negative life events, and cognitive deficits. These associations were mainly studied in cross-sectional studies. In the focus groups, participants mentioned environmental barriers, unsafe neighborhoods, migration patterns, inaccessible housing, and inadequate resources for socializing. Other issues raised in the focus groups were the relationship between loneliness and boredom and inactivity, the role of recent losses of family and friends, as well as mental health issues, such as shame and fear. Future quantitative studies are needed to examine the impact of physical and social environments on loneliness in this population. It is important to better map the multiple factors and ways by which they impact loneliness to develop better solutions for public policy, city, and environmental planning, and individually based interventions. This effort should be viewed as a public health priority.
Khanna, Priya; Clifton, Andrew V; Banks, David; Tosh, Graeme E
People with a serious mental illness are more likely to smoke more and to be more dependent smokers than the general population. This may be due to a wide range of factors that could include a common aetiology to both smoking and the illness, self medication, smoking to alleviate adverse effects of medications, boredom in the existing environment, or a combination of these factors. It is important to undertake this review to facilitate improvements in both the health and safety of people with serious mental illness who smoke, and to reduce the overall burden of costs (both financial and health) to the smoker and, eventually, to the taxpayer. To review the effects of smoking cessation advice for people with serious mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Specialized Trials Register up to 2 April 2015, which is based on regular searches of CENTRAL, BIOSIS, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and trial registries. We also undertook unsystematic searches of a sample of the component databases (BNI, CINHAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO), up to 2 April 2015, and searched references of all identified studies We planned to include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that focussed on smoking cessation advice versus standard care or comparing smoking cessation advice with other more focussed methods of delivering care or information. The review authors (PK, AC, and DB) independently screened search results but did not identify any trials that fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this review. We did not identify any RCTs that evaluated advice regarding smoking cessation for people with serious mental illness. The excluded studies illustrate that randomisation of packages of care relevant to smokers with serious mental illness is possible. People with serious mental illness are more likely to smoke than the general population. Yet we could not find any high quality evidence to guide the smoking cessation advice healthcare professionals pass onto
Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to search for comprehensive socio-demographic and personal (personality and temperamental determinants of risky on-the-road behavior. Based on the results of previous studies, we assumed that the main predictors of dangerous traffic behavior include: internal locus of control, sensation seeking, risk seeking and risk acceptance, as well as high self-esteem, a low level of reactivity combined with a high level of endurance and activity (which together determine a strong need for stimulation and a preference for hedonistic values; and among socio-demographic variables – age, gender, education and duration of having a driving license. Participants and procedure The study included a group of 380 participants, aged between 19 and 61 years (Me = 24. In order to verify the hypothesis, a battery of research tools measuring personality and temperamental variables was adopted, namely: the Formal Characteristics of Behavior – Temperament Questionnaire, Rotter I-E Scale, Risk Acceptance Scale, Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory, Scheler Value Scale, Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results The dangerous driver syndrome was found to be promoted by high levels of experience and sensation seeking, low levels of tolerance to boredom and monotony, high need for stimulating risk and high risk acceptance, high self-esteem, a preference for hedonistic values coupled with aversion towards moral values, as well as low sensory sensitivity, and was especially visible among older men with short driving experience. Conclusions It can be concluded that both socio-demographic and psychological variables, such as temperament and personality, are significant predictors of dangerous traffic behavior.
Dastol, O.U.; Drottz-Sjoberg, B.M.
This pilot study is based on the assumption that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. It has been shown in previous risk perception studies that some people report their definition or normal use of the concept of risk as e.g. mainly probability, a combination of probability and consequences, mainly consequences, or due to the nature of the event (Drottz-Sjoeberg, 1991). Another field of research has developed measures for personality traits, i.e. facets of Sensation Seeking; Disinhibition, Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, and Boredom Susceptibility (Zuckerman, 1994). The design of the present study involved three independent groups of first year psychology students (N=93). They were presented with one of three response formats regarding their normal use of the word risk, i.e. an open-ended format, separate ratings of four items suggesting a definition of risk on five-point scales, and one single five-point scale with the extremes labelled probability and consequences, and with their combination as the scale mid-point. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was 'danger', but among the responses were also 'chance', and 'outcome'. Another finding was that people who defined risk as 'outcome' and 'chance', using the open-ended format tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale than those who defined risk as 'danger'. In addition, subjects who defined risk as the 'combination' of probability and consequences, using other response formats, also tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), especially as compared to those defining risk as the 'probability' of an event. (authors)
Koletsi, Marsha; Niersman, Astrid; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Burns, Tom; Fioritti, Angelo; Kalkan, Rana; Lauber, Christoph; Rössler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; Wiersma, Durk
Although the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS) has been well established, little is known about clients' perceptions of the model compared to usual vocational rehabilitation, nor about their experiences of searching for and returning to work with this kind of support. This qualitative study aimed to explore clients' views of the difficulties of obtaining and maintaining employment, their experiences of the support received from their IPS or Vocational Service workers and the perceived impact of work on clients' lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 people with psychotic disorders participating in a six-centre international randomised controlled trial of IPS compared to usual vocational rehabilitation. To assess their experiences of the services and the perceived effects of working, two IPS and two Vocational Service clients at each centre who had found work during the study period were interviewed, along with two IPS and two Vocational Service clients at each centre who had not. IPS clients reported having received more help seeking and maintaining employment, whereas Vocational Service clients reported having received more help in finding sheltered employment or placements. Clients who had worked associated this with financial stability, improved social lives, increased self-esteem, integration into society and amelioration of their symptoms, as well as reduced feelings of boredom and isolation, but also reported increased levels of stress. IPS clients as well as Vocational Service ones reported not receiving enough follow-up support, despite this being proposed as a key feature of the model. Findings from the in-depth interviews reflect differences in service models that have also been tested quantitatively but further work in disaggregating the IPS model and assessing the impact of each component would be valuable.
Hashem, Mohamed D; Nallagangula, Aparna; Nalamalapu, Swaroopa; Nunna, Krishidhar; Nausran, Utkarsh; Robinson, Karen A; Dinglas, Victor D; Needham, Dale M; Eakin, Michelle N
There is growing interest in patient outcomes following critical illness, with an increasing number and different types of studies conducted, and a need for synthesis of existing findings to help inform the field. For this purpose we conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies evaluating patient outcomes after hospital discharge for survivors of critical illness. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases from inception to June 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the study population was >50 % adults discharged from the ICU, with qualitative evaluation of patient outcomes. Studies were excluded if they focused on specific ICU patient populations or specialty ICUs. Citations were screened in duplicate, and two reviewers extracted data sequentially for each eligible article. Themes related to patient outcome domains were coded and categorized based on the main domains of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) framework. A total of 2735 citations were screened, and 22 full-text articles were eligible, with year of publication ranging from 1995 to 2015. All of the qualitative themes were extracted from eligible studies and then categorized using PROMIS descriptors: satisfaction with life (16 studies), including positive outlook, acceptance, gratitude, independence, boredom, loneliness, and wishing they had not lived; mental health (15 articles), including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and irritability/anger; physical health (14 articles), including mobility, activities of daily living, fatigue, appetite, sensory changes, muscle weakness, and sleep disturbances; social health (seven articles), including changes in friends/family relationships; and ability to participate in social roles and activities (six articles), including hobbies and disability. ICU survivors may experience positive emotions and life satisfaction; however, a wide range of mental
Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Mustafa, Mohd Marzuki; Hussain, Aini; Mustapha, Aouache; Ramli, Suzaimah
Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster processing speed.
Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley
Full Text Available Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster
Leahey, Tricia M; Fava, Joseph L; Seiden, Andrew; Fernandes, Denise; Doyle, Caroline; Kent, Kimberly; La Rue, Molly; Mitchell, Marc; Wing, Rena R
Weight loss maintenance is a significant challenge in obesity treatment. During maintenance the "costs" of adhering to weight management behaviors may outweigh the "benefits." This study examined the efficacy of a novel approach to weight loss maintenance based on modifying the cost-benefit ratio. Individuals who achieved a 5% weight loss (N=75) were randomized to one of three, 10-month maintenance interventions. All interventions were delivered primarily via the Internet. The Standard arm received traditional weight maintenance strategies. To increase benefits, or rewards, for maintenance behaviors, the two cost-benefit intervention conditions received weekly monetary rewards for self-monitoring and social reinforcement via e-coaching. To decrease behavioral costs (boredom) and increase novelty, participants in the cost-benefit conditions also monitored different evidence-based behaviors every two weeks (e.g., Weeks 1 & 2: steps; Week 3 & 4: red foods). The primary difference between the cost-benefit interventions was type of e-coach providing social reinforcement: Professional (CB Pro) or Peer (CB Peer). Study procedures took place in Providence, RI from 2013 to 2014. Retention was 99%. There were significant group differences in weight regain (p=.01). The Standard arm gained 3.5±5.7kg. In contrast, participants in CB Pro and CB Peer lost an additional 1.8±7.0kg and 0.5±6.4kg, respectively. These results suggest that an Internet delivered cost-benefit approach to weight loss maintenance may be effective for long-term weight control. In addition, using peer coaches to provide reinforcement may be a particularly economic alternative to professionals. These data are promising and provide support for a larger, longer trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Studies have identified high rates and severe consequences of Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use (IA/PIU in university students. However, most research concerning IA/PIU in U.S. university students has been conducted within a quantitative research paradigm, and frequently fails to contextualize the problem of IA/PIU. To address this gap, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study using the focus group approach and examined 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as intensive Internet users, spent more than 25 hours/week on the Internet for non-school or non-work-related activities and who reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. Students completed two IA/PIU measures (Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale and participated in focus groups exploring the natural history of their Internet use; preferred online activities; emotional, interpersonal, and situational triggers for intensive Internet use; and health and/or psychosocial consequences of their Internet overuse. Students' self-reports of Internet overuse problems were consistent with results of standardized measures. Students first accessed the Internet at an average age of 9 (SD = 2.7, and first had a problem with Internet overuse at an average age of 16 (SD = 4.3. Sadness and depression, boredom, and stress were common triggers of intensive Internet use. Social media use was nearly universal and pervasive in participants' lives. Sleep deprivation, academic under-achievement, failure to exercise and to engage in face-to-face social activities, negative affective states, and decreased ability to concentrate were frequently reported consequences of intensive Internet use/Internet overuse. IA/PIU may be an underappreciated problem among U.S. university students and warrants additional research.
Li, Wen; O’Brien, Jennifer E.; Snyder, Susan M.; Howard, Matthew O.
Studies have identified high rates and severe consequences of Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use (IA/PIU) in university students. However, most research concerning IA/PIU in U.S. university students has been conducted within a quantitative research paradigm, and frequently fails to contextualize the problem of IA/PIU. To address this gap, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study using the focus group approach and examined 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as intensive Internet users, spent more than 25 hours/week on the Internet for non-school or non-work-related activities and who reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. Students completed two IA/PIU measures (Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring the natural history of their Internet use; preferred online activities; emotional, interpersonal, and situational triggers for intensive Internet use; and health and/or psychosocial consequences of their Internet overuse. Students’ self-reports of Internet overuse problems were consistent with results of standardized measures. Students first accessed the Internet at an average age of 9 (SD = 2.7), and first had a problem with Internet overuse at an average age of 16 (SD = 4.3). Sadness and depression, boredom, and stress were common triggers of intensive Internet use. Social media use was nearly universal and pervasive in participants’ lives. Sleep deprivation, academic under-achievement, failure to exercise and to engage in face-to-face social activities, negative affective states, and decreased ability to concentrate were frequently reported consequences of intensive Internet use/Internet overuse. IA/PIU may be an underappreciated problem among U.S. university students and warrants additional research. PMID:25647224
Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Kerr, Thomas
A large body of previous research has elucidated how involvement in drug dealing and crime among marginalized urban youth who use drugs is shaped by the imperatives of addiction and survival in the context of poverty. However, a growing body of research has examined how youth's involvement in these activities is shaped by more expansive desires and moralities. In this paper, we examine the material, moral, and affective worlds of loosely gang affiliated, street level dealing and crime among one group of young men in Vancouver, Canada. Drawing on longitudinal interviews with 44 young men from 2008 to 2016, and ethnographic fieldwork with a group of approximately 15 of those young men over the same time period, we argue that for these youth, dealing and crime were not solely about economic survival, or even the accrual of highly meaningful forms of "street capital" in the margins. Rather, as "regimes of living," dealing and crime also opened up new value systems, moral logics, and affects in relation to the tremendous risks, potential rewards, and crushing boredom of life in the margins. These activities were also understood as a way into deeply desired forms of social spatial belonging in the city, which had previously only been imagined. However, across time dealing and crime "embedded" young men in cycles of incarceration, destitution, addictions, and mental health crises that ultimately reinforced their exclusion-from legal employment, but also within the world of crime. The findings of this study underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in order to meaningfully address the harms associated with involvement in dealing and crime among youth in our setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Yanovski, Susan Z; Schvey, Natasha A; Faith, Myles; Gustafson, Jennifer; Yanovski, Jack A
Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), studied in the context of laboratory paradigms, has been associated with obesity and is predictive of excess weight gain in children. However, no easily administered questionnaire exists to assess for EAH in children. We developed an Eating in the Absence of Hunger Questionnaire to be administered to children and adolescents (EAH-C) and examined psychometric properties of the measure. Two-hundred and twenty-six obese (BMI > or = 95th percentile for age and sex, n=73) and non-obese (BMIemotional eating, and general psychopathology. Temporal stability was assessed in a subset of participants. Factor analysis generated three subscales for the EAH-C: Negative Affect, External Eating, and Fatigue/Boredom. Internal consistency for all subscales was established (Cronbach's alphas: 0.80-0.88). The EAH-C subscales had good convergent validity with emotional eating and loss of control episodes (p's<0.01). Obese children reported higher Negative Affect subscale scores than non-obese children (p=0.05). All three subscales were positively correlated with measures of general psychopathology. Intra-class correlation coefficients revealed temporal stability for all subscales (ranging from 0.65 to 0.70, p's<0.01). We conclude that the EAH-C had internally consistent subscales with good convergent validity and temporal stability, but may have limited discriminant validity. Further investigations examining the EAH-C in relation to laboratory feeding studies are required to determine whether reported EAH is related to actual energy intake or to the development of excess weight gain.
Szalma, James L
Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.
Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia
Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gard, David E.; Sanchez, Amy H.; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect/disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or ‘passing time’. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: 1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; 2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; 3) more disconnected/disengaged. Higher disconnected/disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. PMID:24853060
Richter, Joachim; Ostovar, Roya
The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside (proto-)language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D) as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-)language. Our view is supported by increasing experimental evidence particularly in infants and children: beat is perceived and anticipated already by newborns and rhythm perception depends on body movement. Infants and toddlers spontaneously move to a rhythm irrespective of their cultural background. The impulse to dance may have been prepared by the susceptibility of infants to be soothed by rocking. Conceivable evolutionary functions of R&D include sexual attraction and transmission of mating signals. Social functions include bonding, synchronization of many individuals, appeasement of hostile individuals, and pre- and extra-verbal communication enabling embodied individual and collective memorizing. In many cultures R&D are used for entering trance, a base for shamanism and early religions. Individual benefits of R&D include improvement of body coordination, as well as painkilling, anti-depressive, and anti-boredom effects. Rhythm most likely paved the way for human speech as supported by studies confirming the overlaps between cognitive and neural resources recruited for language and rhythm. In addition, dance encompasses visual and gestural communication. In future studies attention should be paid to which attribute of music is focused on and that the close mutual relation between R&D is taken into account. The possible evolutionary functions of dance deserve more attention.
Full Text Available The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside proto-language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-language. Our view is supported by increasing experimental evidence particularly in infants and children: beat is perceived and anticipated already by newborns and rhythm perception depends on body movement. Infants and toddlers spontaneously move to a rhythm irrespective of their cultural background. If this behavior is universal, R&D must have an essential function in human evolution. Conceivable evolutionary functions of R&D include sexual attraction, transmission of mating signals, synchronization of many individuals, social bonding, appeasement of hostile individuals, pre- and extra-verbal communication, improvement of body coordination, as well as pain killing, anti-depressive, and anti-boredom functions. The impulse to dance may have been prepared by the susceptibility of infants to be soothed by rocking. Dance enables embodied individual and collective memorizing; in many cultures R&D are used for entering trance, a base for shamanism and early religions. Rhythm is necessary to codify human speech and dance encompasses gesture. In future studies attention should be paid to which attribute of music is focused and that the close mutual relation between R&D is taken into account. The possible evolutionary functions of dance deserve more attention.
Two studies, dealing with life in work camps in northern Alberta and yielding contradictory results, are discussed. One study by a graduate student in sociology found that many of the men and women housed in work camps in remote locations of the northeastern oilsands belt use drugs, alcohol and casual sex to relieve boredom and loneliness. The other study, commissioned by the Athabasca Regional Issues Working Group (RWIG) found that camp workers visit Fort McMurray on the average of just over once a week, and use that time to take care of normal business, such as visiting health care professionals, buying gasoline, clothing, etc. It found no evidence of widespread sex, or drug or alcohol abuse among work camp residents. The RWIG study surveyed 25 per cent of the 6,272 worker population living in three camps in the Wood Buffalo region during June 2003. The study prepared by V. Taylor for a M.A. degree in sociology at the University of Calgary was severely criticized, primarily for its conclusions being based on a sample size of only nine men and one woman. Despite the criticism, the Taylor study made headlines across the country and has been instrumental in raising awareness of the special needs of a mobile workforce. A more broadly-based study is in progress at the University of Alberta, supported by the RCMP and a number of workplace stakeholders. Its objectives are to examine the situation more thoroughly, identify gaps in services and to explore long term solutions to what is undeniably a serious problem, indicated, if not proven, by the Taylor study.
Kühn, Simone; Kugler, Dimitrij Tycho; Schmalen, Katharina; Weichenberger, Markus; Witt, Charlotte; Gallinat, Jürgen
It is a widespread concern that violent video games promote aggression, reduce pro-social behaviour, increase impulsivity and interfere with cognition as well as mood in its players. Previous experimental studies have focussed on short-term effects of violent video gameplay on aggression, yet there are reasons to believe that these effects are mostly the result of priming. In contrast, the present study is the first to investigate the effects of long-term violent video gameplay using a large battery of tests spanning questionnaires, behavioural measures of aggression, sexist attitudes, empathy and interpersonal competencies, impulsivity-related constructs (such as sensation seeking, boredom proneness, risk taking, delay discounting), mental health (depressivity, anxiety) as well as executive control functions, before and after 2 months of gameplay. Our participants played the violent video game Grand Theft Auto V, the non-violent video game The Sims 3 or no game at all for 2 months on a daily basis. No significant changes were observed, neither when comparing the group playing a violent video game to a group playing a non-violent game, nor to a passive control group. Also, no effects were observed between baseline and posttest directly after the intervention, nor between baseline and a follow-up assessment 2 months after the intervention period had ended. The present results thus provide strong evidence against the frequently debated negative effects of playing violent video games in adults and will therefore help to communicate a more realistic scientific perspective on the effects of violent video gaming.
Kvaal, Kari; Halding, Anne-Grethe; Kvigne, Kari
To describe and compare the perceived social provision for a group reporting never feeling lonely with that of a group reporting feeling lonely and to explore the meaning of loneliness. Participants (N = 101) were recruited from geriatric wards. Inclusion criteria were as follows: aged 65 years or more, the absence of dementia, one or more chronic physical disorders and plans to be discharged from the hospital to their home. The mean age was 81.3 years (range: 65-96 years), 68% were women, and 66% lived alone. Assessments of social provisions and loneliness were collected by a subjective report using the Social Provision Scale (SPS), and the Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was used to assess depression. The participants were also asked whether they felt lonely and were then asked to describe the meaning of loneliness if they had indicated feeling lonely. Narratives were then condensed by the participants into short sentences. Seventy-five per cent of the participants reported feeling lonely, of these 54% were living alone, and 18% identified with depression. Three subscales of SPS scores were significantly lower in the lonely group: attachment (p loneliness was dominated by emptiness and negative emotions. The following themes were identified: Emotions were dominated by sadness, anxiety and restlessness, anger and guilt. Relationships were dominated by being left alone, being confined and feeling useless. Existential dimensions were characterised by emptiness, endless boredom, isolation and the potential for change. The study shows that loneliness is prevalent among older people suffering from chronic physical illness and confirms the complexity of the concept. A mixed-methods design contributed to nuanced and detailed information about the meaning of loneliness. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Dumbili, Emeka; Williams, Clare
Most research on drinking games (DGs) and the associated risks focuses on Western countries. In the Nigerian context, DGs activity has not attracted scholarly attention but growing media reports indicate that Nigerian youths play DGs, and that a number of gamers have died during or immediately after game-playing. Drawing on gender performance scripts, we explored the performance of gender through DGs practices and the factors that motivate DGs participation. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with male and female college students (aged 19-23 years) at a university in south-eastern Nigeria. The participants discussed the popularity of the DGs that students play on this campus, identifying the spaces where each game is played and the motivations for game-playing. Collective, contextual constructions of gender identities through 'Fastest-Drinker' DG were identified, and the participants also performed gender through 'Truth-or-Dare' and 'Endurance' DGs. Men dominated 'First-to-Finish' DGs, which are played at parties and bars, and consumed beer or stout, while women, who mainly played Truth-or-Dare games, drank spirits or sweetened alcoholic beverages. Boredom and fun seeking provoked game-playing among women while adherence to masculinity norms, which engendered the public performance of masculinity and gambling activities, motivated men to play DGs. To avoid 'collective shame', men's friendship groups provided support/care for inebriated game-playing members, but the immediacy of this support/care varied according to DGs type. DGs appear to normalize heavy drinking and the culture of intoxication on this campus. Measures to monitor alcohol sales outlets around campuses and interventions that target students' leisure spaces should be developed.
Full Text Available The present study reports several impacts of implementing multimedia toward teaching and learning process in speaking class at second grade students of Galuh University, Ciamis. Further, the study came from insights on students’ boredom during speaking class which affected their achievement and motivation. Mixed method research design (Creswell, 2013 then employed to answer several proposed hypotheses. For proving the result of its application, observation, questionnaire, pre and post-test were administered to collect the data while both quantitative and qualitative approaches were applied to analyze the collected data from classroom practices. The research findings indicates that multimedia in speaking class got positive responds from students in term of motivation and accomplishment. The great look portrayed from the class that students were enthusiastic, got involved and interested in multimedia provided by teacher during learning process. Moreover, pre and post-tests that are performace-based tests were greatly used to test the effectiveness of multimedia effects during the class. In this side, the researcher employed experiment of two equivalent groups: control and experimental group. It then reported that t-test related is 2.04 out of 1.70 for t- distribution which points out that there is significant difference between the results of both tests. It means that the result of this research agreed that multimedia has good effects for teaching speaking in the scope of students’ interests, feedback and their cognitive aspects. In line with above statements, the further studies is also necessary dealing with other multimedia for obtaining more positive effects toward learning process and those result enables to increase quality of education.
Using emergent motivation theory, this study analyzes the relationships between high school students' perceptions of their reading skills, task challenge, and personal control over assigned reading activities and their reading engagement (i.e., interest, enjoyment, and concentration) during science instruction. The study also examines how these relationships differ between struggling and proficient readers. Further, the study examines the association between students' experiences of conditions of anxiety, apathy, boredom or relaxation and flow on their reading engagement during science instruction. Finally, the study investigates the relationship between reading engagement and science achievement. The experience sampling method (ESM) was used with a sample of 244 high school students in grades 9--12 to measure students' perceptions of skill, challenge, and control, and their reading engagement during science instruction. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was employed with repeated-measures analysis of students' momentary experiences of skill, challenge, control, and engagement during reading. Results show that when students perceive having both high reading skills and high control, they exhibit deeper reading engagement than when they perceive having both low reading skills and low control. These feelings of control were noticeably important for struggling readers as compared to proficient readers. It was also found that students experience deeper reading engagement during flow (i.e., when students perceive they have high reading skills and the reading task is highly challenging), but reading engagement decreases significantly whenever students experience conditions of anxiety or apathy when reading science materials. Finally, reading engagement was positively related to science achievement. Educational implications of the results are presented. Limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are described.
Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff
The authors assessed clinical symptoms and self-reported shopping and spending behavior in people diagnosed with compulsive shopping (CS) at a 5-year follow-up interview. All met the criteria of McElroy et al. for lifetime CS and had the disorder for >1year. Structured and semistructured instruments and self-report questionnaires were used to collect data. Of the original 26 subjects, 17 (65%) were interviewed and are the focus of this report. At follow-up, their ages ranged from 23 to 67years (mean=44years). Lifetime psychiatric comorbidity was common, but few had current psychiatric disorders at follow-up. Interest in shopping and spending decreased for eight (47%), stayed the same for five (29%), and increased for four (24%) subjects. Eleven subjects (65%) reported having attempted to quit their CS and three (18%) reported successfully doing so. Triggers for returning to CS included feelings of pressure/excitement/tension to shop; boredom; negative feelings such as sadness, depression, frustration, or anger; and the desire for positive feelings like happiness, power, or elation. Mean scores on the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) and the shopping version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale showed overall improvement in CS symptoms (d=1.16 and d=-1.19, respectively); subjects were also less impulsive (d=-0.48). At baseline and follow-up, those with a lifetime mood disorder tended to have greater CS severity. While the subjects showed overall improvement, most had ongoing symptoms of CS. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: There is a need to evaluate the influence of risk factors such as patency of foramen ovale (PFO or “daredevil” psychological profile on contra-indication policy after a decompression sickness (DCS.Methods: By crossing information obtained from Belgian Hyperbaric Centers, DAN Emergency Hotline, the press, and Internet diving forums, it was possible to be accountable for the majority if not all DCS, which have occurred in Belgium from January 1993 to June 2013. From the available 594 records we excluded all cases with tentative diagnosis, medullary DCS or unreliability of reported dive profile, leaving 209 divers records with cerebral DCS for analysis. Demographics, dive parameters, and PFO grading were recorded. Twenty-three injured divers were tested using the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale V and compared to a matched group not involved in risky activities.Results: 41.2% of all injured came for iterative DCS. The average depth significantly increases with previous occurrences of DCS (1st DCS: 31.8 ± 7.9 mfw; 2nd DCS: 35.5 ± 9.8 mfw; 3rd DCS: 43.4 ± 6.1 mfw. There is also an increase of PFO prevalence among multiple injured divers (1st DCS: 66.4% 2nd & 3rd DCS: 100% with a significant increase in PFO grade. Multiple-times injured significantly scored higher than control group on thrill and adventure seeking (TAS, experience seeking, boredom susceptibility and total score.Conclusion: There is an inability of injured diver to adopt conservative dive profile after a DCS. Further work is needed to ascertain whether selected personality characteristics or PFO should be taken into account in the clearance decision to resume diving.
Sofía Rodríguez López
Full Text Available Este artículo trata las estrategias de supervivencia de la SF de FET-JONS durante el denominado “Segundo Franquismo”. Eclipsada por la Iglesia, la organización optó por replegarse al campo para seguir atendiendo a su población de influencia: mujeres y jóvenes que seguían demandando mediación social, frente a unas ciudades cada vez más refractarias. Las cátedras ambulantes gozaron de cierta popularidad en los recónditos pueblos de interior y los recién creados por el Instituto de Colonización, jaleadas por los coros y danzas, las actividades deportivas, y los cursos de industrias rurales. Las campesinas, mientras tanto, hallaron en ellas el medio para sobrellevar el aburrimiento y hacerse con el Servicio Social.Palabras clave: Sección Femenina, mundo rural, ocio, juventud, franquismo._______________ This article deals with the Female Section of FET-JONS survival strategies during the so-called "Second Francoism". Overshad-owed by the elongated shadow of Opus Dei, the organization chose to retreat to the fields in order to continue seeing their population of influence: women and girls who still were demanding social mediation over the increasingly refractory cities. There, the itinerant schools get some popularity because of the choirs and dances, sports activities, and courses of rural industries. Rural women, meanwhile, found in interior villages and the new ones created by the Institute of Colonization a way to deal with the boredom and gain Social Service.Keywords: Female Section, rural world, leisure, youth, Francoism.
Gray, DeLeon L
Education researchers have consistently linked students' perceptions of "fitting in" at school with patterns of motivation and positive emotions. This study proposes that "standing out" is also helpful for producing these outcomes, and that standing out works in concert with perceptions of fitting in. In a sample of 702 high school students nested within 33 classrooms, principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were each conducted on half of the sample. Results support the proposed structure of measures of standing out and fitting in. Multilevel latent profile analysis was then used to classify students into four profiles of standing out while fitting in (SOFI): Unfulfilled, Somewhat Fulfilled, Nearly Fulfilled, and Fulfilled. A multinomial logistic regression revealed that students of color and those on who paid free/reduced prices lunch were overrepresented in the Unfulfilled and Somewhat Fulfilled profiles. A multilevel path analysis was then performed to assess the direct and indirect associations of profile membership with measures of task value and achievement emotions. Relative to the other profiles, students in the Fulfilled SOFI Profile express greater psychological membership in their classrooms and, in turn, express higher valuing of academic material (i.e., intrinsic value, utility value, and attainment value) and more positive achievement emotions (i.e., more enjoyment and pride; less boredom, hopelessness, and shame). This investigation provides critical insights on the potential benefits of structuring academic learning environments to foster feelings of distinctiveness among adolescents; and has implications for cultivating identities and achievement motivation in academic settings. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Evidence from extreme environments suggests that there are relationships between difficulties of adaptation and psychological factors such as personality. In the framework of microgravity research on humans, the aim of this exploratory study was to investigate inter-individual differences of parabonauts on the basis of quality of adaptation to the physical demands of parabolic flights. The personality characteristics of two groups of parabonauts with a different quality of adaptation (an Adaptive group, N = 7, and a Maladaptive group, N = 15 were assessed using the Sensation Seeking Scale, Brief COPE, and MSSQ-Short. Compared to the Maladaptive group, the individuals of the Adaptive group scored higher on Boredom Susceptibility (i.e., a subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale, lower on scales of susceptibility to motion sickness (MSSQ-Short and tended to score lower on Instrumental Support Seeking (i.e., a subscale of the Brief COPE. These results suggest that individuals of the Adaptive group are more intolerant to monotony, present an aversion to repetitive and routine activities, are less susceptible to motion sickness and less dependent on problem-focused strategies. These characteristics may have contributed to developing a certain degree of flexibility in these subjects when faced with the parabolic flight situation and thus, may have favored them. The identification of differences of personality characteristics between individuals who have expressed difficulties of adaptation from those who have adapted successfully could help to prevent the risk of maladaptation and improve the well-being of (future commercial or occupational aerospace passengers. More generally, these results could be extended to extreme environments and professional and/or sports domains likely to involve risk taking and unusual situations.
Maxwell, Annette E; Garcia, Gabriel M; Berman, Barbara A
Although lung cancer is the top cancer killer among Filipino American men, data on tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes, cessation efforts, and preferences for smoking cessation programs among this population are lacking. We interviewed a community sample of 318 Filipino American men (110 current, 108 former, and 100 never-smokers, all immigrants) aged 40-75 years in Los Angeles County in English and Tagalog, to gain a better understanding of their tobacco use as a first step toward developing a culturally tailored smoking cessation program. In our sample, smokers had lower levels of education and income compared with nonsmokers and were less acculturated based on language use and English fluency. Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to agree that smoking can alleviate stress, depression, and boredom, and that it is part of social interactions, growing up, being a man, and looking mature. These beliefs were summarized in a Smoking Beliefs Scale (Cronbach's alpha = .84), which predicted current smoking in a multivariate analysis, together with perceived risk of getting smoking-related diseases and peer norms. The most preferred smoking cessation intervention formats were educational small group sessions with other Filipino men (32%), followed by one-on-one consultations by a health professional (26%), video (20%), pamphlet (17%), and toll-free telephone number (6%). More than half of the current smokers requested these smoking cessation activities in Tagalog (34%) or a combination of Tagalog and English (24%). Based on these findings, we make specific recommendations for a smoking cessation program for Filipino men.
Schulte, Sabrina J
Binge eating is a health-risk behavior associated with obesity, eating disorders and many other diseases. However, binge eating research remains narrow especially in Arab countries where obesity is a primary health concern but studies on psychological factors of compulsive overeating are rare. The present study addressed this gap by examining prevalence rates and key predictors of binge eating among youths in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Binge eating was assessed together with stress levels, emotional eating, body-related shame and guilt, obsessive-compulsiveness and depression in 254 youths using standardized self-report measures. The study comprised three online-based assessments over a 3-month period. Moderate to severe binge eating was reported by one-third of participants. Emotional eating and body-related guilt were the most consistent and powerful positive binge eating predictors. While stress levels and body-related shame were statistically significant predictors at follow up, neither obsessive-compulsiveness nor depressive symptomatology predicted binge eating in this study. Findings highlight binge eating as a common concern among youths in the UAE with prevalence rates similar to Western samples. Furthermore, the data suggest that binge eating may operate as a maladaptive coping strategy by alleviating negative emotions including boredom and loneliness. The finding that body-related guilt predicted binge eating is important as until now inconsistencies persist as to the relationship between body-related guilt and eating pathology. The study points towards multifactorial risk and maintenance factors of binge eating and extends our understanding within a population where until now research is poor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Freedman, Kit S; Nelson, Nanette M; Feldman, Laura L
Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the United States and Canada, and recent data indicate that they often initiate smoking as young adults. The objective of this study was to systematically review peer-reviewed articles on cigarette smoking initiation and effective prevention efforts among young adults. We searched 5 databases for research articles published in English between 1998 and 2010 on smoking initiation among young adults (aged 18-25) living in the United States or Canada. We extracted the following data from each study selected: the measure of initiation used, age range of initiation, age range of study population, data source, target population, sampling method, and sample size. We summarized the primary findings of each study according to 3 research questions and categories of data (eg, sociodemographic) that emerged during the data extraction process. Of 1,072 identified studies, we found 27 articles that met our search criteria, but several included a larger age range of initiation (eg, 18-30, 18-36) than we initially intended to include. Disparities in young adult smoking initiation existed according to sex, race, and educational attainment. The use of alcohol and illegal drugs was associated with smoking initiation. The risk of smoking initiation among young adults increased under the following circumstances: exposure to smoking, boredom or stress while serving in the military, attending tobacco-sponsored social events while in college, and exposure to social norms and perceptions that encourage smoking. Effective prevention efforts include exposure to counter-marketing, denormalization campaigns, taxation, and the presence of smoke-free policies. Much remains to be learned about young adult smoking initiation, particularly among young adults in the straight-to-work population. Dissimilar measures of smoking initiation limit our knowledge about smoking initiation among young adults. We recommend developing a standardized
Bomba, Jacek; Modrzejewska, Renata; Beauvale, Andrzej
The aim of the article is to partially verify the theoretical concept of depressive symptoms in adolescents, based on KID IO "B1", as well as to check the accuracy of the questionnaire. The KID results from an untreated sample population of 15-year-olds were statistically analysed. Of the 1118 KID IO "B1" questionnaires submitted, 594 (246 boys and 348 girls) underwent factor analysis, of which 297, i.e. half, gained a result higher than the diagnostic threshold for depression. In search of the presence of general factors, as well as to verify the principles used to categorise depressive symptoms according to clinical criteria, analysis of the factors using methods consisting of oblimin, quatrimax and varimax rotations was carried out separately and combined for both genders. The following new factors were distinguished for boys: I--lowered mood, and anxiety, II--self-destruction, III--apathy, cognitive disturbances, IV--somatic symptoms, V--somatisation, apathy, self-destruction, VI--boredom and avoidance of social contact, and for girls: I--lowered mood, lack of consideration for future repercussions, II--lowered drive, learning difficulties, cognitive and motivational disturbances, III--anxiety, IV--dysphoria with self-destruction, V--self-destruction, VI--eating pattern disturbances. Depression, as derived from factor analysis of the KID IO "B1" questionnaire positions, is heterogeneous. Theoretical division of symptom groups, relating to the specific scale in the questionnaire, was confirmed to a very small degree through the analysis of the factors. The list of factors in genders differs. The groups of symptoms appearing in both genders gained from analysis are different in boys and girls with one exception, which may partially result from the different factor overviews of depressive symptoms in both genders.
Richter, Joachim; Ostovar, Roya
The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside (proto-)language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D) as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-)language. Our view is supported by increasing experimental evidence particularly in infants and children: beat is perceived and anticipated already by newborns and rhythm perception depends on body movement. Infants and toddlers spontaneously move to a rhythm irrespective of their cultural background. The impulse to dance may have been prepared by the susceptibility of infants to be soothed by rocking. Conceivable evolutionary functions of R&D include sexual attraction and transmission of mating signals. Social functions include bonding, synchronization of many individuals, appeasement of hostile individuals, and pre- and extra-verbal communication enabling embodied individual and collective memorizing. In many cultures R&D are used for entering trance, a base for shamanism and early religions. Individual benefits of R&D include improvement of body coordination, as well as painkilling, anti-depressive, and anti-boredom effects. Rhythm most likely paved the way for human speech as supported by studies confirming the overlaps between cognitive and neural resources recruited for language and rhythm. In addition, dance encompasses visual and gestural communication. In future studies attention should be paid to which attribute of music is focused on and that the close mutual relation between R&D is taken into account. The possible evolutionary functions of dance deserve more attention. PMID:27774058
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Faith, Myles; Gustafson, Jennifer; Yanovski, Jack A.
Background Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), studied in the context of laboratory paradigms, has been associated with obesity and is predictive of excess weight gain in children. However, no easily administered questionnaire exists to assess for EAH in children. Objective We developed an Eating in the Absence of Hunger questionnaire to be administered to children and adolescents (EAH-C) and examined psychometric properties of the measure. Design Two-hundred-twenty-six obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex, n = 73) and non-obese (BMI emotional eating, and general psychopathology. Temporal stability was assessed in a subset of participants. Results Factor analysis generated three subscales for the EAH-C: Negative Affect, External Eating, and Fatigue/Boredom. Internal consistency for all subscales was established (Cronbach's alphas: 0.80 to 0.88). The EAH-C subscales had good convergent validity with emotional eating and loss of control episodes (p's Obese children reported higher Negative Affect subscale scores than non-obese children (p ≤ 0.05). All three subscales were positively correlated with measures of general psychopathology. Intra-class correlation coefficients revealed temporal stability for all subscales (ranging from 0.65 to 0.70, p's < 0.01). We conclude that the EAH-C had internally consistent subscales with good convergent validity and temporal stability, but may have limited discriminant validity. Further investigations examining the EAH-C in relation to laboratory feeding studies are required to determine whether reported EAH is related to actual energy intake or to the development of excess weight gain. PMID:18342988
Bennett, Jessica; Greene, Geoffrey; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna
Approximately one-third of college students are overweight or obese and the average student gains 5 kg during college. Previous research has identified a relationship between emotional eating and weight gain in young adults, but outside the realm of eating disorders, few studies qualitatively capture why individuals cope with emotions by eating. Exploratory qualitative research was conducted, including 3-day food journals and indepth interviews, with proportionate quota sampling of eight male and eight female undergraduate students to gain an understanding of students' perceptions of their emotional eating behaviors. Participants were purposively selected based on their emotional eating scores on the Weight Related Eating Questionnaire from a larger survey assessing student eating behaviors. Participants' (n=16) mean age was 19.6 ± 1.0 years and all self-reported their race to be white. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) for females and males was 24.1 ± 1.2 kg/m(2) and 24.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2), respectively. Findings from the qualitative analyses indicated gender differences and similarities. Females identified stress as the primary trigger for emotional eating, frequently followed by guilt. Males were primarily triggered by unpleasant feelings such as boredom or anxiety turning to food as a distraction; however, males were less likely to experience guilt after an emotional eating episode than females. During emotional eating episodes, both genders chose what they defined as unhealthful foods. These findings indicate a multidisciplinary intervention focusing on emotion and stress management in addition to dietary behavior change should be developed to reduce the potential for weight gain associated with emotional eating in the college-aged population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Humans are considered to reason and act rationally and that is believed to be their fundamental difference from the rest of the living entities. Furthermore, modern approaches in the science of psychology underline that humans as a thinking creatures are also sentimental and emotional organisms. There are fifteen universal extended emotions plus neutral emotion: hot anger, cold anger, panic, fear, anxiety, despair, sadness, elation, happiness, interest, boredom, shame, pride, disgust, contempt and neutral position. The scope of the current research is to understand the emotional state of a human being by capturing the speech utterances that one uses during a common conversation. It is proved that having enough acoustic evidence available the emotional state of a person can be classified by a set of majority voting classifiers. The proposed set of classifiers is based on three main classifiers: kNN, C4.5 and SVM RBF Kernel. This set achieves better performance than each basic classifier taken separately. It is compared with two other sets of classifiers: one-against-all (OAA multiclass SVM with Hybrid kernels and the set of classifiers which consists of the following two basic classifiers: C5.0 and Neural Network. The proposed variant achieves better performance than the other two sets of classifiers. The paper deals with emotion classification by a set of majority voting classifiers that combines three certain types of basic classifiers with low computational complexity. The basic classifiers stem from different theoretical background in order to avoid bias and redundancy which gives the proposed set of classifiers the ability to generalize in the emotion domain space.
Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold; Martino, Steve; Nich, Charla; Potenza, Marc N.
Background and aims This study employed a newly developed questionnaire to evaluate whether men’s self-efficacy to avoid using pornography in each of 18 emotional, social, or sexually arousing situations was associated with either their typical frequency of pornography use or their hypersexuality. Methods Using an Internet-based data collection procedure, 229 male pornography users (Mage = 33.3 years, SD = 12.2) who had sought or considered seeking professional help for their use of pornography completed questionnaires assessing their situationally specific self-efficacy, history of pornography use, self-efficacy to employ specific pornography-reduction strategies, hypersexuality, and demographic characteristics. Results Frequency of pornography use was significantly negatively associated with level of confidence in 12 of the 18 situations. In addition, lower hypersexuality and higher confidence to employ pornography-use-reduction strategies were associated with higher confidence to avoid using pornography in each of the 18 situations. A principal axis factor analysis yielded three clusters of situations: (a) sexual arousal/boredom/opportunity, (b) intoxication/locations/easy access, and (c) negative emotions. Discussion and conclusions This questionnaire could be employed to identify specific high-risk situations for lapse or relapse and as a measure of treatment outcome among therapy clients, but we recommend further examination of the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the questionnaire in treatment samples. Because only one of the three clusters reflected a consistent theme, we do not recommend averaging self-efficacy within factors to create subscales. PMID:28889754
Rishie Kumar Parshotam
Full Text Available Background. Cannabis use may trigger or perpetuate clinical features of schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals, thereby contributing to the morbidity of schizophrenia and its burden of disease. These findings have mostly not considered the views of schizophrenia patients on cannabis use and its effect on their mental health. Methods. A semi-structured 16-point opinion-type questionnaire was formulated from the results of a previous qualitative study on schizophrenia patients’ opinions about cannabis use. The questionnaire was applied to 60 participants from an inpatient schizophrenia population at Weskoppies Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa, who had a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (text revision (DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia and a documented history of cannabis use. Results. According to participants’ responses, 61.7% admitted to suffering from a mental illness, 95.0% admitted to using cannabis in the past, and 20.0% of participants admitted to the current use of cannabis. Over half (51.7% of the participants responded that cannabis had adverse effects on their mental health, 26.7% that their mental illness was caused by using an illicit drug other than cannabis, 26.7% that only impure cannabis had adverse effects on their mental health, and 48.3% that only using too much cannabis had bad effects on their mind. A high percentage (58.3% of participants responded that cannabis use helped reduce tension, 56.7% that it helped reduce anxiety, 66.7% that it helped to lift their mood, 63.3% that it helped them to relax, 60.0% that it helped to relieve their boredom, 43.3% that it helped them feel more energetic, 58.3% that it helped them sleep better, 13.3% that it helped reduce auditory hallucinations, and 31.7% that the beneficial effects of cannabis outweighed its negative effects. Conclusion. Most of the participants who responded that they were not using cannabis currently had positive
Septiyana Dwi Hastuti
are learning tailoring training strats with time training conducted on Wednesday and Thursday from 07.00 until 12:50 and then conditioning learners are grouped according to the ability of learners with the material presented is the material level 1 (one and the material level of 2 (two using lectures, demonstrations and question and answer. Learning strategies used individually oriented. Constraints include internal factors include psychological factors, among others: lack of interest, understanding difficult, moody, tired, boredom. Physical factors such as: health, disability. External factors include school factors that instrument lessons, the learning time. Community factors peers, mass media.
Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Myers, Bronwyn; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S
Despite a significant rise in methamphetamine use in low- and middle-income countries, there has been little empirical examination of the factors that contribute to individuals' initiation of methamphetamine use in these settings. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (13 women and 17 men) in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviews included narrative descriptions of the circumstances surrounding methamphetamine initiation. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated. Transcripts were analyzed with document memos, data display matrices, and a constant comparison technique to identify themes. On average, participants began regularly using methamphetamine around age 21 and had used for seven years. Four major themes emerged related to the initiation of methamphetamine use. The prevalence of methamphetamine users and distributors made the drug convenient and highly accessible to first time users. Methamphetamine has increased in popularity and is considered "trendy", which contributes to social pressure from friends, and less often, family members to initiate use. Initiation is further fueled by a lack of opportunities for recreation and employment, which leads to boredom and curiosity about the rumored positive effects of the drug. Young people also turn to methamphetamine use and distribution through gang membership as an attempt to generate income in impoverished communities with limited economic opportunities. Finally, participants described initiating methamphetamine as a means of coping with the cumulative stress and psychological burden provoked by the high rates of violence and crime in areas of Cape Town. The findings highlight the complex nature of methamphetamine initiation in low- and middle-income countries like South Africa. There is a need for community-level interventions to address the
Korchut, Aleksander; Kowalska-Koczwara, Alicja; Romanska – Zapała, Anna; Stypula, Krzysztof
At the workplace of the machine operator, low frequency whole body and hand- arm vibrations are observed. They occur together with noise. Whole body vibration in the range of 3-25 Hz are detrimental to the human body due to the location of the resonant frequency of large organs of the human body in this range. It can be assumed that for this reason people working every day in such conditions can have reduced working efficiency. The influence of low frequency vibration and noise on the human body leads to both physiological and functional changes. The result of the impact of noise and vibration stimuli depends largely on the specific characteristics of the objects, which include among other personality traits, temperament and emotional factor. The pilot study conducted in the laboratory was attended by 30 young men. The aim of the study was to look for correlations between the need for stimulation of the objects and their psychomotor efficiency in case of vibration exposure and vibration together with noise exposure in variable conditions task. The need for stimulation of the objects as defined in the study is based on theoretical assumptions of one dimensional model of temperament developed by Marvin Zuckerman. This theory defines the need for stimulation as the search for different, new, complex and intense sensations, as well as the willingness to take risks. The aim of research was to verify if from four factors such as: the search for adventure and horror, sensation seeking, disinhibition and susceptibility to boredom, we can choose the ones that in conjunction with varying operating conditions, may significantly determine the efficiency of the task situation. The objects performed the test evaluation of their motor skills which consisted in keeping the cursor controlled by a joystick through the path. The number of exceeds of the cursor beyond the path and its maximum deviation was recorded. The collected data were used to determine the correlation between the
Milon, H; Decarli, B; Adine, A M; Kihm, E
Modifications of food intake by astronauts during long-duration spaceflights have been observed. Various psychological stress factors, such as isolation, confinement, constrained community and boredom, are thought to play a role in this phenomenon. For this reason it was decided to include a nutritional investigation in the EXEMSI simulation study, in which four crew members (1 female and 3 males) were isolated and confined for 60 days in a space station-like environment. The Food and Nutritional Management System, developed for this experiment, provided on-line analysis of all available foods in terms of their nutrient content (macronutrients, water, minerals, vitamins). It permitted to keep an accurate record of the daily food intake of each crew member. The system has been shown to be a powerful tool for future missions, either simulations or actual spaceflights. It permits optimal management of food and eating on board, and offers the possibility of online analysis of the nutritional status of the crew. It can provide readily usable data for future analysis of nutritional variables in relation to other physiological and metabolic parameters. It could also supply a periodic feedback to the subject for the purpose of adjusting food intake. Eating and nutrition during the experiment were not a problem, but a pleasure, and therefore played an important role in its success. Confinement and isolation apparently had no effect on either the eating habits or the nutritional status of the crew members. The good food rather helped to decrease the potentially induced stress by providing daily periods of pleasure and of social activities. Detailed analysis of food intake showed erratic eating patterns, both before and during the experiment. However, the weekly averages of macro- and micronutrient intakes were in the normal range, except for vitamins B1 and B6 that were rather low and showed the need for supplements. Food appreciation was assessed by daily questionnaires
Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the 140 000 Burmese* refugees living in camps in Thailand, 30% are youths aged 15-24. Health services in these camps do not specifically target young people and their problems and needs are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess their reproductive health issues and quality of life, and identifies appropriate service needs. Methods We used a stratified two-stage random sample questionnaire survey of 397 young people 15-24 years from 5,183 households, and 19 semi-structured qualitative interviews to assess and explore health and quality of life issues. Results The young people in the camps had very limited knowledge of reproductive health issues; only about one in five correctly answered at least one question on reproductive health. They were clear that they wanted more reproductive health education and services, to be provided by health workers rather than parents or teachers who were not able to give them the information they needed. Marital status was associated with sexual health knowledge; having relevant knowledge of reproductive health was up to six times higher in married compared to unmarried youth, after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic factors. Although condom use was considered important, in practice a large proportion of respondents felt too embarrassed to use them. There was a contradiction between moral views and actual behaviour; more than half believed they should remain virgins until marriage, while over half of the youth experienced sex before marriage. Two thirds of women were married before the age of 18, but two third felt they did not marry at the right age. Forced sex was considered acceptable by one in three youth. The youth considered their quality of life to be poor and limited due to confinement in the camps, the limited work opportunities, the aid dependency, the unclear future and the boredom and unhappiness they face. Conclusions The long conflict in Myanmar and the resultant
Bracken, Bethany K.; Palmon, Noa; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Irvin, Scott; Jenkins, Michael; Farry, Mike
Across many careers, individuals face alternating periods of high and low attention and cognitive workload, which can result in impaired cognitive functioning and can be detrimental to job performance. For example, some professions (e.g., fire fighters, emergency medical personnel, doctors and nurses working in an emergency room, pilots) require long periods of low workload (boredom), followed by sudden, high-tempo operations during which they may be required to respond to an emergency and perform at peak cognitive levels. Conversely, other professions (e.g., air traffic controllers, market investors in financial industries, analysts) require long periods of high workload and multitasking during which the addition of just one more task results in cognitive overload resulting in mistakes. An unobtrusive system to measure, assess, and predict cognitive workload could warn individuals, their teammates, or their supervisors when steps should be taken to augment cognitive readiness. In this talk I will describe an approach to this problem that we have found to be successful across work domains including: (1) a suite of unobtrusive, field-ready neurophysiological, physiological, and behavioral sensors that are chosen to best suit the target environment; (2) custom algorithms and statistical techniques to process and time-align raw data originating from the sensor suite; (3) probabilistic and statistical models designed to interpret the data into the human state of interest (e.g., cognitive workload, attention, fatigue); (4) and machine-learning techniques to predict upcoming performance based on the current pattern of events, and (5) display of each piece of information depending on the needs of the target user who may or may not want to drill down into the functioning of the system to determine how conclusions about human state and performance are determined. I will then focus in on our experimental results from our custom functional near-infrared spectroscopy sensor
Álvaro Giraldo Pineda
Full Text Available Estudio realizado con niños en situación de calle en Medellín, Colombia. Objetivo: Comprender desde la mirada de los participantes, el significado de las instituciones que les brindan apoyo. Metodología: Cualitativa-etnográfica. Se realizaron 39 entrevistas, observación y diario de campo. La ética fue parte integral del proceso. El análisis se hizo con los participantes para garantizar el rigor. Resultados: Los niños ingresan a las instituciones buscando apoyo, motivados por éstas, por sí mismos o por otras personas. Según los niños, las instituciones pretenden cambiarles la personalidad, el pensamiento y el comportamiento, vinculándolos a un proceso. Para que éste se cumpla, se establecen normas que son aplicadas y sancionadas por los educadores o por los líderes. Los niños abandonan las instituciones cuando reciben castigos humillantes, por "caciqueo", aburrimiento y temores. Conclusión: La institución por ella misma no logra estos cambios, ellos se consiguen solamente por la interacción con sus amigos y "parceros".The research was made with Medellin´s street children, Colombia. Objective: Understand under the participant´s view, the meaning of support institutions. Method: Qualitative, ethnographic research. 39 Interviews, observation and field diary were realized. Ethic was fundamental piece of the process. Analysis was made with participant to guarantee the rigor. Results: Children go to these institutions looking for support, motivated by themselves, other people or the institutions. These pretend to change children´s personality, thought and behavior joining them to a process. To accomplish this, some rules has to be applied and penalized by teachers or leaders. Children leave these institutions when they received humiliating punishment, submissiveness ("caciqueo", boredom and fear. Conclusion: Institution by itself does not accomplish these changes, they are only achieved by the interaction with their friends and
de Graaf, R; van Zessen, G; Houweling, H; Ligthelm, R J; van den Akker, R
To assess the prevalence of HIV infection and related risk factors among Dutch expatriates returning from assignment in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and South and South-east Asia. From July 1994 to January 1996, a questionnaire on the risks of sexual exposure was completed by 864 respondents, and blood samples were taken. Of the 634 men, 41% reported having sex with casual or steady local partners and 11% with casual or steady expatriate partners, during an average stay of 26 months in the previous 3 years. Of the 230 women, these figures were 31 and 24%, respectively. Of the men with local casual partners (29%), 59% paid for sex at least once. For men as well as women, having sexual contacts abroad was associated with younger age, positive intention prior to departure to have sex abroad, being single at departure, and, only for the men, working for a commercial organization, and feelings of loneliness and boredom. Among men, consistent condom use with casual local partners was 69%, and with casual expatriate partners 63%. Among women, these figures were 64 and 48%, respectively. Consistent condom use with steady local or expatriate partners was much lower. Among men, non-consistent condom use with casual partners was more prevalent if they had been abroad for a longer time, condoms were not taken along from The Netherlands, the country where they were posted was Asian, and the estimated HIV prevalence among the local population was lower. Among the women, non-consistent condom use was more prevalent if condoms were not taken along, and if they did not have the intention before departure to have sex abroad. Of the persons from whom blood could be obtained, one man was HIV-positive. Another man who refused to participate in the study indicated that he was HIV-positive. Although 23% of the expatriates had unprotected sex with partners from endemic areas, very few HIV infections were found. In comparison with a previous study among this population carried out in
Martos García, Daniel
Full Text Available Sport practices belong to the prison’s landscape. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge about the role they play in prisons ordinary life. Therefore, we developed an ethnographic study, mainly located in the sports hall of a Spanish prison, to understand exercise and sport meanings among inmates, workers, educators and monitors. Data indicate that social rehabilitation through sport is an illusion, although it is the official goal of imprisonment. Even so, participants assign different benefits to exercise and sport, especially inmates. Educative potential of self-control through sport and, mainly, distraction and compensation strategy to cope with boredom, time and confinement’s physical and mental problems are among them. Paper concludes that exercise and sport can play a symbolic ‘evasion’ and personal liberation, but are constrained by a context in which control and order are at the forefront of everything.
Las actividades deportivas forman parte del paisaje de las prisiones. Sin embargo, escasea el conocimiento sobre el papel que desempeñan en la vida cotidiana de las cárceles. Por ello realizamos un estudio etnográfico, principalmente en el polideportivo de una prisión española, dirigido a comprender los significados que el ejercicio físico y el deporte tenían para los presos, funcionarios, educadores y monitores. Los resultados indican que la reinserción mediante estas prácticas es una ilusión, a pesar de ser la finalidad oficial de la reclusión. Aun así, les asignan diversos beneficios, especialmente los presos y presas. Entre ellos se encuentra el potencial educativo ligado al autocontrol y, sobre todo, el entretenimiento y la compensación para ocupar el tiempo, huir del hastío y sobrellevar los problemas del encierro. El artículo concluye que el ejercicio y el deporte pueden tener un papel de “evasión” simbólica y liberación personal, aunque los presos viven atenazados por un contexto en el que
Sailer, Uta; Rosenberg, Patricia; Nima, Ali Al; Gamble, Amelie; Gärling, Tommy; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo
Background. Previous studies have established a link between how people relate to their past, present, and future (i.e., time perspective) and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect). Time perspective comprises five dimensions: Past Positive, Past Negative, Present Hedonistic, Present Fatalistic, and Future. Life satisfaction can also be evaluated in relation to different time frames. Moreover, approach related positive affect is associated to a different concept of well-being labeled psychological well-being. In the present study we extend previous findings by investigating the effect of time perspective on the time frame of evaluations of life satisfaction (past, present, future) and by investigating the relationship between time perspective and psychological well-being. Method. Questionnaires on time perspective (Zimbardo's Time Perspective Inventory), temporal life satisfaction (Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale), affect (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule), and psychological well-being (Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version) were answered by 453 individuals. Two different structural equation models were tested, one of the relationship between time perspective and temporal life satisfaction, and the other of the relationship between time perspective, affect and psychological well-being. Results. Time perspective affected life satisfaction depending on the time scale on which it was evaluated-memory of a negative past influenced life satisfaction in all time frames, and a positive view of the past influenced both past and future life satisfaction. Moreover, less rumination about past negative events (i.e., low score on Past Negative), the tendency to take risks in the present to achieve happy feelings and/or avoid boredom (i.e., high scores on Present Hedonistic), and a less hopeless and pessimistic view about the present (low scores on Present Fatalistic) were associated with higher levels of
Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have established a link between how people relate to their past, present, and future (i.e., time perspective and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect. Time perspective comprises five dimensions: Past Positive, Past Negative, Present Hedonistic, Present Fatalistic, and Future. Life satisfaction can also be evaluated in relation to different time frames. Moreover, approach related positive affect is associated to a different concept of well-being labeled psychological well-being. In the present study we extend previous findings by investigating the effect of time perspective on the time frame of evaluations of life satisfaction (past, present, future and by investigating the relationship between time perspective and psychological well-being.Method. Questionnaires on time perspective (Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory, temporal life satisfaction (Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, affect (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, and psychological well-being (Scales of Psychological Well-Being—short version were answered by 453 individuals. Two different structural equation models were tested, one of the relationship between time perspective and temporal life satisfaction, and the other of the relationship between time perspective, affect and psychological well-being.Results. Time perspective affected life satisfaction depending on the time scale on which it was evaluated—memory of a negative past influenced life satisfaction in all time frames, and a positive view of the past influenced both past and future life satisfaction. Moreover, less rumination about past negative events (i.e., low score on Past Negative, the tendency to take risks in the present to achieve happy feelings and/or avoid boredom (i.e., high scores on Present Hedonistic, and a less hopeless and pessimistic view about the present (low scores on Present Fatalistic were associated with higher
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the personality traits of alcohol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients and to compare them with normal controls. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 100 consecutive patients with alcohol dependence and HIV each and a control group of 100 normal cases without any physical or psychiatric illness. A score of 2 or less on the General Health Questionnaire was taken as cutoff, and the participants were included in the study with written informed consent. All participants were assessed with the NEO personality inventory revised and sensation-seeking scale (SSS. Results: There were significant differences among the study group on all the five factors, i.e., neuroticism (N, extraversion (E, conscientiousness (C, openness to experience (O, and agreeableness (A. On factor “N,” HIV and alcohol group scored significantly more as compared to normal group. Odds ratio revealed high neuroticism to be a risk factor in alcohol-dependent and HIV cases (P < 0.05. The normal group scored significantly higher on factor “E” as compared to HIV and alcohol cases. High scores on factor “E” and “C” have a protective. Odds ratio found low score of factor “C” as a risk factor; however, “O” did not emerge as a risk factor. The logistic regression revealed that high scores on “N” and “E” and low “A” score had a significant association with alcohol dependence (P < 0.05. Among HIV cases, high score on “N” and “E” and low “C” score emerged significant. Alcohol cases scored significantly more on boredom susceptibility (BS on SSS as compared to HIV and normal controls. On disinhibition (DIS, HIV cases and alcohol cases scored significantly higher as compared to normal group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: High “N” scores on NEO personality inventory are significantly associated with alcohol dependence and HIV while high scores on “E” and “C” have a
Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P
political organizations, (3) leisure-time clubs and (4) societies and institutions for promoting social integration, including educational, advisory and assistance bodies. The study of satiation processes offers an interesting approach to the relationship between housing and mental health. Man requires new stimuli to motivate him. Boredom and satiation serve to induce passivity and may provoke destructive behaviour and escapism. Finland has the highest percentage of dwellings constructed in the immediate post-war period of any country in Europe, and in respect of the functions of housing many aspects are still apparent which are detrimental to mental health.
Full Text Available Students and Teachers are an epic symbiosis in process of direct learning and academic advancement. Nowadays, this interaction is more bonded and interdependent with technology and equipment‟s, which in a whole system expands learning horizons. The digital era has introduced in the education system new modes of learning, a new way of life and style in schooling. This phenomenon changed the methods of teaching in universities, where lectures were accompanied with concrete explanations of works in modeling, in structural and conceptual sense. The relationship between a student of architecture and teachers broadened with introduction of computer aided modeling and simulation tools to construct those ideas into the reality. The study presented in this paper investigates conceptual methods in art, architecture, creativity and innovation in academic education, focusing on interactive teaching issues, and methods. The research methods consist of empirical observation carried out during 25 years of experience in academia, and direct observation of teaching methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolutive process in teaching relations between architectural students and teachers, with the focus in educational competencies and communication skills. Findings indicate that through artistic concepts of “Modelarium” as an unconventional learning space, a tool and space that enables the partnership. An informal meeting place for artistic interaction, but, concurrently it is a formal part of the educational system in architectural studies, a strategy by which we can bring more: time, conceptual awareness of space and interactive teaching in architecture, which bonds multidimensional threads between students and teachers; thus, fostering a powerful sense of partnership, avoiding boredom and passive learning, while facing the challenges, associated with the development of technology, life style, real issues and global world trends. Research
Jelinek, David John
This study investigates student perceptions of the nature of science and student attitudes toward science education, then employs experiential teaching strategies to determine what role, if any, these play in enhancing those perceptions and attitudes. The literature review identifies three shortcomings that justify the need for such research, concluding that a study to help broaden knowledge regarding interactive effects of attitudes, perceptions, and experiential learning could add significantly to the literature base. This is an explorative case study of 20 high school students participating in an Upward Bound summer program at the University of California in Santa Barbara. A six-week course drawing upon experiential learning theory was devised and delivered to the students, then various qualitative data collection materials were administered. The objective was to investigate pre-, during-, and post-instruction perspectives of students, thus identifying core factors concerning attitudes and perceptions. Constant comparative analysis was used to investigate the multiple sources of data, resulting in: (a) a collection of emic perspectives that distinguish between pre- and post-perceptions of the nature of science and of attitudes towards science education; (b) three themes of enhanced students' images of science and scientists; (c) two themes suggesting sociological perspectives that help broaden student perceptions; and (d) interest and boredom as key motivational considerations. A model of nature of science enhancement is proposed, proceeding through four stages of: (a) engagement in meaningful, first-hand activities; (b) student accountability for active participation and reflectiveness; (c) emphasis of high importance and high interest values; and (d) in-depth, multiple encounters with the phenomena and processes. Finally, implications of catching and holding interest are discussed. It was found that various experiential strategies proved successful in catching
Parvez, S.; Mubarik, H.
. There was an increased consumption of cigarettes among troops (p < 0.001). The increased frequency of consumption of cigarettes in operational area was because of stress/increased combat activities, boredom, lack of recreational activities and monotony. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present study that operational activities increase the tendency of smoking in some troops and cause increased consumption of cigarettes by others mainly because of stress and peer pressure, which over the period of time can affect health, medical fitness and operational readiness of military personnel. (author)
Llorens Largo, Faraón
Full Text Available Technological innovation has to be standarized. It is not just a few-freaks-game to kill boredom experimenting with new ideas and tools from technological advances. Universities must acknowledge and empower innovative good practices. They must profit from these practices and set up strategies to lead all of us to better accomplish their educational mission. However, internal policies of each university should be based on justified fundamentals and must be shared by all its community. This paper is divided in three blocks. The first one, strategies to improve teaching + learning through the use of technology, establishes the fundamentals where the University of Alicante lays on. The second one explains the strategy and institutional policies of the University of Alicante during 2005-2008 period, as something already stated and proven. The third block anticipates planning and master lines for 2009-2012 period. Finally, this paper closes with some deep thoughts not to forget lessons learnt and not to make already known mistakes, thus running the right way.La innovación educativa debe de oficializarse. No es sólo cuestión de unos pocos locos que no tienen otra cosa mejor a la que dedicar su tiempo que experimentar con las ideas y herramientas que los avances tecnológicos ponen a nuestro alcance. Las universidades deben reconocer y potenciar esas buenas prácticas innovadoras. Deben alinearlas con su misión y establecer estrategias que nos conduzcan a su cumplimiento. Pero la política interna de cada universidad debe basarse en unos fundamentos que la justifiquen y debe ser compartida por toda la comunidad universitaria. Así, este articulo se estructura en tres bloques. Un primer bloque, estrategias de mejora de la enseñanza+aprendizaje por medio de la tecnología, que establece esos principios sobre los que se sustenta la política de la Universidad de Alicante. El segundo bloque está dedicado a explicar la estrategia y pol
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The current generation is rightly described as generation M (edia highlighting the increasing time spent with media on any given day. The availability of mobiles and the absence of mobile jammers in lecture classes will seriously interfere with lecture attendance or concentration in lecture hours. We intend to take a survey on the level of social media use or use of smartphone for other non-academic uses by medical students during their lecture hours. We expect them to put forward their views as to how they perceive live lectures and what can be done to improve the effect of live lectures in this era of widespread and anytime media use. Aims of the study were- 1. To conduct a survey among medical students in preclinical postings regarding use of social media use during live lecture hours. 2. To assess their perception regarding conventional lecture duration and the factors, which could improve their concentration during lecture hours. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among the participants. Approval was obtained from the Institutional Research Committee. All the 135 participants of the study were administered a semi-structured prevalidated questionnaire to assess their perception regarding live lecture and a survey regarding use of social media was taken. The collected data was entered into MS Excel and analysed using Epiinfo version 7. Percentages were used to quantify the results. Settings and Design- The study was conducted among third semester students attending pharmacology lectures in Government Medical College, Thrissur. RESULTS 77 (57% participants agreed of using social media regularly in lecture hours. Majority used it to chat or connect with friends and in gaming either because of addiction or to avoid boredom. They were a majority in opinion that the hot noon time lectures should be cut short in duration. They preferred the use of newer technology based methods to be adopted for
Alhyas, Layla; Al Ozaibi, Naseeba; Elarabi, Hisham; El-Kashef, Ahmed; Wanigaratne, Shamil; Almarzouqi, Amna; Alhosani, Ayesha; Al Ghaferi, Hamad
The objective of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of adolescents in the United Arab Emirates regarding substance and to identify factors that, in their view, may influence the risk of substance use and suggest possible interventions. This was a qualitative study that used a focus group approach. The study was carried out in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Male and female teenagers aged 13-18 years residing in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. Adolescents' awareness of substance use, patterns of use and associated harm; Adolescents' perceptions about the factors associated with substance use. Six focus groups were carried out, and a total of 41 adolescents (20 males and 21 females) participated. Data analysis identified three main themes: (1) adolescents' awareness of substance use and associated harm; (2) gender role and image and (3) perceived factors affecting substance use among adolescents. Knowledge of substances and related consequences of use varied between groups but was compatible with participants' age and school years. Factors that participants believed influenced substance use were classified into: (1) parent-adolescent relationship, (2) peer pressure, (3) substance accessibility, (4) religiosity and (5) others. Many factors were believed to increase the risk of substance use among adolescents such as peer pressure, inadequate knowledge of the harmful consequences of drug use, family-related factors (e.g. low monitoring and poor parent-adolescents relationship), affordability and availability of substances, boredom and affluence. On the other hand, religiosity was as a shield against substance use, especially alcohol. Other identified protective factors included carrying out schools- and communities-based educational campaigns, enhancing social workers' ability to raise awareness and detect early signs of addiction and implementing CCTV systems in schools. The study was successful in exploring adolescents
Al Ozaibi, Naseeba; Elarabi, Hisham; El-Kashef, Ahmed; Wanigaratne, Shamil; Almarzouqi, Amna; Alhosani, Ayesha; Al Ghaferi, Hamad
Summary Objective The objective of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of adolescents in the United Arab Emirates regarding substance and to identify factors that, in their view, may influence the risk of substance use and suggest possible interventions. Design This was a qualitative study that used a focus group approach. Setting The study was carried out in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Participants Male and female teenagers aged 13-18 years residing in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. Main outcome measures Adolescents’ awareness of substance use, patterns of use and associated harm; Adolescents' perceptions about the factors associated with substance use. Results Six focus groups were carried out, and a total of 41 adolescents (20 males and 21 females) participated. Data analysis identified three main themes: (1) adolescents’ awareness of substance use and associated harm; (2) gender role and image and (3) perceived factors affecting substance use among adolescents. Knowledge of substances and related consequences of use varied between groups but was compatible with participants’ age and school years. Factors that participants believed influenced substance use were classified into: (1) parent–adolescent relationship, (2) peer pressure, (3) substance accessibility, (4) religiosity and (5) others. Many factors were believed to increase the risk of substance use among adolescents such as peer pressure, inadequate knowledge of the harmful consequences of drug use, family-related factors (e.g. low monitoring and poor parent–adolescents relationship), affordability and availability of substances, boredom and affluence. On the other hand, religiosity was as a shield against substance use, especially alcohol. Other identified protective factors included carrying out schools- and communities-based educational campaigns, enhancing social workers’ ability to raise awareness and detect early signs of addiction and
Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the experience of flow aligns with a relative increase in activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus, and relative activation decreases of the medial prefrontal cortex and of the amygdala. In the present study, Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM was used to explore effective connectivity between those brain regions. To test our hypothesis that the dorsal raphe nucleus causally down-regulates activity of the medial prefrontal cortex and/or of the amygdala, 23 healthy male students solved mental arithmetic tasks of varying difficulty during functional magnetic resonance imaging. A flow condition, with task demands automatically balanced with participants’ skill level, was compared with conditions of boredom and overload. DCM models were constructed modeling full reciprocal endogenous connections between the dorsal raphe nucleus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, and the calcarine. The calcarine was included to allow sensory input to enter the system. Experimental conditions were modeled as exerting modulatory effects on various possible connections between the dorsal raphe nucleus, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala, but not on self-inhibitory connections, yielding a total of 64 alternative DCM models. Model space was partitioned into eight families based on commonalities in the arrangement of the modulatory effects. Random effects Bayesian Model Selection was applied to identify a possible winning family (and model. Although Bayesian Model Selection revealed a clear winning family, an outstanding winning model could not be identified. Therefore, Bayesian Model Averaging was performed over models within the winning family to obtain representative DCM parameters for subsequent analyses to test our hypothesis. In line with our expectations, Bayesian averaged parameters revealed stronger down-regulatory influence of the dorsal raphe nucleus on the medial prefrontal cortex when
Wardy, Wisdom; Sae-Eaw, Amporn; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon
Effects of attribute presence and absence on the emotional profile and consumer acceptability of products with varying qualities were assessed using eggs as an example. An online survey (n = 320) was used to evaluate emotional responses and acceptability to 5 types of egg quality attributes: intrinsic, aesthetic, extrinsic, expediency, and wholesome/safety, for both present and absent conditions. Attribute absence rather than presence evoked greater consumer discriminating emotions associated with eggs. Mean emotion intensity elicited by the presence of all quality attributes ranged from 1.67 (intrinsic; guilty) to 4.05 (wholesome; good) versus 2.01 (wholesome; satisfied) to 3.29 (wholesome; disgusted) when absent. Key positive emotions elicited by presence of attributes were active, calm, good, interested, happy, safe, and satisfied; while dominant negative emotions elicited by absence of attributes included disgusted and worried. Wholesome quality (constituted by egg freshness, "packing/best-before-date" and absence of visible cracks) exhibited the highest liking (7.65) and emotion intensities, while the emotional responses to both the presence and absence of intrinsic quality (constituted by nutrient-fortified egg, organic egg, and USDA-certified farm egg) were similar, reflecting their dynamic effects on emotions. Emotions and acceptability were more correlated for attribute absence than presence; and good, happy, and satisfied emotions were strongly related to egg acceptability (r ≥ 0.6). Egg product/packaging design can be oriented toward emphasizing wholesome and expedient attributes, since they enhance good, safe, and satisfied emotions, while minimizing disgust, worry, and boredom. The use of emotional responses and hedonic testing regarding attribute presence and absence would allow for improved selection of attributes critical to consumer acceptance of products. Assessing effects of attribute presence compared with absence on food-evoked emotions may
Sailer, Uta; Rosenberg, Patricia; Nima, Ali Al; Gamble, Amelie; Gärling, Tommy; Archer, Trevor
Background. Previous studies have established a link between how people relate to their past, present, and future (i.e., time perspective) and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect). Time perspective comprises five dimensions: Past Positive, Past Negative, Present Hedonistic, Present Fatalistic, and Future. Life satisfaction can also be evaluated in relation to different time frames. Moreover, approach related positive affect is associated to a different concept of well-being labeled psychological well-being. In the present study we extend previous findings by investigating the effect of time perspective on the time frame of evaluations of life satisfaction (past, present, future) and by investigating the relationship between time perspective and psychological well-being. Method. Questionnaires on time perspective (Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory), temporal life satisfaction (Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale), affect (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule), and psychological well-being (Scales of Psychological Well-Being—short version) were answered by 453 individuals. Two different structural equation models were tested, one of the relationship between time perspective and temporal life satisfaction, and the other of the relationship between time perspective, affect and psychological well-being. Results. Time perspective affected life satisfaction depending on the time scale on which it was evaluated—memory of a negative past influenced life satisfaction in all time frames, and a positive view of the past influenced both past and future life satisfaction. Moreover, less rumination about past negative events (i.e., low score on Past Negative), the tendency to take risks in the present to achieve happy feelings and/or avoid boredom (i.e., high scores on Present Hedonistic), and a less hopeless and pessimistic view about the present (low scores on Present Fatalistic) were associated with higher levels of
In recent years the improtance of the psychologic conditions of the cure of a long- term Mars expedition (or a Lunar Base) is becoming a crucial factor concerning the success of such mission. The 500-day stay on Mars will be the longest planetary surface exploration opportunity ever experienced.  Manned planetary missions so far had no such long term isolation from the our cultural environment (or "bubble"), and cosmo - and astronauts consumed mostly recorded materials for enterntainment which will not be sufficent for such mission. The closest analogy for such a long-term isolation of a relatively small group of people is the situation at military bases or the American (or other) pioneer settlers. Both American and British Army uses an extensive enternatinment and information media network - both radio and TV - which provides programs for their personell in places which are out of the reach of their home media services but usually inside an other cultural environment. For a mission with a long duration (months or years), where the crew is absolutely cut off from Earth media and news (incl. politics, culture, music etc), especially for the flight time, it is important to create a special "buquet" of programs that keeps the crew inside the Earth cultural environment. In this paper I will discuss the technical requirements for the uplink to a Martian mission on the way to and from and on the surface of Mars, and the questions of optimal programming to such a mission, using the experiences from military media. The psychological problems encountered in space has been analyzed in great detail.  Kass and Kass list 28 such problems. Access to Earth mass media or quasi-live enterntainment and informational channel can help in solving the followings [from 3]: setting in of boredom and demoralisation; missing your own language - not fully fluent in the common language; lack of information sharing; confinement and isolation. A general homesickness would probably be an
Rika Yessica Rahma
Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology has spawned a culture of gadgets, namely high-tech tools. The function of this gadget also vary depending on the wearer. One implication of the sophistication of the smartphone camera spawned a new phenomenon in the world community. The phenomenon is called self portrait or selfie. Theory and concepts used in this study include self-presentation theory of Erving Goffman, Symbolic Interaction Theory, the concept of youth and self-acceptance or self acceptance. The research subjects are young women that student private university in Jakarta with the criteria of the age between 18 to 22 years. From the research selfie reason they do not only worry about the physical appearance, there are some key informants emotionally also can not accept about him. They generally cover the melancholy, boredom, loneliness in a way making it seem happier when photographed selfie. Selfie through photos, they can do presentations themselves in accordance role that you want to appear and to present themselves many symbols that exchanged its meaning through the setting, the appearance of the face and involvement in his role. Perkembangan pesat teknologi informasi telah melahirkan budaya gadget, yaitu alat berteknologi tinggi yang memiliki berbagai macam fungsi tergantung pemakainya. Salah satu implikasi dari kecanggihan kamera smartphone melahirkan fenomena self potrait atau selfie. Teori maupun konsep yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini antara lain teori presentasi diri dari Erving Goffman, Teori Interaksi Simbolik, konsep mengenai remaja dan self acceptance atau peneriman diri. Adapun subjek penelitian adalah remaja putri yakni mahasiswi perguruan tinggi swasta di Jakarta dengan kriteria usia antara 18 sampai 22 tahun. Dari hasil penelitian terungkap bahwa alasan mereka melakukan selfie tidak hanya cemas terhadap penampilan fisik, tetapi juga secara emosi mereka belum dapat menerima tentang dirinya. Mereka umumnya
Full Text Available On the formation of Cioran’s vision of the world and man, influenced largely his belonging to precisely this and no other nation. Romanian fatalism, inability to illusions, seeing the inevitable, the Romanian people’s faith in the fact that sin and creation are the same and constant accusations against this creation are the constitutiveelements of Cioran’s thought. Carrying the baggage of experiences of the nation thrown out of history and time, Cioran, as a Romanian emigrant in France, found the best model for his own writing in rhetorical and satirical tradition of the French moralists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, who were a combination of“lyrical sublimity and cynicism”, gentleness and hell. They showed him not only what is uncompromising in pursuing the motives of human action, looking at every thing from many different perspectives, or suspicion of any kind of doctrine, but they also became for him a model of style. Of all literary forms cultivated by moralists, Cioranappreciated most the fragment, that is to say a closed form, often paradoxical and witty that having nothing in common with the characteristic for large systems long strings of argument – that was a form of recording experience, and like this experience, assumed discontinuity. Being a spokesperson for the “philosophy of the onlymoments”, Cioran advocated not only against the system, but also against academic philosophy – grown with indifference, regardless of the state of mind, it seemed to him the result of reduction of vitality and a kind of escape into the impersonal world of unrest. State, which fully made Cioran realize the futility resorting to this kind of philosophy, was insomnia, from which the Romanian philosopher had suffered more or less since he was seventeen. According to the author of the Fall in the Time insomnia and boredom are the “minimum imbalance”, which we have to experience, when we want to get closer to some
Palese, Alvisa; Basso, Felix; Del Negro, Elena; Achil, Illarj; Ferraresi, Annamaria; Morandini, Marzia; Moreale, Renzo; Mansutti, Irene
Some nursing programmes offer night shifts for students while others do not, mainly due to the lack of evidence regarding their effectiveness on clinical learning. The principal aims of the study were to describe nursing students' perceptions and to explore conditions influencing effectiveness on learning processes during night shifts. An explanatory mixed-method study design composed of a cross-sectional study (primary method, first phase) followed by a descriptive phenomenological study design (secondary method, second phase) in 2015. Two bachelor of nursing degree programmes located in Northern Italy, three years in length and requiring night shifts for students starting in the second semester of the 1st year, were involved. First phase: all nursing students ending their last clinical placement of the academic year attended were eligible; 352 out the 370 participated. Second phase: a purposeful sample of nine students among those included in the first phase and who attended the highest amount of night shifts were interviewed. First phase: a questionnaire composed of closed and open-ended questions was adopted; data was analyzed through descriptive statistical methods. Second phase: an open-ended face-to-face audio-recorded interview was adopted and data was analyzed through content analysis. Findings from the quantitative phase, showed that students who attended night shifts reported satisfaction (44.7%) less frequently than those who attended only day shifts (55.9%). They also reported boredom (23.5%) significantly more often compared to day shift students (p=0001). Understanding of the nursing role and learning competence was significantly inferior among night shift students as compared to day shift students, while the perception of wasting time was significantly higher among night shift students compared to their counterparts. Night shift students performed nursing rounds (288; 98.2%), non-nursing tasks (247; 84.3%) and/or less often managed clinical problems
Full Text Available Paul F Cook,1 Jane M Carrington,2 Sarah J Schmiege,1 Whitney Starr,3 Blaine Reeder11University of Colorado College of Nursing, Aurora, CO, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Nursing, Tucson, AZ, USA; 3University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USAPurpose: Medication adherence is a major challenge in HIV treatment. New mobile technologies such as smartphones facilitate the delivery of brief tailored messages to promote adherence. However, the best approach for tailoring messages is unknown. Persons living with HIV (PLWH might be more receptive to some messages than others based on their current psychological state.Methods: We recruited 37 PLWH from a parent study of motivational states and adherence. Participants completed smartphone-based surveys at a random time every day for 2 weeks, then immediately received intervention or control tailored messages, depending on random assignment. After 2 weeks in the initial condition, participants received the other condition in a crossover design. Intervention messages were tailored to match PLWH’s current psychological state based on five variables – control beliefs, mood, stress, coping, and social support. Control messages were tailored to create a mismatch between message framing and participants’ current psychological state. We evaluated intervention feasibility based on acceptance, ease of use, and usefulness measures. We also used pilot randomized controlled trial methods to test the intervention’s effect on adherence, which was measured using electronic caps that recorded pill-bottle openings.Results: Acceptance was high based on 76% enrollment and 85% satisfaction. Participants found the hardware and software easy to use. However, attrition was high at 59%, and usefulness ratings were slightly lower. The most common complaint was boredom. Unexpectedly, there was no difference between mismatched and matched messages’ effects, but each group showed a 10%–15% improvement
Seel, Ronald T; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S
To describe the patterns of depression in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory (NFI) Depression Scale, and to classify empirically NFI Depression Scale scores. Depressive symptoms were characterized by using the NFI Depression Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Depression Scale. An outpatient clinic within a Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems center. A demographically diverse sample of 172 outpatients with TBI, evaluated between 1996 and 2000. Not applicable. The NFI, BDI, and MMPI-2 Depression Scale. The Cronbach alpha, analysis of variance, Pearson correlations, and canonical discriminant function analysis were used to examine the psychometric properties of the NFI Depression Scale. Patients with TBI most frequently reported problems with frustration (81%), restlessness (73%), rumination (69%), boredom (66%), and sadness (66%) with the NFI Depression Scale. The percentages of patients classified as depressed with the BDI and the NFI Depression Scale were 37% and 30%, respectively. The Cronbach alpha for the NFI Depression Scale was.93, indicating a high degree of internal consistency. As hypothesized, NFI Depression Scale scores correlated highly with BDI (r=.765) and MMPI-2 Depression Scale T scores (r=.752). The NFI Depression Scale did not correlate significantly with the MMPI-2 Hypomania Scale, thus showing discriminant validity. Normal and clinically depressed BDI scores were most likely to be accurately predicted by the NFI Depression Scale, with 81% and 87% of grouped cases, respectively, correctly classified. Normal and depressed MMPI-2 Depression Scale scores were accurately predicted by the NFI Depression Scale, with 75% and 83% of grouped cases correctly classified, respectively. Patients' NFI Depression Scale scores were mapped to the corresponding BDI categories, and 3 NFI score
cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and selfconfidence based on independent variables: sex, age, athletic specialty, competition level achieved, whether the athlete is coached, daily training time, days of training per week, years spent training, number of athletes with whom they train and number of competitions in which they participate annually. Midrange values were obtained in precompetitive anxiety (cognitive and somatic and high values in self-confidence. Also, as expected with this type of collective, boredom and deception techniques get some very low scores. Conversely, scores for fun are very high, and those obtained for effort and skill are also high, as is perception of success in sport judging by ego and task. We discuss the results and conclude that the profile of the veteran with more confidence and less anxiety is the one who, being a man of over 50 years, shows greater task orientation and sense of fun during practice of more technical athletic specialties and who, in turn, is self trained and has over 20 years’ practice experience.
Bonnaire, C; Varescon, I; Bungener, C
A theoretical position on the role of arousal in gambling comes in the form of Zuckerman's theory of sensation seeking. Zuckerman originally suggested a relationship between sensation seeking and gambling in which individuals entertain the risk of monetary loss for the positive reinforcement produced by states of high arousal during the periods of uncertainty, as well as the positive arousal produced by winning. However, this hypothesis has received inconsistent support. Results of the literature support the view that there is a difference between gambling form selection and use, suggesting that gambling cannot be viewed as an homogeneous activity. The aim of this study was to examine the personality trait sensation seeking in a French population of gamblers who bet on horses at the racetrack. Our results will discuss the disparities of the literature between pathological gambling and sensation seeking. Pathological gamblers who go to the racetrack are higher sensation seekers than regular gamblers. Gamblers betting on many different forms scored higher on sensation seeking. Two groups of gamblers were formed and recruited in five different hippodromes. One group of regular gamblers (n=72), from which pathological gamblers were extracted (n=42). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were used to assess the intensity of the gambling behavior, and sensation seeking was measured by Zuckerman's sensation seeking scale. The results showed that pathological gamblers obtained significantly higher scores of sensation seeking than regular gamblers. These results were significant for the global score of sensation seeking as well as for the factors of disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility. No correlation was found between the sensation-seeking scale total score and the number of regular games played. The sensation-seeking personality trait permits the discrimination of pathological from regular gamblers who go to the
Full Text Available La televisión generalista e industrial es un viaje al pasado, al vacío de sentido y al aburrimiento por su conservadurismo moral, su pereza creativa, su ausencia de pensamiento y su pobre modo de entender el entretenimiento. Pero el monopolio televisivo de la pantalla pública se acabó, pues ahora todo ciudadano puede ser un productor, narrador audiovisual y tener pantalla. Así aparecen nuevas televisiones y otras pantallas que se atreven a contar distinto: un periodismo más subjetivo, testimonial y pensado desde las imágenes; una telenovela hiperrealista que se atreve a intervenir el melodrama desde la comedia, el documental y las culturas locales; unos medios de abajo y con la gente que se hacen para romper con la homogeneidad temática y política de las máquinas mediática, del mercado y del desarrollo. En este ensayo se argumenta a favor de la televisión como lugar de expresión de identidades inestables, experimentos narrativos y posibilidades inéditas para la creación audiovisual… solo si «toma la forma» de mujer, de lo indígena, afro, medio ambiental, otras sexualidades… y juega en nuevas pantallas como Youtube, lo comunitario y el celular. Lo más urgente es que la televisión pase de la obsesión por los contenidos a las exploraciones estéticas y narrativas desde las identidades otras y en narrativas más «colaboractivas» porque existe la posibilidad de ser los relatos que queremos ser.Broadcasting and industrial television is a trip back to the past, to a space devoid of meaning, and to the boredom resulting from its moral conservatism, lack of creativity, thought and entertainment. But television’s monopoly over public screening is over; now, anyone can be a producer, an audiovisual narrator with his or her own screen. New television and other screens are daring to change the way stories are told: a more subjective, testimonial and imagebased journalism; a hyperrealist soap opera that dares to bring melodrama to
Mellor, David J
The Five Freedoms have had major impact on animal welfare thinking internationally. However, despite clear initial statements that the words 'freedom from' should indicate 'as free as possible from', the Freedoms have come to be represented as absolute or fundamental freedoms, even rights, by some animal advocate and other groups. Moreover, a marked increase in scientific understanding over the last two decades shows that the Freedoms do not capture the more nuanced knowledge of the biological processes that is germane to understanding animal welfare and which is now available to guide its management. For example, the named negative experiences of thirst, hunger, discomfort and pain, and others identified subsequently, including breathlessness, nausea, dizziness, debility, weakness and sickness, can never be eliminated, merely temporarily neutralised. Each one is a genetically embedded element that motivates animals to behave in particular ways to obtain specific life-sustaining resources, avoid or reduce physical harm or facilitate recovery from infection or injury. Their undoubted negativity creates a necessary sense of urgency to respond, without which animals would not survive. Also, the temporary neutralisation of these survival-critical affects does not in and of itself generate positive experience. This questions the commonly held assumption that good animal welfare will result when these internally generated negative affects are minimised. Animals may also experience other negative affects that include anxiety, fear, panic, frustration, anger, helplessness, loneliness, boredom and depression. These situation-related affects reflect animals' perceptions of their external circumstances. Although they are elicited by threatening, cramped, barren and/or isolated conditions, they can often be replaced by positive affects when animals are kept with congenial others in spacious, stimulus-rich and safe environments which provide opportunities for them to engage in
Género y motivación situacional en Educación Física: claves para el desarrollo de estrategias de intervención. [Gender and situational motivation in physical education: the key to the development of intervention strategies].
-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2007, the aim of the current study was to analyze the influence of gender on motivational variables and cognitive and affective consequences along different Physical Education didactic units. In this study, 66 students (30 males and 36 females, aged from 15 to 17 years, (M age = 15.29, SD= 0.71, were involved. At the end of the three didactic units different situational motivational variables were measured: basic psychological needs by BPNES, self-determined motivation through the EMSI, affective consequences like enjoyment and boredom using the SSI-EF and predisposition toward the practice of content by PEPS. The results show that girls have a lower perceived competence than boys in soccer (p<.001. However, girls perceive a higher self-determined motivation, enjoyment and a greater cognitive attitude towards acrosport (p<.001. The intra-group analysis shows higher values in soccer content compared to the contents of acrosport in boys (p<.05. On the contrary, girls perceived motivational variables related to acrosport in a positive way compared to the other two contents related to cooperation-opposition sports (p<.05. Therefore, guidelines are proposed to reorient the teaching-learning process in these didactic units, by developing and implementing specific strategies to influence motivational processes based on gender.
Glaucineia Gomes de Lima
Full Text Available Lacan (1968-69 abordou a criança como objeto a liberado. Assim, ela é capturada no gozo, drama em torno do qual a família se estrutura. Tais formulações são questionadas no texto que discute o lugar da criança como objeto de gozo nos tempos atuais. Parte-se da discussão sobre a sociedade da globalização, cuja lógica se orienta para a produção incessante de objetos de consumo, marcada pelo declínio dos ideais e o impulso ao hedonismo mortífero. O imperativo do consumo na sociedade globalizada não é sem conseqüências para a educação, que se guia pela lógica de educar para o mercado, empreitada que tem como efeito o fracasso escolar, um dos nomes do 'mal-estar' na educação. Desponta, entre educadores e educandos, apatia, tédio e indiferença no vazio em que parece ter se tornado o espaço escolar. Os efeitos de retorno do gozo incidem sobre o corpo das crianças, que é objeto de maus-tratos, violência, pedofilia e todo tipo de abusos. Assim, conclui-se questionando qual é o lugar para a escuta do sintoma, face ao imperativo de consumo e a ascensão do objeto, e as suas conseqüências para o apagamento da subjetividade da criança.Lacan approached the child as a freed object a. Thus, the child is captured in pleasure, drama upon which family is structured. These formulations are questioned in the text that approaches child as the current object of pleasure. The departing point is the discussion on the globalized society which heads to the on-going production of consumer objects, labeled by the decay of ideals and its drive to a lethal hedonism. But the consumption imperative in the globalized society has its own consequences on education which entails the logic of instructing for the market, leading to an educational failure, also known as educational uneasiness. What emerges from educators and students is apathy, boredom and indifference in the emptiness that schools seem to have turned into. The results of the return
Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C; Heinrich, Katie M; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee
High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps' High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) are increasingly popular among military personnel. The goal of HIFT programs is to produce high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, endurance and strength that exceed those achieved by following current physical activity recommendations. Given the investment in and popularity of HIFT in the military, it is important to consider the potential impact of this approach to fitness training for the health of military personnel and their risk of training injury. In a previous report in this journal, we addressed the question of whether HIFT was associated with higher injury rates compared to other exercise programs. We argued that concerns about the injury potential of HIFT exercise programs were not supported by the scientific literature to date, although additional research was needed to directly compare injury rates in approaches such as CrossFit to traditional military fitness programs. In this article we will review the scientific data on the practical, health and fitness benefits of HIFT exercise programs for military populations. Practical benefits to HIFT exercise programs include shorter training times and volumes, exercises which simulate combat tasks, lower equipment costs, reduced potential for boredom and adaptation as a result of constant variation, less injury potential compared to high volume endurance training, and scalability to all fitness levels and rehabilitation needs. For instance, HIFT training volumes are typically between 25% to nearly 80% less than traditional military fitness programs without reductions in fitness outcomes. HIFT program also provide an impressive range of health benefits such as the promotion of
Full Text Available El bostezo es un reflejo normal desencadenado por el despertar, el adormecimiento, el aburrimiento, el hambre y los conflictos emocionales, estando también asociado a diversas enfermedades neurológicas y abuso de drogas. Su amplia representación en la escala filogenética de los vertebrados, así también como la presencia en el hombre en edades tan tempranas como las 12 semanas de vida intrauterina, condujo a investigar los mecanismos comunes anátomo-bioquímicos involucrados en este proceso. La demostración que el bostezo no se genera en respuesta a niveles altos de CO2 o bajos de O2 en sangre, desechó la hipótesis metabólica ampliamente difundida. Su estrecha relación con el ciclo sueño-vigilia, especialmente en los momentos previos al dormir y siguiendo al despertar, está vinculado a cambios de estado y de actividad. El único componente de este reflejo que se encuentra sólo en el hombre, es que puede contagiarse. Por lo tanto, se lo considera como constituyente del mecanismo adaptativo de respuesta al stress, formando parte del reflejo de vigilancia, el cual ha adquirido un valor paralingüístico con la evolución, destinado a la protección y cohesión social. Las estructuras anatómicas y los sistemas neuroquímicos comunes intervinientes en el bostezo, el ciclo sueño-vigilia y la epilepsia del lóbulo temporal, nos permitirían postular que el bostezo sería la expresión de un sistema de protección inducido por los opiáceos endógenos, que actuarían en la inhibición y prevención de las crisis epilépticas del lóbulo temporal.Yawning is a normal reflex triggered by arousal, drowsiness, boredom, hunger and emotional conditions and it is associated to several neurological diseases and drug abuse. Its wide presence in the phylogenetic vertebrate scale and even in human fetuses as young as 12 weeks directed the search for the common anatomic and biochemical mechanisms involved. The demonstration that yawning is not
Arnsten, Amy F T
Recent advances in neurobiology have aided our understanding of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The higher-order association cortices in the temporal and parietal lobes and prefrontal cortex (PFC) interconnect to mediate aspects of attention. The parietal association cortices are important for orienting attentional resources in time/space, while the temporal association cortices analyse visual features critical for identifying objects/places. These posterior cortices are engaged by the salience of a stimulus (its physical characteristics such as movement and colour). Conversely, the PFC is critical for regulating attention based on relevance (i.e. its meaning). The PFC is important for screening distractions, sustaining attention and shifting/dividing attention in a task-appropriate manner. The PFC is critical for regulating behaviour/emotion, especially for inhibiting inappropriate emotions, impulses and habits. The PFC is needed for allocating/planning to achieve goals and organizing behaviour/thought. These regulatory abilities are often referred to as executive functions. In humans, the right hemisphere of the PFC is important for regulating distractions, inappropriate behaviour and emotional responses. Imaging studies of patients with ADHD indicate that these regions are underactive with weakened connections to other parts of the brain. The PFC regulates attention and behaviour through networks of interconnected pyramidal cells. These networks excite each other to store goals/rules to guide actions and are highly dependent on their neurochemical environment, as small changes in the catecholamines noradrenaline (NA) or dopamine (DA) can have marked effects on PFC function. NA and DA are released in the PFC according to our arousal state; too little (during fatigue or boredom) or too much (during stress) impairs PFC function. Optimal amounts are released when we are alert/interested. The beneficial effects of NA occur at postsynaptic alpha(2A
understanding this concept, so student are easily forget. Inquiry Based Learning and images media is the alternatives student centered that will be tested in this study, with the aim to determine the improvement of learning outcomes and effectiveness than the konventional method.This study uses a design True Experimental Pretest-Posttes Control Group. The objects study are students of class XI IPS MAN 1 Semarang. Class XI IPS 3 is defined as an experimental class and class XI IPS 1 as the control class. Data gained through documentation, observation and tests. Testing hypothesis use a paired sample t test at the H1 and independent t test at H2.The result of the study is experiment class with Inquiry Based Learning and images media is increase average the achivement from 38,69 to 78,45. The reason of Effectiveness Inquiry Based Learning and images is the completeness result performance of experiment class isr 79,3%, the meaning it higher than performance school targeting, all at once the average experiment class higher than control class which average result experiment class is 78,45 and average result control class is 70,37.In conclusion, there is an increase in learning outcomes in the experimental class, which indicates the number is higher than performance schol targeting and control class, so that concluded Inquiry methods and imagesmediais can increase achivement and more effective than a convensional methode. Suggestions from this study teacherare expected can apply the method Inquiry Based Learning and images media in as the efort to overcome boredom learning in class.
A influência de ritmos musicais sobre a percepção dos estados subjetivos de pacientes adultos em hemodiálise La influencia de ritmos musicales sobre la percepción de los estados subjetivos de pacientes adultos en hemodiálisis The influence of musical rhythms on the perception of subjective states of adult patients on dialysis
Leandro Bechert Caminha
presentaron.Being submitted to dialysis four hours a day, three times a week can mean experiencing boredom, besides discomfort. Patients often report that the time seems to take longer to go by. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of two different musical rhythms in the states of mind and perception of adult patients undergoing dialysis, since the literature on this subject is scarce. The study was performed at a private hospital with 43 patients, who participated in two sessions of musical improvisation with a keyboard. The subjective states and perception were evaluated before and after the intervention. Over 80% of the patients felt that time went by faster after the interventions in both rhythms. However, the pace was a decisive factor in the kind of emotional experience that the patients had.
Rohrlick, D.; Kilb, D. L.; Peach, C. L.; Simms, E.; Yang, A.; Layman, C.; Deutscher, R.
gaming techniques work and which do not. We have discovered how simple concepts such as audio queues and voice-overs play a powerful role in obtaining and holding a player's attention. We have also found having the learning goals built into the gameplay is often more effective than directly quizzing the player's knowledge. By adding surprises to the gameplay, a game does a better job keeping the player's attention. Also, presenting non-traditional physical interactions with the game through motion controls or touch-screens help spur the player's interest. The duration of the game is another important factor. Depending on how much interactivity there is available to the player, the game's duration can either lead to overwhelming frustration if too short, or repetitive boredom if the game is too long. Overall, we find one of the most important parts of the learning gaming experience is making sure players are having fun while learning. After creating our games on various formats and software suites, we are working toward understanding the efficacy of our gaming approaches in not only holding players interest, but also in achieving specific learning goals related to the science behind the gameplay. We hope to encourage educators to view educational games as a useful addition to the range of approaches they use to engage students in science. Perhaps this can even motivate some educators to create their own games.
David J. Mellor
Full Text Available The Five Freedoms have had major impact on animal welfare thinking internationally. However, despite clear initial statements that the words ‘freedom from’ should indicate ‘as free as possible from’, the Freedoms have come to be represented as absolute or fundamental freedoms, even rights, by some animal advocate and other groups. Moreover, a marked increase in scientific understanding over the last two decades shows that the Freedoms do not capture the more nuanced knowledge of the biological processes that is germane to understanding animal welfare and which is now available to guide its management. For example, the named negative experiences of thirst, hunger, discomfort and pain, and others identified subsequently, including breathlessness, nausea, dizziness, debility, weakness and sickness, can never be eliminated, merely temporarily neutralised. Each one is a genetically embedded element that motivates animals to behave in particular ways to obtain specific life-sustaining resources, avoid or reduce physical harm or facilitate recovery from infection or injury. Their undoubted negativity creates a necessary sense of urgency to respond, without which animals would not survive. Also, the temporary neutralisation of these survival-critical affects does not in and of itself generate positive experience. This questions the commonly held assumption that good animal welfare will result when these internally generated negative affects are minimised. Animals may also experience other negative affects that include anxiety, fear, panic, frustration, anger, helplessness, loneliness, boredom and depression. These situation-related affects reflect animals’ perceptions of their external circumstances. Although they are elicited by threatening, cramped, barren and/or isolated conditions, they can often be replaced by positive affects when animals are kept with congenial others in spacious, stimulus-rich and safe environments which provide
story, and pushing researchers to discover unknown aspects of the literary works of ancient Persian language. More stories of Golestan were written in a "realistic" way and besides simplicity, in many respects accord with the contemporary fiction techniques and principles. In this work, the following questions will be answered: 1. What are the most important factors affecting the pace of the narrative Golestan's anecdotes? 2. Does the rapid or slow pace of the narratives impact on their popularity or everlasting? The objectives of this paper can be summarized as follows: 1. Evaluation of use of the additive and reductive factors in speed of Golestan's narrative stories. 2. Examining the Effect of narrative speed as one of the most important topics in everlasting Golestan's stories. 3- Determine the skills Saadi's successful or unsuccessful use of narrative speed. In this paper was to review the pace of the narrative in Sa'di's Golestan anecdotes. The results of this study showed that: 1. In Golestan's anecdots, the use of elements of selection and elimination, single frequency and frequency recounts, speeded up (rapid movement the narrative. 2. In Golestan's anecdotes these factors have been used more: descriptions, subjective expression, adding episode, frequently repeated, the Parish of retrospectively, revealing the mental - emotional, negative acceleration, self-talk, dialogue, quotation, analogy, theorizing and comparing the characters. But these elements slowed down the speed of narrative stories. Thus, according to the results of this paper can be said the Golestan's anecdotes are narrative s in which the pace is slow. However this pace of the narrative is effective because pace factors of the narratives are charm and reputation and in the popularity of Golestan, have left a positive effect. Thus, this feature makes the reader without boredom, enjoy reading stories, adventures and events and pursue them until the end. Witness is the various and several
Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken
Extra-territorial readers of this journal must surely hover between amazement and boredom at the periodic references to the time and energy spent in England in reviewing, changing, re-reviewing and re-changing its educational programmes from ages 5-18. (Scotland has its own educational system and seems to be doing quite well, thank you.) Recently, Sir Ron Dearing, the Government's educational trouble-shooter, who in a few short months managed to sort out the 5-16 curriculum to the satisfaction (more or less) of both Establishment and politicians, was given the task of redefining the principles underlying the education of 16-19 year-olds. In March 1996 he produced a report that has been greeted, initially at least, with the universal approval of the press and politicians of all parties. The main and century-old problem with the English educational system is the deep divide between academic (pre-university) and vocational education. This may reflect the broad division between `gentlemen' and players (artisans) that seems to be a feature of English society, and which may be too wide for a mere education system to bridge. A second problem has been the perceived narrowness, due to overspecialization into just three subjects, of pre-university courses, which has tended to produce yet another divide - between arts graduates (interesting, lively, well-read, cultured) and science graduates (boring, uncouth, illiterate). However, the rather boringly titled Review of Qualifications for 16-19 Year Olds, Summary ReportFootnote is at least clear in its intentions of bridging both gaps. It reviews the continuing decline in the popularity of mathematics and science subjects as pre-university (A-level) courses, and records that the parallel vocational courses (GNVQ) in science do not yet match their status and their acceptance by employers, and people in general. It accepts the failure of Advanced Supplementary courses to provide a broadening of the 16-19 curriculum. It makes many
Mellor, David J.
welfare and which is now available to guide its management. For example, the named negative experiences of thirst, hunger, discomfort and pain, and others identified subsequently, including breathlessness, nausea, dizziness, debility, weakness and sickness, can never be eliminated, merely temporarily neutralised. Each one is a genetically embedded element that motivates animals to behave in particular ways to obtain specific life-sustaining resources, avoid or reduce physical harm or facilitate recovery from infection or injury. Their undoubted negativity creates a necessary sense of urgency to respond, without which animals would not survive. Also, the temporary neutralisation of these survival-critical affects does not in and of itself generate positive experience. This questions the commonly held assumption that good animal welfare will result when these internally generated negative affects are minimised. Animals may also experience other negative affects that include anxiety, fear, panic, frustration, anger, helplessness, loneliness, boredom and depression. These situation-related affects reflect animals’ perceptions of their external circumstances. Although they are elicited by threatening, cramped, barren and/or isolated conditions, they can often be replaced by positive affects when animals are kept with congenial others in spacious, stimulus-rich and safe environments which provide opportunities for them to engage in behaviours they find rewarding. These behaviours may include environment-focused exploration and food acquisition activities as well as animal-to-animal interactive activities, all of which can generate various forms of comfort, pleasure, interest, confidence and a sense of control. Animal welfare management should aim to reduce the intensity of survival-critical negative affects to tolerable levels that nevertheless still elicit the required behaviours, and should also provide opportunities for animals to behave in ways they find rewarding, noting
Üstün Yetenekli Öğrencilerin Öğrenme, Öğretme, Öğretmenlik Mesleği ve Öğretmen Özellikleri ile İlgili Görüşleri (Gifted Students' Perceptions about Learning, Teaching, Teacher Characteristics and Teaching as a Profession
teaching process during which students improve their own development and feel enjoyment. 19.6 % of the participants considered teaching as a profession they wished to make. In contrast, 80.4 % of the students did not want to. Gifted students' views about teaching as a profession did not vary by gender (χ2(1= 0.133; p=.716 and grade (χ2(2= 3.946; p=.139. The reasons why gifted students wished teaching as a profession were classified in several categories. The highest rated of these was concerned with the idea that by teaching, they contribute to the lives of others and this process provides students with positive feelings. The second highest rated reason was that they wanted to be a teacher in order to save other students from boredom in the classroom they encountered during their school years. The other reason was the belief that teaching as a profession is a holy job. The reasons why the gifted students did not want to have teaching as a career was related to the characteristics of this profession. Students perceived this profession to be difficult, boring, monotonous, tedious and requiring patience. They also did not consider teaching as a profession because it did not fit their interests and abilities. Another important reason that gifted students did not want to have a teaching career was the low income teachers have. Gifted students’ ranking of 14 teacher characteristics in importance revealed interesting findings. Gifted students considered “knowledge” to be the most important characteristics of a teacher (M= 2.826 followed by understanding (M= 3.913, and fairness (M = 4.391. Proficiency in Turkish (M= 5.152 and inquiry (M= 5.196 were also found to be important. Experience (6.065, emotionality (7.087, impressive tone of voice (7.5 and discipline (7.674 were of secondary importance for gifted students they looked for from teachers. They ranked charisma (9.283 as the tenth most important characteristics. Finally, gifted students considered teachers’ physical
AMAYA REY MARÍA CONSUELO DEL PILAR
/day, oils and butters (45,8±19,4 g/day, vegetables (35,2±58,2 g/day, eggs (26,7±24 g/day, snacks (10,3±13,4 g/day and fast food (4±11 g/day. Men reported alcohol consumption. Intake of energy and nutrients: While protein intake was high (126,3% of the requirements, the intake of energy was deficient (88,7% of the requirements. Deficiencies were found in the consumption of vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, calcium and iron. Food habits: 74,6% of adolescents skipped at least one of the main daily meals. 35,3% of adolescents reported that their emotional situations such as anguish, anxiety, sadness and boredom influenced the increase of food consumption, while for 46,8% these feelings led them to reduce their food intake. 76,6% of adolescents would regularly eat in company while 22,4% would do it alone. 11% of the adolescents that participate are at risk of developing feeding conduct disorders. 45,8% of the adolescents’ families shop at big supermarket chains; the mother is who regularly buys the food (58,2 % and kooks it (71,1%. 78,6% of the adolescents´ families consume food outside home. Family constitutes the greatest influence on food, according to the adolescents (80,1%, followed by the media (10,9%, friends (5% and school (4%. Conclusions: Adolescents present feeding practices that may constitute a risk to cause disease due to inadequate food consumption and which are translated in deficient contribution of energy, vitamin A, B complex vitamins, calcium and iron and high protein contribution. Feeding practices: there is no adequate distribution of food during the day. Emotions affect food consumption; family and media have great influence on the feeding conduct of adolescents.A alimentação dos adolescentes é uma questão de interesse para a enfermagem, vistos os efeitos das ações de promoção da saúde e prevenção de doenças que se podem realizar durante essa etapa e o impacto que ela tem na saúde atual e futura destes jovens
OLGA OSORIO MURILLO
adolescentes.Feeding of adolescents constitutes a topic of interest for nursing due to the effect that health promotion and disease prevention actions have. Said actions can be carried out during this life phase and have impact on current and future health of young people. Objective: evaluate the practices and influences of food in school adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 201 adolescents, which were evaluated for food intake, risks of feeding conduct disorders, feeding circumstances, influence of family, friends, school and media. Results: food consumption: the highest daily consumption was: cereals (436,2±172g/day, soft drinks and sweetened drinks (225,9±152 g/day, meat (155,4±70 g/day, fruits (145,3±66 g/day and diary (123,3±95 g/day. Also found was lower consumption of: sugars, pastries and ice creams (60,6±30,5 g/day, leguminous (49,5±58,2 g/day, oils and butters (45,8±19,4 g/day, vegetables (35,2±58,2 g/day, eggs (26,7±24 g/day, snacks (10,3±13,4 g/day and fast food (4±11 g/day. Men reported alcohol consumption. Intake of energy and nutrients: While protein intake was high (126,3% of the requirements, the intake of energy was deficient (88,7% of the requirements. Deficiencies were found in the consumption of vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, calcium and iron. Food habits: 74,6% of adolescents skipped at least one of the main daily meals. 35,3% of adolescents reported that their emotional situations such as anguish, anxiety, sadness and boredom influenced the increase of food consumption, while for 46,8% these feelings led them to reduce their food intake. 76,6% of adolescents would regularly eat in company while 22,4% would do it alone. 11% of the adolescents that participate are at risk of developing feeding conduct disorders. 45,8% of the adolescents' families shop at big supermarket chains; the mother is who regularly buys the food (58,2 % and kooks it (71,1%. 78,6% of the adolescents´ families
identification of gas components in lighter has been thought. To enlighten this situation a simple experiment design has been planned.Next and the ninth article were sent to TOJDE by Terhemba Nom AMBE-UVA. Title of paper is “Interactivity in distance education: The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN experience”. Terhemba Nom AMBE-UVA is from School of Arts and Social Sciences National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN. The paper represents a study of students’ experience of interactivity in distance education programmes at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN. Through surveys and focus groups with students, facilitators, and administrative support staff, we found out that interactivity is a key determinant of student success rate. Majority of the students are workers in the urban areas who combine “work and learn” which is the motto of NOUN. The survey showed that majority of the students depended on their facilitators as key resource persons and on their peers or study groups both for required and voluntary interactivity to reinforce their learning. This was able to reduce loneliness, boredom and loss of community experienced in distance education. Because NOUN has not completed its Repository, Production, Distribution, and Administration Headquarters (REPRODAhq and equipped the study centers with up-to-date technological facilities, this frustrated accessibility that is dialectically linked to interactivity. Next three paper from Turkey. The tenth article is written by Bahar BARAN and Kursat CAGILTAY from Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Faculty of Education Middle East Technical University, Ankara, TURKEY It is titled as “Teachers' Experiences in Online Professional Development Environment ”. Their qualitative study aims to explore teachers’ opinions on traditional professional development (PD courses and their experiences from an online course. 10 teachers from a private school participated in an online