Sample records for bored horizontal disposal


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrusenko E.N.


    Full Text Available In connection with elaboration of new technologies of hydrocarbons extraction from shales, in the oil and gas industry, the great attention is payed to the problems of drilling inclined and horizontal bore-holes. The peculiarities of these bore-hole drivage consist in essential influence of friction and contact forces on proceeding of drilling processes. In this paper, the problem about bifurcational buckling and small bending vibration of a rotating drill string lying in the channel of a horizontal bore-hole is stated. With allowance made for friction forces and additional constraint reactions, differential equations are deduced, their eigen-value solutions describing stability and vibration of the drill string of finite and infinite lengths are received.

  2. Vadose Zone Characterization and Monitoring Beneath Waste Disposal Pits Using Horizontal Boreholes (United States)

    McLin, S. G.; Newman, B. D.; Broxton, D. E.


    Vadose zone characterization and monitoring immediately below landfills using horizontal boreholes is an emerging technology. However, this topic has received little attention in the peer-reviewed literature. The value of this approach is that activities are conducted below the waste, providing clear and rapid verification of containment. Here we report on two studies that examined the utility of horizontal boreholes for environmental characterization and monitoring under radioactive waste disposal pits. Both studies used core sample analyses to determine the presence of various radionuclides, organics, or metals. At one borehole site, water content and pore-water chloride concentrations were also used to interpret vadose zone behavior. At another site, we examined the feasibility of using flexible membrane liners in uncased boreholes for periodic monitoring. For this demonstration, these retrievable liners were air-injected into boreholes on multiple occasions carrying different combinations of environmental surveillance equipment. Instrument packages included a neutron logging device to measure volumetric water at regular intervals, high-absorbency collectors that wicked available water from borehole walls, or vent tubes that were used to measure air permeability and collect air samples. The flexible and retrievable liner system was an effective way to monitor water content and collect air permeability data. The high-absorbency collectors were efficient at extracting liquid water for contaminant analyses even at volumetric water contents below 10 percent, and revealed vapor-phase tritium migration at one disposal pit. Both demonstration studies proved that effective characterization and periodic monitoring in horizontal boreholes is both feasible and adaptable to many waste disposal problems and locations.

  3. Horizontal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Chunping


    [1]Wu, H., Bochner technique in differential geometry, Advance in Math. (in Chinese), 1981, 10(1): 57-76.[2]Morrow, J., Kodaira, K., Complex Manifolds, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971.[3]Abate, M., Aikou, T., Patrizio, G., Preface for Complex Finsler Geometry, Cont. Math., Vol. 196, Providence,RI: Amer. Math. Soc., 1996, 97-100.[4]Abate, M., Patrizio, G., Finsler Metrics-A global approach with applications to geometric function theory,Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Vol. 1591, Bedin: Springer-Verlag, 1994.[5]Antonelli, P. L., Lackey, B.(eds.), The Theory of Finslerian Laplacians and Applications, MAIA 459, Dordrecht:Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.[6]Bao, D., Lackey, B., A Hodge decomposition theorem for Finsler spaces, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 323, Serie 1,1996, 51-56.[7]Munteanu, O., Weitzenbock formulas for horizontal and vertical Laplacians, Houston Journal of Mathematics,2003, 29(4): 889-900.[8]Faran, J. J., The equivalence problem for complex Finsler Hamiltonians, Cont. Math.,Vol. 196, Providence, RI:Amer. Math. Soc., 1996, 133-144.[9]Kobayashi, S., Complex Finsler vector bundles, Cont. Math., Vol. 196, Providence, RI: Amer. Math. Soc.,1996,145-153.[10]Aikou, T., On complex Finsler manifolds, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. (Math. Phys. & Chem.), 1991, 24:9-25.

  4. Transformation of TPX619 Horizontal Digital Boring Electrical Control System on PLC%TPX619卧式数显镗床电气控制系统的PLC改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠翠; 龙斌


    Using PLC to reform the TPX619 horizontal digital display boring machine, giving the new electrical control circuit and program design of ladder diagram in the paper. The machine with new control system works stably,with less breakdown and higher efficiency.%)采用可编程控制器(PLC)对TPX619卧式数显镗床的电气控制系统进行改造,给出了改造后的电气控制电路及程序设计梯形图,改造后机床运行稳定,降低了故障率,提高了生产效率。

  5. Mind where you bore!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    With renewable energies on the up and up, geothermal heating is becoming increasingly popular. An ardent supporter of sustainable development, CERN welcomes this trend, even though it has certain risks for the Laboratory.   More and more people in Switzerland and France are switching to geothermal heating, with the result that more and more bore holes are being sunk for geothermal probes. Since, on average, such bore holes go down to depths of 100 m they can have an impact on CERN’s underground facilities, which are also located at approximately that depth. In the Canton of Geneva, all bore holes, whatever their depth, are subject to planning permission. Applications for planning permission are granted – or refused – only after consultation with the Ground survey department (GESDEC). In France, only bore holes below a depth of 100 m require planning permission. In theory, bore holes to lesser depths simply need to be declared to the DREAL (Dire...

  6. Investigation of a mesospheric bore event over northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li


    Full Text Available A mesospheric bore event was observed using an OH all-sky airglow imager (ASAI at Xinglong (40.2° N, 117.4° E, in northern China, on the night of 8–9 January 2011. Simultaneous observations by a Doppler meteor radar, a broadband sodium lidar, and TIMED/SABER OH intensity and temperature measurements are used to investigate the characteristics and environment of the bore propagation and the possible relations with the Na density perturbations. The bore propagated from northeast to southwest and divided the sky into bright and dark halves. The calculations show that the bore has an average phase velocity of 68 m s−1. The crests following the bore have a horizontal wavelength of ~ 22 km. These parameters are consistent with the hydraulic jump theory proposed by Dewan and Picard, as well as the previous bore reports. Simultaneous wind measurements from the Doppler meteor radar at Shisanling (40.3° N, 116.2° E and temperature data from SABER on board the TIMED satellite are used to characterize the propagating environment of the bore. The result shows that a thermal-Doppler duct exists near the OH layer that supports the horizontal propagation of the bore. Simultaneous Na lidar observations at Yanqing (40.4° N, 116.0° E suggest that there is a downward displacement of Na density during the passage of the mesospheric bore event.

  7. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Raiko, H.; Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Salo, J.P. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)


    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.).

  8. Surgical area contamination--comparable bacterial counts using disposable head and mask and helmet aspirator system, but dramatic increase upon omission of head-gear: an experimental study in horizontal laminar air-flow. (United States)

    Friberg, B; Friberg, S; Ostensson, R; Burman, L G


    The effect of different head coverings on air-borne transmission of bacteria and particles in the surgical area was studied during 30 strictly standardized sham operations performed in a horizontal laminar air flow (LAF) unit. The operating team members wore disposable gowns plus either a non-sterile head covering consisting of a squire type disposable hood and triple laminar face mask, a sterilized helmet aspirator system or no head cover at all. In the wound area both types of head cover resulted in low and comparable air (means of 8 and 4cfu/m(3)) and surface contamination (means of 69 and 126cfu/m(2)/h) rates. Omission of head-gear resulted in a three- to five-fold increase (P > or = 0.01- 0.001), depending on site sampled air contamination rate (mean of 22cfu/m(3)) whereas the bacterial sedimentation rate in the wound area increased about 60-fold ( P > or = 0.0001). A proper head cover minimized the emission of apparently heavy particles that were not removed by the horizontal LAF and contained mainly streptococci, presumably of respiratory tract origin. Dust particle counts revealed no differences between the three experimental situations. No correlation between air and surface contamination rates or between air contamination and air particle counts was found. We conclude that, from a bacteriological point of view, disposable hoods of squire type and face masks are equally as efficient as a helmet aspirator system and both will efficiently contain the substantial emission of bacteria-carrying droplets from the respiratory tract occurring when head cover is omitted. Finally, the use of bacterial air counts to assess surgical site surface contamination in horizontal LAF units must be seriously questioned.

  9. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi


    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  10. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi


    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  11. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen


    Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make

  12. The propagation of internal undular bores over variable topography (United States)

    Grimshaw, R.; Yuan, C.


    In the coastal ocean, large amplitude, horizontally propagating internal wave trains are commonly observed. These are long nonlinear waves and can be modelled by equations of the Korteweg-de Vries type. Typically they occur in regions of variable bottom topography when the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation is an appropriate model. Of special interest is the situation when the coefficient of the quadratic nonlinear term changes sign at a certain critical point. This case has been widely studied for a solitary wave, which is extinguished at the critical point and replaced by a train of solitary waves of the opposite polarity to the incident wave, riding on a pedestal of the original polarity. Here we examine the same situation for an undular bore, represented by a modulated periodic wave train. Numerical simulations and some asymptotic analysis based on Whitham modulation equations show that the leading solitary waves in the undular bore are destroyed and replaced by a developing rarefaction wave supporting emerging solitary waves of the opposite polarity. In contrast the rear of the undular bore emerges with the same shape, but with reduced wave amplitudes, a shorter overall length scale and moves more slowly.

  13. A preliminary study of the turbulence features of the tidal bore in the Qiantang River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢东风; 潘存鸿


    In this paper, the turbulence characteristics of the tidal flow in the Qiantang River, China, the world-famous Qiantang bore, are studied. A detailed field observation at the Yanguan section of the Qiantang River was carried out during the spring tide in October 2010 with a continuous collection of high frequency turbulence data. The data analysis shows that the hydrodynamic processes are characterized by a strong tidal bore. Statistics of the turbulence such as the probability distributions of the turbulent components, the variance terms and the covariance terms are found consistent with those of previous studies of estuaries without the tidal bore. However, along the vertical profile, the distributions of all variables become more scattered downwards. The horizontal turbulence fluctuations are of a similar magnitude while the vertical turbulence has a fluctuation magnitude about 1/3 of that of the horizontal turbulences. The fluctuation strengths and the Reynolds stresses are much larger than those of other estuaries when the bore arrives. The bottom shear stress varies periodically with the tides, less than 0.44 N/m2 during the ebb but is increased drastically at the bore arrival, with the maximum being 0.92 N/m2. A good linear relationship is found between the bottom shear stress and the bottom suspended sediment concentration.

  14. A Multi-Instrument Measurement of a Mesospheric Bore at the Equator (United States)

    Shiokawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Otsuka, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M., III


    We have made a comprehensive measurement of mesospheric bore phenomenon at the equator at Kototabang, Indonesia (0.2 deg S, 100.3 deg E), using an airglow imager, an airglow temperature photometer, a meteor radar, and the SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite. The bore was detected in airglow images of both OH-band (peak emission altitude: 87 km) and 557.7-nm (96 km) emissions, as east-west front-like structure propagating northward with a velocity of 52-58 m/s. Wave trains with a horizontal wavelength of 30-70 km are observed behind the bore front. The airglow intensity decreases for all the mesospheric emissions of OI (557.7 nm), OH-band, O2-band (altitude: 94 km), and Na (589.3 nm) (90 km) after the bore passage. The rotational temperatures of both OH-band and O2-band also decrease approximately 10 K after the bore passage. An intense shear in northward wind velocity of 80m/s was observed at altitudes of 84-90 km by the meteor radar. Kinetic temperature profile at altitudes of 20-120 km was observed near Kototabang by TIMED/SABER. On the basis of these observations, we discuss generation and ducting of the observed mesospheric bore.

  15. Equilibrium equations for nonlinear buckling analysis of drill-strings in 3D curved well-bores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the development of drilling technology, the oil/gas well has evolved from its early vertical straight form to the inclined, horizontal, plane curved, or even 3D curved well-bore. Understanding of the buck- ling behavior of a drill-string in a well-bore is crucial for the success of a drilling operation. Therefore, equilibrium equations for analyzing the buckling behavior of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are required. Based on Love’s equilibrium equations for a curved and twisted rod in space, a set of equi- librium equations for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are de- rived by introducing a radial constraint of the well-bore. The proposed formulae can account for the well curvature and tortuosity. Thus, it can be used to analyze the buckling behaviors of a drill-string constrained in a well-bore and subjected to axial compression, torsion at its upper end, and gravity simultaneously. It is worth noting that the existing equations in the literature for a drill-string in a straight and plane curved well-bore with a constant curvature are a special case of the proposed model. Thus, the present model can provide a theoretical basis for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string constrained in a 3D curved well-bore.

  16. Equilibrium equations for nonlinear buckling analysis of drill-strings in 3D curved well-bores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN MeiLan; GAN LiFei


    With the development of drilling technology, the oil/gas well has evolved from its early vertical straight form to the inclined, horizontal, plane curved, or even 3D curved well-bore. Understanding of the buck-ling behavior of a drill-string in a well-bore is crucial for the success of a drilling operation. Therefore, equilibrium equations for analyzing the buckling behavior of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are required. Based on Love's equilibrium equations for a curved and twisted rod in space, s set of equi-librium equations for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are de-rived by introducing a radial constraint of the well-bore. The proposed formulae can account for the well curvature and tortuosity. Thus, it can be used to analyze the buckling behaviors of a drill-string constrained in a well-bore and subjected to axial compression, torsion at its upper end, and gravity simultaneously. It is worth noting that the existing equations in the literature for a drill-string in a straight and plane curved well-bore with a constant curvature are a special case of the proposed model. Thus, the present model can provide s theoretical basis for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string constrained in a 3D curved well-bore.

  17. Number of Producible and Service Well Bores on Federal Lands (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of producible well bores by state as of the end of each fiscal year. A well bore is considered producible if the well bore is...

  18. Horizontal Accelerator (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  19. Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory : tunnel boring

    CERN Document Server

    SSC Media Production


    This film will take you down into the tunnel, show you the technology involved in boring the tunnel, and show what the SSC fmeans to the U.S. in terms of scientific discovery, innovative collaborations with industry and stimulating the job base nation-wide.

  20. The possible forms of bore resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balasubramanian


    Full Text Available A method is proposed for calculating the bore resistance of projectile by assuming as given the pressure-space curve. Applying this method to the Le Due and the isothermal systems of internal ballistics, it is shown that these systems imply certain physically in admissible features at the beginning of the motion.

  1. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars


    The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different...

  2. Experimental hydrodynamic study of the Qiantang River tidal bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jing; PAN Cun-hong; KUANG Cui-ping; ZENG Jian; CHEN Gang


    To study the hydrodynamics of tidal bore,a physical modeling study is carried out in a rectangular flume with considerations of the tidal bore heights,the propagation speeds,the tidal current velocities,the front steepness,and the bore shapes.After the validation with the field observations,the experimental results are analyzed,and it is shown that:(1) the greater initial ebb velocity or the larger initial water depth impedes the tidal bore propagation,(2) the maximum bore height appears at an initial ebb velocity in the range of 0.5 m/s-1.5 m/s,(3) when the Froude number exceeds 1.2,an undular bore appears,after it exceeds 1.3,a breaking bore occurs,and after it exceeds 1.7,the bore is broken.

  3. Mud and cement for horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurdo, C.; Georges, C.; Martin, M.


    High-angle and horizontal well bores raise many questions concerning the characteristics of mud and cement. This paper is a summary of the authors' knowledge and work on these two subjects. For all research carried out, large or full-scale laboratory test plants were used. Cutting transport is not only a problem in horizontal conditions but hole angles of 25 to 65/sup 0/ can be even more critical when parameters such as mud rheological properties and velocities are not optimized. Drilling a long horizontal drain creates a dynamic annulus pressure unbalance. This can lead to a loss and kick situation. Two test benches were thus used to obtain a good understanding of the inefficiency of conventional plugging methods and of the difficulties of gas migration control in subhorizontal well bores. High concentrations of LCM, high rheological properties of fluids and low flow rates increase the changes of solving the first problem. The results of the second bench demonstrate the difficulties of annulus gas evacution for angles varying from 90 to 100 degrees, or from over-gauged sections in horizontal holes.

  4. Disposable rabbit (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.


    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  5. Disposal rabbit (United States)

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.


    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  6. General model for boring tool optimization (United States)

    Moraru, G. M.; rbes, M. V. Ze; Popescu, L. G.


    Optimizing a tool (and therefore those for boring) consist in improving its performance through maximizing the objective functions chosen by the designer and/or by user. In order to define and to implement the proposed objective functions, contribute numerous features and performance required by tool users. Incorporation of new features makes the cutting tool to be competitive in the market and to meet user requirements.

  7. The biomechanics of burrowing and boring. (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly M


    Burrowers and borers are ecosystem engineers that alter their physical environments through bioturbation, bioirrigation and bioerosion. The mechanisms of moving through solid substrata by burrowing or boring depend on the mechanical properties of the medium and the size and morphology of the organism. For burrowing animals, mud differs mechanically from sand; in mud, sediment grains are suspended in an organic matrix that fails by fracture. Macrofauna extend burrows through this elastic mud by fracture. Sand is granular and non-cohesive, enabling grains to more easily move relative to each other, and macrofaunal burrowers use fluidization or plastic rearrangement of grains. In both sand and mud, peristaltic movements apply normal forces and reduce shear. Excavation and localized grain compaction are mechanisms that plastically deform sediments and are effective in both mud and sand, with bulk excavation being used by larger organisms and localized compaction by smaller organisms. Mechanical boring of hard substrata is an extreme form of excavation in which no compaction of burrow walls occurs and grains are abraded with rigid, hard structures. Chemical boring involves secretion to dissolve or soften generally carbonate substrata. Despite substantial differences in the mechanics of the media, similar burrowing behaviors are effective in mud and sand.

  8. Undular bore theory for the Gardner equation. (United States)

    Kamchatnov, A M; Kuo, Y-H; Lin, T-C; Horng, T-L; Gou, S-C; Clift, R; El, G A; Grimshaw, R H J


    We develop modulation theory for undular bores (dispersive shock waves) in the framework of the Gardner, or extended Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation, which is a generic mathematical model for weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave propagation, when effects of higher order nonlinearity become important. Using a reduced version of the finite-gap integration method we derive the Gardner-Whitham modulation system in a Riemann invariant form and show that it can be mapped onto the well-known modulation system for the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The transformation between the two counterpart modulation systems is, however, not invertible. As a result, the study of the resolution of an initial discontinuity for the Gardner equation reveals a rich phenomenology of solutions which, along with the KdV-type simple undular bores, include nonlinear trigonometric bores, solibores, rarefaction waves, and composite solutions representing various combinations of the above structures. We construct full parametric maps of such solutions for both signs of the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation. Our classification is supported by numerical simulations.

  9. High-field open versus short-bore magnetic resonance imaging of the spine: a randomized controlled comparison of image quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Enders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to compare the image quality of spinal magnetic resonance (MR imaging performed on a high-field horizontal open versus a short-bore MR scanner in a randomized controlled study setup. METHODS: Altogether, 93 (80% women, mean age 53 consecutive patients underwent spine imaging after random assignement to a 1-T horizontal open MR scanner with a vertical magnetic field or a 1.5-T short-bore MR scanner. This patient subset was part of a larger cohort. Image quality was assessed by determining qualitative parameters, signal-to-noise (SNR and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR, and quantitative contour sharpness. RESULTS: The image quality parameters were higher for short-bore MR imaging. Regarding all sequences, the relative differences were 39% for the mean overall qualitative image quality, 53% for the mean SNR values, and 34-37% for the quantitative contour sharpness (P<0.0001. The CNR values were also higher for images obtained with the short-bore MR scanner. No sequence was of very poor (nondiagnostic image quality. Scanning times were significantly longer for examinations performed on the open MR scanner (mean: 32±22 min versus 20±9 min; P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized controlled comparison of spinal MR imaging with an open versus a short-bore scanner, short-bore MR imaging revealed considerably higher image quality with shorter scanning times. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00715806.

  10. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)


    Three holes the size of deposition holes (depth 7.5 m and diameter 1.5 m) were bored in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto, Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string. The purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. The boring method was found to be technically feasible and efficient. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the hole, measurements of the surface roughness using a laser profilometer and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, He-gas diffusion and the {sup 14}C-polymethylmethacrylate methods. 43 refs.

  11. MWD resistivity tool guides bit horizontally in thin bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagin, R.A. (Teleco Oilfield Services, Inc., Houston, TX (US))


    This paper reports on the MWD dual processing resistivity (DPR) measurements and modelling which helped steer a horizontal well through a thin oil zone to avoid a nearby oil/water contact. The horizontal well came on-line flowing 380 bo/d with no water production. Offset vertical wells produce an average of 33 bo/d with an 83% saltwater cut. Until recently, horizontal drilling efforts have been focused on thick reservoirs in which the stratigraphic position of the well bore within the target formation was not critical. Navigation through much thinner reservoirs is now possible with a technique that uses an electromagnetic propagation resistivity tool.

  12. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia


    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail ( For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  13. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia


    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail ( For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  14. Catalog of worldwide tidal bore occurrences and characteristics (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Lynch, David K.


    Documentation of tidal bore phenomena occurring throughout the world aids in defining the typical geographical setting of tidal bores and enables prediction of their occurrence in remote areas. Tidal bores are naturally occurring, tidally generated, solitary, moving water waves up to 6 meters in height that form upstream in estuaries with semidiurnal or nearly semidiurnal tide ranges exceeding 4 meters. Estuarine settings that have tidal bores typically include meandering fluvial systems with shallow gradients. Bores are well defined, having amplitudes greater than wind- or turbulence-caused waves, and may be undular or breaking. Formation of a bore is dependent on depth and velocity of the incoming tide and river outflow. Bores may occur in series (in several channels) or in succession (marking each tidal pulse). Tidal bores propagate up tidal estuaries a greater distance than the width of the estuary and most occur within 100 kilometers upstream of the estuary mouth. Because they are dynamic, bores cause difficulties in some shipping ports and are targets for eradication. Tidal bores are known to occur, or to have occurred in the recent past, in at least 67 localities in 16 countries at all latitudes, including every continent except Antarctica. Parts of Argentina, Canada, Central America, China, Mozambique, Madagascar, Northern Europe, North and South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.S.R. probably have additional undiscovered or unreported tidal bores. In Turnagain Arm estuary in Alaska, bores cause an abrupt increase in salinity, suspended sediment, surface character, and bottom pressure, a decrease in illumination of the water column, and a change in water temperature. Tidal bores occurring in Turnagain Arm, Alaska, have the

  15. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdiviez, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  16. The Bored Self in Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Kärreman, Dan


    This article draws attention to reported experiences of boredom in knowledge work. Drawing on extensive qualitative data gathered at two management consultancy firms, we analyze these experiences as a particular interaction with identity regulation and work experiences. We conceptualize the reports...... of the bored self as a combination of unfilled aspirations and the sense of stagnation, leading to an arrested identity. Our contribution is to expand extant conceptualizations of employee interactions with identity regulation, in particular relating to identity work and identification. The findings provide...

  17. Development of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada Test Site (United States)

    Esparza, James; Jensen, Brian


    Past fundamental work at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) U1a complex has been performed using explosively-driven flyer plates which provide high-pressure loading at the expense of some shock. In contrast, plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocity for impact experiments at NTS. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt. This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results of the qualification testing of the large-bore gun, the confinement system, and the explosively driven valve will be presented.

  18. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method


    Zhiqiang Liu(Institute of High Energy Physics); Yiping Meng


    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are describe...

  19. A modified calculation model for groundwater flowing to horizontal seepage wells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wei Wang; Peng Chen; Qingqing Zheng; Xinyu Zheng; Kunming Lu


    The simulation models for groundwater flowing to horizontal seepage wells proposed by Wang and Zhang (2007) are based on the theory of coupled seepage-pipe flow model which treats the well pipe as a highly permeable medium. However, the limitations of the existing model were found during applications. Specifically, a high-resolution grid is required to depict the complex structure of horizontal seepage wells; the permeability of the screen or wall material of radiating bores is usually neglected; and the irregularly distributed radiating bores cannot be accurately simulated. A modified calculation model of groundwater flowing to a horizontal seepage well is introduced in this paper. The exchange flow between well pipe and aquifer couples the turbulent flow inside the horizontal seepage well with laminar flow in the aquifer. The modified calculation model can reliably calculate the pumpage of a real horizontal seepage well. The characteristics of radiating bores, including the diameter, the permeability of screen material and irregular distribution of radiating bores, can be accurately depicted using the modified model that simulates the scenario in which several horizontal seepage wells work together.

  20. A novel surface-repairing technique for gun bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Bing; YU Xu-dong; WU Bin; WANG Cheng-tao


    A novel surface-repairing technique for gun bore was investigated, which was combined with the merits such as anti-erosion wear, damage-repairing, and etc. It was accomplished by adhering a special rare earth nanocom posite evenly to the micro-surface of gun bore. The effectiveness of this technique was approved by the target-firing using a domestic automatic rifle with chromium-coated bore. Its characteristics were discussed based on the surface analyses of the rifle bore by secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  1. Intraoperative wide bore nasogastric tube knotting: A rare incidence. (United States)

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Sethi, Surendra K; Khare, Arvind; Saini, Sudheendra


    Nasogastric tubes are commonly used in anesthetic practice for gastric decompression in surgical patients intraoperatively. The indications for its use are associated with a number of potential complications. Knotting of small-bore nasogastric tubes is usually common both during insertion and removal as compared to wide bore nasogastric tubes. Knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube is a rare complication and if occurs usually seen in long standing cases. We hereby report a case of incidental knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube that occurred intraoperatively.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Hydraulic fracturing technologies of horizontal well are important ways to develop oil-gas field with low permeability. Productivity forecast of fractured horizontal wells is a difficult problem of hydraulic fracturing technologies. Basing on non-steady flow of fractures fluid during production, applying potential function principles, superposition principle and mathematical method for solving, coupling of seepage flow in the formation and pipe flow in the well bore, a new model on multi-fracture interference productivity forecast of fractured horizontal well is established in this article. The results indicate the coincidence rate between this model and practice is high. The pressure loss in the horizontal well bore has definite influence on the production status of fractured horizontal wells. The productions of different fractures in horizontal well bore are unequal, the productions of outer fractures are higher than middle fractures; the pressure in the well bore shows an uneven distribution, the pressure declines gradually from finger tip to heel end. Asymmetry of fractures may make productivity of fractured horizontal wells decline. The conclusions are instructive in designing fractured horizontal well for low permeability reservoir.

  3. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)


    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  4. Nozzle assembly for an earth boring drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madigan, J. A.


    A nozzle assembly for an earth boring drill bit of the type adapted to receive drilling fluid under pressure and having a nozzle bore in the bottom thereof positioned closely adjacent the well bore bottom when the bit is in engagement therewith with the bore having inner and outer portions. The nozzle assembly comprises a generally cylindrical nozzle member of abrasion and erosion resistant material, selected from a plurality of such members, each being of the same outer diameter but having passaging therein of different cross-sectional area. The nozzle member is adapted to be fitted in the inner portion of the nozzle bore in sealing relationship therewith for forming a first seal for the nozzle assembly. The nozzle assembly further comprises a locknut, separate from the nozzle member, for detachbably securing the nozzle member in the nozzle bore, formed at least in part of an abrasion and erosion resistant material. The locknut has a threaded side wall engageable with the outer portion of the nozzle bore, and an aperture therethrough for enabling a stream of drilling fluid from the nozzle member to flow therethrough and being so configured in section as to receive a tool for turning the lockout to install it in and remove it from the nozzle bore.

  5. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang Liu; Yiping Meng


    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows:(i) improve-ment of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii) development of an intelligent control tech-nique, and (iii) development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  6. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu


    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  7. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  8. Effect of centrifugal forces on dimensional error of bored shapes (United States)

    Arsuaga, M.; de Lacalle, L. N. López; Lobato, R.; Urbikain, G.; Campa, F.


    Boring operations of deep holes with a slender boring bar are often hindered by the precision because of their low static stiffness and high deformations. Because of that, it is not possible to remove much larger depths of cuts than the nose radius of the tool, unlike the case of turning and face milling operations, and consequently, the relationship between the cutting force distribution, tool geometry, feed rate and depth of cut becomes non-linear and complex. This problem gets worse when working with a rotating boring head where apart from the cutting forces and the variation of the inclination angle because of shape boring, the bar and head are affected by de centrifugal forces. The centrifugal forces, and therefore the centrifugal deflection, will vary as a function of the rotating speed, boring bar mass distribution and variable radial position of the bar in shape boring. Taking in to account all this effects, a load and deformation model was created. This model has been experimentally validated to use as a corrector factor of the radial position of the U axis in the boring head.

  9. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.


    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  10. Developing of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esparza, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore (3.5-inches or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities (greater than 2.25 km/s) for impact experiments at Nevada Test Site. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt (no bow). This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results for both the gun system and the explosive valve are presented.

  11. Estimation of Tsunami Bore Forces on a Coastal Bridge Using an Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Mazinani


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure to estimate tsunami wave forces on coastal bridges through a novel method based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM and laboratory experiments. This research included three water depths, ten wave heights, and four bridge models with a variety of girders providing a total of 120 cases. The research was designed and adapted to estimate tsunami bore forces including horizontal force, vertical uplift and overturning moment on a coastal bridge. The experiments were carried out on 1:40 scaled concrete bridge models in a wave flume with dimensions of 24 m × 1.5 m × 2 m. Two six-axis load cells and four pressure sensors were installed to the base plate to measure forces. In the numerical procedure, estimation and prediction results of the ELM model were compared with Genetic Programming (GP and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs models. The experimental results showed an improvement in predictive accuracy, and capability of generalization could be achieved by the ELM approach in comparison with GP and ANN. Moreover, results indicated that the ELM models developed could be used with confidence for further work on formulating novel model predictive strategy for tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge. The experimental results indicated that the new algorithm could produce good generalization performance in most cases and could learn thousands of times faster than conventional popular learning algorithms. Therefore, it can be conclusively obtained that utilization of ELM is certainly developing as an alternative approach to estimate the tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge.

  12. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung


    Full Text Available The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs: one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system’s trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach.

  13. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  14. Pressure versus current scaling in a blocked bore rail gun (United States)

    Barrett, B. D.; Eubank, Eric; Nunnally, W. C.


    The paper presents experimental results from a blocked bore plasma armature rail gun. A piezoelectric transducer mounted in the bore blocking structure recorded time-resolved pressures over a range of input currents from 50 to 150 kA. The bore block is located at four positions where peak current occurs for the four respective charging voltages to power the system. Problems associated with obtaining these measurements and the solutions employed are discussed. Average distances from the block face to the armature current centroid are estimated assuming a pressure balance between the magnetic and neutral pressures. The averages of the measured pressures were found to be proportional to the input current raised to the power of 1.655.

  15. Small-bore hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher research facility (United States)

    Hurn, T. W.; Chapelle, S.; Lupan, S. P.; Holland, L.; Homeyer, W. G.; Rawls, J. M.


    A small-bore hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher laboratory research facility has been developed which has launched a 2-g projectile to a velocity in excess of 3.5 km/sec. This turn-key laboratory includes a 1 cm, square-bore railgun with a helium gas preaccelerator; a modular 328 kJ capacitor bank; a fiber-optically linked programmable logic control system with a graphical operator interface; a data acquisition system with current, magnetic, and projectile position diagnostics; and a flight range which provides in-flight velocity measurements and safely stops and contains the projectile. The control system fires the preaccelerator and, on receipt of an optical signal, fires the capacitor bank modules simultaneously or in a staggered mode. Armature separation and stalling limit the overall performance of the system. Changes in pulse shape and bore materials significantly improved performance. Attention is given to methods used to minimize armature separation and improve performance.

  16. Does Polishing a Rifle Bore Reduce Bullet Drag? (United States)


    thus lower drag. A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat...drag on the bullets. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ballistic coefficient, aerodynamic drag, rifle bore, bore polishing, Remington 700 5R 16. SECURITY...A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat Tail and a 125

  17. Melioidosis from contaminated bore water and successful UV sterilization. (United States)

    McRobb, Evan; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Godoy, Daniel; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J


    Two cases of melioidosis at a residence in rural northern Australia were linked to the unchlorinated domestic bore (automated well) water supply, which was found to have a high concentration of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using multilocus sequence typing, clinical B. pseudomallei isolates from both cases were identical to an isolate from the bore water supply. A simple UV sterilizer reduced B. pseudomallei from the domestic water supply to undetectable levels. We have shown that UV treatment is highly effective for remediation of water contaminated with B. pseudomallei and recommend its consideration in households where individuals may be at heightened risk of contracting melioidosis.

  18. Horizontal drilling in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidey, P.; Precul, L. [Sproule Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    A review of oil and gas production in Ontario was presented with particular reference to drilling activity between 1987 to mid 2002 when 1450 vertical wells were drilled, of which 1100 were for petroleum production and the remainder were for gas storage, observation wells, private gas wells and stratigraphic tests. Of the 1100 vertical wells drilled for petroleum production, 40 per cent became gas wells, 16 per cent became oil wells, 4 per cent became oil and gas wells, and 40 per cent were dry. During the same time period, 133 horizontal wells were also drilled, mostly for petroleum. The most active operator was Talisman Energy, which drilled 101 of the 133 horizontal wells. The remainder were drilled by 12 other companies. Of the horizontal wells, 64 per cent became oil wells, 19 per cent became gas wells, and 17 per cent were dry. This presentation included graphs depicting which oil and gas pools saw vertical or horizontal drilling during the designated time period, and explained how the wells were classified. Both horizontal and vertical well targets were illustrated. Particular reference was made to Talisman Energy's Lake Erie Drilling program which revealed that horizontal wells have an initial production rate that is 5 times that expected from vertical wells. The Hillman Pool case study revealed that the initial rate of the average horizontal well is less than half that of the average vertical well. Horizontal drilling in the Lake Erie Morpeth Gas pool has also been a commercial success. This paper demonstrates that operators have maintained Ontario's oil and gas production at high levels. In 1997 widespread horizontal drilling began taking place in Ontario, and since then, approximately 30 per cent of the wells drilled in the province have been horizontal. 16 figs.

  19. Rational Distribution of Heat Loss in Well Bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jingqin; Chen Yanhua; Xiang Xinyao


    @@ Introduction It is not easy to produce viscous crude because of its heavy viscosity. At present, viscous crude is mainly recovered by thermal recovery, i.e. by steam injection. In the course of steam injection, heat loss, especially that in well bore has a direct influence on thermal productive effectiveness.

  20. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe (United States)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub


    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  1. Research on Valve Body Design of Large Bore Sodium Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Large bore sodium valve is one kind of key equipments of China Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR). It is installed in the pipeline before and behind SG units as a locking mechanism. Valve body which is used to bear pressure is the core of sodium valve design.

  2. CNLC Provides Well-Bore Technical Services Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ BRIEF INTRODUCTION of CNLC China National Logging Corporation (CNLC), a subsidiary of CNPC Services & Engineering Ltd.,which provides well bore technical services at international market solely on behalf of CNPC, is a specialized service company mainly engaged in: 1. Wire-line logging, mud logging, well testing,well completion, perforating and other relevant engineering services.

  3. Determination of Muzzle Velocity Loss by Bore Wear Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-xin; WANG Gui-yu


    A method to determine muzzle velocity loss according to the actual measured bore wear pattern is proposed.Therefore, it is unnecessary to conduct live firing and other experiments for determination of muzzle velocity loss. It has been applied to a national military standard since July 1, 2004.

  4. Quality Designed Twin Wire Arc Spraying of Aluminum Bores (United States)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Methner, Oliver


    After 125 years of development in combustion engines, the attractiveness of these powerplants still gains a great deal of attention. The efficiency of engines has been increased continuously through numerous innovations during the last years. Especially in the field of motor engineering, consequent friction optimization leads to cost-effective fuel consumption advantages and a CO2 reduction. This is the motivation and adjusting lever of NANOSLIDE® from Mercedes-Benz. The twin wire arc-spraying process of the aluminum bore creates a thin, iron-carbon-alloyed coating which is surface-finished through honing. Due to the continuous development in engines, the coating strategies must be adapted in parallel to achieve a quality-conformed coating result. The most important factors to this end are the controlled indemnification of a minimal coating thickness and a homogeneous coating deposition of the complete bore. A specific system enables the measuring and adjusting of the part and the central plunging of the coating torch into the bore to achieve a homogeneous coating thickness. Before and after measurement of the bore diameter enables conclusions about the coating thickness. A software tool specifically developed for coating deposition can transfer this information to a model that predicts the coating deposition as a function of the coating strategy.

  5. Acoustic Monitoring for Tunnel Boring in Soft Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinnen, G.


    The TBM, not a blind mole! This thesis deals with some aspects of seismic imaging of the soft soil in front of a Tunnel Boring Machine to help tunnel constructors ``see'' the subsurface they are approaching, instead of steering the TBM forward like a ``blind mole''. The Dutch shallow subsurface has


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Remote sensing and in situ observations of internal tides, solitary waves and bores in shallow water are briefly reviewed in this paper. The emphasis is laid on interpreting SAR images based on oceanographic measurements, and analyzing characteristics of internal waves in the China Seas. Directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes (United States)

    Lazzarotto, Alberto


    The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.

  8. Number of Well Bores Started (Spud) During the Fiscal Year on Federal Lands (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of well bores started (spudded), by state, during each fiscal year. "Spudding in," or to "spud" a well bore, means to begin...

  9. Estudio del horizonte local


    Ros Ferré, Rosa Maria


    El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical).

  10. Disposable Diapers Are OK. (United States)

    Poore, Patricia


    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  11. Speed Regulator for Permanent Magnet DC Boring Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper a variable-speed system for a loaded permanent magnet direct current boring machine (PMDCBM) is described in details. The voltage adjustment of PMDCBM is accomplished by means of solid state switch with a high gain Darlington transistor. The device designed possesses good variable speed characteristic and Iow loss at low speed. The speed can be regulated automatically to hold at an ideal value according to the load.

  12. In-Situ Test and Numerical Analysis of Bore Pressure on Sheet-Pile Groin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chang-jie; CAI Yuan-qiang; XUAN Wei-li; CHEN Hai-jun; SONG Yang


    An in-situ test of bore pressure on a sheet-pile groin is carried out to investigate the characteristics of the bore pressure of tide in the Qian-tang River. The histories of bore pressure and the rule of the distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin are obtained through the test, which shows that the bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin are varies with time and space. The peak value of bore pressure on sheet-pile groin at different heights occurs almost at the same time. The vertical distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin is linear above the still water level. The maximum bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin occurs at the still water level. Then a numerical method is also used to further study the characteristics of bore pressure. The standard κ-ε turbulence model and VOF (volume of fluid) method for surface tracking are used to simulate the bore against the sheet-pile groin. The numerical results show flow fields, the position of free surface and time history and spatial distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin. The numerical and test results show good agreement.

  13. Integrated Disposal Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  14. Risk assessment and feasibility study of solid waste minimization, recycling and disposal. Volume 2. Appendices. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The scope of work included an investigation of opportunities to reduce the amount of solid waste that must be disposed of by Huta Sendzimira and opportunities to use and/or recycle materials that have accumulated in the waste pile for several years. The study also included an evaluation of the existing waste pile as a possible area to be developed into a modern, sanitary landfill to serve both the steel mill and the citizens of the Krakow area. Appendix A concerns Waste Pile Boring Logs-Analytical Data; Appendix B covers Monitoring Well Boring Logs-Analytical Data; and Appendix C reports on Air Pollution Control Device-Annual Cost Spreadsheet Program.

  15. Horizontal Connection and Horizontal Mean Curvature in Carnot Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Hai TAN; Xiao Ping YANG


    In this paper we give a geometric interpretation of the notion of the horizontal mean curvature which is introduced by Danielli-Garofalo-Nhieu and Pauls who recently introduced sub-Riemannian minimal surfaces in Carnot groups. This will be done by introducing a natural nonholonomic connection which is the restriction (projection) of the natural Riemannian connection on the horizontal bundle. For this nonholonomic connection and (intrinsic) regular hypersurfaces we introduce the notions of the horizontal second fundamental form and the horizontal shape operator. It turns out that the horizontal mean curvature is the trace of the horizontal shape operator.

  16. A Superconducting Magnet with Center Field of 10 T and φ100 mm Warm Bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋良; 严陆光; 赵宝志; 宋守森


    A conduction-cooled superconducting magnet with central field of 10T and warm bore of 100 mm was designed based on a Nb3Sn and two NbTi superconducting coils. At the first stage, the NbTi coils have been fabricated and tested. A two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler with the second-stage power in 1W, 4.2K is used to cool the magnet from room temperature to 4 K. The superconducting magnet with the same power supply has the operating current of 116A. The magnet can be rotated with a support frame to be operated with either horizontal or vertical position. A pair of Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting current leads was employed to reduce heat leakage into 4.2K level. The NbTi coils reachto the operating current of 120A without training effect to be observed during charging of the magnet during 40 minutes charging time and generate the center field of 6.5T. The training effect in the NbTi magnet directly cool-down by cryocooler and inter-winding support structure in magnet can be remarkably improved. The superconducting magnet has been stably operated for more than 275 hours with 6.5T. In this paper, the detailed design, fabrication, stress analysis and quench protection characteristics are presented.

  17. Horizontally mounted solar collector (United States)

    Black, D. H. (Inventor)


    Solar energy is collected by using a vertical deflector assembly, a stationary reflector and a horizontally mounted solar collector. The deflector assembly contains a plurality of vanes which change the direction of the solar energy to the vertical, while constantly keeping the same side of the deflector facing the sun. The vertical rays are then reflected off the stationary reflector and are then absorbed by the collector.

  18. Horizontal drilling activity in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.


    An update of horizontal well drilling in Manitoba was provided. Manitoba`s productive formations are: (1) the Bakken Formation, (2) the Lodgepole Formation, (3) the Mission Canyon Formation, (4) the Amaranth Formation, and (5) the Melita Formation. A total of 28 exploratory wells and 29 development wells, including 11 horizontal wells were drilled in 1996. The 11 horizontal wells accounted for 30 per cent of the drilling meterage. The leading drillers for horizontal wells in Manitoba are Tundra Oil and Gas, Chevron, Anderson and HCO. Production from horizontal wells in 1996 totaled 310 cubic meter per day. To date, no horizontal wells have been drilled in the Bakken Formation. The least successful horizontal well application has been in the Lodgepole Formation. A summary of horizontal well production was provided for each Formation. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  19. A new method for boring of non-circular holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai; HU De-jin


    A revolving electromagnetic actuation mechanism composed of an electromagnetic stator and an electromagnetic rotor has been developed for boring non-circular holes.The main component of the rotor is a flexure-hinged based flexible body.There are four pole-pair coils in the stator supplying actuation currents.The micro-displacement between the stator and rotor can be controlled by changing the currents applied in the pole-pair coils.Through linearization of the actuation force near the static action point,a linear relationship between the control current and the actuation force was established,and the synchronizing control method of the electromagnetic actuation mechanism is presented here.With two-factor analysis of the linearization error of the actuation force,the influences of control current and micro-displacement to the linearization error of the actuation force were studied.Then,the principle for designing the basic parameters of the magnetic actuation mechanism is put forward.The calibration of the mechanism indicates that the relationship between the micro-displacement of the rotor and the control current has linear characteristics in the required micro-displacement range.Simulation tests show that the turning radius of the rotor changes with the control current.The proposed mechanism can feasibly supply a controllable micro displacement to the boring bar.

  20. Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor (United States)

    Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You


    In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor

  1. Turbulent mixing and wave radiation in non-Boussinesq internal bores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borden, Zac; Koblitz, Tilman; Meiburg, Eckart


    ratio, defined as the ratio of the density of the lighter fluid to the heavier fluid, is greater than approximately one half. For smaller density ratios, undular waves generated at the bore's front dominate over the effects of turbulent mixing, and the expanding layer loses energy across the bore. Based...... on our results, we show that if one can predict the amount of energy radiated by bores through undular waves, it is possible to derive an accurate model for the propagation of non-Boussinesq bores. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []...

  2. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.


    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.


    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Waste disposal package (United States)

    Smith, M.J.


    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-shan; LI Bo; YUE Yu-quan


    In oil and gas industry, mud-pulse telemetry has been widely used to obtain directional data, drilling parameters, formation evaluation data and safety data, etc. Generally, the drilling mud in most current models was considered to be a single-phase fluid through which the mud pulses travel, despite the fact that the drilling mud is composed of two or more phases. In this article, a multiphase flow formula was proposed to calculate the mud-pulse velocity as mud solids and free-gas content change, and a mathematical model was put forward to simulate the dynamic-transmission behavior of the mud-pressure pulse or waves. Compared to conventional methods, the present model provides more accurate mud-pulse attenuation, and the dynamic-transmission behavior of drilling-mud pulses along well bores can also be easily examined. The model is valuable in improving the existing mud-pulse systems and developing new drilling-mud pulse systems.

  6. Deep bore hole instrumentation along San Francisco Bay Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakun, W.; Bowman, J.; Clymer, R.; Foxall, W.; Hipley, P.; Hollfelder, J.; Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; McEvilly, T.; Mualchin, L.; Palmer, M.


    The Bay Bridges down hole network consists of sensors in bore holes that are drilled 100 ft. into bedrock around and in the San Francisco Bay. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty- one sensor packages at fifteen sites. Extensive financial support is being contributed by Caltrans, UCB, LBL, LLNL-LDRD, U.C. Campus/Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) program, and USGS. The down hole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 73 1 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes.

  7. An introduction to RAM analysis of EPB tunnel boring machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasel Amini Khoshalan


    Full Text Available Earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines (EPB - TBMs are favorably used in construction of tunnels in urban areas. These more expensive machines with high operational costs require an exclusive study and knowledge on these machine components and subsystems and their failure and downtimes for time planning, cost control and performance prediction with a high accuracy. Thus guidelines for reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM analysis of an EPB machine are completely expressed. Gathering and recording all daily failure and repair times and other maintenance tasks, dividing the machine into subsystems (including mechanical subsystem, electrical subsystem, hydraulic subsystem, pneumatic subsystem and water subsystem, graphical tests (trend test and correlation test, statistical tests and analysis are discussed in detail.

  8. Diaper area and disposable diapers. (United States)

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I


    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  9. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  10. Looking ahead of a tunnel boring machine with 2-D SH full waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisupati, P.B.; Mulder, W.A.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Reijnen, R.


    In the near-surface with unconsolidated soils, shear properties can be well imaged, sometimes better than P-wave properties. To facilitate ground prediction ahead of a tunnel boring machine (TBM), active ‘surveys’ with shear-wave vibrators are carried out during boring. In such surveys, only a few s

  11. Method and apparatus for completing a non-vertical portion of a subterranean well bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, J.F.; Spatz, E.C.; Salerni, J.V.; Peterson, E.R.; Weirich, J.B.


    This patent describes an apparatus for completing a well bore having a deviated configuration including an essentially vertical entry portion communicating with a curved portion extending away from the top surface of the well and communicating with a generally linear bore portion traversable with a production formation. It comprises: a plurality of tubular screen elements; a plurality of tubular stabilizer housings threadably interconnecting the tubular screen elements, thereby forming a tool string; means for securing the stabilizer elements in a radially retracted position during run-in of the screen elements into the generally linear portion of the well bore; and fluid pressure means for radially expanding the stabilizer elements into engagement with the wall of the generally linear portion of the well bore, thereby centering the tubular screen elements relative to the generally linear portion of the well bore. The method of completing a deviated subterranean well bore having a generally vertical entry portion and a nonvertical bore portion traversing a production formation. It comprises the steps of: inserting in the non-vertical well portion a plurality of tubular screen elements interconnected by tubular stabilizing housings; each stabilizer housing mounting a plurality of peripherally spaced, radially shiftable stabilizer elements; and placing the stabilizer elements in a radially retracted position during run in. The stabilizer elements being movable from retracted position and movable radially outwardly to engage the well bore when the tubular screen elements are positioned in the production formation.

  12. 46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel). (United States)


    .... Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel) must not be stowed and... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel). 148.04-13 Section 148.04-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. Boring sponges (Porifera, Clionidae) collected during the "Tydeman" Canary Islands expedition Cancap-II, 1977

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.A.


    INTRODUCTION AND MATERIAL The boring sponges of the Canary Islands have never been studied in any detail, but the boring fauna of this archipelago cannot be expected to be very rich. All islands are volcanic and calcareous rocks are not common. Consequently, in most areas large shells and rhodophyte

  14. Ten Years of bored tunnels in the Netherlands: Part I: Geotechnical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; Bezuijen, A.


    Ten years have passed since in 1997 for the first time construction of bored tunnels in the Netherlands soft soil was undertaken. Before that date essentially only immersed tunnels and cut-and-cover tunnels were constructed in the Netherlands. The first two bored tunnels were Pilot Projects, the 2nd

  15. Well Spacing for Horizontal Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.S. Keuengoua


    Full Text Available In the developing phase of a hydrocarbon reservoir and planning for drilling the production wells, it is necessary to drill the wells in an appropriate spacing to achieve maximum economic revenues during the reservoir life span. Well spacing which is the real location and interrelationship between producing oil or gas wells in an oil field is an important parameter. It is determined for the maximum ultimate production of a given reservoir and should be taken in consideration during well planning to avoid drilling of unnecessary wells. This study presents the concept of drainage area on horizontal well and horizontal productivity indices with different equations and their applications. A user friendly Excel Spreadsheet program was developed to calculate the productivity values of horizontal wells using three major available productivity equations. Also, the developed spreadsheet program was used to evaluate the effect of well spacing on the productivities of horizontal wells using productivity index approach and drainage area concept. It also helps to review the comparison between vertical and horizontal wells spacing based on drainage area concept. This program was validated, and then was used to study the effect of horizontal well length on the ratio of horizontal well productivity to vertical well productivity. The results show that higher ratio of horizontal well productivity to vertical well productivity values are obtained with increase length of the horizontal well. It is a very useful tool for making decision about the application of well spacing for horizontal wells.

  16. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic. (United States)

    Davidson, Timothy M


    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution.

  17. Method for completing a non-vertical portion of a subterranean well bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, J.F.; Spatz, E.C.; Salerni, J.V.; Peterson, E.R.; Weirich, J.B.


    This patent describes a method of completing a well bore having a deviated configuration including an entry portion communicating with a curved portion extending downwardly in the well from the entry portion and a generally linear end portion traversable with a production formation. It comprises: forming a conduit including well isolation means, at least one screen element and at least one stabilizer means having at least one movable stabilizer portion movable from a first retracted position to a second expanded position; running the conduit into the well bore and manipulating the conduit to facilitate passage of the conduit through the curved portion of the well bore; setting the well isolation means to position the tubular screen means approximate the linear portion of the well bore; and actuating the stabilizer members to the second expanded position to engage the adjacent wall of the well bore and position the screen means away from the adjacent wall.

  18. Interpretation of horizontal well performance in complicated systems by the boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongkittinarukorn, K.; Tiab, D. [Oklahoma Univ., School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering (United States); Escobar, F. H. [Surcolombiana Univ., Dept. of Petroleum Engineering (Colombia)


    A solution obtained by using the boundary element method to simulate pressure behaviour of horizontal wells in complicated reservoir-wellbore configurations is presented. Three different types of well bore and reservoir models were studied, i.e. a snake-shaped horizontal wellbore intersecting a two-layer reservoir with cross flow, a horizontal well in a three-layer reservoir with cross flow, and a vertical well intersecting a two-layer reservoir without cross flow. In each case, special attention was paid to the influence of wellbore inclination angle, the distance from the wellbore to the different boundaries and the permeability ratio. Performance of each of these types of wells are discussed. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  19. Space disposal of nuclear wastes (United States)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.


    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  20. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)


    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  1. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)


    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  2. First horizontal well opens new gas opportunities in the Sierra Chata Field Neuquen Basin-Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, C.A.; Nilson, G.J.; Acree, J.F.; Del Pino, M.A. [Devon Energy Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Anaya, L. [BJ Services Co. USA, Houston, TX (United States)


    This paper described the drilling activity surrounding the first horizontal re-entry gas well in the Sierra Chata field in the Neuquen basin in Argentina. In particular, a model forecast was compared with the final results. The re-entry well was originally designed to add gas reserves and to incorporate horizontal well technology to help access the thin sands with low permeability. A numeric simulation of the 1000 m horizontal well was used to predict an initial gas flow rate of 17.7 MMscfd with an estimated final recovery of 7.3 Bscf. This forecast was confirmed following the first year of production. Operational problems, however, were encountered and new solutions were needed to bring the well back on line. The use of an existing well bore saved $1 MM and improved the economics of the project. When re-entering the existing well bore, no new flow line was needed. Given the success of this first re-entry well, it was suggested that this technology can now be used for the Machiline formation which has low productivity for several reasons, including thin sands, low permeability and difficult access via vertical wells. The use of mud logs and resistivity/gamma ray logs while drilling was very important for geological control purposes. It was noted that a measurement while drilling (MWD) tool closer to the bit would have further improved the ability to stay within very thin target zones. 11 refs., 19 figs.

  3. Continuous circulation apparatus for air drilling well bore operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, J.L.


    An apparatus is disclosed for maintaining a continuous supply of air pressure downhole during a well bore drilling operation, even during the addition of a pipe section to the drill string. It consists of a housing installed at the surface of the well at the position of the drilling equipment wherein the upper end of the drill string is separated from the drive mechanism in order that a new piece of drill pipe may be added to the drill string, a flapper or closure member pivotally secured within the housing normally held in an open position by the outer periphery of the drill string and spring urged in a direction toward the open end of the sleeve through which the drive mechanism passes when the drive mechanism has been backed off or removed for the addition of a section of pipe to the drill string, and a by-pass line in communication with the interior of the housing for directing air pressure from the air supply to the housing when the flapper member is in the closed position whereby the air pressure may be circulated downwardly through the drill string for maintaining the air circulation downhole during the entire drilling operation.

  4. Remote controlled mover for disposal canister transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suikki, M. [Optimik Oy, Turku (Finland)


    This working report is an update for an earlier automatic guided vehicle design (Pietikaeinen 2003). The short horizontal transfers of disposal canisters manufactured in the encapsulation process are conducted with remote controlled movers both in the encapsulation plant and in the underground areas at the canister loading station of the disposal facility. The canister mover is a remote controlled transfer vehicle mobile on wheels. The handling of canisters is conducted with the assistance of transport platforms (pallets). The very small automatic guided vehicle of the earlier design was replaced with a commercial type mover. The most important reasons for this being the increased loadbearing requirement and the simpler, proven technology of the vehicle. The larger size of the vehicle induced changes to the plant layouts and in the principles for dealing with fault conditions. The selected mover is a vehicle, which is normally operated from alongside. In this application, the vehicle steering technology must be remote controlled. In addition, the area utilization must be as efficient as possible. This is why the vehicle was downsized in its outer dimensions and supplemented with certain auxiliary equipment and structures. This enables both remote controlled operation and improves the vehicle in terms of its failure tolerance. Operation of the vehicle was subjected to a risk analysis (PFMEA) and to a separate additional calculation conserning possible canister toppling risks. The total cost estimate, without value added tax for manufacturing the system amounts to 730 000 euros. (orig.)

  5. Ecology of the wood-boring bivalve Martesia striata (Pholadidae) in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yennawar, P.L.; Thakur, N.L.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Martesia striata is one of the dominant wood-boring organisms found in Indian waters. Incidence of this organism in the Zuari estuary (Goa) was evaluated by exposing wooden panels (Mangifera indica) to the marine environment between January 1996...

  6. Effect of fluid viscosity on wave propagation in a cylindrical bore in micropolar elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Deswal; Sushil K Tomar; Rajneesh Kumar


    Wave propagation in a cylindrical bore filled with viscous liquid and situated in a micropolar elastic medium of infinite extent is studied. Frequency equation for surface wave propagation near the surface of the cylindrical bore is obtained and the effect of viscosity and micropolarity on dispersion curves is observed. The earlier problems of Biot and of Banerji and Sengupta have been reduced as a special case of our problem.

  7. Solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature railgun with non-conforming-to-prejudice bore profile (United States)

    Solberg, Jerome Michael


    An improved railgun, railgun barrel, railgun projectile, and railgun system for accelerating a solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature projectile using a barrel having a bore that does not conform to a cross-sectional profile of the projectile, to contact and guide the projectile only by the rails in a low pressure bore volume so as to minimize damage, failure, and/or underperformance caused by plasma armatures, insulator ablation, and/or restrikes.

  8. An undular bore solution for the higher-order Korteweg-de Vries equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchant, T R [School of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, 2522, NSW (Australia); Smyth, N F [School of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)


    Undular bores describe the evolution and smoothing out of an initial step in mean height and are frequently observed in both oceanographic and meteorological applications. The undular bore solution for the higher-order Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived, using an asymptotic transformation which relates the KdV equation and its higher-order counterpart. The higher-order KdV equation considered includes all possible third-order correction terms (where the KdV equation retains second-order terms). The asymptotic transformation is then applied to the KdV undular bore solution to obtain the higher-order undular bore. Examples of higher-order undular bores, describing both surface and internal waves, are presented. Key properties, such as the amplitude and speed of the lead soliton and the width of the bore, are found. An excellent comparison is obtained between the analytical and numerical solutions. Also, it is illustrated how an asymptotic transformation and numerical solutions can be combined to generate hybrid asymptotic-numerical solutions, thus avoiding the severe instabilities associated with numerical schemes for the higher-order KdV equation. (letter to the editor)

  9. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  10. Disposable diapers: safe and effective. (United States)

    Singh, Namita; Purthi, P K; Sachdev, Anupam; Gupta, Suresh


    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and containing stools.

  11. Nuclear waste disposal in space (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.


    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  12. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)


    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  13. Influence of Atmospheric Refraction on Horizontal Angle Surveying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenglu; DENG Yong; LUO Changlin; MEI Wensheng


    Side-refraction is the main error source of horizontal angle surveying, but it has little influence on the sides by analyzing the influence of atmospheric-infraction on the ultrahigh-precision side and angle surveying. Choosing oriented direction is crucial to distance and angle measurement in triangulateration network. How to select the oriented direction during angle measurement is presented, and the means to check the quality of auto-surveying with Georobot is brought forward as well. At last some solutions to reduce the influence of side-refraction while disposing and surveying ultrahigh-precision triangulateration network are put forward.

  14. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs. (United States)

    Johns, Pat


    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  15. Experimental investigation of horizontal convection


    Muñoz Córdoba, Lucía


    Fluid circulation driven by buoyancy forces due to a thermal gradient on a horizontal boundary, known as horizontal convection, is experimentally studied. For that purpose, a methacrylate box with inner dimensions 300x150x150 mm3 (LxWxH) whose bottom is composed by a heat exchanger and a printed circuit board is lled with water. The heat exchanger provides a uniform temperature boundary condition while the printed circuit board provides a boundary condition of uniform heat ...

  16. The Design of a Fining Boring Machine for Three Kinds of Holes on the WD12 Cylinder%WD12气缸体三轴孔精镗机床的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海群; 李春燕


    为保证缸体曲轴孔、凸轮轴孔和惰轮孔的加工精度,设计了WD12气缸体三轴孔精镗机床,确定了单面卧式总体方案、加工示意图和电气动作循环表.曲轴孔和凸轮轴孔均是多档间断的长孔,其精度要求高.为提高镗杆的刚度,除尽量加粗镗杆、设置中间支承外,选择德国玛帕生产的直线镗杆和浮动接头及美国GATCO生产的滚动导向套保证精度.采用"一面两销"的定位方案和液压夹紧机构.并对镗模安装提出了具体的要求.设备经十个月的研制,得到用户的认可.%To ensure the accuracy of three kinds of holes of crankshaft, camshaft and idlers, a triaxial fine boring machine for the WD12 cylinder is designed. The singleside horizontal boring is determined which include the overall program machining sketch chart and electrical action cycle table The holes of crankshaft and camshaft are long with intermittent gap and high precision To improve the rigidity of boring bars,some methods are applied. They include making the boring bar thicker, adding the intermediate support,choosing the line boring bars and floating holders of Mapa, and selecting the precision rotary bushings of GATCO. Put to use the fixing scheme of "one plane and two pins" and hydraulic clamping facility and make a specific request of installation requirements of the boring mold in the machine. After ten months of research, the boring machine get user's acceptance

  17. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.


    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  18. Some problems on the research and development of the application of methane draining boring technology to prevent hazards in underground coal mines in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN Xuan-Thao; NGUYEN Tran-Tuan; TRAN Dinh-Kien


    Underground coal mining activities in the Quangninh coal basin (in the North of Vietnam) have been carried out at a depth of-130 m to -150 m, and in the near future this mining depth will become -300 m and -500 m. Together with the increasing coal output, the quantity of methane and other mine gases emitted from coal beds during mining activi-ties will grow bigger and bigger. According to the forecast of the coal mining industry, if mines go deeper downward, all underground coal mines in the Quangninh basin will be classified into the mine group with the dangerous level of methane bearings. Mine gas control and management operations with conventional ventilation are less effective and entail high expenses. One of the main solutions is to carry out short, medium and long boreholes for controlling and recovering methane and other mine gases from coal beds before mining activities. Efficiency of drilling activities for methane gas recovery from coal seams with horizontal bore holes at underground coal mines depends on many factors in-cluding the mine gas draining borehole layout at the roadways, gas content in the coal beds, technologies for mine gas draining boring activities, and so on. Methane gas exists in the coal beds under the adhesive state with stable physical and chemical bonds. In or-der to recover these gases, it is necessary to carry out boreholes and create artificial joints (collecting pits) in coal beds with the impulse method (hydraulic separation method).

  19. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others


    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  20. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kowalik


    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said

  1. On improvement of thermal control small-bore tube laying craft%热控小径管敷设工艺改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍了热控小径管敷设工艺改进方法,通过将变送器原水平接管方式改变为下进管方式,节约了部分管路材料的同时使热控管路的排污更彻底更清洁,从而有效提高了热控仪表的安全性、准确性,值得推广。%The paper introduces the improvement methods for the thermal control small-bore tube laying craft,changes the horizontal tube connection way of transducers into the downward tube way,saves the partial tube materials and has the more complete and clearer discharge of pollutions of the thermal control tubes,so as to improve the safety and the accuracy of the thermal control meters,and to further extend the technique.

  2. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative. (United States)

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram


    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash.

  3. Final disposal of radioactive waste


    Freiesleben H.


    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  4. Clays in radioactive waste disposal


    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh


    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  5. Armor Development from Decapitated Flash Flood Bores in Supply-Limited Flume Experiments (United States)

    Goodwin, K.; Rhodes, R.; Johnson, J. P.


    In rivers assumed to have quasi-normal flow, three main processes have been used to explain bed surface armoring: i) selective entrainment and transport of smaller grains, ii) limited supply of smaller grain sizes, and iii) equal mobility of grains of different sizes, which develops through natural feedbacks such that larger, less mobile grains are enriched on the surface relative to smaller grains. Flash flood-dominated river channels in arid environments often completely lack surface armoring, yet it is unclear whether increased sediment supply or transport of all grain sizes prevents armor development. In order to examine armor development in an end-member case of non-normal flow, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments using flash flood bores. The flume is 33.5 m long, 0.5 m wide, 0.8 m tall, and capable of creating reproducible flood bores by raising a high-speed computerized lift gate and releasing impounded water. For each experiment, the gate was quickly lowered as soon as the flood bore traveled the length of the flume, 'decapitating' the bore from subsequent flow, to better isolate the effects of the bore alone on entrainment and transport. Sediment was not fed into the upstream end of the flume and only sourced from the gravel bed (2 mm to 40 mm), resulting in supply-limited experimental conditions. In response to repeated flood bores, the surface grain size distribution rapidly coarsened. We interpret that kinetic sieving was the dominant cause of surface armoring in these experiments. LiDAR scans of the bed topography from before and after each bore show increased surface roughness due to grain size changes, but small surface elevation changes due to relatively limited erosion. Digital gravelometry from photographs taken after each bore show increased armoring, while sediment transported out the downstream end of the flume tended to be as coarse or coarser than the bed surface. Travel distances of three sizes of RFID-tagged tracer clasts show

  6. Estimation of the equilibrium formation temperature in the presence of bore fluid invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Nielsen, S.B.; Balling, N.


    Bottom hole temperatures (BHTs) measured during drilling operations are thermally disturbed by the drilling process. This paper presents a method, CSMI (Cylindrical Source Model with Invasion of bore mud filtrate), for estimating equilibrium formation temperatures with probability distributions...... the possibility of invasion (advection) of mud filtrate into the formation. In a synthetic example, it is demonstrated that given bore fluid invasion and a low and high temperature of the bore mud and formation, respectively, the equilibrium formation temperature and the uncertainty hereon is underestimated...... with the CSMI scheme. The analysis of five BHT records measured onshore Denmark, for which the equilibrium formation temperature is known, shows that CSMI temperatures based on single datum records are highly uncertain because of a strong negative coupling between the temperature of the mud filtrate...

  7. Solitons, compactons and undular bores in Benjamin–Bona–Mahony-like systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    We examine the effect of dissipation on travelling waves in nonlinear dispersive systems modelled by Benjamin–Bona–Mahony (BBM)-like equations. In the absence of dissipation, the BBM-like equations are found to support soliton and compacton/anticompacton solutions depending on whether the dispersive term islinear or nonlinear. We study the influence of increasing nonlinearity of the medium on the soliton and compacton dynamics. The dissipative effect is found to convert the solitons either to undular bores or to shock-like waves depending on the degree of nonlinearity of the equations. The anticompacton solutions are also transformed to undular bores by the effect of dissipation. But the compactons tend to vanish due to viscous effects. The local oscillatory structures behind the bores and/or shock-like waves in the case of solitons and anticompactons are found to depend sensitively both on the coefficient of viscosity and solution of the unperturbed problem.

  8. Observation of Optical Undular Bores in Multiple Four-Wave Mixing (United States)

    Fatome, J.; Finot, C.; Millot, G.; Armaroli, A.; Trillo, S.


    We demonstrate that wave-breaking dramatically affects the dynamics of nonlinear frequency conversion processes that operate in the regime of high efficiency (strong multiple four-wave mixing). In particular, by exploiting an all-optical-fiber platform, we show that input modulations propagating in standard telecom fibers in the regime of weak normal dispersion lead to the formation of undular bores (dispersive shock waves) that mimic the typical behavior of dispersive hydrodynamics exhibited, e.g., by gravity waves and tidal bores. Thanks to the nonpulsed nature of the beat signal employed in our experiment, we are able to clearly observe how the periodic nature of the input modulation forces adjacent undular bores to collide elastically.

  9. In-bore setup and Software for 3T MRI-guided Transperineal Prostate Biopsy (United States)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Lasso, Andras; Fennessy, Fiona M; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko


    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 Tesla (T) MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with Z-frame that give a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allow performance of MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning, and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right-left (RP) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 mm and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP, and superior-inferior axes were 0.8 ± 1.0 degrees, 1.7 ± 1.6 degrees, and 0.0 ± 0.0 degrees respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle placement error was 3.0 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop set up and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet. PMID:22951350

  10. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta


    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  11. Test with different stress measurement methods in two orthogonal bore holes in Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Thomas; Stigsson, Martin [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    conclusions have been drawn, based on the stress measurements and deeper investigations: The following stress state is obtained at the target volume at about -455 m. The minimum horizontal stress is between 10 and 13 MPa, which is lower than the theoretical vertical stress. The maximum horizontal stress is 24 {+-}5 MPa, most likely within the upper range. The vertical stress is between 15 and 20 MPa, most probably is this value only local due to the presence of a nearby fracture. The local disturbance of the stress field in the rock mass, due to discontinuities has been demonstrated. This also indicates one of the problems with stress measurements in boreholes. In the area with significant anisotropic stress conditions all the tested methods were able to determine the orientation of the principal major horizontal stress within {+-} 10 deg. The microscopy investigations confirm two sets of microcracks in the overcored core. One set was parallel and near the bore hole bottom and one set was perpendicular to the bottom and located a bit away from the hole bottom. The results from the overcoring may be influenced by microcracks, causing additional non-elastic strains. Only the results from the DDGS seem to have been influenced, indicating that the hollow cylinder of a 3D stress cell may be less sensitive for stress induced sample disturbance than core samples from the 2D Door stopper cell. The determination of Young's modulus in a medium grained crystalline rock with heterogeneity may not be trivial using core samples. The results from the determination influence the calculated stresses. Hydraulic fracturing most likely measures the most correct value of the minimum horizontal stress, provided that the induced fracture is aligned with the borehole. If the rock behaves reasonable elastic the overcoring methods provide stress magnitudes with an uncertainty of 15-20%. It seems likely that the overcoring methods may overestimate the stress magnitudes at large depth, due to the

  12. The Effects of Guide Pads on Bore Diameter Enlargement Magnitude in Deep Hole Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huang


    Full Text Available Deep hole machining accuracy plays a crucial role in product’s quality. The results of an investigation into the machining accuracy of deep drilling holes which highlights problems of bore diameter enlargement magnitude assessment are presented in this paper. Through the study of BTA deep drilling tool properties and mechanism, as well as the formation rule of deep hole surface, clarified the burnishing mechanism of guide pad in deep hole drilling, and obtained the directly relationship between surface formation rule and the guide pad. After drilling experimentrevealed the effect of guide pad on bore diameter enlargement magnitude.

  13. Flexible small-bore hollow fibers with an inner polymer coating. (United States)

    Abe, Y; Shi, Y W; Matsuura, Y; Miyagi, M


    Flexible hollow-glass fibers with small-bore diameters of 250 and 320 mum have been developed for Er:YAG laser delivery. The fibers consist of a glass capillary tube and an inner coating of silver and polymer thin films that are deposited by use of a simple liquid-phase technique. The 250-mum-bore fiber exhibits a straight loss of 0.8 dB/m and a bending loss of 1.2 dB when it is bent 180 degrees at the output end, with a bending radius of 2 cm. The maximum energy delivered by the fibers is ~100 mJ.

  14. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools (United States)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong


    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  15. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Kusunose, K.; Cho, A.; Tosha, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T.; Yamada, F. [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T. [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  17. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.


    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  18. Final disposal of radioactive waste (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.


    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  19. Horizontally oriented plates in clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bréon, François-Marie


    Horizontally oriented plates in clouds generate a sharp specular reflectance signal in the glint direction, often referred to as "subsun". This signal (amplitude and width) may be used to analyze the relative area fraction of oriented plates in the cloud top layer and their characteristic tilt angle to the horizontal. We make use of spaceborne measurements from the POLDER instrument to provide a statistical analysis of these parameters. More than half of the clouds show a detectable maximum reflectance in the glint direction, although this maximum may be rather faint. The typical effective fraction (area weighted) of oriented plates in clouds lies between 10-3 and 10-2. For those oriented plates, the characteristic tilt angle is less than 1 degree in most cases. These low fractions imply that the impact of oriented plates on the cloud albedo is insignificant. The largest proportion of clouds with horizontally oriented plates is found in the range 500-700 hPa, in agreement with typical in situ observation of p...

  20. Partial Horizontal Laryngectomy and Epiglottiplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to evaluate the availability of the lateral horizontal laryngectomy and anaplasty of epiglottis to treat somepatients with specific supraglottic carcinomas and hypopharyngeal carcinomas, 17 cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas were retrospectively analyzed, whose tumors were located at the lateral margin of epiglottis, aryepiglottic fold, medial wall of piriformfossa and were treated by the lateral horizontal laryngectomy and anaplasty of epiglottis. The results showed that all cases took food by mouth in postoperative 9-14 days and subjected to decannulation in postoperative 9-15 days. Three cases had postoperative hoarse voice. The free-disease survival rate of 3 years was 71.4 % in 14 cases followed up after the first surgical therapy, and the overall free-disease survival rate of 3 years was 85.7 % after the second surgical therapy. It was concluded that the manipulations of the lateral horizontal laryngectomy and epiglottiplasty were simple. It could alleviate the postoperative symptoms of aspiration and bucking remarkably and shorten their postoperative recovery time, yet does not lower the survival rate of patients if laryngocarcinoma or hypopharyngeal carcinoma cases were properly selected.

  1. A Size-Distance Scaling Demonstration Based on the Holway-Boring Experiment (United States)

    Gallagher, Shawn P.; Hoefling, Crystal L.


    We explored size-distance scaling with a demonstration based on the classic Holway-Boring experiment. Undergraduate psychology majors estimated the sizes of two glowing paper circles under two conditions. In the first condition, the environment was dark and, with no depth cues available, participants ranked the circles according to their angular…

  2. Progress in the development of an 88-mm bore 10 Tn3Sn dipole magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den A.; Wessel, W.A.J.; Kirby, G.A.; Taylor, T.; Siegel, N.; Kate, ten H.H.J.


    A 10 T, 2-layer cos(&thetas;)-dipole model magnet with an 88 mm clear bore utilizing an advanced powder-in-tube Nb3Sn conductor is being developed for the LHC. A dedicated conductor development program has resulted in a well performing Rutherford cable containing strands that uniquely exhibit both a

  3. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  4. Technical Diagnostics of Tank Cannon Smooth Barrel Bore and Ramming Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Balla


    Full Text Available The technical diagnostics of 125 mm tank cannon 2A46 smooth barrel and ramming devices are discussed respectively. Focuses on barrel diagnostics and suggests new procedures based on reconstructed BG20 Gun Barrel Bore Gauge System, measuring internal diameter of the barrel bore. The new system measures throughout the whole barrel bore the inner diameter not only at the beginning of barrel bore as it was usually measured before. Different nature of barrel wear was revealed between barrels firing sub-calibre and high explosive projectiles. A method for ramming device diagnostics is presented. An accurate method was proposed, determining projectile extraction force from barrel, as one of the main ramming device parameters for weapons that are used in all areas of armed forces. Results are based on experimental methods assessing the extraction forces from barrel after projectile loading. These tests were performed as a series of tests with consequent technical diagnostics according to the new Czech Defence Standards (derived from NATO standards. The results are presented as the new methodologies for diagnostics of 125 mm barrel 2A46 and ramming devices of tank T-72 for use by technical logistic units in the Czech Republic Armed Forces.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William k. O' Connor; Gilbert E Rush


    An evaluation of the alteration of reservoir rock and well bore cement at their interface, under supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}), was conducted at the laboratory-scale using simulated brine solutions at down-hole conditions. These studies were intended to identify potential leakage pathways for injected CO{sub 2} due to degradation of the well bore. Two distinct test series were conducted on core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin, IL, and the Grand Ronde basalt from the Pasco Basin, WA. LaFarge Class H well bore cement was used for both series. Reservoir rock/cement cores were immersed within a CO{sub 2}-saturated brine for up to 2000 hours at 35 degrees C and 100 atm CO{sub 2}. Results suggest that the impact of SCCO{sub 2} injection is reservoir-specific, being highly dependent on the reservoir brine and rock type. Brine pH can be significantly altered by CO{sub 2} injection, which in turn can dramatically impact the dissolution characteristics of the reservoir rock. Finally, well bore cement alteration was identified, particularly for fresh cast cement allowed to cure at SCCO{sub 2} conditions. However, this alteration was generally limited to an outer rind of carbonate and Ca-depleted cement which appeared to protect the majority of the cement core from further attack. These studies indicate that at the cement-rock interface, the annular space may be filled by carbonate which could act as an effective barrier against further CO{sub 2} migration along the well bore.

  6. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  7. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture (United States)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  8. Panspermia and horizontal gene transfer (United States)

    Klyce, Brig


    Evidence that extremophiles are hardy and ubiquitous is helping to make panspermia a respectable theory. But even if life on Earth originally came from space, biologists assume that the subsequent evolution of life is still governed by the darwinian paradigm. In this review we show how panspermia could amend darwinism and point to a cosmic source for, not only extremophiles but, all of life. This version of panspermia can be called "strong panspermia." To support this theory we will discuss recent evidence pertaining to horizontal gene transfer, viruses, genes apparently older than the Earthly evolution of the features they encode, and primate-specific genes without identifiable precursors.

  9. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods....

  10. Fundamental tests and operational suitability tests in the field. Large diameter boring with water jets (2nd report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oga, Kotaro; Higuchi, Kiyoshi; Uehara, Masabumi


    The application test of large diameter boring in coal seams assisted with water jet was made and two plunger pumps were used. Maximum hydraulic pressure were 300Kg/cm/sup 2/ and 700Kg/cm/sup 2/ and maximum flow rate were 140l/min and 47l/min respectively. Jet water was injected from each nozzle through the pressure resistant hose. Basic test and application test results in Taiheiyo and Akabira mines were summarized as follows: lengths of boreholes were 38 to 78 m and bored diameters were 30 to 70cm. The bored diameter depended on the coal zone hardness and the in-situ stress and indicated similar tendency to the previous large diameter boring. Boring speed was 0.14 to 0.33m/min in case of high velocity jet stream and 0.09m/min at the large diameter boring. Two miners can set and withdraw the boring equipments including the drilling work. (7 figs, 8 tabs, 6 refs)

  11. Reduction of claustrophobia with short-bore versus open magnetic resonance imaging: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Enders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Claustrophobia is a common problem precluding MR imaging. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether a short-bore or an open magnetic resonance (MR scanner is superior in alleviating claustrophobia. METHODS: Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained to compare short-bore versus open MR. From June 2008 to August 2009, 174 patients (139 women; mean age = 53.1 [SD 12.8] with an overall mean score of 2.4 (SD 0.7, range 0 to 4 on the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CLQ and a clinical indication for imaging, were randomly assigned to receive evaluation by open or by short-bore MR. The primary outcomes were incomplete MR examinations due to a claustrophobic event. Follow-up was conducted 7 months after MR imaging. The primary analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat strategy. RESULTS: With 33 claustrophobic events in the short-bore group (39% [95% confidence interval [CI] 28% to 50% versus 23 in the open scanner group (26% [95% CI 18% to 37%]; P = 0.08 the difference was not significant. Patients with an event were in the examination room for 3.8 min (SD 4.4 in the short-bore and for 8.5 min (SD 7 in the open group (P = 0.004. This was due to an earlier occurrence of events in the short-bore group. The CLQ suffocation subscale was significantly associated with the occurrence of claustrophobic events (P = 0.003. New findings that explained symptoms were found in 69% of MR examinations and led to changes in medical treatment in 47% and surgery in 10% of patients. After 7 months, perceived claustrophobia increased in 32% of patients with events versus in only 11% of patients without events (P = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: Even recent MR cannot prevent claustrophobia suggesting that further developments to create a more patient-centered MR scanner environment are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00715806.

  12. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuffaro


    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  13. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.

  14. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  15. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  16. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.


    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  17. Functionally adapted final machining for cylinder bores made of cast iron; Funktionsgerechte Endbearbeitung von Zylinderbohrungen aus Gusseisen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, G. [Gehring GmbH und Co. KG, Ostfildern (Germany); Fachhochschule Esslingen (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau; Abeln, T.; Klink, U. [Gehring GmbH und Co. KG, Ostfildern (Germany)


    The cylinder bore is of interest for functional and production development processes. The cylinder bore of the piston stroke engine is the place of the highest friction efficiency and its topographical design is decisive for the oil consumption and the emission of modern motor-vehicles, a challenge for engine development and production engineers. Gehring GmbH and Co. KG, Ostfildern, Germany, is an experienced partner for the realization of efficient cylinder bores. On the basis of the tribological requirements present honing variants are described. (orig.)

  18. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.


    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  19. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  20. Application defects detection in the small bore pipe using infrared thermography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Kyung Won; Kim, Dong Lyul; Jung, Hyun Chul; Hong, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    In the advanced research deducted infrared thermography (IRT) test using 4 inch pipe with artificial wall thinning defect to measure on the wall thinned nuclear pipe components. This study conducted for defect detection condition of nuclear small bore pipe research using deducted condition in the advanced research. Defect process is processed by change for defect length, circumferential direction angle, wall thinning depth. In the used equipment IR camera and two halogen lamps, whose full power capacity is 1 kW, halogen lamps and Target pipe experiment performed to the distance of the changed 1 m, 1.5 m, 2 m. To analysis of the experimental results ensure for the temperature distribution data, by this data measure for defect length. Artificial defect of 4 inch pipe is high reliability in the 2 m, but small bore pipe is in the 1.5 m from defect clearly was detected.

  1. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme (United States)

    Yu, Changhai; Deng, Aihua; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng


    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  2. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan


    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Branimir


    Full Text Available The application of oilfield and solution mining technology to subsurface disposal of technological wastes has proven to be an environmentally, technically and economically suitable method for the disposal of the waste generated in petroleum industry as well as other industrial branches. This paper describes the subsurface injection technology, the disposal formation characteristics, the waste disposal well design, evaluates the environmental impact of above mentioned technology and proposes a solutions for disposing of technological wastes in Croatia or nerby region by implementing underground injection technology according to the world experience (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis


    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  5. The Effects of Guide Pads on Bore Diameter Enlargement Magnitude in Deep Hole Drilling



    Deep hole machining accuracy plays a crucial role in product’s quality. The results of an investigation into the machining accuracy of deep drilling holes which highlights problems of bore diameter enlargement magnitude assessment are presented in this paper. Through the study of BTA deep drilling tool properties and mechanism, as well as the formation rule of deep hole surface, clarified the burnishing mechanism of guide pad in deep hole drilling, and obtained the directly relationship betwe...

  6. Boring sponges, an increasing threat for coral reefs affected by bleaching events. (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Bautista, Eric; Nava, Héctor; Cruz-Barraza, José A; Chávez, Jesus A


    Coral bleaching is a stress response of corals induced by a variety of factors, but these events have become more frequent and intense in response to recent climate-change-related temperature anomalies. We tested the hypothesis that coral reefs affected by bleaching events are currently heavily infested by boring sponges, which are playing a significant role in the destruction of their physical structure. Seventeen reefs that cover the entire distributional range of corals along the Mexican Pacific coast were studied between 2005/2006, and later between 2009/2010. Most of these coral reefs were previously impacted by bleaching events, which resulted in coral mortalities. Sponge abundance and species richness was used as an indicator of bioerosion, and coral cover was used to describe the present condition of coral reefs. Coral reefs are currently highly invaded (46% of the samples examined) by a very high diversity of boring sponges (20 species); being the coral reef framework the substrate most invaded (56%) followed by the rubbles (45%), and the living colonies (36%). The results also indicated that boring sponges are promoting the dislodgment of live colonies and large fragments from the framework. In summary, the eastern coral reefs affected by bleaching phenomena, mainly provoked by El Niño, present a high diversity and abundance of boring sponges, which are weakening the union of the colony with the reef framework and promoting their dislodgment. These phenomena will probably become even more intense and severe, as temperatures are projected to continue to rise under the scenarios for future climate change, which could place many eastern coral reefs beyond their survival threshold.

  7. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia) (United States)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.


    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  8. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  9. Explorando nuevos horizontes en NASA (United States)

    Villanueva, G. L.

    A pesar de la incesante expansión del Universo iniciada con el Big Bang 14 mil millones de años atrás, nuestro Universo se siente cada día más cercano. La inquebrantable vocación de la humanidad por descubrir nuevos horizontes ha permitido el acercamiento de civilizaciones en nuestro planeta y nos ha permitido conocer nuestro lugar en el Universo como nunca antes. En este artículo presento una breve sinopsis de nuestro trabajo que se relaciona con diversas investigaciones con implicaciones astrobiológicas, desde el origen de los ingredientes de la "sopa de la vida", hasta la evolución y composición de la atmósfera de Marte.

  10. Study of spatio-temporal dynamics of laser-hole boring in near critical plasma (United States)

    Tochitsky, Sergei; Gong, Chao; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy; Joshi, Chan


    At high-intensities of light, radiation pressure becomes one of the dominant mechanisms in laser-plasma interaction. The radiation pressure of an intense laser pulse can steepen and push the critical density region of an overdense plasma creating a cavity or a hole. This hole boring phenomenon is of importance in fast-ignition fusion, high-gradient laser-plasma ion acceleration, and formation of collisionless shocks. Here multi-frame picosecond optical interferometry is used for the first direct measurements of space and time dynamics of the density cavity as it is pushed forward by a train of CO2 laser pulses in a helium plasma. The measured values of the hole boring velocity into an overdense plasma as a function of laser intensity are consistent with a theory based on energy and momentum balance between the heated plasma and the laser and with two-dimensional numerical simulations. We show possibility to extract a relative plasma electron temperature within the laser pulse by applying an analytical theory to the measured hole boring velocities. This work was supported by DOE grant DE-SC0010064.

  11. Hole boring velocity measurements in near critical density plasmas by a CO2 laser pulse (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei; Pigeon, Jeremy; Joshi, Chan


    Measurements of plasma dynamics during the interaction of a high-power laser pulse with an above critical density plasma is important for understanding absorption, transport and particle acceleration mechanisms. An important process that affects these mechanisms is hole boring occurring at the critical density because of the radiation pressure of the laser pulse. Yet, no systematic measurements of the hole boring velocity's (vhb) dependence on laser intensity (I) have been made. In this talk, we present experimental results of vhb in near critical density plasmas produced by CO2 laser as a function of I in the range of 1*1015 to 1.6*1016 W/cm2. A novel four frame Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a 1 ps, 532 nm probe laser pulse was developed to record the evolution of the plasma density profile and the motion of the near critical density layer. Using this diagnostic, we observed the motion of the steepened plasma profile due to the incident, time-structured CO2 laser pulse. Experimental results show the hole boring velocity increases from 0.004c to 0.007c as the laser intensity is increased from 1*1015 to 1.6*1016 W/cm2. This work is supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-92-ER40727, NSF grant PHY-0936266 at UCLA.

  12. Tri-bore PVDF hollow fibers with a super-hydrophobic coating for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kang-Jia


    Membranes with good mechanical strength, high vapor flux and outstanding anti-wetting properties are essential for membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this work, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tri-bore hollow fiber membranes with super-hydrophobicity are developed to achieve these desired properties. The tri-bore hollow fiber offers better mechanical strength than the conventional single-bore fiber. To improve its anti-wetting properties, Teflon® AF 2400 is coated on the membrane surface. The effects of coating on membrane morphology, performance and anti-wetting properties have been thoroughly investigated. With an optimal coating condition (0.025 wt% of Teflon® AF 2400, 30 s), a super-hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 151o is achieved. The resultant membrane shows an increase of 109% in liquid entry pressure (LEP) with a slight sacrifice of 21% in flux. Long term direct contact MD tests have confirmed that the Teflon® AF 2400 coated membrane has enhanced stability with an average flux of 21 kg m-2 h-1 and rejection of 99.99% at 60 °° C for desalination application.

  13. Magnetic design of large-bore superconducting quadrupoles for the AHF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir S Kashikhin et al.


    The Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), under study by LANL, utilizes large-bore superconducting quadrupole magnets to image protons for radiography of fast events. In this concept, 50-GeV proton bunches pass through a thick object and are imaged by a lens system that analyzes the scattered beam to determine object details. Twelve simultaneous views of the object are obtained using multiple beam lines. The lens system uses two types of quadrupoles: a large bore (48-cm beam aperture) for wide field of view imaging and a smaller bore (23 cm aperture) for higher resolution images. The gradients of the magnets are 10.14 T/m and 18.58 T/m with magnetic lengths of 4.3 m and 3.0 m, respectively. The magnets are sufficiently novel to present a design challenge. Evaluation and comparisons were made for various types of magnet design: shell and racetrack coils, cold and warm iron, as well as an active superconducting screen. Nb{sub 3}Sn cable was also considered as an alternative to avoid quenching under high beam-scattering conditions. The superconducting shield concept eliminates the iron core and greatly lessens the cryogenic energy needed for cool down. Several options are discussed and comparisons are made.

  14. Assessment of water quality index of bore well water samples from some selected locations of South Gujarat, India. (United States)

    Tripathi, S; Patel, H M; Srivastava, P K; Bafna, A M


    The present study calculates the water quality index (WQI) of some selected sites from South Gujarat (India) and assesses the impact of industries, agriculture and human activities. Chemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of WQI of some selected bore well samples. The results revealed that the WQI of the some bore well samples exceeded acceptable levels due to the dumping of wastes from municipal, industrial and domestic sources and agricultural runoff as well. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) was implemented for interpolation of each water quality parameter (pH, EC, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate) for the entire sampled area. The bore water is unsuitable for drinking and if the present state of affairs continues for long, it may soon become an ecologically dead bore.

  15. Optimization of horizontal well staggered patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Chunsen; Li Peijing; Guan Dan; Liu Qingjuan


    Staggered line-drive patterns are widely used in oilfields. In this paper, to optimize a staggered pattern of horizontal wells, a 3D problem was divided into two 2D (x-y plane and y-z plane) problems with the pseudo-3D method, conformal transformation and superposition principle. A productivity equation for a horizontal well was deduced, which can be used to optimize the well pattern. A relationship between the length of horizontal wells and the shape factor of well patterns was established. The result shows that optimized well patterns can improve oil production from horizontal wells. This provides a theoretical basis for horizontal well applications to the development of oilfieids, especially for overall development of oilfields by horizontal wells.

  16. Small-bore chest tubes seem to perform better than larger tubes in treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Ringbæk, Thomas


    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and complications of surgical (large-bore) chest tube drainage with smaller and less invasive chest tubes in the treatment of non-traumatic pneumothorax (PT). ......The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and complications of surgical (large-bore) chest tube drainage with smaller and less invasive chest tubes in the treatment of non-traumatic pneumothorax (PT). ...

  17. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  18. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur


    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  19. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, D


    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation.

  20. On the Hydraulics of Flowing Horizontal Wells (United States)

    Bian, A.; Zhan, H.


    A flowing horizontal well is a special type of horizontal well that does not have pumping/injecting facility. The discharge rate of a flowing horizontal well is controlled by the hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the well and it generally varies with time if the hydraulic head of the aquifer is transient. This type of well has been used in landslide control, mining dewatering, water table control, underground water transportation through a horizontal tunnel, agricultural water drainage, and other applications. Flowing horizontal wells have quite different hydrodynamic characteristics from horizontal wells with fixed pumping or injecting rates because their discharge rates are functions of the aquifer hydraulic heads (Zhan et al, 2001; Zhan and Zlotnik, 2002). Hydraulics of flowing horizontal wells have rarely been studied although the hydraulics of flowing vertical wells have been extensively investigated before. The purpose of this paper is to obtain analytical solutions of groundwater flow to a flowing horizontal-well in a confined aquifer, in a water table aquifer without precipitation, and in a water table aquifer with precipitation. The functions of the flowing horizontal well discharge rates versus time will be obtained under above mentioned different aquifer conditions. The relationships of the aquifer hydraulic heads versus the discharge rates of the well will be investigated. The rate of water table decline due to the dewatering of the well will also be computed, and this solution is particularly useful for landslide control and mining dewatering. The theoretical solutions will be compared with results of experiments that will be conducted in the hydrological laboratory at Texas A&M University. Reference: Zhan, H., Wang, L.V., and Park, E, On the horizontal well pumping tests in the anisotropic confined aquifers, J. hydrol., 252, 37-50, 2001. Zhan, H., and Zlotnik, V. A., Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

  1. Widespread horizontal transfer of retrotransposons. (United States)

    Walsh, Ali Morton; Kortschak, R Daniel; Gardner, Michael G; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L


    In higher organisms such as vertebrates, it is generally believed that lateral transfer of genetic information does not readily occur, with the exception of retroviral infection. However, horizontal transfer (HT) of protein coding repetitive elements is the simplest way to explain the patchy distribution of BovB, a long interspersed element (LINE) about 3.2 kb long, that has been found in ruminants, marsupials, squamates, monotremes, and African mammals. BovB sequences are a major component of some of these genomes. Here we show that HT of BovB is significantly more widespread than believed, and we demonstrate the existence of two plausible arthropod vectors, specifically reptile ticks. A phylogenetic tree built from BovB sequences from species in all of these groups does not conform to expected evolutionary relationships of the species, and our analysis indicates that at least nine HT events are required to explain the observed topology. Our results provide compelling evidence for HT of genetic material that has transformed vertebrate genomes.

  2. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics. (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio


    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  3. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio


    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  4. Mechanical performance of disposable surgical needle holders. (United States)

    Francis, E H; Towler, M A; Moody, F P; McGregor, W; Himel, H N; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F


    The mechanical performance of disposable Webster surgical needle holders supplied by three different surgical instrument companies was determined by recording the forces (clamping moment) applied by the different needle holder jaws to curved surgical needles. This investigation demonstrated that there was a large variability in the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holders supplied by each surgical instrument company. In addition, the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holder of each surgical instrument company was distinctly different.

  5. Intra-firm Horizontal Knowledge Transfer Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yaowu; WANG Yanhang


    Knowledge transfer is widely emphasized as a strategic issue for firm competition. A model for intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer is proposed to model horizontal knowledge transfer to solve some demerits in current knowledge transfer researches. The concept model of intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer was described and a framework was provided to define the main components of thetransfer process. Horizontal knowledge transfer is that knowledge is transferred from the source to the same hierarchical level recipients as the target. Horizontal knowledge transfer constitutes a strategic area of knowledge management research. However, little is known about the circumstances under which one particular mechanism is the most appropriate. To address these issues, some significant conclusions are drawn concerning knowledge transfer mechanisms in a real-world setting.

  6. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Najafi


    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  7. Zone electrophoresis in an inner-cooling wide-bore electrophoresis system with UV detection. (United States)

    Guo, Yugao; Liu, Danning; Wang, Huaifeng; Yuan, Ruijuan; Bao, James Jianmin


    A novel, high-performance wide-bore electrophoresis (WE) system with inner-cooling has been developed. By introducing the mode of a shell and tube heat exchanger into this system to remove Joule heat generated during electrophoresis, it is feasible to extend electrophoresis from the conventional capillary (i.d. tube (i.d. >1000 microm). The wide tube allows the loading of over 1.0 microL of the sample with an LOD of 3.0 x 10(-4) mg/mL (signal-to-noise ratio, 3:1). Satisfactory separations of model compounds have been achieved on the WE system.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The dynamic property of piezoelectric micro displacement actuator (PMDA) is analyzed, especially the mechanical characteristic, lag phase property and hysteresis phenomenon. The influence factors of static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and the lag phase property are analyzed systematically. Three main influence factors of lag phase property are discovered. With comparison to mechanical Coulomb friction, a generalized model of nonlinear hysteresis of PMDA is advanced, based on the essential analysis of nonlinear phenomenon. Finally the application of PMDA in error compensation control system of boring is introduced. A good compensation result is achieved.

  9. MANTA, a novel plug-based vascular closure device for large bore arteriotomies: technical report. (United States)

    van Gils, Lennart; Daemen, Joost; Walters, Greg; Sorzano, Todd; Grintz, Todd; Nardone, Sam; Lenzen, Mattie; De Jaegere, Peter P T; Roubin, Gary; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M


    Catheter-based interventions have become a less invasive alternative to conventional surgical techniques for a wide array of cardiovascular diseases but often create large arteriotomies. A completely percutaneous technique is attractive as it may reduce the overall complication rate and procedure time. Currently, large bore arteriotomy closure relies on suture-based techniques. Access-site complications are not uncommon and often seem related to closure device failure. The MANTA VCD is a novel collagen-based closure device that specifically targets arteriotomies between 10 and 22 Fr. This technical report discusses the MANTA design concept, practical instructions for use and preliminary clinical experience.

  10. Development of a Small-Bore, High-Efficiency, Helical Coil Electromagnetic Launcher (United States)


    larger than a conventional railgun at 45 µH/m. The HCEL derives powered from a capacitor -based PFN which typically provides 11 kA current at a charge...gradient of the HCEL is more than a factor of 100 times larger than a conventional railgun at 45 mH/m. The HCEL derives powered from a capacitor -based...DEVELOPMENT OF A SMALL-BORE, HIGH-EFFICIENCY, HELICAL COIL ELECTROMAGNETIC LAUNCHER∗ T.G. Engelξ, W.C. Nunnally University of Missouri

  11. Measurements of an ion beam diameter extracted into air through a large-bore metal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Y.; Umigishi, M. [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women’s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Ogawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)


    To extract an ion beam into air, the technique using a single macro-capillary has been paid attention. We have expanded the bore of the metal capillary up to 500 μm∅ inlet diameter to increase the beam intensity and have measured the intensity distributions of the extracted 3 MeV proton beam. Furthermore, we have tilted the capillary angle and measured the intensity distributions of the ion beam. In this article, we will present the experimental results together with the simulation which takes the tilt angles of the capillary into account.

  12. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tillman, Jack Bruce [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  13. NEP processing, operations, and disposal (United States)

    Stancati, Mike

    Several recent studies by ASAO/NPO staff members at LeRC and by other organizations have highlighted the potential benefits of using Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) as the primary transportation means for some of the proposed missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. These include the potential to reduce initial mass in orbit and Mars transit time. Modular NEP configurations also introduce fully redundant main propulsion to Mars flight systems adding several abort or fall back options not otherwise available. Recent studies have also identified mission operations, such as on orbital assembly, refurbishment, and reactor disposal, as important discriminators for propulsion system evaluation. This study is intended to identify and assess 'end-to-end' operational issues associated with using NEP for transporting crews and cargo between Earth and Mars. We also include some consideration of lunar cargo transfer as well.

  14. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.


    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

  16. Problems in the wellbore integrity of a shale gas horizontal well and corresponding countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglan Tian


    Full Text Available In the Changning–Weiyuan national shale gas demonstration area, SW Sichuan Basin, the wellbore integrity damage occurs in some shale gas wells and has direct effect on the gas production rate of single shale gas horizontal well. After statistics analysis was performed on the problems related with wellbore integrity, such as casing damage, casing running difficulty and cement sheath blow-by, the multi-factor coupling casing stress calculation and evaluation mode laws established. Then study was conducted on the influential mechanism of multi-factor coupling (temperature effect, casing bending and axial pressure on casing damage. The shale slip mechanism and its relationship with casing sheared formation were analyzed by using the Mohr–Coulomb criterion. Inversion analysis was performed on the main controlling factors of casing friction by using the developed casing hook load prediction and friction analysis software. And finally, based on the characteristics of shale gas horizontal wells, wellbore integrity control measures were proposed in terms of design and construction process, so as to improve the drilling quality (DQ. More specifically, shale gas well casing design calculation method and check standard were modified, well structure and full bore hole trajectory design were optimized, drilling quality was improved, cement properties were optimized and cement sealing integrity during fracturing process was checked. These research findings are significant in the design and management of future shale gas borehole integrity.

  17. Horizontal gene transfer and bacterial diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chitra Dutta; Archana Pan


    Bacterial genomes are extremely dynamic and mosaic in nature. A substantial amount of genetic information is inserted into or deleted from such genomes through the process of horizontal transfer. Through the introduction of novel physiological traits from distantly related organisms, horizontal gene transfer often causes drastic changes in the ecological and pathogenic character of bacterial species and thereby promotes microbial diversification and speciation. This review discusses how the recent influx of complete chromosomal sequences of various microorganisms has allowed for a quantitative assessment of the scope, rate and impact of horizontally transmitted information on microbial evolution.

  18. Optimizing of Culture Conditionin Horizontal Rotating Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1 IntroductionBioreactor is the most important equipment in tissue engineering. It can mimic the micro-environment of cell growth in vitro. At present, horizontal rotating bioreactor is the most advanced equipment for cell culture in the world. 2 Rotating bioreactors2.1 Working principleThere are two kinds of horizontal rotating bioreactor: HARV(high aspect ratio vessel) and RCCS (rotary cell culture system). It is drived by step motor with horizontal rotation, the culture medium and cell is filled between ...

  19. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  20. 40 CFR 761.60 - Disposal requirements. (United States)


    ... required by Federal or State regulations. (ii) (2) PCB Capacitors. (i) The disposal of any capacitor shall... that the capacitor does not contain PCBs. (ii) Any person may dispose of PCB Small Capacitors as... section. (iii) Any PCB Large High or Low Voltage Capacitor which contains 500 ppm or greater PCBs,...

  1. Hydrologic implications of solid-water disposal (United States)

    Schneider, William Joseph


    The disposal of more than 1,400 million pounds of solid wastes in the United States each day is a major problem. This disposal in turn often leads to serious health, esthetic, and environmental problems. Among these is the pollution of vital ground-water resources.

  2. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste disposal. 850.32 Section 850.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  3. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.


    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  4. Measurement of in-bore side loads and comparison to first maximum yaw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald E. CARLUCCI; Ryan DECKER; Julio VEGA; Douglas RAY


    In-bore yaw of a projectile in a gun tube has been shown to result in range loss if the yaw is significant. An attempt was made to determine if relationships between in-bore yaw and projectile First Maximum Yaw (FMY) were observable. Experiments were conducted in which pressure transducers were mounted near the muzzle of a 155 mm cannon in three sets of four. Each set formed a cruciform pattern to obtain a differential pressure across the projectile. These data were then integrated to form a picture of what the overall pressure distribution was along the side of the projectile. The pressure distribution was used to determine a magnitude and direction of the overturning moment acting on the projectile. This moment and its resulting angular acceleration were then compared to the actual first maximum yaw observed in the test. The degree of correlation was examined using various statistical techniques. Overall uncertainty in the projectile dynamics was between 20%and 40%of the mean values of FMY.

  5. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region. (United States)

    Hunter, J M


    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  6. Geotechnical maps for recommendation on bored pile capacity in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksun Horpibulsuk


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of geotechnical maps in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand based on the boring logs and in situ test results collected from public and private sector sources. The standard penetration number, N was used to identify the soil type. The soil deposits in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality are divided into three layers: medium-to-stiff silty clay with N 50. The medium-to-stiff silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.8 to 7.5 metres and an average N value of 14 with a relatively low standard deviation of 1.08. The first hard silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.2 to 3.0 metres and an average N value of 42 with a standard deviation of 1.37. For a practical application in foundation engineering in which the pile tips of the bored piles are located in the second hard stratum with N > 50, eight pile tip zones with approximated load capacity are recommended for pile lengths of 3-10 metres.

  7. Internal bores and gravity currents in a two-fluid system

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Kiyoshi


    In this paper, a unified theory of internal bores and gravity currents is presented within the framework of the one-dimensional two-layer shallow-water equations. The equations represent four basic physical laws: the theory is developed on the basis of these laws. Though the first three of the four basic laws are apparent, the forth basic law has been uncertain. This paper shows first that this forth basic law can be deduced from the law which is called in this paper the conservation law of circulation. It is then demonstrated that, within the framework of the equations, an internal bore is represented by a shock satisfying the shock conditions that follow from the four basic laws. A gravity current can also be treated within the framework of the equations if the front conditions, i.e. the boundary conditions to be imposed at the front of the current, are known. Basically, the front conditions for a gravity current also follow from the four basic laws. When the gravity current is advancing along a no-slip bou...

  8. Asymmetric gradient coil design for use in a short, open bore magnetic resonance imaging scanner. (United States)

    Wang, Yaohui; Liu, Feng; Li, Yu; Tang, Fangfang; Crozier, Stuart


    A conventional cylindrical whole-body MRI scanner has a long bore that may cause claustrophobia for some patients in addition to being inconvenient for healthcare workers accessing the patient. A short-bore scanner usually offers a small sized imaging area, which is impractical for imaging some body parts, such as the torso. This work proposes a novel asymmetric gradient coil design that offers a full-sized imaging area close to one end of the coil. In the new design, the primary and shielding coils are connected at one end whilst separated at the other, allowing the installation of the cooling system and shim trays. The proposed coils have a larger wire gap, higher efficiency, lower inductance, less resistance and a higher figure of merit than the non-connected coils. This half-connected coil structure not only improves the coils' electromagnetic performance, but also slightly attenuates acoustic radiation at most frequencies when compared to a non-connected gradient coil. It is also quieter in some frequency bands than a conventional symmetric gradient coil.

  9. Design of a Large Bore 60-T Pulse Magnet for Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The design of a new pulsed magnet system for the generation of intense electron beams is presented. Determined by the required magnetic field profile along the axis, the magnet system consists of two coils (Coil No.1 and No.2) separated by a 32-mm axial gap. Each coil is energized independently. Both coils are internally reinforced with HIM Zylon fiber/epoxy composite. Coil No.1 made with AI-15 Glidcop wire has a bore of 110-mm diameter and is 200-mm long; it is energized by a 1.3-MJ, 13-kV capacitor bank. The magnetic field at the center of this coil is 30 T. Coil No.2 made with CuNb wire has a bore of 45 mm diameter, generates 60 T with a pulse duration of 60 ms, and is powered by a 4.0-MJ, 17.7-kV capacitor bank. We present design criteria, the coupling of the magnets, and the normal and the fault conditions during operation.

  10. Measurement of in-bore side loads and comparison to first maximum yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Carlucci


    Full Text Available In-bore yaw of a projectile in a gun tube has been shown to result in range loss if the yaw is significant. An attempt was made to determine if relationships between in-bore yaw and projectile First Maximum Yaw (FMY were observable. Experiments were conducted in which pressure transducers were mounted near the muzzle of a 155 mm cannon in three sets of four. Each set formed a cruciform pattern to obtain a differential pressure across the projectile. These data were then integrated to form a picture of what the overall pressure distribution was along the side of the projectile. The pressure distribution was used to determine a magnitude and direction of the overturning moment acting on the projectile. This moment and its resulting angular acceleration were then compared to the actual first maximum yaw observed in the test. The degree of correlation was examined using various statistical techniques. Overall uncertainty in the projectile dynamics was between 20% and 40% of the mean values of FMY.

  11. Analysis and separation of boron isotopes; Analyse et separation des isotopes du bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The nuclear applications of boron-10 justify the study of a method of measurement of its isotopic abundance as well as of very small traces of boron in different materials. A systematic study of thermionic emission of BO{sub 2}Na{sub 2}{sup +} has been carried out. In the presence of a slight excess of alkalis, the thermionic emission is considerably reduced. On the other hand, the addition of a mixture of sodium hydroxide-glycerol (or mannitol) to borax permits to obtain an intense and stable beam. These results have permitted to establish an operative method for the analysis of traces of boron by isotopic dilution. In other respects, the needs of boron-10 in nuclear industry Justify the study of procedures of separation of isotopes of boron. A considerable isotopic effect has been exhibited in the chemical exchange reaction between methyl borate and borate salt in solution. In the case of exchange between methyl borate and sodium borate, the elementary separation factor {alpha} is: {alpha}=(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)vap.)/(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)liq.)=1.03{sub 3}. The high value of this elementary effect has been multiplied in a distillation column in which the problem of regeneration of the reactive has been resolved. An alternative procedure replacing the alkali borate by a borate of volatile base, for example diethylamine, has also been studied ({alpha}=1,02{sub 5} in medium hydro-methanolic with 2,2 per cent water). (author) [French] Les applications nucleaires du bore 10 justifient l'etude d'une methode de mesure de son abondance isotopique dans divers materiaux ainsi que le dosage de tres faibles traces de bore. Une etude systematique de l'emission thermoionique de BO{sub 2} Na{sub 2}{sup +} a ete effectuee. En presence d'un leger exces d'alcalins, l'emission thermoionique est considerablement reduite. Par contre l'addition au borax d'un melange soude-glycerol (ou mannitol) permet d'obtenir un faisceau stable et intense

  12. Phase contrast imaging of high-intensity laser hole boring of solid-density wires at LCLS-MEC (United States)

    Schumaker, W.; Brown, S.; Curry, C.; Gauthier, M.; Gamboa, E.; Goede, S.; Fletcher, L.; Kim, J.; MacDonald, M.; Mishra, R.; Roedel, C.; Glenzer, S.; Fiuza, F.; Granados, E.; Nagler, B.; Zhou, Z.; MacKinnon, A.; Obst, L.; Ziel, K.; Pak, A.; Williams, G.; Fajardo, M.


    High-intensity, relativistic (a0 > 1) laser plasma interactions on solid surfaces produce a rich mix of dynamics on the laser timescale (Weibel instabilities, surface effects, sheath formation, etc.) and hydrodynamic timescale (hole-boring, shocks, etc.). Probing these interactions optically is difficult due to critical density layer obscuring the surface of the target, whereas probing with hard X-rays from K-alpha sources does not sufficiently resolve these interactions temporally as they are typically many ps in duration. Presented here are the first experimental measurements of laser hole-boring on a carbon wire surfaces performed at the LCLS-MEC facility. With laser intensities of up to 1019 W / cm2 , we observe the dissociation of micron-sized wires over 100 ps timescale with peak hole boring velocities up to 0.001 c using phase-contrast imaging. This work was funded by DOE FES under FWP #100182.

  13. Etudes sur la phase carbure de bore. Corrélations propriétés-composition



    No english abstract; La connaissance du diagramme de phases bore-carbone, des propriétés physico chimiques et la structure du carbure de bore ont été approfondies. Dans ce but, nous avons mis en œuvre principalement deux méthodes de préparation de nos échantillons : ¤ la fusion au canon à électrons, ¤ la compression à chaud. Il faut noter que nous avons considérablement amélioré cette dernière méthode pour la rendre apte à la préparation en particulier d'échantillons constitués de bore pur ou...

  14. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  15. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem". (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra


    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.

  16. Reducing ion energy spread in hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration by using two-ion-species targets

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, S M; Sheng, Z M


    The generation of fast ion beams in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration by intense laser pulses has been studied for targets with different ion components. We find that the oscillation of the longitudinal electric field for accelerating ions can be effectively suppressed by using a two-ion-species target, because fast ions from a two-ion-species target are distributed into more bunches and each bunch bears less charge. Consequently, the energy spread of ion beams generated in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration can be greatly reduced down to 3.7% according to our numerical simulation.

  17. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  18. Active and passive migration in boring isopods Limnoria spp. (Crustacea, Peracarida) from kelp holdfasts (United States)

    Miranda, Leonardo; Thiel, Martin


    Many boring isopods inhabit positively buoyant substrata (wood and algae), which float after detachment, permitting passive migration of inhabitants. Based on observations from previous studies, it was hypothesized that juvenile, subadult and male isopods migrate actively, and will rapidly abandon substrata after detachment. In contrast, reproductive females and small offspring were predicted to remain in floating substrata and thus have a high probability to disperse passively via rafting. In order to test this hypothesis, a colonization and an emigration experiment were conducted with giant kelp ( Macrocystis integrifolia), the holdfasts of which are inhabited by boring isopods from the genus Limnoria. A survey of benthic substrata in the kelp forest confirmed that limnoriids inhabited the holdfasts and did not occur in holdfast-free samples. Results of the colonization experiment showed that all life history stages of the boring isopods immigrated into young, largely uncolonized holdfasts, and after 16 weeks all holdfasts were densely colonized. In the emigration experiment, all life history stages of the isopods rapidly abandoned the detached holdfasts — already 5 min after detachment only few individuals remained in the floating holdfasts. After this initial rapid emigration of isopods, little changes in isopod abundance occurred during the following 24 h, and at the end of the experiment some individuals of all life history stages still remained in the holdfasts. These results indicate that all life history stages of Limnoria participate in both active migration and passive dispersal. It is discussed that storm-related dynamics within kelp forests may contribute to intense mixing of local populations of these burrow-dwelling isopods, and that most immigrants to young holdfasts probably are individuals emigrating from old holdfasts detached during storm events. The fact that some individuals of all life history stages and both sexes remain in floating

  19. Disposal of medical waste: a legal perspective. (United States)

    Du Toit, Karen; Bodenstein, Johannes


    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides that everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being. The illegal dumping of hazardous waste poses a danger to the environment when pollutants migrate into water sources and ultimately cause widespread infection or toxicity, endangering the health of humans who might become exposed to infection and toxins. To give effect to the Constitution, the safe disposal of hazardous waste is governed by legislation in South Africa. Reports of the illegal disposal of waste suggest a general lack of awareness and training in regard to the safe disposal of medical waste. 

  20. Horizontal roof gap of backfill hydraulic support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 张吉雄; 邰阳; 方坤; 殷伟


    For the backfill hydraulic support as the key equipment for achieving integration of backfilling and coal mining simultaneously in the practical process, its characteristics will directly influence the backfill body’s compression ratio. Horizontal roof gap, as a key parameter of backfilling characteristics, may impact the backfilling effect from the aspects of control of roof subsidence in advance, support stress, backfilling process and the support design. Firstly, the reason why horizontal roof gap exists was analyzed and its definition, causes and connotation were introduced, then adopting the Pro/E 3D simulation software, three typical 3D entity models of backfill hydraulic supports were built, based on the influence of horizontal roof gap on backfilling effect, and influence rules of four factors, i.e. support height, suspension height, suspension angle and tamping angle, were emphatically analyzed on horizontal roof gap. The results indicate that, the four factors all have significant impacts on horizontal roof gap, but show differences in influence trend and degree, showing negative linear correlation, positive linear correlation, positive semi-parabolic correlation and negative semi-parabolic correlation, respectively. Four legs type is the most adaptive to the four factors, while six legs (II) type has the poorest adaptability, and the horizontal roof gap is small under large support height, small suspension height, small suspension angle and large tamping angle situation. By means of optimizing structure components and their positional relation and suspension height of backfill scrape conveyor in the process of support design and through controlling working face deployment, roof subsidence in advance, mining height and backfilling during engineering application, the horizontal roof gap is optimized. The research results can be served as theoretical basis for support design and guidance for backfill support to have better performance in backfilling.

  1. Sludge mobilization with submerged nozzles in horizontal cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Cummins, R.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Perona, J.J.


    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and the evaporator service tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are used for the collection and storage of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). Wastes collected in these tanks are typically acidic when generated and are neutralized with sodium hydroxide to protect the tanks from corrosion; however, the high pH of the solution causes the formation of insoluble compounds that precipitate. These precipitates formed a sludge layer approximately 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) deep in the bottom of the tanks. The sludge in the MVSTs and the evaporator service tanks will eventually need to be removed from the tanks and treated for final disposal or transferred to another storage facility. The primary options for removing the sludge include single-point sluicing, use of a floating pump, robotic sluicing, and submerged-nozzle sluicing. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of submerged-nozzle sluicing in horizontal cylindrical tanks and (2) obtain experimental data to validate the TEMPEST (time-dependent, energy, momentun, pressure, equation solution in three dimensions) computer code.

  2. Evaluation of image quality versus doses in service of mammography of Belo Horizonte, MG, BR; Avaliacao da qualidade da imagem versus doses em servicos de mamografia de Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.; Nogueira, M.S.; Guedes, E. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Seguranca Nuclear; Andrade, M.C. [Superintendencia Estadual de Vigilancia Sanitaria, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, J.E. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Radiologia; Silva, V.L.S.; Borges, J.C. [Vigilancia Sanitaria da Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Belo horizonte (VISA/PBH), MG (Brazil)


    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the radiation protection and quality of 37 services out a total of 82 mammography facilities existing in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Two instruments were used: a proposed evaluation protocol of the Health Surveillance -VISA and a protocol for evaluation of image quality. Of the 37 services who completed the study, none was achieved 100% conformity in image quality. The results of radiation protection requirements according to the VISA protocol bore close relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection (p>0.05)

  3. Cylindricity Error Measuring and Evaluating for Engine Cylinder Bore in Manufacturing Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen


    Full Text Available On-line measuring device of cylindricity error is designed based on two-point method error separation technique (EST, which can separate spindle rotation error from measuring error. According to the principle of measuring device, the mathematical model of the minimum zone method for cylindricity error evaluating is established. Optimized parameters of objective function decrease to four from six by assuming that c is equal to zero and h is equal to one. Initial values of optimized parameters are obtained from least square method and final values are acquired by the genetic algorithm. The ideal axis of cylinder is fitted in MATLAB. Compared to the error results of the least square method, the minimum circumscribed cylinder method, and the maximum inscribed cylinder method, the error result of the minimum zone method conforms to the theory of error evaluation. The results indicate that the method can meet the requirement of engine cylinder bore cylindricity error measuring and evaluating.

  4. Prediction of Surface Roughness Based on Machining Condition and Tool Condition in Boring EN31 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mohanaraman


    Full Text Available Prediction of Surface roughness plays a vital role in manufacturing process. In manufacturing industries, productions of metallic materials require high surface finish in various components. In the present work, the effect of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and flank wear of the tool on the surface roughness has been studied. Carbide tipped insert was used for boring operation. Experiments were conducted in CNC lathe. The experimental setup was prepared with sixteen levels of cutting parameters and was conducted with two tool tip conditions in dry machining. A piezoelectric accelerometer was used to measure the vibrational signals while machining. The data acquisition card which connected between accelerometer and lab-view software to record the signals. Simple linear and least median regression models were used for prediction of surface roughness. The models were developed by weka analysis software. The best suitable regression model is implemented based on maximum correlation coefficient and the minimum error values.

  5. Ecology of the Wood-boring Bivalve Martesia striata (Pholadidae) in Indian Waters (United States)

    Yennawar, P. L.; Thakur, N. L.; Anil, A. C.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A. B.


    Martesia striata (Linnaeus) is one of the dominant wood-boring organisms found in Indian waters. Incidence of this organism in the Zuari estuary (Goa) was evaluated by exposing wooden panels (Mangifera indica) to the marine environment between January 1996 and January 1997. Effects of salinity variation on embryonic and larval development were evaluated (salinity 0, 10, 20, 30, 35, 40 and 50, temperature 25 °C) and maximum metamorphic success was observed at 30 salinity. Results of the rearing experiments, destruction pattern of wood in the environment and reproductive biology indicate that although recruitment is halted during the monsoon, adults survive and become reproductively mature in the following post-monsoon, leading to increased recruitment during pre-monsoon months.

  6. Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails. (United States)

    Baalbergen, Els; Helwerda, Renate; Schelfhorst, Rense; Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Kundrata, Robin; Welter-Schultes, Francisco W; Giokas, Sinos; Schilthuizen, Menno


    Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit strategies of the Drilus larvae, and evaluate the potential mutual evolutionary impacts. We find limited evidence for an effect of shell features and snail behavioral traits on inter- and intra-specifically differing predation rates. We also find that Drilus predators adjust their predation behavior based on specific shell traits of the prey. In conclusion, we suggest that, with these baseline data, this interesting predator-prey system will be available for further, detailed more evolutionary ecology studies.

  7. Dosimetric impact of image artifact from a wide-bore CT scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Vincent; Podgorsak, Matthew B.; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Malhotra, Harish K.; Wang, Iris Z. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)


    Purpose: Traditional computed tomography (CT) units provide a maximum scan field-of-view (sFOV) diameter of 50 cm and a limited bore size, which cannot accommodate a large patient habitus or an extended simulation setup in radiation therapy (RT). Wide-bore CT scanners with increased bore size were developed to address these needs. Some scanners have the capacity to reconstruct the CT images at an extended FOV (eFOV), through data interpolation or extrapolation, using projection data acquired with a conventional sFOV. Objects that extend past the sFOV for eFOV reconstruction may generate image artifacts resulting from truncated projection data; this may distort CT numbers and structure contours in the region beyond the sFOV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of image artifacts from eFOV reconstruction with a wide-bore CT scanner in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning. Methods: Testing phantoms (i.e., a mini CT phantom with equivalent tissue inserts, a set of CT normal phantoms and anthropomorphic phantoms of the thorax and the pelvis) were used to evaluate eFOV artifacts. Reference baseline images of these phantoms were acquired with the phantom centrally positioned within the sFOV. For comparison, the phantoms were then shifted laterally and scanned partially outside the sFOV, but still within the eFOV. Treatment plans were generated for the thoracic and pelvic anthropomorphic phantoms utilizing the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) to study the potential effects of eFOV artifacts on dose calculations. All dose calculations of baseline and test treatment plans were carried out using the same MU. Results: Results show that both body contour and CT numbers are altered by image artifacts in eFOV reconstruction. CT number distortions of up to -356 HU for bone tissue and up to 323 HU for lung tissue were observed in the mini CT phantom. Results from the large body normal phantom, which is close to a clinical patient size, show

  8. Dynamic nuclear polarization for magnetic resonance imaging. An in-bore approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummenacker, Jan G.


    In this thesis, the development of an in-bore liquid state DNP polarizer for MRI applications operating in flow through mode at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T was described. After an introductory chapter 1 and a chapter 2 on the theoretical background, chapter 3 dealt chiefly with the challenge of performing liquid state DNP at a high magnetic field of 9.2 T. The feasibility of performing liquid state DNP at this field was demonstrated for various solvents, as well as for metabolites in solution. Chapter 4 then moved to the aim of this work, the application of liquid state DNP for MRI experiments. It introduced the rationale of our approach, the hardware that was developed and demonstrated its performance in a clinical MRI tomograph.

  9. Lesson for the Calculation No Longer Boring%让计算课不再枯燥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Although calculation content is boring,but if we can stand on the perspective of the students to look at teaching,carefully adjust their own class,in calculation classes focus on creating close to the situation of life to arouse students’interests,pay attention to let students understand calculate.%计算内容虽然是枯燥的,但教师要能站在学生的角度去审视教学,精心调整自己的课堂,在计算课中注重创设贴近生活的情境以调动学生的兴趣,注重让学生明白算理。

  10. Measurements of laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas using x-ray laser refractometry (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, R.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, K.A.; Kato, Y. [Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Murai, K. [DMP, ONRI, Ikeda, Osaka 563 (Japan); Weber, F.; Barbee, T.W.; DaSilva, L.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)


    We developed a 19.6 nm laser x-ray laser grid-image refractometer (XRL-GIR) to diagnose laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas. The XRL-GIR was optimized to measure two-dimensional electron density perturbation on a scale of a few tens of {mu}m in underdense plasmas. Electron density profiles of laser-produced plasmas were obtained for 10{sup 20}{endash}10{sup 22}thinspcm{sup {minus}3} with the XRL-GIR and for 10{sup 19}{endash}10{sup 20}thinspcm{sup {minus}3} from an ultraviolet interferometer, the profiles of which were compared with those from hydrodynamic simulation. By using this XRL-GIR, we directly observed laser channeling into overdense plasmas accompanied by a bow shock wave showing a Mach cone ascribed to supersonic propagation of the channel front. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. 3D Finite Element Simulation of Tunnel Boring Machine Construction Processes in Deep Water Conveyance Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Denghua; TONG Dawei


    Applying stiffness migration method, a 3D finite element mechanical model is established to simulate the excavation and advance processes. By using 3D nonlinear finite element method, the tunnel boring machine (TBM) excavation process is dynamically simulated to analyze the stress and strain field status of surrounding rock and segment. The maximum tensile stress of segment ring caused by tunnel construction mainly lies in arch bottom and presents zonal distribution. The stress increases slightly and limitedly in the course of excavation. The maxi-mum and minimum displacements of segment, manifesting as zonal distribution, distribute in arch bottom and vault respectively. The displacements slightly increase with the advance of TBM and gradually tend to stability.

  12. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M.


    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  13. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes (United States)

    Woodhead, D. S.


    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett


    The purpose of this calculation is to provide the bases for defining the preclosure limits on radioactive material releases from radioactive waste forms to be received in disposable canisters at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, this calculation will provide the basis for criteria to be included in a forthcoming revision of the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) that limits releases in terms of non-isotope-specific canister release dose-equivalent source terms. These criteria will be developed for the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canister, the Multicanister Overpack (MCO), the naval spent fuel canister, the High-Level Waste (HLW) canister, the plutonium can-in-canister, and the large Multipurpose Canister (MPC). The shippers of such canisters will be required to demonstrate that they meet these criteria before the canisters are accepted at the MGR. The Quality Assurance program is applicable to this calculation. The work reported in this document is part of the analysis of DSNF and is performed using procedure AP-3.124, Calculations. The work done for this analysis was evaluated according to procedure QAP-2-0, Control of Activities, which has been superseded by AP-2.21Q, Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities. This evaluation determined that such activities are subject to the requirements of DOE/RW/0333P, Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (DOE 2000). This work is also prepared in accordance with the development plan titled Design Basis Event Analyses on DOE SNF and Plutonium Can-In-Canister Waste Forms (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This calculation contains no electronic data applicable to any electronic data management system.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Muzzle Flow Field Based on Calculation of Combustion Productions in Bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Wang∗,Houqian Xu,Wei Wu; Rui Xue


    To improve the accuracy of numerical simulation of muzzle chemical flow field, and study the gunpowder combustion productions, the muzzle flow field is simulated coupled with the calculation of combustion productions in bore. The calculation in bore uses the gibbs free⁃energy minimization method and the classical interior ballistics model. The simulation of the muzzle flow field employs the multi⁃component ALE ( Arbitrary Lagrange⁃Euler ) equations. Computations are performed for a 12�7 mm gun. From 2�48 ms to 3�14 ms, the projectile moves in the gun barrel. CO and H2 O masses decrease by 3�37% and 6�51%, and H2 and CO2 masses increase by 11�11% and 10�58%. The changes conform to the fact that the water⁃gas equilibrium reaction of all reactions plays a dominant role in this phase. After the projectile leaves the barrel, the masses of H2 and CO decrease, and the masses of H2 O and CO2 increase. When it moves to 80d away from the muzzle, the decreases are 12�75% and 8�05%, and the increases are 12�76% and 36�26%, which tallies with the existence of muzzle flame. Further, CO and H2 burn more and more fiercely with the muzzle pressure pg increasing, and burn more and more weakly with the altitude rising. When two projectiles launch in series, the combustion of the second projectile muzzle flow field is fiercer than the first projectile. Analysis results have shown that the proposed method is effective for simulating the muzzle flow filed.

  16. CFD Modelling of Bore Erosion in Two-Stage Light Gas Guns (United States)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.


    A well-validated quasi-one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the analysis of the internal ballistics of two-stage light gas guns is modified to explicitly calculate the ablation of steel from the gun bore and the incorporation of the ablated wall material into the hydrogen working cas. The modified code is used to model 45 shots made with the NASA Ames 0.5 inch light gas gun over an extremely wide variety of gun operating conditions. Good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical piston velocities (maximum errors of +/-2% to +/-6%) and maximum powder pressures (maximum errors of +/-10% with good igniters). Overall, the agreement between the experimental and numerically calculated gun erosion values (within a factor of 2) was judged to be reasonably good, considering the complexity of the processes modelled. Experimental muzzle velocities agree very well (maximum errors of 0.5-0.7 km/sec) with theoretical muzzle velocities calculated with loading of the hydrogen gas with the ablated barrel wall material. Comparison of results for pump tube volumes of 100%, 60% and 40% of an initial benchmark value show that, at the higher muzzle velocities, operation at 40% pump tube volume produces much lower hydrogen loading and gun erosion and substantially lower maximum pressures in the gun. Large muzzle velocity gains (2.4-5.4 km/sec) are predicted upon driving the gun harder (that is, upon using, higher powder loads and/or lower hydrogen fill pressures) when hydrogen loading is neglected; much smaller muzzle velocity gains (1.1-2.2 km/sec) are predicted when hydrogen loading is taken into account. These smaller predicted velocity gains agree well with those achieved in practice. CFD snapshots of the hydrogen mass fraction, density and pressure of the in-bore medium are presented for a very erosive shot.

  17. Load-sharing characteristic of multiple pinions driving in tunneling boring machine (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Sun, Qinchao; Sun, Wei; Ding, Xin; Tu, Wenping; Wang, Qingguo


    The failure of the key parts, such as gears, in cutter head driving system of tunneling boring machine has not been properly solved under the interaction of driving motors asynchronously and wave tunneling torque load. A dynamic model of multi-gear driving system is established considering the inertia effects of driving mechanism and cutter head as well as the bending-torsional coupling. By taking into account the nonlinear coupling factors between ring gear and multiple pinions, the influence for meshing angle by bending-torsional coupling and the dynamic load-sharing characteristic of multiple pinions driving are analyzed. Load-sharing coefficients at different rotating cutter head speeds and input torques are presented. Numerical results indicate that the load-sharing coefficients can reach up to 1.2-1.3. A simulated experimental platform of the multiple pinions driving is carried out and the torque distributions under the step load in driving shaft of pinions are measured. The imbalance of torque distribution of pinions is verified and the load-sharing coefficients in each pinion can reach 1.262. The results of simulation and test are similar, which shows the correctness of theoretical model. A loop coupling control method is put forward based on current torque master slave control method. The imbalance of the multiple pinions driving in cutter head driving system of tunneling boring machine can be greatly decreased and the load-sharing coefficients can be reduced to 1.051 by using the loop coupling control method. The proposed research provides an effective solution to the imbalance of torque distribution and synchronous control method for multiple pinions driving of TBM.

  18. Study on the response of the full-bore conductance sensor for water cut measurement (United States)

    Xie, Ronghua; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai; Dai, Xuefei; Shan, Fujun; Xu, Wenfeng


    This paper has proposed a new structure of full-bore conductance sensor, which is designed for measuring water cut of the oil-water two-phase flow. The structure of the full-bore conductance sensor and the measurement principle are introduced in the paper. The mental ring-shaped electrode is mounted on the outside wall of the cylindrical insulation body. When the electrode is provided with constant current, according to the electrical theory, the electrode generates a voltage, the value of which is inversely proportional to the conductivity of fluid flowing between the sensor and the casing. The electrostatic field simulations of the sensor are accomplished by using ANSYS software. The results of the potential distribution simulation show that the potential decays quickly from the electrode along r direction (radial) and z direction (axial)to both sides, and the potential only distributes in a very narrow area near the electrode. A series of static experiments on the sensor are carried out in laboratory. The experiment results agree with the simulation results. In radial direction, the closer the rod is to the sensor, the more sensitive the sensor becomes and the greater the relative response becomes. In axial direction, the electrode only responds in a certain region on both sides of the electrode and decays rapidly from the electrode to both sides. And the salinity experiment is conducted in salt solution (3000 ppm), which shows that within the allowable range of experiment error, there is no effect of salinity on the sensor response. response.

  19. Bored pile construction%冲孔灌注桩施工要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明晓; 洪小灵


    Bored pile foundation as a mature technology,because of its simple installation,construction machinery import and the convenience,fast pile forming speed,quality and reliable,widely used.The bored pile construction process may produce problems in detail,for coastal mud layer too thick,too many boulder distribution of geological environment,the old city construction site is small,it may encounter problems,especially the pile press machine,the punching process emerged in the mud circulation plugging,probe stone underwater concrete,quality control,reasonable solutions and preventive measures.%冲孔灌注桩作为一种成熟的桩基工艺,因其施工机械安装简单、进出场地方便,成桩速度快、桩身质量可靠,得到广泛的应用。本文对冲孔灌注桩施工过程中可能产生的问题进行详细阐述,针对沿海淤泥层过厚,孤石分布偏多的地质环境,老城区施工场地偏小,就可能遇到的问题,特别是桩机走机、冲孔过程中出现的泥浆循环堵管、探头石、水下混凝土质量控制,提出合理的解决方法及预防措施。

  20. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar A


    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  1. Experimental analysis of minimum shear stress to drag particles in a horizontal bed; Analise experimental da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito horizontal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornelas, Breno Almeida; Soares, Edson Jose [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Brazil)], e-mails:,; Quirino Filho, Joao Pedro; Loureiro, Bruno Venturini [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL). Laboratorio de Fluidos e Fenomenos de Transporte (Brazil)], e-mails:,


    Efficient hole cleaning is still a challenge in well bore drilling to produce oil and gas. The critical point is the horizontal drilling that inherently tends to form a bed of sediment particles at the well bottom during drilling. The cuttings bed erosion depends mainly on the shear stress promoted by the drilling fluid flow. The shear stress required to cause drag in the cuttings bed is investigated according to the fluid and particles properties, using an experimental assembly, composed of: a system for fluid circulation, a particle box, a pump system and measuring equipment. The observation area is a box below the flow line in an acrylic duct used to calibrate sand particles. The test starts with the pumps in a low frequency which is increased in steps. At each frequency level, images are captured of carried particles and the established flow rate is recorded. The images are analyzed when the dragged particle is no longer random and sporadic, but becomes permanent. The shear stress is identified by the PKN correlation (by Prandtl, von Karman, and Nikuradse) for the minimum flow rate necessary to cause drag. Results were obtained for just water and water-glycerin solution flows. (author)

  2. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.


    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  3. Concept development for HLW disposal research tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queon, S. K.; Kim, K. S.; Park, J. H.; Jeo, W. J.; Han, P. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to dispose high-level radioactive waste in a geological formation, it is necessary to assess the safety of a disposal concept by excavating a research tunnel in the same geological formation as the host rock mass. The design concept of a research tunnel depends on the actual disposal concept, repository geometry, experiments to be carried at the tunnel, and geological conditions. In this study, analysis of the characteristics of the disposal research tunnel, which is planned to be constructed at KAERI site, calculation of the influence of basting impact on neighbor facilities, and computer simuation for mechanical stability analysis using a three-dimensional code, FLAC3D, had been carried out to develop the design concept of the research tunnel.

  4. Hotel to Phase out Disposable Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Several hotels in Changsha, Shanghai and Kunming have recently staged a Green Hotel campaign: hotels will not offer disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste, slippers, combs or bottled shampoo and body lotion to their guests unless requested. Meanwhile a Green Hotel Standard has been issued, proscribing "disposable articles, such as toothbrushes, soap, combs and slippers," and stipulating that "textiles, such as bathrobes, towels and pillowslips, in hotel rooms are to be changed strictly at the request of guests,

  5. Influence of friction on buckling of a drill string in the circular channel of a bore hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gulyayev


    Full Text Available Abstract Enhancement of technology and techniques for drilling deep directed oil and gas bore hole is one of the most important problems of the current petroleum industry. Not infrequently, the drilling of these bore holes is attended by occurrence of extraordinary situations associated with technical accidents. Among these is the Eulerian loss of stability of a drill string in the channel of a curvilinear bore hole. Methods of computer simulation should play a dominant role in prediction of these states. In this paper, a new statement of the problem of critical buckling of the drill strings in 3D curvilinear bore holes is proposed. It is based on combined use of the theory of curvilinear elastic rods, Eulerian theory of stability, theory of channel surfaces, and methods of classical mechanics of systems with nonlinear constraints. It is noted that the stated problem is singularly perturbed and its solutions have the shapes of localized harmonic wavelets. The calculation results showed that the friction effects lead to essential redistribution of internal axial forces, as well as changing the eigenmode shapes and sites of their localization. These features make the buckling phenomena less predictable and raise the role of computer simulation of these effects.

  6. The impact of disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on SPM concentration and fluid mud in and outside the harbor of Zeebrugge (United States)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Cardoso, Claudio; Dujardin, Arvid; Lauwaert, Brigitte; Van den Eynde, Dries; Van Hoestenberghe, Thomas; Vanlede, Joris; Van Poucke, Luc; Velez, Carlos; Martens, Chantal


    The amount of sediments to be dredged and disposed depends to a large part on the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration. Tidal, meteorological, climatological, and seasonal forcings have an influence on the horizontal and vertical distribution of the SPM in the water column and on the bed and control the inflow of fine-grained sediments towards harbors and navigation channels. About 3 million tons (dry matter) per year of mainly fine-grained sediments is dredged in the port of Zeebrugge and is disposed on a nearby disposal site. The disposed sediments are quickly resuspended and transported away from the site. The hypothesis is that a significant part of the disposed sediments recirculates back to the dredging places and that a relocation of the disposal site to another location at equal distance to the dredging area would reduce this recirculation. In order to validate the hypothesis, a 1-year field study was set up in 2013-2014. During 1 month, the dredged material was disposed at a new site. Variations in SPM concentration were related to tides, storms, seasonal changes, and human impacts. In the high-turbidity Belgian near-shore area, the natural forcings are responsible for the major variability in the SPM concentration signal, while disposal has only a smaller influence. The conclusion from the measurements is that the SPM concentration decreases after relocation of the disposal site but indicate stronger (first half of field experiment) or weaker (second half of field experiment) effects that are, however, supported by the environmental conditions. The results of the field study may have consequences on the management of disposal operations as the effectiveness of the disposal site depends on environmental conditions, which are inherently associated with chaotic behavior.

  7. Diffuser Augmented Horizontal Axis Tidal Current Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mehmood


    Full Text Available The renewal energy technologies are increasingly popular to ensure future energy sustenance and address environmental issues. The tides are enormous and consistent untapped resource of renewable energy. The growing interest in exploring tidal energy has compelling reasons such as security and diversity of supply, intermittent but predictable and limited social and environmental impacts. The tidal energy industry is undergoing an increasing shift towards diffuser augmented turbines. The reason is the higher power output of diffuser augmented turbines compared to conventional open turbines. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines. The components, relative advantages, limitations and design parameters of diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines are presented in detail. CFD simulation of NACA 0016 airfoil is carried out to explore its potential for designing a diffuser. The core issues associated with diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines are also discussed.

  8. Horizontal stirring in the global ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Carrasco, I; Hernández-García, E; Turiel, A


    Horizontal mixing and the distribution of coherent structures in the global ocean are analyzed using Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE), computed for the surface velocity field derived from the Ocean general circulation model For the Earth Simulator (OFES). FSLEs measure horizontal stirring and dispersion; additionally, the transport barriers which organize the oceanic flow can roughly be identified with the ridges of the FSLE field. We have performed a detailed statistical study, particularizing for the behaviour of the two hemispheres and different ocean basins. The computed Probability Distributions Functions (PDFs) of FSLE are broad and asymmetric. Horizontal mixing is generally more active in the northern hemisphere than in the southern one. Nevertheless the Southern Ocean is the most active ocean, and the Pacific the less active one. A striking result is that the main currents can be classified in two 'activity classes': Western Boundary Currents, which have broad PDFs with large FSLE values, and Eas...

  9. El horizonte estético


    Perniola, Mario


    La existencia de un horizonte estético depende de la coexistencia de múltiples factores de distinta naturaleza que interactúan entre ellos. No bastan las reflexiones en torno a lo bello y al arte para crear un horizonte estético. La palabra “estética” es introducida en el Settecento por la filosofía para indicar una articulación disciplinar propia que pudiera ubicarse cerca de la lógica; esta circunstancia histórica, sin embargo, no debe hacernos olvidar que la filosofía es desde su nacimient...

  10. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  11. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.


    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  12. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118... Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  16. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided... qualified bidder after formal advertising and other appropriate public notice; (b) Sale by...

  17. Disposal frequencies of selected recyclable wastes in Dar es Salaam. (United States)

    Mgaya, Prosper; Nondek, Lubomir


    A statistical survey of households based upon questionnaires distributed via primary schools has been carried out in five wards of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to estimate disposal frequencies (number of items disposed per week) for newsprint, metal cans, glass and plastic containers and plastic shopping bags. Plastic shopping bags are disposed most frequently while glass containers are disposed least frequently. The statistical distribution of disposal frequencies, which seems to be influenced by household income, is well described by Poisson distribution. Disposal frequencies are mutually correlated at 95% level of probability despite the differences in disposal patterns of individual households.

  18. Teaching Activities on Horizontal Nuclear Proliferation. (United States)

    Zola, John


    Provides learning activities concerning the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. Includes step-by-step directions for four activities: (1) the life cycle of nuclear weapons; (2) nuclear nonproliferation: pros and cons; (3) the nuclear power/nuclear weapons connection; and (4) managing nuclear proliferation. (NL)

  19. Fermion mass hierarchy and global horizontal symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmini, G.B.; Gerard, J.M.; Yanagida, T.; Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))


    We present a mechanism for quark mass generation in zeroth order using induced representations rather than the minimization of the horizontal potential. Using a simplicity criterion, we derive a realistic mass matrix. We also discuss a possible application of the mechanism to various models.

  20. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof


    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  1. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  2. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  3. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  4. Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, C.


    Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST), subsurface pipelines or leakage from surface operations. Characterization and remediation of aquifers at or near these sites requires drilling operations that are typically shallow, less than 500-feet in depth. Due to the shallow nature of polluted aquifers, waste site subsurface geologic formations frequently consist of unconsolidated materials. Fractured, jointed and/or layered high compressive strength formations or compacted caliche type formations can also be encountered. Some formations are unsaturated and have pore spaces that are only partially filled with water. Completely saturated underpressured aquifers may be encountered in areas where the static ground water levels are well below the ground surface. Each of these subsurface conditions can complicate the drilling and completion of wells needed for monitoring, characterization and remediation activities. This report describes some of the equipment that is available from petroleum drilling operations that has direct application to groundwater characterization and remediation activities. A brief discussion of petroleum directional and horizontal well drilling methodologies is given to allow the reader to gain an understanding of the equipment needed to drill and complete horizontal wells. Equipment used in river crossing drilling technology is also discussed. The final portion of this report is a description of the drilling equipment available and how it can be applied to groundwater characterization and remediation activities.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon


    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  6. Wastewater Treatment Using Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarafraz


    Full Text Available The last few decades witnessed sharp focus on environment pollution and its impact on life in nature. Wetlands can be used for biological treatment of wastewater. Problem statement: Scarcity of water is considered as a global problem and Iran is one the countries which is facing water shortage problem. Pollution of water bodies restrict the availability of water for various uses. Treatment of waste water before disposal contributes to water conservation efforts. Constructed wetlands are techniques aim to polish water quality and reduce the harmful effect of effluent. Approach: In this study, four horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSF were constructed at the Research Station of Tehran University, located in Karaj, Iran. The study was carried out from April to September, 2007. Gravel and zeoilte were used in this study as substrate. Gravel-beds with and without plants (called GP and G and gravel-beds mixed with (10% zeolite, with and without plants (called ZP and Z were examined to investigate the feasibility of treating synthetic wastewater which was specifically produced and modified to imitate agricultural wastewater. Results: The results of this study indicated that the system had acceptable pollutant removal efficiency and that both plants were found to be tolerant under the tested conditions. The wetland system could achieve the NO3-N removal of (79% in ZP, (86% in Z, (82% in GP and finally (87.94% in G. As for the P removal, the efficiencies of 93, 89, 81 and 76% were respectively achieved for ZP, GP, Z and G. The outflow concentrations of Pb and Cd were found to be under the detection limit; however, as for Zn, the removal efficiencies of 99.9, 99.76, 99.71 and 99.52% were concluded for ZP, Z, GP and G respectively. Conclusions/Recommendations: It can be concluded that constructed wetlands are efficient in removing Zn, Pb and Cd from agricultural wastewater. Plants types such as Phragmites Australis and Juncus Inflexus can contribute

  7. Colors in Disposable Diapers: Addressing Myths. (United States)

    Evans, Eric B; Helmes, C Tucker; Kirsch, Taryn; Ruble, Karen M


    Colors are frequently added to disposable diapers to enhance the diapering experience. The colors in the interior of diapers are composed of nonsensitizing pigments that are bound during the fiber-making process into the fibers of the nonwoven that covers the absorbent core materials. In the past, the use of color in diapers has been called into question based on the presumed use of disperse dyes, known sensitizers in the textile industry, and erroneous reports in literature. In fact, disperse dyes are not used in leading disposable diapers; the colors used in these disposable diapers are nonsensitizing pigments with favorable safety profiles. Numerous safety tests, such as skin patch tests with pigments used on diaper backsheets, have found no evidence of skin irritation or sensitization.

  8. Triple-bore hollow fiber membrane contactor for liquid desiccant based air dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Bettahalli, N.M. Srivatsa


    Dehumidification is responsible for a large part of the energy consumption in cooling systems in high humidity environments worldwide. Improving efficiency is therefore essential. Liquid desiccants offer a promising solution for dehumidification, as desired levels of humidity removal could be easily regulated. The use of membrane contactors in combination with liquid desiccant is attractive for dehumidification because they prevent direct contact between the humid air and the desiccant, removing both the potential for desiccant carryover to the air and the potential for contamination of the liquid desiccant by dust and other airborne materials, as well as minimizing corrosion. However, the expected additional mass transport barrier of the membrane surface can lower the expected desiccation rate per unit of desiccant surface area. In this context, hollow fiber membranes present an attractive option for membrane liquid desiccant contactors because of their high surface area per unit volume. We demonstrate in this work the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based triple-bore hollow fiber membranes as liquid desiccant contactors, which are permeable to water vapor but impermeable to liquid water, for dehumidification of hot and humid air.

  9. Preliminary studies of a novel multifunctional wide-bore electrophoresis system. (United States)

    Li, You-Xin; Dan, Yong-Bo; Fang, Xin; Bao, James Jianmin


    This paper presents the results obtained from a novel multifunctional analysis platform established on the basis of wide-bore electrophoresis (WBE) and CE. The WBE–CE system integrated various analytical steps including separation, transfer, reaction, detection, and storage into a single system. During the WBE–CE process, a distinct three-electrode format was adopted to continuously separate and transfer samples between WBE and CE without the interruption of switching on-and-off the power suppliers. This continuous mode of operation also helped to eliminate the need for exactly timing the transfer of specific samples zone from WBE to CE and avoided the danger of missing specific samples. Samples representing mixtures of acids, bases, or proteins were analyzed on this system for evaluating its feasibility and applicability. The results indicated that the resolution achieved on this WBE–CE system was better than either the WBE or the CE alone. Further, samples transferred out of the WBE system could participate in online reaction, such as enzymatic reaction in the CE. Alternatively, samples from the WBE system could be transferred out and stored offline in a vial for post-transfer reaction. The results demonstrated that this WBE–CE system has the potential to be a multifunctional platform for a range of applications.

  10. Flexible but boring: medical students' perceptions of a career in general practice. (United States)

    Koehler, Nicole; McMenamin, Christine


    Australia will continue to face a general practitioner (GP) shortage unless a significant number of medical students make general practice their chosen career. Perceptions regarding general practice may influence career choices. Thus this study investigated what Australian medical students perceived to be the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a career in general practice via an anonymous online survey. Fifty-one students indicated general practice to be their first ranked career preference, 200 indicated a career other than general practice, and 106 were undecided. Two-hundred and two students reported having been on a GP placement, whereas 88 students had not. Flexibility, continuity of patient care and work-life balance were the three most common stated advantages to pursuing a career in general practice whereas general practice being boring, poorly paid, and of low prestige were the three most common disadvantages stated. Some disadvantages stated by those with a non-GP preference were not stated by those with a GP preference (e.g. lack of procedural skills, lack of career advancement opportunities). Students with more than 80 h of GP placement experience were more likely to list the advantages of work-life balance and a diversity of problems/illnesses/patients than those with no placement experience but were also more likely to list the disadvantage of low prestige. Negative stereotypes regarding general practice continue to exist which may influence students' career choices.

  11. Safety assessment of a bored pile diaphragm in a medium-height dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mikhail Petrovich


    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of embankment dams of a new type: a rockfill dam with a clay-cement concrete diaphragm built by bored-pile method. The authors give the results of numerical modeling of a stress-strain state of 69 m high dam, where a diaphragm in the form of a slurry trench cutoff wall cuts the whole dam body and a23 m deep gravel-pebble foundation. The co-authors describe a dam design where the diaphragm is constructed in three lifts. The diaphragm lifts are connected by slabs made of clay-cement concrete or clay. Numerical modeling was carried out with the use of the author’s computer program with consideration of non-linearity of soils deformation. Analyses showed that clay-cement concrete of a slurry trench cutoff wall is in a favorable stress state, as clay-cement concrete by its deformation characteristics (E = 100 МPа is close to gravel-pebble soil. The diaphragm deflections turned to be small; therefore, tensile stresses will not occur in it. In the diaphragm the clay-cement concrete is in a state of triaxial compression, therefore, its strength will be higher than unconfined compression strength (1-2 МPа. It may be expected that its strength will be provided. The nodes of connection of the slurry trench cutoff wall lifts also demonstrate safe operation.

  12. Arrival of the Robbins machine in LSS1 after completing the boring of the SPS tunnel.

    CERN Multimedia


    A few months after the signature of the agreement giving the go-ahead for the expansion of CERN into French territory (see Bulletin no.24/2004), work began on the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Two years later, on 31 July 1974, the Robbins tunnel-boring machine excavating the SPS tunnel returned to its starting point (see photograph). It had excavated a tunnel with a circumference of 7 kilometres, at an average depth of 40 metres below the surface. The tunnel straddled the Franco-Swiss border, making the SPS the first cross-border accelerator. More than a thousand magnets were needed to equip the ring. The civil engineering and installation work was completed in record time after only four years. The SPS was equipped with a control system which was ahead of its time, consisting of 24 small control computers distributed in the tunnel and the control room and communicating by means of a high-rate data transmission system. The main control room housed only four consoles as opposed to the banks of electronic eq...

  13. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  14. Simulation of rock fragmentation induced by a tunnel boring machine disk cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Li


    Full Text Available A constitutive model based on the Johnson–Cook material model and the extended Drucker–Prager strength criterion was implemented in LS-DYNA to simulate the rock failure process induced by a single disk cutter of a tunnel boring machine. The normal, rolling, and side forces were determined by numerical tests. The simulation results showed that the normal and rolling forces increased with increasing penetration while the side force changed little. The normal force also increased under the conditions of confining pressures. The damage region of rock and cutting forces were also obtained by simulation of two disk cutters acting in tandem with different cutting spacings. The optimum ratio of cutter spacing to penetration depth determined from numerical modeling agrees well with that obtained by linear cutting machine tests. The average normal and rolling forces acting on the first cutter are slightly greater than those acting on the second when the cutting disk spacing is relatively small. The numerical modeling was verified to accurately capture the fragmentation of rock induced by disk cutter.

  15. Research on Dynamic Models and Performances of Shield Tunnel Boring Machine Cutterhead Driving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhong Li


    Full Text Available A general nonlinear time-varying (NLTV dynamic model and linear time-varying (LTV dynamic model are presented for shield tunnel boring machine (TBM cutterhead driving system, respectively. Different gear backlashes and mesh damped and transmission errors are considered in the NLTV dynamic model. The corresponding multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO state space models are also presented. Through analyzing the linear dynamic model, the optimal reducer ratio (ORR and optimal transmission ratio (OTR are obtained for the shield TBM cutterhead driving system, respectively. The NLTV and LTV dynamic models are numerically simulated, and the effects of physical parameters under various conditions of NLTV dynamic model are analyzed. Physical parameters such as the load torque, gear backlash and transmission error, gear mesh stiffness and damped, pinions inertia and damped, large gear inertia and damped, and motor rotor inertia and damped are investigated in detail to analyze their effects on dynamic response and performances of the shield TBM cutterhead driving system. Some preliminary approaches are proposed to improve dynamic performances of the cutterhead driving system, and dynamic models will provide a foundation for shield TBM cutterhead driving system's cutterhead fault diagnosis, motion control, and torque synchronous control.

  16. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification (United States)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.


    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  17. Disinfection of bore well water with chlorine dioxide/sodium hypochlorite and hydrodynamic cavitation. (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Jia, Aiyin; Wu, Yue; Wu, Chunde; Chen, Lijun


    The effect of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) on potable water disinfection of chemicals was investigated. The bore well water was introduced into HC set-up to examine the effect of HC alone and combination of HC and chemicals such as chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite. The effect of inlet pressure and geometrical parameters on disinfection was studied using HC alone and the results showed that increasing inlet pressure and using more and bigger holes of orifice plates can result in a higher disinfection rates. When HC was combined with chemicals, HC can reduce the doses of the chemicals and shorten the time of disinfection. It was also found that the decrease in bacteria concentration followed a first-order kinetic model. As for the experiment of combination of HC and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection, HC not only improves the disinfection rate but also degrades natural organic matter and chloroform. Compared with only sodium hypochlorite disinfection, combined processes get higher disinfection rate and lower production of chloroform, particularly the pretreatment with HC enhances the disinfection rate by 32% and there is a simultaneous reduction in production of chloroform by 39%.

  18. Modeling and Dynamic Analysis of Cutterhead Driving System in Tunnel Boring Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun


    Full Text Available Failure of cutterhead driving system (CDS of tunnel boring machine (TBM often occurs under shock and vibration conditions. To investigate the dynamic characteristics and reduce system vibration further, an electromechanical coupling model of CDS is established which includes the model of direct torque control (DTC system for three-phase asynchronous motor and purely torsional dynamic model of multistage gear transmission system. The proposed DTC model can provide driving torque just as the practical inverter motor operates so that the influence of motor operating behavior will not be erroneously estimated. Moreover, nonlinear gear meshing factors, such as time-variant mesh stiffness and transmission error, are involved in the dynamic model. Based on the established nonlinear model of CDS, vibration modes can be classified into three types, that is, rigid motion mode, rotational vibration mode, and planet vibration mode. Moreover, dynamic responses under actual driving torque and idealized equivalent torque are compared, which reveals that the ripple of actual driving torque would aggravate vibration of gear transmission system. Influence index of torque ripple is proposed to show that vibration of system increases with torque ripple. This study provides useful guideline for antivibration design and motor control of CDS in TBM.

  19. Regressive approach for predicting bearing capacity of bored piles from cone penetration test data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad S. Alkroosh


    Full Text Available In this study, the least square support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm was applied to predicting the bearing capacity of bored piles embedded in sand and mixed soils. Pile geometry and cone penetration test (CPT results were used as input variables for prediction of pile bearing capacity. The data used were collected from the existing literature and consisted of 50 case records. The application of LSSVM was carried out by dividing the data into three sets: a training set for learning the problem and obtaining a relationship between input variables and pile bearing capacity, and testing and validation sets for evaluation of the predictive and generalization ability of the obtained relationship. The predictions of pile bearing capacity by LSSVM were evaluated by comparing with experimental data and with those by traditional CPT-based methods and the gene expression programming (GEP model. It was found that the LSSVM performs well with coefficient of determination, mean, and standard deviation equivalent to 0.99, 1.03, and 0.08, respectively, for the testing set, and 1, 1.04, and 0.11, respectively, for the validation set. The low values of the calculated mean squared error and mean absolute error indicated that the LSSVM was accurate in predicting the pile bearing capacity. The results of comparison also showed that the proposed algorithm predicted the pile bearing capacity more accurately than the traditional methods including the GEP model.

  20. A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines (United States)

    Hult, J.; Mayer, S.


    Large two-stroke diesel engines for marine propulsion offer several challenges to successful implementation of the laser diagnostic techniques applied extensively in smaller automotive engines. For this purpose a fully operational large-bore engine has been modified to allow flexible optical access, through 24 optical ports with clear diameters of 40 mm. By mounting the entire optical set-up directly to the engine, effects of the vigorous vibrations and thermal drifts on alignment can be minimized. Wide-angle observation and illumination, as well as relatively large aperture detection, is made possible through mounting of optical modules and relays inside optical ports. This allows positioning of the last optical element within 10 mm from the cylinder wall. Finally, the implementation on a multi-cylinder engine allows for flexible and independent operation of the optically accessible cylinder for testing purposes. The performance of the integrated optical engine and imaging system developed is demonstrated through laser Mie scattering imaging of fuel jet structures, from which information on liquid penetration and spray angles can be deduced. Double pulse laser-sheet imaging of native in-cylinder structures is also demonstrated, for the purpose of velocimetry.

  1. Numerical and experimental analysis of middle-bore copper-vapor laser discharge (United States)

    Yu, Deli; Tao, Yongxiang; Yin, Xianhua; Chen, Lin; Yang, Yan; Li, Hailan; Wang, Runwen


    A single simulation model describing the discharge circuitry is introduced. First the differential equations are presented. In order to calculate the laser head discharge current, the thyratron resistance with a switching time coefficient (tau) s is investigated. The plasma conductivity used in these models is estimated using the available data on plasma parameters. Here 0.6 eV of the average electron temperature and 80 nH of thyratron inductance are assumed according to our previous model. The laser head discharge current of the differential equations is calculated with the method of Runge- Kutta. The discharge current profiles of the simulation are found to be in close agreement with the experimental data which come from 4.8-cm-diameter and 6.5-cm-diameter middle- bore Copper-Vapor Laser. In this way, the factors which effect the short rise time to increase lasing ability in the CVL (Copper-Vapor Laser) are studied on the bases of studying the storage capacitor's and the peaking capacitor's effect. As a calculation result, the inductance of the laser head takes an inferior effect to the thyratron circuit inductance on the discharge current rise time. Very good agreement exists between the calculated and measured results. This is a successful single discharge model.

  2. A Method Using Optical Contactless Displacement Sensors to Measure Vibration Stress of Small-Bore Piping. (United States)

    Maekawa, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Noda, Michiyasu


    In nuclear power plants, vibration stress of piping is frequently evaluated to prevent fatigue failure. A simple and fast measurement method is attractive to evaluate many piping systems efficiently. In this study, a method to measure the vibration stress using optical contactless displacement sensors was proposed, the prototype instrument was developed, and the instrument practicality for the method was verified. In the proposed method, light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as measurement sensors and the vibration stress was estimated by measuring the deformation geometry of the piping caused by oscillation, which was measured as the piping curvature radius. The method provided fast and simple vibration estimates for small-bore piping. Its verification and practicality were confirmed by vibration tests using a test pipe and mock-up piping. The stress measured by both the proposed method and an accurate conventional method using strain gauges were in agreement, and it was concluded that the proposed method could be used for actual plant piping systems.

  3. Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Baalbergen

    Full Text Available Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit strategies of the Drilus larvae, and evaluate the potential mutual evolutionary impacts. We find limited evidence for an effect of shell features and snail behavioral traits on inter- and intra-specifically differing predation rates. We also find that Drilus predators adjust their predation behavior based on specific shell traits of the prey. In conclusion, we suggest that, with these baseline data, this interesting predator-prey system will be available for further, detailed more evolutionary ecology studies.

  4. ZEDEX - A study of damage and disturbance from tunnel excavation by blasting and tunnel boring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, S. [Golder Associates, Maidenhead (United Kingdom); Olsson, Olle; Stenberg, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co., Figeholm (Sweden); Alheid, H.J. [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Falls, S. [Queens Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)


    The objectives of the ZEDEX project were to understand the mechanical behaviour of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent and its dependence on excavation method. Excavation with normal smooth blasting, blasting with low shock explosives and tunnel boring were studied. The drifts are located at Aespoe at a depth of 420 m, the profiles are circular and 5 m in diameter. The results have shown that there is a damaged zone, close to the drift wall dominated by changes in rock properties which are irreversible, and that there is a disturbed zone beyond the damaged zone that is dominated by changes in stress state and mainly reversible. There is no distinct boundary between the two zones. The results from ZEDEX indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The extent of the damaged zone can be limited through application of appropriate excavation methods. By limiting the extent of the damaged zone it should also be feasible to block pathways in the damaged zone by plugs placed at strategic locations 68 refs, 92 figs, 31 tabs

  5. Generation of undular bores in the shelves of slowly-varying solitary waves. (United States)

    El, G. A.; Grimshaw, R. H. J.


    We study the long-time evolution of the trailing shelves that form behind solitary waves moving through an inhomogeneous medium, within the framework of the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation. We show that the nonlinear evolution of the shelf leads typically to the generation of an undular bore and an expansion fan, which form apart but start to overlap and nonlinearly interact after a certain time interval. The interaction zone expands with time and asymptotically as time goes to infinity occupies the whole perturbed region. Its oscillatory structure strongly depends on the sign of the inhomogeneity gradient of the variable background medium. We describe the nonlinear evolution of the shelves in terms of exact solutions to the KdV-Whitham equations with natural boundary conditions for the Riemann invariants. These analytic solutions, in particular, describe the generation of small "secondary" solitary waves in the trailing shelves, a process observed earlier in various numerical simulations. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E


    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  7. AFCI Storage & Disposal FY-06 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Wigeland, R; Dixon, B


    AFCI Storage and Disposal participants at LLNL, ANL and INL provide assessment of how AFCI technology can optimize the future evolution of the fuel cycle, including optimization of waste management. Evaluation of material storage and repository disposal technical issues provides feedback on criteria and metrics for AFCI, and evaluation of AFCI waste streams provides technical alternatives for future repository optimization. LLNL coordinates this effort that includes repository analysis at ANL and incorporation of repository impacts into AFCI criteria at INL. Cooperative evaluation with YMP staff is pursued to provide a mutually agreed technical base. Cooperation with select international programs is supported.

  8. Project for Offshore Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD for Pipeline Crossing in Bukit Tua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sofyan


    Full Text Available Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD is commonly associated with well exploration activity, onshore road crossing, nearshore pipeline installation, and offshore pipeline crossing which requires precise alignment of two barges from one to the other. Here, the purpose of this study was to show one of the projects that was successfully performed on December 2013 for the Bukit Tua Project in East Java, Indonesia costing USD 8 Million. From this project experience, there are 6 Best Practices in HDD Offshore Project for Pipeline Crossing Application (first in region which will serve as a guide to future projects in replicating similar success. Out from 6 Best practices, there are two main recipes for success of HDD offshore for offshore crossings which are the drilling fluid also known as mud, and the Gyro Steering Tool (GST. First, mud parameter varies on case by case basis depending on the soil condition at the location where HDD will be performed. Failure to maintain the above parameters may result in catastrophic failure whereby the bore hole may collapse and pipe may get stuck underneath the seabed. Secondly, the beauty of GST is extremely accurate and unaffected by other metal anomalies during drilling process, thus ensuring the curve profile and direction of drilling are as per design throughout the whole process.

  9. Performance of a 14-T CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford coil with a 300 mm wide cold bore (United States)

    Oguro, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Awaji, Satoshi; Hanai, Satoshi; Ioka, Shigeru; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tsubouchi, Hirokazu


    A large-bore 14-T CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford coil was developed for a 25 T cryogen-free superconducting magnet. The magnet consisted of a low-temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet of NbTi and Nb3Sn Rutherford coils, and a high-temperature superconducting magnet. The Nb3Sn Rutherford coil was fabricated by the react-and-wind method for the first time. The LTS magnet reached the designed operation current of 854 A without a training quench at a 1 h ramp rate. The central magnetic field generated by the LTS magnet was measured by a Hall sensor to be 14.0 T at 854 A in a 300 mm cold bore.

  10. An alternative to the traveling-wave approach for use in two-port descriptions of acoustic bores (United States)

    Ducasse, Eric


    For more than a decade, the digital waveguide model for musical instruments has been improved through the simulation of cylindrical and conical bores. But several difficulties remain, such as instabilities due to growing exponentials which appear when two conical bores are connected with decreasing taper. In this paper, an alternative overcoming these difficulties is proposed and can be extended to shapes other than cylinders, cones, and hyperbolic horns. A two-port model with more general state variables than usual traveling waves works efficiently for any shape without discontinuities in cross section. The equations for connecting separate elements at discontinuities make this two-port model appropriate for use in time domain simulation of the physical behavior of the wind instrument and its interactions with the player. The potential of this new approach is illustrated by several detailed examples.

  11. Development of 5 T NbTi Superconducting Magnet with 160 mm Warm Bore for Magnetic Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; WU Yu; LI Shaolei


    A wide-bore 5 T NbTi superconducting magnet,for magnetic separator,with an operational current of 106 A is designed and fabricated. This magnet with a φ60 mm room temperature bore is installed in a vacuum cryostat and immersed in liquid helium.A two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler is used to maintain the cooling shield at 70 K and the condenser at 4 K in order to achieve the zero vaporization loss of liquid helium. The cooling power of the GM cryocooler is 1.5 W.In this paper,the design,heat leakage,stress analysis,quench protection characteristics and preliminary test results are presented.

  12. Cone penetration tests and soil borings at the Mason Road site in Green Valley, Solano County, California (United States)

    Bennett, Michael J.; Noce, Thomas E.; Lienkaemper, James J.


    In support of a study to investigate the history of the Green Valley Fault, 13 cone penetration test soundings and 3 auger borings were made at the Mason Road site in Green Valley, Solano County, California. Three borings were made at or near two of the cone penetration test soundings. The soils are mostly clayey with a few sandy layers or lenses. Fine-grained soils range from low plasticity sandy lean clay to very plastic fat clay. Lack of stratigraphic correlation in the subsurface prevented us from determining whether any channels had been offset at this site. Because the soils are generally very clayey and few sand layers or lenses are loose, the liquefaction potential at the site is very low.

  13. "The defects of his race": E.G. Boring and antisemitism in American psychology, 1923-1953. (United States)

    Winston, A S


    From the 1920s to the 1950s, Edwin G. Boring wrote letters of reference for Jewish students and colleagues in which he followed the common practice of identifying them as Jews and assessing whether they showed "objectionable traits" thought to characterize Jews. These practices are discussed in relation to the increasing antisemitism of the interwar period, with specific reference to Abraham A. Roback and Kurt Lewin. In Roback's case, the "defect" of Jewishness was thought to explain his undesirable personality: with Lewin, personal charm mitigated the "defect" of Jewishness. Boring's unsuccessful attempts to place Jewish students, his subsequent pessimism, and his postwar discussions of Jewish identity are examined in relation to the general issue of antisemitism in the history of academic psychology.

  14. Kinematics of horizontal and vertical caterpillar crawling. (United States)

    van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Trimmer, Barry A


    Unlike horizontal crawling, vertical crawling involves two counteracting forces: torque rotating the body around its center of mass and gravity resisting forward movement. The influence of these forces on kinematics has been examined in the soft-bodied larval stage of Manduca sexta. We found that crawling and climbing are accomplished using the same movements, with both segment timing and proleg lift indistinguishable in horizontal and vertical locomotion. Minor differences were detected in stride length and in the delay between crawls, which led to a lower crawling speed in the vertical orientation. Although these differences were statistically significant, they were much smaller than the variation in kinematic parameters between animals. The ability of Manduca to crawl and climb using the same movements is best explained by Manduca's relatively small size, slow speed and strong, controlled, passive grip made possible by its proleg/crochets.

  15. Horizontal Bilayer for Electrical and Optical Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Honigmann


    Full Text Available Artificial bilayer containing reconstituted ion channels, transporters and pumps serve as a well-defined model system for electrophysiological investigations of membrane protein structure–function relationship. Appropriately constructed microchips containing horizontally oriented bilayers with easy solution access to both sides provide, in addition, the possibility to investigate these model bilayer membranes and the membrane proteins therein with high resolution fluorescence techniques up to the single-molecule level. Here, we describe a bilayer microchip system in which long-term stable horizontal free-standing and hydrogel-supported bilayers can be formed and demonstrate its prospects particularly for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and high resolution fluorescence microscopy in probing the physicochemical properties like phase behavior of the bilayer-forming lipids, as well as in functional studies of membrane proteins.

  16. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang


    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... injection tracer gas technique. Smoke visualizations showed that the airflow patterns are highly transient and unstable, and that the airflow rate oscillates with time. Correlations between the Froude (Archimedes) number Fr (Ar) and the L/D ratio are presented. In some cases the measured airflow rates fit...

  17. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per


    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula ratio are presented. In some cases the measured airflow rates fit quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....

  18. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Aaberg, R.L.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.


    This report contains the draft results of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste disposal criteria for the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of various defense TRU advanced disposal options at the Hanford Site. Advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. They will be used to complement the waste geologic disposal in achieving permanent disposal of selected TRU wastes. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 5 figures, 7 tables.

  19. R&D investments fostering horizontal mergers


    Cabolis, C.; Manasakis, C.; MORENO, Diego; Petrakis, Emmanuel


    We study a homogenous good triopoly in which firms first choose their cost-reducing R&D investments and consider alternative merger proposals, and then compete à la Cournot in the ensuing industry. We identify conditions under which both horizontal mergers and non integration are sustained by Coalition-Proof Nash equilibria (CPNE). These conditions involve the effectiveness of the R&D technology, as well as the distribution of the bargaining power between the acquirer and the acquiree, which ...

  20. Horizontal Symmetry: Bottom Up and Top Down

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, C S


    A group-theoretical connection between horizontal symmetry $\\G$ and fermion mixing is established, and applied to neutrino mixing. The group-theoretical approach is consistent with a dynamical theory based on $U(1)\\times \\G$, but the dynamical theory can be used to pick out the most stable mixing that purely group-theoretical considerations cannot. A symmetry common to leptons and quarks is also discussed. This higher symmetry picks $A_4$ over $S_4$ to be the preferred symmetry for leptons.

  1. Convection in horizontally shaken granular material


    Saluena, Clara; Poeschel, Thorsten


    In horizontally shaken granular material different types of pattern formation have been reported. We want to deal with the convection instability which has been observed in experiments and which recently has been investigated numerically. Using two dimensional molecular dynamics we show that the convection pattern depends crucial on the inelastic properties of the material. The concept of restitution coefficient provides arguments for the change of the behaviour with variing inelasticity.

  2. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao


    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  3. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  4. Intrinsic advantages of packed capillaries over narrow-bore columns in very high-pressure gradient liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin


    250μm×100mm fused silica glass capillaries were packed with 1.8μm high-strength silica (HSS) fully porous particles. They were prepared without bulky stainless steel endfittings and metal frits, which both generate significant sample dispersion. The isocratic efficiencies and gradient peak capacities of these prototype capillary columns were measured for small molecules (n-alkanophenones) using a home-made ultra-low dispersive micro-HPLC instrument. Their resolution power was compared to that of standard 2.1mm×100mm very high-pressure liquid chromatography (vHPLC) narrow-bore columns packed with the same particles. The results show that, for the same column efficiency (25000 plates) and gradient steepness (0.04min(-1)), the peak capacity of the 250μm i.d. capillary columns is systematically 15-20% higher than that of the 2.1mm i.d. narrow-bore columns. A validated model of gradient chromatography enabled one to predict accurately the observed peak capacities of the capillary columns for non-linear solvation strength retention behavior and under isothermal conditions. Thermodynamics applied to the eluent quantified the temperature difference for the thermal gradients in both capillary and narrow-bore columns. Experimental data revealed that the gradient peak capacity is more affected by viscous heating than the column efficiency. Unlike across 2.1mm i.d. columns, the changes in eluent composition across the 250μm i.d. columns during the gradient is rapidly relaxed by transverse dispersion. The combination of (1) the absence of viscous heating and (2) the high uniformity of the eluent composition across the diameter of capillary columns explains the intrinsic advantage of capillary over narrow-bore columns in gradient vHPLC.

  5. Project and evaluation of a 2000 meter offshore horizontal well production extra-heavy oil; Projeto e avaliacao de um poco offshore com 2000 m de trecho horizontal produtor de oleo extra-pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueta, Eduardo M.; Kato, Edson T.; Tinoco, Francisco L.; Vieira, Paulo M.F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The project was proposed to acquire reservoir data, for the development of the Member (Mb) Siri in the concession of Badejo in Campos Basin, having extra-heavy oil, through long and large bore horizontal well. The main objectives were: to obtain the petrophysical properties through continuous coring of the oil and water zones; water sampling for the characterization; to verify the effective length of the horizontal well through production logging; to obtain the reservoir productivity and permeability through formation test; to obtain the oil PVT properties through monophasic sampling and to know the lateral variability of the accumulation. New technologies were used as geochemical geosteering, diversionary acidification and chemical tracer production logging. The well test analysis showed permeability and productivity values better than as expected and making possible the development of pilot project in order to evaluate the aquifer behavior, the long term well productivity and performance of the elevation and behavior of the extra-heavy oil offloading for subsequent development of the reservoir. (author)

  6. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides (United States)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.


    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  7. 弹带挤进过程身管内壁损伤的数值模拟研究%Numerical simulation for gun barrel bore damage during shells with into bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广生; 孙河洋; 周伟


    针对火炮发射过程中内膛的损伤、裂纹萌生和扩展问题,基于 HLC 细观损伤本构模型建立了相应的损伤力学有限元数值计算方法,将完全隐式应力更新算法与显式有限元计算相结合,通过用户自定义材料子程序 VUMAT 将损伤模型嵌入到有限元软件 ABAQUS /EXPLICIT 模块中。对某型火炮多发射击工况下内膛损伤破坏过程进行了数值模拟计算,分析了弹带挤进内膛过程中身管内壁材料性能随射弹发数变化的规律,并与实验进行了对比。结果表明:HLC细观损伤模型可以有效揭示身管内膛复杂的损伤行为并预测破裂缺陷,为火炮身管安全性设计提供有益的参考。%A damage mechanics finite element numerical computation method was established based on HLC microscopic damage model to solve problems of gun barrel bore damage,crack initialization and growth during gun firing. With this method,the completely implicit stress renewing algorithm was combined with the explicit finite element computation,the damage model was embedded into the finite element software ABAQUS /EXPLICIT module with a VUMAT subroutine.The damage and failure process of the barrel bore of a certain type of gun was simulated numerically during multiple rounds of firings.The law of the barrel bore material performance changing with the number of firing rounds was analyzed during shells with into bore and the simulated results were compared with the experimental ones.The results showed that HLC microscopic damage model can reveal the complicate damage behavior of the barrel bore and predict its cracking defects.The results provided a reference for safety design of gun barrels.

  8. Respiratory-Gated MRgHIFU in Upper Abdomen Using an MR-Compatible In-Bore Digital Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Auboiroux


    Full Text Available Objective. To demonstrate the technical feasibility and the potential interest of using a digital optical camera inside the MR magnet bore for monitoring the breathing cycle and subsequently gating the PRFS MR thermometry, MR-ARFI measurement, and MRgHIFU sonication in the upper abdomen. Materials and Methods. A digital camera was reengineered to remove its magnetic parts and was further equipped with a 7 m long USB cable. The system was electromagnetically shielded and operated inside the bore of a closed 3T clinical scanner. Suitable triggers were generated based on real-time motion analysis of the images produced by the camera (resolution 640×480 pixels, 30 fps. Respiratory-gated MR-ARFI prepared MRgHIFU ablation was performed in the kidney and liver of two sheep in vivo, under general anaesthesia and ventilator-driven forced breathing. Results. The optical device demonstrated very good MR compatibility. The current setup permitted the acquisition of motion artefact-free and high resolution MR 2D ARFI and multiplanar interleaved PRFS thermometry (average SNR 30 in liver and 56 in kidney. Microscopic histology indicated precise focal lesions with sharply delineated margins following the respiratory-gated HIFU sonications. Conclusion. The proof-of-concept for respiratory motion management in MRgHIFU using an in-bore digital camera has been validated in vivo.

  9. Deformation Compensation of Ram Components of Super-heavy-duty CNC Floor Type Boring and Milling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fenghe; QIAO Lijun; XU Yaoling


    Ram is a very important component of super-heavy-duty computer numerical control (CNC) floor type boring-milling machine,and deformation of ram is a significant source causing errors in machining process.To compensate the deformation error of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring-milling machine,based on force analysis theory,the law and compensation measures of deformation of ram are researched.Based on the principle of torque (force) balance of the ram components,the formulas of compensation forces and compensation torques are derived,the relations between compensation forces (compensation torques)and the stroke distance of the ram are given.According to theoretical analysis results and the structural characteristics of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring and milling machine of TK6932,rods compensation,hydrostatic pressure compensation and wire rope compensation measures are taken to compensate the deformation error of ram.The experiments and computer simulation results show that the straightness of the ram at its overhanging end meets the national machinery industry standards.

  10. Traps and attractants for wood-boring insects in ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota. (United States)

    Costello, Sheryl L; Negrón, José F; Jacobi, William R


    Recent large-scale wildfires have increased populations of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Because little is known about possible impacts of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills, land managers are interested in developing monitoring techniques such as flight trapping with semiochemical baits. Two trap designs and four semiochemical attractants were tested in a recently burned ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in the Black Hills. Modified panel and funnel traps were tested in combination with the attractants, which included a woodborer standard (ethanol and alpha-pinene), standard plus 3-carene, standard plus ipsenol, and standard plus ipsdienol. We found that funnel traps were equally efficient or more efficient in capturing wood-boring insects than modified panel traps. Trap catches of cerambycids increased when we added the Ips spp. pheromone components (ipsenol or ipsdienol) or the host monoterpene (3-carene) to the woodborer standard. During the summers of 2003 and 2004, 18 cerambycid, 14 buprestid, and five siricid species were collected. One species of cerambycid, Monochamus clamator (LeConte), composed 49 and 40% of the 2003 and 2004 trap catches, respectively. Two other cerambycids, Acanthocinus obliquus (LeConte) and Acmaeops proteus (Kirby), also were frequently collected. Flight trap data indicated that some species were present throughout the summer, whereas others were caught only at the beginning or end of the summer.

  11. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)


    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  12. 77 FR 75783 - Disposal of Controlled Substances (United States)


    ... Administration (DEA). These restrictions resulted in the accumulation of controlled substances in household... used. Although ultimate users are exempt from CSA registration requirements for the possession of... substance to another person for the purpose of disposal if the ultimate user dies while in lawful...

  13. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition. (United States)

    Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

  14. Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites. (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher


    The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites.

  15. Urban garbage disposal and management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change andregional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in fivebig cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showedthe output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition arealso increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing thegrowing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residentsare in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battlingagainst garbage.Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some polieymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a socialwelfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control,promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been putforward in the paper.

  16. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.


    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  17. Production and disposal of waste materials from gas and oil extraction from the Marcellus Shale Play in Pennsylvania (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Yoxtheimer, David A.


    The increasing world demand for energy has led to an increase in the exploration and extraction of natural gas, condensate, and oil from unconventional organic-rich shale plays. However, little is known about the quantity, transport, and disposal method of wastes produced during the extraction process. We examined the quantity of waste produced by gas extraction activities from the Marcellus Shale play in Pennsylvania for 2011. The main types of wastes included drilling cuttings and fluids from vertical and horizontal drilling and fluids generated from hydraulic fracturing [i.e., flowback and brine (formation) water]. Most reported drill cuttings (98.4%) were disposed of in landfills, and there was a high amount of interstate (49.2%) and interbasin (36.7%) transport. Drilling fluids were largely reused (70.7%), with little interstate (8.5%) and interbasin (5.8%) transport. Reported flowback water was mostly reused (89.8%) or disposed of in brine or industrial waste treatment plants (8.0%) and largely remained within Pennsylvania (interstate transport was 3.1%) with little interbasin transport (2.9%). Brine water was most often reused (55.7%), followed by disposal in injection wells (26.6%), and then disposed of in brine or industrial waste treatment plants (13.8%). Of the major types of fluid waste, brine water was most often transported to other states (28.2%) and to other basins (9.8%). In 2011, 71.5% of the reported brine water, drilling fluids, and flowback was recycled: 73.1% in the first half and 69.7% in the second half of 2011. Disposal of waste to municipal sewage treatment plants decreased nearly 100% from the first half to second half of 2011. When standardized against the total amount of gas produced, all reported wastes, except flowback sands, were less in the second half than the first half of 2011. Disposal of wastes into injection disposal wells increased 129.2% from the first half to the second half of 2011; other disposal methods decreased. Some


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  19. Preliminary conceptual designs for advanced packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, R.E.


    The present study assumes that the spent fuel will be disposed of in mined repositories in continental geologic formations, and that the post-emplacement control of the radioactive species will be accomplished independently by both the natural barrier, i.e., the geosphere, and the engineered barrier system, i.e., the package components consisting of the stabilizer, the canister, and the overpack; and the barrier components external to the package consisting of the hole sleeve and the backfill medium. The present document provides an overview of the nature of the spent fuel waste; the general approach to waste containment, using the defense-in-depth philosophy; material options, both metallic and nonmetallic, for the components of the engineered barrier system; a set of strawman criteria to guide the development of package/engineered barrier systems; and four preliminary concepts representing differing approaches to the solution of the containment problem. These concepts use: a corrosion-resistant meta canister in a special backfill (2 barriers); a mild steel canister in a corrosion-resistant metallic or nonmetallic hole sleeve, surrounded by a special backfill (2 barriers); a corrosion-resistant canister and a corrosion-resistant overpack (or hole sleeve) in a special backfill (3 barriers); and a mild steel canister in a massive corrosion-resistant bore sleeve surrounded by a polymer layer and a special backfill (3 barriers). The lack of definitive performance requirements makes it impossible to evaluate these concepts on a functional basis at the present time.

  20. Interpretation of Geological Correlation Borings 1, 2, 3 in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.


    The Geophysical Correlation Boring (GCB) Program was organized to provide a comprehensive correlation capability between geological core and advanced borehole geophysical data, surface high resolution reflection seismic information and, when available, borehole geochemical and cone penetrometer data. This report provides results and initial geological interpretations of borings one, two, and three (GCB-1, GCB-2, GCB-3) located within the Upper Three Runs Watershed (A/M Area) of the Savannah River Site.

  1. Novel fiber-based technique for inspection of holes in narrow-bore tubes (United States)

    Bernard, Fabien; Flaherty, Tony; O'Connor, Gerard M.


    Optical tools offer a route to increasing throughput and efficiency in industrial inspection operations, one of the most time-consuming and labour-intensive aspects of modern manufacturing. One prominent example in the medical device industry is inspection of drilled holes, particularly in narrow-bore tubes (precision-flow devices, such as catheters for drug delivery, radio-opaque contrast agents, etc). The products in which these holes feature are increasing in complexity (reduced dimensions, increasing number of drilled features- in some products now reaching into the hundreds). These trends present a number of technical challenges, not least to ensure that holes are completed and that no damage to the part occurs as a result of over-drilling, for example. This paper will present a novel sensor based on back-side illumination of the drilled hole using side-glowing optical fibers to detect, qualify and quantify drilled holes. The concept is based on inserting a laser-coupled side-glowing optical fiber into the lumen of the tube to be drilled, and imaging the light emitted from this fiber through a drilled hole using a vision system mounted external to the tube. The light from the fiber allows rapid determination of hole completion, shape and size, as well as quantity in the case of products with multiple holes. If the fiber is mounted in the tube prior to drilling, the light emitted from the fiber can be used as a real-time hole breakthrough sensor, preventing under or overdrilling of the tube.

  2. An experimental and computational investigation of electrical resistivity imaging for prediction ahead of tunnel boring machines (United States)

    Schaeffer, Kevin P.

    Tunnel boring machines (TBMs) are routinely used for the excavation of tunnels across a range of ground conditions, from hard rock to soft ground. In complex ground conditions and in urban environments, the TBM susceptible to damage due to uncertainty of what lies ahead of the tunnel face. The research presented here explores the application of electrical resistivity theory for use in the TBM tunneling environment to detect changing conditions ahead of the machine. Electrical resistivity offers a real-time and continuous imaging solution to increase the resolution of information along the tunnel alignment and may even unveil previously unknown geologic or man-made features ahead of the TBM. The studies presented herein, break down the tunneling environment and the electrical system to understand how its fundamental parameters can be isolated and tested, identifying how they influence the ability to predict changes ahead of the tunnel face. A proof-of-concept, scaled experimental model was constructed in order assess the ability of the model to predict a metal pipe (or rod) ahead of face as the TBM excavates through a saturated sand. The model shows that a prediction of up to three tunnel diameters could be achieved, but the unique presence of the pipe (or rod) could not be concluded with certainty. Full scale finite element models were developed in order evaluate the various influences on the ability to detect changing conditions ahead of the face. Results show that TBM/tunnel geometry, TBM type, and electrode geometry can drastically influence prediction ahead of the face by tens of meters. In certain conditions (i.e., small TBM diameter, low cover depth, large material contrasts), changes can be detected over 100 meters in front of the TBM. Various electrode arrays were considered and show that in order to better detect more finite differences (e.g., boulder, lens, pipe), the use of individual cutting tools as electrodes is highly advantageous to increase spatial

  3. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: X-ray tube imaging performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, John A.; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A. [Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)


    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation.

  4. Commissioning and quality control of a dedicated wide bore 3T MRI simulator for radiotherapy planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitang Xing


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a practical approach to commissioning and quality assurance (QA of a dedicated wide-bore 3 Tesla (3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner for radiotherapy planning.Methods: A comprehensive commissioning protocol focusing on radiotherapy (RT specific requirements was developed and performed. RT specific tests included: uniformity characteristics of radio-frequency (RF coil, couch top attenuation, geometric distortion, laser and couch movement and an end-to-end radiotherapy treatment planning test. General tests for overall system performance and safety measurements were also performed.Results: The use of pre-scan based intensity correction increased the uniformity from 61.7% to 97% (body flexible coil, from 50% to 90% (large flexible coil and from 51% to 98% (small flexible coil. RT flat top couch decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by an average of 42%. The mean and maximum geometric distortion was found to be 1.25 mm and 4.08 mm for three dimensional (3D corrected image acquisition, 2.07 mm and 7.88 mm for two dimensional (2D corrected image acquisition over 500 mm × 375 mm × 252 mm field of view (FOV. The accuracy of the laser and couch movement was less than ±1 mm. The standard deviation of registration parameters for the end-to-end test was less than 0.41 mm. An on-going QA program was developed to monitor the system’s performance.Conclusion: A number of RT specific tests have been described for commissioning and subsequent performance monitoring of a dedicated MRI simulator (MRI-Sim. These tests have been important in establishing and maintaining its operation for RT planning.

  5. Enabling safe dry cake disposal of bauxite residue by deliquoring and washing with a membrane filter press. (United States)

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Lubieniecki, Boguslaw; Holliday, Lloyd; Helsto, Jaakko-Juhani; Häkkinen, Antti


    Dry cake disposal is the preferred technique for the disposal of bauxite residue, when considering environmental issues together with possible future utilisation of the solids. In order to perform dry cake disposal in an economical way, the deliquoring of the residue must be carried out efficiently, and it is also important to wash the obtained solids well to minimise the amount of soluble soda within the solids. The study presented in this article aims at detecting the most important variables influencing the deliquoring and washing of bauxite residue, performed with a horizontal membrane filter press and by determining the optimal washing conditions. The results obtained from pilot-scale experiments are evaluated by considering the properties of the solids, for instance, the residual alkali and aluminium content, as well as the consumption of wash liquid. Two different cake washing techniques, namely classic washing and channel washing, are also used and their performances compared. The results show that cake washing can be performed successfully in a horizontal membrane filter press, and significant improvements in the recovery of alkali and aluminium can be achieved compared with pressure filtration carried out without washing, or especially compared with the more traditionally used vacuum filtration.

  6. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.


    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  7. Application of Horizontal Well Technology to Liaohe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Horizontal well technology has become one of the main technologies enabling Liaohe Oilfield to realize stable development. By the end of 2006, 296 horizontal wells of various kinds had been completed in Liaohe Oil Field,273 wells had been put into production, Among uhich 237 were horizontal wells (see Table 1).

  8. YPF uses horizontal reentry to aid thin bed production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, M.R.; Leiro, F.A.; Sesano, G.S. [Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, La Paz (Bolivia); Hill, D.


    Reentry and horizontal drilling/completion techniques have proven themselves useful in exploiting thin beds. A pilot horizontal reentry contracted by Yacimiento Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) for a marginal well in its Lomita Sur field resulted in decreased water coning and production rates four times greater than expected. Further horizontal reentries in this thin-bed field are planned.

  9. 40 CFR 229.3 - Transportation and disposal of vessels. (United States)


    ... of these vessels shall take place in a site designated on current nautical charts for the disposal of... week, of the exact coordinates of the disposal site so that it may be marked on appropriate charts....

  10. Advanced disposal systems for transuranic waste: Preliminary disposal criteria for Plutonium-239 at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.


    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide ''greater confinement'' than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth.

  11. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.


    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford Site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000 year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/y to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  13. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste


    Barnes, Richard L


    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste...

  14. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P


    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  15. Variation in terminology: capoeira in Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Nardelli Cambraia


    Full Text Available In this pilot study we analyzed the variation in the terminology of capoeira in Belo Horizonte. The terms referring to 69 videotaped movements of capoeira were collected from 10 informants (5 men and 5 women, aged between 25 and 32 years, capoeira teachers. As a result we obtained 294 different terms whose patterns of variation are distributed among 15 types. We tested the hypothesis that the figurative terms tend to be replaced by non-figurative ones, and it was confirmed by the collected data. This trend was the result of a search for transparency in terminology, making the terms more descriptive in relation to capoeira’s movements.

  16. Horizontal stability of a bouncing ball (United States)

    McBennett, Brendan G.; Harris, Daniel M.


    We present an investigation of a partially elastic ball bouncing on a vertically vibrated concave parabolic surface in two dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that simple vertical motion, wherein the ball bounces periodically at the parabola's vertex, is unstable to horizontal perturbations when the parabolic coefficient defining the surface shape exceeds a critical value. The result is a new periodic solution where the ball bounces laterally over the vertex. As the parabola is further steepened, this new solution also becomes unstable which gives rise to other complex periodic and chaotic bouncing states, all characterized by persistent lateral motion.

  17. Does horizontal transmission invalidate cultural phylogenies? (United States)

    Greenhill, Simon J; Currie, Thomas E; Gray, Russell D


    Phylogenetic methods have recently been applied to studies of cultural evolution. However, it has been claimed that the large amount of horizontal transmission that sometimes occurs between cultural groups invalidates the use of these methods. Here, we use a natural model of linguistic evolution to simulate borrowing between languages. The results show that tree topologies constructed with Bayesian phylogenetic methods are robust to realistic levels of borrowing. Inferences about divergence dates are slightly less robust and show a tendency to underestimate dates. Our results demonstrate that realistic levels of reticulation between cultures do not invalidate a phylogenetic approach to cultural and linguistic evolution.

  18. Fluidization of a horizontally driven granular monolayer. (United States)

    Heckel, Michael; Sack, Achim; Kollmer, Jonathan E; Pöschel, Thorsten


    We consider the transition of a horizontally vibrated monodisperse granular monolayer between its condensed state and its three-dimensional gaseous state as a function of the vibration parameters, amplitude, and frequency as well as particle number density. The transition is characterized by an abrupt change of the dynamical state which leaves its fingerprints in several measurable quantities including dissipation rate, sound emission, and a gap size which characterizes the sloshing motion of the material. The transition and its pronounced hysteresis is explained through the energy due to the collective motion of the particles relative to the container.

  19. Impulse absorption by horizontal magnetic granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxin Leng


    Full Text Available The granular medium is known as a protecting material for shock mitigation. We study the impulse absorption of an alignment of magnetic spheres placed horizontally under a non-uniform magnetic field. The phenomenon of the wave dispersion is presented. This system can absorb 85% ∼ 95% (88% ∼ 98% of the incident peak force (energy under the applied magnetic field strength in 0.1 T ∼ 1.0 T. The shock attenuation capacities are enhanced by the increment of field strength. With an intelligent control system, it is conceivable that the magnetic granular chain may offer possibilities in developing adaptive shock protectors.

  20. 48 CFR 45.604-1 - Disposal methods. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 45.604-1 Section 45.604-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.604-1 Disposal methods. (a) Except as...

  1. 12 CFR 41.83 - Disposal of consumer information. (United States)


    ... Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 41.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Definitions as used in this section. (1) Bank means national banks... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 41.83...

  2. 12 CFR 334.83 - Disposal of consumer information. (United States)


    ... GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 334.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information....

  3. 12 CFR 571.83 - Disposal of consumer information. (United States)


    ... REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 571.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Scope. This section applies to savings associations whose deposits... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information....

  4. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber. (United States)


    ... feet in log scale measurement; linear estimates of pole timber, and amount of cord wood. The appraiser... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  5. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping...

  6. Radioactive waste disposal fees-Methodology for calculation (United States)

    Bemš, Július; Králík, Tomáš; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, Jiří; Starý, Oldřich


    This paper summarizes the methodological approach used for calculation of fee for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal and for spent fuel disposal. The methodology itself is based on simulation of cash flows related to the operation of system for waste disposal. The paper includes demonstration of methodology application on the conditions of the Czech Republic.

  7. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.


    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS.

  8. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and... (RUS) proposes to amend the regulations pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to...

  9. 77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants (United States)


    ... CFR Part 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... related to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants Program, which provides water... additional priority points to the colonias that lack access to water or waste disposal systems and...

  10. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  11. 48 CFR 45.606 - Disposal of scrap. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of scrap. 45.606 Section 45.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.606 Disposal of scrap....

  12. 5 CFR 581.401 - Aggregate disposable earnings. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggregate disposable earnings. 581.401 Section 581.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... § 581.401 Aggregate disposable earnings. The “aggregate disposable earnings”, when used in reference...

  13. Environmental considerations for the disposal of PBB-contaminated animals and wastes. (United States)

    Shah, B P


    Accidental contamination of livestock feed in 1973 by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the destruction of over 30,000 animals in Michigan. Animal carcasses of mostly dairy cattle along with some beef cattle, hogs, sheep and rabbits destroyed under the Federal Food and Drug Administration guidelines were disposed on the land at an environmentally safe site in Kalkaska County, Michigan. The geology and hydrology of the disposal site on state-owned land is considered favorable for the disposal of contaminated carcasses and to prevent any migration of PBBs into ground and surface waters of the area. Materials underneath the site are predominantly sand with layers of silts and clays of glacial origin. The vertical isolation from the surface to the water table is over 90 ft, and the horizontal isolation to the privately owned properties and surface water bodies is well over 1.5 mile in all directions. The site design provides necessary safeguards for minimizing surface water infiltration into disposal trenches and maximizing the protection to the environment. A series of water wells in the direction of flow are established for monitoring groundwater quality for years to come. A 40-acre Gratiot County landfill located near St. Louis, Michigan, has received 269,000 lb of wastes containing 60 to 70% PBBs between 1971 and 1973. PBB wastes are intermixed with general refuse at various depths predominantly in the eastern half of the landfill. Phase I of the hydrogeological investigation shows that the landfill is situated immediately above the groundwater aquifer and a divide. Recently drilled test wells show traces of PBBs in the aquifer in all directions. Additional studies are planned in the near future for corrective measures and monitoring. Images FIGURE 4. PMID:209986

  14. Generation of large-scale winds in horizontally anisotropic convection

    CERN Document Server

    von Hardenberg, J; Provenzale, A; Spiegel, E A


    We simulate three-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection between free-slip horizontal plates, rotating about a horizontal axis. When both the temperature difference between the plates and the rotation rate are sufficiently large, a strong horizontal wind is generated that is perpendicular to both the rotation vector and the gravity vector. The wind is turbulent, large-scale, and vertically sheared. Horizontal anisotropy, engendered here by rotation, appears necessary for such wind generation. Most of the kinetic energy of the flow resides in the wind, and the vertical turbulent heat flux is much lower on average than when there is no wind.

  15. Stratigraphic control and formation evaluation of horizontal wells with MWD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, L.R.B. (Eastman Teleco (United States)); Sellers, D.H.; Fisher, E.K. (Texaco Inc. (United States))


    Sandstone reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico typically do not form horizontal planes, and a predetermined course for a horizontal well cannot ensure that the well path will remain within the producing interval throughout the horizontal section. Detecting approaching bed boundaries and fluid contacts early enough to make the changes necessary to keep the well path in the producing interval is an important technical issue during the planning and drilling of horizontal wells. This paper reports that the first two horizontal wells drilled in the Gulf of Mexico achieved this objective with measurement-while-drilling (MWD) resistivity measurements and with supporting computer modeling for bed boundary detection.

  16. Foldable and Disposable Memory on Paper (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Il; Bae, Hagyoul; Seong, Hyejeong; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seol, Myung-Lok; Han, Jin-Woo; Meyyappan, M.; Im, Sung-Gap; Choi, Yang-Kyu


    Foldable organic memory on cellulose nanofibril paper with bendable and rollable characteristics is demonstrated by employing initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for polymerization of the resistive switching layer and inkjet printing of the electrode, where iCVD based on all-dry and room temperature process is very suitable for paper electronics. This memory exhibits a low operation voltage of 1.5 V enabling battery operation compared to previous reports and wide memory window. The memory performance is maintained after folding tests, showing high endurance. Furthermore, the quick and complete disposable nature demonstrated here is attractive for security applications. This work provides an effective platform for green, foldable and disposable electronics based on low cost and versatile materials.

  17. Periglacial phenomena affecting nuclear waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niini, H.


    Full Text Available Slow future changes in astronomic phenomena seem to make it likely that Finland nll suffer several cold periods during the next 100,000 years. The paper analyses the characteristics of the periglacial factors that are most likely to influence the long-term safety of high-level radioactive waste disposed of in bedrock. These factors and their influences have been divided into two categories, natural and human. It is concluded that the basically natural phenomena are theoretically better understood than the complicated phenomena caused by man. It is therefore important in future research into periglacial phenomena, as well as of the disposal problem, to emphasize not only the proper applications of the results of natural sciences, but especially the effects and control of mankind's own present and future activities.

  18. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  19. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  20. The disposal of nuclear waste in space (United States)

    Burns, R. E.


    The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

  1. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, AIST, MITI, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  2. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihone Kerolli-Mustafa


    Full Text Available Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP, three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in Mitrovica Industrial Park, Kosovo. The combination of these methods can effectively identify the comprehensive and single pollution levels of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and As present in jarosite waste. Moreover, the great positive relevance between leaching behavior of heavy metals and F1 fraction was supported by principal component analysis (PCA. PERI results indicate that Cd showed a very high risk class to the environment. The ecological risk of heavy metals declines in the following order: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>As.

  3. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain (United States)


    pr_121508_energysecnom.cfm. 13 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, “Growing energy: Berkeley Lab’s Steve Chu on what termite guts have to do with global warming...does not seem an attractive alternative to the geological 60 Steven Nadis, “The Sub-Seabed Solution...could be done at Yucca Mountain.82 Such “salt creep” occurs more quickly at higher temperatures , which could result from the disposal of high-level waste

  4. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil (United States)

    Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.


    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  5. Pattern selection in a horizontally vibrated container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, J; Tinao, I; Laveron-Simavilla, A; Lopez, C A, E-mail: [E.T.S.I. Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    We present results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the patterns realized by surface waves within an open rectangular container subjected to horizontal vibrations at frequencies of 40-100 Hz. The first instability exhibited by the primary harmonic wave field is subharmonic, and may be identified with the cross-wave instability often seen in wave tank experiments. We show that, contrary to common theoretical and experimental assumptions, and despite their name, these subharmonic waves are not oriented crosswise, but at an intermediate angle with respect to the axis of vibration. Hence, the pattern selection problem for horizontally forced Faraday waves is more complex than has previously been assumed. We establish the robustness of this obliquely oriented surface wave pattern by varying the forcing frequency and amplitude, the fluid viscosity, the fluid depth, and the boundary conditions. Previous work on cross-waves is reviewed and discussed in relation to the current results. Finally, numerical simulations using a reduced model with an appropriate forcing term are used to support the generality of the experimental observations. (paper)

  6. Horizontal stresses below two agricultural vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamande, Mathieu André Maurice; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Janne Aalborg

    below the edge of tires. Stress distribution at the tire/soil contact is not uniform. Dimensions and inflation pressure are key factors for the ability of agricultural tires to distribute the wheel load. Our hypothesis was that the risk of shearing increases with the tire inflation pressure...... and the number of wheels. We measured horizontal stress at two depths (0.3 and 0.5 m) below tires of two slurry spreaders: one self-propelled machine equipped with wide tires (1.050 m) and low inflation pressure (150 kPa) but carrying a high wheel load (120 kN), and one tractor towing a three-axle slurry......) and at three depths (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m). The maximum rooting depths of spring barley was recorded below the center of the tire, below the edge of the tire, and outside the tracks. Horizontal stresses had about the same magnitude for 0.3 and 0.5 m depths for the self-propelled machine, while it was much higher...

  7. Horizontal Air Bearing Experiment Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauson, T.L.


    The Horizontal Air Bearing Experiment No.1 is a series of tests intended to further the understanding of rotational dynamics. A simple experimental assembly is rotated using the Horizontal Air Bearing and allowed to spin freely as the internal rotational damping is measured. The low friction of the bearing effectively isolates the test assembly, allowing the internal damping of the test object to be evaluated. The experimental assembly is composed of an aluminum ball within a spherical cavity. A flanged pipe section and an auxiliary adapter plate secure the assembly to the Air Bearing interface plate. Three aluminum balls are interchanged to vary test parameters. The aluminum balls are free to move independently as the entire assembly rotates. The aluminum balls vary in diameter and/or surface finish. While the diameter and surface finish is varied, the space between the ball and socket is dry. To examine the effect of viscosity, the space is filled with a lubricant while the ball diameter and surface finish is held constant.

  8. The origin of extreme horizontal branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, B; O'Connell, R W; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T; O'Connell, Robert W


    Strong mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) can result in the formation of extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars. The EHB stars spend most of their He core and shell burning phase at high temperatures and produce copious ultraviolet flux. They have very small hydrogen envelopes and occupy a small range in mass. We have computed evolutionary RGB models with mass loss for stars with a range of metallicities at initial masses < 1.1 Msun corresponding to populations ages between 12.5 and 14.5 Gyr. We used the Reimers formula to characterize mass loss, but investigated a larger range of the mass loss efficiency parameter, eta, than is common. To understand how the number of EHB stars varies with metallicity in a stellar population we considered how the zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) is populated. The range in eta producing EHB stars is comparable to that producing `mid-HB' stars. Somewhat surprisingly, neither the range nor magnitude of eta producing EHB stars varies much metallicity. In contrast, the ran...

  9. Galileo disposal strategy: stability, chaos and predictability (United States)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Daquin, Jérôme; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Alessi, Elisa Maria; Deleflie, Florent; Rossi, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.


    Recent studies have shown that the medium-Earth orbit (MEO) region of the global navigation satellite systems is permeated by a devious network of lunisolar secular resonances, which can interact to produce chaotic and diffusive motions. The precarious state of the four navigation constellations, perched on the threshold of instability, makes it understandable why all past efforts to define stable graveyard orbits, especially in the case of Galileo, were bound to fail; the region is far too complex to allow for an adoption of the simple geosynchronous disposal strategy. We retrace one such recent attempt, funded by ESA's General Studies Programme in the frame of the GreenOPS initiative, that uses a systematic parametric approach and the straightforward maximum-eccentricity method to identify long-term-stable regions, suitable for graveyards, as well as large-scale excursions in eccentricity, which can be used for post-mission deorbiting of constellation satellites. We then apply our new results on the stunningly rich dynamical structure of the MEO region towards the analysis of these disposal strategies for Galileo, and discuss the practical implications of resonances and chaos in this regime. We outline how the identification of the hyperbolic and elliptic fixed points of the resonances near Galileo can lead to explicit criteria for defining optimal disposal strategies.

  10. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.


    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures.

  11. A Comparison of Distillery Stillage Disposal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sajbrt


    Full Text Available This paper compares the main stillage disposal methods from the point of view of technology, economics and energetics. Attention is paid to the disposal of both solid and liquid phase. Specifically, the following methods are considered: a livestock feeding, b combustion of granulated stillages, c fertilizer production, d anaerobic digestion with biogas production and e chemical pretreatment and subsequent secondary treatment. Other disposal techniques mentioned in the literature (electrofenton reaction, electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis have not been considered, due to their high costs and technological requirements.Energy and economic calculations were carried out for a planned production of 120 m3 of stillage per day in a given distillery. Only specific treatment operating costs (per 1 m3 of stillage were compared, including operational costs for energy, transport and chemicals. These values were determined for January 31st, 2009. Resulting sequence of cost effectiveness: 1. – chemical pretreatment, 2. – combustion of granulated stillage, 3. – transportation of stillage to a biogas station, 4. – fertilizer production, 5. – livestock feeding. This study found that chemical pretreatment of stillage with secondary treatment (a method developed at the Department of Process Engineering, CTU was more suitable than the other methods. Also, there are some important technical advantages. Using this method, the total operating costs are approximately 1 150 ??/day, i.e. about 9,5 ??/m3 of stillage. The price of chemicals is the most important item in these costs, representing about 85 % of the total operating costs.

  12. The use of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) as a seismic source (United States)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Chwatal, Werner; Radinger, Alexander; Brückl, Ewald


    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method uses the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) as the seismic source. The method has been developed to predict the geological situation from reflections ahead of the tunnel face without disturbing the tunneling. The vibrations of the TBM are continuously monitored near the drilling head (pilot signal) as well as the direct and reflected seismic wave field at borehole geophones (geophone signal) situated in the tunnel wall behind the TBM. During the processing these signals are correlated and result in excellent seismic traces comparable to conventional seismic methods. The interpretation of the reflections leads to a nearly daily prognosis about 100 m ahead of the TBM. This system was successfully implemented at three different construction sites in Austria and is currently operating at one further. The cutters on front of the TBM head are pressed against the tunnel face and split the rock during rotating which is called the chipping process. This cutting process generates seismic waves radiated into the rock mass and results also in vibrations of the TBM itself. On the one hand it is important to know the source mechanism of the TBM and the radiation pattern of the seismic waves in all directions. Until now this is not well understood. To investigate this 3C-geophones were installed at the surface above the tunnel axis at different construction sites. The obtained seismograms show the forward and backward radiated seismic wave field of the TBM, for the present without consideration of the influence of the free surface. We compare this data with modelled seismograms in which we use different possible source mechanism, like single force or force due to tensile cracks. First results are shown in the scope of this work. On the other hand it is essential to know how good the recorded pilot signal represents the entire chipping process. Due to technically reasons the pilot signal has been registered so far on the non-rotating part

  13. Anatomical study on Myoforceps aristatus, an invasive boring bivalve in S.E. Brazilian coast (Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone


    Full Text Available The bivalve Myoforceps aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817, also known as Lithophaga aristata, have been recently collected in the coasts of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil; a species that bores shells of other mollusks. This occurrence has been interpreted as an invasion of this species, originally from the Caribbean. The distinguishing character of the species is the posterior extensions of the shell crossing with each other. Because specimens with this character have also been collected in the Pacific Ocean, they all have been considered a single species. However, it is possible that more than one species may be involved in such worldwide distribution. With the objective of providing full information based on Atlantic specimens, a complete anatomical description is provided, which can be used in comparative studies with specimens from other oceans. Additional distinctive features of M. aristatus are the complexity of the incurrent siphon, the kidney opening widely into the supra-branchial chamber (instead of via a nephropore, and the multi-lobed auricle.O bivalve Myoforceps aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817, também conhecido como Lithophaga aristata, tem sido recentemente coletado nas costas do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, Brasil; uma espécie que perfura conchas de outros moluscos. Esta ocorrência está sendo interpretada como uma invasão de uma espécie originada do Caribe. O caráter distintivo da espécie é a região posterior da concha, com extensões que se cruzam. Como espécimes com esta característica também têm sido coletados no oceano Pacífico, eles tem sido considerados como pertencentes à mesma espécie. Entretanto, é possível que mais de uma espécie possam estar envolvidas nesta suposta distribuição mundial. Com o objetivo de fornecer informação completa baseada em material do Atlântico, uma descrição anatômica completa é dada, a qual pode ser usada em estudos comparativos com espécimes de outros oceanos. As caracter

  14. Electro-Pulse-Boring (EPB):Novel Super-Deep Drilling Technology for Low Cost Electricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans O.Schiegg; Arild Rdland; Guizhi Zhu; David A Yuen


    The inexhaustible heat deposit in great depths (5–10 km) is a scientific fact. Such deposit occurs around the globe. Thereby, everybody is enabled to generate autonomously clean and renew-able energy, ample electricity and heat. The economical exploration and exploitation of this super-deep geothermal heat deposit requires a novel drilling technique, because the currently only deep drilling method (Rotary) is limited to about 5 km, due to the rising costs, depending exponentially on depth. Electro-pulse-boring (EPB) is a valuable option to Rotary drilling. EPB, originally investigated in Russia, is ready to be developed for industrialization. The feasibility of EPB is proven by many boreholes drilled up to 200 m in granite (crystalline). Estimates show outstanding low costs for drilling by EPB: 100€/m for a borehole with a large diameter (Ø) such as 20"(50 cm), independent on depth and applicable likewise for sediments and crystalline rocks, such as granite. The current rate of pene-tration (ROP) of 3 m per hour is planned to be augmented up to 35 m per hour, and again, irrespec-tive whether in sedimentary or crystalline formations. Consequently, a 10 km deep borehole with Ø 50 cm will ultimately be drilled within 12 days. EPB will create new markets, such as: (i) EPB shallow drilling for geotechnics, energy piles, measures in order to mitigate natural hazards, etc., (ii) EPB deep drilling (3–5 km) for hydro-geothermics, exploration campaigns etc. and (iii) EPB super-deep drilling (5–10 km) for petro-geothermics, enabling the economic generation of electricity. The autonomous and unlimited supply with cost efficient electricity, besides ample heat, ensures reliably clean and renew-able energy, thus, high supply security. Such development will provide a substantial relief to cope with the global challenge to limit the climate change below 2 ºC. The diminution of fossil fuels, due to the energy transition in order to mitigate the climate change, implies

  15. Effect of coal ash disposal upon an unconfined alluvial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shergill, B.S.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Dinger, J.S. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Kentucky Geological Survey)


    Fly and bottom ash from coal combustion has been disposed in four ash ponds in an alluvial valley. Three of the ash ponds are receiving ash and one was filled and closed. Twenty eight monitoring wells ranging in depth from 10 feet to 65 feet have been installed at the site to study groundwater flow and chemistry. Hydraulic heads are influenced by the stage of the Kentucky River, and the flow direction is vertical below the ash ponds and predominantly horizontal a short distance from the pond all the way to the river. Three different groundwater flow zones were observed and have unique water chemistry. The deep zone (near bedrock) has a low Eh (< [minus]80), and high concentration of Fe, ammonia nitrogen, below detection sulfate values (< 5 mg/l) and trace metals. The age of the deep groundwater as determined by tritium analyses is between 20 to 30 years old (5.68 TU). The intermediate groundwater zone (from ash pond) has relatively higher Eh (> 100) and lower concentrations of Fe and ammonia nitrogen, median sulfate concentration (114 mg/l), and arsenic is below detection limits. The shallow groundwater zone is through the closed out ash point and has higher concentrations of nearly all cations and anions, including sulfate (888 mg/l) and arsenic (exists as arsenite) at concentration of 0.9 mg/l, low Eh (< [minus]100), and high pH. When shallow flow enters the alluvium, the sulfate are attenuated by sulfate reduction and this results in high bicarbonate values. Saturation indices (SI) as calculated by the geochemical model, MINTEQA2, indicate that deep and intermediate groundwater are unsaturated and shallow groundwater is at or near equilibrium with respect to calcite, dolomite, and gypsum.

  16. Caldecott 4th bore tunnel project: influence of ground water flows and inflows triggered by tectonic fault zones? (United States)

    Neuhuber, G.; G. Neuhuber1, W. Klary1, A. Nitschke1, B. Thapa2, Chris Risden3, T. Crampton4, D. Zerga5


    The 4th Bore is a highway tunnel on California State Route 24 currently under construction. The 4th Bore is undertaken by the California State Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) and the Contra Costa County Transportation Commission (CCTC) to alleviate traffic congestion on SR24 connecting the cities of Oakland and Orinda in the San Francisco East Bay Area. The cost for the 4th Bore is estimated at $ 390.8 Mill. The 3,249 ft long 4th Bore tunnel will have excavated dimensions of approximately 40 ft height and 49 ft width. A total of 7 cross passages will run between the 3rd and the new 4th bore. Geology and Hydrogeology: The project is located in the Oakland Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The Caldecott Tunnels lie within the easterly assemblage of the Hayward fault zone province which consists of a sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks that accumulated in the interval between about 16 and 8.4 Ma (Miocene). The basal rocks of these Tertiary deposits consist of deep marine basin sediments of the Monterey Group. These rocks are overlain uncomfortably by an interbedded sequence of terrestrial sediments (Orinda Formation) and volcanic rocks (Moraga Formation). The Tertiary rocks have been folded into large amplitude, NW trending folds that are cut by N trending strike and slip faults. The SF Bay Region, which is crossed by 4 major faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras), is considered one of the more seismically active regions of the world. The active Hayward fault lies 0.9mi to the west of the Caldecott Tunnels and is the closest major fault to the project area. The tunnel is at the moment under top heading construction: West Portal (360ft) and East Portal (1,968.5ft). While major faults typically influence groundwater flow, characterization of such influences is extremely difficult because of the heterogeneity of the hydraulic systems and the different lithological parameters and influences. Four major inactive fault zones striking

  17. Wrong detection of ventricular fibrillation in an implantable cardioverter defibrillator caused by the movement near the MRI scanner bore. (United States)

    Mattei, Eugenio; Censi, Federica; Triventi, Michele; Mancini, Matteo; Napolitano, Antonio; Genovese, Elisabetta; Cannata, Vittorio; Falsaperla, Rosaria; Calcagnini, Giovanni


    The static magnetic field generated by MRI systems is highly non-homogenous and rapidly decreases when moving away from the bore of the scanner. Consequently, the movement around the MRI scanner is equivalent to an exposure to a time-varying magnetic field at very low frequency (few Hz). For patients with an implanted cardiac stimulators, such as an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the movements inside the MRI environment may thus induce voltages on the loop formed by the leads of the device, with the potential to affect the behavior of the stimulator. In particular, the ICD's detection algorithms may be affected by the induced voltage and may cause inappropriate sensing, arrhythmia detections, and eventually inappropriate ICD therapy.We performed in-vitro measurements on a saline-filled humanshaped phantom (male, 170 cm height), equipped with an MRconditional ICD able to transmit in real-time the detected cardiac activity (electrograms). A biventricular implant was reproduced and the ICD was programmed in standard operating conditions, but with the shock delivery disabled. The electrograms recorded in the atrial, left and right ventricle channels were monitored during rotational movements along the vertical axis, in close proximity of the bore. The phantom was also equipped with an accelerometer and a magnetic field probe to measure the angular velocity and the magnetic field variation during the experiment. Pacing inhibition, inappropriate detection of tachyarrhythmias and of ventricular fibrillation were observed. Pacing inhibition began at an angular velocity of about 7 rad/s, (dB/dt of about 2 T/s). Inappropriate detection of ventricular fibrillation occurred at about 8 rad/s (dB/dt of about 3 T/s). These findings highlight the need for a specific risk assessment of workers with MR-conditional ICDs, which takes into account also effects that are generally not considered relevant for patients, such as the movement around the scanner bore.

  18. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Bird, G.A. [and others


    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  19. Design, Fabrication and Initial Testing of a Large Bore Single Aperture 1 m Long Superconducting Dipole Made with Phenolic Inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W


    In the framework of the LHC magnet development programme, a large bore single aperture 1-meter long superconducting dipole has been built in collaboration with HOLEC. The magnet features a single layer coil wound using the LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic inserts, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. This paper presents the magnetic and mechanical design and optimisation of the magnet. We describe the coil winding and curing, and present the construction and assembly procedures. Finally we report on the mechanical behaviour during assembly and cooling, and present the magnet training behaviour.

  20. 岩溶地质钻孔桩施工技术%Karst Geology Bored Pile Construction Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    According to the Karat geological structure features, the article describes the treating points of bridge bored pile construction in Karat geology, and presents different Karat geological structures.%针对卡斯特地区的地质构成特点,本文主要论述了岩溶地质条件下的桥梁钻孔桩施工根据其不同类别分类处理要点控制,并简要的对岩溶地质不同的结构情况予以了说明.

  1. Pulsed ion sheath dynamics in a cylindrical bore for inner surface grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Jiu Li; Fan Song Hua; Yang Wu Bao; Yang Size


    Based on authors' recently proposed grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) technique for inner surface modification of materials with cylindrical geometry, the authors present the corresponding theoretical studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma ion sheath between the grid electrode and the target in a cylindrical bore. Typical results such as the ion sheath evolution, time-dependent ion density and time-integrated ion energy distribution at the target are calculated by solving Poisson's equation coupled with fluid equations for collisionless ions and Boltzmann assumption for electrons using finite difference methods. The calculated results can further verify the feasibility and superiority of this new technique

  2. Hydraulic resistance to movement of a drill suspended by a cable in a bore-hole in travels


    Vasiliev,N.I./Kudryashov, B.B.


    Equations are given for calculation of the hydraulic resistance force to movement of a drill suspended by cable and the speed of its movement as a function of the dimension and mass of the drill and properties of the hole liquid. The most significant factor influencing the hydraulic resistance during drill movement in the hole is the radial clearance between the drill and bore-hole walls. The methods of experimental study of the drill movement on the laboratory stand are described. The result...

  3. GPS monitoring of bedrock stability at Olkiluoto nuclear waste disposal site in Finland from 1996 to 2012 (United States)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H.


    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto nuclear waste disposal site since mid-90's. Biannual GPS measurement has been carried out in two local GPS networks. This paper analyses the GPS data processing effects on the coordinate solutions and presents the results of GPS monitoring from 1996 to 2012. The GPS data was processed using Bernese GPS Software 5.0. The GPS data processing and baseline analysis showed a 1.0 mm (max RMS) level agreement of observation and high bedrock stability in the area. Most of the horizontal trends were smaller than 0.1 mm/a. The troposphere estimation strategy had a clear effect on the horizontal trends at some sites. The strain rates were all very small, but we could detect motions near the Olkiluoto permanent station.

  4. Numerical Investigation on Submerged Horizontal Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海贵; 王科


    Hydrodynamic characters on a horizontal, thin, rigid plate located beneath the free surface are numerically investigated. Assuming a linear, time-harmonic potential flow and utilizing Green identity, the governing Laplace equation can be simplified into Fredholm integral equation ofthe second kind. Supposing linear-order discontinuous elements along intersecting vertical boundaries, and by use of the boundary element method, numerical solution about source strength distribution on the plate can be changed into a series of algebraic equations. The 3D Green function is introduced to set up the integral equations, and the GMRES solver is performed for solving the large dense linear system of equations. The added-mass, damping force and exciting force are evaluated directly from the equations. It is found that the added-mass coefficient becomes negative for a range of frequencies when the plate is sufficiently close to the free surface.

  5. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Richard F.


    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  6. Multimodal Distributions along the Horizontal Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Dorman, B; Rood, R T; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T.


    We report on HST/WFPC2 U,V and far-ultraviolet observations of two Galactic Globular Clusters (GGCs), NGC 6205 = M13 and NGC 6093 = M80. Both of these clusters have horizontal-branch (HB) tails that extend to the helium-burning main sequence, with the hottest stars reaching theoretical effective temperatures above 35,000 K. In both clusters, groups of stars are found to be separated by narrow gaps along the blue HB sequence. These gaps appear at similar locations in the color-magnitude diagrams of the two clusters. While stochastic effects may give rise to variations in the color distribution along the HB, the coincidence of gaps in different clusters effectively rules this out as the primary cause. The comparison among the clusters strongly suggests that there are separate physical processes operating during the earlier red-giant phase of evolution to produce mass loss.

  7. Horizontal gene exchange in environmental microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam I Aminov


    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT plays an important role in the evolution of life on the Earth. This view is supported by numerous occasions of HGT that are recorded in the genomes of all three domains of living organisms. HGT-mediated rapid evolution is especially noticeable among the Bacteria, which demonstrate formidable adaptability in the face of recent environmental changes imposed by human activities, such as the use of antibiotics, industrial contamination, and intensive agriculture. At the heart of the HGT-driven bacterial evolution and adaptation are highly sophisticated natural genetic engineering tools in the form of a variety of mobile genetic elements (MGEs. The main aim of this review is to give a brief account of the occurrence and diversity of MGEs in natural ecosystems and of the environmental factors that may affect MGE-mediated HGT.

  8. Horizon-T Experiment Calibrations - Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Beznosko, D; Iakovlev, A; Makhataeva, Z; Vildanova, M I; Yelshibekov, K; Zhukov, V V


    An innovative detector system called Horizon-T is constructed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) in the energy range above 1016 eV coming from a wide range of zenith angles (0o - 85o). The system is located at Tien Shan high-altitude Science Station of Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences at approximately 3340 meters above the sea level. The detector consists of eight charged particle detection points separated by the distance up to one kilometer as well as optical detector to view the Vavilov-\\v{C}erenkov light from the EAS. Each detector connects to the Data Acquisition system via cables. The calibration of the time delay for each cable and the signal attenuation is provided in this article.

  9. Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylijoki, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C.; Porkholm, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)


    In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  10. Horizontal Gene Transfer, Dispersal and Haloarchaeal Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thane Papke


    Full Text Available The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria.

  11. Horizontal Gene Transfer, Dispersal and Haloarchaeal Speciation (United States)

    Papke, R. Thane; Corral, Paulina; Ram-Mohan, Nikhil; de la Haba, Rafael R.; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Makkay, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio


    The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation) are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria. PMID:25997110

  12. novos elementos e horizontes para o cuidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lúcia Rocha Ribeiro


    Full Text Available La condición crónica ha sido un tema de importancia extrema para la reflexión del proceso de vivir humano. En el artículo se presenta la síntesis de una investigación realizada con la finalidad de comprender cómo los niños con Síndrome Nefrótico son cuidados, buscando identificar nuevos elementos y horizontes para reconstruir el cuidado de enfermería, teniendo como foco la familia. Para la presente investigación, se realizó un estudio cualitativo que utilizó como referente teórico metodológico, la hermenéutica basada en Gadamer y Ricouer. De la investigación realizada en 2004, participaron 42 personas pertenecientes a las familias de niños y adolescentes con Síndrome Nefrótico, usuarias del Servicio de Nefrología Pediátrica del Hospital Universitario Júlio Müller, en Cuiabá, Brasil. En la discusión son presentadas: una síntesis de las familias, sus proyectos, personajes y contexto; la trayectoria de la enfermedad del niño en la familia, y el cuidado del niño nefrótico en la familia. Se muestran también los horizontes de los cuidadores, familiares y profesionales de salud, y el cuidado posible a partir de los arreglos de la familia. Se puede concluir que el diálogo es la primera condición para la comprensión y también para el cuidado.

  13. 一种可调镗刀刀杆的设计与应用%An Adjustment Of The Design And Application Of The Boring Tool Arbor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祥; 徐俊; 于辉


    Hole boring is a common method in Machinery Manufacturing. Its main advantage lies in guaranteeing precision of a hole in a quite good manner. As for some parts, such as a box, there are many holes and holes with different apertures. In the process of boring operations, various specifications of boring knife are needed and knife adjusting time is added. The design of an adjustable boring arbor with cutter mainly includes coarse and precise adjustment of swallowtail pair, stepper motor pair, and worm -gear pair. After coarse and precise adjustment, shanks' length can be adjusted to realize boring operations of holes with different diameters and depths. Moreover, direction between linking shanks and shanks of boring knife could be changed to bore inner holes in different places. Adjustable boring arbor could further enlarge coverage of boring operations and possesses a high application Value.%镗孔是机械制造中常用的方法,主要优点在于能很好地保证孔的位置精度。对于有的零件如箱体等,孔多且孔径大多不同,在镗削加工时,就需要多种规格的镗刀,也增加了对刀时问。设计一种可调式镗刀刀杆,主要包括燕尾导轨副、丝杠螺母副和蜗轮蜗杆副的粗调与微调机构等部分,通过粗调和微调机构的工作,可以实现刀杆伸出长度的调整,完成对不同直径和深度孔的镗削加工。另外,还可以变换连接杆和镗刀杆的方位,镗削位置不同的内孔。进一步扩大镗削加工的范围,具有很高的应用价值。

  14. Machining of Crankshaft and Camshaft Bores%缸体曲轴孔和凸轮轴孔的加工方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The process of machining the crankshaft and camshaft bores of an engine was analyzed according totheir structure features, technical requirements and production conditions. The key issue was how todesign and manufacture the boring tools and fixtures that can attain the required precisions of the bores. Optimal design and proper processing were made for making the boring fixture that can ensure the quality of the crankshaft and camshaft bores.%介绍了某型柴油机缸体曲轴孔、凸轮轴孔的结构特点和技术要求,分析了加工工艺,重点阐述了镗夹具的设计制造过程,通过优选设计方案和选用合理的工艺方法,来保证镗夹具的质量满足曲轴孔和凸轮轴孔高精度的加工要求。

  15. Invert muds : cost and disposal roadblocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garritty, N. [Engineered Drilling Solutions Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Since its inception, Engineered Drilling Solutions Incorporated (EDSI) has been focused on increasing drilling performance, increasing customer satisfaction, and decreasing drilling costs. Drilling fluid accounts for only 5 per cent of the cost to drill a well. It is necessary to look at how drilling fluid affects other aspects of drilling costs. Historically, the two main barriers to drilling with invert drilling fluids have been cost and disposal. EDSI's goal was to create an economical invert drilling fluid and develop an innovative way to dispose of the cuttings created while drilling it. This presentation discussed the costs and disposal roadblocks of invert muds. It provided a brief history of oil muds and the need for a new solution to the problem. Invert issues were identified. The presentation also discussed the removal of damaging components from the system and replacement of these materials with non-damaging alternatives which have allowed for the creation of a novel oil based drilling fluid formulation. The presentation discussed the development of 4G which was prepared with the use of a patent pending process using a colloid mill. The device achieved high levels of shear and, as a result, the fluid could be prepared to the consistency of paint. The 4G formulation was modified to 4GM in order to have a fluid that provided shear thinning at the bit for faster drilling, but that would gel up to provide for great hole cleaning. Shear thinning fluid also results in less fluid being lost over the shale shakers. 4GM was shown to enhance organophilic clay performance; significantly decrease maintenance; and decrease losses over the shaker. EDSI has also patented a solution that combines recycled tires and invert drill cuttings to create a product that replaces a portion of traditional aggregate in roads in order to offset the stresses on gravel road infrastructure as well as eliminating the waste going into landfills. figs.

  16. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P


    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued.

  17. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof


    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place.

  18. Evaluación de tres dietas con harina de hoja de bore (Alocasia macrorrhiza en pollos de engorde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy López M.


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto nutricional de incluir la harina de hoja de bore, en proporciones de 0 (T1, 5 (T2, 10 (T3 y 15% (T4, en la alimentación de 100 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308. Materiales y Métodos. Se empleo un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos, cinco repeticiones por tratamiento y cinco unidades experimentales por repetición. Para su respectivo análisis se registró consumo diario, ganancia de peso, conversión alimenticia, mortalidad y eficiencia económica, durante un periodo de 6 semanas. Resultados. Se observó que no existieron diferencias estadísticas significativas en conversión alimenticia, pero si en consumo, ganancia de peso y eficiencia económica (p< 0.05, siendo el mejor tratamiento el T2, con un consumo de 4003.4 g, una ganancia de peso de 1794.4g una conversión de 2.4 y un beneficio neto de campo de 107.88%. Conclusiones. La harina de hoja de bore es una alternativa de alimentación para pollos de engorde, al emplearla al 5% de nivel de inclusión, como materia prima no convencional, la cual permite generar un buen comportamiento productivo y económico.

  19. 镗床多功能刀架设计%Design of the Muitifunctional Tool Rest for the Boring Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹业宏; 安宁; 刘小鹏


    针对没有平旋盘的镗床在加工过程中无法调整镗刀的径向进给量问题,通过对径向进刀系统传动链的运动分析和计算,设计一种镗床多功能刀架.使用该刀架能在主轴旋转的同时,手动或自动调节镗刀的径向进给量.并采用Pro/E软件建立了刀架的三维模型.使用该刀架能极大地方便加工操作,提高机床的加工效率.%Aiming at the question that the radial feed rate unable adjusted during processing of boring mills without flat spin dish, on the basis of analyzing and calculating the movement of the drive chain of radial feeding system, a multifunctional tool rest was designed with which the radial feed rate of a boring cutter could be adjusted manually or automatically while the main axis was rotating. By using the Pro/E software, the three-dimension model was built. By this method, the operation process and machining efficiency of the machine tool are improved substantially.

  20. The Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) Measurement System to Measure the Quality of Physical Model of Bored Pile (United States)

    Sibit, Denniswara; Handayani, Gunawan


    The crosshole sonic logging measurement to measure the quality of bored piles is presented in this paper. The development of crosshole measurement system on physical bored pile modeling was carried out. The diameter of the concrete model was around 1 m and the height of the model was 1 m. In the model two holes were constructed to simulate the crosshole measurement system in the field. The two holes were filled with water and then two transducers were lowered in the holes. The transducers were built from audio speaker and microphone and they were sealed by rubber material so that the transducers were water proof. The speaker transducer acted as transmitter and the microphone transducer acted as receiver. The acoustic wave transmitted from the speaker penetrated in the concrete material and received by receiver. By analyzing the waveform arrived at the receiver by means of datalogger we determine the condition the concrete pile i.e. whether there were cavities in the concrete etc.

  1. Seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures revealed by X-ray computed tomography of boring cores (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshito; Komatsubara, Junko


    X-ray computed tomography (CT) allows us to visualize three-dimensional structures hidden in boring cores nondestructively. We applied medical X-ray CT to cores containing seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDSs) obtained from the Kanto region of Japan, where the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake occurred. The CT images obtained clearly revealed various types of the seismically induced SSDSs embedded in the cores: a propagating sand dyke bent complexly by the preexisting geological structure, deformed laminations of fluidized sandy layers, and two types of downward mass movement (ductile downward folding and brittle normal faulting) as compensation for upward sand transport through sand dykes. Two advanced image analysis techniques were applied to the sand dyke CT images for the first time. The GrowCut algorithm, a specific digital image segmentation technique that uses cellular automata, was used successfully to extract the three-dimensional complex sand dyke structures embedded in the sandy sediments, which would have been difficult to achieve using a conventional image processing technique. Local autocorrelation image analysis was performed to detect the flow pattern aligned along the sand dykes objectively. The results demonstrate that X-ray CT coupled with advanced digital image analysis techniques is a promising approach to studying the seismically induced SSDSs in boring cores.

  2. PLC Transformation of T68 Boring Lathe%T68镗床的 PLC 改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper describes the transformation of T68 boring lathe with Mitsubishi FX1S series PLC ,and states the transfor‐ming scheme of the system ,meantime ,according to the working requirements and characteristics of T68 boring lathe ,the as‐signments of PLC input and output was confirmed .The defects of relay control circuits were improved ,and a ladder diagram was designed and spot adjustment was performed .%介绍了利用三菱FX1S系列PLC对T68镗床的改造,阐述了系统的改造方案,同时配合T68镗床的工作要求和特点,确定了 PLC的输入输出分配,改进了原有继电器控制电路的缺陷,设计出梯形图并进行现场调试。

  3. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) (United States)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.


    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  4. Distraction and task engagement: How interesting and boring information impact driving performance and subjective and physiological responses. (United States)

    Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Maikala, Rammohan


    As more devices and services are integrated into vehicles, drivers face new opportunities to perform additional tasks while driving. While many studies have explored the detrimental effects of varying task demands on driving performance, there has been little attention devoted to tasks that vary in terms of personal interest or investment-a quality we liken to the concept of task engagement. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of task engagement on driving performance, subjective appraisals of performance and workload, and various physiological measurements. In this study, 31 participants (M = 37 yrs) completed three driving conditions in a driving simulator: listening to boring auditory material; listening to interesting material; and driving with no auditory material. Drivers were simultaneously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy, heart monitoring and eye tracking systems. Drivers exhibited less variability in lane keeping and headway maintenance for both auditory conditions; however, response times to critical braking events were longer in the interesting audio condition. Drivers also perceived the interesting material to be less demanding and less complex, although the material was objectively matched for difficulty. Drivers showed a reduced concentration of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin when listening to interesting material, compared to baseline and boring conditions, yet they exhibited superior recognition for this material. The practical implications, from a safety standpoint, are discussed.

  5. Multicapillary electrophoresis disposable cartridge for bioseparations (United States)

    Amirkhanian, Varoujan D.; Liu, Ming-Sun


    We have successfully demonstrated the development of a compact and cost-effective parallel multi-channel capillary electrophoresis system for bio-molecules analysis. The automated process includes a buffer/gel replenishment mechanism, high voltage control of fluidics and an automated sample tray transport capability. The bio-separation/analysis occurs in a disposable cartridge containing multi-column capillaries with integrated excitation optical fibers, detection micro-optics and a buffer reservoir common to all separation channels. Tests of this fully integrated system indicate, that large quantities of biological samples can be analyzed automatically in a short period with highly sensitive fluorescence detection.

  6. Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Waste Disposal Technology. (United States)


    tons calcium sulfate (gypsum) per ton of titanium oxide (TiO2 ) produced. Because of the shear magnitude of the calcium sulfate disposal problem, one... pickling liquors that used as high as a 40:1 seed recycle ratio (we did not talk directly with Bethlehem Steel on their process). The Dorr Oliver...I I I 4-14 / Arthur D. Little, Inc. SECTION 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Aarons, R. and Taylor, R.A. (1967), The DuPont Waste Pickle Liquor Process, 22 Ind

  7. Electrochemical Disposal of Hydrazines in Water (United States)

    Kim, Jinseong; Gonzalez-Mar, Anuncia; Salinas, Carlos; Rutherford, Larris; Jeng, King-Tsai; Andrews, Craig; Yalamanchili, Ratlaya


    An electrochemical method of disposal of hydrazines dissolved in water has been devised. The method is applicable to hydrazine (N2H4), to monomethyl hydrazine [also denoted by MMH or by its chemical formula, (CH3)HNNH2], and to unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine [also denoted UDMH or by its chemical formula, (CH3)2NNH2]. The method involves a room-temperature process that converts the hydrazine to the harmless products N2, H2O, and, in some cases, CO2

  8. Cuttings Transport Models and Experimental Visualization of Underbalanced Horizontal Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wei


    Full Text Available Aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling technology has become the focus of the drilling industry at home and abroad, and one of the engineering core issues is the horizontal borehole cleaning. Therefore, calculating the minimum injection volume of gas and liquid accurately is essential for the construction in aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling. This paper establishes a physical model of carrying cuttings and borehole cleaning in wellbore of horizontal well and a critical transport mathematical model according to gas-liquid-solid flow mechanism and large plane dunes particle transport theory.

  9. The Impact of Horizontal Mergers on Competition: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilay SARICA


    Full Text Available A large number of studies have been devoted to the effects of horizontal mergers on competition. This survey intends to review some selected studies about the effects of competition on horizontal mergers with a special attention given the horizontal integration. One of the important results obtained from this literature survey is that the findings of many researches have largely been controversial due to the different approaches and the time periods used in their studies. In these studies, even though it has been proved that horizontal mergers have negative effects on competition, it is not possible to make any precise comment on the dimension of this effect.

  10. Influence of pressure conditions and back-filling materials on the durability of bore-hole ground loops; Lebensdauer von Erdwaermesonden in Bezug auf Druckverhaeltnisse und Hinterfuellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, R. [E. Rohner, Arnegg (Switzerland); Rybach, L.; Salton, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ), Institut fuer Geophysik, Zuerich (Switzerland)


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the influence of the relatively high pressures found in ground loops at depths of more than 200 metres and the effects caused by overloading the ground loops. The latter can cause the back-filling between the ground loop and the surrounding rock to freeze. The report describes tests carried out on 70-metre and 265-metre deep test bore-hole installations. The results of investigations into the influence of such pressure conditions on the materials of the ground loop and their service life are presented. The results are also compared with simulations using the FRACTure and EED calculation programmes. Details are given on the bore-holes with respect to their geology and construction. The report concludes that bore-hole ground loops can be considered as being very robust components with a long service life, provided they are designed and installed according to accepted professional standards.

  11. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2015 and July 2016 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. Los Alamos focused on two main activities during this period: Discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling to describe flow and radionuclide transport in complex fracture networks that are typical of crystalline rock environments, and a comprehensive interpretation of three different colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport experiments conducted in a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland between 2002 and 2013. Chapter 1 presents the results of the DFN work and is divided into three main sections: (1) we show results of our recent study on the correlation between fracture size and fracture transmissivity (2) we present an analysis and visualization prototype using the concept of a flow topology graph for characterization of discrete fracture networks, and (3) we describe the Crystalline International work in support of the Swedish Task Force. Chapter 2 presents interpretation of the colloidfacilitated radionuclide transport experiments in the crystalline rock at the Grimsel Test Site.

  12. Radiation safety considerations in proton aperture disposal. (United States)

    Walker, Priscilla K; Edwards, Andrew C; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S


    Beam shaping in scattered and uniform scanned proton beam therapy (PBT) is made commonly by brass apertures. Due to proton interactions, these devices become radioactive and could pose safety issues and radiation hazards. Nearly 2,000 patient-specific devices per year are used at Indiana University Cyclotron Operations (IUCO) and IU Health Proton Therapy Center (IUHPTC); these devices require proper guidelines for disposal. IUCO practice has been to store these apertures for at least 4 mo to allow for safe transfer to recycling contractors. The devices require decay in two staged secure locations, including at least 4 mo in a separate building, at which point half are ready for disposal. At 6 mo, 20-30% of apertures require further storage. This process requires significant space and manpower and should be considered in the design process for new clinical facilities. More widespread adoption of pencil beam or spot scanning nozzles may obviate this issue, as apertures then will no longer be necessary.

  13. SERDP munition disposal source characterization pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R.C.; Couch, R.G.; Fried, L.E. [and others


    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting studies to develop and implement technologies for the safe, efficient, and environmentally sound disposal of obsolete munitions and propellants which are stored at various locations across the country. One proposed disposal technique is the open-air burning or detonation (OB/OD) of this material. Although OB/OD is viewed as an efficient and cost-effective method for reducing the inventory of unwanted munitions and propellants, questions regarding its safety and environmental impacts must be addressed. Since very large amounts of munitions and propellants must be consumed inexpensively in relatively short time periods and with the very restrictive Federal and State regulations on environmental issues, it is clear that traditional OB/OD procedures will not be acceptable and that it is necessary to develop modified or advanced OB/OD technology. The effectiveness and environmental impact of the OB/OD technology must be verified by experimental data and with validated numerical models for acceptance by Federal and State regulators. Specifically, technology must be developed and tested that minimizes toxic bum and detonation products the noise (peak pressure) and destructive effect (impulse) of the explosive blast generation and travel distance of shrapnel, and entrainment of dust. Three explosion attenuation scenarios are analyzed: Contained water, aqueous foams, and wet sand.

  14. Micro Hole Machining Experimental Study of Ultrasonic Elliptical Vibration Boring%微孔椭圆超声镗削加工实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马协力; 张德远; 王冠


    Ultrasonic elliptical vibration micro-hole boring method is successfully applied to precision cutting due to its superior performances, such as low average cutting force and high machining precision. The theory of micro-hole boring machining and ultrasonic elliptical vibration micro-hole boring is analyzed to give fully play to the advantage of ultrasonic elliptical vibration for the problem of aviation engine fuel nozzles micro fabrication. The vibration amplitude contrast experiment proves that the ultrasonic vibration micro hole boring method has the advantages of low average cutting force and high surface quality compared with the traditional micro boring method. The micro hole ultrasonic elliptical boring is an effective method for micro hole machining.%微孔镗削加工采用椭圆超声技术具有降低切削力和改善表面加工质量的优势。为了充分发挥椭圆超声技术的优势,针对航空发动机燃油喷嘴精细加工的难题,分析了微孔镗削微细加工和微孔椭圆超声镗削的加工机理,通过振动振幅对比实验验证了微孔椭圆超声镗削加工比普通镗削加工更具有降低切削力和提高表面加工质量的能力。微孔椭圆超声振动加工为发动机燃油喷嘴的精细加工提供了一条有效途径。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Vasilevich


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to reveal and analyze resonance modes of a large-scale milling-drilling-boring machine. The machine has a movable column with vertical slot occupied by a symmetrical carriage with horizontal ram. Static rigidity of the machine is relatively low due to its large dimensions. So it is necessary to assess possible vibration activity. Virtual and operational trials of the machine have been carried out simultaneously. Modeling has been executed with the help of a finite element method (FEM. The FEM-model takes into account not only rigidity of machine structures but also flexibility of bearings, feed drive systems and guides. Modal FEM-analysis has revealed eight resonance modes that embrace the whole machine tool. They form a frequency interval from 12 to 75 Hz which is undesirable for machining. Three closely located resonances (31-37 Hz are considered as the most dangerous ones. They represent various combinations of three simple motions: vertical oscillations of a carriage, horizontal vibrations of a ram and column torsion. Reliability of FEM- estimations has been proved by in-situ vibration measurements.An effect for stabilization of resonance modes has been detected while making variations in design parameters of the machine tool. For example, a virtual replacement of cast iron for steel in machine structures practically does not have any effect on resonance frequencies. Rigidity increase in some parts (e.g. a ram has also a small effect on a resonance pattern. On the other hand, resonance stability makes it possible to avoid them while selecting a spindle rotation frequency.It is recommended to set double feed drives for all axes. A pair of vertical screws prevents a “pecking” resonance of the carriage at frequency of 54 Hz. It is necessary to foresee an operation of a main drive of such heavy machine tool in the above resonance interval with the spindle frequency of more than 75 Hz. For this purpose it is necessary

  16. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Facility Assessment. Volume 1 (United States)


    Facilities ( DALF ) at RVA" (USATHANA, 1984) provided the basis for the volume estimates for siting a disposal facility as discussed in Appendix 1.3. The... DALF also addressed on-site disposal options in addition to other technologies. This study supported the on-site disposal option by stating that a...impermeable bedrock do not exist at RMA. The DALF , drawing on the conclusions of the earlier WES 1983 report, recoumended a site in the northeast quarter of

  18. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.


    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  19. Horizontal gene transfer in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the model insect for the order Lepidoptera, has economically important values, and has gained some representative behavioral characteristics compared to its wild ancestor. The genome of B. mori has been fully sequenced while function analysis of BmChi-h and BmSuc1 genes revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT maybe bestow a clear selective advantage to B. mori. However, the role of HGT in the evolutionary history of B. mori is largely unexplored. In this study, we compare the whole genome of B. mori with those of 382 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species to investigate the potential HGTs. Results Ten candidate HGT events were defined in B. mori by comprehensive sequence analysis using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian method combining with EST checking. Phylogenetic analysis of the candidate HGT genes suggested that one HGT was plant-to- B. mori transfer while nine were bacteria-to- B. mori transfer. Furthermore, functional analysis based on expression, coexpression and related literature searching revealed that several HGT candidate genes have added important characters, such as resistance to pathogen, to B. mori. Conclusions Results from this study clearly demonstrated that HGTs play an important role in the evolution of B. mori although the number of HGT events in B. mori is in general smaller than those of microbes and other insects. In particular, interdomain HGTs in B. mori may give rise to functional, persistent, and possibly evolutionarily significant new genes.

  20. Horizontal visibility graphs from integer sequences (United States)

    Lacasa, Lucas


    The horizontal visibility graph (HVG) is a graph-theoretical representation of a time series and builds a bridge between dynamical systems and graph theory. In recent years this representation has been used to describe and theoretically compare different types of dynamics and has been applied to characterize empirical signals, by extracting topological features from the associated HVGs which have shown to be informative on the class of dynamics. Among some other measures, it has been shown that the degree distribution of these graphs is a very informative feature that encapsulates nontrivial information of the series's generative dynamics. In particular, the HVG associated to a bi-infinite real-valued series of independent and identically distributed random variables is a universal exponential law P(k)=(1/3){(2/3)}k-2, independent of the series marginal distribution. Most of the current applications have however only addressed real-valued time series, as no exact results are known for the topological properties of HVGs associated to integer-valued series. In this paper we explore this latter situation and address univariate time series where each variable can only take a finite number n of consecutive integer values. We are able to construct an explicit formula for the parametric degree distribution {P}n(k), which we prove to converge to the continuous case for large n and deviates otherwise. A few applications are then considered.

  1. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))


    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  2. The peculiar Horizontal Branch of NGC 2808

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Ferraro, F R; Cassisi, S; Lanzoni, B; Rood, R T; Pecci, F Fusi; Sabbi, E


    We present an accurate analysis of the peculiar Horizontal Branch (HB) of the massive Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808, based on high-resolution far-UV and optical images of the central region of the cluster obtained with HST. We confirm the multimodal distribution of stars along the HB: 4 sub-populations separated by gaps are distinguishable. The detailed comparison with suitable theoretical models showed that (i) it is not possible to reproduce the luminosity of the entire HB with a single helium abundance, while an appropriate modeling is possible for three HB groups by assuming different helium abundances in the range 0.24 < Y < 0.4 that are consistent with the multiple populations observed in the Main Sequence; (ii) canonical HB models are not able to properly match the observational properties of the stars populating the hottest end of the observed HB distribution, the so called "blue-hook region". These objects are probably "hot-flashers" , stars that peel off the red giant branch before reachi...

  3. Shallow water model for horizontal centrifugal casting (United States)

    Boháček, J.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wu, M.


    A numerical model was proposed to simulate the solidification process of an outer shell of work roll made by the horizontal centrifugal casting technique. Shallow water model was adopted to solve the 2D average flow dynamics of melt spreading and the average temperature distribution inside the centrifugal casting mould by considering the centrifugal force, Coriolis force, viscous force due to zero velocity on the mould wall, gravity, and energy transport by the flow. Additionally, a 1D sub-model was implemented to consider the heat transfer in the radial direction from the solidifying shell to the mould. The solidification front was tracked by fulfilling the Stefan condition. Radiative and convective heat losses were included from both, the free liquid surface and the outer wall of the mould. Several cases were simulated with the following assumed initial conditions: constant height of the liquid metal (10, 20, and 30 mm), uniform temperature of the free liquid surface (1755 K). The simulation results have shown that while the solidification front remained rather flat, the free surface was disturbed by waves. The amplitude of waves increased with the liquid height. Free surface waves diminished as the solidification proceeded.

  4. Analysis of Near Horizontal Muons at HAWC (United States)

    Barber, Ahron; HAWC Collaboration


    The HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov) gamma ray observatory observes muons with nearly horizontal trajectories. HAWC is located at an altitude of 4100 meters a.s.l. on Sierra Negra in Mexico. The Gamma and Cosmic Ray detector is composed of 300 water tanks, 7.3 m in diameter and 4.5 m tall, spread over a physical area of 22,000 m2. Due to its thickness of 4.5 m, HAWC acts as a hodoscope capable of observing muons with trajectories at zenith angles greater than 75 degrees to just over 90 degrees. These muon trajectories have a unique signal in that they are linear and travel at nearly the speed of light. CORSIKA simulations indicate that these muons originate from high zenith angle cosmic ray events, where the air shower core is located at great distance from HAWC. I will present the angular distribution and rate at which HAWC observes these muon events. High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory.

  5. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz


    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  6. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.


    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  7. The Nolans Bore rare-earth element-phosphorus-uranium mineral system: geology, origin and post-depositional modifications (United States)

    Huston, David L.; Maas, Roland; Cross, Andrew; Hussey, Kelvin J.; Mernagh, Terrence P.; Fraser, Geoff; Champion, David C.


    Nolans Bore is a rare-earth element (REE)-U-P fluorapatite vein deposit hosted mostly by the ~1805 Ma Boothby Orthogneiss in the Aileron Province, Northern Territory, Australia. The fluorapatite veins are complex, with two stages: (1) massive to granular fluorapatite with inclusions of REE silicates, phosphates and (fluoro)carbonates, and (2) calcite-allanite with accessory REE-bearing phosphate and (fluoro)carbonate minerals that vein and brecciate the earlier stage. The veins are locally accompanied by narrow skarn-like (garnet-diopside-amphibole) wall rock alteration zones. SHRIMP Th-Pb analyses of allanite yielded an age of 1525 ± 18 Ma, interpreted as the minimum age of mineralisation. The maximum age is provided by a ~1550 Ma SHRIMP U-Pb age for a pegmatite that predates the fluorapatite veins. Other isotopic systems yielded ages from ~1443 to ~345 Ma, implying significant post-depositional isotopic disturbance. Calculation of initial ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr at 1525 Ma and stable isotope data are consistent with an enriched mantle or lower crust source, although post-depositional disturbance is likely. Processes leading to formation of Nolans Bore began with north-dipping subduction along the south margin of the Aileron Province at 1820-1750 Ma, producing a metasomatised, volatile-rich, lithospheric mantle wedge. About 200 million years later, near the end of the Chewings Orogeny, this reservoir and/or the lower crust sourced alkaline low-degree partial melts which passed into the mid- and upper-crust. Fluids derived from these melts, which may have included phosphatic melts, eventually deposited the Nolans Bore fluorapatite veins due to fluid-rock interaction, cooling, depressurisation and/or fluid mixing. Owing to its size and high concentration of Th (2500 ppm), in situ radiogenic heating caused significant recrystallisation and isotopic resetting. The system finally cooled below 300 °C at ~370 Ma, possibly in response to unroofing during the Alice Springs

  8. Horizontal drilling methods proven in three test wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorel, M.


    The practice of drilling horizontally through a reservoir by deviating the wellbore 90/sup 0/ from vertical requires precise planning and sound engineering practices. This article takes a look at the operational, engineering and planning aspects of three successfully drilled drainholes. It also presents a field-tested horizontal well logging procedure that may help extend and improve this technology.

  9. Ratio between vertical and horizontal mandibular range of motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.U.; Kropmans, T.J.B.; Stegenga, B; de Bont, L.G.M.


    Mandibular range of motion (ROM), vertical and horizontal, is often measured as a part of a diagnostic assessment of temporomandibular joint disorders. Ln the literature, a fixed ratio between the vertical and the horizontal ROM has been suggested, i.e. 4:1. The ratio is frequently used to predict t

  10. Horizontal crustal movement in Chinese mainland from 1999 to 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾国华; 符养; 王武星


    The paper introduces the horizontal crustal movement obtained from GPS observations in the regional networks(including the basic network and the fiducial network) of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China(CMONOC) carried out in 1999 and 2001. This paper is characterized by the acquisition of the horizontal dis-placement velocities during the period from 1999 to 2001 at the observation stations in the regional networks withdatum definition of a group of stable stations with small mutual displacements in east China. Based on the mostdetailed map of horizontal crustal movement in Chinese mainland, the division of blocks, their displacements anddeformations are studied. An approach to analysis of the intensity of the horizontal crustal deformation is proposed.The general characteristics of the recent horizontal crustal movement in Chinese mainland and that before theKunlunshan earthquake of M=8.1 on November 14, 2001 are analyzed.

  11. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots (United States)

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Feddema, John T.


    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  12. Very deep borehole. Deutag's opinion on boring, canister emplacement and retrievability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Tim [Well Engineering Partners BV, The Hague (Netherlands)


    An engineering feasibility study has been carried out to determine whether or not it is possible to drill the proposed Very Deep Borehole concept wells required by SKB for nuclear waste disposal. A conceptual well design has been proposed. All aspects of well design have been considered, including drilling tools, rig design, drilling fluids, casing design and annulus isolation. The proposed well design is for 1168.4 mm hole to be drilled to 500 m. A 1066.8 mm outer diameter (OD) casing will be run and cemented. A 1016 mm hole will be drilled to approximately 2000 m, where 914.4 mm OD casing will be run. This annulus will be sealed with bentonite slurry apart from the bottom 100 m which will be cemented. 838.2 mm hole will be drilled to a final depth of 4000 m, where 762 mm OD slotted casing will be run. All the hole sections will be drilled using a downhole hammer with foam as the drilling fluid medium. Prior to running each casing string, the hole will be displaced to mud to assist with casing running and cementing. The waste canisters will be run on a simple J-slot tool, with integral backup system in case the J-slot fails. The canisters will all be centralised. Canisters can be retrieved using the same tool as used to run them. Procedures are given for both running and retrieving. Logging and testing is recommended only in the exploratory wells, in a maximum hole size of 311.1 mm. This will require the drilling of pilot holes to enable logging and testing to take place. It is estimated that each well will take approximately 137 days to drill and case, at an estimated cost of 4.65 Meuro per well. This time and cost estimate does not include any logging, testing, pilot hole drilling or time taken to run the canisters. New technology developments to enhance the drilling process are required in recyclable foam systems, in hammer bit technology, and in the development of robust under-reamers. It is the authors conclusion that it is possible to drill the well with

  13. Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development. (United States)

    Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Neczaj, Ewa; Fijałkowski, Krzysztof; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Worwag, Małgorzata; Rorat, Agnieszka; Brattebo, Helge; Almås, Åsgeir; Singh, Bal Ram


    The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems. Therefore, some basic criteria for the best suitable option selection has been described, in the circular economy "from waste to resources" sense. The importance of sewage sludge as a valuable source of matter and energy has been appreciated, as well as a potential risk related to the application of those strategies.

  14. Physics of Friction in Disposable Plastic Syringes (United States)

    Liebmann-Vinson, A.; Vogler, E. A.; Martin, D. A.; Montgomery, D. B.; Sugg, H. W.; Monahan, L. A.


    Nosocomial applications of disposable plastic syringes demand excellent frictional behavior with no stick-slip over a broad velocity range and, simultaneously, a tight seal between stopper and barrel. However, when used in syringe pumps at slow injection speeds, stick-slip motion is frequently observed and high "break-out" forces are often necessary to initiate plunger movement after extended storage times. We have traced this frictional behavior to a velocity-dependent interaction between the elastomeric stopper and the plastic syringe barrel mediated by the syringe lubricant, almost universally a polydimethyl siloxane fluid. Lubricant properties were altered by crosslinking the surface of the silicone oil in an oxygen plasma. Changes in surface chemistry and morphology of the crosslinked oil were correlated with changes in frictional performance.

  15. TMI Fuel Characteristics for Disposal Criticality Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Taylor


    This report documents the reported contents of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) canisters. proposed packaging, and degradation scenarios expected in the repository. Most fuels within the U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel inventory deal with highly enriched uranium, that in most cases require some form of neutronic poisoning inside the fuel canister. The TMI-2 fuel represents a departure from these fuel forms due to its lower enrichment (2.96% max.) values and the disrupted nature of the fuel itself. Criticality analysis of these fuel canisters has been performed over the years to reflect conditions expected during transit from the reactor to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, water pool storage,1 and transport/dry-pack storage at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.2,3 None of these prior analyses reflect the potential disposal conditions for this fuel inside a postclosure repository.

  16. Targeted cryotherapy using disposable biopsy punches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avitus John Raakesh Prasad


    Full Text Available Cryotherapy is a commonly used office procedure that causes destruction of tissue by cryonecrosis due to rapid freezing and thawing of cells. The limitation in treating plantar warts and deeper dermal lesions is that the freeze time should be longer to penetrate deeper, which results in collateral damage to normal skin surrounding the lesion. This results in unwanted side effects of prolonged pain, blistering and haemorrhage and increased healing time. The cone spray technique was used to reduce collateral damage, but deeper penetration is difficult to achieve. An innovative technique using disposable biopsy punches is described that ensures deeper freezing as compared to the plastic cone. The metal cutting edge of the punch enters deeper into the lesions as the liquid nitrogen is passed, sparing damage to surrounding skin.

  17. Targeted Cryotherapy Using Disposable Biopsy Punches (United States)

    Prasad, Avitus John Raakesh


    Cryotherapy is a commonly used office procedure that causes destruction of tissue by cryonecrosis due to rapid freezing and thawing of cells. The limitation in treating plantar warts and deeper dermal lesions is that the freeze time should be longer to penetrate deeper, which results in collateral damage to normal skin surrounding the lesion. This results in unwanted side effects of prolonged pain, blistering and haemorrhage and increased healing time. The cone spray technique was used to reduce collateral damage, but deeper penetration is difficult to achieve. An innovative technique using disposable biopsy punches is described that ensures deeper freezing as compared to the plastic cone. The metal cutting edge of the punch enters deeper into the lesions as the liquid nitrogen is passed, sparing damage to surrounding skin. PMID:25136216

  18. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  19. Challenges in Disposing of Anthrax Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Stein, Steven L.; Upton, Jaki F.; Toomey, Christopher


    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration’s (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material will require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussion was the identification of three primary topical areas that must be addressed: 1) Planning; 2) Unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

  20. Radioactive waste disposal in thick unsaturated zones. (United States)

    Winogard, I J


    Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolatic is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of $0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere.

  1. Ground-coupled bore-hole heat exchanger installation: new building in Wattwil; EWS-Anlage, Neubau CAS, Wattwil. Erdwaermesondenanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenberger, R.; Kapp, Ch.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a monitoring programme carried out on the bore-hole heat exchangers of a geothermal energy system used in a newly constructed commercial building in Wattwil, Switzerland. The geothermal installation is described, which uses two different types of geothermal probes, a normal duplex exchanger and the so-called umbrella probe. The results of the measurement campaigns that were carried out over two winter periods are presented, and the performance of the two types of heat-exchanger are compared. Using correlation diagrams, the two main factors influencing the performance of the probes - temperature and flow - are calculated. The report describes the monitoring configurations used and presents detailed results of the measurements made.

  2. A sparsely encrusted hardground with abundant Trypanites borings from the Llandovery of the Velise River, western Estonia (Baltica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn


    Full Text Available The Päärdu hardground from the Telychian (Rumba Formation of western Estonia is sparsely encrusted (0.4% of the studied surface by possible tabulate corals, sheet-like bryozoans and discoidal echinoderm holdfasts. Both the upper and cryptic sides of the hardground are intensely bioeroded by Trypanites borings. The taxonomic composition of the Päärdu hardground association is rather different from the characteristic Silurian association in being dominated by tabulate corals, while bryozoans and echinoderms played a minor role in the association. The Päärdu hardground is more sparsely encrusted than common for the Late Ordovician and Silurian hardgrounds, but this may be a characteristic feature of the hardgrounds of Baltica. The Päärdu hardground is important among the Silurian hardgrounds because it has unusually low encrustation combined with high bioerosion.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fu-jun; LI Yao-jun; CONG Guo-hui; WANG Wen-e; WANG Hai-song


    Numerical simulations of 3D turbulent flow in a large-bore axial-flow pump coupled with half-elbow suction sump were performed by using CFD approach. The numerical model and velocity and pressure distributions in entire flow passage were presented. The obvious backflow in half-elbow suction sump and strong flow nonuniformity at suction sump outlet were observed, whereas these phenomena were not observed in existing studies performed for a separate suction sump by either experimental or numerical approach. This result indicates that the interaction between half-elbow suction sump and impeller has significant effect on the flow distribution in the pump passage. The change of pump efficiency caused by the interaction was discussed.

  4. The use and disposal of household pesticides. (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean


    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  5. A disposable, coated wire heparin sensor. (United States)

    Yun, J H; Fu, B; Meyerhoff, M E; Yang, V C


    The development of an ion-selective electrode heparin sensor consisting of a specially formulated polymer membrane doped with tridodecylmethylammonium chloride as the heparin complexing agent was recently reported. Because of the simple nature of the membrane technology used, the authors envisioned that the sensor could be configured as a disposable single-use device for rapid clinical or bedside measurement of heparin in a small, discrete sample. To explore this possibility, an inexpensive, disposable heparin sensor was created by dip-coating a copper wire with the specially formulated heparin-sensing polymeric membrane. Coated wire heparin sensors with a broad range of membrane thicknesses, prepared by repeatedly dipping the wire in the membrane solution for various times, were examined. Data show that increasing the membrane thickness of the sensor to a certain degree (more than 10 microns) enhanced the sensor's potentiometric response to heparin, although the time required to achieve 90% of the steady-state potential change was also prolonged. In addition, increasing membrane thickness also magnified the stirring effect on the sensor's response. In undiluted plasma samples, the coated-wire sensor with an optimized membrane thickness yielded a significant (5 to 30 mV) and reproducible response to heparin in a clinically relevant concentration range (0.5 to 12 units/ml, respectively). The clinical utility of the coated wire heparin sensor was shown using the sensor during protamine titration of heparinized plasma to assess the titration end-point. Preliminary results showed that the titration end-points determined by the heparin sensor strongly correlated with those determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time clotting assay. The overall time requirement to complete the titration process using a set of prefabricated coated wire heparin sensors, however, was less than 3 minutes. Further titration studies using undiluted clinical whole blood samples are


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  7. Permeation of captan through disposable nitrile glove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phalen, R.N.; Que Hee, Shane S


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of an aqueous emulsion of the pesticide, captan, as a wettable powder (48.9% captan) through a disposable nitrile glove material using an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-type I-PTC-600 permeation cell. The goal was to investigate the protective capability of the gloves against dermatitis. The analytical method was based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The least quantifiable limit (LQL) was 6 ng for GC-ECD and 30 ng for GC-MS. Testing was conducted using the ASTM F739 closed-loop permeation method and a worst-case aqueous concentration 217 mg/ml of captan 50-WP. The average permeation rates were low, with 12{+-}5 ng/(cm{sup 2} min) after 2 h, 50{+-}25 ng/(cm{sup 2} min) after 4 h, and 77{+-}58 ng/(cm{sup 2} min) after 8 h. The calculated diffusion coefficient was (1.28{+-}0.10)x10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/h. No significant swelling or shrinkage occurred at P{<=}0.05. Infrared (IR) reflectance analysis of pre- and post-exposure glove surfaces confirmed no outer or inner surface degradation. The disposable nitrile glove showed excellent resistance to a highly concentrated aqueous emulsion of captan. Because the ASTM normalized breakthrough detection time of 250 ng/cm{sup 2} was <2 h, these gloves should not be reused once worn, and decontamination is not advised. Protection is also advised for agricultural reentry field workers, because captan has been shown to persist on crops with a half-life greater than the current reentry intervals of 1-4 days.

  8. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)


    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  9. Effect of Horizontal Vibration on the Interfacial Instability in a Horizontal Hele-Shaw Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhar M.


    Full Text Available The effect of periodic oscillations on the interfacial instability of two immiscible fluids, confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell, is investigated. A linear stability analysis of the basic state leads to a periodic Mathieu oscillator corresponding to the amplitude of the interface. Then, the threshold of parametric instability of the interface is characterized by harmonic or subharmonic periodic solutions. We show that the relevant parameters that control the interface are the Bond number, density ratio, Weber number and amplitude and frequency of oscillations.

  10. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, paleomagnetism, and evolution of the Boring volcanic field, Oregon and Washington, USA (United States)

    Fleck, Robert J.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Evarts, Russell C.; Conrey, Richard M.


    The 40Ar/39Ar investigations of a large suite of fine-grained basaltic rocks of the Boring volcanic field (BVF), Oregon and Washington (USA), yielded two primary results. (1) Using age control from paleomagnetic polarity, stratigraphy, and available plateau ages, 40Ar/39Ar recoil model ages are defined that provide reliable age results in the absence of an age plateau, even in cases of significant Ar redistribution. (2) Grouping of eruptive ages either by period of activity or by composition defines a broadly northward progression of BVF volcanism during latest Pliocene and Pleistocene time that reflects rates consistent with regional plate movements. Based on the frequency distribution of measured ages, periods of greatest volcanic activity within the BVF occurred 2.7–2.2 Ma, 1.7–0.5 Ma, and 350–50 ka. Grouped by eruptive episode, geographic distributions of samples define a series of northeast-southwest–trending strips whose centers migrate from south-southeast to north-northwest at an average rate of 9.3 ± 1.6 mm/yr. Volcanic activity in the western part of the BVF migrated more rapidly than that to the east, causing trends of eruptive episodes to progress in an irregular, clockwise sense. The K2O and CaO values of dated samples exhibit well-defined temporal trends, decreasing and increasing, respectively, with age of eruption. Divided into two groups by K2O, the centers of these two distributions define a northward migration rate similar to that determined from eruptive age groups. This age and compositional migration rate of Boring volcanism is similar to the clockwise rotation rate of the Oregon Coast Range with respect to North America, and might reflect localized extension on the trailing edge of that rotating crustal block.

  11. Designing and operating multi-lateral completions that enable re-entry and selective intervention into one bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamer, D. [Sperry Sun Drilling Service, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)


    Multi-lateral wells with a degree of complexity beyond simple barefoot side-tracks have been in commercial use since 1992. Hailed as the next great enabling technology after horizontal wells, their efficacy has been widely acknowledged by the industry, but their commercial application has seen slow growth rates in all but a few geographical locations. Perhaps we have learned from the experience of horizontal wells, where initial euphoria was eventually tempered by the realisation that they were not always appropriate. Initial results from early horizontal wells suggested that the intuitive assumption that they would produce positive benefits (in terms of improved recovery, better drainage patterns, less coning, better cash flow and improved NPV) were valid, but not always. (orig.)

  12. 12 CFR 222.83 - Disposal of consumer information. (United States)


    ... RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Definitions as used in this section. (1) You means... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information....

  13. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable flouride tray. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposable flouride tray. 872.6870 Section 872.6870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6870 Disposable flouride tray....

  14. Project W-049H disposal facility test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckles, D.I.


    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report (ATR) for the Project W-049H, Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, is to verify that the equipment installed in the Disposal Facility has been installed in accordance with the design documents and function as required by the project criteria.

  15. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510 Section 600.510 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds...

  16. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406 Section 654.406 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.406 Excreta and liquid waste disposal....

  17. 12 CFR 615.5143 - Disposal of ineligible investments. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of ineligible investments. 615.5143 Section 615.5143 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5143 Disposal...

  18. 48 CFR 1404.805 - Disposal of contract files. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of contract files. 1404.805 Section 1404.805 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 1404.805 Disposal of contract files. Disposition of files shall...

  19. 48 CFR 204.805 - Disposal of contract files. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of contract files. 204.805 Section 204.805 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 204.805 Disposal of contract files....

  20. Production planning and inventory control with remanufacturing and disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); M. Salomon (Marc)


    textabstractIn this paper we consider a stochastic inventory system with production, remanufacturing, and disposal operations. Customer demands must either be fulfilled from the production of new products or by the remanufacturing of used products. Used products are either remanufactured or disposed

  1. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products. (United States)



  2. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal. (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke


    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  3. 5 CFR 582.401 - Aggregate disposable earnings. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggregate disposable earnings. 582.401 Section 582.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Aggregate disposable earnings. In accordance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act, the...

  4. Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.


    The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States.

  5. Direction of interaction between mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and resource-sharing wood-boring beetles depends on plant parasite infection. (United States)

    Klutsch, Jennifer G; Najar, Ahmed; Cale, Jonathan A; Erbilgin, Nadir


    Plant pathogens can have cascading consequences on insect herbivores, though whether they alter competition among resource-sharing insect herbivores is unknown. We experimentally tested whether the infection of a plant pathogen, the parasitic plant dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) altered the competitive interactions among two groups of beetles sharing the same resources: wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). We were particularly interested in identifying potential mechanisms governing the direction of interactions (from competition to facilitation) between the two beetle groups. At the lowest and highest disease severity, wood-boring beetles increased their consumption rate relative to feeding levels at moderate severity. The performance (brood production and feeding) of mountain pine beetle was negatively associated with wood-boring beetle feeding and disease severity when they were reared separately. However, when both wood-boring beetles and high severity of plant pathogen infection occurred together, mountain pine beetle escaped from competition and improved its performance (increased brood production and feeding). Species-specific responses to changes in tree defense compounds and quality of resources (available phloem) were likely mechanisms driving this change of interactions between the two beetle groups. This is the first study demonstrating that a parasitic plant can be an important force in mediating competition among resource-sharing subcortical insect herbivores.

  6. Exploration on artificial bored pile construction quality control methods%人工挖孔桩施工质量控制方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The thesis describes merits and defects of artificial bored pile,and illustrates artificial bored pile construction technology procedures. Starting from three aspects of construction organization design compilation,construction scheme technology discloser and construction examination system compilation,it introduces artificial bored pile construction quality control measures,and puts forward corresponding processing counter-measures to existing construction problems,so as to guarantee artificial bored pile construction quality.%简述了人工挖孔灌注桩的优缺点,概括了人工挖孔桩施工的工艺流程,从施工组织设计的编制、施工方案的技术交底、施工检查制度的制定三方面,介绍了人工挖孔桩施工的质量控制措施,并针对施工中存在的问题,提出了相应的处理对策,确保了人工挖孔桩的施工质量。

  7. Reliability assessment of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available Water disposal constructions are one of the most responsible constructions of reservoir hydrosystem, that’s why the a lot of attention was always paid to the problems of estimating and providing their reliability and safety. The most important function of such objects is providing reliability and safety of other hydraulic constructions and economic assets in afterbay and water head. The authors offer estimation method for reliability and faultless performance of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug on low-head water development. In order to estimate the reliability of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug the Bayesian treatment was used. The calculation of diagnoses (states of reserved water disposal isoffered in case of diagnostic properties k 1 and k 2. One of the main demands placed onreserved water disposals is erosion of soil plug in case of flood discharge exeedance over the estimated frequency with the full opening of the waste sluice.

  8. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.


    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  9. Horizontal versus familial transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schwarz


    Full Text Available Transmission of Helicobacter pylori is thought to occur mainly during childhood, and predominantly within families. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining H. pylori isolates from large population samples and to the extensive genetic diversity between isolates, the transmission and spread of H. pylori remain poorly understood. We studied the genetic relationships of H. pylori isolated from 52 individuals of two large families living in a rural community in South Africa and from 43 individuals of 11 families living in urban settings in the United Kingdom, the United States, Korea, and Colombia. A 3,406 bp multilocus sequence haplotype was determined for a total of 142 H. pylori isolates. Isolates were assigned to biogeographic populations, and recent transmission was measured as the occurrence of non-unique isolates, i.e., isolates whose sequences were identical to those of other isolates. Members of urban families were almost always infected with isolates from the biogeographic population that is common in their location. Non-unique isolates were frequent in urban families, consistent with familial transmission between parents and children or between siblings. In contrast, the diversity of H. pylori in the South African families was much more extensive, and four distinct biogeographic populations circulated in this area. Non-unique isolates were less frequent in South African families, and there was no significant correlation between kinship and similarity of H. pylori sequences. However, individuals who lived in the same household did have an increased probability of carrying the same non-unique isolates of H. pylori, independent of kinship. We conclude that patterns of spread of H. pylori under conditions of high prevalence, such as the rural South African families, differ from those in developed countries. Horizontal transmission occurs frequently between persons who do not belong to a core family, blurring the pattern of familial

  10. Horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Matveeva


    Full Text Available Most genetic engineering of plants uses Agrobacterium mediated transformation to introduce novel gene content. In nature, insertion of T-DNA in the plant genome and its subsequent transfer via sexual reproduction has been shown in several species in the genera Nicotiana and Linaria. In these natural examples of horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants, the T-DNA donor is assumed to be a mikimopine strain of A.rhizogenes. A sequence homologous to the T-DNA of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes was found in the genome of untransformed Nicotiana glauca about 30 years ago, and was named cellular T-DNA (cT-DNA. It represents an imperfect inverted repeat and contains homologues of several T-DNA oncogenes (NgrolB, NgrolC, NgORF13, NgORF14 and an opine synthesis gene (Ngmis. A similar cT-DNA has also been found in other species of the genus Nicotiana. These presumably ancient homologues of T-DNA genes are still expressed, indicating that they may play a role in the evolution of these plants. Recently T-DNA has been detected and characterized in Linaria vulgaris and L. dalmatica. In Linaria vulgaris the cT-DNA is present in two copies and organized as a tandem imperfect direct repeat, containing LvORF2, LvORF3, LvORF8, LvrolA, LvrolB, LvrolC, LvORF13, LvORF14, and the Lvmis genes. All L. vulgaris and L. dalmatica plants screened contained the same T-DNA oncogenes and the mis gene. Evidence suggests that there were several independent T-DNA integration events into the genomes of these plant genera. We speculate that ancient plants transformed by A. rhizogenes might have acquired a selective advantage in competition with the parental species. Thus, the events of T-DNA insertion in the plant genome might have affected their evolution, resulting in the creation of new plant species. In this review we focus on the structure and functions of cT-DNA in Linaria and Nicotiana and discuss their possible evolutionary role.

  11. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (power generation No.15). Achievement report on development of guided boring system for buried power network; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (hatsuden No.15). Denryokumo chichuka hikaisaku kanro kensetsu koho no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    What impedes the popularization of the guided boring system is the functional insufficiency of the drilling position measuring method. For the purpose of properly dealing with the situation, efforts are made to develop a new drilling position measuring method which is highly reliable even when there exist previously buried pipes or electromagnetic noise. Activities are conducted in the two sections of (1) the study of an drilling position measuring method not to be easily affected by magnetic noise and (2) the study of a method for detecting previously buried objects. In section (1), based on the technology of a drilling position measuring system (locator) which is currently the most popular among horizontal drilling systems, a signal processing technology capable of reducing the effect of noise and a new position measuring method are contrived, and it is proved by the use of an experimenting system that they work effectively. In section (2), with attention paid to the small horizontal drilling device, an underground radar technology with the radar probing into the ground from the ground surface or from a drilling head is studied as an effective and easy-to-use method for detecting previously buried steel pipes. (NEDO)

  12. Study on saltwater intrusion in Qiantang estuary affected by tidal bore%涌潮对钱塘江河口盐水入侵影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘存鸿; 张舒羽; 史英标; 鲁海燕; 谢东风


    钱塘江河口潮强流急,涌潮汹涌,是典型的强混合型河口,其盐水入侵程度远强于其它潮汐河口。基于Godunov格式的有限体积法建立了涌潮作用下二维高精度盐水入侵数学模型,结合实测潮汐、涌潮和氯度资料分析,研究了涌潮对钱塘江河口盐水入侵的影响。结果表明,涌潮促使盐水入侵加剧,导致时间上和纵向上氯度变率增大,涌潮是形成盐度锋的动力机制。同时,涌潮紊动激烈,促使氯度垂向分布均匀。另外,还对氯度控制方程中扩散系数的取值进行了讨论,认为钱塘江河口扩散系数取102 m2/s量级较为合适。%With strong tide, rapid flow and turbulent tidal bore, Qiantang Estuary is a typical well-mixed one. Its saltwater intrusion is far stronger than other tidal estuaries. Based on a finite volume method with Godunov scheme, a 2D saltwater intrusion mathematical model affected by tidal bore was established. Com⁃bining with the field data analysis for tide,tidal bore and chlorinity,the effect of the tidal bore on saltwa⁃ter intrusion of Qiantang Estuary was studied. The tidal bore increases the aggravation of saltwater intru⁃sion,resulting in intensification of the gradient in time domain and in lengthways. The tidal bore is the ki⁃netic mechanism to form salinity front. Meanwhile,the fierce and turbulent tidal bore makes chlorinity even in vertical distribution. In addition, the value of chloride diffusion coefficient in the chlorinity control equa⁃tion has been discussed, and it is appropriate to take the diffusion coefficient in Qiantang Estuary for 102 m2/s magnitude.

  13. Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Wieland, V. Yucel, L. Desotell, G. Shott, J. Wrapp


    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) plans to close the waste and classified material storage cells in the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), informally known as the '92-Acre Area', by 2011. The 25 shallow trenches and pits and the 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) borings contain various waste streams including low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), transuranic (TRU), mixed transuranic (MTRU), and high specific activity LLW. The cells are managed under several regulatory and permit programs by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). Although the specific closure requirements for each cell vary, 37 closely spaced cells will be closed under a single integrated monolayer evapotranspirative (ET) final cover. One cell will be closed under a separate cover concurrently. The site setting and climate constrain transport pathways and are factors in the technical approach to closure and performance assessment. Successful implementation of the integrated closure plan requires excellent communication and coordination between NNSA/NSO and the regulators.

  14. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research on the bedrock at great depths; Slutfoervaring av hoegaktivt kaernavfall i djupa borrhaal. En utvaerdering baserad paa senare aars forskning om berggrunden paa stora djup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)


    New knowledge in hydrogeology and boring technology have opened the possibility to use deep boreholes as a repository for the Swedish high-level radioactive wastes. The determining property is that the repository can be housed in the stable bedrock at levels where the ground water has no contact with the biosphere and disposal and sealing can take place without disturbing the ground water stratification outside the disposal area. An advantage compared to a shallow repository of KBS-3 type, that is now being planned in Sweden, is that a borehole repository is likely to be technologically more robust, since the concept 'deep boreholes' seems to admit such a deep disposal that the entire disposal area would be surrounded by stable density-layered ground water, while a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by moving ground water in contact with level close to the surface. This hydrological difference is of great importance for the safety in scenarios with leaching of radioactive substances. A deep repository is also less vulnerable for effects from natural events such as glaciation and earthquakes as well as from technological mishaps and terrorist actions. A crucial factor is, however, that the radioactive waste can be disposed of, in a secure way, at the intended depth, which will require new research and technology development.

  15. The development and psychometric testing of the horizontal violence scale. (United States)

    Longo, Joy; Newman, David


    Inappropriate behaviors of healthcare workers can threaten the delivery of safe, quality care. The purpose of this research was to develop a research instrument specific to the construct of horizontal violence and conduct foundational psychometric testing of the newly developed instrument. The overall findings on the fit indices suggest that this model does adequately measure the underlying construct of horizontal violence. The instrument can be used as a way to determine the existence and extent of horizontal violence in practice settings and used to augment the study of the work environment, particularly in relation to healthy work environments.

  16. Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Horizontal Stability of Landing Mats (United States)


    1974. A rmathematical 11aodel tio silluatet the buckling response oif thte tria’i to th;: hora /ttntal ltAds way, atso elp. 1 h reuls o th...NO. 19R-20-0 MAT XU19, 4-FT X 4*PT ZERO ECCENTRICITY WIT420T EJGH48F NOTE NUMBERS SL LINES .RE HORIZONTAL FORC~E (LEFT) AND HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT ,RIGH...connector bars 14- TEST NO. 19-20-0 MAT XM19, 4-FT X 4-FT WIDTH 20-FT, LENGTH 48-FT ZERO ECCENTRICITY S-NG NUMBERS BYLINES ARE HORIZONTAL FORCE (LEFT) AND

  17. Characterization of the excavation disturbance caused by boring of the experimental full scale deposition holes in the Research Tunnel of Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)


    Three holes, the size of deposition holes, were bored in the Research Tunnel using a novel full-face boring technique. During the boring test, procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the holes, measurements of surface roughness using a laser profilometer, rock mechanical determinations and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, the He-gas method and the {sup 14}C-polymethylmethacrylate ({sup 14}C-PMMA) method. It was found that there is a distinct disturbed zone adjacent to the surface of the full scale deposition holes which can be divided into three different zones. The zones are as follows: a crushed zone penetrating to a depth of about 3 mm from the surface, a fractured zone extending to a depth of 6 - 10 mm from the crushed zone and a micro fractured zone extending to a depth of 15 - 31 mm from the fractured zone. The porosity of the rock in the disturbed zone measured using the {sup 14}C-PMMA method was clearly greater than the porosity of undisturbed rock to a depth of about 11 mm. The values of permeability and effective diffusion coefficient in the disturbed zone measured in a direction perpendicular to the disturbed surface were found to be approximately one order of magnitude larger than those of undisturbed rock. The degree of disturbance was found to be greater where higher levels of thrust had been employed during the boring process. The results obtained also suggest that the disturbance caused by using 4- and 5-row cutters in the cutter head is more pronounced than the disturbance caused when using 5- and 6-row cutters 31 refs, 118 figs, 15 tabs

  18. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens


    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the

  19. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.


    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  20. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, G


    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  1. Nurse Against Nurse: Horizontal Bullying in the Nursing Profession. (United States)

    Granstra, Katherine


    Healthcare professionals are not immune to bullying; in fact, they experience bullying at an alarming rate. Sometimes the bullying is passed down from superiors, but frequently bullying occurs between coworkers. This is known as "horizontal bullying," and it has become a serious issue within the nursing profession. Horizontal bullying between nurses can cause negative consequences for everyone involved, in particular the nurses, patients, and the entire organization. To fully address and resolve horizontal bullying in the nursing profession, we must consider many factors. The first step is to establish what constitutes bullying and to develop a clear process for dealing with it when it occurs. Before it is possible to eliminate the problem, we need to understand why bullying takes place. To be effective, solutions to the problem of horizontal bullying in the nursing profession must include the entire healthcare industry.

  2. Determination of Elastic Twist in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, F.; Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Andrews, B.


    This report presents the results of a project at the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) which measured and calculated the elastic twist of three representative composite horizontal-axis blades: Carter 300, Gougeon ESI 54, and UTRC 8 kW.

  3. Heat transfer to near-critical helium in horizontal channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgoy, M.L.; Kirichenko, Y.A.; Sklovsky, Y.B.; Troyanov, A.M.; Chernyakov, P.S. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur)


    Experimental results on heat transfer and pressure losses during a forced motion of helium of near-critical state parameters in a horizontal channel are reported. A method of calculation of temperature and pressure distributions along the channel is proposed.

  4. Optimizing of Culture Condition in Horizontal Rotating Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Fang ZHANG; Huai-Qing CHEN; Hua HUANG


    @@ 1 Introduction Bioreactor is the most important equipment in tissue engineering. It can mimic the micro-environment of cell growth in vitro. At present, horizontal rotating bioreactor is the most advanced equipment for cell culture in the world.

  5. Horizontal Bulk Material Pressure in Silo Subjected to Impulsive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Tatko


    Full Text Available This paper describes laboratory tests carried out in the steel flat-bottomed silo model filled with sand, subjected to external dynamic loads. The model was placed on a system of springs, which represent subsoil. The loads in the form of horizontal impulses were applied to the bottom plate of the silo. Horizontal pressure-time courses were used to analyze the influence of subsoil vibrations on the distribution changes of these pressures. Basic conclusion: (1 the subsoil vibrations cause two types of changes of the horizontal pressures: stable changes which are observed when the model vibrations finish and cyclic of short duration (brief changes; (2 the subsoil vibrations either generate stable increase or stable decrease of the pressures from before vibrations or do not generate any essential stable change; (3 the cyclic dynamic changes of the horizontal pressures depend on the direction of the silo wall displacements and they are the function of the values of these displacements.

  6. Vertical Array in Space for Horizontal Air-Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D


    We consider the guaranteed physics of horizontal (hadron) air-showers, HAS, developing at high (tens km) altitudes. Their morphology and information traces are different from vertical ones. Hundreds of km long HAS are often split by geomagnetic fields in a long (fan-like) showering with a twin spiral tail. The horizontal fan-like airshowers are really tangent and horizontal only at North and South poles. At different latitude these showering plane are turned and inclined by geomagnetic fields. In particular at magnetic equator such tangent horizontal East-West airshowers are bent and developed into a vertical fan air-shower, easily detectable by a vertical array detector (hanging elements by gravity). Such "medusa" arrays maybe composed by inflated floating balloons chains. The light gas float and it acts as an calorimeter for the particles, while it partially sustains the detector weight. Vertically hanging chains as well as rubber doughnut balloons (whose interior may record Cherenkov lights) reveal bundles...

  7. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian


    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  8. Galileo disposal strategy: stability, chaos and predictability

    CERN Document Server

    Rosengren, Aaron J; Alessi, Elisa Maria; Deleflie, Florent; Rossi, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Giovanni B


    Recent studies have shown that the medium-Earth orbit (MEO) region of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems is permeated by a devious network of lunisolar secular resonances, which can interact to produce chaotic and diffusive motions. The precarious state of the four navigation constellations, perched on the threshold of instability, makes it understandable why all past efforts to define stable graveyard orbits, especially in the case of Galileo, were bound to fail; the region is far too complex to allow of an adoption of the simple geosynchronous disposal strategy. We retrace one such recent attempt, funded by ESA's General Studies Programme in the frame of the GreenOPS initiative, that uses a systematic parametric approach and the straightforward maximum-eccentricity method to identify long-term stable regions, suitable for graveyards, as well as large-scale excursions in eccentricity, which can be used for post-mission deorbiting of constellation satellites. We then apply our new results on the stunning...

  9. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Slivac; V Gaurina Srček; K Radošević; I Kmetič; Z Kniewald


    A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) production. Growth kinetics of BHK 21 C13 cells in the wave bioreactor during 3-day period were determined. At the end of the 3-day culture period and cell density of 1.82 × 106 cells ml–1, the reactor was inoculated with 9 ml of gE- Bartha K-61 strain ADV suspension (105.9 TCID50) with multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01. After a 144 h incubation period, 400 ml of ADV harvest was obtained with titre of 107.0 TCID50 ml–1, which corresponds to 40,000 doses of vaccine against AD. In conclusion, the results obtained with the wave bioreactor using BHK 21 C13 cells showed that this system can be considered as suitable for ADV or BHK 21 C13 cell biomass production.

  10. UV/Visible Telescope with Hubble Disposal (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.


    Submission Overview: Our primary objective is to convey a sense of the significant advances possible in astrophysics investigations for major Cosmic Origins COR program goals with a 2.4m telescope asset outfitted with one or more advanced UV visible instruments. Several compelling science objectives were identified based on community meetings these science objectives drove the conceptual design of instruments studied by the COR Program Office during July September 2012. This RFI submission encapsulates the results of that study, and suggests that a more detailed look into the instrument suite should be conducted to prove viability and affordability to support the demonstrated scientific value. This study was conducted in the context of a larger effort to consider the options available for a mission to dispose safely of Hubble hence, the overall architecture considered for the mission we studied for the 2.4m telescope asset included resource sharing. This mitigates combined cost and risk and provides naturally for a continued US leadership role in astrophysics with an advanced, general-purpose UV visible space telescope.

  11. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)


    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  12. Permeation of captan through disposable nitrile glove. (United States)

    Phalen, R N; Que Hee, Shane S


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of an aqueous emulsion of the pesticide, captan, as a wettable powder (48.9% captan) through a disposable nitrile glove material using an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-type I-PTC-600 permeation cell. The goal was to investigate the protective capability of the gloves against dermatitis. The analytical method was based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The least quantifiable limit (LQL) was 6 ng for GC-ECD and 30 ng for GC-MS. Testing was conducted using the ASTM F739 closed-loop permeation method and a worst-case aqueous concentration 217 mg/ml of captan 50-WP. The average permeation rates were low, with 12+/-5 ng/(cm(2)min) after 2h, 50+/-25 ng/(cm(2)min) after 4h, and 77+/-58 ng/(cm(2)min) after 8h. The calculated diffusion coefficient was (1.28+/-0.10) x 10(-5)cm(2)/h. No significant swelling or shrinkage occurred at Pcaptan. Because the ASTM normalized breakthrough detection time of 250 ng/cm(2) was captan has been shown to persist on crops with a half-life greater than the current reentry intervals of 1-4 days.

  13. Wastewater Disposal Wells, Fracking, and Environmental Injustice in Southern Texas (United States)

    Werder, Emily; Sebastian, Daniel


    Objectives. To investigate race and poverty in areas where oil and gas wastewater disposal wells, which are used to permanently inject wastewater from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations, are permitted. Methods. With location data of oil and gas disposal wells permitted between 2007 and 2014 in the Eagle Ford area, a region of intensive fracking in southern Texas, we analyzed the racial composition of residents living less than 5 kilometers from a disposal well and those farther away, adjusting for rurality and poverty, using a Poisson regression. Results. The proportion of people of color living less than 5 kilometers from a disposal well was 1.3 times higher than was the proportion of non-Hispanic Whites. Adjusting for rurality, disposal wells were 2.04 times (95% confidence interval = 2.02, 2.06) as common in areas with 80% people of color or more than in majority White areas. Disposal wells are also disproportionately sited in high-poverty areas. Conclusions. Wastewater disposal wells in southern Texas are disproportionately permitted in areas with higher proportions of people of color and residents living in poverty, a pattern known as “environmental injustice.” PMID:26794166

  14. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On February 25, 2000, the US. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLWMLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLWMLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified disposal process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  15. Safer Transportation and Disposal of Remote Handled Transuranic Waste - 12033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Vicente; Timm, Christopher M.; Fox, Jerry V. [PECOS Management Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Since disposal of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) began in 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) has had difficulty meeting the plans and schedule for disposing this waste. PECOS Management Services, Inc. (PECOS) assessed the feasibility of proposed alternate RH-TRU mixed waste containerisation concepts that would enhance the transportation rate of RH-TRU waste to WIPP and increase the utilization of available WIPP space capacity for RH-TRU waste disposal by either replacing or augmenting current and proposed disposal methods. In addition engineering and operational analyses were conducted that addressed concerns regarding criticality, heat release, and worker exposure to radiation. The results of the analyses showed that the concept, development, and use of a concrete pipe based design for an RH-TRU waste shipping and disposal container could be potentially advantageous for disposing a substantial quantity of RHTRU waste at WIPP in the same manner as contact-handled RH waste. Additionally, this new disposal method would eliminate the hazard associated with repackaging this waste in other containers without the requirement for NRC approval for a new shipping container. (authors)

  16. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  17. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.


    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  18. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomfim, Rodrigo C.; Tavora, Daniel G.F.; Nakayama, Mauro; Gama, Romulo L. [Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Ceara (Brazil)


    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence. We present a child with clinical and neuroimaging findings typical of HGPPS. CT and MRI of the brain demonstrated pons hypoplasia, absence of the facial colliculi, butterfly configuration of the medulla and a deep midline pontine cleft. We briefly discuss the imaging aspects of this rare entity in light of the current literature. (orig.)

  19. Mapping Proprioception across a 2D Horizontal Workspace



    Relatively few studies have been reported that document how proprioception varies across the workspace of the human arm. Here we examined proprioceptive function across a horizontal planar workspace, using a new method that avoids active movement and interactions with other sensory modalities. We systematically mapped both proprioceptive acuity (sensitivity to hand position change) and bias (perceived location of the hand), across a horizontal-plane 2D workspace. Proprioception of both the le...

  20. Equilibrium type of competition with horizontal product innovation


    Negriu, A.


    Singh and Vives (1984) consider a game where duopolists first commit to a strategic variable quantity or pice, and then compete in selling horizontally differentiated products. Here product substitutability is endogenized by allowing firms to undertake R&D investments to increase differentitation. Whereas in the original model Cournot competition always ensued in equilibrium, horizontal product innovation allows all types of market competition to be an equilibrium, depending on model paramete...