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Sample records for borealis leaves extract

  1. Antioxidant flavone glycosides from the leaves of Sasa borealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Suk; Lim, Ju Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ik-Soo

    2007-02-01

    Sasa borealis (Poaceae) is a perennial medicinal plant which is a major source of bamboo leaves in Korea. The n-BuOH extract of S. borealis leaves exhibited significant antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and a cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Bioactivity-guided fractionation by column chromatography led to the isolation of two antioxidative flavonoid C-glycoside derivatives, isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) along with tricin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and apigenin 6-C-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The radical scavenging activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage of all the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) showed potent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 9.5 and 34.5 microM, respectively, and strong cytoprotective effects against t-BOOH-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells, at very low concentrations of 1.1 microM isoorientin and 0.8 microM isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside. This is the first report of the isolation and antioxidant activity of compounds 2 and 4 from S. borealis.

  2. Corona Borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Northern Crown; abbrev. CrB, gen. Coronae Borealis; area 179 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Boötes and Hercules, and culminates at midnight in mid-May. It represents the crown that in Greek mythology was made by Hephaestus, god of fire, and worn by Princess Ariadne of Crete. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  3. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm) and mo...

  4. Bioactivities examination of Cinchona leaves ethanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Z.; Hanafi, M.; Jamilah, Kurniasih, Ida Rahmi; Primahana, Gian; Anita, Yulia; Sundowo, Andini; Kandace, Yoice Sri

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona species especially the barks are commonly known for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. Although it is also reported for treatment of depurative, whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. In this paper we reported in vitro examination of other bioactivities (antidiabetes, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity) of 70% ethanol extract of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra leaves as well as qunine, quinidine, and cinchonine the major alkaloids found in Cinchona species. Antidiabetes was conducted using α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. Antioxidant was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. In vitro cytotoxic activity was concucted by microscopic observation on growth of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The results showed that at concentration of 100 µg/ml, C. ledgeriana leaves ethanol extracts showed the best activity as antidiabetes (98% inhibitory of α-glucosidase activity) and antioxidant (92% DPPH free radical scavenging activity), whereas at the same concentration C. succirubra, quinine, quinidine and cinchonine showed very low activities of antidiabetes and antioxidant. Microscopic observation of in vitro cytotoxicity showed that C. ledgeriana also has excellent cytotoxicity to breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which better than quinine, quinidine and cinchonine, whereas C. succirubra showed low cytotoxicity. These results suggest that cinchona species have many potential as the source of drugs discovery and development other than just for malaria treatment. Therefore it is important to conduct further studies and to maintain the available Cinchona plantation in Indonesia.

  5. Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves and extracts is reviewed. Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple p

  6. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  7. Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds from agarwood leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N. Y.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Idham, Z.; Ruslan, M. S. H.; Aziz, A. H. A.; Irwansyah, N.

    2016-11-01

    Agarwood commonly known as gaharu, aloeswood or eaglewood have been used as traditional medicine for centuries and its essential oil also being used as perfumery ingredients and aroma enhancers in food products. However, there is least study on the agarwood leaves though it contains large number of biomolecules component that show diverse pharmacological activity. Previous study showed that the extracted compounds from the leaves possess activities like anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-helminthic. The main objectives of this research were to determine bioactive compounds in agarwood leaves; leaves extract and oil yield obtained from maceration and soxhlet extraction methods respectively. The maceration process was performed at different operating temperature of 25°C, 50°C and 75°C and different retention time at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Meanwhile, various solvents were used to extract the oil from agarwood leaves using soxhlet method which are hexane, water, isopropanol and ethanol. The extracted oil from agarwood leaves by soxhlet extraction was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the highest extract of 1.53% was obtained when increase the temperature to 75 °C and longest retention time of 120 minutes gave the highest oil yield of 2.10 % by using maceration. This is because at higher temperature enhances the solubility solute and diffusivity coefficient, thus increase the extract yield while longer retention time allow the reaction between solvent and solute occurred more rapidly giving higher extract. Furthermore, the soxhlet extraction using n-hexane as the solvent gave the highest oil yield as compared to other solvent due to the non-polar properties of n-hexane increase the efficiency of oil which is also non-polar to soluble in the solvent. In addition, the results also reported that the oil extracted from agarwood leaves contains bioactive compounds which are phytol, squalene, n-hexadecanoic acid and

  8. Antioxidant Activity of the Successive Extracts of Aesculus indica Leaves

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    Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the best source of active secondary metabolites which are beneficial to mankind. Many plant origin drugs have been reported with biological properties like Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, hypoglycemic agents and many more. The successive extracts of Aesculus indica leaves were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using the standard procedures. The successive extracts such as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water and 50% crude methanol extracts exhibited IC 50 values of respectively in DPPH and respectively in nitric oxide radical inhibition assays. The values are comparable with the standards such as ascorbic acid and quercetin. The Aesculus indica leaves are showing significant antioxidant activity.

  9. Effect of Neem Leaves Extract (Azadirachta Indica on Wound Healing

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    Naveen Kumar Chundran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neem leaves (Azadirachta Indica have active ingredients such as nimbidin and sodium nimbidate which possess/possesinganti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties that help in healing process and also contains an excellent nutrition which plays/playing a vital role information of collagen and formation of new capillaries. The aim of this experimental study is to evaluate healing activity of neem leaves. Methods: This experiment was conducted in Pharmacology Lab of Universitas Padjadjaran on October 2012. Twenty seven rats were grouped randomly into 3 groups and 1.5cm of excision wound was created. Negative control group was treated with a topical application of saline solution (sodium chloride0.9%, treatment group with a topical application of neem leaves extract and positive control group had been treated with a topical application of povidone-iodine for 15 days. Healing was assessed by the longest diameter of the raw surface of wound on days 0, 5, 10 and 15. The data were then analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There was a significant reduction in the longest diameter of wound in group of neem leaves extract, compared with group sodium chloride 0.9%,.and there was no significant difference in the longest diameter of wound between neem leaves, extract and povidone iodine. Conclusions: Neem leaves extract has the same wound healing rate compared to povidone iodine. A further study in human should be conducted in the future

  10. Ultrasonically assisted antioxidant extraction from grape stalks and olive leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcel, Juan A.; García-Pérez, José V.; Mulet, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ligia; Riera, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Grape stalks and olive leaves present high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The extraction of these compounds may be considered a way to increase in value both agro-food by-products. Ultrasound is widely applied in extraction due to its effects (cavitation, microstirring or sponge effect) over the process. The goal of this work was to address the application of ultrasound on the antioxidant extraction of olive leaves and grape stalk. For that purpose, the extraction of antioxidant compounds from grape stalks and olive leaves, previously dried at 100 °C, were carried out using a ethanolic solution (80 % v/v) at 60 °C. Extractions were carried out with (US; 30 kHz; 600W)) and agitation (AG) without ultrasound application. In the AG experiments, the solution was agitated with a stirrer. Samples were obtained at different extraction time (10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 and 1440 min) and their antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP method. The Naik model was used to model the extraction kinetics, being identified the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B). For grape stalks, the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B) were higher in AG experiments than in US experiments. In the olive leaves extractions, the Y eq/B was of the same order for both treatments but Y eq was significantly higher for US experiments. The different influence of ultrasound for both by-products can be explained from their different geometry and structure.

  11. COMPARISON OF RNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Passiflora edulis SIMS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Functional genomic analyses require intact RNA; however, Passiflora edulis leaves are rich in secondary metabolites that interfere with RNA extraction primarily by promoting oxidative processes and by precipitating with nucleic acids. This study aimed to analyse three RNA extraction methods, Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen) and TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen)/ice -commercial products specifically designed to extract RNA, and...

  12. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  13. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Muhammad Ayaz; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Ijaz Mohammad; Lubna Fazal

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/μL, 8.10×10 3/μL, 84.0% to 55×10 3/μL, 3.7×10 3/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/μL to 168×10 3/μL, WBC from 3.7×10 3/μL to 7.7×10 3/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Caricapapaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

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    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  16. COMPARISON OF RNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Passiflora edulis SIMS LEAVES

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    ANNY CAROLYNE DA LUZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Functional genomic analyses require intact RNA; however, Passiflora edulis leaves are rich in secondary metabolites that interfere with RNA extraction primarily by promoting oxidative processes and by precipitating with nucleic acids. This study aimed to analyse three RNA extraction methods, Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA, TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen and TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen/ice -commercial products specifically designed to extract RNA, and to determine which method is the most effective for extracting RNA from the leaves of passion fruit plants. In contrast to the RNA extracted using the other 2 methods, the RNA extracted using TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen did not have acceptable A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and did not have ideal concentrations. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed a strong DNA band for all of the Concert™ method extractions but not for the TRIzol® and TRIzol®/ice methods. The TRIzol® method resulted in smears during electrophoresis. Due to its low levels of DNA contamination, ideal A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and superior sample integrity, RNA from the TRIzol®/ice method was used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and the resulting amplicons were highly similar. We conclude that TRIzol®/ice is the preferred method for RNA extraction for P. edulis leaves.

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY TEST OF EXTRACT NYAMPLUNG (Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. LEAVES

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    Mutiara Novianti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity from ethanol extract of nyamplung (Callophylum inophyllum Linn. leaves from Indonesia against Escherichia coli has been done. The extraction was done by soklet extraction using ethanol. Antibacterial activity test using the Optical Density method at λmax 600 nm. The result of phytochemical screening from ethanol extract showed that there were flavonoid compounds, saponins, tannins, phenols and triterpenoids. The result of antibacterial activity test showed that the optimum activity occurs at incubation time of 3 hours with percentase inhibition persentase i.e. 59.03 %.

  18. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Abroma augusta Lnn. leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FK Saikot; Alam Khan; MF Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of acetone extract of leaves ofAbroma augusta. Methods: Disc diffusion method was used to demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activities. Cytotoxicity was determined against brine shrimp nauplii. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial dilution technique to determine antibacterial potency. Results: The extract showed significant antibacterial activities against three gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus) and four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Salmonella typhi) bacteria. The antifungal activity was found strong against five fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus). In cytotoxicity determination, LC50 of the extract against brine shrimp nauplii was 7.06μg/ml. Conclusions: The Abroma leaves extract may be consider as a potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic agent for further advance research.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using in-vitro antioxidant assays model 1, 1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity. The antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidant agents such as ascorbic acid. Results: The antioxidant activities (% inhibition) of all the tested extracts were increased in the order i.e. menthol > ethanol > aqueous > acetone > chloroform > ethyl acetate > n-hexane. The methanol extract EC50 (µg/mL) value was compatible with vitamin C (standard). The antioxidant activity of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts increased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: It was observed that H. rhamnoides was a potential resource of antioxidants and thus could put off numerous radical linked diseases.

  20. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention.

  1. Aqueous extract of neem leaves in treatment of Psoriasis vulgaris

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    Pandey S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A double blind clinical drug trial was conducted to see the efficacy of an indigenous drug made up of aqueous extract of Neem leaves in 50 cases of uncomplicated psoriasis taking conventional coal tar regime. Patients taking drug in addition to coal tar had shown a quicker and better response in comparison to placebo group. No any untoward effect was noticed during the period of trial. Probable mode of action is discussed.

  2. The effect of extraction method on antioxidant activity of Atractylis babelii Hochr. leaves and flowers extracts

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    Khadidja Boudebaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii were chosen to investigate their antioxidant activities. Thus, a comparison between the antioxidant properties of ethanolic crude extracts obtained by two extraction methods, maceration and soxhlet extraction, was performed using two different tests; DPPH and ABTS radical assays. Besides, total polyphenol, flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were determined in leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii by colorimetric methods. The results showed that there was no correlation between phenolic contents of plant parts and their antioxidant activity. Whereas, leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii showed that both had almost similar phenolic contents, while their antioxidant activity depended on the plant parts. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of plant parts was also depended on extraction method. Such a result may be likely ascribed to a variety of chemical composition can be found in Atractylis babelii extracts which has been related to its antioxidant properties.

  3. Indigofera pulchra leaves extracts contain anti-Plasmodium berghei agents

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    Sani Ibrahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the anti-Plasmodium berghei activities of some extracts from Indigofera pulchra leaves. Six groups of mice were intraperitoneally infected with chloroquine sensitive P. berghei (NK 65 among which two groups were orally treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of methanol leaves extract while another two groups were treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of n-butanol fraction derived from the methanol extract. Another infected group was treated with chloroquine (25 mg/kg whereas the remaining infected group was left untreated. All infected treated groups possessed a significantly (p<0.05 lowered number of parasitized erythrocytes than the infected untreated group throughout the experimental period except at day 6 post-infection. However, the 200 mg/kg n-butanol fraction treated group demonstrated a persistently lower number of parasitized erythrocytes than other extract-treated groups after day 9 post infection to the termination of the experiment. The P. berghei was found to induce anemia whose severity was significantly (p<0.05 ameliorated by all the treatments. It was concluded that the methanol extract and n-butanol fraction of I. pulchra contains anti-P. berghei phytochemicals that could ameliorate the parasite-induced anemia.

  4. Antimicrobial and antipathogenic activity of Fallopia japonica leaves alcoholic extract

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    Ioana-Cristina Marinaş

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study consists in the investigation of the antimicrobial and antiphatogenic activity of ethanol extracts obtain from F. japonica leaves. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while their phenolic composition was specified by HPLC. In vitro antimicrobial activity of various concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 200 μL/mL of alcoholic (ethanol 70% extract of F. japonica were analyzed on different clinical and reference bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and fungal strains belonging to Candida spp. using agar disk diffusion method and broth dilution method. The anti-pathogenic properties were studied by determining the adhesion capacity of microbial strains to inert substrate. The soluble virulence factors were quantified using specific media with different biochemical substrats for revealing haemolysins, lecithinase, gelatinase, lipase, DN-ase, amylase and iron chelating agents. The antibiogram adapted technique assesseded the synergic effects of F. japonica leaves extracts with the clinical used antibiotics for different bacterial strains. The studied extract showed the best antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa (6.25 μL/mL due to phenolic compound identified (epicatechin, rutin and quercetin. In the Gram-positive strains’ case were observed phenotypic changes in the DNA-ase and lechitinase enzymes expression. In the antibioresistance pattern profiling it was observed that F. japonica leaves improved the Kanamycin activity for S. aureus, Colistin for P. aeruginosa and Meropenem for A. baumanii. In this respect, could be assumed that this extract could be used complementarily with antibiotherapy, by inhibiting the specific virulence factors.

  5. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF STEVIA LEAVES EXTRACTS AND SILVER NANOPARTICLES COLLOIDS

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    Iryna Laguta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni were prepared using various types of raw materials: leaves of plants grown ex situ, leaves of plants grown in vitro, callus culture formed on damaged leaves. Composition of the extracts, their activity in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles colloids, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracts and the colloids were investigated.

  6. Antiobesity Effects of Hydroethanolic Extract of Jacaranda decurrens Leaves

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    Kátia Avila Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that reduces life expectancy; therefore, the search for new alternative and effective treatments is ongoing. The aim of the present investigation was to identify the chemical compounds in the hydroethanolic extract of leaves of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata and to evaluate their toxicity and antiobesity effects. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to identify the chemical constituents, and acute toxicity was evaluated in rats treated with doses of 2 and 5 g·kg−1 body mass. The antiobesity effect was determined in rats with hypercaloric diet-induced obesity. Our results revealed the presence of compounds, such as jacaric, ursolic, and oleic acids, as well as luteolin, quercetin, and kaempferol, in the extract. The acute toxicity tests revealed that rats treated with elevated doses of the extract showed no signs of toxicity. The extract induced reduction in total body mass and the white adipose tissue depots. The obese rats treated with the extract showed an increased fluid intake and feces excretion while their serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased compared to those in the controls, without any hematological changes. Taken together, the results showed that the constituents of J. decurrens extracts included phenolic compounds and exhibited antiobesity effects with no toxicity.

  7. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

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    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  8. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

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    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  9. Polyphenol profile and antioxidant activity of extracts from olive leaves

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    Svetla Yancheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The compounds, derivatives of olive leaves have a high antioxidant activity. The content of the total phenolic compounds (TPC, antioxidant activity (AOA and HPLC polyphenol profile of methanol extracts from the leaves of the olive cultivars Chondrolia Halkidiki, Kalamon, Koroneiki grown in the nursery (in vivo and in vitro plants of Chondrolia Halkidiki were compared. The results obtained for TPC varied between 9.2±0.5 mgGAE*gDW-1 and 16.4±0.5 mgGAE*gDW-1 . Antioxidant capacity was determined by four methods DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC. The highest results for TPC and AOA were achieved for the leaves of Chondrolia Halkidiki grown in vitro. A high correlation between the results gained from the TPC and AOA was established. Conducted HPLC analysis revealed the presence of 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic, caffeic, sinapic and ferulic acids and quercetin, hesperidin and luteolin and the quercetin glycosides rutin and hyperoside.

  10. Improving flavonoid extraction from Ginkgo biloba leaves by prefermentation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahong; Cao, Fuliang; Su, Erzheng; Wu, Caie; Zhao, Linguo; Ying, Ruifeng

    2013-06-19

    This paper presents a prefermentation treatment method involving fungi to improve flavonoid extraction from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba . The fungi employed for this treatment were screened from the soil present under an ancient ginkgo tree. Seventy-six strains belonging to 23 genera were isolated and identified by a molecular identification method employing 18S rDNA sequences. Thirty-three strains grew well using ginkgo leaves as the growth medium. One strain, Gyx086, with higher extracted yield of flavonoids and more similar to the control, was finally selected for prefermentation processing. The major fermentation factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest total falvonoid yield were 27.8 °C for temperature, 64.2% for moisture content, and 61 h for fermentation time. Under the optimal condition, a actual total flavonoid yield of 27.59 ± 0.52 mg/g dry weight culture sample was obtained, which was about 70% higher than that of unfermented gingko leaf samples.

  11. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive potential of Cordia dichotoma leaves extract

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    Plaban Bhattacharya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the safety-risk ratio of steroidal contraceptives, the present work was carried out to evaluate ethno-contraceptive use of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst., Boraginaceae, leaves (LCD. Preliminary pharmacological screening was performed on post-coital female albino rats. The leaves extract (LD50 5.50 g/kg bw showed 100% anti-implantation activity (n=10 at 800 mg/kg dose level. (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD was used as bioavailability enhancer to form LCD-BCD complex, characterized by DLS, SEM and XRD analyses. The LCD-BCD complex (1:1, w/w exhibited 100% pregnancy interception (n=20 at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and also showed strong estrogenic potential with a luteal phase defect. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out. The LCD extract was standardized by a validated HPTLC method and two contraceptive phytoconstituents, apigenin and luteolin were isolated. A detailed pharmacological analyses followed by chronic toxicity study were performed to predict the reversible nature of the developed phytopharmaceutical. The histological and biochemical estimations detected the reversible contraceptive potential after withdrawal. The observations suggested that the developed phyto-pharmaceutical has potential antifertility activity with safety aspects.

  12. Nebula around R Corona Borealis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Kameswara

    2011-01-01

    The star R Corona Borealis (R CrB) shows forbidden lines of [O II], [N II], and [S II] during the deep minimum when the star is fainter by about 8 to 9 magnitudes from normal brightness, suggesting the presence of nebular material around it. We present low and high spectral resolution observations of these lines during the ongoing deep minimum of R CrB, which started in July 2007. These emission lines show double peaks with a separation of about 170 km/s. The line ratios of [S II] and [O II] suggest an electron density of about 100 cm$^{-3}$. We discuss the physical conditions and possible origins of this low density gas. These forbidden lines have also been seen in other R Coronae Borealis stars during their deep light minima and this is a general characteristic of these stars, which might have some relevance to their origins.

  13. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

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    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  14. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-07-26

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  15. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

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    Raj Chanchal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods:Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o. of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results:TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior.

  16. Nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves: Beyond traditional root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Renu; Konar, Arpita; Kaul, Sunil C

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly increasing aging population and environmental stressors are the two main global concerns of the modern society. These have brought in light rapidly increasing incidence of a variety of pathological conditions including brain tumors, neurodegenerative & neuropsychiatric disorders, and new challenges for their treatment. The overlapping symptoms, complex etiology and lack of full understanding of the brain structure and function to-date further complicate these tasks. On the other hand, several herbal reagents with a long history of their use have been asserted to possess neurodifferentiation, neuroregenerative and neuroprotective potentials, and hence been recommended as supplement to enhance and maintain brain health and function. Although they have been claimed to function by holistic approach resulting in maintaining body homeostasis and brain health, there are not enough laboratory studies in support to these and mechanism(s) of such beneficial activities remain largely undefined. One such herb is Ashwagandha, also called "Queen of Ayurveda" for its popular use in Indian traditional home medicine because of its extensive benefits including anticancer, anti-stress and remedial potential for aging and neurodegenerative pathologies. However, active principles and underlying mechanism(s) of action remain largely unknown. Here we provide a review on the effects of Ashwagandha extracts and active principles, and underlying molecular mechanism(s) for brain pathologies. We highlight our findings on the nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves. The effects of Ashwagandha leaf extracts are multidimensional ranging from differentiation of neuroblastoma and glioma cells, reversal of Alzheimer and Parkinson's pathologies, protection against environmental neurotoxins and enhancement of memory.

  17. Homogenate extraction technology of camptothecine and hydroxycamptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-guo; ZU Yuan-gang; ZHAO Chun-jian; YANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Camptothecine (CPT) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), two kinds of anti-cancer alkaloids, were extracted from Camptotheca acuminata leaves using homogenate extraction technology under different conditions such as the ratio of material to liquid, ethanol concentration, and homogenate time. The optimum technology parameters for homogenate extraction of CPT and HCPT from C. acuminata leaves were determined as homogenate time at 8 min, ethanol concentration at 55% and the ratio of material to liquid at 1:15 (g:mL). By using the optimized parameters, we obtained 0.639‰ extraction rate for CPT and 0.437‰ for HCPT. The extraction yields of CPT and HCPT extracted by homogenating technology were higher than those by other extractive methods, such as ultrasonic, reflux, shaking in water bath. It is concluded that the homogenate extraction technology was an efficient method for extracting CPT and HCPT from C. acuminata leaves, with characteristics of less extraction time and high yield.

  18. Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

    2013-10-01

    Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials.

  19. Assessment of bioactivities of ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae leaves

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    Md. Asadujjaman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess ethanolic extract of the leaves of Melia azedarach L. (Family-Meliaceae for its possible antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in association with performing phytochemical evaluation. Methods: A number of phytochemical tests of this extract were utilized to distinguish the existence of different sorts of compounds. Qualitative and quantitative antioxidant activities were assessed by TLC and DPPH scavenging assay respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test in mice and disk diffusion assay of the leaves extract were carried out to demonstrate the analgesic and antibacterial activities respectively. Results: The phytochemical assessment revealed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and tannins like compounds. Ethanolic extract of the leaves demonstrated antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in vitro. Conclusion: Considering the study, this could justify the leaves extract ’s bioactivities but, to substantiate the activity of individual compound further investigation is necessary.

  20. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Aqueous Extract on Carbon

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    Hala A.H. Khattab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bachground: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of various liver diseases. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GbE have been proved to be an effective antioxidant, thereby can contribute to the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of GbE on acute liver injury induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. Material and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male rats by intraperitoneal (i.p injection of CCl4 1mL/ kg body weight (b.w. for every 72 h for 14 days, GbE was administered orally at a dose of 150 mg/kg b.w., daily started two weeks prior to CCl4 injection and continued until the end of the experiment. Results: CCl4 caused acute liver damage in rats, as evidenced by significant increase serum enzymes activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT & AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as significant decrease in weight gain percent, serum total protein (TP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH. Pretreatment with GbE prior to CCl4 injection elicited hepatoprotetcive activity by significant decreased the activities of liver enzymes and hepatic MDA, and significant increased the levels of TP, and hepatic GSH, as well as induced significant ameliorated in weight gain percent and lipid profile parameters as compared with CCl4 group. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues of CCl4 group represented the presence of hepatic necrosis associated with cells infiltration and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, while the pretreatment with GbE overcome these changes, the majority of the cells tend to be normal.Conclusion: The present findings indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of GbE against CCl4-induced oxidative damage may be due to its potent antioxidant activity. Therefore, GbE could be of potential

  1. A STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF VARIOUS PLANT LEAVES AGAINST SELECTED MICROBIAL SPECIES

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    K.Valarmathy,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extract of leaves were examined against four common bacterial isolates. The ethanolic extracts of various leaves such as Moringa oleifera (Murungai , Musa paradisiaca (Banana, Azardiratica indica (Neem, Cynodon dactylon(Grass, Alternanthera sessilis (Ponnangkani, Anisochilus carnosus (Karpooravalli, investigated individually for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method .These were investigated against selected species of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae to find the inhibitory activities of the microbes. The ethanolic extract of Azardiratica indica showed considerably high activity against Escherichia coli than other extracts. These results were compared with standard antibiotic Penicillin. But the extract showed higher activity than the given standard antibiotic.

  2. Effect of temperature and extraction process on antioxidant activity of various leaves crude extracts of Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad A Hossain; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Kawther Khalifa Al-Rashdi; Afaf M Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of temperature and extraction process on the estimation of antioxidant activity of various organic crude extracts from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (T.vulgaris ) species native to Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The dry powder samples of T. vulgaris were extracted with methanol using two different extraction methods. Both methanol crude extracts from the leaves of T. vulgaris were defatted with water and extracted successively with different polarities of solvents with increasing polarities, e.g., hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol.Results:The yield of methanol crude extract by Soxhlet extraction method is better than maceration method. The yield of extraction was increasing with increasing temperature. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from both extraction methods was measured by DPPH with modification. By Soxhlet extraction method, the activity result found in butanol crude extracts was highest and the lowest in hexane crude extract as the following order of butanol>methanol>ethyl acetate extract>chloroform>hexane extract. However, by maceration method, the activity was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in chloroform as the order of ethyl aectate>methanol extract>butanol>hexane >chloroform.Conclusions:In conclusion, the maceration method is the best method for the evaluation of antioxidant activity.

  3. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-05-07

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.

  4. PURIFICATION OF GINKGO LEAVES EXTRACT WITH MACROPOROUS ADSORBENT BASED ON UREA—FORMALDEHYDE CONDENSED POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMingcheng; XUMancai; 等

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the adsorption properties for the active components of ginkgo leaves and the structure of the adsorbents based on urea-formaldehyde condensed polymers was investigated.The results revealed that these adsorbents showed very high adsorpton selectivity for both flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones contained in ginkgo leaves.Thus,an adsorption separation procedure for purification of ginkgo leaves extracts was developed.

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Acute Toxicity of Clausena excavata Leaves Extract

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    Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas Albaayit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clausena excavata (Lour., locally known as “Kemantu hitam,” is a common plant in Malaysian folklore medicine. This study evaluated the antioxidant properties of the solvent extracts of C. excavata leaves and determined the acute toxicity of methanolic extract C. excavata (MECE leaves in Sprague-Dawley rats. Harvested leaves were dried and subjected to solvent extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol in succession. The antioxidant activity of each extract was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl dihydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoids content (TFC were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and ethanolic aluminium chloride method, respectively. The chloroform extract was found to be highest in flavonoid content, while the methanolic extract showed the highest TPC and antioxidant activity. There was no mortality in rats treated with MECE leaves even at a high dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. However, the MECE leaves produced mild to moderate pathological changes in the liver and kidneys, shown by mild degenerative changes and leucocyte infiltration. The extract did not affect the haematological parameters or relative weights of the liver or kidneys. Overall, the MECE leaves have potent antioxidant activity and are presumed safe to be used orally as health-promoting product at low to moderate doses.

  6. Assessment of bioactivities of ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Asadujjaman; Abu Saed; Md Aslam Hossain; Utpal Kumar Karmakar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess ethanolic extract of the leaves of Melia azedarach L. (Family-Meliaceae) for its possible antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in association with performing phytochemical evaluation.Methods:A number of phytochemical tests of this extract were utilized to distinguish the existence of different sorts of compounds. Qualitative and quantitative antioxidant activities were assessed by TLC and DPPH scavenging assay respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test in mice and disk diffusion assay of the leaves extract were carried out to demonstrate the analgesic and antibacterial activities respectively.Results:The phytochemical assessment revealed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and tannins like compounds. Ethanolic extract of the leaves demonstrated antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in vitro.Conclusion:Considering the study, this could justify the leaves extract’s bioactivities but, to substantiate the activity of individual compound further investigation is necessary.

  7. Methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile action of acetylcholine on isolated rabbit jejunum

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    Tavershima Dzenda

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile effect of ACh on intestinal smooth muscle, supporting the traditional claim that the plant is purgative.

  8. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of Erythrina fusca leaves aquadest extract

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    Janti Sudiono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirically, Erythrina fusca has been used as traditional herb for its antibacterial and antiinflammation properties. Periodontal disease is one of the most oral infectious diseases with microorganism predominated as the contributing factors. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is one of the main bacteria pathogen found in periodontal diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the bactericidal effect of Erythrina fusca Leaves Aquadest Extract (EFLAE at various concentrations on P. gingivalis and cytotoxic effect on fibroblast. Methods: Pure P. gingivalis was cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI medium for 24 hours with or without various concentrations of treatment of EFLAE. Calculation and statistical analysis of remaining bacteria were performed by inhibitory zone method to evaluate the EFLAE bactericidal effect and compared to chlorhexidine as positive control. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect, NIH 3T3 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM containing of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, pH 7.2, in 5% CO2, and stored in humidified incubator under temperature 370 C. Cells were treated with/without various concentrations of EFLAE for 48 hours. The viable cells were then counted using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl tetrazodium bromide (MTT method. Results: EFLAE have bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis in a concentration dependent manner starting from 78%. The concentration of 90% EFLAE had stronger bactericidal effect (35.004 ± 1.546 than those of chlorhexidine as positive control (32.313 ± 1.619. One-way ANOVA showed significant bactericidal effect differences among concentrations of EFLAE and chlorhexidine (p<0.05 while Tuckey HSD test showed significant difference only between lower concentration of EFLAE (78%, 79% and chlorhexidine. With the highest concentration of EFLAE (100% applied in the bactericidal test, no cytotoxic effect

  9. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P  0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples.

  10. Studies on Optimal Extraction Conditions of Flavonoid in Leaves of Black Currnt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Employing the orthogonal design,the optimal extraction conditions for flavonoid in leaves of black currant were determined by colorimetric estimation,which were extraction agent of 75% EtOH-H2O,the material ratio (ratio of weight of fresh leaves to volume of the solvent)of 1:16, the temperature of 35 ℃, the time of 1 h and times of three. A total extraction rate of over 97% and the fiavonoid contents of 179. 33 mg/100 g were obtained under the optimal extraction conditions.

  11. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Xia, En-Qin; He, Tai-Ping; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen

    2014-01-27

    Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials.

  12. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

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    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  13. 北极蒿与中药常用蒿属植物的化学成分比较%Chemical comparison of Artemisia borealis and three Chinese Artemisia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田芳; 刘丽; 窦德强; 康廷国; Smith David

    2007-01-01

    目的 比较北极蒿与三种中药常用蒿属植物的化学成分并对北极蒿的化学成分进行初步研究.方法 采用薄层色谱及GC-MS比较小极性成分及挥发油的区别;采用HPLC指纹图谱对极性较大成分进行比较.结论 从北极蒿挥发油中分离出52个色谱峰,共鉴定了48个成分,占挥发油总成分的92%以上,其主要成分为香木兰烷-4-醇(24.73%).经HPLC指纹图谱分析,北极蒿与其他三种植物主要成分相似,但北极蒿的化学成分集中且含量高.青蒿、北极蒿、艾叶、茵陈中绿原酸含量分别是0.065%,0.617%,0.178%,0.192%,北极蒿中绿原酸含量是其它三种植物的六倍之多,提示有较高研究价值.%Aim To compare the chemical constituents of A rtemisia borealis with three other A rtemisia plants which are generally used in traditional Chinese medicine. Method The chemical components of essential oil from the leaves of A. borealis were analyzed by GCMS and the chemical components of water extracts of the four plants were compared by HPLC fingerprint method. Conclusion From the essential oil of A. borealis, 52 peaks were separate, 48 of them were identified by GC-MS analysis, indicative that aromadendrane-4-ol is the highest constituent, which made up 24.73% of the total essential oil. In addition the chief constituents of the leaves of A.borealis are similar to the three other plants but its pattern of HPLC fingerprint is different. The content of chlorogenic acid in aerial part of A.annus and A. scapillaries, leaves of A. borealis and A. argyi are 0.065, 0.192, 0.617and 0.178 % respectively.

  14. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.)

    OpenAIRE

    Joël Wajsman; Farid Chemat; Sandrine Périno-Issartier; Loïc Petigny

    2013-01-01

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids suc...

  15. Flavonoid extraction from Ficus carica leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunschi Svetlana I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Ficus carica. Dried leaves were extracted using distilled water and ethanol 70% by extraction method of maceration, microwave and stirring. Using of TLC and HPLC techniques, the rutin and kaempferol were detected. For flavonoids extraction ethanol 70% was more efficient than water. The relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol was higher by microwave methods ussing ethanol.

  16. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Christy Jeyaseelan; S Jenothiny; MK Pathmanathan; JP Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/ 100 μl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  17. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal], e-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.com; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2009-01-15

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  18. Flavonoids extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S., E-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais (NPPN). Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2010-07-01

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). Relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using 70% ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phytochemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  19. Optimization and orthogonal design of an ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process for extracting chlorogenic acid from dry tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Tongai Mazvimba; YU Ying; CUI Zhi-Qin; ZHANG Ying

    2012-01-01

    Processing parameters for heat reflux and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques were optimized.Optimal operating conditions,extraction solvents and extraction yields for both methods were established.Although methanol showed high extraction efficiency in heat reflux extraction,residual amounts of methanol caused adulteration of extracts.To circumvent this drawback,a novel ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process was optimized and orthogonally designed to pave the way for replacing the toxic organic solvent,methanol with water.A new approach which utilizes fractional volumes of an extraction solvent was developed to minimize solvent consumption,improve chlorogenic acid solubility in water and enhance its aqueous extraction from dried tobacco leaves.Desired trajectories for the new ultrasonic assisted aqueous extraction process were found.

  20. Extraction, purification and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from bamboo leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya-ni; TIAN Cheng-rui; ZHAO Li-li

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic extraction (UE) was employed for the extraction of bamboo leaf polysaccharides (BLP).The influential parameters of UE procedure including extraction time,ultrasonic power and solid/liquid ratio were optimized by orthogonal experiments.DEAE-cellulose column chromatography was applied to purify BLP and then the radical scavenging activity of BLP was also evaluated.Optimal extraction conditions were:extraction time of 15 min,ultrasonic power of 300 W,and solid/liquid ratio of 1:15.Four kinds of polysaccharides were obtained by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography; the maximum superoxide radical scavenging rate (20.4%) of BLP was inferior to that of vitamin C (Vc,the control) and the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (50%) was equivalent to that of Vc.

  1. Chemical composition of Artemisia annua L. leaves and antioxidant potential of extracts as a function of extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-05-21

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  2. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Kumar Saini; Manmohan Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract using different models in rats. Methods:Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 days. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail immersion and formalin induced paw licking models in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Antipyretic activity was evaluated using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 days. This indicated that the methanol extract was safe up to a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the latency period in the tail immersion test, reduced the licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases in the formalin test. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract at the doses of (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the rectal temperature of the rats. Conclusions: This study exhibites that methanolic T.capensis leaves extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial activity of total extracts of the leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. (Anamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Ochoa Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of 13 total extracts was evaluated, 10 soft extracts (B and 3 blended extracts (E prepared from dry and fresh leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. Various solvents were used for their preparation: hydroalcoholic solution at 30%, 80% and isopropyl alcohol. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was tested by means of the method of Kirby-Bauer, using four bacterial strains from the ATCC collection (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a leveduriform fungus (Candida albicans. The following quality control parameters were determined for most active extracts: physical, physical-chemical and chemical parameters. The results were: nine extracts showed antibacterial activity, being the most concentrated (B8 and E3, the ones with the highest activity in the presence of the bacteria tested; the effect of blended extracts (E1, E2 and E3 was greater in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Blended extracts are considered more potent and active than soft extracts. No antifungal activity was obtained for both types of extracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined for both extracts, with the following results: MIC-soft extracts (>100 mg/mL, blended extracts (>50 mg/mL; MBC-soft extracts (≥400 mg/mL, blended extracts (≥200 mg/mL based on fresh leaves.

  4. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts from Laurus nobilis Leaves

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Shaza

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial properties of crude extracts from Laurus nobilis were investigated. With the use of the organic solvents, methanol and ethanol, crude extracts were obtained. To determine the availability of active bio‐compounds, an analysis using liquid chromatography was conducted. The crude extract was also tested for antimicrobial activity. The disc diffusion method was used against the bacterium Escherichia coli. The results showed a weak antimicrobial activity against E. coli. For cytotoxicity testing, the crude extract was studied on four cell-­lines: human breast adenocarcinoma, human embryonic kidney, HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and human lung fibroblast. From the alamarBlue® assay results, the extracts most potently affected the cell-­lines of human breast adenocarcinoma and human embryonic kidney. Using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, an effect on human embryonic kidney was most prominent. With these findings, a suggestion that the crude extract of Laurus nobilis may have antiproliferative properties is put forth, with the possibility of this mechanism being induction of apoptosis with the involvement of Nuclear Factor Kappa κB (NF κB).

  5. Critical parameters in cost-effective alkaline extraction for high protein yield from leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves are potential resources for feed or food, but their applications are limited due to a high proportion of insoluble protein and inefficient processing. To overcome these problems, parameters of alkaline extraction were evaluated using green tea residue (GTR). Protein extraction could be maximi

  6. Antiulcer activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Kaniganti

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Both the doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves exhibited significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation model, whereas only 200 mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract was effective in cold restrain stress model. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1353-1358

  7. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Albejo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: The genus Vernonia is one of the largest groups in the family Compositae constituting more than 500 species distributed widely in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and America. Traditionally the genus is used for the treatment of schistosomiasis, amoebic dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, malaria, venereal diseases, wounds, hepatitis, and diabetes. Vernonia auriculifera Hiern is used for healing wounds as ointment around the injured areas. Aims: To investigate the phytochemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern. Methods: Phytochemical screening tests were conducted to identify the class of compounds present in the leaves extracts of V. auriculifera. Silica gel column chromatographic technique was applied to separate the constituents of the extracts. Various spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135, COSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC were applied to determine the structures of isolated compounds. Results: Phytochemical screening of the methanol leaf extract revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and absence of anthraquinones, steroids, and alkaloids. Silica gel column chromatography of the methanol leaves extract yielded one compound. The hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. The methanol and water extracts showed promising growth suppression at minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 mg/mL. Conclusions: The polar extracts of the leaves of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern possess antimicrobial activity.

  8. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  9. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  10. Antibacterial and allelopathic activity of extract from Castanea sativa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Giordano, S; Ricciardi, L; Ferrara, S; Montesano, D; Castaldo Cobianchi, R; Vuotto, M L; Ferrara, L

    2000-08-01

    Following the extraction of Castanea sativa with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid (pH 3.0), the ethyl acetate soluble fraction was tested for its antibacterial and allelopathic activity. The extract was shown to have pronounced antibacterial effects against seven of the eight strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used (MIC in the range of 64-256 microg/ml and MBC in the range of 256-512 microg/ml). The active fraction was analyzed by TLC and HPLC showing the presence of rutin, hesperidin, quercetin, apigenin, morin, naringin, galangin and kaempferol. Standards of the identified flavonoids were tested against the same bacterial strains. The highest activity was shown by quercetin, rutin and apigenin. The allelopathic effect was tested against Raphanus sativus seed germination. The extract, quercetin, rutin and apigenin caused a decrease in the percentage of seed germination and root and epicotyl growth.

  11. Isolation and determination of ginsenosides in American ginseng leaves and root extracts by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, T; Ludwiczuk, A; Wolski, T; Buszewski, B

    2005-12-01

    Ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) were extracted from the root and leaves of locally cultivated American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.). For the isolation of compounds from plant samples three different extraction methods were utilized: accelerated solvent extraction, the ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and mechanical shaking assisted solvent extraction. The separation of compounds was achieved with a water-acetonitrile gradient system using a C18 reversed-phase column. Target compounds were identified in MS(2) and MS(3) experiments. The relative distribution of these ginsenosides in each root and leaf extract was established. The limit of detection of the method was less than 30 ng/ml. Recovery of ginseng saponins in spiked samples exceeded 80%, while the relative standard deviation ranged from 7.1 to 9.1%. The total concentrations of ginsenosides were 41 and 13 mg/g in root and leaves.

  12. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Myrtus communis L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmoune, Farid; Nayak, Balunkeswar; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Madani, Khodir

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds, are of great interest due to their health-benefitting antioxidant properties and possible protection against inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Maximum retention of these phytochemicals during extraction requires optimised process parameter conditions. A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was investigated for extraction of total phenolics from Myrtus communis leaves. The total phenolic capacity (TPC) of leaf extracts at optimised MAE conditions was compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional solvent extraction (CSE). The influence of extraction parameters including ethanol concentration, microwave power, irradiation time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the extraction of TPC was modeled by using a second-order regression equation. The optimal MAE conditions were 42% ethanol concentration, 500 W microwave power, 62 s irradiation time and 32 mL/g solvent to material ratio. Ethanol concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio were the significant parameters for the extraction process (pMyrtus leaves using MAE compared with UAE and CSE, it was also observed that tannins (32.65 ± 0.01 mg/g), total flavonoids (5.02 ± 0.05 mg QE/g) and antioxidant activities (38.20 ± 1.08 μg GAE/mL) in MAE extracts were higher than the other two extracts. These findings further illustrate that extraction of bioactive phytochemicals from plant materials using MAE method consumes less extraction solvent and saves time.

  13. Cardiovascular effects in vitro of aqueous extract of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudnic, I; Modun, D; Brizic, I; Vukovic, J; Generalic, I; Katalinic, V; Bilusic, T; Ljubenkov, I; Boban, M

    2009-05-01

    In contrast to the strawberry fruits, strawberry leaves as a source of bioactive compounds with potentially beneficial biological effects have been largely overlooked. In this study we examined direct, dose-dependent effects of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.) leaves aqueous extract, in two experimental models and animal species, the isolated guinea pig hearts and rat aortic rings. Vasodilatory potential of the wild strawberry leaves extract was compared with vasodilatory activity of aqueous extract of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha, L) leaves with flowers, which can be regarded as a reference plant extract with a marked vasodilatory activity. The extracts were analysed by their "phenolic fingerprints", total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity. Their vasodilatory activity was determined and compared in the isolated aortic rings from 24 rats that were exposed to the extracts doses of 0.06, 0.6, 6, and 60 mg/100ml. Both extracts induced similar, dose-dependent vasodilation. Maximal relaxation was 72.2+/-4.4% and 81.3+/-4.5%, induced by the strawberry and hawthorn extract, respectively. To determine vasodilatory mechanisms of the wild strawberry leaves extract, endothelium-denuded and intact rings exposed to nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME or cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin were used. Removal of the endothelium prevented and exposure to L-NAME or indomethacin strongly diminished the vasodilatatory response to the extract. In the isolated hearts (n=12), the wild strawberry extract was applied at concentrations of 0.06, 0.18, 0.6, and 1.8 mg/100ml. Each dose was perfused for 3.5 min with 15 min of washout periods. Heart contractility, electrophysiological activity, coronary flow and oxygen consumption were continuously monitored. The extract did not significantly affect heart rate and contractility, main parameters of the cardiac action that determine oxygen demands, while coronary flow increased up to 45% over control value with a

  14. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce and Allium cepa L. (onion, as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water, resulting in a concentration of 10.0%. Distilled water was added in order to obtain dilutions of 7.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. The extraction was carried out with young leaves (in powder form and organic solvents of various polarities. We fractioned the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. The phytotoxic potential of the aqueous extract of young leaves S. saponaria varied according to the receiving species and the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The ethyl acetate extract, specifically fraction 6 (57-70, had the greatest inhibitory effect on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, indicating that the compounds responsible for the phytotoxic effect reside within this fraction.

  15. Volatiles composition and extraction kinetics from Schinus terebinthifolius and Schinus molle leaves and fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano dos Santos Cavalcanti; Marcela de Souza Alves; Laurine Cristina Paulo da Silva; Daiane dos Santos Patrocínio; Mirza Nalesso Sanches; Douglas Siqueira de Almeida Chaves; Marco Andre Alves de Souza

    2015-01-01

    AbstractEssential oils extracted from Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, leaves and fruit hydrodistillation, as well as, their chemical composition and extraction kinetic were evaluated. For this proposal, 6 h extraction and aliquots collected at sequencing different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h) were carried out allowing calculating accumulated content (% w/w) and verifying essential oil chemical profile. β-caryophyllene (35.2%), α-pinene (28.1%) and...

  16. Aphrodisiac activity of methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2003-04-01

    The aphrodisiac properties of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn. have been evaluated in mice by observing the mounting behaviour. The methanol extract of P. incarnata exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour in male mice at all doses, i.e. 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts.

  17. Vasorelaxant action of aqueous extract of the leaves of Persea americana on isolated thoracic rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Mbang A; Jaja, Smith I; Coker, Herbert A B

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the vasorelaxant action of the aqueous leaves extract of Persea americana on isolated rat aorta. The results showed that the extract produced significant vasorelaxation and that the effect is dependent on the synthesis or release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) as well as the release of prostanoid. The extract also reduced vasoconstriction probably by inhibiting Ca2+ influx through calcium channels.

  18. Biochemical and molecular evidences for the antitumor potential of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; El-Mezayen, Hatem A; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Sayed, Alaa H; Ramadan, Aesha R

    2016-10-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest primary cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of 10% or less. This study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms in favor of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, the aim of this work was extended to explore the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in deterioration of HCC in rats. In the current study, HCC group experienced significant downregulation of ING-3 gene expression and upregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. Treatment of HCC groups with Ginkgo biloba leaves extract resulted in upregulation of ING-3 and downregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. In addition, there was significant increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and glypican-3 (GPC-3) levels in HCC group versus the negative control group. In contrast, the groups with HCC subjected to either high or low dose of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract elicited significant reduction (P Ginkgo biloba leaves extract elicited marked improvement in the histological feature of liver tissue in HCC groups. In conclusion, this research indicated that the carcinogenic potency of N-nitrosodiethylamine targeted multiple systems on the cellular and molecular levels. In addition, the results of the current study shed light on the promising anticancer activity of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced chemically in the experimental model through its apoptotic and antiproliferative properties.

  19. Xanthomendoza borealis - a bipolar lichen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LIndblom, Louise; Søchting, Ulrik

    It has been uncertain whether the two xanthorioid taxa known as Xanthoria mawsonii and Xanthomen-doza borealis truly are distinct species or if they should best be treated as one species. They are morphologically very similar, but inhabit two disjunct geographical areas, that is, circumpolar on t...

  20. THE STUDY OF HENNA LEAVES EXTRACT AS GREEN CORROSION INHIBITOR FOR MILD STEEL IN ACETIC ACID.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Chaudhari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitive action of henna leaves extract on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedence and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration of extract. The result obtained revealed that henna leaves extract act as efficient inhibitor. The adsorption of the henna leaves extract obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic process accompanied by an increase in entropy. Cathodic and anodic polarization curves show that henna leaves extract is a mixed-type inhibitor. Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}   ABSTRACT:    The inhibitive action of henna leaves extract on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedence and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration of extract. The result obtained revealed that henna leaves extract act as efficient inhibitor. The adsorption of the henna leaves

  1. Extraction of Flavones from Ginkgo Leaves%银杏黄酮类化合物的提取分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春秀; 胡小玲; 岳红; 吕玲; 卢锦花

    2001-01-01

    The Ginkgo flavones were extracted from water leaching liquor of the Ginkgo leaves. Theleaching conditions, extractant, extraction time, temperature, pH of the extraction solution andphase separation have been investigated. The optimum extraction conditions are: 60 ℃, 30 min.pH=3~4 and with ethylbutyl ketone as extractant.

  2. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

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    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  3. Extractability of Rutin in Herbal Tea Preparations of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

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    Solomon Habtemariam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera. It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis, which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4% when the leaves (1 g were boiled in water (200 mL. For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses.

  4. In vivo hypoglycemic study of Manilkara zapota leave and seed extracts

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    Saikat Ranjan Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic activity of pet-ether extracts of leaves and methanol extracts of seeds of Manilkara zapota was evaluated in the study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in mice treated with 2 mg/kg glucose solution and the blood glucose level was determined after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of administration. Alloxan (70 mg/kg was injected intravenously to induce diabetes in mice. The hypoglycemic study was carried out 7 days. In glucose tolerance test all extracts achieved significant p values (p<0.0001 at 60, 90 and 120 minutes compared to the glucose control. In hypoglycemic study all extracts started to reduce the blood glucose level rapidly even starting from the 2nd day of treatment and significant p values (p<0.0001 were achieved. So, the study evinced the hypoglycemic potency of the leave and seed extracts of M. zapota.

  5. Phenolic Extracts from Wild Olive Leaves and Their Potential as Edible Oils Antioxidants

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    Theodora-Ioanna Lafka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model. As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions 180 min, solvent to sample ratio 5:1 v/w and pH 2. Ethanol extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity among solvent and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE extracts, which in addition showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to synthetic and natural food antioxidants such as BHT, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E. Antioxidant potential of SFE extract was quite high, although its phenolic potential was not. Leaf extracts were proven to be good protectors for olive and sunflower oils at levels of 150 ppm.

  6. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract from cultivated strawberries’ leaves (Fragariae folium

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    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a member of the rose family (Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, tribe Potentilleae in the genus Fragaria. The cultivated varieties of commercial strawberries usually were designated as Fragaria ananassa. Root, leaf, flower and fruit have the healing properties. The strawberry leaves extract is used for blood cleaning, for treatment of oral inflammation, diarrhea, various gastro-intestinal inflammation, and hemorrhoids, as well as a diuretic. So far, many positive biological effects of strawberries (anticancer, antioxidant and anticoagulant effect have been proven. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract from cultivated strawberries (Fragariae folium, varieties Senga Sengana by using different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, FIC, H2O2 and TBA-MDA. Ethanolic extract from strawberry leaves was obtained by reflux extraction at the boiling temperature. Total phenols and total flavonoids content was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu and by method with AlCl3, respectively. In the extract was determined high content of total phenols, while the total flavonoid content is much lower. The concentrations of extract required to neutralize 50% of the initial concentration of DPPH radicals (EC50 after 20 minutes incubation and immediately after adding DPPH radical solution were 7,91 and 19,46 μgcm-3, respectively. Extract was achieved the maximum iron ions chelating ability (67.89% at a concentration of 2 mgcm-3. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation of 70% was achieved by extract concentration of 0.03125 mgcm-3, while the maximum neutralization of H2O2 (30.47% was achieved by extract concentration of 0.5 mgcm-3. FRAP value of the investigated extract is 284.51 mgFe/g of dry extract. Presented results of the antioxidant activity show that the obtained extract from the cultivated strawberry leaves is a potential source of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  7. Antiasthmatic and antiallergic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was antiasthmatic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., Simaroubaceae. Traditionally or in Indian system of medicine, A. excelsa is used in the treatment of asthma, cough, colic pain, cancer, diabetes and also used as antispasmodic, antifertility, bronchodilator. Stem bark of A. excelsa already reported for its potential against asthma. The pollens of Ailanthus excelsa reported allergic in nature and the time of collection of leaves were important in this study, generally the flowering stage of plant was avoided for the collection due to maximum chance of pollens at that time. Methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa was evaluated using in vitro goat tracheal chain preparation model and in vivo- Milk induced leucocytosis, eosinophilia, Clonidine induced catalepsy in mice model while Passive paw anaphylaxis and Clonidine induced mast cell degranulation in rat model. The extract showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, quassonoids and test was also positive for alkaloids and steroids. The extract also showed the presence of quercetin which is flavonoid and detected on the preparative TLC plate with the help of standard quercetin. Dose response studies of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa Roxb. were conducted at 100 µg mL-1 in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg kg-1 p.o. in vivo models. The treatment with methanolic extract of A. excelsa at different dose level showed the significant (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 antiasthmatic activity. Inhibition or decrease the release of inflammatory mediators potentiates the antiasthmatic as well as antiallergic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa.

  8. The Antioxidative Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Rosemary and Green Tea Leaves: A Comparative Study

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    *N. M. Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of rosemary and green tea leaves, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, have been studied by using two different methods (reducing power and chelating ability. It was found that the total phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves were 13.44, 18.75, 39.38 and 48.44 mg/ 100 mg dry extract respectively. The flavonoids (which is a part of the phenolic compounds were found to be 9.54, 12.65, 17.69 and 22.70 mg/ 100 mg dry extract in aqueous and ethanolic extract of rosemary and green tea leaves respectively. The ethanolic extract shows high content of phenolic compounds and in turn highly antioxidative activiy for both rosemary and green tea leaves as compared with aqueous extract.The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves show high reducing power ability comparing with their abilities as chelating agents. Although, the phenolic compounds of green tea leave almost about 3-fold as compared with rosemary leave in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts, their extracts show extremely the same mode of action in both methods of determination (the reducing power and chelating ability. Therefore, we are fully recommended the rosemary leave extracts as a potent food preservative.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CERBERA MANGHAS L. LEAVES

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    Hossain Md. Anwar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical nature (group determination of plant constituents as well as the antioxidant and analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of the Cerbera manghas L. leaves (Family: Apocynaceae. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Cerbera manghas leaves indicated the presence of carbohydrate (reducing sugars, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, flavonoids & glycosides. The extract exhibited significant (P<0.01 analgesic effect in acetic acid induced writhing of white albino mice at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. The extract inhibited 30.65% writhing in mice and it is comparable to the activity of the standard analgesic drug Diclofenac sodium (79.03% P<0.001 at the dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. The extract showed the antioxidant property by the presence of strong yellow spot on a purple background on the TLC plate and in the free radical scavenging activity study (DPPH assay the extract showed significant antioxidant activity ( IC50 ~ 269.15µg/ml which is comparable to standard (Ascorbic Acid, IC50 ~14.45 μg/ml. The findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of Cerbera manghas leaves possess antioxidant and analgesic activities.

  10. In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Mollugo nudicaulis Lam. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Rameshkumar; TSivasudha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate invitro antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis leaves (MN). Methods:The total phenolic and flavonoids content was quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride method respectively. Invitro antioxidant activity was carried out by DPPH, ABTS and reducing power assays and antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method.Results:The phytochemical tests of Mollugo nudicaulis revealed the presence of alkaloid steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugar in the both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Terpenoids were absent in both aqueous and methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis. The total phenolics content of the methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves was 47.01 ± 0.8 and 46.4 ± 0.05 mg/100 g. The total flavonoid content was 41.3 ± 0.04 and 36.2 ± 0.01 mg/100 g respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves showed IC50 values of DPPH radical scavenging as 48 and 190 μg/ml respectively. The IC50 values of ABTS radical scavenging for methanolic of aqueous extracts was 83 and 198.3 μg/ml of plant extract respectively. The total phenolics and flavonoids content and invitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extract was higher compared with aqueous extract. The methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis used to determine antibacterial activity against bacterial species namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp, Streptococcus sp, Entrobacter sp. Conclusion: This investigation suggests that the methanolic extracts of Mollugo nudicaulis possess potential antioxidant and antibacterial compounds.

  11. Effect of aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. leaves in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, S O; Yakubu, M T; Afolayan, A J

    2010-05-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was investigated for toxicity in male rats following administration on daily basis for 21 days. The extract did not significantly (p > .05) alter the levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width, basophils, total protein, phosphorus, calcium and chloride ions of the animals. Whereas the levels of lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, albumin as well as alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase activity were decreased by the extract, those of neutrophil, magnesium, total and conjugated bilirubin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase as well as liver and kidney body weight ratios increased. There was decrease in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and cholesterol only at the 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, whereas the large unstained cells, sodium ions, white blood cells and uric acid increased only at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. The urea, creatinine and potassium increased only at 125 mg/kg body weight of the extract while the globulin content was elevated only at 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract. The doses did not produce any definite pattern of effect on the red blood cells and platelets. These alterations by the aqueous extract of L. leonurus leaves on the haematological together with the liver and kidney functional indices suggests parameter and dose-selective effects of the extract and will have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the blood system, kidney and liver of the animals. The extract is also unlikely to predispose the animals to cardiovascular risk when repeatedly consumed on daily basis at the doses investigated for 21 days. Therefore, the aqueous extract of L. leonurus

  12. Screening of Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous extracts of Leaves, Flower and Stem of Eclipta alba

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    Prabhsimran Singh Sandhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the oldest source of pharmacologically active compounds, and have provided humankind with many medically useful compounds for centuries. In this study aqueous extract of leaves, stem and flower of Eclipta alba were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC25923,Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC10699, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC10741, Proteus vulgaris (ATCC12454 Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923 Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC15380 and Staphylococcus. Saprophyticus (ATCC35552 It was shown that leaves extract effective against E. cloacae & K .pneumoniae but not against others, while aquous extract of stem shown good antitimicrobial effect against E. cloacae, E. faecali, K. pneumoniae and S. saprophyticus but E. coli, P. vulgaris, S. aureus were found resistant and The aqueous extract of flower shown reliabe ZOI against P.vulgaris ,S.aureus and S.saprophyticus while resistant against all other microbes.

  13. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Monoterpenes from the Leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree

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    Deidre Tronson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was applied to various sample matrices under a range of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 densities and chamber temperatures. The purpose was to develop an effective extraction condition for the removal of eight target monoterpenes from Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel leaves. The optimum conditions for extraction were found to be 0.25 g/mL scCO2 density at a chamber temperature of 110oC. These condition were most effective when applied to whole fresh and rehydrated whole dried leaves, where it yielded maximum recovery of target analytes with minimum change in oil composition for the extractor system employed. This study demonstrates the importance of the type of sample matrix used in SFE work, and that a different extraction protocol would need to be developed for each matrix.

  14. DNA extraction of birch leaves by improved CTAB method and optimization of its ISSR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN hua; YANG Chuan-ping; WEI Zhi-gang; JIANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    The basic method of DNA extraction (CTAB) was improved as the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method and used to extract the DNA of birch leaved in this experiment. Results showed that the improved method is suitable not only for genomic DNA extraction of birch but also for that of other plants. The purity of genomic DNA extracted by the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method is higher than that by one time STE-CTAB method, and it does not need the process of RNase. The factors of influencing ISSR system were explored based on the genomic DNA of birch extracted by the two methods. The optimal conditions for ISSR system were determined as follows: cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 94℃, annealing for 30 s at 51 ℃, extension for 30 s at 72℃, and a final 7 min extension at 72 ℃.

  15. THE EFFECT OF PARSLEY LEAVES AND SEED EXTRACTS ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS IN RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Ö.ÖZSOY, R. YANARDAĞ

    2015-01-01

    Parsley (petroselinum crispum) is one of the plants used in Turkey and World folkmedicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In this study, oral administration of parsley leaves and seed aqueous extracts (2g/kg) and methanolic extracts (200mgkg and 400mg/kg), to normal rabbits produced significant hypoglycemic activity, which was consistent and time-dependent.Key words: Parsley, Petroselinum crispum, Diabetes mellitus, Antidiabeticeffect.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on dyes extracted from dried plant leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Sofyan A. Taya; Taher M. El-Agez; ELREFI, Kamal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, natural dyes were extracted from dried plant leaves of plant cream, apricot, figs, apples, sage, thyme, mint, Ziziphus jujuba, orange, shade tree, basil, berry, Mirabelle plum, Victoria plum, peach, mango, pomegranate, banana, guava, and fluoridation-treated plant. The extracts were used as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The cells were assembled using nanostructured TiO2 films. The best performance was observed for the DSSC sensitized with Ziziphus juju...

  17. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses.

  18. Antibacterial activity of crude methanolic extract and fractions obtained from Larrea tridentata leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Silvia; Mussatto, Solange I.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Amorim,Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu; Saraiva, Antonio M.; Teixeira, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Larrea tridentata (Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as creosote bush, is a plant that grows in semiarid areas of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico and was traditionally used for medicinal purposes. This plantis a notable source of natural compounds with approximately 50% of the leaves (dry weight) being extractable matter. This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extract (CME) and fractions [hexane (H), dicloromethane (DCM), ethyl acet...

  19. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  20. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  1. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract.

  2. Volatiles composition and extraction kinetics from Schinus terebinthifolius and Schinus molle leaves and fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano dos Santos Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEssential oils extracted from Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, leaves and fruit hydrodistillation, as well as, their chemical composition and extraction kinetic were evaluated. For this proposal, 6 h extraction and aliquots collected at sequencing different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h were carried out allowing calculating accumulated content (% w/w and verifying essential oil chemical profile. β-caryophyllene (35.2%, α-pinene (28.1% and germacrene D (15.5% represent S. terebinthifolius dried leaves essential oil major components, as well as, α-pinene (44.9%, germacrene D (17.6% and β-pinene (15.1% in the fruit. Cubenol (27.1%, caryophyllene oxide (15.3% and spathulenol (12.4% represent S. molle dried leaves essential oil major components, and β-pinene (36.3% α-pinene (20.3%, germacrene D (12.1% and spathulenol in the fruit. Essential oil extraction kinetics showed a hyperbolic distribution; monoterpene content presented exponential decay in time function and sesquiterpene showed exponential growth. Faster monoterpene extraction than the sesquiterpene extraction was observed, however, both presented increasing exponential distribution.

  3. Antidiabetic and antidiarrheal effects of the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulatus leaves in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mst Hajera Khatun; Mst Luthfun Nesa; Rafikul Islam; Farhana Alam Ripa; Al mamum; Shahin Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anti-diabetic and antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulates (P. reticulates) leaves in an animal model. Methods: Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of P. reticulatus leaves has been performed. Antidiabetic activity have been done by OGTT, normoglycemic hyperglycemia and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Plant extracts (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, b.w.) were administered orally in fasting glucose loaded mice with regard to normal control and in alloxan induced (110 mg/kg body weight i.p.) diabetic mice in comparison with reference drug Metformin hydrochloride (100 mg/kg) during 7 day test period. Antidiarrheal test was conducted by castor oil and magnesium sulfate. Results:Findings confirmed that the continuous post-treatment for 7 days with both extracts showed significant (P<0.05) hypoglycemic activity in OGTT, normoglycemic and alloxan induced mouse models. Castor oil and Magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal test of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) has given significant effect in compairing to control diarrheal group. Conclusion:Methanolic extract of P. reticulatus leaves have shown significant antidiabetic and antidiarrheal properties.

  4. Copaifera langsdorffii: evaluation of potential gastroprotective of extract and isolated compounds obtained from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivane Lemos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGastric ulcer is a prevalent gastrointestinal disease, and the drugs currently used in the treatment produce several adverse effects. In this context, the search for new therapeutic antiulcer agents is essential, and medicinal plants have great potential. Here, we investigated the gastroprotective properties of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Fabaceae, hydroalcoholic extract obtained from leaves and its isolated compounds. The phytochemistry studies and the compounds isolations were performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic methodologies. The hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, stress-induced-ulcer and chronic ulcer-model. The effects on gastric content volume, pH, total acidity and mucus stomach production were evaluated in the pylorus ligated-model. The C. langsdorffii extract obtained from leaves (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg reduced the injured area compared to control group in all experiments. The extract showed a significant decrease in the total gastric juice acidity and an increase in mucus production (500 mg/kg when compared to vehicle. Among isolated compounds (30 mg/kg α-humulene, β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed greater gastroprotective activity in the ethanol/HCl induced ulcer model. The data herein obtained shown that C. langsdorffii leaves extract and isolated compounds from it, presented gastroprotective properties in different animal models of gastric ulcer. These effects may be associated with the ability of the extract to decrease gastric secretion and increase the mucus production.

  5. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw: Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts

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    Mirtha Navarro Hoyos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and 13C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22 were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225–494 gallic acid equivalents/g than for wood extracts (40–167 gallic acid equivalents/g. A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers [(+-catechin and (−-epicatechin], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure, flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa. Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  6. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-12-18

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  7. Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Montoro, P.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on

  8. Subacute oral toxicity study of ethanolic leaves extracts of Strobilanthes crispus in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kean Tatt Lim; Vuanghao Lim; Jin Han Chin

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the oral toxicity of repeated dosing of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) ethanol leaves extract on the liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods:Young female rats aged between 8 and 12 week-old were randomly assigned into four groups with five animals each group (n=5). The first group served as control, while the second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with a single dose daily with 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract for 14 d consecutively. Cage-side observation was conducted for first 4 h after each dosing. The body weight changes, food consumptions and water intake were also recorded. Serum biochemical parameters, i.e., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea were determined at Day 15. All results were expressed as mean±SD and analysed using Dunnett's test. Results: It was obtained that 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract did not cause any adverse effects or lethality to the female Sprague Dawley rats. No significant changes in serum biochemical parameters, relative organs weights, body weights, food intake and water consumptions were observed between the treatment groups and control. Conclusions:In conclusion, 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract was safe to be consumed in female rats without affecting the liver and kidney functions.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves

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    Manjit Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL (Nyctaginaceae leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory potential.

  10. [Anatomical and cytohistological changes caused by aqueous extracts of Tamus communis L. leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, G; Roti-Michelozzi, G; Foggi, G; Modenesi, P

    1981-06-30

    Aqueous extracts of Tamus communis leaves induce root tip swelling of Medicago seedlings and disrupt the mitotic process of Allium root tips. The cells of the swollen roots of Medicago treated seedlings are much wider an shorter than the homologous control cells. In the treated roots of Allium prophases prevail and some cells contain vacuolated nuclei or micronuclei.

  11. GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in different extracts of an endemic plant Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco (Moraceae leaves

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    Franelyne Pataueg Casuga

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The three extracts possess major bioactive compounds that were identified and characterized spectroscopically. Thus, identification of different biologically active compounds in the extracts of B. luzonica leaves warrants further biological and pharmacological studies.

  12. Obtaining a Dry Extract from the Mikania laevigata Leaves with Potential for Antiulcer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mariana Viana; Oliveira, Ezequiane Machado; Martins, Jose Luiz Rodrigues; de Paula, Jose Realino; Costa, Elson Alves; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mikania laevigata leaves are commonly used in Brazil as a medicinal plant. Objective: To obtain hydroalcoholic dried extract by nebulization and evaluate its antiulcerogenic potential. Materials and Methods: Plant material and hydroalcoholic extract were processed and analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics. A method using HPLC was validated to quantify coumarin and o-coumaric acid. Hydroalcoholic extract was spray dried and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of its physicochemical parameters and potential for antiulcerogenic activity. Results: The analytical method proved to be selective, linear, precise, accurate, sensitive, and robust. M. laevigata spray dried extract was obtained using colloidal silicon dioxide as adjuvant and was shown to possess 1.83 ± 0.004% coumarin and 0.80 ± 0.012% o-coumaric acid. It showed significant antiulcer activity in a model of an indomethacin-induced gastric lesion in mice and also produced a gastroprotective effect. Conclusion: This dried extract from M. laevigata could be a promising intermediate phytopharmaceutical product. SUMMARY Research and development of standardized dried extract of Mikania laevigata leaves obtained through spray drying and the production process was monitored by the chemical profile, physicochemical properties and potential for anti-ulcerogenic activity. Abbreviations used: DE: M. laevigata spray dried extract, HE: hydroalcoholic extract. PMID:28216886

  13. Use of an enzyme-assisted method to improve protein extraction from olive leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Barberán, M; Lerma-García, M J; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F

    2015-02-15

    The improvement of protein extraction from olive leaves using an enzyme-assisted protocol has been investigated. Using a cellulase enzyme (Celluclast® 1.5L), different parameters that affect the extraction process, such as the influence and amount of organic solvent, enzyme amount, pH and extraction temperature and time, were optimised. The influence of these factors was examined using the standard Bradford assay and the extracted proteins were characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimum extraction parameters were: 30% acetonitrile, 5% (v/v) Celluclast® 1.5L at pH 5.0 and 55°C for 15min. Under these conditions, several protein extracts from olive leaves of different genetic variety (with a total protein amount comprised between 1.87 and 6.64mgg(-1)) were analysed and compared by SDS-PAGE, showing differences in their electrophoretic protein profiles. The developed enzyme-assisted extraction method has shown a faster extraction, higher recovery and reduced solvent usage with respect to the use of the non-enzymatic methods described in literature.

  14. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg(-1) body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg(-1) body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg(-1)) or leaves (4.60 g kg(-1)) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest.

  15. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian; Raquel Orejudos Rubio; Demetrio Lim Valle Jr.; Juliana Janet Martin-Puzon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the bioactive phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L.(M. calabura).Methods: Dried leaves and stems of M. calabura were extracted with 95% ethanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were examined using the disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of each extract showing antimicrobial activity was determined. The dried extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening to determine the presence of bioactive components. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and the aluminum chloride method, respectively.Results: Varying degrees of antimicrobial activity were exhibited by the leaf and stem extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium,Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans(C. albicans),with minimal activity against Escherichia coli. Based on the MIC, the extracts showed the highest activity against C. albicans, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins in the leaf extract; however, no triterpenes were detected. In the stem extract,triterpenes were detected along with relative amounts of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and tannins. Alkaloids and sterols were absent in the stem extract.Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.

  16. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS LEAVES

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    E. Tamil Jothi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of leaves of Tecomaria capensis was screened for cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic activity was performed by two models. One was short term cytotoxicity and another was long term cytotoxicity. In short term cytotoxicity assay Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cell lines were used and for long term L929 cell lines (Lungs fibroblast were used. In both methods ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed protective action against the cell lines. Comparing both extracts, ethanol extract has shown better cytotoxic activity than the ethyl acetate extract and in comparison of standard both extracts have moderate cytotoxic activity.

  17. Optimization of extraction conditions of some polyphenolic compounds from parsley leaves (Petroselinum crispum

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    Paula Kuźma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parsley leaf is a rich source of natural antioxidants, which serve a lot of functions in human body and prevent food from oxidation processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of different extraction solvents and times of extraction on natural antioxidants content. Owing to the knowledge of the properties of extracted components and solvents, as well as their interactions, it is possible to achieve a high effectiveness of active compounds recovery. Material and methods. Three different extraction solvents (acetone 70% in water, methanol 80% in water and distilled water and different times of extraction (30 and 60 minutes were used to determine the efficiency of extraction of polyphenols and catechins, antioxidant activity against free radicals DPPH and ABTS and the ability to chelate ion Fe2+ in dried parsley leaves. Other natural antioxidants contents in parsley leaves were also determined. Results and discussion. In this study the best extraction solvent for polyphenols was acetone 70% and for catechins was distilled water. All extracts examined displayed the antioxidative activity, but water was the best solvent in the method of assaying the activity against ABTS'+ and Fe2+ions chelating capability, whereas methanol turned out to be the least effective in this respect. Opposite results were observed in the case of determining the activity against DPPH*. The prolongation of the extraction time enhanced or decreased antiradical activity in some cases. Additionally, important biologically active compounds in parsley leaves, such as vitamin C (248.31 mg/100 g dry matter, carotenoids (31.28 mg/100 g dry matter, chlorophyll (0.185 mg/g dry matter were also analysed.

  18. Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175

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    Zubaidah Haji Abdul Rahim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and on partially purifed cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1; with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. RESULTS: It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001. S. mutans adhering to 100 µm² glass surfaces (with/without sucrose exhibited reduced cell surface area, fuffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. CONCLUSION: The SEM analysis confrmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are

  19. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    OpenAIRE

    Alkharfy, Khalid M; Anwarul-Hassan Gilani; Ghulam Rasul; Ghulam Shabir; Farooq Anwar; Zahid Iqbal Sajid

    2012-01-01

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtain...

  20. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpenia crista leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Garima Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Caesalpenia crista (C. crista against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Paracetamol (2 g/kg body weight was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. crista was administered at the dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 7 d. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct, and triglycerides content. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Administration of ethanolic extract at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant reduction in elevated level of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin (total and direct and triglycerides when compared to positive control group. Conclusions: It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. crista leaves seems to justify the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.

  1. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpenia crista leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Garima Mishra; Ratan Lal Khosa; Pradeep Singh; Keshri Kishor Jha

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Caesalpenia crista (C. crista) against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods:Paracetamol (2 g/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. crista was administered at the dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 7 d. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct), and triglycerides content. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results:Administration of ethanolic extract at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant reduction in elevated level of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin (total and direct) and triglycerides when compared to positive control group. Conclusions:It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. crista leaves seems to justify the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.

  2. Solute-matrix and Solute-Solute Interactions during Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Sea Buckthorn Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Sajfrtová, M. (Marie); Sovová, H. (Helena)

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the SFE was applied to extract selected medicinal substances from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves at different conditions (pressure 20-28 MPa, temperature 40-60 °C and ethanol concentration in CO2 0-6.9 wt. %) influencing solvent power of CO2. Interest was focused on the leaf oleoresin (total extract) and its minor components (fat soluble vitamins and carotenoids). The yield of polar component was still steadily increasing at the moment when the extraction is al...

  3. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF TURNERA ULMIFOLIA LINN.

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    D. Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnera ulmifolia Linn. belonging to family Turneraceae was investigated to evaluate in-vitro antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of the leaves against gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extract with standard ciprofloxin. The pathogens were used in the study was showed potential activity of the ethanolic extract of the plant. Maximum activity was seen in case of Pseudomonas fluorescens where the zone diameter was 32 mm (300μg/ml.

  4. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF SAMANEA SAMAN MERR., AND PROSOPIS CINERARIA DRUCE.

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    Ahmed Syed Muzammil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study was designed to explore the analgesic effects of methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., using tail immersion test. The painful reactions in mice were produced by thermal stimuli through dipping the tail tips of mice into hot water. Methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., were administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 100mg /kg body weight. Pethidine 50mg/Kg intraperitoneally was used as standard analgesic drug. The tail flick latency delay was measured at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 hour after the intraperitoneal administration. Both extracts produce analgesic effects when compare with pethidine.

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF DATE PALM GROWN IN ALGERIA

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    S. E. Laouini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have determined the phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts from three varieties of leaves tree. According to the results the leaves extracts have very important values for polyphenols (215.24 to 156.46 mg GAE / g DW and high antioxidant activity (324. 45 to 206.21 mg GAE / g DW, DPPH (IC50 =  2.98 to 4.83 μg / ml and β-bleaching test (IC50 = 133. 93 to 194. 12 μg / ml; also the three extracts reveal a considerable antimicrobial potency and antifungal considerable activity , the diameter of inhibition is 14.4 ± 0.6 mm for Hamraya, 19.8 ± 0.5 mm for Ghars and 17.4 ± 0.8 mm for Deglet Nour (concentration 50 mg / ml from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF DATE PALM GROWN IN ALGERIA

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    S. E. Laouin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have determined the phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts from three varieties of leaves tree. According to the results the leaves extracts have very important values for polyphenols (215.24 to 156.46 mg GAE / g DW and high antioxidant activity (324. 45 to 206.21 mg GAE / g DW, DPPH (IC50 = 2.98 to 4.83 μg / ml and β-bleaching test (IC50 = 133. 93 to 194. 12 μg / ml; also the three extracts reveal a considerable antimicrobial potency and antifungal considerable activity , the diameter of inhibition is 14.4 ± 0.6 mm for Hamraya, 19.8 ± 0.5 mm for Ghars and 17.4 ± 0.8 mm for Deglet Nour (concentration 50 mg / ml from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC.

  7. Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Various Extracts of Rhus typhina Fruits and Leaves

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    Lan Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of various extracts (methanol, hexane, dichloro-methane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol water of Rhus typhina fruits and leaves were investigated using different methods and the main phenolic compounds were analyzed by LC-MS. The ethyl acetate extracts from fruits and leaves of R. typhina exhibited the highest DPPH, hydroxyl radical and nitrite scavenging activity, reducing potential and protein protection ability. The phenolic and flavonoïd contents were highest in the ethyl acetate fraction. The LC-MS analysis showed that the contents of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide in leaves are little higher (34.49 and 32.69%, respectively than that (32.49 and 27.89%, respectively in the fruits, the content of rutin in fruits (16.73% is higher than that (7.79% in the leaves. These results implied that the leaves of R. typhina might serve as a natural source of antioxidant using as the food additive for its good nutrition as well as the fruits of Rhus typhina.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihantola-Vormisto, A; Summanen, J; Kankaanranta, H; Vuorela, H; Asmawi, Z M; Moilanen, E

    1997-12-01

    Leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. have been used for the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment of rural populations in its growing areas in subtropical and tropical parts of China, India, Indonesia, and the Malay Peninsula. In the present study, leaves of Ph. emblica were extracted with ten different solvents (n-hexane, diethyl ether, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetic acid, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, toluene, chloroform, and water). The inhibitory activity of the extracts against human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) and platelet functions was studied. Methanol, tetrahydrofuran, and 1,4-dioxane extracts (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited leukotriene B4-induced migration of human PMNs by 90% and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced degranulation by 25-35%. The inhibitory activity on receptor-mediated migration and degranulation of human PMNs was associated with a high proportion of polar compounds in the extracts as assessed by normal phase thin layer chromatography. Diethyl ether extract (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited calcium ionophore A23187-induced leukotriene B4 release from human PMNs by 40%, thromboxane B2 production in platelets during blood clotting by 40% and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation by 36%. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin, all compounds isolated earlier from Ph. emblica, could not explain these inhibitory activities on PMNs or platelets by Ph. emblica extracts. These results show that the leaves of Ph. emblica have inhibitory activity on PMNs and platelets, which confirm the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of this plant as suggested by its use in traditional medicine. The data suggest that the plant leaves contain as yet unidentified polar compound(s) with potent inhibitory activity on PMNs and chemically different apolar molecule(s) which inhibit both prostanoid and leukotriene synthesis.

  9. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

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    Himanshu Misra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimized for fast sample preparation for the faster quantitative determination of artemisinin, potential new generation antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of Artemisia annua L. A simple experiment was designed for the optimization of the appropriate solvent under same extraction conditions. The selected appropriate solvent was then standardized for various different extraction variables. The major parameters studied showed effects on extraction efficiency including processing time, strength of microwave, moisture content, volume and nature of the solvent. The most favorable conditions were obtained by using plant material of 25 mesh (particle size extracted with acetone for 120 seconds at 160 W (i.e., 20% of total power. Quantitative analysis was performed using thin-layer chromatography coupled with a densitometer (TLC densitometry. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  10. Antioxidative activities and active compounds of extracts from Catalpa plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g · DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g · DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g · DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively.

  11. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

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    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment.

  12. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

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    Hongyu Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW. According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6 leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE, and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1 and apigenin (2, respectively.

  13. Antifertility potential of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Jitender Singh; Anupama Baghotia; Vineet Mehta; Vikas Thakur; Manjusha Choudhary; Surender Verma; Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antifertility activity of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn (C. pulcherrima) leaves in albino female mice. Methods: Acute toxicity study of the extract was carried out in adult albino mice. The antifertility activity of the extract at dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) was evaluated in two experimental animal models i.e. antiimplantation and esterogenic/antiestrogenic activity in female mice by observing no. of implants, estrus cycle, vaginal cornification, uertus weight and cholesterol content. Results: The extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 4 000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. A good antiimplantation (66.66 %) activity in female mice was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally). The extract further showed more significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight and cholesterol content in immature mice. Simultaneous administration of extract alongwith ethinyl estradiol showed significant estrogenic activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanolic extract of C. pulcherrima leaves possess significant antifertility activity, therefore, justifying the traditional use of this plant in fertility regulation.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca in liver of Wistar rats

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    THAYS K. SCHAFFER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca. The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or mineral oil (i.p.. After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders.

  15. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves

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    Sulistiyani; Safithri, Mega; Puspita Sari, Yoana

    2016-01-01

    Development of α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from natural products is an opportunity for a more economic management of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to test the activity of α-glucosidase with or without potential inhibitor compounds. By in vitro method, α-glucosidase hydrolizes p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopiranoside to glucose and the yellow of p-nitrophenol which can be determined with spectrophotometry at 400 nm. The ability of ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. as a-glucosidase inhibitor was compared with that of commercial acarbose (Glucobay®). Acarbose showed strong inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase with IC50 values of 2.154 µg/mL. The crude ethanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach, however, showed less inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3, 444.114 µg/mL. Total phenolics of M. azedarach leaves EtOH extract showed 17.94 µg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids total compound of 9.55 µg QE/mg extract. Based on the published wide range of IC50 values of extracts reported as a-glucosidase inhibitor which were between 10, 000 ppm-0.66 ppm, our result suggests that extract of M.azedarach leaves is potential candidate for development of anti-hyperglycemic formulation.

  16. Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Viqar Khan; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; Indu Shukla; Athar Ali Khan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods: Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results: Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions: The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous, Ethanol and Acetone extracts of Sesbania grandiflora leaves and its phytochemical characterization

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    K. Padmalochana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are being highly explored as a major source of medicinal compounds due to the presence of various phytochemical groups. Leaves of Sesbania grandiflora was consumed in traditional medicinal system of Ayurveda for numerous harmful syndromes and infections. This present study was explored the various phytochemicals present in the plant leaves of S. grandiflora. The qualitative analysis of various phytochemicals was exploited using different solvent systems. The aqueous, 80% ethanol and 70% acetone extraction was carried out in this study. Ethanolic extract shown presence of high amount of Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Glycosides and steroids were confirmed by formation of colour intensity during chemical reactions. All the three extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic micro-organisms especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and dermatophytes Candida sp using Agar well diffusion method. Among these three extracts ethanol extracts shows good antibacterial activity compared with aqueous and acetone extracts. Because of the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and steroids ethanol extract shows high antibacterial activity. So these active compounds can be used in the field of medicine as therapeutic agent.

  18. Inotropic effects of extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaves on the guinea pig atrium

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    E.A. Conde Garcia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pharmacological effects have been ascribed to extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaves. However, in spite of its widespread use in Brazilian folk medicine and a reasonable number of scientific reports about it, we could not find any study dealing with its action on the mammalian myocardium. In the present study, by measuring isometric force, we observed that the crude extract of P. guajava (water-alcohol extract obtained by macerating dry leaves depresses the guinea pig atrial contractility in a concentration-dependent fashion (N = 8 hearts, 15 trials. The compound with cardiac activity was concentrated by extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using 17 M glacial acetic acid after removing the less polar fractions (hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol, suggesting that this compound is a highly polar substance. In the isolated guinea pig left atrium the acetic acid fraction (10-800 mg/l of P. guajava 1 reversibly decreased myocardial force in a concentration-dependent fashion (EC50 = 0.07g/l, N = 5 hearts, 9 trials, P<0.05, 2 increased the atrial relaxation time measured at 20% of the force amplitude up to 35% (91 ± 15 to 123 ± 30 ms, N = 3 hearts, 6 trials, P<0.05, 3 abolished the positive staircase effect (Bowditch phenomenon in a concentration-dependent fashion suggesting a decrease of the cellular inward calcium current (N = 4 hearts, 8 trials, P<0.05, and 4 its inotropic effect was abolished by cholinergic receptor blockade with 1.5 mM atropine sulfate, indicating a cholinergic involvement in the mechanism of action of the extract (N = 7 hearts, 15 trials, P<0.05. The acetic acid extract was 20 times more potent than crude extract (EC50 = 1.4 g/l. The results showed that extracts from P. guajava leaves depress myocardial inotropism.

  19. Cytotoxicity and phytochemical analyses of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves and flower extracts

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    Alwahid, Alaa Abd; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Lamiaceae) is a plant with many ethnobotanical uses including antifungal and antibacterial activities. This study is aimed to determine the cytotoxicity and phytochemical content of O. stamineus leaves and flower using ethanol and water as solvents. The cytotoxicity of the extracts towards Vero cell was determined by MTT assay. The CC50 values were between 3.4-7.4 mg/ml and can be considered as nontoxic. Phytochemical screening revealed terpenes, alkaloid and phenolic were present in the leaves and flower of O. stamineus that might pose as the bioactive compound.

  20. Protein extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urribarrí, Lauris; Chacón, David; González, Orlaidy; Ferrer, Alexis

    2009-05-01

    In the present work, cassava leaves were treated with 0.5 kg ammonia/kg dry matter at 78 degrees C and 30% moisture content in a 2-kg reactor. Protein extraction was carried out with a calcium hydroxide solution (pH 10) for 30 min at several temperatures (30 degrees C, 45 degrees C, 60 degrees C, 75 degrees C, and 90 degrees C) and solid/liquid ratios (1:10 and 1:15) in a thermostatized bath. Soluble protein content of the extracts was determined by Lowry's method. Dry substrate concentrations of 5%, 7.5%, and 10% and enzyme doses of 2 and 5 IU/g dry matter were used for the enzymatic hydrolysis in an orbital incubator at 50 degrees C and 100 rpm. Both cellulase and xylanase were used. Reducing sugars produced were determined with the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The highest protein extraction yield for the ammonia-treated leaves was 29.10%, which was 50% higher than with the untreated leaves (20%), and was obtained at 90 degrees C with a 1:10 solid/liquid ratio. The concentrate had a protein content of 36.35% and the amino acid profile was suitable for swine and poultry. The highest sugar yield was 54.72% with respect to theoretical and was obtained with 5% solids and an enzyme dose of 5 IU/g dry matter. This yield was 3.4 times higher than the yield of the untreated leaves (16.13%). These results indicate that cassava leaves have a great potential for animal feeding and ethanol production. Both protein extraction and sugar yields may be enhanced by optimizing the ammonia treatment.

  1. Role of Rosemary Leaves Extract as A Protective Agent Against Azathioprine-Induced Toxicity in Rats

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    Hala M T El-Mougy*, Gehan A Youssef

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rosemary is widely found along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. Its leaves or extract were found to have a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. It is also used as an antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic and expectorant. These actions are mainly due to its content of essential oils. Azathioprine (AZA is an immunosuppressive drug. It is widely used in many diseases. A major drawback is the occurrence of side-effects, especially acute pancreatitis. Aim of the work: This work was done to study the effect of dietary supplement of rosemary leaves as a strategy for amelioration of the side-effects of azathioprine. Material and Methods: Thirty-two adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were equally divided into four groups. Group I: control group, group II: rosemary group, the animals were given a daily oral dose of rosemary leaves extract. Group III: azathioprine group, the animals were given a single dose of AZA intraperitoneally. Group IV: rosemary azathioprine group: the rats were given daily doses of rosemary leaves extract then azathioprine in the last day of the experiment as in the previous regimen. The experiment continued for ten days. Blood samples were taken from all groups and examined for tumour necrosis factor alpha, serum amylase enzyme, C-reactive protein and renal function tests (serum urea and creatinine. Results: Rosemary significantly decreased the levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha, serum amylase enzyme and serum urea and C-reactive protein in rosemary AZA group compared to AZA group . Conclusion: The aqueous rosemary leaves extract has the ability to ameliorate the biochemical pathways of the side-effects of azathioprine, so it is advisable to give it concomitantly to patients treated by azathioprine.

  2. Antibacterial activity of leaves and inter-nodal callus extracts of Mentha arvensis L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnsonM; WeselyEG; KavithaMS; UmaV

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the anti-bacterial efficacy of chloroform, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts of inter-nodal and leaves derived calli extracts from Mentha arvensis (M. arvensis) against Salmonella typhi(S. typhi), Streptococcus pyogenes(S. pyogenes), Proteus vulgaris(P. vulgaris) and Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis). Methods: The inter-nodal and leaves segments of M. arvensis were cut into 0.5-0.7 cm in length and cultured on Murashige and Skoog solid medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, gelled with 0.7% agar and different concentration of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetie acid (2,4-D) either alone or in combinations. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by Brindha et al method. Antibacterial efficacy was performed by disc diffusion method and incubated for 24 h at 37 ℃. Results: Maximum percentage of callus formation (inter-nodal segments 84.3±0.78;leaves segments 93.8±1.27) was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s basal medium supplemented with 3%sucrose and 1.5 mg/L of 2, 4-D. The ethanol extracts of leaves derived calli showed the maximum bio-efficacy than other solvents. The leaves and stem derived calli extracts on Proteus sp. showed that the plants can be used in the treatment of urinary tract infection associated with Proteus sp. Through the bacterial efficacy studies, it is confirmed that the in vitro raised calli tissue was more effective compared to in vivo tissue. Conclusions:The bio-efficacy study confirmed that the calli mediated tissues showed the maximum zone of inhibition. The present study paved a protocol to establish high potential cell lines by in vitro culture.

  3. Wound-healing potential of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of apamarga leaves

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    P K Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research work was aimed at exploring the wound-healing activity of alcoholic and an aqueous Achyranthes aspera Linn (apamarga leaf extract. Leaf extracts (aqueous and ethanolic were examined for its wound-healing activity in the form of ointment (1% w/w in Excision model and Incision model in rats. The evaluation was made in terms of wound contractibility and wound closure time. A. aspera Linn leaf extract showed significant (P<0.001 wound-healing activity when compared with control and was as effective as soframycin (standard cream for comparison. The wound-healing potential of ethanolic extract was slightly more compared with aqueous extract. The present study showed the wound-healing potential of apamarga leaves.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from lemon balm and peppermint leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Voća, Sandra; Dobričević, Nadica; Pliestić, Stjepan; Galić, Ante; Boričević, Ana; Borić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction (frequency, time, temperature) on the content of bioactive compounds as well as on the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from fresh lemon balm and peppermint leaves. Total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, and radical scavenging capacity were determined. Moreover, the relationship between bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity was studied by linear regression. A significant increase in all studied bioactive compounds during ultrasonic extraction for 5 to 20 min was found. With the classical extraction method, the highest amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were determined, and the maximum amounts of total chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined during 20 min ultrasonic extraction. The correlation analysis revealed a strong, positive relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds.

  5. Phytochemical screening and Haemolytic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Santalum album .L leaves

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    Deepak.TK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been designed to screen the phytochemical constituents present in the hydroalcoholic extract of Santalum album linn leaves to ascertain the presence of saponins and futher studies carried out on the extract to evaluate its haemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Haemolytic effect of S. album leaf extract was evaluated according to the WHO guidelines in which the varying concentration of the extract was treated with the blood and lysis was determined visually. The result revealed that the S. album leaf extract produced lysis of erythrocyte at a minimum concentration of 475μg/ml. These observations will stimulate further research in the field of phytochemistry and also in clinical application of the phytochemical constituents of S. album. L.

  6. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.

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    Joël Wajsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min, higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  7. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-03-12

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY STUDY OF SARACA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Nayak Sarojini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To know the anthelmintic property of leaves of Saraca indica, we used both maceration and soxhelet methods of extraction using solvents like ethanol and methanol. Each extract was tested for its anthelmintic activity by following standard method. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts (obtained from both the methods of extractions of Saraca indica displayed anthelmintic property in a dose-dependant manner. In both the methods of extraction, we found that the ethanolic as well as the methanolic extracts were more potent than the positive control as far as anthelminthic property was concerned. To correlate phytochemical screening with anthelmintic activity, phytochemical evaluation of the extracts was also performed. From our result, it may be mentioned that the ethanolic extract was relatively more potent as an anthelmintic agent due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. On the other hand, the methanolic extract was effective as an anthelmintic agent probably due to the involvement of glycosides and flavonoids. The presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and flavonoids seems to be the responsible phytochemical constituents for demonstrating anthelmintic activities of our extracts.

  9. Antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2005-11-14

    Leaves of Piper betle (Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Piper betle leaves. This was tested in normoglycaemic and strepozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using oral administration of hot water extract (HWE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE). In normoglycaemic rats, both HWE and CEE significantly lowered the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. In glucose tolerance test, both extracts markedly reduced the external glucose load. The antidiabetic activity of HWE is comparable to that of CEE. Moreover, HWE failed to inhibit the glucose absorption from the small intestine of rats. Both extracts were found to be non-toxic and well tolerated after following chronic oral administration (no overt signs of toxicity, hepatotoxicity or renotoxicity). However, the weight of the spleen had increased in treated groups possibly indicating lymphoproliferative activity. It is concluded that HWE and CEE of Piper betle leaves possess safe and strong antidiabetic activity.

  10. Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract Attenuates Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury

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    Jurairat Khongrum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Neuropathic pain, a challenge of this decade, has been reported to be associated with the diversity conditions including diabetes. At present, there are no conventional analgesics that can effectively treat neuropathic pain with a satisfactory outcome. Due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy, the searching for novel effective remedies in the management of neuropathic pain is required. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g were induced diabetes mellitus by Streptozotocin (STZ (single injection, 65 mg kg-1 BW, i.p. Diabetic rats were induced neuropathic pain by Constricting the right sciatic nerve (CCI at permanently. Then, all rats were administered the extract of M. oleifera leaves at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW once daily in a period of 21 days. The analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated using Von Frey filament and hot plate tests every 3 days after CCI throughout 21-day experimental period. In addition, at the end of the experiment, the alteration of oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in the injured sciatic nerve were also evaluated. Results: The current results showed that rats subjected to M.oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 BW significantly reversed the decreased withdrawal threshold intensity and withdrawal latency in Von Frey filament and hot plate tests respectively. In addition, rats subjected to the medium dose extract also reversed the decreased activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the elevation of MDA level in the injured nerve. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract can attenuate neuropathic pain in diabetic condition. The possible underlying mechanism may occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress. However, other mechanisms may also involve. Conclusion: Our results suggest that M. oleifera leaves may be the potential novel adjuvant therapy for neuropathic pain management.

  11. Optimization of Multistage Extraction of Olive Leaves for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds at Moderated Temperatures and Short Extraction Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to improve the recovery of polyphenols from olive leaves (OL by optimizing a multistage extraction scheme; provided that the olive leaves have been previously steam blanched. The maximum total phenol content expressed in ppm caffeic acid equivalents was obtained at pH 2, particle size 0.315 mm, solid-liquid ratio 1:7 and aqueous ethanol concentration 70% (v/v. The optimum duration time of each extraction stage and the operation temperature, were chosen based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of oleuropein (OLE, verbascoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The optimum conditions for multistage extraction were 30 min total extraction time (10 min × 3 stages at 85 °C. The 80% of the total yield of polyphenols was obtained at the 1st stage of the extraction. The total extraction yield of oleuropein was found 23 times higher (103.1 mg OLE/g dry weight (d.w. OL compared to the yield (4.6 mg OLE/g d.w. OL obtained by the conventional extraction method (40 °C, 48 h. However, from an energetic and hence from an economical point of view it is preferable to work at 40 °C, since the total extraction yield of polyphenolic compounds was only 17% higher for a double increase in the operating temperature (i.e., 85 °C.

  12. Methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile action of acetylcholine on isolated rabbit jejunum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tavershima Dzenda; Joseph Olusegun Ayo; Alexander Babatunde Adelaiye; Ambrose Osemattah Adaudi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the modulating role of methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction of isolated rabbit jejunum. Methods: Rabbit jejunum segment was removed and placed in an organ bath containing Tyrode’s solution, and its contractions were recorded isometrically. Results: ACh (2.0 × 10-10 g/mL) and the extract (2.0 × 10-4 g/mL) individually increased the frequency of contraction (mean ± SEM) of the isolated smooth muscle tissue by 47.6% ± 9.5%and 77.8% ± 66.5%, respectively. When ACh and the extract were combined, the frequency of contraction of the tissue was increased by 222.2% ± 25.9%, representing a 366.7% increase (P < 0.001) over the effect of ACh alone. Similarly, ACh (2.0 × 10-9 g/mL) and the extract individually increased significantly (P < 0.001) the amplitude of contraction of the tissue by 685.7% ± 61.1% and 455.2% ± 38.1%, respectively. When ACh and the extract were combined, the amplitude of contraction of the tissue rose by 1263.8% ± 69.0%, representing 84.3% increase over the effect of ACh alone. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile effect of ACh on intestinal smooth muscle, supporting the traditional claim that the plant is purgative.

  13. Diuretic Activity of the Aqueous Extract Leaves of Ficus glumosa Del. (Moraceae in Rats

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    Fidèle Ntchapda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to validate the use of F. glumosa extract as a diuretic in the treatment of hypertension as claimed by traditional healers. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as check (Furosemide and Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide. The aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid. At the maximum of diuretic response, urinary osmolarity decreased significantly when compared with controls. The single dose treatment of the aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa has significantly increased urine volume 24 h after administration of the extract. The stability of aldosterone level, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and the increased clearance of free water in the animals receiving the extract show that increased diuresis and natriuresis moderate elevation are tubular in origin. The increase in Na+, K+, and Cl− induced by the extract caused alkalinization of the urine and showed a strong inhibitory effect of carbonic anhydrase and saluretic. These effects were mainly observed at the dose of 375 mg/kg. These observations confirm the traditional use in the treatment of hypertension and support the importance of the conservation of local knowledge as well as the conservation of Cameroonian biodiversity.

  14. In vitro anti- bacterial activity of leaves extracts of Albizia lebbeck Benth against some selected pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Nazneen Bobby; Edward Gnanaraj Wesely; MarimuthuAntonisamy Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-bacterial activity of Albizia lebbeck (A. lebbeck) Benth leaves extract against the selected bacterial pathogens viz., Bacillus subtilis (MTCC441), Escherichia coli (MTCC443), Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC 109), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC742), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC741), Salmonella typhii (MTCC733) and Staphylococus aureus (MTCC96).Methods:The leaves extracts of A. lebbeck was tested against bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: Results of the present study indicated that different extracts of A. lebbeck showed inhibitory effects against the pathogens. The present study results demonstrated that methanolic extracts of A. lebbeck conferred the widest spectrum activities that inhibited the growth of all studied pathogens with the maximum zone of inhibition. The methanolic extracts ofA. lebbeck illustrated the highest zone of inhibition against the pathogens Bacillus subtilis (16 mm), Escherichia coli (22 mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (11 mm), Proteus vulgaris (18 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm), Salmonella typhii (23 mm) and Staphylococus aureus (17 mm). The ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (26 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm) and Klebsiella pneumonia (16 mm). Conclusions: It is expected that this study would direct to the establishment of some active compounds that could be used to formulate new and more potent anti-bacterial drugs of natural origin.

  15. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%.

  16. The effects of aqueous extracts prepared from the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus in experimental liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubuncic, Predrag; Song, Hui; Cogan, Uri; Azaizeh, Hassan; Bomzon, Arieh

    2005-08-22

    In a previous study, we identified Pistacia lentiscus was worthy for further laboratory evaluation because an aqueous extract of the plant suppressed iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates without affecting mitochondrial respiration in cultured HepG2 and PC12 cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an aqueous extract prepared from the dried leaves of Pistacia lentiscus in a rat model of hepatic injury caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide. We assessed the impact of daily dosing on biochemical and morphological indices and the extent of oxidative stress in the livers of healthy and thioacetamide-treated rats. In healthy rats, long-term administration of the extract induced hepatic fibrosis and an inflammatory response, mild cholestasis and depletion of reduced glutathione associated with an increase in its oxidized form. In thioacetamide-treated rats, long-term administration of extract aggravated the inflammatory and fibrotic and glutathione depleting responses without affecting the extent of lipid peroxidation. Although our previous in vitro study established that extracts prepared from the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus had antioxidant activity, this in vivo study establishes these extracts also contains hepatotoxins whose identity may be quite different from those compounds with antioxidant properties. The results of this study suggest complementing in vitro experiments with those involving animals are essential steps in establishing the safety of medicinal plants. Furthermore, these data confirm that complete reliance on data obtained using in vitro methodologies may lead to erroneous conclusions pertaining to the safety of phytopharmaceuticals.

  17. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  18. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  19. Effectivity of water soluble granule from kenikir leaves extract (Cosmos caudatus, noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia, and earthworm meal extract (Lumbricus rubellus as a natural coccidiostat for broiler chickens against infection caused by Eimeri

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    Karimy MF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study effectivity of water soluble granule from kenikir leaves extract (Cosmos caudatus, noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia, and earthworm meal extract (Lumbricus rubellus as a natural coccidiostat for broiler chickens against infection caused by Eimeria tenella. One hundred day old chick (DOC of the Cobb strain broiler were randomly devided into 10 groups and each group consisted of 10 chickens. All groups were orally infected by 5000 sporulated oocyst of E. tenella on the 25th days old as a challenge infection. The chickens was treated by granule of kenikir leaves extract, noni leaves extract and granule of earthworm meal extract which level dosage was 100, 200 and 300 mg/kgbw, respectively on each treatment (K1, K2, K3; M1, M2, M3 and T1, T2, T3. Control (K0 did not treated by feed additive. Treatment was administered on drinking water. On the 5th days after challenge infection 5 chickens of each groups were slaughtered and necropted to evaluate lession score and histopatology of caeca. Oocyst per gram excreta was count on 7th days until 10th days after challenge infection of the others 5 chickens of each groups. The results showed that the lowest score of lession was obtained on M2 and M3 whereas the lowest total oocyst per gram excreta was obtained on M3. Histopathological observation revealed that there was no stadia development of E. tenella in M2 treatment. It was concluded that granule of noni leaves extract at 200 mg/kgbw (M2 was the most effective natural coccidiostat.

  20. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Syzygium cumini leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amal A; Ali, Sami I; El-Baz, Farouk K

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using lemon leaves extract and its application for antimicrobial finish on fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankar, Padma S.; Shukla, Dhara

    2012-06-01

    Preparation of silver nanoparticles have been carried out using aqueous extract of lemon leaves ( Citrus limon) which acts as reducing agent and encapsulating cage for the silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles have been used for durable textile finish on cotton and silk fabrics. Remarkable antifungal activity has been observed in the treated fabrics. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles derived from lemon leaves showed enhancement in activity due to synergistic effect of silver and essential oil components of lemon leaves. The present investigation shows the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles by biotransformation using the extract of lemon leaves by controlled reduction of the Ag+ ion to Ag0. Further the silver nanoparticles were used for antifungal treatment of fabrics which was tested by antifungal activity assessment of textile material by Agar diffusion method against Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola. Formation of the metallic nanoparticles was established by FT-IR, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy.

  2. Hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Tylophora indica (Burm. f. Merill. leaves

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    Mujeeb M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Tylophora indica leaves was screened for hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters like Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, total protein and level of serum bilirubin (both total and direct. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight, i.p., was compared with Silymarin (25 mg/kg, i.p. treated animals. Tylophora indica leaves (200 and 300 mg/kg exhibited significant reduction in serum hepatic enzymes when compared to rats treated with carbon tetrachloride alone. Furthermore, histopathological studies were also done to support the study.

  3. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  4. ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND DIABETES RELATED ENZYME INHIBITION PROPERTIES OF LEAVES EXTRACT FROM SELECTED VARIETIES OF PHOENYX DACTYLIFERA L.

    OpenAIRE

    Laouini Salah Eddine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic leaves extracts of three selected varieties of Phoenyx dactylifera L. namely: “Ghars”, “Deglet Nour” and “Hamraya”. Methods: The assessment of the antioxidant potential of crude leaves extracts, using superoxide anions inhibition, DPPH and total antioxidant activity essays, was carried out. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the inhibi...

  5. Low Anti-ulcerogenic Potentials of Essential Oils and Methanolic Extract of Croton zambesicus Leaves.

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    Adelaja Abdulazeez Akinlolu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the anti-ulcer properties of Croton zambesicus leaves. Materials and Methods: Group 1 was Control. 40mg/kg/bodyweight of Indomethacin (the ulcerogen was administered to rats of Groups II and #8211; VII. Four hours after administrations of ulcerogen; rats of Groups III and #8211; VII were treated daily with oral administrations of 40mg/kg/bodyweight of Omeprazole, 5 and 10mg/kg/bodyweight of essential oils, 250 and 500mg/kg bodyweight of methanolic extract of Croton zambesicus leaves respectively for four days. Rats were euthanized on Day 1 (Group II and Day 5 (Groups I and III and #8211; VII; thereafter, stomach and liver samples were removed for evaluations of gastric acidity, histo-pathological and alanine aminotransferase (ALT status. Results: Analyses of gastric acid assays and histo-pathological examinations showed dose-dependent statistically significant higher levels (P and #8804;0.05 of gastric acidity and non-restorations of the gastric mucosa layer to pre-ulceration states in rats of Groups IV and #8211; VII treated with extract doses when compared to Group III. Statistically non-significant (Group IV or significant (Groups V - VII higher ALT levels (P and #8804;0.05 were observed in liver samples of rats treated with doses of essential oils and methanolic extract of Croton zambesicus leaves when compared to Group II. Conclusion: Our study observed low anti-ulcerogenic potentials of doses of essential oils and methanolic extracts of Croton zambesicus leaves. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 97-102

  6. ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA LINN IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir Shaikh; Tabrej Mujawar; Rashid Akthar; Sufiyan Ahmad; Mohib Khan

    2011-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (family Fabaceae) is considered in system of folklore medicine in the treatment of diabetes. The present experimental investigation established the lipid lowering properties of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on experimentally Dexamethasone induced rats. The lipid parameters studied are Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLD...

  7. CNS Depressant and Antiepileptic Activities of the Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasekaran Sivaraman; Palayan Muralidaran

    2010-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) depressant and antiepileptic activities of the methanol extract of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (IAF) were investigated on various animal models including pentobarbitone sleeping time and hole-board exploratory behavior for sedation tests and strychnine, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.), like chlorpromazine HCl (1 mg/kg, i.m.), produced a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping ...

  8. Antibacterial activity of crude methanolic extract and fractions obtained from Larrea tridentata leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Silvia; Amorim,Elba L.C.; Sobrinho, Tadeu J. S. Peixoto; Saraiva, Antonio M.; Pisciottano, Maria N. C.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Teixeira, J.A.; Mussatto, Solange I.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and increase of bacteria drug-resistance rise up the urgent need for the development of new antibacterial agents from natural sources. This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extract (CME) and fractions [hexane (H), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and ethanol (Et)] obtained from Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. Ex DC.) Coville leaves. The antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method a...

  9. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Tao, Ran

    2016-01-15

    In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet (UV), thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL) acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE) and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  10. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultraviolet (UV, thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  11. Effect of water extract from leaves of Nerium oleander L. on mitosis

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    J. A. Tarkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water extract from leaves of Nerium oleander L. on the mitosis in meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. root tips has been studied. Observations were made on the changes during incubation and postincubation. Significant disturbances were observed in the development of the mitotic spindle leading to the formation of polyploid and hypoploid nuclei capable of further division. Substances contained in the water extract, and causing the disturbances, are water soluble glycosides. Introductory observations under an electron microscope indicate that the glycosides desorganize the continuous fibres of the spindle which can be considered as the direct cause of the observed disturbances.

  12. Antimutagenic and Anticarcinogenic Effect of Methanol Extracts of Sweetpotato (Ipomea batata) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan-Goo; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Joon-Hyoung

    2010-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the antimutagenic potential of the methanolic extract from the leaves of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, IB) with the SOS chromotest (umu test) and Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. The anticarcinogenic effects were also studied by calculation of the IC50 on human cancer cell lines and investigating the function of gap junction in rat liver epithelial cells. The IB extract inhibited dose-dependently the β-galactosidase activity induced spontaneously at concentration of more than 200 mg/ml in S. typhimurium TA 1535/pSK 1002, and decreased significantly (p batatas has antimutagenic and anticarcionogenic activity in vitro.

  13. New methodologies for the extraction and fractionation of bioactive carbohydrates from mulberry (Morus alba) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María L; Soria, Ana C

    2013-05-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was applied for the first time to extract bioactive low molecular weight carbohydrates (iminosugars and inositols) from mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaves. Under optimized conditions, PLE provided a similar yield to the conventional process used to extract these bioactives, but in less time (5 vs 90 min). To remove carbohydrates that interfere with the bioactivity of iminosugars from PLE extracts, two fractionation treatments were evaluated: yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) incubation and cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Both methods allowed complete removal of major soluble carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, galactose, and sucrose), without affecting the content of mulberry bioactives. As an advantage over CEC, the yeast treatment preserves bioactive inositols, and it is an affordable methodology that employs food grade solvents. This work found PLE followed by yeast treatment to be an easily scalable and automatable procedure that can be implemented in the food industry.

  14. Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal potential of ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica leaves

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    Md. Saifuddin Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a major public health problem in developing countries and is said to be endemic in many regions of Asia. It is a leading cause of high degree of morbidity and mortality. The anti-diarrhoeal potential of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Mimosa pudica Linn (Mimosaceae has been evaluated using several experimental models in Wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extract inhibited castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats and has also reduced gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration. The ethanolic extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg was showed significantly inhibited diarrhoea. There was a significant (P<0.001 dose-dependent decrease in the diarrhoea produced by all the three models in rats as compared to the standard drug. The anti-diarrhoeal property may be related to the tannin and flavonoids present in the extract. These results clearly indicated that ethanolic extract of the leaves of Mimosa pudica is effective against diarrhoeal disease

  15. Sedative and anxiolytic effects of ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irfan Newaz Khan; Md. Mominul Islam Sarker; Marzina Ajrin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate possible anxiogenic activity, sedative property and anxiolytic potential of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves.Methods:evaluated using standard animal behavioral models, such as hole cross and open field; sedative property and anxiolytic potential were evaluated by conducting thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests and elevated plus-maze test. The anxiogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves was Results: The crude ethanolic extract exhibited a significant (P<0.05, P<0.001) decrease of motor activity and exploratory behavior in hole cross and open field tests. The extract also markedly increased both the number of visits to and time spent in the corners of the open field. The extract treated rats spent more time in the open arm of elevated plus-maze, showing its antianxiety activity. There was a decrease in the locomotor activity.Conclusions:The obtained results provide support for the use of this species in traditional medicine and warrant further investigation to isolate the specific components that are responsible for the sedative and anxiolytic effects. Components from this plant may have a great potential value as medicinal agents, as leads or model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modifications and optimization, and as neuropharmacological probes.

  16. Antihyperglycemic activity of extracts from Boldoa purpurascens leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Mosquera, D M; Hernandez Ortega, Y; By, B; Vicet Muro, L; Saucedo Hernandez, Y; Grau Ábalos, R; Dehaen, W; Pieters, L; Apers, S

    2013-05-01

    In order to investigate the potential use of Boldoa purpurascens against diabetes, the antihyperglycemic effect of an ethanol extract obtained from its leaves was evaluated at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in rats after induction of hyperglycemia by alloxan. Insulin 5 IU/kg was used as positive control and NaCl 0.9% as negative control. A similar experiment was performed with the aqueous extract used at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg using metformin at a dose of 50mg/kg as positive control. Statistical analysis was carried using the Kruskal-Wallis test with an interval of trust of 99%. The ethanolic and aqueous extract of B. purpurascens showed a significant decrease of blood glucose levels 72 h after administration. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of D-pinitol, a compound known for its hypoglycemic properties. In conclusion, ethanolic as well as aqueous extracts of B. purpurascens leaves show antihyperglycemic activity, possibly due to the presence of D-pinitol and flavonoids.

  17. In vitro erythrocyte oxidative damage of Morinda citrifolia L (noni leaves extract

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    Alicia Lagarto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Slight decrease of hemoglobin and erythrocyte count was observed previously after subchronic oral dosing of Morinda citrifolia L leaves extract in rats. Induction of erythrocyte membrane damage could be the cause for these effects. Aims: The objective of this investigation was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of Morinda citrifolia L leaves extract and fractions on rat erythrocytes. Methods: Hemolytic damage was assayed in rat erythrocytes. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring methemoglobin formation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and enzyme antioxidant activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Results: Morinda citrifolia L extract caused no hemolysis and induced oxidative damage to red cells in vitro. Methemoglobin increase was observed at concentration between 2 and 8 mg/ml of the extract. Lipid peroxidation was increased and CAT and SOD activities were depleted indicating a possible increase of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals in erythrocytes. Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol fraction did not cause methemoglobin formation while water fraction increased methemoglobin level at doses up to 6 mg/ml. Conclusions: We concluded that high doses of Morinda citrifolia L extract promote erythrocyte oxidative damage due to metabolites present in water fraction. These could be the cause of decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels observed. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 135-140

  18. Extraction of DNA suitable for PCR applications from mature leaves of Mangifera indica L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Abubakkar AZMAT; Iqrar Ahmad KHAN; Hafiza Masooma Naseer CHEEMA; Ishtiaq Ahmad RAJWANA; Ahmad Sattar KHAN; Asif Ali KHAN

    2012-01-01

    Good quality deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the pre-requisite for its downstream applications.The presence of high concentrations of polysaccharides,polyphenols,proteins,and other secondary metabolites in mango leaves poses problem in getting good quality DNA fit for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications.The problem is exacerbated when DNA is extracted from mature mango leaves.A reliable and modified protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for DNA extraction from mature mango leaves is described here.High concentrations of inert salt were used to remove polysaccharides; Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)and β-mercaptoethanol were employed to manage phenolic compounds.Extended chloroform-isoamyl alcohol treatment followed by RNase treatment yielded 950-1050 μg of good quality DNA,free of protein and RNA.The problems of DNA degradation,contamination,and low yield due to irreversible binding of phenolic compounds and coprecipitation of polysaccharides with DNA were avoided by this method.The DNA isolated by the modified method showed good PCR amplification using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers.This modified protocol can also be used to extract DNA from other woody plants having similar problems.

  19. Synthesis of Anti-Acne Ointment of Ethanol Extract of White Plumeria Leaves (Plumeria Alba L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, D. R.; Zusfahair; Kartika, D.; Lestari, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease pilosebaceous follicle, where the oil- producing glands are clogged and contaminated by bacteria. Propionibacterium acne is one of the bacteria that contributes to the pathogenesis of acne. Acne treatment was done by reducing the population of bacteria using an antibacterial. One of the plants that have antibacterial activity is white plumeria. The ethanol extract of white plumeria leaves contains antibacterial secondary metabolites, which are alkaloids and saponins. The aim of this study is to formulate white plumeria leaves extract into the water leached ointment base. Characteristics of the ointment were determined by evaluating the stability of the ointment including organoleptic, adhesion test, dispersive power test, determination of pH, and the antibacterial activity test. The results showed that the ointment of ethanol extract of white plumeria leaves has some characteristics, semisolid form, white, has distinctive smell of ointment, homogeneous but not protective, has a pH of 4.57 - 6.10, dispersive power of 5.10 - 6.06 cm, the adhesiveness of 1.67 - 3 seconds, and optimum antibacterial activity at concentrations of 5 ppm providing inhibition zone of 24.00 mm.

  20. Extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves using instant controlled pressure drop technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Hassani, Aicha; Besombes, Colette; Allaf, Karim

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, the new extraction process of Détente Instantanée Contrôlée DIC (French, for instant controlled pressure drop) was studied, developed, quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the conventional hydrodistillation method for the extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves. DIC was used as a thermomechanical treatment, DIC subjecting the product to a high-pressure saturated steam. The DIC cycle ends with an abrupt pressure drop towards vacuum, and this instantly leads to an autovaporization of myrtle volatile compounds. An immediate condensation in the vacuum tank produced a micro-emulsion of water and essential oils. Thus, an ultra-rapid cooling of residual leaves occurred, precluding any thermal degradation. An experimental protocol was designed with 3 independent variables: saturated steam pressure between 0.1 and 0.6 MPa, resulting in a temperature between 100 and 160°C, a total thermal processing time between 19 and 221 s, and between 2 and 6 DIC cycles. The essential oils yield was defined as the main dependent variable. This direct extraction gave high yields and high quality essential oil, as revealed by composition and antioxidant activity (results not shown). After this treatment, the myrtle leaves were recovered and hydrodistilled in order to quantify the essential oil content in residual DIC-treated samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed some modification of the structure with a slight destruction of cell walls after DIC treatment.

  1. Antidiarrheal effects of hydromethanolic extract ofCombretum dolichopetalum leaves in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Okwudili Onoja; Nkeiruka Emmanuela Udeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the hydromethanolic extract ofCombretum dolichopetalum (C. dolichopetalum) leaves. Methods: The antidiarrheal activity of the hydromethanolic extract ofC. dolichopetalum leaves was evaluated by inducing diarrhea with castor oil, testing small intestinal motility and establishing enteropooling models in mice. Five groups of animals were used for each model and were treated as follows: Group A received 10 mL/kg of distilled water, and Group B received loperamide (5 mg/kg) while Groups C, D, E received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of hydromethanolicC. dolichopetalumextract, respectively. Results: The pre-treatment of the mice with the extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) caused a significantly dose-dependent decrease in the mean percentage of wet faeces (P 0.05), compared with the negative control. Conclusions: The study shows thatC. dolichopetalum leaves possess antidiarrheal activity and validate its use in ethnomedicine for that purpose.

  2. Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Gajendra; Rao, N Kameswara

    2007-01-01

    Neutral fluorine (F I) lines are identified in the optical spectra of several R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first measurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in some RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance. The overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the synthesis of fluorine. These results are discussed in the light of the scenario that RCBs are formed by accretion of an He white dwarf by a C-O white dwarf. Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr), a final He-shell flash product, shows no detectable F I lines.

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, TOXICITY AND CYTOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF DENDROPTHOE PENTANDRA LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Nik Aina Syazana Nik Zainuddin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendrophthoe pentandra known as mistletoe is a semi-parasitic plant with traditional claims for some medicinal properties. This research was done to determine phytochemical constituents of Dendropthoe petandra (DP leaves extract, to evaluate toxicity of extracts by brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT and to confirm cytotoxicity activity of DPME against various normal cell lines. The most potent extract was then evaluated by GC-MS. DP leaves that have been extracted with petroleum ether (DPPEE, methanol (DPME and water (DPWE were screened for phytochemical constituents. BSLT was carried out to determine the lethality concentration that kills 50% of tested population (LC50. The cytotoxicity was assessed by Methylene Blue Assay (MBA that evaluates the inhibition concentration for cell growth by 50% (IC50. The normal cell lines used were MDCK, L929 and Vero. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannin and terpenoid in those extracts. Highest total phenolic content was found in DPME (471.63±2.02 mg GAE/g. BSLT have determined the lowest LC50 value is 2.74±1.23 ppm in DPME. No IC50 detected when MDCK, L929 and Vero cell line were treated with all extracts. Therefore, this can be concluded that DP extracts did not show any harmful effects towards MDCK, L929 and Vero cell lines although the DPME, DPPEE and DPWE are toxic towards brine shrimp. Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester are among compounds present in DPME. Further studies using mammalian cancer cell lines should be conducted on DP extracts to know if they posses anticancer potential.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaves Growing in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotep, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves growing in Vom, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria was carried out to verify claims by the locals of its medicinal properties. We tested the extract for activity against Staphylococcus aureus (G+, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes (G-. The extract exhibited activity against the organisms in varying degrees. In the agar diffusion test, Y. enterocolitica showed the highest zone of inhibition (18 mm at the highest concentration of extract tested (20 mg/mL while E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 17, 16, 15, 14 and 16 mm respectively. At extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, Y. enterocolitica and P. aeruginosa did not show any zones of inhibition while E.coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 7, 6, 6 and 7 mm respectively. Below extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, there was no zone of inhibition observed with any organism. The MIC of the extract against the organisms was 5 mg/mL except on S. aureus where the MIC was 2.5 mg/mL. The MBC of the extract was 10 mg/mL against Y. enterocolitica, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes, 5 mg/mL against E. coli and S. aureus. Preliminary phytochemical testing revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides while saponins, alkaloids and anthraquinones were not present. The result gives scientific backing to the use of the leaves by the local people in the treatment of conditions usually associated with the organisms tested.

  5. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  6. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Feng, Zeng; Wu, Xinlan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To optimization of extraction of antioxidant compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves and showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. Materials and Methods: The bioactive polysaccharide compounds of guava leaves (P. guajava L.) were obtained using ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Extraction was carried out according to Box-Behnken central composite design, and independent variables were temperature (20–60°C), time (20–40 min) and power (200–350 W). The extraction process was optimized by using response surface methodology for the highest crude extraction yield of bioactive polysaccharide compounds. Results: The optimal conditions were identified as 55°C, 30 min, and 240 W. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging were conducted. Conclusion: The results of quantification showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. PMID:26246720

  7. Antiulcer Activity of Methanol Extract of Erythrina indica Lam. Leaves in Experimental Animals

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    S Sakat Sachin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, which affects approximately 5-10% of people during their life. In recent years, abundant work has been carried out on herbal medicine to clarify their potential efficacy in gastric ulcer prevention or management. Here, present study was carried out to investigate antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Erythrina indica (family: Febaceae leaves in pylorus ligated and indomethacin induced ulceration in the albino rats. Preliminary methanol extract of E. indica was subjected to the acute oral toxicity study according to the OECD guideline no. 423. Based on which, three dose levels i.e. 125, 250 and 500mg/kg were selected for the further study. In pylorus ligation induced ulcer model, various parameters were studied viz. gastric volume, pH, total acidity free acidity, and ulcer index. Ulcer index and percentage inhibition of ulceration was determined for indomethacin induced ulcer model. Ranitidine at 100mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Pretreatment of methanol extract of E. indica leaves showed significant (P< 0.01 decrease in the gastric volume, total acidity and free acidity. However, pH of the gastric juice was significantly (P< 0.05 increased only at higher dose, 500mg/kg. It showed also significant (P< 0.01 decrease in number of ulcers and ulcer score index in pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced ulceration models. The methanol extract of E. indica leaves possess significant antiulcer properties in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion the antiulcer properties of the extract may be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds that are present in it.

  8. Sub-acute oral toxicity study of methanol leaves extract of Catharanthus roseus in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LYW Kevin; AH Hussin; I Zhari; JH Chin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the sub-acute (14 d) oral toxic effects of methanol leaves extract ofCatharanthus roseus (C. roseus) (Family: Apocynaceae) on liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Twenty four female SD rats were used throughout the experiment. The first group was orally treated with distilled water and served as control, whereas the remaining three groups were orally treated with single dose daily of 0.1 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1 g/kg of C. roseus extract, respectively for 14 d. Cage-side observations were done daily. Any animal died during the experiment was dissected for gross organ examination. Body weight changed, food consumption and water intake were recorded weekly. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture on day-15 and used for determination of serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. The relative organ weights were also measured. All results were expressed as mean ± S.E.M and analysed using Dunnett’s test. The level of significance was set at P<0.05 when compared to the control group. Results: Repeated oral administration of 0.5 g/kg and 1 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus caused mortality and diarrhoea in rats after few days of treatment. There were no significant changes observed in serum biochemical markers, body weight changed, water and food intake and relative organ weight in rats treated with a single dose daily of 0.1 g/kg of C. roseus extract treatment for 14 d when compared to control group. Conclusionds: Fourteen days repeated oral administration of 0.1 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus was safe in female SD rats without causing any significant damages to liver and kidney.

  9. Antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts of Dissotis thollonii Cogn. (Melastomataceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ateufack Gilbert; Tadjoua Tchoumbou Herve; Yousseu Nana William; Sama Fonkeng Leonard; Kuiate Jules-Roger; Kamanyi Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phytochemical test and selected pharmacological activities (antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity) of the aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts of Dissotis thollonii Cogn. (Melastomataceae) (D. thollonii). Methods:The aqueous and methanolic extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial activities on the in vitro growth of 2 clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri), and 5 reference bacteria strains [Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 (E. coli), E. coli ATCC 10536, Salmonella typhi ATCC 6539, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 and E. coli ATCC 11775] by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and bactericidal concentrations using broth microdilution method as well as on the infectious, secretory and osmotic induced diarrhoea models in rats. Results:The aqueous extract inhibited the in vitro growth of all bacteria tested (the 05 reference bacteria strains and the 02 clinical isolates), with MICs values comprised between 32 and 512 µg/mL, whereas the methanolic extract has done the same with the MICs values located between 128 and 512 µg/mL. In vivo, the methanolic and aqueous extracts provoqued at all doses, a significant decrease (P Conclusions:The leaves of D. thollonii thus have antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal effects, which could result from their activities on blocking the inhibiting effects of the bacterial enzymes, inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis, allowing the rupture of the lipopolysaccharidic membrane, as well as on inhibiting prostaglandins-E2 synthesis or increasing the hydroelectrolytic reabsorption. These results attestted the ethnopharmacological use of D. thollonii leaves in the treatment of diarrhoea and gastro-intestinal infections.

  10. Ethanopharmacological study of the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali-Abd Alrheam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropisprocera is a member of the plant family Asclepiadaceae, a shrub about 6m high and is widely distributed in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to show some medicinal potentials and biological activity of Calotropisprocera and to discover new natural, safe and effective materials available in the Saudi Arabia environment. Marerial and Methods:The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocerawere investigated for its anti-hyperglycemic effect in Male Wister Albino rats. Diabetes was induced by administration of single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg, I.P. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats as follows: Group I : Normal control, Group II: Diabetic control, Group III: Diabetic rats given Glibenclamide 600 and #956;g/kg, Group IV: Diabetic rats given aqueous leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group V: Diabetic rats given chloroform leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VI: Diabetic rats given ethanol leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VII: Diabetic rats given latex of C. procera200mg/kg b. wt.The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera were administered as single dose per day to diabetes-induced rats for a period of 15 days.The effect of C. proceraon blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile (Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density, and high density lipoprotein also were measured. The activities were also compared to that effect produced by a standard anti-diabetic agent, glibenclamide 500 and #956;g/kg. Results and Discussion:The results showed a significant decrease in the mean level of blood glucose and serum cholesterol, Triglycrides, HDL, LDL. Calotropisprocera appears to be a rich source of phytoconstituents that activate and inhence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the

  11. Insecticidal activities and chemical components of alcohol extract from leaves of Rhodendron dauricum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Mo-long; WANG Tian-miao

    2011-01-01

    The extract from leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. was extracted with 95% alcohol by common method for studying its insecticidal activities. The chemical components of the alcohol extract and relative contents were analyzed by GC-MS. The insecticidal activities of the alcohol extract were tested on the 2nd-3rd instar larvae of Lymantria dispar L. for five days. Five concentrations of the extract samples were designed as 50, 10, 5, 1, and 0.5 g·L-1. The results show that the alcohol extracts from leaves of R. dauricum exhibited insecticidal activities against larvae of L. dispar. The corrected mortality of larvae of L. dispar for was over 50% for both contact toxicity and stomach toxicity at the extract concentration of ≥ 5 g·L-1 after five days of application. The insecticidal activity in contact toxicity is more effect than stomach toxicity for the alcohol extract. Twenty compounds, with total GC relative contents of 93.81% in the alcohol extract from leaves of R. dauricum were identified. The main chemical components in the cxtract are: (1) 4,5-Dihydro-5-oxo-3-(p-tolyl) isoxazole, with a relative content of 40.03%; (2) 1,3-Benzenediol, 5-methyl-2-(3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienyl)-, (E,E)-, the relative content 18.27%; (3) 3,6-Diphenyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-l,8-acridinedione, the relative content 3.89%;(4) 6H-[l ,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]indole, 4a,5,7,8,8a,9-hexahydro-9-methylene-, the relative content 2.99%; (5) 7-Amino-4-methyl-l,8-naphthyridino2-ol, the relative content 2.64%; (6) 4-Methyl-2,6-dihydroxyquinoline, the relative content 2.63%; (7) 2,4,6-Triaminoquilazoline, the relative content 2.27%; (8) 2(1H)-Quinolinone,4-hydroxy-1-methyl-, the relative content 2.02%.

  12. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2014-10-23

    Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water-a "green" extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers.

  13. Antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extract from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Szu-Chin; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Shi, Yeu-Ching; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-05-07

    The antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extracts from leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana were investigated. Free radical, superoxide radical scavenging, and total phenolic content assays were employed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. In addition, in vivo assays using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were also performed in this study. The results showed that among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction has the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Moreover, it decreased significantly the deposition of lipofuscin (aging pigment) and extended the lifespan of C. elegans. Bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded six potent antioxidant constituents from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, namely, catechin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, vanillic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside pretreatment showed the highest survival of C. elegans upon juglone exposure. Taken together, the results revealed that hot water extracts from C. obtusa var. formosana leaves have the potential to be used as a source for antioxidant or delayed aging health food.

  14. Effective protein extraction protocol for proteomics studies of Jerusalem artichoke leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meide; Shen, Shihua

    2013-07-01

    Protein extraction is a crucial step for proteomics studies. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) analysis in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), three different protein extraction methods-trichloroacetic acid/acetone, Mg/NP-40, and phenol/ammonium acetate-were evaluated using Jerusalem artichoke leaves as source materials. Of the three methods, trichloroacetic acid/acetone yielded the best protein separation pattern and highest number of protein spots in 2DE analysis. Proteins highly abundant in leaves, such as Rubisco, are typically problematic during leaf 2DE analysis, however, and this disadvantage was evident using trichloroacetic acid/acetone. To reduce the influence of abundant proteins on the detection of low-abundance proteins, we optimized the trichloroacetic acid/acetone method by incorporating a PEG fractionation approach. After optimization, 363 additional (36.2%) protein spots were detected on the 2DE gel. Our results suggest that trichloroacetic acid/acetone method is a better protein extraction technique than Mg/NP-40 and phenol/ammonium acetate in Jerusalem artichoke leaf 2DE analysis, and that trichloroacetic acid/acetone method combined with PEG fractionation procedure is the most effective approach for leaf 2DE analysis of Jerusalem artichoke.

  15. Chemical Constituents of the Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Leiothrix spiralis Ruhland and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Campaner dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fractionation of the methanolic extract of leaves of Leiothrix spiralis Ruhland afforded the flavonoids luteolin-6-C-b-D-glucopyranoside (1, 7-methoxyluteolin-6-C-b-D-glucopyranoside (2, 7-methoxyluteolin-8-C-b-D-glucopyranoside (3, 4′-methoxyluteolin-6-C-b-D-glucopyranoside (4, and 6-hydroxy-7-methoxyluteolin (5, and the xanthones 8-carboxymethyl-1,5,6-trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (6, 8-carboxy-methyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone (7. Methanolic extract, fractions, and isolated compounds of the leaves of L. spiralis were assayed against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella setubal and Helicobacter pylori and fungi (the yeasts Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis. We observed the best minimum inhibitory concentration values for the methanolic extract against Candida parapsilosis, for the fraction 5 + 6 against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and compound 7 against all tested Candida strains. The methanolic extract contents suggest that this species may be a promising source of compounds to produce natural phytomedicines.

  16. Quantification and comparison of extraction methods for alkaloids in Aegle marmelos leaves by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmase, Aniket; Prasanna, K; Rasabattula, Sruti; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2014-07-01

    The leaves of Aegle marmelos are reported to contain multi-bioactive classes of compounds including coumarins, furanocoumarins and alkaloids. HPLC analysis of the crude extract was challenging due to low concentrations of the compounds in the leaves. Five compounds visible in the HPLC chromatogram were separated and identified by HPLC and further elaborated for quantification as marker compounds of A. marmelos leaves using a C18 column with detection at 275 nm. A gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water was used. The developed HPLC method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.994), high precision (RSD<5%), and good recovery (99.27-99.98%) of the compounds. The lowest detection limit was 5 ng and the method was found to be robust. All the validation parameters were within the permissible limits. Therefore, the developed method is accurate and reliable for the quality control of A. marmelos. This is the first report of extensive quantitative HPLC analysis of marker compounds in A. marmelos leaves and method validation.

  17. Crop species identification using machine vision of computer extracted individual leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Neto, João; Meyer, George E.

    2005-11-01

    An unsupervised method for plant species identification was developed which uses computer extracted individual whole leaves from color images of crop canopies. Green canopies were isolated from soil/residue backgrounds using a modified Excess Green and Excess Red separation method. Connected components of isolated green regions of interest were changed into pixel fragments using the Gustafson-Kessel fuzzy clustering method. The fragments were reassembled as individual leaves using a genetic optimization algorithm and a fitness method. Pixels of whole leaves were then analyzed using the elliptic Fourier shape and Haralick's classical textural feature analyses. A binary template was constructed to represent each selected leaf region of interest. Elliptic Fourier descriptors were generated from a chain encoding of the leaf boundary. Leaf template orientation was corrected by rotating each extracted leaf to a standard horizontal position. This was done using information provided from the first harmonic set of coefficients. Textural features were computed from the grayscale co-occurrence matrix of the leaf pixel set. Standardized leaf orientation significantly improved the leaf textural venation results. Principle component analysis from SAS (R) was used to select the best Fourier descriptors and textural indices. Indices of local homogeneity, and entropy were found to contribute to improved classification rates. A SAS classification model was developed and correctly classified 83% of redroot pigweed, 100% of sunflower 83% of soybean, and 73% of velvetleaf species. An overall plant species correct classification rate of 86% was attained.

  18. IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE SUCCESSIVE EXTRACTS OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA LEAVES

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    M. K. Gupta and Ramesh Kumar Singh*

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of medicinal plant has been emphasized from time to time. It is believed that the drug of natural origin shall play an important role in health care particularly in rural areas of India. Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber .The leaves are alternate and elliptic. Flowers are small and bisexual .The leaves are about 2.5 – 3.2 cm long. Commercially it is cultivated in China & India. Ziziphus mauritiana is small to medium sized spiny tree. Ziziphus mauritiana contains fructose, galactose, malonic acid, malic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and vanillic acid .The antioxidant activities of the plant extract and pure compounds were assessed by Reduction of NBT (Nitro Blue Terazolium and Nitric Oxide Radical Inhibition activity method. The five successive extract (benzene, petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Leaves and one standard (Ascorbic acid were tested for in-vitro antioxidant activity. The result was expressed as IC50 values and percentage inhibition at different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 in µg/ml. The methanol extract showed maximum antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 36.34±0.16µg/ml and percentage inhibition 33.60±0.06, 41.08±0.12, 64.40±1.32, 76.36±0.56, 81.42±0.64 and 87.23±0.04 at 25, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 in µg/ml concentrations respectively.

  19. Comparative evaluation of extraction methods for apoplastic proteins from maize leaves

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    Witzel Katja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins in the plant apoplast are essential for many physiological processes. We have analysed and compared six different infiltration solutions for proteins contained in the apoplast to recognize the most suitable method for leaves and to establish proteome maps for each extraction. The efficiency of protocols was evaluated by comparing the protein patterns resolved by 1-DE and 2-DE, and revealed distinct characteristics for each infiltration solution. Nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis of all fractions was applied to cover all proteins differentially extracted by infiltration solutions and led to the identification of 328 proteins in total in apoplast preparations. The predicted subcellular protein localisation distinguished the examined infiltration solutions in those with high or low amounts of intracellular protein contaminations, and with high or low quantities of secreted proteins. All tested infiltration solution extracted different subsets of proteins, and those implications on apoplast-specific studies are discussed.

  20. Hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma; Nwadike Constance Nnedimma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata (A. capitata) leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Methods:Cholesterol diet was administered to Wistar rats at a dose of 40 mg per 0.2 mL 3 times daily for 14 days while the control received distilled water. These animals were treated with extract of A. capitata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Lipid profiles were observed and compared. Results:Administration of A. capitata caused significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the control (P<0.05) which was dose dependent. Also, it was observed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with the control. Conclusions:This observation suggests that the leaf extract of A. capitata could probably serve as a potential natural product for treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  1. Experimental design in supercritical fluid extraction of cocaine from coca leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachet, A; Christen, P; Gauvrit, J Y; Longeray, R; Lantéri, P; Veuthey, J L

    2000-07-05

    An optimisation procedure for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of cocaine from the leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca was investigated by means of experimental design. After preliminary experiments where the SFE rate-controlling mechanism was determined, a central composite design was applied to evaluate interactions between selected SFE factors such as pressure, temperature, nature and percentage of the polar modifier, as well as to optimise these factors. Predicted and experimental contents of cocaine were compared and robustness of the extraction method estimated by drawing response surfaces. The analysis of cocaine in crude extracts was carried out by capillary GC equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID), as well as by capillary GC coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for peak identification.

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of aqueous ethanol extract of Cestrum nocturnum against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

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    M. Imran Qadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activities of Cestrum nocturnum (Queen of Night was evaluated against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the mice. Aqueous ethanol (30:70 extract of plant was obtained by maceration. Results showed that aqueous ethanol extract of C. nocturnum (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05 hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice. Histopathalogical studied of liver further supported the hepatoprotective effects of C. notrunum. Phyto-chemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and volatile oils. Most of the flavonoids have hepatoprotective activity. Therefore, the hepatoprotective activity of C. nocturnum may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic components. It was concluded from the present study that aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of C. nocturnum has hepatoprotective activity against the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino mice.

  3. Extraction of pectin from Premna microphylla turcz leaves and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Liang, Rui-hong; Liu, Wei; Luo, Shun-jing; Liu, Cheng-mei; Wu, Shuang-shuang; Wang, Zhao-jun

    2014-02-15

    Premna microphylla turcz leaves (PMTL) have been used for preparing a "green tofu" by Chinese for a long history. Chemical composition analysis indicated alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) of PMTL contained high amount of pectin. Water, ammonium oxalate, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide were used to extract different pectic fractions sequentially. Ammonium oxalate was found to be the most effective extracting agent, reflecting on a high yield (20.61%) and a significant change of morphology of AIS. The resulted oxalate-soluble pectin (OXSP) showed high galacturonic acid content (76.15%) and average molecular weight (980.67kDa), low neutral sugar content (6.41%) and degree of methoxylation (14.90%). All of the characteristics have contributed excellent gelling and thickening properties of OXSP. These results may allow an improved use of PMTL as a resource of low-methoxyl pectin, and observation of the morphology of residues can be helpful for evaluating the efficiency of extracting agents.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of alcbholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Moringa olifera Lam leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, Otilia J F; Banji, David; Kavitha, R

    2012-04-01

    Effects of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of the alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of M. olifera were studied on various immune paradigms like delayed type hypersensitivity reaction using SRBC as an antigen, determination of antibody titer, neutrophil adhesion test as an indicator for neutrophil index, total leucocyte count in cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed animals and carbon clearance assay as a measure of phagocytic activity. Hydro-alcoholic extract of M. olifera substantially enhanced cellular immune response, humoral immune response, neutrophil index and phagoctic activity in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg body weight) was efficient in improving immune response. The results suggest that M. olifera has a significant role to play as an immune stimulator.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF ACALYPHA HISPIDA

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    B. Bokshi*, M.A.S. Sayeed, M.I. Ahmed, U.K. Karmakar, S.K. Sadhu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of leaves of Acalypha hispida was evaluated for phytochemical, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, reducing sugars and steroids. Cytotoxic activity was investigated by brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality assay. The extract showed potent cytotoxic effect (LC50 19.95µg/ml which is comparable to standard cytotoxic drug chloramphenicol (LC50 7µg/ml. Antibacterial activity was tested by disk diffusion method. The extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhe and moderate activity against Enterococcus coli, Streptococcus saprophyticus and Streptococcus agalactin whereas Shigella dysentery found resistant at 250µg/disc and 500µg/disc.

  6. Methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile action of acetylcholine on isolated rabbit jejunum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tavershima; Dzenda; Joseph; Olusegun; Ayo; Alexander; Babatunde; Adelaiye; Ambrose; Osemattah; Adaudi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the modulating role of methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves on acetylcholine(ACh)-induced contraction of isolated rabbit jejunum.Methods: Rabbit jejunum segment was removed and placed in an organ bath containing Tyrode’s solution, and its contractions were recorded isometrically.Results: ACh(2.0 × 10-10 g/m L) and the extract(2.0 × 10-4 g/m L) individually increased the frequency of contraction(mean ± SEM) of the isolated smooth muscle tissue by 47.6% ± 9.5% and 77.8% ± 66.5%, respectively. When ACh and the extract were combined, the frequency of contraction of the tissue was increased by 222.2% ± 25.9%, representing a 366.7% increase(P < 0.001) over the effect of ACh alone. Similarly, ACh(2.0 × 10-9 g/m L) and the extract individually increased significantly(P < 0.001) the amplitude of contraction of the tissue by 685.7% ± 61.1% and 455.2% ± 38.1%, respectively. When ACh and the extract were combined, the amplitude of contraction of the tissue rose by 1263.8% ± 69.0%, representing 84.3% increase over the ef ect of ACh alone. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile ef ect of ACh on intestinal smooth muscle, supporting the traditional claim that the plant is purgative.

  7. Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Shode, Francis O.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Elevated uric acid level, an index of gout resulting from the over-activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), increases the risk of developing hypertension. However, research has shown that plant-derived inhibitors of XO and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE), two enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension, respectively, can prevent or ameliorate both diseases, without noticeable side effects. Hence, this study characterized the polyphenolics composition of guava leaves extract and evaluated its inhibitory effect on XO and ACE in vitro. Materials and Methods: The polyphenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD). The XO, ACE, and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities, and free radicals (2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl [DPPH]* and 2,2´-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic [ABTS]*+) scavenging activities of the extract were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Flavonoids were present in the extract in the order of quercetin > kaempferol > catechin > quercitrin > rutin > luteolin > epicatechin; while phenolic acids were in the order of caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid > gallic acids. The extract effectively inhibited XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner; having half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 38.24 ± 2.32 μg/mL, 21.06 ± 2.04 μg/mL and 27.52 ± 1.72 μg/mL against XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively. The extract also strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+. Conclusion: Guava leaves extract could serve as functional food for managing gout and hypertension and attenuating the oxidative stress associated with both diseases. PMID:27104032

  8. Free radical scavenging activity of different extracts and some constituents from the leaves of Ligustrum vulgare and L. delavayanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Milan; Spilková, Jirina; Vrchovská, Vendula; Kontseková, Zuzana; Sersen, Frantisek; Mucaji, Pavel; Grancai, Daniel

    2006-07-01

    The free radical scavenging activity of the water infusions, different organic solvent extracts and some constituents from Ligustrum vulgare and Ligustrum delavayanum leaves was assessed with the aid of DPPH radical. Among the samples screened, water infusions had the strongest free radical scavenging capacity. From the tested compounds scavenging active flavonoid aglycones are present in the most active chloroform fractions from both leaves samples.

  9. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases.

  10. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. leaves' fluid extract on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, J C; Garcia-Diaz, J; Perez-Rosés, R; De la Vega, J; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J

    2014-01-01

    Tamarind leaves are edible; however, their saponin content could be toxic to human blood cells. In this article, the effect of tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) on human blood cells was evaluated by using several tests. Results revealed that TFE did not cause significant haemolysis on human red blood cells even at the lowest evaluated concentration (20 mg/mL). Blood protein denaturalisation ratio was consistently lower than in control at TFE concentrations greater than 40 mg/mL. Erythrocyte membrane damage caused by the action of oxidative H2O2 displayed a steady reduction with increasing TFE concentrations. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement by using flow cytometry assay, leucocyte viability was over 95% at tested concentrations, and a high ROS inhibition was also recorded. Protective behaviour found in TFE should be attributed to its polyphenol content. Thus, tamarind leaves can be regarded as a potential source of interesting phytochemicals.

  11. Comparative antitumor and anti-proliferative activities ofHippophae rhamnoidesL. leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javid Ali; Bashir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antitumor and anti-proliferative activities of methanol, aqueous, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, chloroform andn-hexane extracts ofHippophae rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Antitumor activities were evaluated by using the antitumor potato disc assay by using inoculums (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) with three different concentrations of test samples (10, 100 and 1 000 mg/L). Anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by the given method of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The concentrations of the extract ranging from 0.039 to 10 mg/mL were tested against HeLa cells. Results: Highest tumors inhibition activity (60.9% and 55.8%) was shown by methanol and ethanol extracts, with EC50 values of 424.41 and 434.61 mg/L respectively. At 10 mg/mL, The highest cell inhibition 75.61% was observed in methanol extract and the lowest 36.59% were calculated inn-hexane extract. The difference in tumor and cell inhibition (%) may be due to the different concentration of active compounds responsible for antitumor and anti-proliferative activities. All extracts have considerable level of tumor and cell inhibitiory effect in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions:Our finding showed thatHippophae rhamnoidesleaves are a potent natural source of antitumor and antiproliferative agent.

  12. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves

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    Pritipadma Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clerodendrum viscosum is commonly found in India and Bangladesh. Previously, various parts of this plant were reported for treatment of different types of diseases and there was no report on GC-Ms analysis. Objective: To analyze and characterize the phytochemical compounds of methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum using GC-MS. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract was carried out according to standard procedures described in WHO guidelines. Various bioactive compounds of the extract were determined by GC-MS technique. Results: The presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrate was found on phytochemical screening of methanol extract of the leaves. The GC-MS analysis showed 16 peaks of different phytoconstituents namely acetamide,N,N-carbonylbis-, 4-Pyranone,2,3-dihydro-, alpha-D-Galactofuranoside, methyl 2,3,5,6-tetra-O-methyl-, Glycerin, Xylitol, N,N-Dimethylglycine, 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2(1HPyrimidinone,1-methyl-, 2,4-Dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyrimidine, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone, 1,3-Methylene-d-arabitol, Orcinol, n-Hexadecanoic acid and Phenol,4,4′-(1-methyl ethylidene bis etc. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum suggest the application of this extract for the treatment of various diseases by the aborigine tribes.

  13. Chromatographic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae leaves hydroalcoholic extracts

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    Priscila D. Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. More than 300 composites have already been isolated and azadirachtin (AZA is its main active component. In the present work, Neem leaves hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation in 96% ethanol different concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% (v/v. The presence of AZA was tested by TLC by eluting the extracts and a standard solution of AZA through a chromatographic plate developed with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid solution followed by heating. By HPLC, extracts elution took place on a C18 column, water:acetonitrile (60:40 as mobile phase, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at λ217 nm. The extracts did not display AZA spots or peaks, however, they were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and a mold fungus. The extracts were tested in different increasing concentrations, in order to detect a dose-dependent relationship of the activity. Despite the absence of AZA, the 70% and 80% (v/v ethanol extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, this activity was not dose-dependent according to Tukey's test (q0,05;3;7.

  14. Antiulcerogenic effect and acute toxicity of a hydroethanolic extract from the cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Nzi André; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne

    2007-06-13

    The antiulcerogenic effect of a hydroethanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale L. leaves was investigated. The extract inhibited gastric lesions induced by HCl/ethanol in female rats. A dose-response effect study showed that the ED50 was 150 mg/kgb.w. Extract doses higher than 100 mg/kgb.w. were more effective than 30 mg/kg of lansoprazol in inhibiting gastric lesions. A methanolic fraction (257.12 mg/kg) which reduced gastric lesion at 88.20% is likely to contain the active principle of the antiulcer effect. No signs of acute toxicity were observed when mice were treated with extract dose up to 2000 mg/kgb.w. A chemical analysis of the extract allowed the identification of phenolic compounds as the major components. Glycosylated quercetin, amentoflavone derivate and a tetramer of proanthocyanidin were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The level of total phenolics in the extract was evaluated at 35.5% and flavonoid content was 2.58%.

  15. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Ziziphus nummularia Leaves Aqueous Extract and Their Biological Activities

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    Farhat Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles of Ziziphus nummularia leaves extract were synthesized and were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, SEM, TGA, and EDX. The XRD pattern reveals the FCC structure of Ag nanoparticles. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of Ag-O bonding. UV-Visible spectroscopy results confirmed the existence of Ag because of the particular peak in the region of 400–430. The SEM analysis confirmed spherical and uniform Ag nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 30 nm to 85 nm. The EDX analysis revealed strong signals in the silver region and confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. The antioxidant potential and antifungal and antimicrobial potential of the leaf extract and silver nanoparticles were also determined. The antioxidant property was determined using DPPH assay. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties were better for the silver nanoparticles than the aqueous leaf extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal (MBC, and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of plant extract and prepared silver nanoparticles were also tested. The hair growth properties of plant extracts and their respective nanoparticles were observed and good results were noted for nanoparticles as compared to the leaf extract.

  16. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-05

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0 ± 0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64 kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant.

  17. Phytochemical study and evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of extracts from Clusia latipes leaves

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    Natalia Bailón-Moscoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some species of the Clusia genus have been shown to have important biomedical properties, including the ability to inhibit tumor growth in vitro and the usefulness for skin care. In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effect of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from Clusia latipes Planch. & Triana, Clusiaceae, leaves on survival of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3, colon cancer cells (RKO, astrocytoma cells (D-384, and breast cancer cells (MCF-7. The ethyl acetate extract displayed the most substantial cytotoxic effect. However, using a Comet assay, we observed that the hexane extract induced a genotoxic effect (DNA damage on human lymphocytes in an in vitro model. Chromatographic purification of the C. latipes hexane extract led to the isolation and identification of friedelin, friedolan-3-ol, and hesperidin as active cytotoxic compounds in hexane extract, while β-amyrine was identified as an active cytotoxic compound in the ethyl acetate extract of C. latipes, thereby supporting further studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of these secondary metabolites on cancer cell survival.

  18. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

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    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  19. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneluc, Taíse; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; de Almeida, Gisele Nunes; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribé; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2009-12-01

    The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL(-1)). In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg(-1), during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 microg.kg(-1)) and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL(-1). Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction.

  20. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL SHAMPOO FROM ZIZIPHUS SPINA LEAVES EXTRACT

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    Ali Heyam Saad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic preservatives and detergents have sometimes been the cause of adverse effects among consumers. A more radical approach in reducing the synthetic ingredients is by incorporating natural extract whose functionality is comparable with their synthetic ingredients. Selection of Ziziphus spina cristi (Z. spina cristi leaves extract was based on its particular properties such as antimicrobial and detergent activities. This study aimed to formulate a self preserving shampoo having low concentration of the detergent using Ziziphus spina cristi leaves with emphasis on safety and efficacy; will avoid the risk posed by chemical ingredients. Formulation of three investigated shampoos was prepared containing different amounts of Ziziphus spina cristi extract and sodium laureth sulfate as a surfactant. Evaluation of organoleptic, physicochemical and performance tests were performed and compared with herbal marketed product (Cedr shampoo®, Sehat Company, Iran. The results indicated that F2 and F3 produced clear shampoos and their averaged pH values were in the range of 5.59-6.25 which were suitable to retain the acidic mantle of scalp. They provided stable foam, surface tension reduction, good cleaning and wetting effect and have pseudo plastic rheological behavior. Moreover, the aesthetic attributes, such as lather and clarity were comparable with the marketed shampoos. The foam volume was on a par and formulas showed higher detergency and foaming effects than the commercial herbal one (p< 0.05. Moreover they can be considered safe to children since less chemical contents were used and no side effects observed after application.

  1. Bronchospasmolytic activity of the extract and fractions of Asystasia gangetica leaves

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    A C Ezike

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The bronchospasmolytic constituent of leaves of Asystasia gangetica (L. T. Anderson, sub-specie micrantha (Nees Ensermu (Acanthaceae was isolated by bio-activity-guided technique. The bronchospasmolytic effect of the fractions of the leaf extract as well as the isolate AG-1 was evaluated using histamine-induced contraction of the guinea pig trachea and pre-contracted trachea (pathological tissue. The results showed that the fractions and AG-1 inhibited contractions of the guinea pig trachea induced by histamine in a dose dependent manner. The isolated constituent, (AG-1 caused 82% inhibition of maximal contraction produced by histamine at a concentration of 400μg/ml. On histamine (8μg/ml pre-contracted trachea, cumulative doses of the fractions evoked a dose dependent relaxation.  Phytochemical analysis showed that the isolated compound (AG-1 tested positive to terpenoids while the fractions contained typical constituents such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and glycosides. These findings suggest that the usefulness of leaves of A. gangetica in the treatment of asthma may derive from bronchospasmolytic effect of terpenoid compounds in the leaves.   Industrial relevance: Asthma is currently a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in both children and adults; a prevalence rate of 5 – 10% has been reported for Nigeria.  Drugs used in the management include bronchodilators which are short-term relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs which are long-term controllers. Despite the availability of oral and inhaled medications, the prevalence of asthma is on the rise (NHLBI/WHO 1995. The challenge of developing new effective, safe and long lasting antiasthmatic drugs from natural products appears inevitable. The leaves of Asystasia gangetica L. (T. (Acanthaceae, a traditional anti-asthma remedy, offer great potential for the development of a novel anti-asthmatic agent. The leaves have been shown to possess

  2. Corrosion Inhibition by Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract for 304 SS in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, S.; Kurniawan, F.

    2016-04-01

    The inhibition effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract on the corrosion phenomena of 304 SS in 1 M HCl has been studied by polarization potentiodynamic. The powder of T. diversifolia was extracted by demineralized water which was cultivated in East Java, Indonesia. The extract was characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer. The presence of T. diversifolia can inhibit the corrosion rate of 304 SS. The efficiency inhibition value of 2 g/L T. diversifolia leaves extract reached up to 77.27% at room temperature.

  3. In vitro free radical scavenging and DNA damage protective property of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, S N; Anilakumar, K R

    2014-08-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), an everyday spice in the Indian kitchen is known to add flavor to the cuisine. It is an annual herb belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbellifera) family. The hydro-alcohol extract of Coriandrum sativum L. at the dose of 1 mg/ml was subjected to a series of in vitro assays viz. 2, 2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid, reducing power and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging in order to study its antioxidant efficacy in detail. The amount of flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract was found to be 44.5 μg and that of the total phenols was 133.74 μg gallic acid equivalents per mg extract. The extracts of the leaves showed metal chelating power, with IC50 values, 368.12 μg/ml where as that of standard EDTA was 26.7 μg/ml. The IC50 values for 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging was 222 μg/ml where as that of standard ascorbic acid was 22.6 μg/ml. The NO scavenging activity of the extract of the leaves showed IC50 value of 815.6 μg/ml; at the same time the standard BHA had 49.1 μg/ml. All the plant extracts provided DNA damage protection; however, the protection provided at the dose of 8 μg/ml was comparable to that of standard gallic acid. The Coriandrum sativum leaf extract was able to prevent in vitro lipid peroxidation with IC50 values; 589.6 μg/ml where as that of standard BHA was 16.3 μg/ml. Our results also showed significant ferric reducing power indicating the hydrogen donating ability of the extract. This study indicated the potential of the leaf extract as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals that could be of use in food industry with potential application to reduce oxidative stress in living system.

  4. NEPHROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF EHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ELEPHANTOPHUS SCABER LEAVES ON ALBIO RATS

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    Sahoo Himanshu Bhusan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In traditional medicine, different parts of Elephantopus scaber Linn are highly valued for the treatment of array of human diseases including cardiotonic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory activity etc. In the present study, single oral dose (200-600 mg/kg/day for 7 days of ethanolic leaf extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn. Leaves were studied for its nephroprotective effect on albino rats. In the study of gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity, thirty adult male Wistar rats were evenly divided into five groups of six animals each. The treated groups, which were pretreated with the dose of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight per day of leaf extract respectively one hour before each dose of the nephrotoxicants for seven days and compared with control group. On 7th day, the blood samples of all the groups were taken for biochemical examination on different parameters i.e. serum levels of urea, protein and creatinine, as well as quantitative ionic estimation of some ions like sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate etc. Histological analysis of rat kidneys and body weight as well as kidney wt were also observed. In the study of gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity on rats, the dose of tested extract at 200–600 mg/kg/day significantly (p < 0.01 decreases the levels of serum creatinine, total protein and serum urea but shows slightly increase on the electrolyte levels in dose dependent manner. The nephroprotective effect of Elephantopus scaber could be due to flavonoid content and the inherent antioxidant moieties in the extract. The ethanolic extract of Eelphantopus scaber leaves could constitute a lead to discovery of a novel drug for the treatment of drug-induced Nephrotoxicity.Key words: Elephantopus scaber Linn, gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicities, serum creatinine, serum urea, nephroprotective effect.

  5. Cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects of the methanol extract Struchium sparganophora Ktze (Asteraceae leaves

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    B A Ayinde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global research into medicinal plants used in treating tumor-related ailments has become imperative due to the emergence of various forms of cancer diseases. Usually consumed as a vegetable, Struchium sparganophora is indicated in traditional herbal medicine as one of the plants used in treating tumor-related ailments. Materials and Methods: This claim was examined using bench-top assay methods involving the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the leaves to tadpoles of Raniceps ranninus at 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml. Also, the growth inhibitory effects of the extract on guinea corn radicle at 0.5, 1.0, 2 and 4 mg/ml in addition to evaluation of the phytochemical constituents of the leaves was performed. After 24 h, the crude extract and the chloroform fraction produced the highest cytotoxicity of 96.67 ± 4.71%, each at a concentration of 80 μg/ml, while the aqueous fraction produced 100% cytotoxicity at a concentration of 20 μg/ml. Results: The crude extract had an LC50 of 26 μg/ml, the chloroform fraction had 6.25 while the aqueous fraction had 5 μg/ml. On the inhibition of the guinea corn radicle growth, after 96 h, the controls had an average length of 67.81 ± 2.6 mm, whereas the seeds treated with 4 mg/ml of the crude extract had an average length of 35.83 ±1.75 mm, indicating 47.81% reduction in length. At the same concentration, the chloroform and the aqueous fractions showed 32.51 and 43.81% inhibitions. The plant material was observed to contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids, with no traces of anthracene derivatives. Conclusion: The results suggest the probable use of the plant in preparing recipes for tumor-related ailments.

  6. Evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic activity in an Aqueous Extract obtained from Bauhinia forficata leaves

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    Giovanna Christina Costa Mazzeo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia forficata Link, popularly known as pata-de-vaca, unha-de-vaca, casco-de-vaca, has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. Leaves of B. forficata are used in popular medicine as a diuretic, hypoglycemic, tonic and cleanser, and to combat elephantiasis. However, despite the wide range of ethnopharmacological data surrounding the plant, there are no scientific data demonstrating a probable anti-ulcerogenic activity conferred by use of that species. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiulcer properties of an infusion of fresh leaves of B. forficata Link. From the leaves of B. forficata, an Aqueous extract (AqE was obtained and the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonols in this extract. In the gastric ulcer induced by administration of HCl-Ethanol model performed with four different doses of AqE (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg.Kg-1, the AqE showed significant preventive activity (*p<0.01 at doses of 1000 mg.Kg-1. The antiulcer activity of AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 could also be demonstrated in experimental models of NSAID-bethanechol (**p<0.001 and absolute ethanol (**p<0.001. Moreover, AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 promoted a significant increase (**p<0.001 in the amount of gastric mucus. The data presented here demonstrated the potential gastroprotective activity from AqE, possibly attributed to the presence of flavonols in this extract. These results may serve as a support for the development of new treatments related to the pathology of gastric ulcer.Keywords: Gastric ulcer. Cytoprotection. Flavonoids. Bauhinia forficata.  

  7. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghassan Mohammad Sulaiman; Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed; Thorria Radam Marzoog; Ahmed Abdul Amir Al-Amiery; Abdul Amir H Kadhum; Abu Bakar Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line.Methods:Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Results: UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50 ° and 44.76 °. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  8. IMPACT OF VERMICOMPOST EXTRACT APPLICATION INTO SOIL AND ON PLANT LEAVES ON MAIZE PHYTOMASS FORMATION

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    Peter Kováčik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in scientific literature many opposing data are presented of the impacts of vermicompost extract on the quantity and quality of crop production. Therefore, the principal objective of two independent experiments was to study the effects of vermi-extracts, which were applied before maize sowing into soil and during the growing season on the maize leaves, on its phytomass formation. The first, field experiment consisted of 9 variants. Variant 1 was the control one without the extract application. We studied the effect of the rising doses (90, 130, 170, 210 dm3·ha-1 of vermi-extract applied into soil before the maize sowing in the variants E1, E2, E3, E4. In the variants E1+E, E2+E, E3+E, E4+E along with the rising doses of vermi-extract was also applied the uniform dose of vermi-extract (40 dm3·ha-1 at the growth stage BBCH 15. The second, pot experiment was pursued in the vegetation cage and comprised 3 variants: variant 1 was the control, in the variants 2 and 3 the foliar application of vermi-extract was used. The vermi-extract was applied once (growth stage BBCH 12 in the variant 2 and in the variant 3 it was used twice (at growth stages BBCH 12 and BBCH 16. The achieved results show that the vermi-extract applied in the presowing period increased the yield of maize grains if the application doses were 130–170 dm3·ha-1. The positive or negative impact of the foliar application by vermi-extract on the yield of maize grains depended on the period of application and the grown cultivar. In order to increase the starch content in grains it was more suitable to carry out the presowing vermi-extract application than during the growing season. The presowing application and the foliar application of vermi-extract tended to decrease the nitrogen content in grain. The foliar application of vermi-extract had the positive impact on the plant height and stalk thickness of the maize plants only in short term. The information obtained from the

  9. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Mishra, Vijay; Raut, Sushil; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Jain, Sunil K

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves (HTI) along with its possible mode of action. The anti-inflammatory activity of HTI was estimated by carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in male Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, HTI was assessed to determine its effects on membrane stabilization. The antinociceptive action was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and the hot plate model. Oral administration of HTI at the dose of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body weight produced significant (Pindica as were mentioned in Indian traditional and folklore practices.

  10. Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek; Montoro, P.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on Ginkgo biloba have appeared, and about 400 of them pertain to chemical analysis in a broad sense and are cited herein. The more important ones are discussed and, where relevant, compared with the b...

  11. Punica granatum leave extract as green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in Hydrochloric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Abboud Y.; Chagraoui A.; Tanane O.; El Bouari A.; Hannache H.

    2013-01-01

    Leave of Punica granatum extract (LPGE) as green inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 1M HCl solution was studied using weight-loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results obtained revealed that LPGE has fairly good inhibiting properties for mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution, with efficiency of around 94 % at a concentration of 1 g/l. The inhibition was of a mixed anodic–cathodic nature. The film which is formed over the metal surface was analysed by FT-IR spe...

  12. Antioxidative properties of Thymus vulgaris leaves: comparison of different extracts and essential oil chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzola, Remigius; Michitsch, Hanneliese; Franz, Chlodwig

    2008-08-27

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) is a subshrub from the Lamiaceae family with plants that are rich in essential oils and antioxidative phenolic substances. Twelve accessions originating from southern France and the variety 'Deutscher Winter' were grown in an experimental field in eastern Austria. Leaf samples from these plants as well as from a commercial thyme rich in thymol were analyzed for their essential oil and the antioxidative potential in various extracts. The assays for antioxidative activity were the total phenolics according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method, DPPH decoloration, and Fe(3+) reduction (FRAP). Both extraction techniques used, in the water bath at 40 degrees C and in the ultrasonic bath at room temperature, proved to be efficient. The best results were obtained with 60% ethanol as extractant. In the comparison of the different accessions the less active and the most active of these extracts differed by factors of 2.1 and 2.6 in the total phenolics and FRAP assay, respectively, and by factors 1.5-2.0 in the DPPH assay. Rosmarinic acid accounted for 22-55% of the antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extracts. Essential oils with high proportions of the phenolic components thymol and/or carvacrol showed the highest antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts from the residues after distillation were considerably lower in antioxidant activity than the respective extracts from the dried leaves. Extracts with CH2Cl2 in the ultrasonic bath contained volatiles in proportions close to the essential oil but displayed very low antioxidant activity.

  13. Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Extract of Luffa aegyptiaca (Sponge gourd Leave Sample from Northern Nigeria: A Short Communication

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    Mhya DH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of the leaves of Luffa aegyptiaca was preliminary screened with the aim of assessing the availability of some biologically active compounds. Pulverized leaves sample of Luffa aegyptiaca was extracted with water; the filtrate was concentrated on water bath and then air-dried at 25oC. The prepared aqueous-extract was used for the phytochemical screening study which was carried out using standard methods. The phytochemicals screened from the aqueous extract of Luffa aegyptiaca showed positive result for flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycoside compounds. These compounds found in the aqueous extract of Luffa aegyptiaca leaves may have a wide range of biological activities which could of pharmaceutical importance.

  14. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction.

  15. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves

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    Salazar Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 μg of venom kg-1 b.m. lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1 and quercetrin (2. The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY. A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 μmol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract.

  16. Inhibition of Penicillium digitatum by a crude extract from Solanum nigrum leaves

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    Musto, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous crude extract from Solanum nigrum lyophilized leaves was evaluated for its phytochemical composition and antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum, the causative agent of green mold of citrus fruit. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of some bioactive substances such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, etc. The extract showed a remarkable inhibition zone against the pathogen in agar well diffusion assays carried out in Petri plates. Storage of the extract at 4 °C for 60 days had no effect on its in vitro antifungal activity. Further, the extract was tested for its in vivo (preventive- and curative treatments antifungal activity on lemons wound-inoculated with P. digitatum. An important preventive antifungal effect was observed after 7 days of storage (100% of inhibition, although this activity decreased after 14 and 21 days (85.71 and 57.14% of inhibition, respectively. A slight curative antifungal activity was observed only after 7 days of storage (14.29% of inhibition. Preliminary findings from this study may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the lemon fruits from postharvest fungal diseases.

  17. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

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    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  18. Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni fruit, leaves and root extracts

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    Mandukhail Saf-ur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F, leaves (Mc.Cr.L and roots (Mc.Cr.R. Results Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption. Conclusions These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia.

  19. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of methylxanthines from maté tea leaves

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    Saldaña M.D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylxanthines are alkaloids found in natural products such as tea, coffee and guaraná. These alkaloids are commonly used in cola drinks and pharmaceutical products due principally to their stimulant and diuretic effects on the human organism. In this work, experimental data on the supercritical CO2 extraction of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine from herbal maté tea, a beverage traditionally consumed by the gauchos of southern Brazil, the Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay, were obtained using high pressure extraction equipment that allows adequate control of temperature and pressure. The continuous extraction/fractionation of maté tea leaves, Ilex paraguariensis in natura using carbon dioxide was carried out at 313.2 and 343.2 K and pressures of 13.8 and 25.5 MPa. Extraction/fractionation curves revealed the large influence of temperature and pressure on extraction yield. CO2 was also found to show a higher selectivity for caffeine than for theophylline and theobromine.

  20. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in different extracts of an endemic plant Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franelyne Pataueg Casuga; Agnes Llamasares Castillo; Mary Jho-Anne Tolentino Corpuz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and characterize the chemical composition of the different crude extracts from the leaves of Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) (B. luzonica), an endemic plant in the Philippines. Methods: The air dried leaves were powdered and subjected to selective sequential extraction using solvents of increasing polarity through percolation, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol to obtain three different extracts. Then, each of the extracts was further subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Qualitative determination of the different biologically active compounds from crude extracts of B. luzonica using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry revealed different types of high and low molecular weight chemical entities with varying quantities present in each of the extracts. These chemical compounds are considered biologically and pharmacologically important. Furthermore, the three different extracts possess unique physicochemical characteristics which may be attributed to the compounds naturally present in significant quantities in the leaves of B. luzonica. Conclusions: The three extracts possess major bioactive compounds that were identified and characterized spectroscopically. Thus, identification of different biologically active compounds in the extracts of B. luzonica leaves warrants further biological and phar-macological studies.

  1. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF MAYTENUS EMARGINATA (WILLD. DING HOU LEAVES

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    Poonia Lalita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus emarginata (Willd. Dind Hou belongs to family Celastraceae, is an evergreen tree that tolerates various types of stresses of the desert, locally known as “Kankero”. Maytenus emarginata has been used for fever, asthama, rheumatism and gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Maytenus emarginata was investigated in rats to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity by using aspirin induced gastric ulcer pyloric ligation model. The parameters taken to assess anti-ulcer activity were volume of gastric secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. In present study the orally administered alcoholic extract significantly (P < 0.05 increases pH and decreases the volume of gastric acid secretion, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index with respect to control at a dose of 125 and 187 mg/kg body weight. This study lend support to the traditional use of Maytenus emarginata as antiulcerogenic.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves extract on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    K. Dass

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic and chemical insecticides to control mosquitoes result in environment hazards and development of resistance in vector species. This research work is about an alternative mosquito control method that is considered as safe to environment and non-target species and also bio-degradable. Hence an attempt was made to study the larvicidal effect of the extract of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves on III and IV instar larva and pupa of Culex quinquefasciatus. The LC50 value of Murraya exotica for III and IV instar larvae and pupae is 135.539 ppm, 154.361 ppm and 178.571 ppm respectively. Likewise for Lawsonia inermis it is 139.057 for III instar, 163.630 for IV instar and 188.151 for the pupa. Of these, two plants Murraya exotica plant extract is more effective than the Lawsonia inermis.

  3. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Chenopodium quinoa leaves extracts - in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Sułkowski, Maciej; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara; Czyż, Jarosław

    2013-07-01

    The nutraceutical potential of Chenopodium quinoa Leaves (ChL) was assessed through analyses of their phenolic content, elucidation of the effect of ChL phenolic compounds on cancer cell properties and estimation of their antioxidative activity, bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro. Considerable amounts of ferulic, sinapinic and gallic acids, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and rutin were observed in the chemical ChL extract and were linked with its inhibitory effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation, motility and cellular competence for gap junctional communication. Both extracts, chemical and obtained after simulated digestion, exerted an inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase activity, paralleled by their considerable chelating, antioxidative, antiradical and reducing power. These observations indicate that phenolic ChL compounds may exert a chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic effect on oxidative stress and ROS-dependent intracellular signaling via synergic effects. The relatively high potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the compounds probably responsible for these effects demonstrates the suitability of ChL for dietary supplementation.

  4. Visible light absorption and photo-sensitizing properties of spinach leaves and beetroot extracted natural dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D; Mondal, B; Mukherjee, K

    2015-09-05

    Herein, chlorophyll and betalain dyes are extracted from fresh spinach leaves and beetroots. Fourier transform infrared spectra are used to identify the characteristic peaks of the extracted dyes. UV-vis light absorption characteristics of the dyes and their mixed counterpart are investigated by varying their pH and temperature. These dyes are used as photo sensitizer for fabrication of zinc oxide photo-anode based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photo-voltaic characteristics of the developed DSSCs are measured under simulated solar light (power of incident light 100 mW cm(-2) from Air Mass 1.5G). The solar to electric conversion efficiencies for the chlorophyll, betalain and mixed dye based solar cells are estimated as 0.148%, 0.197% and 0.294% respectively. The highest conversion efficiency for mixed dye based solar cell is attributed due to the absorption of wider range of solar spectrum.

  5. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

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    Badrul Alam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities ofthe methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL. Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO- as well as  inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p

  6. Frozen storage stability of beef patties incorporated with extracts from ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihani, S F S; Tan, Thuan-Chew; Huda, Nurul; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-07-15

    In Malaysia, fresh ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus) are eaten raw with rice. In this study, beef patties incorporated with extracts of ulam raja (UREX) and commercial green tea extract (GTE) added individually at 200 and 500 mg/kg were stored at -18°C for up to 10 weeks. Lipid oxidation, cooking yield, physicochemical properties, textural properties, proximate composition and sensory characteristics of the beef patties were compared between those incorporated with UREX, GTE and the control (pure beef patty). Incorporation of UREX or GTE at 500 mg/kg into beef patties reduced the extent of lipid oxidation significantly (P0.05) on the colour, pH, proximate composition and overall sensory acceptability of the patties.

  7. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Antidermatophytic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Raamphal Plant (Annona reticulata Aqueous Leaves Extract

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    P. Shivakumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Annona reticulata leaf aqueous extract. The biosynthesised silver nanoparticles were confirmed by visual observation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of dark brown colour indicated the synthesis of silver in the reaction mixture. The silver nanoparticles were found to be spherical, rod, and triangular in shape with variable size ranging from 23.84 to 50.54 nm, as evident by X-ray diffraction studies, TEM. The X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and TEM analysis indicate that the particles are crystalline in nature. The nanoparticles appeared to be associated with some chemical compounds which possess hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, confirmed by FTIR. This is the first and novel report of silver nanoparticles synthesised from Annona reticulata leaves extract and their antidermatophytic activity.

  8. ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF ETANOLIC EXTRACT OF BAY LEAVES (SYZYGIUM POLYANTHUM [WIGHT.] WALP.

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    Abd. Malik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia people have been used of Bay Leaves (S. polyanthum [Wight.] Walp. to treat of antidiarrhea, cholesterol, hypertension, gastritis, and diabetes mellitus. Extrac of Bay Leaves can be inhibit growth of Escherichia coli, Vibrio Cholera, and Salmonella sp. It’s the bacterium that produce an entherotoxin so as to cause diarrhoea. Bioassay of antidiarrheal activity by using transit intestinal method and mice (Mus musculus as an animal model induced by castor oil. The mice were grouped into five groups. Group I is received Na-CMC as control, group II, III, and IV are received of Ethanolic Extract of Bay Leaves (EEBL with concentration 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively and group V as positive control by received Loperamide-HCl. The charcoal used to marker as indicators. The result of the test indicate that EEBL have antidiarrheal activity to animal model. Refers to analysis of variant p=0.05, showing that concentration 30% has an activity non significant with loperamide-HCl as positive control.

  9. Free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Luffa cylindrica leaves

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    Neeraj Kant Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Free radicals contribute to more than one hundred disorders in humans including atherosclerosis, hypertension, arthritis, ischemia, gastritis, central nervous system injury, reperfusion injury of many tissues, cancer, Alzheimer′s disease, Parkinsonism, diabetes mellitus and AIDS. There is considerable evidence that antioxidants could help to prevent these diseases because they have the capacity to quench free radicals. Aim: Free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of the leaves of Luffa cylindrica (MELC was evaluated in various in vitro systems. Materials and Methods: The methods were extensively reviewed and free radical scavenging activity was performed by employing various in-vitro assay methods like DPPH, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activities. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Dunnett′s multiple comparison test and were expressed as mean ± SE of three observations. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: In all the studies, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals. The preliminary phytochemical screening of MELC indicated the presence of terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids and glycosides. The extract was found to contain 53.78 ± 1.01 =g/mg total polyphenolics expressed as GAE (micrograms per milligram of GAE. Conclusion: The results of the study suggested that the methanolic extract of the leaves of Luffa cylindrica possessed a significant scavenging effect with increasing concentrations probably due to its antioxidant potential and could serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants effective in treatments against free radical mediated diseases.

  10. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic study of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. leaves extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leila Mousavi; Rabeta Mohd Salleh; Vikneswaran Murugaiyah; Mohd Zaini Asmawi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (O. tenui-florum) leaves used in the traditional medicine management of diabetes in Malaysia. Methods: O. tenuiflorum leaves were extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were evaluated in terms of antidiabetic activity by using acute, subcutaneous glucose tolerance, and sub-chronic tests in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extracts were also subjected to phytochemical analyses. Results: With an acute dose (1 g/kg), the methanol extracts showed significant reduction (31%) in fasting blood glucose (FBG) of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The FBG-decreasing effect of ethyl acetate extract was more rapid than that of the other extracts;the decreasing rates were 20%after 2 h, 21%after 3 h, and 8%after 5 and 7 h. After 7 h (31%), the effect of methanol extract on FBG was significantly lower than that of metformin. In the subcutaneous glucose tolerance test, only methanol and hexane extracts showed the similarity of metformin in diabetic rats. After 14 days, the effects of these extracts were similar to those of metformin (63.33%). The total flavonoid and phenolic contents of extracts decreased as the polarity of the extraction solvent increased. Conclusions: The results obtained provide support for a possible use of O. tenuiflorum leaves in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications associated with it in type 2 diabetic.

  11. Extraction, isolation, characterization, semi-synthesis and antiplasmodial activity of Justicia adathoda leaves

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    Sivaperumal Gopalan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to investigate the new sources of antimalarial drugs which are more effective against Plasmodium falciparum. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of vasicinone, vasicine and 9-oxo-1, 2, 3, 9-tetrahydropyrrolo [2,1-b]quinazolin-3-yl acetate (VA-1. Vasicinone and vasicine were extracted from the leaves of Justicia adhatoda. The novel compound VA-1 was synthesized from alkaloid the alkaloid vasicine, which was isolated from the ethanol extract of J. adhatoda leaves. Vasicine (IC50 = 89.8 µg/mL and vasicinone (IC50 = 38.9 µg/mL showed moderate antiplasmodial activity whereas the compound VA-1 ( IC50 = 06.0 µg/mL showed excellent antiplasmodial activity when compared with standard drug chloroquine (IC50 = 12.6 µg/mL. The results achieved suggest that both isolated and semi-synthetic compounds may serve as a lead compound to antiplasmodial activity. Further, the compound VA-1 is for the first time reported for antiplasmodial activity with IC50 value.

  12. Sub-chronic safety evaluation of the ethanol extract of Aralia elata leaves in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjin; He, Xiaoli; Niu, Wenying; Feng, Yuenan; Bian, Jingqi; Kuang, Haixue; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-08-01

    Aralia elata Seem. (A. elata) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat some diseases. This investigation aims to evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of the ethanol extract of A. elata leaves, namely ethanol leaves extract (ELE), in Beagle dogs. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, dogs were treated with the ELE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 12 weeks and followed by 4 weeks recovery period. During experimental period, clinical signs, mortality, body temperature, food consumption and body weight were recorded. Analysis of electrocardiogram, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights and histopathology were performed. The results showed that both food consumption and body weight significantly decreased in high-dose group. Treatment-related side effects and mortality were observed in high-dose female dogs. Some parameters showed significant alterations in electrocardiogram, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and relative organ weights. These alterations were not related to dose or consistent across gender, which were ascribed to incidental and biological variability. The findings in this study indicated that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the ELE was 100 mg/kg in dogs and provided a vital reference for selecting a safe application dosage for human consumption.

  13. Sub-Chronic Toxicity study of Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum Phlomidis Leaves

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    Gupta Reena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. has been traditionally used for treatment of gynecological disturbances and for agricultural uses. It has been used in many Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations as an immunomodulatory agent. Irrespective of its widespread use, no data on subchronic toxicity has been described. The present study was designed to access sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves. Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves was given orally at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days for the evaluation of sub-chronic toxicity study. General behavior, mortality, animal body weight, food and water consumption were observed throughout the study period. Hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological analysis were done at the end of study period. No mortality and abnormal behavior was observed in rats exposed to all the three dose levels. Highest dose produced significant decrease in the red blood cell, hemoglobin and increase in white blood cell count. Biochemical parameters like triglycerides, bilirubin, creatinine and total proteins were significantly altered at high dose. Histopathological findings revealed architectural changes in the liver and kidneys with high dose.

  14. Evaluation of protein extraction methods for enhanced proteomic analysis of tomato leaves and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Milca B; Franco, Mônica R; Schmidt, Daiana; Carvalho, Giselle; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2015-09-01

    Proteomics is an outstanding area in science whose increasing application has advanced to distinct purposes. A crucial aspect to achieve a good proteome resolution is the establishment of a methodology that results in the best quality and wide range representation of total proteins. Another important aspect is that in many studies, limited amounts of tissue and total protein in the tissue to be studied are found, making difficult the analysis. In order to test different parameters, combinations using minimum amount of tissue with 4 protocols for protein extraction from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaves and roots were evaluated with special attention to their capacity for removing interferents and achieving suitable resolution in bidimensional gel electrophoresis, as well as satisfactory protein yield. Evaluation of the extraction protocols revealed large protein yield differences obtained for each one. TCA/acetone was shown to be the most efficient protocol, which allowed detection of 211 spots for leaves and 336 for roots using 500 µg of leaf protein and 800 µg of root protein per gel.

  15. Evaluation of protein extraction methods for enhanced proteomic analysis of tomato leaves and roots

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    MILCA B. VILHENA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics is an outstanding area in science whose increasing application has advanced to distinct purposes. A crucial aspect to achieve a good proteome resolution is the establishment of a methodology that results in the best quality and wide range representation of total proteins. Another important aspect is that in many studies, limited amounts of tissue and total protein in the tissue to be studied are found, making difficult the analysis. In order to test different parameters, combinations using minimum amount of tissue with 4 protocols for protein extraction from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. leaves and roots were evaluated with special attention to their capacity for removing interferents and achieving suitable resolution in bidimensional gel electrophoresis, as well as satisfactory protein yield. Evaluation of the extraction protocols revealed large protein yield differences obtained for each one. TCA/acetone was shown to be the most efficient protocol, which allowed detection of 211 spots for leaves and 336 for roots using 500 µg of leaf protein and 800 µg of root protein per gel.

  16. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract from Jacaranda decurrens Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Junior Cesar; Macorini, Luis Fernando Benitez; Antunes, Katia Avila; dos Santos, Uilson Pereira; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Dias-Júnior, Nelson Miguel; Sangalli, Andréia; Lima Cardoso, Claudia Andrea; do Carmo Vieira, Maria; Rabelo, Luiza Antas; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; dos Santos, Edson Lucas; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Leaves of Jacaranda decurrens are used in traditional Brazilian medicine to treat metabolic diseases related to increased reactive oxygen species. The present study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of hydroethanolic extract from the leaves of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata. Experimental Approach Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and saponins were evaluated in an ethanol∶water (80∶20, v/v) extract from the leaves of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata (E-Jds). The antioxidant activity of E-Jds was investigated by assessing the following: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity; protection against 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes; in vitro and in vivo malondialdehyde dosage; and the ability to activate antioxidant enzymes. K562 leukemia cells were used for the cytotoxic evaluation of E-Jds and for the assessment of the cell death profile through flow cytometry. Key Results Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were quantified as 14.38% and 2.15%, respectively, of E-Jds. These phenolic and flavonoid compounds proved to be able to scavenge DPPH free radicals with an IC50 of 9.3±3.3 µg/mL, to protect up to 50% of erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis and to reduce in vitro and in vivo malondialdehyde levels up to 84% and 22%, respectively. E-Jds also increased glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, with a concomitant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, and exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity on K562 erythroleukemia cells with cell death occurring via both late apoptosis and necrosis. Conclusions E-Jds exhibits in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential, which may be the mechanism mediating the metabolic activities reported in folk medicine. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity identified in this study contributes with the knowledge of antiproliferative activities that have been described in

  17. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract from Jacaranda decurrens leaves.

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    Junior Cesar Casagrande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leaves of Jacaranda decurrens are used in traditional Brazilian medicine to treat metabolic diseases related to increased reactive oxygen species. The present study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of hydroethanolic extract from the leaves of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and saponins were evaluated in an ethanol:water (80:20, v/v extract from the leaves of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata (E-Jds. The antioxidant activity of E-Jds was investigated by assessing the following: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity; protection against 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes; in vitro and in vivo malondialdehyde dosage; and the ability to activate antioxidant enzymes. K562 leukemia cells were used for the cytotoxic evaluation of E-Jds and for the assessment of the cell death profile through flow cytometry. KEY RESULTS: Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were quantified as 14.38% and 2.15%, respectively, of E-Jds. These phenolic and flavonoid compounds proved to be able to scavenge DPPH free radicals with an IC50 of 9.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL, to protect up to 50% of erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis and to reduce in vitro and in vivo malondialdehyde levels up to 84% and 22%, respectively. E-Jds also increased glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, with a concomitant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, and exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity on K562 erythroleukemia cells with cell death occurring via both late apoptosis and necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: E-Jds exhibits in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential, which may be the mechanism mediating the metabolic activities reported in folk medicine. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity identified in this study contributes with the knowledge of antiproliferative activities that have

  18. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days.

  19. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

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    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  20. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

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    Fabio F. Perazzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  1. Antifilarial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex negundo leaves in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KN Sahare; V Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the possible antifilarial effect of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) leaves against Setaria cervi filarial parasite in vitro. Methods:In vitro screening was done by the method of motility inhibition and MTT reduction assay with concentrations of 0.03 to 1.00 mg/mL for 2 to 24 h incubation periods respectively, for possible antifilarial effect by comparing with control. Results: In motility assay, complete inhibition of motility was observed and in MTT reduction assay which gave>50%reduction for concentrations 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/mL at 10, 6 and 2 h incubation periods respectively in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). An antifilarial effect imparted by plant extract was found to be a function of their relative concentrations. Inhibitory concentration (IC50) for the plant extract was found to be 0.16 mg/mL. Conclusions:The present study recorded significant antifilarial effect of Vitex negundo plant extract and contributed toward the development of database for novel drug candidates for lymphatic filariasis.

  2. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Chenopodium opulifolium schrad leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Abayomi M.; Tanayen, Julius Khidzee; Magomere, Albert; Ezeonwumelu, Joseph O. C.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Chenopodium opulifolium is a specie of the Chenopodiaceae commonly used as vegetables in local diet and for treating different ailment in Uganda. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of C. opulifolium leaves (AECO). Materials and Methods: The dried leaf of the plant was extracted by maceration in water. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidants, and membrane stabilizing effects were determined in the extract. The extract was then investigated for acute toxicity, antinociceptive (writhing, hot plate and open field test), and anti-inflammatory (egg albumin-induced paw edema) effects in rodents. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, and saponins in AECO. Total caffeic acid derivatives and total flavonoids content were 91.7 mgCAE/g sample and 94.7 mgRE/g sample, respectively. AECO demonstrated antioxidant effects in both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and NO assays. Significant membrane stabilizing activity was observed in both the heat and hypotonic solution-induced lysis of erythrocytes. The acute toxicity test showed that AECO (5000 mg/kg) did not cause any significant change in behavior or death in rats. AECO (100-400 mg/kg) produced a significant antinociceptive effect in both the writhing and hot plate tests, but no significant reduction in the locomotory activity in mice. Furthermore, the extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced egg albumin-induced rat paw edema by 44.2%, 44.5%, and 51.2%, respectively, after 120 min. Conclusion: The results showed that C. opulifolium extract possesses significant antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, and these affirm the reasons for its folkloric use. PMID:28163955

  3. Antioxidant activity of raspberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves extract and its effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Tajik, Raheleh; Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein Haddad

    2015-08-01

    Efficacy of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilizing sunflower oil during accelerated storage has been studied. Extracts of R. fruticosus were prepared in different solvents which methanolic extract yield with 15.43 % was higher than water and acetone ones (11.87 and 6.62 %, respectively). Methanolic extract was chosen to evaluate its thermal stability at 70 °C in sunflower oil, due to the highest yield, antioxidant and antiradical potential and also high content of phenolic compounds campared to other solvents. So, different concentrations of methanolic extract (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 ppm) were added to sunflower oil. BHA and BHT at 200 ppm served as standards besides the control. Peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Moreover, antioxidant activity index (AAI) of the extract at 120 °C at rancimat were conducted. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting the highest efficiency of 1,000 ppm of the extract followed by BHT, BHA and other concentrations of the extract. Results reveal the R. fruticosus leaves extract to be a potent antioxidant for stabilization of sunflower oil.

  4. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits,flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L.from Jaffna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E; Christy; Jeyaseelan; S; Jenothiny; MK; Pathmanathan; JP; Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits,flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis(L against)some pathogenic bacteria.Methods:Powders of fruits,flowers and leaves of L inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane(DCM),ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature.The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method,and also the extracts were tested to detennine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly(P<0.05).The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus)and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa),and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli(E.coli)and Bacillus subtilis(6.subtilis).The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower,fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100μl against all test bacteria.Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  5. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

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    Talha Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%, and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o. and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg (224.82 ± 7.01 and (912.25 ± 27.22 when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17 and (506.67 ± 21.39. HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes.

  6. The Comparative Analysis of Antioxidant and Biological Activity for the Dendropanax morbifera LEV. Leaves Extracted by Different Ethanol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaya; Ra, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The different concentrations of ethanol (20-100%) and distilled water extract for Dendropanax morbifera LEV. leaves were evaluated to induce antioxidant and biological activity employed by variety of assays. The 20%, 80%, and 100% ethanol extract demonstrated the relatively higher activity, whereas distilled water, 40%, and 60% ethanol extracts exhibited the lower antioxidant and biological activity. Especially, 80% ethanol extract showed the remarkably higher radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenol and flavonoid content, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Also, 100% ethanol extract exhibited relatively greater activity, but there did not show significant radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, there were 50% and 30% promotion effect for ADH activity assay and 80% and 40% promotion effect for ALDH activity assay in 80% and 100% ethanol extract, respectively. In addition, in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), all extracts except for distilled water extract inhibited Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Escherichia coli. For Pichia jadinii, whole extracts effectively inhibited yeast multiplication at concentration of 125 μg/mL for 100% ethanol extract and 250 μg/mL for the rest of extract. These result indicated that D. morbifera LEV. leaves extracted by 80% ethanol would be the ideal extracting solution to maximize inherent antioxidant and biological activity agent.

  7. The effect of different solvents and number of extraction steps on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Mikulska, Sylwia; Nagajek, Małgorzata; Świeca, Michał

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine best conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from fresh, frozen and lyophilized basil leaves. The acetone mixtures with the highest addition of acetic acid extracted most of the phenolic compounds when fresh and freeze-dried material have been used. The three times procedure was more effective than once shaking procedure in most of the extracts obtained from fresh basil leaves - unlike the extracts derived from frozen material. Surprisingly, there were not any significant differences in the content of phenolics between the two used procedures in the case of lyophilized basil leaves used for extraction. Additionally, the positive correlation between the phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of the studied extracts has been noted. It is concluded that the acetone mixtures were more effective than the methanol ones for polyphenol extraction. The number of extraction steps in most of the cases was also a statistically significant factor affecting the yield of phenolic extraction as well as antioxidant potential of basil leaf extracts.

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRACT OF SUCCULENT LEAVES OF LIVING PLANT WITH METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BERLERIA LUPULINA LINDL. AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROBES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berleria lupulina Lindl. was evaluated for its reported antimicrobial activity in a novel way. The extract of succulent leaves collected from living plant was studied along with conventional methanolic and watery extracts made from the dry leaves of the plant. The extracts were tested on three pathogenic bacteria and the antimicrobial activity was tested both by conventional single disc diffusion method and a novel Spectrophotometric method. In disc diffusion study, it was found that the methanolic extract (100 mg/ml. and 200 mg/ ml. diluted in 70% of methanol and extract of succulent leaves can induce 12 mm, 13 mm and 14 mm diameter zone of inhibition comparable with 24 mm of Ceftriaxone against Escherichia coli. The zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus were 13 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 25 mm and against Salmonella enteritides were 12 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 28 mm correspondingly. The watery extract made from the dry plant and the methanolic extract diluted in water failed to induce any inhibition in growth of the organisms. In spectrophotometric study, the methanolic extract showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. or above against Salmonella enteritides and Staphylococcus aureus. But against Escherichia coli, effective control was found in 20 mg/ml concentration. The fresh extract of the plant showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 16.5%. The anti microbial efficacy above that concentration cannot be detected in the available spectrophotometrical method for presence of color material in that fresh extract.

  9. EFFECTS OF PIPER BETLE LEAVES (PAAN EXTRACT AS ANTI-DEPRESSANT AND ANTI-ANXIETY IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

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    DR. HITESH GULHANE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine the anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effects of hydroethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves commonly known as “paan”. Materials and Methods: Hydroethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves in the doses of 100,200 and 400 mg were administered orally for successive 14 days to young Swiss albino mice of either sex. The antidepressant activity was evaluated by forced swim test and tail suspension test. On the other hand anti-anxiety activity was evaluated by light/dark exploration test and elevated plus maze test. Imipramine 15 mg/kg was used as standard in anti-depressant models and diazepam 2 mg/kg was used as standard in anti-anxiety models. Results: Hydroethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves of doses 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant activity as compared with control in reducing the immobility time in forced swim test and tail suspension test. On the other hand, gradual increasing dose of extract of Piper betle leaves also showed significant activity in improving anxiety of mice as compared with control in light/dark exploration and elevated plus maze test. Conclusion: Hydroethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves showed anti-depressant activity probably acts through the mechanism of blocking the uptake of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin through their respective transporters. On the other hand, anti-anxiety activity acts probably through GABA but the role is not established.

  10. Optimization protocol for the extraction of antioxidant components from Origanum vulgare leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Mudasir; Hussain, Abdullah I; Chatha, Shahzad A S; Khosa, Muhammad K K; Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Kamal, Mohammad A; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to determine optimum conditions for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from Origanum vulgare leaves. Four process variables were evaluated at three levels (31 experimental designs): methanol (70%, 80%, and 90%), the solute:solvent ratio (1:5, 1:12.5, 1:20), the extraction time (4, 10, 16 h), and the solute particle size (20, 65, 110 micron). Using RSM, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained by multiple regression analysis for predicting optimization of the extraction protocol. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied and the significant effect of the factors and their interactions were tested at 95% confidence interval. The antioxidant extract (AE) yield was significantly influenced by solvent composition, solute to solvent ratio, and time. The maximum AE was obtained at methanol (70%), liquid solid ratio (20), time (16 h), and particle size (20 micron). Predicted values thus obtained were closer to the experimental value indicating suitability of the model. Run 25 (methanol:water 70:30; solute:solvent 1:20; extraction time 16 h and solute particle size 20) showed highest TP contents (18.75 mg/g of dry material, measured as gallic acid equivalents) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 5.04 μg/mL). Results of the present study indicated good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results of the study indicated that phenolic compounds are powerful scavengers of free radical as demonstrated by a good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  11. Comparative study of essential oils extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. leaves using microwaves and hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of algerian myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.

  12. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

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    Karim S. Allaf

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME and conventional hydrodistillation (HD. Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM; it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.

  13. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S.

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD. PMID:22606003

  14. Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved

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    M. H. Mohd. Sani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test and thermal (hot plate test models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg was administered orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P<0.05 antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO donor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS, methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway, or their combination also caused significant (P<0.05 change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.

  15. Retarded hippocampal development following prenatal exposure to ethanolic leaves extract of Datura metel in wistar rats

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    Azeez Olakunle Ishola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Datura metel contains atropine alkaloids and has been used to treat complication like asthma and, bronchitis, because of its anticholinergic properties. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prenatal effects of ethanolic extract of D. metel leaves exposure on the development of hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats (12 females and 8 males were purchased. The females were grouped into four groups (A_D. Group A were given 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract on the first day of fertilization to the end of gestation period, Group B were given 500 mg/kg body weight on the 8 th day of fertilization to the end of gestation period, Group C were given 500 mg/kg body weight on 15 th day of fertilization to the end of gestation period and Group D were given normal saline throughout the gestation period. Results: Rats in Group A showed no implantation, rats in Group B had abortion on the 7 th day after administration, and rats in Group C gave birth with their litters showing retarded hippocampus development and neural degeneration and rats in Group D (control showed normal development. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of D. metel leaf is teratogenic in the late stage of pregnancy, is abortificient and can serve as a contraceptive.

  16. Optimization of DNA Extraction for RAPD and ISSR Analysis of Arbutus unedo L. Leaves

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    Paula Baptista

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis of plants relies on high yields of pure DNA. For the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo this represents a great challenge since leaves can accumulate large amounts of polysaccharides, polyphenols and secondary metabolites, which co-purify with DNA. For this specie, standard protocols do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Here, we present for the first time an improved leaf-tissue protocol, based on the standard cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide protocol, which yields large amounts of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Key steps in the optimized protocol are the addition of antioxidant compounds—namely polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT and 2-mercaptoethanol, in the extraction buffer; the increasing of CTAB (3%, w/v and sodium chloride (2M concentration; and an extraction with organic solvents (phenol and chloroform with the incubation of samples on ice. Increasing the temperature for cell lyses to 70 °C also improved both DNA quality and yield. The yield of DNA extracted was 200.0 ± 78.0 µg/µL and the purity, evaluated by the ratio A260/A280, was 1.80 ± 0.021, indicative of minimal levels of contaminating metabolites. The quality of the DNA isolated was confirmed by random amplification polymorphism DNA and by inter-simple sequence repeat amplification, proving that the DNA can be amplified via PCR.

  17. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. Leaves Extracts

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    Vida Elsyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity.

  18. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57 °C, an extraction time of 80 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53 mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.92 ± 0.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10 μg/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry.

  19. Biochemical and histologic changes in rats after prolonged administration of the crude aqueous extract of the leaves of Vitex grandifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Owolabi, Mbang A.; Moyosola M Abass; Emeka, Promise M.; Jaja, Smith I.; Martin Nnoli; Dosa, Benjamin O. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In recent times, many herbal remedies are used to treat variety of ailments. The leaves of Vitex grandifolia is claimed to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and as a diuretic in the treatment of high blood pressure. However, there are no scientific reports on the therapeutic benefits or toxicity of this plant. This study therefore investigated the effect of prolonged administration of the aqueous extract of the leaves of this plant in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods:...

  20. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE.

  1. An ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (Paan) Linn mediates its antileishmanial activity via apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Avijit; Sen, Rupashree; Saha, Piu; Ganguly, Sudipto; Mandal, Goutam; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2008-05-01

    An unprecedented increase in the incidence of unresponsiveness to antimonial compounds has highlighted the urgent need to develop new antileishmanial agents. The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for its antimicrobial properties but its antileishmanial potential has not been studied. Accordingly, an ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (PB) was tested for its antileishmanial activity that was evidenced in both promastigotes and amastigotes, with IC50 values of 9.8 and 5.45 microg/ml, respectively; importantly, it was accompanied by a safety index of >12-fold. This leishmanicidal activity of PB was mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by morphological changes, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, in situ labeling of DNA fragments by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, and cell-cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. Taken together, the data indicate that PB has promising antileishmanial activity that is mediated via programmed cell death and, accordingly, merits consideration and further investigation as a therapeutic option for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  2. Neuropharmcological potential of methanolic extract and a triterpene isolated from Madhuca longifolia L leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganakal, Triveni S; Ahmed, Md Liyakhat; Swamy, Paramjyothi

    2012-12-01

    The methanolic extract of M. longifolia (MLME) and a compound a triterpene, derivative of madhucic acid (dMA) isolated from the leaves of M. longifolia, were investigated for their possible neuropharmacological activities in mice using phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, spontaneous motor activity, marble burying test and Eddy's hot plate method. LD50 for MLME and dMA were 100 and 10 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. Both MLME and dMA (10 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg oral route respectively) exhibited significant increase in phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, greater reduction in spontaneous motor activity and marble burying activity, confirming their sedative nature. Both MLME and dMA also exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity in experimental animals. The results suggest that both MLME and dMA have CNS depressant activity in mice.

  3. Effect of Morinda Tinctoria Leaves Extract on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Krishnaveni; J.Ravichandran; A.Selvaraj

    2013-01-01

    The Morinda tinctoria (MT) plant leaves extract was prepared in aqueous and hydrochloric acid media and was used as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium.MT is found to be an efficient inhibitor at room temperature and the efficiency decreases with increase in temperature.Results from colorimetric studies predict the amount of iron present in the test solution and the percentage inhibition efficiency values calculated from this data fit well with the weight loss experiments.The AC impedance studies reveal that the mild steel surface is positively charged and the process of inhibition is through charge transfer.Polarisation studies indicate the mixed nature of the inhibitor.Thermodynamic parameters obtained predict that the process of inhibition is a spontaneous one.

  4. Punica granatum leave extract as green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in Hydrochloric acid

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    Abboud Y.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leave of Punica granatum extract (LPGE as green inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 1M HCl solution was studied using weight-loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results obtained revealed that LPGE has fairly good inhibiting properties for mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution, with efficiency of around 94 % at a concentration of 1 g/l. The inhibition was of a mixed anodic–cathodic nature. The film which is formed over the metal surface was analysed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Further examination using X-ray diffraction confirms the role of LPGE as an effective corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid media.

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides Leaves Extract

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    Tayyaba Naseem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has accumulated an ultimate interest over the last decade due to their distinctive properties that make them applicable in various fields of science and technology. Metal nanoparticles that are synthesized by using plants have emerged as nontoxic and ecofriendly. In this study a very cheap and simple conventional heating method was used to obtain the iron nanoparticles (FeNPs using the leaves extract of Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides plant. The iron nanoparticles were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The antibacterial activity was studied against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus by using well-diffusion method.

  6. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Mikania Cordata (Burm.F.) B.L. Robinson Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Sekendar; Islam, Md. Saiful; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Islam, Md. Rabiul; Sayeed, Mohammed Aktar; Islam, Md. Rafikul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study to examine the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of ethanol extract of leaves of Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L. Robinson. To determine antibacterial activities, the extract was tested against four Gram positive and six Gram negative bacteria at three concentrations (500, 800, 1000 μg disc-1) through disc diffusion method. The extract showed moderate antibacterial actions and that was increased by increasing the concentration of the sample. The maximum antimicrobial potential was obtained against Shigella flexneri and no sen sitivity was found for Klebsiella sp. Comparatively gram-positive bacteria demonstrated more susceptibility to the extract than gram-negative bacteria. Cytotoxic property of the sample was done using Brine shrimp lethality bioassay where it did not show noticeable toxicity. So, our present study reveals that the leaves extract of M. cordata possess considerable antibacterial properties along with lesser amount of cytotoxicity PMID:24826008

  7. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-03-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability.

  8. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM LEAVES AND ROOTS OF REHMANNIA GLUTINOSA LIBOSCH. IN HUMAN BLOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątczak, Ewelina; Kuźma, Łukasz; Porada, Weronika; Olas, Beata; Wysokińska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Compounds with antioxidant activity may protect different elements of blood from damaging effects of oxidative stress. The present in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from leaves and roots of R. glutinosa plants against damages induced by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress was stimulated in human plasma and human blood platelet samples by the strong biological oxidant--hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2/Fe (the donor of hydroxyl radicals). In experimental trials, the level of biomarker of lipid peroxidation--TBARS was significantly decreased by the action of methanolic extracts from R. glutinosa leaves. Therefore, it seems that the methanolic extract from leaves of the plants may be a new source of bioactive antioxidant natural compounds. It may be also an active pharmacological agent or a food supplement for healthy subjects and for people with different diseases (cardiovascular diseases and cancer) induced by oxidative stress.

  9. In-vitro Antispasmodic Activity Analysis of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Lantana camara Linn. on Excised Rat Ileum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna P. Ghodake

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to provide the pharmacological basis for medicinal use of Lantana camara Linn. as an antispasmodic agent using in-vitro pharmacological assay. Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae, is a widely growing shrub which found to be toxic to some animal species, has been used in the traditional medicine for treating many ailments. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antispasmodic effects of Lantana camara leaf constituents on rat ileum. Antispasmodic activity was assessed by the interpolation method on isolated rat ileum. Effects of acetylcholine, methanolic extract of Lantana camara leaves and acetylcholine along with methanolic leaves extract were studied on isolated rat ileum; which later compared with atropine as standard anti-spasmodic agent. The present study results revealed that methanolic leaves extract of Lantana camara Linn. showed promising antispasmodic action on excised rat ileum.

  10. Extraction, partial purification and characterization of acidic peroxidase from cabbage leaves (Brasicca olearacea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The present work deals with extraction of cabbage peroxidase (CP from fresh cabbage leaves and subsequent purification using ammonium sulphate (80% w/v precipitation. The peroxidase extraction has been carried out by screening two different cabbage and then different parameters like different buffer systems, strength of buffers, buffer volumes, grinding time and cabbage leaves weight ratio to buffer volumes were optimized. The purified peroxidase showed maximum activity at pH 5.5 and at temperature 55 °C. The enzyme action followed the Michelis–Menton kinetics and gave a Km of 0.7018 mg/ml for Guaiacol oxidation over different concentrations (0 – 10 mg/ml at pH 5.0 and Vmax was obtained as 0.6498 mg/min.ml. The molecular weight of the partially purified enzyme was found to be about 67,000 Daltons using SDS-PAGE and zymogram method. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  11. Comparison of anti-atherosclerotic effects of two different extracts from leaves ofMallotus furetianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yueli; Wang Liqun; Wu Haitao; Lin Lianbo; Yi Xinan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the anti-atherosclerotic effects of two different extracts from the leaves ofMallotus furetianus by using rat model of atherosclerosis.Methods: The air-dried powdered Mallotus furetianus leaves were extracted with ethanol and then evaporated. The ethanol extract was experienced DiaionHP-20 CC with a gradient ofMeOH andH2O (50÷50,100÷0, v/v) and two fractions,Mallotus furetianusA (MfA) andMallotus furetianusB (MfB) were obtained. Rats were divided into control, atherosclerosis and vitaminE,MfA andMfB treated groups. Atherosclerotic model was established by administering a loading dose of vitaminD3 and feeding standard diet enriched with2% cholesterol,0.5% porcine cholate,0.2% methimazole, 5% sugar,10% pork fat. VitaminE (0.20 g/kg),MfA (0.053 g/kg),MfB (0.057 g/kg) (with the potential) were administered to interfere with the development of atherosclerosis. After9 weeks, rats were sacrificed and the blood lipid as well as composition of bile was examined. In addition, the thoracic aorta was harvested to evaluate histological changes and the intima-media thickness ratio.Results:Atherosclerosis model was successfully established, administration of vitaminE,MfA andMf Bincreased excretion of total bilirubin in bile, decreased triglyeride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level, enhanced ratio of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol andLDL-C in blood, improved histological changes and diminished intima-media thickness ratio of thoracic aorta in atherosclerotic rats. As for the difference in anti-atherosclerotic effects betweenMfA andMfB,MfA may be more powerful in decliningTG level andMfB may be more effective in decreasingTC level.Conclusions:The two different extracts, MfA andMfB can prevent the development of atherosclerosis, In detail,MfA is more effective in regulatingTG level andMfB is more powerful in modulatingTC level in atherosclerotic rats.

  12. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and radical-scavenging capacity of phenols and flavonoids from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves.

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    Jing Zhou

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was developed to extract phenolic and flavonoid antioxidants from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves. The optimal experimental parameters for antioxidant extraction from C. cyrtophyllum leaves were measured using single-factor experimentation combined with response surface methodology (RSM. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC assays were used to quantify antioxidant compounds. Next, antioxidant radical scavenging capacity was measured using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2' -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid (ABTS radicals. Optimized extraction conditions for UAE from C. cyrtophyllum leaves were as follows: 60.9% ethanol, 85.4 min, and 63.3°C for maximal TPC extraction (16.8 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g DW; 67.7% ethanol, 82.9 min, and 63.0 °C for maximal TFC extraction (49.3 ± 0.4 mg RT/g DW; 48.8% ethanol, 85.1 min, and 63.9 °C for maximal DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (86.8 ± 0.2%; and 50.6% ethanol, 81.3 min, and 63.4 °C for maximal ABTS radical-scavenging capacity (92.9 ± 0.5%. Ethanol concentration was the most important factor in the extraction process. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for C. cyrtophyllum as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  13. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and radical-scavenging capacity of phenols and flavonoids from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Yang, Qi; Liang, Zhenyi; Li, Donghai; Yang, Xiaobo; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was developed to extract phenolic and flavonoid antioxidants from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves. The optimal experimental parameters for antioxidant extraction from C. cyrtophyllum leaves were measured using single-factor experimentation combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays were used to quantify antioxidant compounds. Next, antioxidant radical scavenging capacity was measured using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2' -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radicals. Optimized extraction conditions for UAE from C. cyrtophyllum leaves were as follows: 60.9% ethanol, 85.4 min, and 63.3°C for maximal TPC extraction (16.8 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g DW); 67.7% ethanol, 82.9 min, and 63.0 °C for maximal TFC extraction (49.3 ± 0.4 mg RT/g DW); 48.8% ethanol, 85.1 min, and 63.9 °C for maximal DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (86.8 ± 0.2%); and 50.6% ethanol, 81.3 min, and 63.4 °C for maximal ABTS radical-scavenging capacity (92.9 ± 0.5%). Ethanol concentration was the most important factor in the extraction process. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for C. cyrtophyllum as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  14. Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly

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    Wardhana AH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3. Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0, 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV. Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM and Larval Rearing Media (LRM for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95 and lethal time (LT50 and LT95 were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Polyaniline Coated Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Piper Betle Leaves Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun Or Rashida, Md; Shafiul Islam, Md; Azizul Haque, Md; Arifur Rahman, Md; Tanvir Hossain, Md; Abdul Hamid, Md

    2016-01-01

    Plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. In this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and NaBH4 was used as reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual inspection, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. UV-Vis spectrum of reaction mixture showed strong absorption peak with centering at 400 nm. The FT-IR results imply that Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in P. betle. TEM image showed that Ag-NPs formed were well dispersed with a spherical structures and particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The result revealed that Ag-Extract NPs showed 32.78±0.64 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus, whereas norfloxacin (positive control) showed maximum 32.15±0.40 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureus. Again, maximum zone of inhibition 29.55±0.45 mm was found for S. typhi, 27.12±0.38 mm for E. coli and 21.95±0.45 mm for P. aeruginosa. The results obtained by this study can't be directly extrapolated to human; so further studies should be undertaken to established the strong antimicrobial activity of Ag-Extract NPs for drug development program.

  16. Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Zahid Iqbal; Anwar, Farooq; Shabir, Ghulam; Rasul, Ghulam; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-03-30

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 μg/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  17. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Alkharfy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%, leaves (11.42% and seeds (21.51% of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80. Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 3.21 μg/mL, followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50–6.70 mg/100 g DW; sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18–4.71 mg/100 g DW; vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52–0.65 mg/100 g DW as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  18. CNS Depressant and Antiepileptic Activities of the Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

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    Dhanasekaran Sivaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS depressant and antiepileptic activities of the methanol extract of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (IAF were investigated on various animal models including pentobarbitone sleeping time and hole-board exploratory behavior for sedation tests and strychnine, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., like chlorpromazine HCl (1 mg/kg, i.m., produced a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping time and suppression of exploratory behavior. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg produced dose-dependent and significant increases in onset to clonic and tonic convulsions and at 400 mg/kg, showed complete protection against seizures induced by strychnine and picrotoxin but not with pentylenetetrazole. Acute oral toxicity test, up to 14 days, did not produce any visible signs of toxicity. These results suggest that potentially antiepileptic compounds are present in leaf extract of IAF that deserve the study of their identity and mechanism of action.

  19. Study of antinociceptive effects of Pelargonium geraveolens L. leaves hydroethanolic extract in male mice

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    N Heydari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Running title: Anti nociceptive, Pelargonium graveolens Abstract: Introduction: Pain is a somatosensory sense that as an indicator to diagnoses for diseases . Pelargonium graveolens is known as a medicinal plant with use in traditional medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effect of Pelargonium graveolens leaves extract (PGE in male mice Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 42 male mice were divided in 6 groups (n=7. The control group(taking normal saline,0.25 ml, i.p, morphine group( 1mg/kg, i.p, treated groups with PGE at doses of 100, 200 and 600mg/kg and group induced with naloxone (0.1mg/kg, i.p + 200mg/kg of PGE. In order to evaluate the analgesic effects of PGE the tail flick and writhing tests were used. The data for each test were compared with One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post test. Results: Our results showed that PGE (200 and 600 mg/kg increased pain thershold compared with control group in writhing and tail flick test significantly (P<0.001. Conclusion: The PGE has anitinociceptive effects in male mice. This analgesic effect of Pelargonium graveolens extract probably related to its flavonoids composition which has effect on opioid system.

  20. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuji; Tang, Jingcheng; Zhu, Haimei; Jiang, Xueyun; Liu, Jiawang; Xu, Wenyun; Ma, Haiping; Feng, Qiqi; Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL) inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/(-)electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 μM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis.

  1. Antidiarrheal and antimicrobial profiles extracts of the leaves from Trichilia emetica Vahl.(Meliaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiessoun; Konaté; Kassi; Yomalan; Oksana; Sytar; Marian; Brestic

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and-diarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of the bioactive fraction of Trichilia emetica in order to provide a scientific basis for the management of gastroenteritis in Burkina Faso.Methods:To do this,polyphenols content of extract and fractions were investigated.FolinCiocalteu,AlCl3 methods and tannic acid respectively were used for polyphenols content.The in vivo antidiarrhocal activity was done using Swiss albino mice of both sexes.In vitro antimicrobial activity(disc-diffusion assay,minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum microbicidal concentration or minimal bactericidal concentration) was assessed using seven bacteria strains(Gram-negative and Gram-positive).Results:About our study,it was found that ethyl acetate fraction effective attenuation factior(EAF) elicits the higher total phenolics and total flavonoids contents compared to the extracts of leaves of Trichilici emetica.EAF of Trichilia emetica Vahl..has positive effects in a dose dependent manner against diarrhoea induced by castor oil in experimental mice.The bioactive fraction also showed good antimicrobial activity against all tested Gram-negative and Grampositive bacteria strains.It was shown that experimental bacteria strains were more sensitive to the EAF effect compared to the ciprofloxacin.Conclusions:The obtained results allow justifying the traditional uses of Trichilia emetica and possess good antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of EAF from Trichilia emetica.Results of the present study have clearly supported the utilization of Trichilia emetica in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

  2. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum nocturnum Leaves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Anil; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Vipin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cestrum nocturnum leaves in Wistar rats. Method. Cestrum nocturnum leaves extract in hydroalcoholic solution were prepared by Soxhletation method and stored in refrigerator at 4°C for two days before use. Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg i.p.). Hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Cestrum nocturnum was screened for antidiabetic activity and given to the STZ-induced diabetic rats at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Metformin is also given to another group to support the result at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight orally once a day for 15 days. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on 0, 5, 7, and 15th days. Results. Oral administration of the extracts for 15 days caused a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The body weight of diabetic animals was also improved after daily administration of extracts. The extract also improved other altered biochemical parameters associated with diabetes. Also the changes in food intake, water intake, and weight of internal organs were also restored to normal by the prolonged effect of extract treatment.

  3. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum nocturnum Leaves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Anil Kamboj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cestrum nocturnum leaves in Wistar rats. Method. Cestrum nocturnum leaves extract in hydroalcoholic solution were prepared by Soxhletation method and stored in refrigerator at 4°C for two days before use. Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg i.p.. Hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Cestrum nocturnum was screened for antidiabetic activity and given to the STZ-induced diabetic rats at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Metformin is also given to another group to support the result at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight orally once a day for 15 days. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on 0, 5, 7, and 15th days. Results. Oral administration of the extracts for 15 days caused a significant ( reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The body weight of diabetic animals was also improved after daily administration of extracts. The extract also improved other altered biochemical parameters associated with diabetes. Also the changes in food intake, water intake, and weight of internal organs were also restored to normal by the prolonged effect of extract treatment.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Manilkara zapota L. (chiku) leaves by sequential soxhlet extraction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mital Kaneria; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Manilkara zapota L. (chiku) leaves was studied. Methods: The antioxidant property of different solvent extracts of Manilkara zapota L. leaves was evaluated by DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing capacity assessment, while the antimicrobial property was evaluated by agar well diffusion method against some of the tested food borne, spoilage, pathogenic and skin disease causing microorganisms. Results: The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of acetone extract was better than that of standard ascorbic acid and superoxide anion scavenging activity of acetone extract was better than that of standard gallic acid. It showed good reducing capacity assessment also. Maximum phenol content was also present in acetone extract thus supporting the idea that phenolic content and antioxidant activity show a direct correlation. Acetone extract showed significant antimicrobial activity amongst all the different solvent extracts. Conclusion:Result presented here suggest that acetone extract of M. zapota leaves possess strong antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and it may be considered as an interesting and economic source of antioxidants and antimicrobics for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries and for food manufactures or pharmaceuticals.

  5. Effect of Extraction Solvents and Drying Methods on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. Leaves

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    Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicteres hirsuta Lour. (H. hirsuta L. is widely distributed in southeast Asian countries and has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant. However, optimal conditions for preparation of dried materials for further processing and suitable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different extraction solvents and different drying conditions on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of the H. hirsuta L. leaves. The results showed that both extraction solvents and drying conditions had a significant impact on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of H. hirsuta L. leaves. Among the five solvents investigated, water could extract the highest level of solid content and phenolic compounds, whereas methanol was more effective for obtaining flavonoids and saponins than other solvents. The leaves dried under either hot-air drying at 80 °C (HAD80, or vacuum drying at 50 °C (VD50 yielded the highest amount of total phenolic compounds (7.77 and 8.33 mg GAE/g, respectively and total flavonoid content (5.79 and 4.62 mg CE/g, respectively, and possessed the strongest antioxidant power, while leaves dried using infrared drying at 30 °C had the lowest levels of bioactive compounds. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids had a strong correlation with antioxidant capacity. Therefore, HAD80 and VD50 are recommended for the preparation of dried H. hirsuta L. leaves. Water and methanol are suggested solvents to be used for extraction of phenolic compounds and saponins from H. hirsuta L. leaves for the potential application in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Biochemical investigation and biological evaluation of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Repon Kumer Saha; Srijan Acharya; Syed Sohidul Haque Shovon; Apurba Sarker Apu; Priyanka Roy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Nyctanthes arbortristis is a common plant in Bangladesh. The objective of our research was to biochemical and biological analysis of the methanolic extract of the dried leaves of Nyctanthesarbortristis found in Bangladesh. Methods: We investigated the presence of polyphenols, flavanoids and other types of compounds by thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, and UV spectroscopy analysis. We performed antioxidant assay by colorimetric methods. We investigated antibacterial assay by disk diffusion method. Cell surface receptor binding assay was performed by hemagglutination inhibition assay and hemolysis assay. Results: Methanolic extract of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis contains flavanoids and other biologically active compounds. The extract showed antioxidant, peroxide scavenging and total reducing activity. The extract also showed antibacterial activities against several strains of bacteria. It also showed hemaglutination inhibition activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis inhibition activity in human blood cells. Conclusions: Therefore, Nyctanthes arbortristis may be considered as a plant of various health benefits.

  7. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Hemant P Borase; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Rahul K Suryawanshi; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K.; Satish V Patil

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, etha...

  8. Bioactivity determination of methanol and water extracts for roots and leaves of Kenyan Psidium guajava L landraces against pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Liharaka Kidaha, Mercy; Alakonya, Amos Emitati; Nyende, Aggrey Benard

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L) is native to South America and exists as both wild and cultivated. Guava has been used as a source of food and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to determine bioactivity of methanol and water extracts from root and leaves of Kenyan guava landraces against selected pathogenic bacteria. Study samples were collected from Western and South Coast of Kenya. One hundred grams of leaf and root ground powders were used for sequential extraction usin...

  9. Polyphenolic extracts of cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves as natural preservatives in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata; Efenberger, Magdalena; Krala, Lucjan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using polyphenolic extracts from cherry and blackcurrant leaves as natural antimicrobial agents in meat products. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was analyzed and their impact on the microbial quality, lipid oxidation, color, and sensory evaluation of pork sausages was studied. Polyphenolic extracts were obtained from leaves collected in September. The total polyphenolic content in sour cherry leaf extract was 1.5 times higher than that found in blackcurrant leaf extract. Analysis of the polyphenol profile of each extract revealed two major groups: phenolic acids and flavonoids, including epigallocatechin and glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. After chilling the sausages for 14 and 28 days, the extracts caused significantly lower MDA generation, indicating an antioxidant effect. Color changes after 28 days of storage were perceptible in the case of all treatments, with and without polyphenols. The application of sour cherry and black currant leaf extracts increased the shelf life of vacuum-packed sausages. Both extracts enhanced the microbial quality of the pork sausages over 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sour cherry leaf polyphenols were more effective against almost all studied groups of microorganisms.

  10. Extracts from Dendropanax morbifera Leaves Have Modulatory Effects on Neuroinflammation in Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Sinwoo; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Hye-Jin; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Dendropanax morbifera (D. morbifera), a species endemic to Korea, is largely distributed throughout the southern part of the country. Its leaves, stems, roots, and seeds have been used as a form of alternative medicine for various diseases and neurological disorders including paralysis, stroke, and migraine. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the remedial effects of D. morbifera remain largely unknown. In this paper, extracts from D. morbifera leaves were prepared using ethyl acetate as a solvent (abbreviated as DMLE). The modulatory effects of DMLE on neuroinflammation were studied in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 murine microglial cell line. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-[Formula: see text]B), and different M1/M2 activation states of microglia were examined. DMLE treatment suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] (TNF-[Formula: see text]), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. DMLE treatment also attenuated the activation of MAPKs and NF-[Formula: see text]B. In a novel discovery, we found that DMLE up-regulated the marker genes representing an alternative, anti-inflammatory M2 polarization, while suppressing the expression of the classical, pro-inflammatory M1 activation state genes. Here, we uncovered the cellular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of D. morbifera against neuroinflammation using BV2 microglia cells. These results strongly suggest that DMLE was able to counter the effects of LPS on BV2 cells via control of microglia polarization states. Additionally, study results indicated that DMLE may have therapeutic potential as a neuroinflammation-suppressing treatment for neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Isolation of hydroxytyrosol from olive leaves extract, radioiodination and investigation of bioaffinity using in vivo/in vitro methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, M.; Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Kilcar, A. Yurt; Medine, E.I.; Unak, P. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2013-11-01

    It is known that medicinal plants like olive have biological activities due to their flavonoid content such as olueropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol etc. In current study, hydroxytrosol (HT) which is one of the major phenolic compounds in olive, olive leaves and olive oil, was isolated after methanol extraction and purification of olive leaves which are grown in the northern Anatolia region of Turkey. The isolated HT was radiolabeled with {sup 131}I ({sup 131}I-HT) and the bioaffinity of this radiolabeled component of olive leaves extract was investigated by using in vivo/in vitro methods. It was found that HT could be radiolabeled with {sup 131}I in yields of 95.6 {+-} 4.4% (n = 8), and in vivo studies showed that {sup 131}I-HT is taken up by urinary bladder, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, breast and prostate. Significant incorporation of activity was observed in cell lines via in vitro studies. (orig.)

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Pentatropis capensis Linn. f. (Bullock

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    Saikat Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The observed effects were comparable with the standard drug-treated group thus demonstrating effective central analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory potentials of the P. capensis leaves aqueous extract and the observations substantiate its folklore use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  13. Effects of olive leave extract on metabolic disorders and oxidative stress induced by 2.45 GHz WIFI signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Myriam Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Abderraba, Manef

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effect of olive leaves extract administration on glucose metabolism and oxidative response in liver and kidneys of rats exposed to radio frequency (RF). The exposure of rats to RF (2.45 GHz, 1h/day during 21 consecutive days) induced a diabetes-like status. Moreover, RF decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, -33.33% and -49.40%) catalase (CAT, -43.39% and -39.62%) and the superoxide dismutase (SOD, -59.29% and -68.53%) and groups thiol amount (-62.68% and -34.85%), respectively in liver and kidneys. Indeed, exposure to RF increased the malondialdehyde (MDA, 29.69% and 51.35%) concentration respectively in liver and kidneys. Olive leaves extract administration (100 mg/kg, ip) in RF-exposed rats prevented glucose metabolism disruption and restored the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD and thiol group amount in liver and kidneys. Moreover, olive leave extract administration was able to bring down the elevated levels of MDA in liver but not in kidneys. Our investigations suggested that RF exposure induced a diabetes-like status through alteration of oxidative response. Olive leaves extract was able to correct glucose metabolism disorder by minimizing oxidative stress induced by RF in rat tissues.

  14. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  15. Effect of Plant Age on the Quantity and Quality of Proteins Extracted from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Vissers, Anne; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter Alexander

    2016-11-09

    Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant age (i.e., harvesting time), using leaves from sugar beets grown in a field (Rhino, Arrival) and in a greenhouse (Isabella). Within the same variety (Rhino, field; Arrival, field; Isabella, greenhouse) the protein content was similar for leaves from young and old plants (22 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 10 ± 3% w/w db, respectively). Variation in final protein isolation yield was mostly due to variation in nitrogen extractability (28-56%), although no consistent correlation with plant age was found. A significant effect of plant age was observed on the quality (color) of the extracted protein, that is, brown (indicative of polyphenol oxidase activity) and yellow for extracts from old and young plants, respectively.

  16. Antibacterial Activities and In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory (Membrane Stability Properties of Methanolic Extracts of Gardenia coronaria Leaves

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    Amin Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is carried out with Gardenia coronaria leaves that belong to the family Rubiaceae, which is a small-to-medium-sized but tall, deciduous tree, 7.6–9 m high on an average. Leaves are used for the treatment of rheumatic pain and bronchitis. The leaf of the plant consists of coronalolide, coronalolic acid, coronalolide methyl ester, ethyl coronalolate acetate triterpenes (secocycloartanes, and so forth. Methanol extract from the leaves of Gardenia coronaria was completely screened for membrane stability and antibacterial activity. The lower concentrations of Methanolic leaf extract of Gardenia coronaria gave good antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, but higher concentrations gave relatively more projecting antibacterial activity in vitro as compared with Kanamycin. The crude drug’s anti-inflammatory effects were compared with those of Aspirin as positive control. The Methanolic extracts of Gardenia coronaria leaves possessed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against a variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms like Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Shigella sonnei, Shigella boydii, and Proteus mirabilis, with a zone of inhibition from 10 to 16 mm. The extract also showed good membrane stability to be considered as having significant anti-inflammatory action.

  17. Studies on the antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic activities of Viola odorata leaves extract

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    Siddiqi Hasan S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to provide pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Viola odorata Linn. in hypertension and dyslipidemia using the in vivo and in vitro assays. Results Viola odorata leaves extract (Vo.Cr, which tested positive for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, coumarins and flavonoids, caused a dose-dependent (0.1-1.0 mg/kg decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. In isolated guinea-pig atria, Vo.Cr equally inhibited force and rate of spontaneous atrial contractions. On the baseline of rat thoracic aortae (endothelium-intact and denuded, the plant extract caused phentolamine-sensitive vasoconstriction. When tested on phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM and K+ (80 mM-induced vasoconstriction, Vo.Cr caused a concentration-dependent relaxation and also caused a rightward shift of Ca++ concentration-response curves as well as suppression of PE (1 μM control peaks in Ca++-free medium, similar to that caused by verapamil. In the presence of L-NAME, the relaxation curve of Vo.Cr was partially inhibited showing involvement of Nitric oxide (NO mediated pathway. In Tyloxapol-induced dyslipidemia, Vo.Cr caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia model, the plant extract caused a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-C, atherogenic index and prevented the increase in average body weights, while it increased HDL-C. Conclusions These data indicate that the vasodilator effect of the plant extract is mediated through multiple pathways like inhibition of Ca++ influx via membranous Ca++ channels, its release from intracellular stores and NO-mediated pathways, which possibly explain the fall in BP. The plant also showed reduction in body weight and antidyslipidemic effect which may be due to the inhibition of synthesis and absorption of lipids and antioxidant activities. Thus, this study provides a pharmacologic rationale to the medicinal

  18. Further antinociceptive properties of extracts and phenolic compounds from Plinia glomerata (Myrtaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Luiz Gustavo; Santos, Diogo; Serafin, Cláudia; Malheiros, Angela; Delle Monache, Franco; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Souza, Márcia Maria

    2008-02-01

    This study describes the antinociceptive activity of extracts (methanolic (ME) and acetonic (AE)) and two phenolic compounds, 3,4,3'-trimethoxyflavellagic acid (1) and 3,4,3'-trimethoxy flavellagic acid 4'-O-glucoside (2), from Plinia glomerata leaves, against different experimental models of pain in mice. When evaluated against writhing test, by i.p. route, ME and AE presented calculated ID(50) values (and respective confidence interval) of 3.28 (1.63-6.61) and 24.79 (16.57-37.09) mg/kg, respectively. Given by the oral route at 500 mg/kg, AE and ME extracts inhibited the abdominal constrictions by 60.5% and 35.3%, respectively. In the formalin test (10 mg/kg, i.p.), AE inhibited both phases of pain (45.6% in the first phase; 99.8% in the second phase) whereas ME inhibited 47.8% the first phase, and 92.6% the second phase. In the capsaicin test both extracts showed activity, with calculated ID(50) values of 6.56 (5.69-7.56) and 7.68 (4.94-11.93) mg/kg for AE and ME, respectively. When evaluated against the hot-plate test, both extracts demonstrated activity, but only in high doses. Compound 2, when evaluated against the formalin test (10 mg/kg, i.p.), inhibited both phases of pain (77.6%, first phase; 62%, second phase) whereas 1 inhibited only the first phase, with inhibition of 70%. When tested in the capsaicin and glutamate tests, at 10 mg/kg, i.p., 1 and 2 caused inhibitions of 41.5% and 37.9%, and 37.7% and 54.5%, respectively. These results confirm previous studies carried out by our research group regarding the antinociceptive properties of P. glomerata, stimulating other studies on mechanism of action as well as the determination of additional active principles in this plant.

  19. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  20. Phytochemical studies of various polarities leave crude extracts of OmaniDatura metel L. and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Saleh Hamed Al-Jafari; Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To identify the chemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial potential of various crude extracts from leaves ofDatura metel grown in Oman. Methods: The leaf samples were collected from the University of Nizwa and extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. The isolated crude extract was defatted with distilled water and extracted with solvents of different polarities including hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Chemical compositions of the crude extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and their antimicrobial potential was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method against one Gram positive bacteriaStaphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteriaEscherichia coli andPseudomonus aeruginosa. Results:The crude extracts were composed of different organic compounds such as alkaloids, hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, terpenoids, vitamin etc. The methanol and its fractionated crude extracts showed antimicrobial potential with inhibition zone in the range of 0-13 mm. Conclusions: The selective crude extract from the leaves ofDatura metel could be used as natural antibiotics.

  1. Pathogenesis-related protein expression in the apoplast of wheat leaves protected against leaf rust following application of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 μg/liter + cyproconazole at 4 μg/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy.

  2. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  3. In Vivo assay of Antidiarrhoeal activity of Methanoli c and Petroleum ether extracts of Manilkara Zapota Leaves

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    Manirujjaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the possible antidiarrhoeal action of Methanolic extract (MEMZ and petroleum ether (PEMZ extracts of leaves of Manilkara zapota(Sapotaceae. The anti-diarrheal activity of MEMZ & PEMZ extracts was investigated by castor oil and Magnesium sulfate induced diarrhea in albino mice. The parameters ofthis study were number of diarrheal episodes and mean weight of stool of mice. The percentage protection in extracts treated animals showing diarrhea was compared with castor oil and Magnesium sulfate treated and loperamide treated animals. In the Castor oil induced method only the PEMZ extract, showed statistically significant (p0.05. These results indicate that the extracts possess antidiarrhoeal activity in mice.

  4. Biphasic effects of Morus alba leaves green tea extract on mice in chronic forced swimming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattayasai, Jintana; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Puapairoj, Prapawadee

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of Morus alba leaves green tea (ME) on mouse behaviors (depression, anxiety, climbing activity and thermal response), muscle coordination and muscle strength were studied. Male IRC mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of either the ME, desipramine or diazepam. Thirty minutes after injection, the mice were tested in all experimental models. A significant antidepressant-like effect could be detected in the animals receiving either 100 or 200 mg/kg ME. The effect of 200 mg/kg ME in decreasing the immobility time was comparable to 10 mg/kg desipramine. With higher dose (1000 mg/kg), a significant increase in immobility time could be observed. In the elevated plus maze, no increase in time in the open arm could be observed in mice treated with ME at either 100 or 200 mg/kg. However, high doses of ME (500 or 1000 mg/kg) decreased both time in the open arm and the number of entries in the maze. No change in thermal response could be seen in mice treated with ME at doses up to 500 mg/kg, however, at 1000 mg/kg, the response time to heat was increased significantly. The ME at either 500 or 1000 mg/kg also decreased muscle coordination, strength and climbing activity significantly when compared with the control. This study suggests that ME possesses an antidepressant- without an anxiolytic-like effect, however, at high doses, the extract might show the sedative effect and alter other functions such as muscle strength, animal activity in the maze and pain response.

  5. Extraction of oleuropein from olive leaves, in order to use as inhibitor against the corrosion of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFROSINI KOKALARI (TELI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oleuropein is the most abundant phenolic compound in olive leaves. This compound has been extensively studied for human health benefits. In recent years oleuropein, is proved to be an efficient inhibitor against the corrosion of metals and alloys. The use of chemical inhibitors has been limited, because of the environmental threat. The increasing ecological awareness among scientists have led to the development of “green” alternatives to mitigate corrosion. It is very important to choose cheap and safety handled compounds to be used as corrosion inhibitors.The extract of oleuropein from olive leaves, represent a great inhibitive action about 93%, against the corrosion of carbon steel in acidic media. Oleuropein, a natural product of the secoiridoid group, is a heterosidic ester of elenolic deteracid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol, containing a molecule of glucose, the hydrolysis of which yields elenolic acid glucoside and hydroxytyrosol. Oleuropein from the olive leaves was obtained by alcoholic extraction in room temperature using microwave irradiation. The extract was stored at 4oC and in the dark. The product of extraction was analyzed with HPLC, and infrared (IR spectroscopy, in order to define it’s chemical structure. Also we defined the yield, density and molecular weight of the product. The product of extraction was oleuropein and we propose to use it as corrosion inhibitor.

  6. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Aquilaria agallocha leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Janey; Mujahid, Md; Badruddeen; Jahan, Yasmeen; Bagga, Paramdeep; Rahman, Md Azizur

    2017-01-01

    Many traditional systems of medicines employ herbal drugs for the hepatoprotection. Aim of the study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of 'ethanolic extract of Aquilaria agallocha ( Chen Xiang) leaves' (AAE) against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats. Group I animals were treated with 1% CMC for 8 days. Group II, III, IV and V animals were first treated with '1% CMC' 1 ml/kg/day, AAE 200 mg/kg/day, AAE 400 mg/kg/day and silymarin 100 mg/kg/day respectively for 7 days and then, orally administered with PCM 3 g/kg b. wt. on 8th day in a single dose. 24 h after the last dosing by PCM, the blood was obtained through the retro-orbital plexus under light anesthesia and the animals were sacrificed. Hepatoprotective potential was assessed by various biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, bilirubin, cholesterol, TP and ALB. Group IV rats showed significant (p rats. Hepatoprotective potential of AAE 400 mg/kg/day was comparable to that of standard drug silymarin 100 mg/kg/day. Results of the study were well supported by the histopathological observations. This study confirms that AAE possesses hepatoprotective potential comparable to that of standard drug silymarin as it exhibited comparable protective potential against PCM induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats.

  7. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  8. Chemical composition of essential oils from plantago lanceolata L. leaves extracted by hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomáš; Janda, Václav; Bajerová, Petra; Kremr, Daniel; Eisner, Aleš; Ventura, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Extensive traditional use of medical plants leads to research dealing with chemical composition of essential oils. The aim of this work was evaluation of quality of the essential oil and extending of the knowledge about chemical composition of essential oil from ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) and proportional representation of compounds. Extractions of essential oils from samples of ribwort were performed by hydrodistillation. GC-MS and GC-FID techniques were used for investigation of the qualitative and semi-quantitative content of aromatic compounds in the essential oils, respectively. Major aroma constituents of ribwort leaves were groups of fatty acids 28.0-52.1 % (the most abundant palmitic acid 15.3-32.0 %), oxidated monoterpenes 4.3-13.2 % (linalool 2.7-3.5 %), aldehydes and ketones 6.9-10.0 % (pentyl vinyl ketone 2.0-3.4 %) and alcohols 3.8-9.2 % (1-octen-3-ol 2.4-8.2 %). In relative high amount were identified apocarotenoids (1.5-2.3 %) which are important constituents because of their intense fragrant. The importance is in potential manufacture control of feedstocks before producing of food supplements.

  9. CNS pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, C I F; Morais, L C S L; Quintans-Júnior, L J; Almeida, R N; Antoniolli, A R

    2005-04-26

    Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), known as "malva branca", is a plant used in the popular medicine for the treatment stomatits, of asthma and nasal congestion. This work researched the acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia and its action on the central nervous system (CNS) because no data in the literature have been found about of pharmacological activity of this plant in the CNS. The hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia leaves (HESc) was used and the psychopharmacology approach began with the determination of LD(50), where a low toxicity was observed in mice. Depressive activity on CNS was demonstrated by several alterations in mice's behavior in the pharmacological screening. In the motility test, the HESc showed significant reduction of spontaneous activity at a dose of 1000 mg/kg (i.p.) at 30 and 60 min. The same form the HESc also decreased the ambulation and rearing in open-field test at 30, 60 and 120 min at a dose of 1000 mg/kg (i.p.).

  10. Inhibitory effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) leaves methanolic extract on Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissani, Nadhem; Coroneo, Valentina; Fattouch, Sami; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2012-10-10

    In recent years, there has been great development in the search for new natural compounds for food preservation aimed at a partial or total replacement of currently popular antimicrobial chemicals. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) offers a natural promising alternative for food safety and bioconservation. In this work, the methanolic extract of carob leaves (MECL) was tested for the ability to inhibit the growth of a range of microorganisms. MECL inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes at 28.12 μg/mL by the broth microdilution method. The effect of this bacteriostatic concentration on the growth of this bacterium revealed a pattern of inhibition characterized by (a) a resumed growth phase, which showed a lower rate of growth if compared with controls; and (b) first a lag and then a stationary phase at a lower bacterium concentration. The study of the chemical composition of MECL by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed the presence of gallic acid, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, myricitrin, isoquercitin, catechin, chlorogenic acid, and malic acid. L. monocytogenes growth inhibition was recorded for myricitrin and gallic acid at 450 μg/mL and for (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and isoquercitin, respectively, at 225 and 112.5 μg/mL. Taking into account that proline is a ligand of proline dehydrogenase (PDH), the use of this compound leads us to hypothesize the mode of action of MECL constituents.

  11. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-07-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as both a food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC), made by extracting fresh leaves with water, utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates into moringa isothiocyanates. Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate, and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate exhibited 80% stability at 37°C for 30 days. MC, and both of the isothiocyanates described above significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, both attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFα at 1 and 5 μM. These results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates, delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases.

  12. Effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Ayobami Oladele; Aderoju, Hameed Adeola; Alagbonsi, Isiaka Abdullateef

    2013-01-01

    While anti-oxidant effects of Moringa oleifera in much oxidative stress related diseases have been well reported, cryptorchidism on the other hand has been shown to cause oxidative stress. However, study is scanty on the likely role of Moringa oleifera in reducing cryptorchidism-induced oxidative stress in rats has not been studied. The present study looked into the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MEMO) on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats. Twenty male albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5 each). Groups A and B were sham-operated and treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively, while groups C and D were rendered cryptorchid and also treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively. Cryptorchid rats had lower testicular weight, sperm count, germ cell count, testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration, testicular total protein and higher testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration compared to sham-operated rats. MEMO had no significant effect on testicular weight and MDA concentration, while it significantly increased sperm count, germ cell count, testicular SOD and total protein in the cryptorchid rats. The present study suggests that MEMO ameliorates cryptorchidism associated germ cell loss and oxidative stress.

  13. Formulation and Evaluation of an Herbal Anti-Inflammatory Gel Containing Eupatorium Leaves Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Negi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated a noble herbal gel formulation containing extract from the leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum for its topical anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced ooedema. Gelling agent used in this study was 1% w/w concentration of carbopol- 934. The studies were conducted on Albino Wistar rats of either sex (150-200 g. Change in oedema volume of the rat hind paw was measured. The anti-inflammatory effect produced after topical administration of herbal gel formulation on Carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema exhibited a high degree of reproducibility. The initial physicochemical parameters of formulations i.e. pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability and stability were also examined. The pH of all the formulations was near about 6.8, which lies in the normal pH range of the skin. The preparation was stable under normal storage conditions and did not produce any skin irritation, i.e., erythema and oedema for about a month, when applied over the skin.

  14. Anticorrosive Activity of Kigelia pinnata Leaves Extract on Mild Steel in Acidic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, P.; Saravana Kumar, K.; Jeyaprabha, B.; Prakash, P.

    2014-09-01

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 1 M HCl solution with different concentrations of Kigelia pinnata leaves extract (KPLE) was investigated using mass loss, Tafel polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Inhibition efficiency of KPLE is found to increase with increasing concentration but to decrease with temperature. Polarization measurements reveal that KPLE acts as a mixed type inhibitor in both acids. Impedance curves show that increasing KPLE concentration increases charge transfer resistance and decreases double layer capacitance. The adsorption of KPLE on the mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The experimental results reveal that KPLE inhibits the corrosion reaction in both acid environments, and inhibition efficiency follows the order H2SO4 > HCl. The kinetic and adsorption parameters for mild steel in acid in the presence and absence of KPLE were evaluated and discussed. The negative value of the standard free energy of adsorption in the presence of inhibitor suggests spontaneous adsorption of inhibitor on the mild steel surface. Protective film formation against corrosion was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy techniques.

  15. Neuroprotective Effect of Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Malva parviflora against Amyloid-β- (Aβ-) Mediated Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Malva parviflora L. possesses significant antioxidant potential. This study was conducted to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of ethanol extract of the leaves of Malva parviflora against amyloid-β- (Aβ-) mediated Alzheimer's disease. In Morris water maze model, the extract significantly restored the defected memory of amyloid-β injected mice (P < 0.01). The reduced levels of brain antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase were also restored significantly to similar levels as seen in normal control mice (P < 0.01). The levels of lipid peroxidase were decreased significantly in treatment group mice when compared to Alzheimer group mice (P < 0.01). So, this study showed that ethanol extract of the leaves of Malva parviflora possesses neuroprotective activity in mice.

  16. Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Investigations of Sesbania rostrata Dc (Fabaceae Extracts form Leaves, Stems, Granulates, Pods and Roots

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    M.B. Ouattara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and the phytochemical analysis of Sesbania rostrata used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso were investigated. Aqueous, methanolic and hydro-acetone extracts from leaves, stems, granules, pods and roots organs have demonstrated a good polyphenolic, tannin and flavonoids with variable anti-DPPH, Iron III reduction and antibacterial capacities. Particularly methanol extract form leaves possessed 46.33 mgEGA/100 mg and 25.98 mgETA/100 mg in polyphenolic and tannin content respectively. Beside TLC analysis of this extract demonstrated the presence of quercetin, kaempferol, rutin, caffeic and gallic acids. It was presented a good possibility to inhibit bacteria growth, radical DPPH and to reduce Iron III. These biological activities could support the traditional uses of this plant.

  17. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam. leaves and stem bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Jince Mary Joseph; Dharmar Rajendrakumaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenolic content and in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of leaves and stem bark of Erythrina indica. Methods: Folin-ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation. Results:The methanol extract of stem bark of E. indica contains higher level of total phenolic content (412.8 mg GAE/g extract) and also exhibited higher xanthine oxidase inhibition activity (IC50 52.75μg/mL) than the leaves. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the stem bark of E. indica was highly effective in xanthine oxidase inhibition and might be used for the gout related disorders.

  18. Assessment of the medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna

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    Masika Patrick J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buddleja saligna Willd (Loganiaceae is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree; trunk short, often gnarled and crooked; crown dense, rounded or domed-shaped; foliage greyish green. The wild olives are traditionally used to lower blood pressures in many parts of the world. In southern Africa, bark and leaf decoctions are used to treat colic, coughs, colds, sore eyes, urinary problems and as purgatives. Methods The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the leaves and stem extracts of Buddleja saligna were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. Laboratory isolates of 10 bacteria species which included five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative strains were used to assay for antibacterial activity of this plant. Results The antioxidant activities of the leaves as determined by the ABTS and DPPH were similar to that of the stem. The flavonoids and the flavonols contents of the leaves were higher than that of the stem but the total phenols, proanthocyanidins and FRAP activities were higher in the methanol extracts of the stem. The extracts did show activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. For instance, while the methanol extract of the leaves showed good activities on all the organisms except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at MICs of between 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml, the extract of the stem only showed activities on Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyrogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the same concentration. Conclusion The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of

  19. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats

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    Azadeh Sabetghadam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg, methanolic (50-200 mg/kg, and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepared and orally administered to nine groups of rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c. and aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o. were used as control. Antagonism of the antinociceptive activity was evaluated by pretreatment with naloxone at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.p.. Results showed that oral administration of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg, methanolic (200 mg/kg, and aqueous (400 mg/kg extracts significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response compared with control groups in both hot plate and tail flick tests (P < 0.05. Antinociceptive action of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg, methanolic (200 mg/kg, and aqueous (400 mg/kg extracts was significantly blocked by naloxone. In conclusion, these results suggest the presence of antinociceptive effect in various extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antinociceptive effective doses vary depending on the type of solvents used for extraction.

  20. Bioactivity determination of methanol and water extracts for roots and leaves of Kenyan Psidium guajava L landraces against pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liharaka Kidaha, Mercy; Alakonya, Amos Emitati; Nyende, Aggrey Benard

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L) is native to South America and exists as both wild and cultivated. Guava has been used as a source of food and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to determine bioactivity of methanol and water extracts from root and leaves of Kenyan guava landraces against selected pathogenic bacteria. Study samples were collected from Western and South Coast of Kenya. One hundred grams of leaf and root ground powders were used for sequential extraction using methanol and water. Extracts were evaporated and 0.2gms dissolved using the extraction solvent and tested against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Data on inhibition zone was taken in mm and analyzed at 95% confidence interval. Extracts from Western region had significant inhibition compared to Coastal region. The two regions have different climatic conditions that result in these plants having different compounds even though they are the same species. Roots had higher inhibition compared to the leaves as they contain high levels of tannins compared to leaves. Water as an extracting solvent had higher inhibition than methanol as it is more polar and it absorbs more bioactive compounds. S. aureus was most inhibited followed by E. coli and B. subtilis respectively. There was no significant difference between the gram positive and negative bacteria. Remarkably, some methanol and water root extracts had significant inhibition against bacteria when compared to some commercial antibiotics used. Results of this study indicate that Kenyan guava roots from Western Kenya extracted with methanol and water have a potential to be used as a source of active compounds in treatment of gram positive and gram negative bacteria pathogens.

  1. Influence of agronomic variables on the composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) extracts obtained from CO2 extraction at 30 degrees C and 175 bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmelindro, Angela Aquino; Girardi, Jonathan Dos Santos; Mossi, Altemir; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Dariva, Cláudio

    2004-04-07

    The aim of this work is to assess the influence of light intensity (plants with direct sun exposure and in a controlled light intensity) and age of leaves (6-24 months) on the characteristics of the extracts of mate tea leaves obtained from carbon dioxide at high pressures. Samples of mate were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Industria e Comercio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. The content of selected organic compounds of the extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography together with mass spectrometry. Quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, phytol, vitamin E, squalene, and stigmasterol was performed, and the results showed that field variables exert a strong influence on the liquid yield and on the chemical distribution of the extracts.

  2. Emblica Officinalis (Indian Gooseberry Leaves Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1N HCl Medium

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    R. Saratha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibition efficiency of acid extract of dry Emblica officinalis leaves for mild steel in 1N HCl medium is investigated in the present study. Experimental methods include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance studies. The results indicate Emblica officinalis leaves to be a good corrosion inhibitor of a mixed type and having efficiency of 87.9% at 2% v/v inhibitor concentration. Corrosion inhibition may be due to the spontaneous physical adsorption of the plant constituents on the mild steel surface. Experimental data fitted the Langmuir, Temkin, Freundlich and Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherms.

  3. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  4. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Labiate) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Magaji, G M; Yerima, M; Magaji, R A; Mohammed, A

    2008-01-22

    The aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum was investigated for anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice and rats. The models used to study the effect on nociception are the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test, hot-plate method in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated employing the formalin-induced hind-paw oedema in rats. The extract caused a significant (p<0.05), dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate method. The extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory effect which was significant (P<0.001) at all the three doses. The intraperitoneal LD(50) value of the extract was 1264.9 mg/kg body weight in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. The results suggest the extract contained pharmacologically active principles, and supports the local application of the plant in painful and inflammatory conditions.

  5. Corrosion inhibition and adsorption characteristics of Tridax Procumbens L leaves extract on mild steel immersed in 1M HCl solution

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    Kenneth Kanayo ALANEME

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition and adsorption mechanism of Tridax procumbens Linn leaves extract on mild steel immersed in 1M HCl solution was investigated. Mass loss, corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency from gravimetric and potentiodynamic polarization measurements, atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy; were used for the analysis. The results show that within the selected range of concentration of the extract and corrosion test temperatures, the inhibition efficiency obtained was within the range of 81 and 96 %. The efficiency values were observed to increase with increase in the extract concentration but decreased slightly with increase in temperature. The inhibitor molecules were noted to be physically adsorbed on the mild steel surface with OH, NH, and CO groups confirmed as the active phytochemical constituents in the extract responsible for the adsorption. The adsorption process fitted perfectly with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicating that the extract was strongly adsorbed on the mild steel surface.

  6. Quantification of polyphenols and pharmacological analysis of water and ethanol-based extracts of cultivated agarwood leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsuro; Kakino, Mamoru; Tazawa, Shigemi; Watarai, Tatsuya; Oyama, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Hiroe; Araki, Yoko; Hara, Hideaki; Iinuma, Munekazu

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin (3) and genkwanin 5-O-β-primeveroside (5) are the two major bioactive polyphenols with laxative property present in the extracts of agarwood (Aquilaria sinensis) leaves (AL). Here we developed an HPLC method to determine these bioactive components and four other major polyphenols in AL extracts and evaluated the pharmacological equivalence of organic and water extracts. Using mobile phase gradient conditions combined with UV detection at 330 nm, all six compounds were separated and we determined the relative extraction ratios of the six compounds present in A. sinensis extracts that were prepared under different conditions and compared the contents of the two laxative polyphenols present in the 60% ethanol extracts of A. sinensis and A. crassna. The polyphenols present in water extracts of 13 commercially cultivated A. crassna plants have also been analyzed. The laxative properties of 60% ethanol and four water extracts of A. crassna were evaluated by the frequency and weight of stools in loperamide-induced constipation model mice. The pharmacological equivalence of 60% ethanol extract and hot water (95°C) extract was identified in mice.

  7. Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic leaves extract ofAlangium lamarckii Thwaites on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Kumar; Dinesh Kumar Pate; Satyendra Kuldip Prasad; Kirshnamurthy Sairam; Siva Hemalatha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antidiabetic potential of alcoholic leaves extract ofAlangium lamarckii (A. lamarckii) on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type2 diabetic rats.Methods: Oral glucose tolerance test was done by inducing hyperglycemic state via administration of glucose in water (2 g/kg). Single dose of alcoholic leaves extract ofA. lamarckii(250and500 mg/kg,p.o.) were administered to normoglycemic, hyperglycemic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) followed by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). The study also included estimations of blood plasma glucose, lipid profile, liver glycogen, body weight and antioxidant status in normal and diabetic rats.Results: Admistration of alcoholic extract ofA. lamarckii at two dosage250 and500 mg/kg,p.o. did not showed any significant change in blood glucose level of normoglycemic rats (P>0.05), whereas, oral glucose tolerance test depicted reduction in blood glucose level (P<0.05). The streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats, significantly decreased the blood plasma glucose level (P<0.001) comparable to glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), restored the lipid profile and showed improvement in liver glycogen, body weight and antioxidant status in diabetic rats.Conclusions: Present finding demonstrated the significant antidiabetic activity of alcoholic leaves extract ofA. lamarckii.

  8. Evaluation of antihyperglycaemic activity of Calotropis procera leaves extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats

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    Mário C. L. Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T.Aiton,Apocynaceae, popularly known as "algodão-de-seda", is a wild African bush, rich in bioactive substances that determine the medicinal potential of this species. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects about 10% of the population. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of C. procera of occurrence in coast of Pernambuco, Brazil. The hydroalcholic extract of the leaves of C. procera (300 and 600 mg/kg/day, vehicle, insulin (6U, s.c. or metformin (500 mg/ kg/day were administered orally to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 7/group for four weeks. Changes in body weight, food and water intake, biochemical markers, fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The results showed that the C. procera dried extract (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced significantly the level of blood glucose throughout the evaluation period and improved metabolic status of the animals and ameliorate the oral tolerance glucose test. The phytochemical screening revealed and quantified the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in a percentage of 29.1 and 2.9%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the extract of the leaves of C. procera has antihyperglycemic activity.

  9. Phenolic Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves Inhibits Key Enzymes Linked to Erectile Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Rats’ Penile Tissues

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    Ganiyu Oboh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves on angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE and arginase activities in vitro. The extract was prepared and phenolic (total phenols and flavonoid contents, radical (nitric oxide (NO, hydroxyl (OH scavenging abilities, and Fe2+-chelating ability were assessed. Characterization of the phenolic constituents was done via high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the extract on Fe2+-induced MDA production in rats’ penile tissue homogenate as well as its action on ACE and arginase activities were also determined. The extract scavenged NO∗, OH∗, chelated Fe2+, and inhibited MDA production in a dose-dependent pattern with IC50 values of 1.36, 0.52, and 0.38 mg/mL and 194.23 µg/mL, respectively. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol were the most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the leaf extract. The extract also inhibited ACE and arginase activities in a dose-dependent pattern and their IC50 values were 303.03 and 159.59 µg/mL, respectively. The phenolic contents, inhibition of ACE, arginase, and Fe2+-induced MDA production, and radical (OH∗, NO∗ scavenging and Fe2+-chelating abilities could be some of the possible mechanisms by which M. oleifera leaves could be used in the treatment and/or management of erectile dysfunction.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extracts of leaves and stems from Tabebuia hypoleuca (C. Wright Urb.

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    Ada I. Regalado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are reports in the literature of species belonging to the genus Tabebuia with pharmacological potential as anti-inflammatory: Tabebuia avellanedae, Tabebuia chrysanta, Tabebuia rosea, Tabebuia ochracea, among others; however, about of the species Tabebuia hypoleuca no studies demonstrating this activity so far. Aims: To determine the anti-inflammatory activity in the acute phase of the methanolic extracts of T. hypoleuca. Methods: Leaves and stems of T. hypoleuca were collected. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the carrageenin-induced paw edema models and the croton oil induced auricular edema in mice. The qualitative identification of secondary metabolites present in the methanolic extracts was performed by a preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity assessments showed that methanol extract of the leaves do not have anti-inflammatory activity at doses tested, while the methanol extract of the stems at the dose of 500 mg/kg showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity in the model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. In the model of croton oil induced auricular edema the methanol extract of the stems administered orally and intraperitoneally showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity at all doses tested. The anti-inflammatory activity found could be due to the presence of metabolites such as tannins, phenols and alkaloids. Conclusions: These studies demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol extract of the stems of Tabebuia hypoleuca, and constitute the first report about this species as anti-inflammatory.

  11. Efficacy of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Sabry A; Abdel-Farid, Ibrahim B; Germoush, Mousa O; Elgebaly, Hassan A; Alm-Eldeen, Abeer A

    2016-10-01

    Context Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is used to treat different cancer types, although it causes severe hepatotoxicity due to its oxidative stress effect. Rosmarinus officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae) has a therapeutic potential against hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant activity. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract of Rosmarinus officianalis leaves (MEROL) and its efficacy against CTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and methods The phytochemical analyses were assessed spectrophotometericaly. To assess the MEROL efficacy, 72 Swiss albino mice were divided into six groups. Group 1 was control, groups 2 and 3 included mice which were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 100 or 200 mg/kg of MEROL at days 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16; group 4 was injected (i.p.) with CTX (200 mg/kg) at day 17, groups 5 and 6 were injected (i.p.) with MEROL as groups 3 and 4 followed by 200 mg/kg CTX at day 17, respectively. At day 22, six mice from each group were sacrificed and the others were sacrificed at day 37. Results MEROL has a high content of total phenolics, saponins, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The median lethal dose (LD50) value of MEROL was 4.125 g/kg b.w. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) value for DPPH radical scavenging was 55 μg/mL. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg MEROL for 16 d ameliorated CTX-induced hepatotoxicity represented in lowering the levels of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lipid profile and minimizing the histological damage. Conclusions Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg b.w. MEROL mitigated CTX-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant activity.

  12. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis

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    Wang Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yuji Wang,1 Jingcheng Tang,1 Haimei Zhu,1 Xueyun Jiang,1 Jiawang Liu,1 Wenyun Xu,1 Haiping Ma,1 Qiqi Feng,1 Jianhui Wu,1 Ming Zhao,1,2 Shiqi Peng1 1Beijing Area Major Laboratory of Peptide and Small Molecular Drugs, Engineering Research Center of Endogenous Prophylactic of Ministry of Education of China, Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detector/(-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 µM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis. Keywords: R. rubescens, s

  13. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed toward

  14. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2012-01-01

    Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian

  15. Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml.

  16. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  17. Phytochemical study and antinociceptive effect of the hexanic extract of leaves from Combretum duarteanum and friedelin, a triterpene isolated from the hexanic extract, in orofacial nociceptive protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana S.S. Quintans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combretum duarteanum Cambess, Combretaceae, is a plant widely distributed in Northeastern Brazil and, in folk medicine, stems and leaves are used for pain treatment. We investigated the antinociceptive effects of the hexanic extract of leaves from C. duarteanum and of friedelin, its main compound, in formalin-, glutamate- and capsaicin- induced orofacial nociception models. In order to isolate friedelin from the hexanic extract, flash chromatography technique was used. Male mice (n = 8/group were pretreated with hexanic extract, friedelin, morphine or vehicle, before the injection of algogen agents into the right upper lip (perinasal area. The test of formalin-induced orofacial nociception showed that hexanic extract and friedelin significantly reduced nociception (p < 0.001 in both phases of testing. In the glutamate and capsaicin-induced orofacial nociception tests, pre-treatment with hexanic extract produced a significant reduction of orofacial nociception (p < 0.001 at all doses tested.The results suggest the hexanic extract and friedelin possess antinociceptive effects in models of orofacial nociception in rodents.

  18. Preliminary phytochemical, pharmacological and antibacterial studies of the alkaloidal extracts of the leaves of Synclisia scabrida Miers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokomba, E; Wambebe, C; Chowdhury, B K; Iriah, J; Ogbeide, O N; Orkor, D

    1986-11-01

    Preliminary phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Synclisia scabrida indicated the presence of two alkaloids in the water extracts and five alkaloids in the ethanol extracts. The alkaloidal fraction obtained from the cold ethanol extract furnished on column-chromatography, a homogeneous amorphous solid which has been designated as alkaloid C. Alkaloid C showed positive test for alkaloids. The UV and IR spectra and colour reactions of alkaloid C indicated that the compound may be a phenolic bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid. All the extracts delayed the onset and shortened the duration of apomorphine-induced stereotyped behaviour in chicks. In addition, 40 mg kg-1 i.p. of the ethanolic extract induced catalepsy in rats. The cold water extract (CWE) synchronized the EEG of the hyperstriatum, optic tectum and the reticular formation while the EMG activity was slightly enhanced. The hot ethanol alkaloidal extract (HEE) inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of HEE on Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains I and II were 5 and 2.5 micrograms/ml while for Staphylococcus aureus strains I and II were 5 and 10 micrograms/ml, respectively. Up to 1 g kg-1 i.p. of the extract failed to induce any lethal effect in chicks and rats. These effects of the leaf extracts of Synclisia scabrida Miers support some of the local uses of the plant by traditional medical practitioners.

  19. Metabolite profiling of Clinacanthus nutans leaves extracts obtained from different drying methods by 1H NMR-based metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Noor Haslinda Noor; Latip, Jalifah; Khatib, Alfi

    2016-11-01

    The metabolites of Clinacanthus nutans leaves extracts and their dependence on drying process were systematically characterized using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) multivariate data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were able to distinguish the leaves extracts obtained from different drying methods. The identified metabolites were carbohydrates, amino acid, flavonoids and sulfur glucoside compounds. The major metabolites responsible for the separation in PLS-DA loading plots were lupeol, cycloclinacosides, betulin, cerebrosides and choline. The results showed that the combination of 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses could act as an efficient technique to understand the C. nutans composition and its variation.

  20. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch leaves in mice model

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    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (S. colocasiifolia leaves. Methods: Swiss albino mice treated with 1% Tween solution, standard drugs and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia, respectively, were subjected to the neurological and antinociceptive investigations. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used for testing antidepressant activity, where the parameter is the measurement of immobility time. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by hole board model. Anti-nociceptive potential of the extract was also screened for centrally acting analgesic activity by using formalin induced licking response model and acetic acid induced writhing test was used for testing peripheral analgesic action. Results: Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia significantly decreased the period of immobility in both tested models (tail suspension and forced swimming models of antidepressant activity. In the hole board model, there was a dose dependant (at 100 and 200 mg/kg and a significant increase in the number of head dipping by comparing with control (1% Tween solution (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In formalin induced licking model, a significant inhibition of pain compared to standard diclofenac sodium was observed (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In acetic acid induced test, there was a significant reduction of writhing response and pain in mice treated with leaves extract of S. colocasiifolia at 200 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. Conclusions: The results proofed the prospective antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves.

  1. In vitro evaluation and comparison of antioxidant activities of various extracts of leaves and stems of Kalanchoe pinnatum

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    Manisha Bhatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The present research was carried out to evaluate the total phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant potentials by five different assay method of various (benzene, chloroform, acetone, and ethanol extracts of leaves and stems of Kalanchoe pinnatum as the plant is an ingredient of various traditional preparations used in the treatment of various diseases. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity was determined by using five different in vitro antioxidant assays including 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, ferric reducing antioxidant power and phosphomolybdenum assays. In the present investigation, quantitative estimation of flavonoid content and phenolic content was carried out by colorimetric methods using aluminium chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu reagent methods respectively to establish relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Results and Conclusions: The plant powder (100 mg yielded 0.49, 0.64, 0.99, 1.17 %w/w total phenolic content in leaves and 0.18, 0.27, 0.48, 0.62 %w/w total phenolic content in the benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol extracts of stems respectively using gallic acid as standard and plant contains about 0.24, 0.37, 0.56, 0.75 %w/w of total flavonoids content in leaves and 0.15, 0.22, 0.42, 0.54 %w/w of total flavonoids content in the benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol extracts of stems respectively using quercetin as standard. The extracts showed significant antioxidant activity in dose dependent manner in all the assays. The result obtained in the present study indicated that leaves and stems of K. pinnatum could be a potential source of natural antioxidant and justified the traditional use of herb in preventing disease induced by oxidative stress.

  2. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Sarah A Johnson; Kang, Jonghoon; Bahram H. Arjmandi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated t...

  3. Determination of Polar Compounds in Guava Leaves Infusions and Ultrasound Aqueous Extract by HPLC-ESI-MS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Literature lacks publications about polar compounds content in infusion or guava leaves tea. Because of that, a comparison between different times of infusion and a conventional ultrasound aqueous extract was carried out. Several polar compounds have been identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by FRAP and ABTS assays. Four different classes of phenolic compounds (gallic and ellagic acid derivatives, flavonols, flavanones, and flavan-3-ols) and some benzophenone...

  4. Composition of Essential Oils and Ethanol Extracts of the Leaves of Lippia Species: Identification, Quantitation and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Trevisan,Maria T. S.; Ricardo A. Marques; Silva,Maria G. V.; Dominique Scherer; Roswitha Haubner; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Owen, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    The principal components of essential oils, obtained by steam-hydrodistillation from the fresh leaves of five species of the genus Lippia, namely Lippia gracilis AV, Lippia sidoides Mart , Lippia alba carvoneifera, Lippia alba citralifera and Lippia alba myrceneifera and ethanol extracts , were evaluated. The greater antioxidant capacity (IC 50 = 980 µg/mL; p < 0.05), assessed by the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, was determined in the essential oil obtained from Lippia alba ...

  5. [Effect of aqueous extracts of Tamus communis L. leaves on the germination of seeds of various species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenesi, P; Foggi, G; Roti-Michelozzi, G; Serrato, G

    1981-06-15

    The different influence of germination and growth inhibitors in aqueous extracts, at the same concentration, of Tamus communis L. leaves, on germinating seeds and seedlings of nigra L., Lactuca sativa L., Medicago sativa L., has been shown. This action, very marked at the experimental concentrations, is not toxic, as the seeds and seedlings, if immersed in deionized water after treatments, recover their germination and growth. This recovery occurs however differently in the plants investigated.

  6. Chromatographic fingerprinting and free-radical scavenging activity of ethanol extracts of Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

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    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: M. calabura exhibited very high antioxidant activity in its leaves and stems ethanol extracts, both of which are used in traditional medicine. The TLC results demonstrated the presence of diverse secondary metabolites in the leaf and stem ethanol extracts, indicating that the antioxidant activity, including other bioactivities may be attributed to these phytochemical constituents. This paper has reported for the first time the TLC fingerprinting of M. calabura using visible light, UV 254 nm, UV 366 and post-derivatization with vanillin-spray to visualize separate spots on TLC plates.

  7. Determination of the n-alkane profile of epicuticular wax extracted from mature leaves of Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae: Solanales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Bhattacharjee, Indranil; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2010-09-01

    An n-hexane extract of fresh, mature leaves of Cestrum nocturnum (Solanales: Solanaceae) containing thin layer epicuticular waxes was analysed by thin-layer chromatography, infrared and gas liquid chromatography using standard hydrocarbons. Seventeen long chain alkanes (n-C(18) to n-C(34)) were identified and quantified. Hentriacontane (n-C(31)) was established as the major n-alkane, while nonadecane (n-C(19)) was the least abundant component of the extracted wax fraction. The carbon preference index calculated for the sample was 1.30, showing an odd to even carbon number predominance.

  8. Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): a New Rapid and Greener Method for Extracting Two Steviol Glycosides (Stevioside and Rebaudioside A) from Stevia Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Vitulano, Manuela; Andolfi, Anna; DellaGreca, Marina; Conte, Esterina; Ciaravolo, Martina; Naviglio, Daniele

    2017-01-20

    Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the main diterpene glycosides present in the leaves of the Stevia rebaudiana plant, which is used in the production of foods and low-calorie beverages. The difficulties associated with their extraction and purification are currently a problem for the food processing industries. The objective of this study was to develop an effective and economically viable method to obtain a high-quality product while trying to overcome the disadvantages derived from the conventional transformation processes. For this reason, extractions were carried out using a conventional maceration (CM) and a cyclically pressurized extraction known as rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE) by the Naviglio extractor (NE). After only 20 min of extraction using the NE, a quantity of rebaudioside A and stevioside equal to 1197.8 and 413.6 mg/L was obtained, respectively, while for the CM, the optimum time was 90 min. From the results, it can be stated that the extraction process by NE and its subsequent purification developed in this study is a simple, economical, environmentally friendly method for producing steviol glycosides. Therefore, this method constitutes a valid alternative to conventional extraction by reducing the extraction time and the consumption of toxic solvents and favouring the use of the extracted metabolites as food additives and/or nutraceuticals. As an added value and of local interest, the experiment was carried out on stevia leaves from the Benevento area (Italy), where a high content of rebaudioside A was observed, which exhibits a sweet taste compared to stevioside, which has a significant bitter aftertaste.

  9. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTI-BACTERIAL, ANALGESIC, ANTI-DIARRHOEAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF POLYALTHIA SUBEROSA LEAVES

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    S.M. Moazzem Hossen et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The MeOH extract of leaves of Polyalthia suberosa Roxb. (Annonaceae was screened for its antibacterial, analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities. The extract showed moderate anti-bacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Sheigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus saprophyticus. It also produced significant (P<0.01 writhing inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing in mice at dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg, which was comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Moreover, when tested for its antidiarrhoeal effects on castor oil induced diarrhea in mice, it decreased the frequency of defecation and increased mean latent period significantly (P<0.01 at the dose of 500 mg/kg comparable to the standard drug loperamide. The extract also exhibited high level of cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay (LC50: 30 µg/ml. The overall results tend to suggest the antibacterial, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities of the extract.

  10. Imidacloprid Extraction from Citrus Leaves and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Jorge A; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Borejsza-Wysocki, Wlodzimierz S; Bauder, Victor S; Morgan, Kelly T

    2016-05-01

    A procedure was developed to extract Imidacloprid (IMD) from newly-flushed and fully-expanded citrus leaves. The extraction was conducted in a bullet blender, using a small sample mass (0.5 g of fresh tissue), stainless-steel beads (24 g), and methanol as extractant (10 mL). The extracts did not require further clean-up before analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated with control samples from IMD-untreated Hamlin orange trees. The method limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.04 and 0.12 μg g(-1), respectively. IMD recoveries from fortified leaf tissue were between 92 % and 102 %, with relative standard deviations of leaves from Hamlin orange trees treated with IMD. The treated trees showed maximum concentrations of 10.8 and 21.8 µg g(-1), observed at 20 days after applying two soil-drenching rates (0.51 and 1.02 kg IMD ha(-1)), respectively. This extraction technique will generate useful data on IMD plant uptake, foliar concentration, and correlations with Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) mortality or control. The method could be used to generate baseline data to improve IMD soil-drenching applications as the main management practice to control the ACP.

  11. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch leaves in mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir; Mohammed Munawar Hossain; Md. Mominur Rahman; Shabbir Ahmad; Abul Hasanat; Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury; Md. Akramul Hoque; Nishan Chakrabarty; Md. Shakhawat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (S. colocasiifolia) leaves. Methods: Swiss albino mice treated with 1% Tween solution, standard drugs and ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia,respectively, were subjected to the neurological and antinociceptive investigations. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used for testing antidepressant activity, where the parameter is the measurement of immobility time. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by hole board model. Anti-nociceptive potential of the extract was also screened for centrally acting analgesic activity by using formalin induced licking response model and acetic acid induced writhing test was used for testing peripheral analgesic action. Results: Ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia significantly decreased the period of immobility in both tested models (tail suspension and forced swimming models) of antidepressant activity. In the hole board model, there was a dose dependant (at 100 and 200 mg/kg) and a significant increase in the number of head dipping by comparing with control (1% Tween solution) (P Conclusions: The results proofed the prospective antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia leaves.

  12. In vitro thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum leaves

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    Antara Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium indicum is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in Bangladesh as a folkloric treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic properties with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of X. indicum leaves. The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of phytosetrols and diterpenes. In thrombolytic assay, a significant clot lysis was observed at four concentrations of plant extract compare to the positive control streptokinase (30,000 IU, 15,000 IU and negative control normal saline. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. In anti-oxidant activity evaluation by two potential experiments namely total phenolic content determination and free radical scavenging assay by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the leaves extract possess good anti-oxidant property. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the crude extract showed potent (LC50 1.3 μg/mL cytotoxic activity compare to the vincristine sulfate as a positive control (LC50 0.8 μg/mL.

  13. Alcoholic Extract of Lotus Leaves Improves Lipid Profile in Rats with HIV Protease Inhibitor-induced Dyslipidaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, QJ; Lu, ZZ; Deng, QY; Wei, BM

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the effect of the alcoholic extract of lotus leaves (AELL) on antiretroviral treatment-induced dyslipidaemia in a rat model. Methods: Lotus leaves were extracted by 95% ethanol. Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats were given lopinavir/ritonavir for six weeks. At weeks 0 and 6, sera were collected for measurement of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). Rats meeting the criteria for dyslipidaemia were assigned to four groups and received once daily for another four weeks lopinavir/ritonavir (group A), lopinavir/ritonavir plus 0.52 g/kg AELL (group B), lopinavir/ritonavir plus 0.26 g/kg AELL (group C), or lopinavir/ritonavir plus 0.13 g/kg AELL (group D), respectively. At weeks 8 and 10, blood samples were collected again for measurement of TC and TG. Results: Both TC and TG increased over time in group A during the observation period (weeks 6 to 10), however, TC and TG decreased in group B, and TG declined in group C. Neither TC nor TG could be reduced to a level near baseline. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of lotus leaves may have the potential to treat dyslipidaemia related to highly active antiretroviral treatment, but may not be potent enough to reduce TC or TG concentrations to goal levels when used alone. PMID:26426169

  14. Optimization of the Conditions for Extraction of Serine Protease from Kesinai Plant (Streblus asper Leaves Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper leaves. The effect of independent variables, namely temperature (42.5,47.5, X1, mixing time (2–6 min, X2, buffer content (0–80 mL, X3 and buffer pH (4.5–10.5, X4 on specific activity, storage stability, temperature and oxidizing agent stability of serine protease from kesinai leaves was investigated. The study demonstrated that use of the optimum temperature, mixing time, buffer content and buffer pH conditions protected serine protease during extraction, as demonstrated by low activity loss. It was found that the interaction effect of mixing time and buffer content improved the serine protease stability, and the buffer pH had the most significant effect on the specific activity of the enzyme. The most desirable conditions of 2.5 °C temperature, 4 min mixing time, 40 mL buffer at pH 7.5 was established for serine protease extraction from kesinai leaves.

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON THE CRUDE EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF CINERARIA ABYSSINICA SCH. BIP. EXA. RICH

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    Biruk Sintayehu*, Kaleab Asres and Avijit Mazumder

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aqueous decoction of the leaves of Cineraria abyssinica Sch. Bip. exA. Rich (Asteraceae is used for treatments of various ailments including diarrhea, however, to date, there appear to have been no reports on the phytochemistry and the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The main aim of this study was, therefore, to carry out preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities on leaf extracts of C. abyssinica. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and 80% methanolic crude extracts of the leaves of C. abyssinica were investigated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar disc diffusion method. Both the aqueous and 80% methanolic extracts showed various degrees of potent antibacterial activities comparable to the standard drug ciprofloxacin against all of the bacteria tested except Bacillus species. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids and phytosterols. The acute toxicity studies showed the nontoxic nature of the plant up to 3 g/kg. Therefore, the present study revealed for the first time the presence of antimicrobial phytochemicals in the leaves of C. abyssinica that scientifically validated the traditional use and its great potential to be used for treatment of infectious diarrhea.

  16. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Khulood Ahmed Salim AL-Raqmi; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. Methods:The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Results: Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. Conclusions:The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF NAPOLEONEAE IMPERIALIS FAMILY LECYTHIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Anowi , A.F. Onyegbule *, T.H. Gugu and U.A. Utoh- Nedosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Napoleonaea imperialis is used to treat wounds in most parts of Nigeria. Against this background, N-hexane extract of the leaves were screened against some microorganisms to ascertain this claim and to recommend it for further investigation for possible inclusion into official compendium. The plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with N-hexane for 24hours. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, glycoside, proteins and flavonoid using standard procedures. Antimicrobial screenings were carried out using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity was conducted by screening against six pathogens comprising both Gram positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus and Gram negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella, E. coli and S. typhi obtained from pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extract was screened against 24hour broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 400, 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25and 3.125 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 370C, for 24 hours and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The positive controls were ampicillin 20µg/ml for bacteria. The organisms were very sensitive to ampicillin. DMSO was used as negative control. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and proteins whereas flavonoids, resins and steroids were absent. N-hexane extract exhibited activity against all the test bacteria at 400mg/ml and 200mg/ml. The N-hexane extract exhibited varying activity as the concentration is reduced, to Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, P. saeruginosa, Kleb pneumonia, Salmonella typhi with minimal inhibitory concentration of 50, 25, 200, 50, 400 and 200 mg/ml of N-hexane extract respectively. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology and since the root extract are more

  18. Effects of Drying Temperature on Flavonoids Extraction Rate from Young Stems and Leaves of Two Cassava Varieties

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    WANG Ding-mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve flavonoids resources utilization level of young cassava stems and leaves, using cassava varieties SC09 and SC205 as ob jects, investigated the effect of different drying temperatures(40~120℃on the flavonoids extraction rate(FERand their stability in 120 d storage period after drying, explored a right drying storage method for postharvest young cassava stems and leaves. The research showed that total FER rised first, and then fell and rised again with the increase of drying temperature. During 40~80℃, the total FER was obviously in fluenced by variety and temperature, but only temperature was main factor affecting total FER during 90~120℃. Extract degree of flavonoids include rutin, amentoflavone or catechin, kaempferol, hesperidin, quercetin minished in order; the effect of cassava variety on the extraction rate of catechin and hesperidin was greater than that of drying temperature, but that contrary to other 4 flavonoids. Variety and temperature had a maximum impact respectively on catechin and rutin extraction rates. Whereas both of variety and temperature had a minimum impact on kaempferol extraction rate. FER reached higher levels of 1.42%and 1.53% respectively in SC09 after 120℃drying and SC205 after 110℃drying, and had best stability during 120 d storage period. The extraction rate of hesperidin increased after drying storage, and that of other 5 ingredients were changing with different varieties and temperatures; the coefficient variation(CV=1.03%~6.86%of kaempferol was minimum and its stability was best; extraction rates of rutin and kaempferol in SC205 after 110℃drying were maximum, whose increasing rates were 44.89%and 7.27%respectively with a small separate degree(CV were 6.94%, 4.59%and good extraction stability. Maximum in creasing rates of catechin, amentoflavone, quercetin and hesperidin were 211.60%,17.60%,186.39% and 538.08% respectively. However,their stabilities of extraction efficiency were poor

  19. Early detection and classification of powdery mildew-infected rose leaves using ANFIS based on extracted features of thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehrnoosh; Minaei, Saeid; Safaie, Naser; Torkamani-Azar, Farah

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in surface temperature of infected and non-infected rose plant (Rosa hybrida cv. 'Angelina') leaves were visualized using digital infrared thermography. Infected areas exhibited a presymptomatic decrease in leaf temperature up to 2.3 °C. In this study, two experiments were conducted: one in the greenhouse (semi-controlled ambient conditions) and the other, in a growth chamber (controlled ambient conditions). Effect of drought stress and darkness on the thermal images were also studied in this research. It was found that thermal histograms of the infected leaves closely follow a standard normal distribution. They have a skewness near zero, kurtosis under 3, standard deviation larger than 0.6, and a Maximum Temperature Difference (MTD) more than 4. For each thermal histogram, central tendency, variability, and parameters of the best fitted Standard Normal and Laplace distributions were estimated. To classify healthy and infected leaves, feature selection was conducted and the best extracted thermal features with the largest linguistic hedge values were chosen. Among those features independent of absolute temperature measurement, MTD, SD, skewness, R2l, kurtosis and bn were selected. Then, a neuro-fuzzy classifier was trained to recognize the healthy leaves from the infected ones. The k-means clustering method was utilized to obtain the initial parameters and the fuzzy "if-then" rules. Best estimation rates of 92.55% and 92.3% were achieved in training and testing the classifier with 8 clusters. Results showed that drought stress had an adverse effect on the classification of healthy leaves. More healthy leaves under drought stress condition were classified as infected causing PPV and Specificity index values to decrease, accordingly. Image acquisition in the dark had no significant effect on the classification performance.

  20. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Extracts from Leaves and Fruits of Schinusterebinthifolius Raddi from Tunisia

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    Alessandra Piras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oils composition from leaves and ripe fruits of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi growing in Tunisia were investigated using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Volatile oil extraction was achieved by hydrodistillation (HD using a Clevenger apparatus and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using carbon dioxide. All plant organs, gave SFE extracts chiefly composed by a -pinene, a -phellandrene, b -phellandrene, germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene. In the case of the fruits, both extraction techniques gave volatile oils of similar composition; whereas the comparison between the HD and SFE leave oils revealed important differences in the content of a -pinene (6.1 % vs traces, a -phellandrene (22.7 % vs 0.8 % and b -phellandrene (14.6 % vs 1.2 %. All volatile samples were evaluated against yeasts and dermatophyte strains, being more active against Cryptococcus neoformans, particularly the volatile oil from the fruits, with MIC values of (0.32-0.64 mg/mL.Moreover, this oil revealed an inhibitory effect on germ tube formation in C. albicans at sub-inhibitory concentration. At the concentration of MIC/8 the inhibition of filamentation was more than 70 %.

  1. Acaricide activity of leaves extracts of Sambucus australis Schltdl. (Caprifoliaceae at 2% on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Felipe da Silva Krawczak

    Full Text Available Parasite infections caused by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus are responsible for the most of economic losses in producing-cattle countries in tropical and subtropical areas. Indiscriminate uses of chemical acaricides have contributed with the appearance of tick resistance to many drugs available in the marketplace, and it is a serious problem in the tick control. Flowers of Sambucus australis (South America, called "sabugueiro-from-Brazil", are used on infusions or decoctions forms in the folk medicine with diuretic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and laxative purpose, also employed for treating respiratory diseases in human. The main goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro potential of S. australis leaves extracts as an acaricide agent. Ethanol extract at 70% has been dehydrated and a fraction was suspended in 70% ethanol or in distillated water at final concentration of 2% (0.2mg-1. Using the immersion test of engorged females the efficiency results were obtained in 34% and 66% with the leaves extract diluted in water and 70% ethanol, respectively. This study is the first report on acaricidal activity of S. australis against cattle tick. Further studies to determine the active metabolites in different stages of S. australis could aid to identify suitable extracts to be tested in the R. (B. microplus control.

  2. Phytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of fruits and leaves of Banisteriopsis oxyclada (A. Juss. B. Gates on weeds growth

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    Simoni Anese

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves and fruits of Banisteriopsis oxyclada on seedling growth of wild poinsettia and barnyardgrass. Crude ethanolic extract was prepared at a proportion of 100 g of dry plant matter for 500 mL of ethanol. Through this, the extracts were solubilized in buffer solution and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, at the concentrations 10.0; 7.5; 5.0; and 2.5 mg/mL. The growth of roots, shoots, and seedling root metaxylem cells were evaluated. Ethanolic extracts of leaves and fruits of B. oxyclada inhibited root growth of barnyardgrass and wild poinsettia seedlings, with a concentration-dependent effect. Decreased shoot growth was observed only in wild poinsettia seedlings. Decreased root growth in wild poinsettia seedlings may be related to decreased elongation in metaxylem cells. Banisteriopsis oxyclada shows phytotoxic properties and it may be regarded as an alternative to control the weeds under study, having natural products as a basis.

  3. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  4. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

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    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  5. In vitro antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition activity of aqueous extract of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition potential of aqueous extract of Lantana camara leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of L. camara was estimated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, metal chelating activity and reducing power assay. DNA damage inhibition was performed by photolysing H2O2 by UV radiation in the presence of pBR322 and extract. Estimation of phenolic content was carried out by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Results: Extract exhibited high antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenng assay (IC50= 42.66 μg/ml), metal chelating activity (IC50= 1036.4μg/ml) and reducing power assay. Extract also exhibited the complete protection of pBR322 plasmid DNA during DNA damage inhibition assay. Extract showed high phenolic content which justified the antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition properties of the plant. Conclusions:These observations emphasize that aqueous extract of L. camara possess high antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition potential, thus, the plant can be used to develop natural antioxidant compounds for therapeutic use.

  6. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae

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    Alisson Macário de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000 mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000 mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations.

  7. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alisson Macário; Mesquita, Matheus da Silva; da Silva, Gabriela Cavalcante; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Souza, Ivone Antônia; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000 mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000 mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. PMID:26246840

  8. ISOLATION OF PRELIMINARY PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN. LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present studies that Isolation of preliminary phytoconstituents and anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Calotropis gigantea linn. Leaves Extracts. Therapeutic use of plants for the treatment of human illnesses dates back over man millennia. Evidence of their effectiveness in the diagnosis, cure and prevention of disease states exists in every culture throughout the world. Today “traditional medicine,” characterized by the use of herbs and other natural products still remains a regular component of health care in countries such as China, Japan, India, South America and Egypt. The search for anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent in modern was marked by the introduction of salicin for the treatment of inflammatory swellings due to rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis. The ethanol extract and distilled water extract showed good significant reduction in paw oedema as compared to control group, where as Petroleum ether (60-800C extract, Chloroform extract, Ethyl acetate, n-Butanol has showed comparatively less significant reduction in paw oedema volume. The chloroform and n-butanol extract showed good significant reduction in rectal temperature as compare to control group, where as pet. ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and distilled water extracts showed less significant reduction in rectal temperature. Hence, to put into the active principle of Calotropis gigantea linn like glycoside, sterols, carbohydrate, flavonoids, terpenoide may be responsible for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.

  9. Dynamic high pressure microfluidization-assisted extraction and bioactivities of Cyperus esculentus (C. esculentus L.) leaves flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Siqun; Wang, Saisai; Li, Qian; Zheng, Lian; Yue, Li; Fan, Shaoli; Tao, Guanjun

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM) on extracting total flavonoids from Cyperus esculentus L. (C. esculentus L.) leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity and antibacterial property of these flavonoids. In all the assays, pretreatment with DHPM was found to not only efficiently improve the yield of total flavonoids but also strengthen the antioxidant activity of the total flavonoids. C. esculentus L. leaves flavonoids had pronounced antioxidant activity in vivo that could significantly elevate the content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) without increasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and could also improve total antioxidant capacity in mice with a dose-dependent fashion. C. esculentus L. leaves flavonoids inhibited the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria while no obvious inhibitory effect on Penicillium and Aspergillus could be observed. Our studies indicate that flavonoids from C. esculentus L. leaves can be taken as a natural antioxidant and bacteriostatic substance in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  10. THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE'S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD

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    Shirly Kumala*, Hesty Utami and Wahyu Kartika Sari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment was begun with feeding the mice with the test solution followed by feeding glucose solution (1.5 g/kg BW 30 minutes later. Blood glucose levels were assessed using glucometer kit, from zero to 3 hours, at ½ hourly interval. These results analysed by one way ANOVA showed there were significant difference (p<0.05 between Ethanol extract of avocado leaves treated with mice (0.490, 0.980 g/kg BW and control groups. Furthermore, when Tukey’s test was performed, avocado treated mice (1.960g/kg BW reduce glucose level to 64.27%. The effectiveness of this treatment was not significantly different to those treated with glipizide (68.50%.

  11. From soil to leaves--aluminum fractionation by single step extraction procedures in polluted and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Siepak, Jerzy

    2013-09-30

    The paper presents the fractionation of aluminum in the samples of soil and plants of different species using a selective single-step extraction method. The study was conducted in the area located near a chemical plant, which for many years served as a post-crystallization leachate disposal site storing chemical waste (sector I), and in the area around the site: in Wielkopolski National Park, Rogalin Landscape Park and toward the infiltration ponds at the "Dębina" groundwater well-field for the city of Poznań (Poland) (sector II). The results of aluminum fractionation in samples of soil, leaves and plants showed heavy pollution with aluminum, especially in the water soluble aluminum fraction - Alsw (maximum concentration of aluminum in soil extract was 234.8 ± 4.8 mg kg(-1), in the leaves of Betula pendula it was 107.4 ± 1.8 mg kg(-1) and in the plants of Artemisia vulgaris (root) and Medicago sativa (leaves) it amounted to 464.7 ± 10.7 mg kg(-1)and 146.8 ± 1.2 mg kg(-1) respectively). In addition, the paper presents the problem of organic aluminum fractionation in biological samples and it shows the relationship between aluminum concentration in soil and the analysed woody and herbaceous species.

  12. Chelidonium majus leaves methanol extract and its chelidonine alkaloid ingredient reduce cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Asaad, Gihan F

    2013-01-01

    The kidney is one of the critical target organs for chronic cadmium toxicity. Cadmium is a cumulative nephrotoxicant, and preferentially accumulates and persists in the kidneys. The natriuretic and antidiuretic effects of methyl alcohol extracts of Chelidonium majus L. (C. majus) leaves were evaluated in kidney of cadmium-intoxicated rats. Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley Albino rats were divided into two major groups (toxicity and biochemical, 60 and 36 rats, respectively). There was a decrease in kidney weight and serum electrolytes, but an increase in urinary volume, excretion of electrolytes, serum urea and creatinine, after 9 weeks of cadmium chloride intoxication. Treatment of C. majus methyl alcohol extract for 10 weeks starting 1 week before cadmium administration shifted the above parameters towards the normal values. These results were supported by molecular and histological investigations. Treatment with C. majus methyl alcohol extract has natriuretic and antidiuretic effects against cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  13. The effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Juglans regia leaves in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Malekzadeh, Jan Mohammad; Roozbehi, Amrollah

    2012-04-01

    Phytotherapy has been achieved to maintain glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic properties of the Juglans regia leaf extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Nicotinamide was injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) 15 min before the injection of Streptozotocin (i.p.). One week after induction of diabetes, oral treatment started with extract of Juglans regia and Metformin and continued for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar, body weight, serum lipids and insulin level were measured in different groups. A significant reduction of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides were detected after 4 weeks in rats treated with Juglans regia leaves compared to the control groups. Thus, Juglans regia extract treatment showed potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in type 2 diabetic rats.

  14. Inhibitive Effect by Acid Extract of Ficus Exasperata Leaves on the Sulphuric Acid Corrosion of Mild Steel

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    N. S. Patel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Ficus exasperata leaves was investigated as corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in 1 N H2SO4 using conventional weight loss, electrochemical polarizations, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic studies. The weight loss results showed that the extract of Ficus exasperata is excellent corrosion inhibitor. Electrochemical polarizations data revealed the mixed mode of inhibition. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the change in the impedance parameters, charge transfer resistance and double layer capacitance, with the change in concentration of the extract is due to the adsorption of active molecules leading to the formation of a protective layer on the surface of mild steel. Scanning electron microscopic studies provided the confirmatory evidence of improved surface condition, due to the adsorption, for the corrosion protection.

  15. Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hui Meng; Cheng, En-Hsiang; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2007-09-25

    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (pCactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.

  16. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions.

  17. Safety evaluation of Morinda citrifolia (noni leaves extract: assessment of genotoxicity, oral short term and subchronic toxicity

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    Alicia Lagarto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia L (noni is an evergreen or small tree that grows in many tropical regions of the world. The use of the noni leaves has not been so studied however; there are reports of its pharmacological benefits. Aims: The objective of this investigation was to assess the genotoxicity, short-term, and subchronic oral toxicity of Morinda citrifolia L leaves aqueous extract. Methods: The genotoxicity of the M. citrifolia extract was investigated by measuring the frequency of micronuclei in mice bone marrow cells. The animals were treated with three doses of the extract (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg. For short-term toxicity, both sexes Wistar rats received 1000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Animals were sacrificed for hematological and biochemical evaluation. For the subchronic study, Wistar rats were administered with three doses of M. citrifolia extract (100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg by oral route for 90 days. Mortalities, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological examination were monitored during the study period. Results: Genotoxicity and short-term toxicity test resulted in absence of toxicity at doses between 500 and 2000 mg/kg. Significant differences were observed in hemoglobin, and differential leukocyte count after subchronic dosing of the extract. Histology evaluation did not reveal treatment-related abnormalities. Variations observed were within to normal range and reversible. Conclusions: In summary, 1000 mg/kg orally was the NOAEL for M. citrifolia extract for effects other than transient variations in some hematological parameters within normal range. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 15-22

  18. Phenolic Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves Inhibits Key Enzymes Linked to Erectile Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Rats' Penile Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves on angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities in vitro. The extract was prepared and phenolic (total phenols and flavonoid) contents, radical (nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH)) scavenging abilities, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability were assessed. Characterization of the phenolic constituents was done via high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the extract on Fe(2+)-induced MDA production in rats' penile tissue homogenate as well as its action on ACE and arginase activities were also determined. The extract scavenged NO (∗) , OH (∗) , chelated Fe(2+), and inhibited MDA production in a dose-dependent pattern with IC50 values of 1.36, 0.52, and 0.38 mg/mL and 194.23 µg/mL, respectively. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol were the most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the leaf extract. The extract also inhibited ACE and arginase activities in a dose-dependent pattern and their IC50 values were 303.03 and 159.59 µg/mL, respectively. The phenolic contents, inhibition of ACE, arginase, and Fe(2+)-induced MDA production, and radical (OH (∗) , NO (∗) ) scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities could be some of the possible mechanisms by which M. oleifera leaves could be used in the treatment and/or management of erectile dysfunction.

  19. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu, E-mail: suixiaoyu@outlook.com; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  20. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Moringa peregrina(Forssk. Fiori. on blood pressure and oxidative status in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Safaeian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated the antioxidant and partially antihypertensive effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of M. peregrina in Dex-induced hypertension. Further experiments on other fractions of the leaves and also other parts of this plant are suggested for better evaluation of its antihypertensive effect and finding its mechanisms of action.

  1. Antifertility potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Cordia dichotoma G Forst. leaves: A folklore medicine used by Meena community in Rajasthan state in India

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    Pallavi Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that hydro alcoholic extract of C. dichotoma leaves possess significant antifertility activity, which is consistent with the literature report in folk medicine of this plant in fertility regulation.

  2. Characterization of Stevia leaves by LC-QTOF MS/MS analysis of polar and non-polar extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Calle, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2017-03-15

    Stevia is currently a well-known plant thanks to its sweeting power. Numerous studies that elucidate its composition were exclusively focused on determination of steviol and its glycosides. Untargeted analysis was applied to obtain a profile of main compounds present in extracts from Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) leaves using LC-MS in high resolution mode with a quadrupole-time of flight analyzer. Eighty-nine compounds were tentatively identified and classified into different families: flavonoids; quinic and caffeic acids and derivatives; diterpenoids (including steviol and glycosides); sesquiterpenoids; amino acids and derivatives; fatty amides and derivatives; fatty acids and derivatives; oligosaccharides; glycerolipids; purines; and retinoids. New steviol glycosides were tentatively identified and their possible structures proposed. Other compounds were tentatively identified in Stevia for the first time, such as fatty acid amides. These results reveal the wide range of compounds present in Stevia, which could be responsible for the nutraceutical effects ascribed to their leaves.

  3. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.

  4. Antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of hexane extract ofMorinda pubescens leaves in human liver cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaya Kumar D; Jaya Santhi R

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of hexane extract ofMorinda pubescens leaves and to find the primary bioactive compound responsible for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.Methods: The individual compounds were isolated using column chromatography and were characterized by spectroscopic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated for all individual isolated compounds byDPPH method usingL-Ascorbic acid as standard and cytotoxicity was assessed for the extract and the hyoscyamine byMTT assay, caspase test andRT-PCR study.Results:The antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds and the extract increased as the concentration increased. One of the isolated compound hyoscyamine showed the high antioxidant activity. The extract and the hyoscyamine dose-dependently decreased the cell viability in HepG2 cells. Hyoscyamine induced caspase-3mediated apoptosis. Up regulation of p53 gene expression provides cue for apoptotic activity of hyoscyamine. Conclusions: The results indicate that hexane extract possessed potent antioxidant and cytotoxic activity and hyoscyamine is the principal bioactive compound in hexane extract.

  5. Effect of Butea monosperma Lam. leaves and bark extracts on blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that has significant impact on the health, quality of life and life expectancy, as well as on the health care system. Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntze (Fabaceae, commonly known as palash, is widely used in the treatment of various diseases and disorders including diabetes. Materials and Methods: The present study was planned to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extracts of B. monosperma leaves and bark in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups, with each consisting of six rats, viz. control, diabetic control, leaf extract-treated and bark extract-treated groups. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. The biochemical estimations included blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Histopathology of pancreas was also performed. Results: The results indicated that both leaf and bark extracts of B. monosperma produced insignificant antihyperglycemic activity. The leaf and bark extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent of 28% and 11%, respectively. It was also evidenced that both leaf and bark extracts did not increase insulin synthesis or secretion and did not improve pancreatic architecture as reflected by the histopathologic studies. Conclusions: The findings of the study emphasize that B. monosperma does not possess significant antidiabetic activity in severe experimental diabetes at the dosage tested.

  6. Extraction of vitexin from binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) leaves using betaine - 1,4 butanediol natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Muhammad, Fajri; Krisanti, Elsa

    2017-03-01

    The leaves of binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis) contain flavonoids as bioactive substances that have efficacy to treat wounds and diseases caused by bacteria. One of the flavonoids contained in the leaves is 8-glucopyranosyl-4'5'7-trihydroxyflavone or vitexin. Conventional extraction of flavonoids from leaves of binahong has been developed and usually using non-friendly organic solvent. To overcome these problems, a Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent (NADES) is used to replace the conventional organic solvents, as it is an environmentally friendly, non-toxic and high boiling point solvent. In this study, a betaine-based NADES combined with 1,4-butanediol in 1:3 mole ratio was used as the extraction solvent. Vitexin in the extract was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using an HPLC. The extraction of vitexin from binahong leaves at room temperature (27 °C) for four hours give yield of 46 ppm, much lower than 200 ppm yield obtained after extraction at 55 °C for 90 minutes. This results showed that (a) NADES consisting of betaine and 1,4 butanediol is a promising green solvent for extraction of vitexin from binahong leaves, and, (b) the extraction can be performed above ambient temperature, as long as it does not exceed the degradation temperature of the bioactive compound extracted.

  7. In-vitrostudy:Immunomodulatory and cytotoxicity effects of ethanolic leave extracts ofAegle marmelos andFicus benghalensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winnyfred Crossia; Hans-Uwe Dahms; Krishnan Muthukumar; Thanamegam Kaviarasan; Thiyagarajan Thirunalasundari; Rathinam Arthur James

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of the coastal trees Aegle marmelos (A. marmelos) andFicus benghalensis (F. benghalensis) byin-vitro methods. Methods:A. marmelos andF. benghalensis leaves were extracted with the solvents di-ethyl ether, ethanol and methanol. The extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and immunomodulatory activity against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), respectively. Results:F. benghalensis ethanol cold extract gave maximum inhibition zones against Escherichia coliNCIM 2931 (B2) at 18 mm and enhanced the growth of humanPBMC. It was non-toxic to humanPBMC shown by the Tryphan blue dye exclusion method, sulforhodamine B andMTT assays. IR phyto-chemical analysis demonstrated the presence of the functional groups: NH, CH2, CH3, CO, OH, -C-C=O, and C-S. We confirmed the presence of quantifiable amounts of tannins and alkaloids with traces of phenolic compounds by thin layer chromatography analysis. Conclusions: Leaves ofA. marmelos andF. benghalensis provide both antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties.

  8. Extraction of Flavonoids in Leucaena leucocephala Leaves%银合欢叶黄酮的提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建辉; 赵俭波; 王贵云

    2014-01-01

    To study the extraction technology of flavonoids in Leucaena leucocephala leaves. The optimum extraction conditions of flavonoids in Leucaena leucocephala leaves were investigated by single factor test and orthogonal experiment. The optimum conditions were as follows:temperature 40℃,time 20 min,the ratio of solid to liquid 1∶25 and ethanol concentration 50%. By the above conditions,the extraction ratio of flavonoids can reach 2.052%.%研究银合欢叶黄酮最佳提取工艺。采用单因素和正交试验选出银合欢叶黄酮最佳提取工艺。确定银合欢叶黄酮最佳提取工艺参数为:温度40℃,提取时间20 min,料液比1∶25;乙醇质量分数50%。在此条件下黄酮的提取率可达到2.052%。

  9. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the phenolic release from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) outer leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nguyen Thai; Smagghe, Guy; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Van Camp, John; Raes, Katleen

    2014-07-30

    Phenolic compounds are highly present in byproducts from the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) harvest and are thus a valuable source for valorization toward phenolic-rich extracts. In this study, we aimed to optimize and characterize the release of individual phenolic compounds from outer leaves of cauliflower, using two commercially available polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, Viscozyme L and Rapidase. As major results, the optimal conditions for the enzyme treatment were: enzyme/substrate ratio of 0.2% for Viscozyme L and 0.5% for Rapidase, temperature 35 °C, and pH 4.0. Using a UPLC-HD-TOF-MS setup, the main phenolic compounds in the extracts were identified as kaempferol glycosides and their combinations with different hydroxycinnamic acids. The most abundant components were kaempferol-3-feruloyldiglucoside and kaempferol-3-glucoside (respectively, 37.8 and 58.4 mg rutin equiv/100 g dry weight). Incubation of the cauliflower outer leaves with the enzyme mixtures resulted in a significantly higher extraction yield of kaempferol-glucosides as compared to the control treatment.

  10. Identification of bioactive candidate compounds responsible for oxidative challenge from hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Tangestani Fard, Masoumeh; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-09-01

    Free radicals trigger chain reaction and inflict damage to the cells and its components, which in turn ultimately interrupts their biological activities. To prevent free radical damage, together with an endogenous antioxidant system, an exogenous supply of antioxidant components to the body in the form of functional food or nutritional diet helps undeniably. Research conducted by the Natl. Inst. of Health claimed that Moringa oleifera Lam possess the highest antioxidant content among various natural food sources based on an oxygen radical absorbent capacity assay. In this study, a 90% (ethanol:distilled water--90:10) gradient solvent was identified as one of the best gradient solvents for the effectual extraction of bioactive components from M. oleifera leaves. This finding was confirmed by various antioxidant assays, including radical scavenging activity (that is, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H(2)O(2), and NO radical scavenging assay) and total antioxidant capacity (that is, ferric reducing antioxidant power and molybdenum assay). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of the 90% gradient extract visually showed few specific peaks, which on further analysis, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, were identified as flavonoids and their derivatives. Despite commonly reported flavonoids, that is, kaempferol and quercetin, we report here for the 1st time the presence of multiflorin-B and apigenin in M. oleifera leaves. These findings might help researchers to further scrutinize this high activity exhibiting gradient extract and its bio-active candidates for fruitful clinical/translational investigations.

  11. In vitro antioxidant, cytotoxic, thrombolytic activities and phytochemical evaluation of methanol extract of the A. philippense L. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Sekendar Ali; Mohammad Ruhul Amin; Mohammad Aslam Hossain

    2013-01-01

    To study the leaves of Adiantum philippense L. for their antioxidant, cytotoxicity and thrombolytic activities and to perform phytochemical evaluation. Methods: In-vitro antioxidant activity of extract was studied using DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, total phenol and total flavonoid content determination assays. The cytotoxic activity was determined using brine shrimp lethality bioassay, thrombolytic activity by clot disruption and phytochemical potential by qualitative analysis. Results: The antioxidant activity of the extracts was found promising. The reducing power of this crude extract increase with the increase of concentration; IC50 values of DPPH scavenging activity was (140.00±0.86) µg/mL as compared to ascorbic acid [IC50 (130.00±0.76) µg/mL];Total phenol and total flavonoids content were (148.26±0.24) mg/mL and (163.06±0.56) mg/mL respectively. In cytotoxicity assay the LC50 values of the sample was (106.41±0.78) µg/mL where as for standard vincristin sulphate was (08.50±0.24) µg/mL as a positive control and the extract shows (12.86±1.02)% clot lytic whereas standard streptokinase shows (30.86±0.44% clot lytic activity in thrombolytic assay. The phytochemical evaluation indicates the presence of chemical constituents including carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids. Conclusions: This study shows that the methanol extract of leaves of Adiantum philippense L. has bioactivity but further compound isolation is necessary to confirm the activities of individual compounds.

  12. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  13. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves by multiresponse surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at studying the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) by multi-response surface methodology (RSM) to test their efficiency towards the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves. The extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TF), DPPH scavenging method and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay were considered as response variables while effects of extraction time, percentage of ethanol, and temperature were studied. Extraction time of 20 min, 42% ethanol and 158°C were the MAE optimum conditions for achieving extraction yield of 26 ± 2%, EC50 15 ± 2 μg/mL, 16 ± 1 Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 5.2 ± 0.5 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 86 ± 4 mg GAE/g dry leaf. Regarding PLE, the optimum conditions that allowed extraction yield of 56 ± 2%, EC50 21 ± 3 μg/mL, 12 ± 2 mmol Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 6.5 ± 0.2 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 59 ± 6 mg GAE/g dry leaf were 128°C, 35% of ethanol, and 20 min. PLE enabled the extraction of phenolic compounds with a higher number of hydroxyl-type substituents such as kaempferol diglycoside and its acetyl derivatives and those that are sensitive to high temperatures (glucosinolates or amino acids) while MAE allowed better recoveries of kaempferol, quercetin, and their glucosides derivatives.

  14. Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Functional Ingredients from Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Voća, Sandra; Dobričević, Nadica; Brnčić, Mladen; Dujmić, Filip; Rimac Brnčić, Suzana

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal an effective extraction procedure for maximization of the yield of steviol glycosides and total phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activity in stevia extracts. Ultrasound assisted extraction was compared with conventional solvent extraction. The examined solvents were water (100°C/24 h) and 70% ethanol (at 70°C for 30 min). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of steviol glycosides in the extracts obtained were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging capacity by 2, 2-azino-di-3-ethylbenzothialozine- sulphonic acid) assay were also determined. The highest content of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in stevia extracts were obtained when ultrasound assisted extraction was used. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was correlated with the total amount of phenolic compounds. The results indicated that the examined sonication parameters represented as the probe diameter (7 and 22 mm) and treatment time (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min) significantly contributed to the yield of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids. The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids were as follows: extraction time 10 min, probe diameter 22 mm, and temperature 81.2°C.

  15. Antidiarrheal and thrombolytic effects of methanol extract of Wikstroemia indica (L. C. A. Mey leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Khalilur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicinal plants contribute as potential sources of therapeutic uses. Wikstroemia indica, a traditional medicinal plant, has long been used as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimalarial, anti-mitotic, antitumor, and anti-HIV in different parts of the world. Aims: The aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and thrombolytic effect of W. indica leaf extract. Settings and Design: Sample collection, identification, solvent extraction, and crude extract preparations were led to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect in in vivo model and the thrombolytic effect in in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Castor oil-induced diarrhea and enteropooling assays and gastrointestinal motility tests were used to examine the in vivo antidiarrheal activity in Wistar albino rat. In vitro clot lysis model was undertaken to investigate the thrombolytic action of the extract. Data were analyzed using statistical software (Statistical Package for Social Science, SPSS, version 19.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The diarrheal episode was inhibited by 18.64% and 28.96% for the methanol extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The extract significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the intestinal volume and intestinal transit in comparison to control. The extract also reduced the rate of defecation, accumulation of fluid, and transit of charcoal oil. The extract showed a moderate thrombolytic effect compared to the reference control. Conclusion: Methanol extract of W. indica might be triggered the premonition of novel drug discovery in the future due to its antidiarrheal effect in the animal model.

  16. Hepatocurative potential of Vitex doniana root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Dorcas Bolanle; Kadejo Olubukola Adetoro; Sallau Abdullahi Balarabe; Owolabi Olumuyiwa Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatocurative effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves ofVitex doniana in carbon tetrachloride (CCl albino rats.Methods:4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weight) as a 1:1(v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weight per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of 3 weeks.Results:There was significant (P<0.05) increase in concentration of all liver marker enzymes, A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline aminotransferase (ALT, AST and ALP) and significant (P<0.05) decrease in albumin in the CCl4 induced liver damage control when compared to the normal control. The extracts caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the serum activities of liver marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) and a significant (P<0.05) increase in albumin of all the induced treated groups. Only stem bark extract and vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased total protein. All the extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum creatinine whereas only root bark extract significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum level of urea in the rats with CCl4 induced liver damage.Conclusion:Hepatocurative study shows that all the plant parts (root bark, stem bark and leaves) possess significant hepatocurative properties among other therapeutic values justifying their use in folklore medicine.

  17. Hypocholesterolemic mechanism of phenolics-enriched extract from Moringa oleifera leaves in HepG2 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peera Tabboon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves via lowering serum levels of cholesterol, but the mechanism of action is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of a phenolics-enriched extract of Moringa oleifera leaf (PMO in HepG2 cells. When compared to the control treatment, PMO significantly decreased total intracellular cholesterol, inhibited the activity of HMG CoA reductase in a dosedependent manner and enhanced LDL receptor binding activity. Moreover, PMO also significantly increased the genetic expressions of HMG CoA reductase and LDL receptor.

  18. SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURE OF MACROPOROUS MA—TMPTA COPOLYMERS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN ADSORPTION OF FLAVONOIDE FROM GINKGO LEAVES EXTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIZuoqing; XUMancai; 等

    2000-01-01

    Spherical macroporous copolymers of methyl acrylate and trimethylopropane triacrylate with different surface and pore structure were synthesized via suspension polymerization.and their surface and pore structure were characterized by measurements of surface area,apparent density and skeleton density and calculation of average pore diameter,The results revealed that crosslinking degree and porogent determined the physical structure of these copolymers.Some of the copolymers were applied to adsorptive purification of ginkgo leaves extract to enhance the content of flavonoids,the results showed that most of the copolymers could by used to increase the flavonids content.

  19. Mutagenicity and safety evaluation of water extract of Coriander sativum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mariana Ramírez; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Angeles, Oscar Torres; Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Coriander has been used as a spice and medicinal plant for centuries. Several studies have described its biological properties and some reports have indicated its pharmacological actions in some human pathology. However, data on its toxicity and metabolism are limited or null, and no research has been conducted with mammalian cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity and safety of Coriandrum sativum extract. The mutagenic effects of C. sativum extract were evaluated by Ames test. Mutagenicity was present when the C. sativum extract was used in high concentrations in both tested strains (Salmonella typhimurium TA97 and TA102). Our research showed that C. sativum extract reduced the cell survival of human cell lines (WRL-68 and 293Q cells) by inducing apoptosis and necrosis in the cases where extract concentration was the highest. The C. sativum extract altered the cell cycle; it increased the G1 phase of hepatic cells and reduced the G2+M phase in both cell lines in a dose-response manner. These results showed correlation with a reduction in the mitotic index. The extract also induced severe malformations during embryonic development. Exposure of chicken embryos to the C. sativum extract resulted in a dose-dependent increase of anomalies. Present results show that C. sativum extract reduced the axial skeleton and affected the neural tube, the somites, the cardiovascular structures, and the eye. According to the present results, the C. sativum aqueous extract cannot be considered safe. These results indicate that some significant adverse effects of C. sativum extract could be observed in vivo.

  20. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants and rosmarinic acid from perilla leaves using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Zhen LI

    Full Text Available Abstract Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of functional components from perilla leaves. The factors investigated were ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The results revealed that ethanol concentration had significant effects on all extraction parameters. Based on the RSM results, the optimal conditions were an ethanol concentration of 56%, a UAE temperature of 54 °C, and a UAE time of 55 min. Under these conditions, the experimental TPC (total phenolic content, RA (rosmarinic acid, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values were 48.85 mg GAE/g DW (mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dry weight, 31.02 mg/g DW, 85.55 μmol Fe2+/g DW and 73.35%, respectively. The experimental values were in agreement with those predicted by RSM models, confirming suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM for optimization of the extraction conditions.

  1. Evaluation of the analgesic, sedative-anxiolytic, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potentials of the different extracts ofKalanchoe pinnata leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Razibul Habib; Mohammad Mustakim Billah; Mohammad Mahfuz-E-Alam; Kashfia Nawrin; Md Rakibul Hasan; Md Mominur Rahman; Md Anisul Islam; Irfan Newaz Khan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the analgesic, neuropharmacological, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potentials of the aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts ofKalanchoe pinnata leaves. Methods: At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, the analgesic activity of the extracts were evaluated by the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced persistent pain tests while neuropharmacological activity was evaluated by the open field, hole cross and elevated plus maze tests. The cytotoxic potential was observed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and the thrombolytic potential was investigated by clot lysis test. Results: The aqueous extract significantly suppressed the number of writhing (96.78%) as well as the formalin-induced persistent pain on the early phase (46.92%) and on the late phase (40.98%). Again in case of hole cross and open field tests, the locomotor activity was decreased significantly (P < 0.001) mostly by the ethyl acetate extract. Furthermore, the sedative-anxiolytic activity was supported by the increased percent (P < 0.01) of frequency into the open arm on elevated plus maze test. Besides, the extracts showed moderate lethality and thrombolytic activity. Conclusions: The findings showed that activities are comparable to the standards and in some cases are stronger than the standards. Therefore, based on the results, it is evident that it has great analgesic and sedative-anxiolytic activity with moderate cytotoxic and thrombolytic potential.

  2. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.

  3. DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CENTELLA ASIATICA LEAVES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitrala Roopesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diuretics increase the rate of urine flow and are used to adjust the volume and composition of body fluids in a variety of clinical situations including hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, nephritic syndrome and cirrhosis. Traditionally, Centella asiatica has been used as antileprotic, anxiolytic, nootropic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral and antiinflammatory agent. The present study was under taken to investigate the diuretic effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Centella asiatica in wistar rats. The extract was given orally at a dose of 500mg/kg. Total urine volume and the concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in the urine were taken into account during the experimental work. The extracts showed a significant diuretic effect with increase in electrolyte concentration in urine when compared with standard drug furosemide (20mg/kg p.o.. Relatively the ethanolic extract showed potent diuretic activity than the methanolic extract.

  4. Inhibitory effect of extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves on VEGF-induced hyperpermeability of bovine coronary endothelial cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan QIU; Yao-cheng RUI; Tie-jun LI; Li ZHANG; Peng-yuan YANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study whether extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) can protect against atherosclerosis. METHODS: Confluent monolayers of bovine coronary endothelial cells (BCECs), bovine coronary smooth muscle cells (BCSMCs), and cocultures of the two were incubated with medium containing VEGF and/or EGb, and flux of 125Ⅰ-labeled oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) across the monolayers was measured. RESULTS: Incubation with VEGF significantly increased the permeability of BCEC monolayers to 125Ⅰ-ox-LDL in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on permeability of BCSMCs or endothelial cells-smooth muscle cells cocultures. EGb significantly inhibited the VEGF-induced hyperpermeability of BCECs. CONCLUSION: VEGF was important in the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The inhibition of VEGF-induced permeability by EGb suggests that extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves may have important clinical applications in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extracts from leaves of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) subjected to drought and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, Elisabeth; Kaufman, Peter B; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Chang, Soo Chul

    2003-07-02

    Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) were subjected to drought and cold stress treatments, and polyphenolic extracts from control and stress-treated plants were assayed for antioxidant capacities using a modified version of the Total Antioxidant Status Assay (Randox, San Francisco, CA). In addition, these plants were analyzed for levels of flavanol-type substance [(-)-epicatechin] and flavonoid (vitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, acetylvitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, and hyperoside) constituents that are important metabolites in hawthorn herbal preparations used to treat patients with heart disease. Drought and cold stress treatments caused increases in levels of (-)-epicatechin and hyperoside in both Crataegus species. Such treatments also enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The results from this study thus indicate that these kinds of stress treatments can enhance the levels of important secondary metabolites and their total antioxidant capacities in leaves of Crataegus.

  6. 辣椒叶片总RNA快速提取%Rapid Extraction of Total RNA from Capsicum annuum Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小霞; 肖仲久; 宋培勇; 周逊; 谢语

    2011-01-01

    Trizol extraction method was modified to extract total RNA from Capsicum annuum leaves. The result of agar gel electrophoresis, ultraviolet ray photometer and RT-PCR showed that the total RNA obtained by modified Trizol method was of high quality, and suitable for downstream applications.%采用改良的Trizol法对辣椒(Capsicum annuum)叶片的总RNA进行了提取,利用琼脂糖凝胶电泳、紫外分光光度法、RT-PCR进行RNA纯度、完整性检测.结果表明,Trizol法提取可获得较高质量的辣椒叶片总RNA,能满足后续的研究需要.

  7. Pharmacokinetic study of p-coumaric acid in mouse after oral administration of extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Xing, Dong-Ming; Lei, Fan; Lan, Jia-Qi; Du, Li-Jun

    2006-09-01

    Quantification of p-coumaric acid in mouse plasma following oral administration of Ananas comosus L. leaves was achieved by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a mobile phase of water-acetonitrile (82:18, v/v) and UV detection at 310 nm. The method was linear (determination coefficient, r2 = 0.9997) within the tested range (0.04-1.28 microg/mL). Intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variation and accuracy bias were acceptable (maximal CV value was 4.06% for intra-day and 4.19% for inter-day) over the entire range. The recoveries were 90.63, 97.98 and 100.01% for concentrations of 0.04, 0.32 and 1.28 microg/mL, respectively. This is a very rapid, sensitive and economical way to determine p-coumaric acid concentration in mouse plasma after oral administration of A. comosus leaves. The concentration-time curve was fitted to the one-compartment model. This is the first time that p-coumaric acid extracted from A. comosus leaves was detected by HPLC-UV method and its pharmacokinetic characteristic was comprehensively studied.

  8. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

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    Wibool Ridtitid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P<0.05, 18.6% (P<0.01 and 24.7% (P<0.01, respectively, compared to the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. with an inhibition of 33.3% (P<0.01. Only the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant inhibition ofcarrageenan-induced rat paw edema beginning at 2 h of 11.8% (P<0.01 and at 3, 4 and 5 h of 24.7% (P< 0.01, 14.1% (P<0.01 and 11.9% (P<0.01, respectively, whereas the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. exhibited a significant inhibition of edema beginning at 1 h of 15.6% (P<0.05 and at 2, 3, 4 and 5 h of 31.8% (P<0.01, 33.3% (P<0.01, 30.4% (P<0.01 and 30.2% (P<0.01, respectively. The methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. did not decrease brewerís yeast-induced pyrexia in rats, whereas aspirin at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant antipyretic activity by reducing fever in this animal model. In acute toxicity test, the methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves at the dose of 5g/kg did not produce any abnormal symptoms or mortality in rats.

  9. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES

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    Andriyanto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the experimentallaying hens were fed for 3 times and drinking water was provided ad libitum. Variables observed were thenumber of eggs, egg weight, time of first laying, egg laying intervals, egg quality ( water content, crudeprotein, and crude fat, and liver function (SGPT and SGOT values . Results of this research showed thatadministration of kemangi leaves extract at a dose of 3 mg/kg BW significantly increased the number ofegg production and egg weight (p<0.05. Time of first laying and laying interval did not show any significantdifference among treatments. Examination of moisture, crude protein, and crude fat content of the eggindicated that the administration of kemangi leaves extract did not affect egg quality. Extract of kemangileaves decreased SGPT and SGOT values that indicated improvement of liver function. It was concludedthat administration of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves could increase laying hens productivity byimprovement of liver function that is critical in vitellogenesis.

  10. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids

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    Xin-Hong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM, obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1 at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (p<0.0001. The verification experiments at the optimum conditions yielded gallic acid for 6.21 mg·g−1. Subsequently, under optimal conditions, four ionic liquids were used to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. The results indicated that the presence of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride allowed increasing the EE of gallic acid up to 8.90 mg·g−1. This might be interpreted in terms of the molecular interaction between ionic liquid and gallic acid. The use of ionic liquids involves a stronger gallic acid extraction capacity than conventional organic volatile solvents. A promising alternative process is proposed for the extraction of gallic acid of Suaeda glauca Bge.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Sclerotinia borealis, a Psychrophilic Plant Pathogenic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Ignatov, Alexander N; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2014-01-23

    Sclerotinia borealis is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus notable for its wide host range and environmental persistence. It grows at low temperatures, causing snow mold disease of crop plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the psychrophilic lifestyle, we determined the 39.3-Mb draft genome sequence of S. borealis F-4128.

  12. Hypolipidimic and antioxidant activities of oleuropein and its hydrolysis derivative-rich extracts from Chemlali olive leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemai, Hedya; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Fki, Ines; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Sayadi, Sami

    2008-11-25

    Oleuropein-rich extracts from olive leaves and their enzymatic and acid hydrolysates, respectively rich in oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol, were prepared under optimal conditions. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were examined by a series of models in vitro. In this study the lipid-lowering and the antioxidative activities of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet were tested. Wistar rats fed a standard laboratory diet or cholesterol-rich diets for 16 weeks were used. The serum lipid levels, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, as indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were examined. The cholesterol-rich diet induced hyperlipidemia resulting in the elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Administration of polyphenol-rich olive leaf extracts significantly lowered the serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-C and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Furthermore, the content of TBARS in liver, heart, kidneys and aorta decreased significantly after oral administration of polyphenol-rich olive leaf extracts compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. In addition, these extracts increased the serum antioxidant potential and the hepatic CAT and SOD activities. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts might be due to their abilities to lower serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels as well as slowing the lipid peroxidation process and enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity.

  13. Anti-oxidant activity of Methanolic extract of leaves of Eclipta Prostrata (L. L.

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    Nalini Devi D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta Prostrata (L.L is medicinally important plant species to treat of different diseases such as hepatic diseases. The present work is aimed to screen this medicinal plant for phytochemicals. leaf, stem, flower and seed of this plant were extracted in methanol solvents by sox let extraction and screened for secondary metabolites. The plant has been reported to contain alkaloids, steroids, polypeptides, phytosterol, β-amyrin, triterpenes, phenols, flavones, luteolin, coumarin and wedelolactone. The study confirmed that Eclipta Prostrata (L.L has good antihepatotoxic potential effects due to the presence of wedelolactone. Luteolin, coumarin using methanol extract

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Diarrhoeal Activity of the Leaves Extract of Ficus Microcarpa L. (Moraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    BAIRAGI, Shripad; AHER, Abhijeet; Nema, Nitin; PATHAN, Inayat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the anti-diarrhealactivity of Ficus microcarpa against experimentally induceddiarrhea in rats. Albino rats were used for the experiment.Anti-diarrheal activity was determined by castor oil induceddiarrhea. The extract of the bark administered orally at adose 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg. The extract of Ficusmicrocarpa produced a marked anti-diarrheal effect in rats.Both doses of extract significantly decreased (P<0.05) thetotal number of wet feces...

  15. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  16. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelminthic resistance has limited the success of traditional control programmes in several countries, thereby forcing the researchers to search for alternatives. In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus were investigated against the egg and larvae of naturally infected sheep. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the main metabolites identified in the extract. The aqueous extract of E. globulus was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in naturally infected sheep. The various blood parameters, coupled with effects on marker enzymes and antioxidant status, were evaluated during the trial period. Methanolic extract showed better ED50 (3.756 mg/ml) and ED99 (33.809 mg/ml) values in comparison with aqueous extract (ED50 = 1.502 and ED99 = 7.10 mg/ml) in the egg hatch assay. Inverse was true in larval development and larval paralysis tests. The aqueous extract's ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml values in the larval development test and ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml in the larval paralysis test were more potent than those of its methanolic counterpart with ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml and ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml, respectively. A significant amount of 66% faecal egg count reduction was observed in in vivo trail using the aqueous extract on day 21 post treatment, although in initial stages it showed 58.0 and 80% effectiveness on days 7 and 14 post treatment. Though the FCER reduction was somewhat lower in terms of comparison with albendazole, nevertheless, significant and prolong reduction was noticed. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the haematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep. Though significant changes were observed in SGPT, RBCs, Hb and RDWc levels, other parameters showed nonsignificant variations within the

  17. Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Maximal Phenolic, Flavonoid and Antioxidant Activity from Melaleuca bracteata Leaves Using the Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wencheng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guode; Luo, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Melaleuca bracteata is a yellow-leaved tree belonging to the Melaleuca genus. Species from this genus are known to be good sources of natural antioxidants, for example, the "tea tree oil" derived from M. alternifolia is used in food processing to extend the shelf life of products. In order to determine whether M. bracteata contains novel natural antioxidants, the components of M. bracteata ethanol extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were extracted and the antioxidant activities of the extracts evaluated. Single-factor experiments, central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). Ferric reducing power (FRP) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·) scavenging capacity were used as the evaluation indices of antioxidant activity. The results showed that the main components of M. bracteata ethanol extracts are methyl eugenol (86.86%) and trans-cinnamic acid methyl ester (6.41%). The single-factor experiments revealed that the ethanol concentration is the key factor determining the TPC, TFC, FRP and DPPH·scavenging capacity. RSM results indicated that the optimal condition of all four evaluation indices was achieved by extracting for 3.65 days at 53.26°C in 34.81% ethanol. Under these conditions, the TPC, TFC, FRP and DPPH·scavenging capacity reached values of 88.6 ± 1.3 mg GAE/g DW, 19.4 ± 0.2 mg RE/g DW, 2.37 ± 0.01 mM Fe2+/g DW and 86.0 ± 0.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of the positive control, methyl eugenol (FRP 0.97 ± 0.02 mM, DPPH·scavenging capacity 58.6 ± 0.7%) at comparable concentrations. Therefore, the extracts of M. bracteata leaves have higher antioxidant activity, which did not only attributed to the methyl eugenol. Further research could lead to the development of a potent new natural antioxidant.

  18. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

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    Chandrashekhar D Patil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4(th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively.Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management.

  19. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal effects on ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava(L.) Bat.leaves in Wister rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh; Mazumdar; Rashcda; Akter; Debashish; Talukder

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave(EEPGL) in Wisier rais to support its traditional uses.Methods:Oral glucose tolerance test model and alloxan induced diabetic test model were performed to evaluate antidiabetic activity of EEPGL at doses of 1.00.0.50 and 0.75 g/kg respectively.For antidiarrhoeal effects of EEPGL.castor oil-induced diarrhoea model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were also assessed at doses of750.500 and 250 mg/kg.respectively.Results:Administration of EEPGL at doses 1.00 and 0.50 g/kg significantly(P<0.05)decreased blood glucose levels in oral glucose tolerance test model as well as 0.75 g/kg dose in alloxan induced diabetic test model in Wister rats(P<0.001).Application of EEPGL at doses of 750 and 500 mg/kg showed antidiarrhoeal effect in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model(P<0.00 l and P<0.01,respectively),and 750 mg/kg(P<0.01),500 and 250 mg/kg(P<0.05)doses in barium sulphate milk model in aforesaid animals.Conclusions:These results exhibited the significant antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal activities of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave in Wister rats.

  20. ANALGESIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ACUTE TOXICITY EVALUATION OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF PTEROCARPUS SANTALINOIDES- FAMILY FABACEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Anowi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus santalinoides, family- Fabaceae was claimed to have analgesic properties. The people of Ogidi in Idemili North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria used it in the management of aches and pains. This study is therefore aimed at determining this claim of the activities of Pterocarpus santalinoides using the leaves which will serve as a criterion to recommend the ethno pharmacological use of the plant. The leaves of Pterocarpus santalinoides family Fabaceae were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with methanol for 48hrs, it was concentrated using rotary evaporator. The analgesic activity was investigated in rats using hot plate method at a temperature of 40oC. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins and resins. Pterocarpus santalinoides extract (300 mg/kg induced analgesia in rats (p< 0.05 and this effect was comparable to that of Aspirin (100 mg/kg. Acute toxicity test also revealed that the drug is safe. The claimed benefits of Pterocarpus santalinoides in traditional medical management of aches and pains could be supported by the results of this investigation.

  1. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of crude extracts of Ipomoea involucrata leaves in mice and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uche Fidelia Ijeoma; Shorinwa Olusayo Aderonke; Okorie Ogbonna; Mgbahurike Amaka Augustina; Chijioke-Nwauche Ifeyinwa

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of crude extract from Ipomoea involucrata leaves (Convolvulaceae) in mice and rats.Methods:The antinociceptive activity was tested using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using egg albumin–induced oedema of rat paw.Results:Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids and tannin. At the doses of 25-100 mg/kg,Ipomoea involucrata exhibited dose-dependent and significant increase in pain threshold in acetic acid–induced writhing test of mice (P<0.05, student t-test) The administration ofIpomoea involucrata leaf extract (25-100 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent decreases in paw volume of egg albumin induced oedema in rats and a significant higher anti-inflammatory activity compared to the standard control (Aspirin). Conclusions: These results support the claims on the traditional use of the ofIpomoea involucrata leaves in the treatment of toothache, rheumatic pains and other inflammatory conditions. Studies on the isolation and structural elucidation of the active principle are still needed being carried out.

  2. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic and antileishmanial activities of extract and essential oil from leaves of Piper cernuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Tabata M; Martins, Euder G A; de Farias, Camyla F; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Matsuo, Alisson L; Passero, Luiz Felipe D; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2015-02-01

    Fractionation of the MeOH extract from leaves of Piper cernuum Vell. (Piperaceae) afforded six phenylpropanoid derivatives: 3',4'-dimethoxydihydrocinnamic acid (1), piplaroxide (2), methyl 4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxy cinnamate (3), 3',4',5'-trimethoxydihydrocinnamic acid (3), dihydropiplartine (5), and piplartine (6). The structures of isolated metabolites were characterized by NMR and MS spectral data analysis. The chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves was determined using GC/LREIMS followed by the determination of Kovats indexes. This procedure allowed the identification of nineteen terpenoids, with β-elemene (7), bicyclogermacrene (8), germacrene D (9), and (E)-caryophyllene (10) as the main compounds. Compounds 1 and 3-6 displayed no in vitro cytotoxicity against cancer cell lineages B16F10-Nex2, U87, HeLa, HL-60, HCT, and A2058 while 2 showed moderate activity against B16F10-Nex2 and HL-60 lines. Otherwise, compounds 7-10 displayed high cytotoxic activity. Evaluation against non-tumorigenic HFF cells indicated a reduced selectivity of compounds 7-10 to tumoral cells. No antileishmanial activity on macrophages infected with L. (L.) amnazonensis was found for the crude MeOH extract and compounds 1-6. The crude essential oil and compounds 7-10 reduced parasitism and eliminated the majority of infected and non-infected cells at 50 μg/mL.

  3. The effect of extracts ofSelaginella involvens andSelaginella inaequalifolia leaves on poultry pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haripriya Duraiswamy; Selvan Nallaiyan; Jeyakumar Nelson; Periasamy Rathina samy; Marimuthu Johnson; Irudayaraj Varaprasadam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activity of some commonly available herbs against poultry pathogens such asEscherichia coli (E. coli) andPseudomonas species isolated from poultry litter.Methods:The extracts ofSelaginellainvolvensandSelaginellainaequalifolia were tested againstE. coli andPseudomonas isolated from poultry litter by the agar diffusion method.Results: Results indicated that different plant extracts showed inhibitory effects against E. coli (8-13 mm ) andPseudomonas (6.5-13 mm). The four different extracts ofSelaginella involvens andSelaginella inaequalifolia showed similar levels of antimicrobial activity onE. coli. Conclusions:The antimicrobial activities of all the four plant extracts are comparable and their potential as alternatives in the treatment of infections by these microorganisms were present in the poultry litter. Susceptibility testing is conduced on isolates using drugs selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use in poultry production.

  4. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Teucrium chamaedrys Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male Rats

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    Ali Pourmotabbed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sCurrent study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium chamaedrys in mice and rats. Materials and MethodsFor evaluating of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we used the carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests.ResultsThe extract of T. chamaedrys (50–200 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg produced a significant (P< 0.01 inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model, while only the high dose (200 mg/kg of the extract showed an analgesic effect in the first phase. The extract also inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes in a dose-dependent manner. The tail flick latency was dose dependently enhanced by the extract but this was significantly (P< 0.05 lower than that produced by morphine (10 mg/kg. The extract (25–250 mg/kg administered 1 hr before carrageenan-induced paw swelling produced a dose dependent inhibition of the oedema. No effect was observed with the dextran-induced oedema model. Results of the phytochemical screening show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids in the extract.ConclusionThe data obtained also suggest that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The role of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids will evaluate in future studies.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content in methanol extract obtained from leaves Commiphora Myrrha

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    Celia Eliane de Lara da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents shows the study of antioxidant activity and quantification of phenolic content determined for the methanol extract obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The high content of phenolic compounds were evaluated against the potential to sequester free radical through the model 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrizil hydrazyl (DPPH and compared with a standard rutin. The results show that the inhibitory capacity of the extract (IC50 was 0.21 mg.L-1. The extract pursued an antioxidant activity of 91.3% compared to the scavenging ability of rutin standard. The content of phenolic extract was assessed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu determined where the IC50 was 3,02 mg.L-1. The concentration of total phenols was determined 1.176 ± 0.263 mg gallic acid equivalent . g-1 of extract (n=5. The results show that extracts of C. myrrha have high antioxidant potential and additional studies are needed for isolation, characterization and use of their property in pharmaceutical, nutritinal and cosmetology.

  6. The effect of leaves extracts ofClitoria ternatea Linn against the fish pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvamaleeswaran Ponnusamy; Wesely Ebenezer Gnanaraj; Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy; Velusamy Selvakumar; Jeyakumar Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activity ofClitoria ternatea(C. ternatea) against the fish pathogens viz.,Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa), Escherichia coli(E. coli), Klebsiella pneumonia(K. pneumonia), Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis), Aeromonas formican(A. formicans)s, Aeromonas hydrophila(A. hydrophila) andStreptococcus agalactiae(S.agalactiae)isolated from diseased Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).Methods:The extracts ofC. ternatea was tested against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumonia, B. subtilis, A. formicans, A. hydrophila andS. agalactiae by the agar well diffusion method.Results: Different extracts ofC. ternateashowed inhibitory effects againstP. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumonia, B. subtilis, A. formicans, A. hydrophila andS. agalactiae. Ethyl acetate extracts ofC. ternateashowed maximum of zone of inhibition againstA. formicans (18 mm) ,A. hydrophilia (19 mm),B. subtilis (19 mm) andP. aeruginosa (21 mm) next to that ethanol extract ofC. ternatea showedA. formicans (18 mm) andE. coli(14 mm) followed by Acetone extract showed maximum zone of inhibitionS. agalactiae (19 mm) andK. pneumonia (17 mm).Conclusions: The antimicrobial activities of all the four plant extracts are comparable and their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms was present in the fish. Susceptibility testing is conducted on isolates using drugs selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use in fish production.

  7. AURORA BOREALIS - European Research Icebreaker With Drilling Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.

    2008-12-01

    The polar oceans are the least known areas of the globe, in although they hold the key to many of our climate´s secrets. How does the sea ice coverage and the sea water properties change? How do plants and animals survive under the most extreme conditions of the earth? Which information of past climate change can be read from the sediments at the sea-floor and how can the future changing climate be predicted? In order to answer such and further questions, for the moment a hypermodern research vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, is planned, which can handle the cool summers and freezing winters of the polar oceans and which can drill deep into the sea floor. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Research Icebreaker in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate/environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35-40 years. It will have a high icebreaking capacity to penetrate autonomously (single ship operation) into the central Arctic Ocean with more than 2.5 meters of ice cover, during all seasons of the year. The new technological features will include dynamic positioning in closed sea- ice cover, satellite navigation and ice-management support and the deployment and operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from the twin moon-pools. A unique feature of the vessel is the deep-sea drilling rig, which will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea up to 5000 m water and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The drilling capability will be deployed in both Polar Regions on the long run and AURORA BOREALIS will be the only vessel worldwide that could undertake this type of scientific investigation.

  8. Isolamento do vírus rábico de morcego insetívoro , Lasyurus borealis Rabies virus isolation in insectivorous bat Lasyurus borealis

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    Luzia Fatima Alves Martorelli

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de raiva em morcego insetívoro, Lasyurus borealis, na região urbana, em bairro residencial, no Município de Jundiaí, SP (Brasil.A case of rabies in an insectivorous bat, Lasyurus borealis , in a residential suburb in an urban area in the southern region of Brazil, is reported.

  9. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  10. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Annona muricata L. Leaves in Animal Models

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    Orlando Vieira de Sousa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annonamuricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o. reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 41.41% (400 mg/kg. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: firstphase (23.67% and 45.02% and the secondphase (30.09% and 50.02%, respectively. The extract (p.o. increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04% and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30% after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o. at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33% and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33% after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o., administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74% and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95% significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of Annona muricata L. leaves in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Vieira, Glauciemar Del-Vechio; de Jesus R G de Pinho, José; Yamamoto, Célia Hitomi; Alves, Maria Silvana

    2010-05-06

    Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg). Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o) inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: first phase (23.67% and 45.02%) and the second phase (30.09% and 50.02%), respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04%) and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o.) at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%) significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  12. Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis and Extreme Helium Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Gajendra; Rao, N Kameswara

    2007-01-01

    Neutral fluorine lines are identified in the optical spectra of several R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first measurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in some RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance. The overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the synthesis of fluorine. These results are discussed in the light of the scenario that RCBs are formed by accretion of an He white dwarf by a C-O white dwarf. Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr), a final He-shell flash product, shows no detectable neutral fluorine lines.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Red Piper Crocatum Leaves Extract Decrease TNF-α and IL-6 Levels in Wistar Rat with Atherosclerosis

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    Sri Wahjuni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research aims to find a cure for anti-inflammation, based on the utilization of red piper crocatum. The research was started with descriptive study to explore active components of red piper crocatum leaf and followed by experimental study to investigate red piper crocatum activity of the leaf extract in anti-inflammation induced Wistar rat. In this research observed three dominant components: caryophyllene bicyclo [5.2.0] none,2 methylene-4,8,8-trimethyl-4-vinyl; phytol; 5,9-propano-5H-benzocycloheptene,6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-7,11-bis(methylene; 4,4-ethynedioxy-2-hexadecen-15-15 olide 1,4,9-trioxaspiro [4,15] eic os-6-en-8-one, 10 methyl; 1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(H-thione,4-allyl-3-(3-furyl; Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-7-phenyl which are possibly active to inhibit anti-inflammation to atherosclerosis. Bad eating habits also can cause various health problems, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, inflammation to atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to investigate of red piper crocatum leaves extract as an anti-inflammation through decrease of biochemistry markers TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Method: This is a true experimental with randomized pre-test and post-test control group design, using 50 Wistar rats that are divided into 5 groups: control group using 0 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 1 using 50 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 2 using 100 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 3 using 150 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, and treatment group 4 200mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract. Results: It was observed that intake of 150 mg/BW red piper crocatum leaves extract results in the highest significance decrease of 45.63% of TNF-α levels from (28.62 ± 1.25 to 15.56 ± 7.20 рg/mL and a significance decrease of 15.42% of IL-6 level from (134.64 ± 1.98 to 113.87 ± 4.30 рg/mL. Conclusion: It can be concluded that intake of red piper crocatum

  14. Negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on the guinea pig atrium of extracts obtained from Averrhoa carambola L. leaves

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    Vasconcelos C.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that star fruit can lead to a fatal outcome in uremic patients. The intoxication syndrome consists of hiccups, mental confusion, dizziness, and vomiting. On the other hand, folk medicine uses teas and infusions of carambola leaves to treat headache, vomiting, cough, insomnia, and diabetes. This motivated us to determine if Averrhoa carambola can act on the contractility and automaticity of the guinea pig heart. We measured the atrial isometric force in stimulated left atria and determined the chronotropic changes in spontaneously beating right atria. The carambola leaf extracts (1.5 mg/ml abolished the contractile force in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the crude, methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous, and acetic extracts, the aqueous one was the most potent (EC50 = 520 ± 94 µg/ml; flavonoids and tannins are the main constituents; Na+ and K+ contents in 1.0 mg/ml of aqueous extract were 0.12 ± 0.016 and 1.19 ± 0.15 mM, respectively. The aqueous extract abolished the positive Bowditch staircase phenomenon and reduced the inotropic response to CaCl2 (0.17-8.22 mM, events that are dependent on the cellular Ca2+ inward current. The adrenergic, muscarinic or opioid membrane receptors do not seem to participate in the mechanism of action of the cardioactive substance(s. In spontaneously beating atria, the aqueous extract promoted a negative chronotropic effect that was antagonized by 0.1 µM isoproterenol bitartrate. With this agonist, the EC50 of the aqueous extract increased from 133 ± 58 to 650 ± 100 µg/ml. These data regarding the effect of A. carambola on guinea pig atrial contractility and automaticity indicate an L-type Ca2+ channel blockade.

  15. Efficacy of leaves extract of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimam, Abdalla M; Elmalik, Khitma H; Ali, Faysal S

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate, the larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent activity of aqueous leaves extract of Calotropis procera against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as natural mosquito larvicide. The larvicidal activity was monitored against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of each mosquito species 24 h post-treatment. Adult emergence inhibition activity was tested by exposing 3rd instar larvae of each mosquito species to different concentrations of extracts (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for An. arabiensis and 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Probit analysis was used to analyze data from bioassay experiments. The oviposition deterrent activity was tested by using three different concentrations of extracts (1000, 500 and 200 for An. arabiensis, and 1000, 500 and 100 for Cx. quinquefasciatus) that caused high, moderate and low larval mortality in the larvicidal experiment against 3rd instar larvae. It was found that, LC50-LC90 values calculated were 273.53-783.43, 366.44-1018.59 and 454.99-1224.62 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of An. arabiensis and 187.93-433.51, 218.27-538.27 and 264.85-769.13 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fifty percent of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) was shown at 277.90 and 183.65 ppm for An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The pupal stage was not affected till a concentration of 5000 ppm. The extract showed oviposition deterrence and effective repellence against both mosquito species at different concentrations, with the observation on that maximal eggs were laid in low concentration of extract. These results suggest that the leaves extract of C. procera possess remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibitor, repellent and oviposition deterrent effect against both An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and might be used as natural biocides for mosquito

  16. In vitro antioxidant properties of flavonoids and polysaccharides extract from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Qiao-Mei; Wang, Li-Juan; Li, Wei-Ming; Wang, Jing-Lu; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2012-09-21

    In the present study, antioxidant properties of flavonoids and polysaccharides from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves were evaluated in several in vitro systems, e.g., scavenging activities on hydroxyl, superoxide anion, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and reducing power. Flavonoids showed much better activity than polysaccharides in scavenging activities on free radicals. When compared to the positive control, ascorbic acid, both showed weaker antioxidant potential. However, flavonoids possessed comparable superoxide anion, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities to ascorbic acid at high concentration (600 μg/mL). Meanwhile, it was found that flavonoids had prominent effects on the reducing power, which was equivalent to ascorbic acid, and was significantly higher than polysaccharides. These results clearly indicate that flavonoids are effective in scavenging free radicals and have the potential to be powerful antioxidants. Thus, tobacco leaves could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics or nutraceutical industries.

  17. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Zaixiang, E-mail: louzaixiang@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang Hongxin, E-mail: whx200720082009@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhu Song; Chen Shangwei; Zhang Ming; Wang Zhouping [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2012-02-24

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid-liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8-17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  18. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Wang, Hongxin; Zhu, Song; Chen, Shangwei; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Zhouping

    2012-02-24

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid-liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8-17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5h to 30s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  19. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF MIMOSA PUDICA LEAVES

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    M.SUNIL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of mimosa pudica. Methods: In the present study, the anti microbial activity of ethanolic extracts of Mimosa pudica was evaluated against medically important bacterial strains, two Gram-positive—Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram-negative—Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity was determined with the extract using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial activities of extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μgm/ml of Mimosa pudica were tested against human pathogenic bacteria. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with the standard drug ampicillin for antibacterial activity. Results: The results showed that the Mimosa pudica has the antibacterial activity. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of Mimosa pudica was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.

  1. [Total Peroxidase and Catalase Activity of Luminous Basidiomycetes Armillaria borealis and Neonothopanus nambi in Comparison with the Level of Light Emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil'naya, O A; Ronzhin, N O; Medvedeva, S E; Bondar, V S

    2015-01-01

    The peroxidase and catalase activities in the mycelium of luminous basidiomycetes Armillaria borealis and Neonothopanus nambi in normal conditions and under stress were compared. An increase in the luminescence level was observed under stress, as well as an increase in peroxidase and catalase activities. Moreover, the peroxidase activity in extracts of A. borealis mycelium was found to be almost one and a half orders of magnitude higher, and the catalase activity more than two orders of magnitude higher in comparison with the N. nambi mycelium. It can be suggested that the difference between the brightly luminescent and dimly luminescent mycelium of N. nambi is due to the content of H2O2 or other peroxide compounds.

  2. ANTICARIES AND α-AMYLASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF JASMINUM ARBORESCENS ROXB. (OLEACEAE LEAVES EXTRACT

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    Bhagath K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine anti caries and α-amylase inhibitory activity of leaf extract of Jasminum arborescens Roxb. (Oleaceae. Anti caries activity was determined by Agar well diffusion assay against seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans (Sm-01 to Sm-07 recovered from dental caries subjects. Enzyme inhibitory activity was tested against α-amylase by spectrophometric method using starch as substrate. The extract exhibited dose dependent inhibition against cariogenic isolates. Among seven isolates, isolate Sm-04 and Sm-06 were inhibited to higher and least extent respectively. The extract was found to cause inhibition of α-amylase activity in a dose dependent manner and its IC50 value was found to be 17.45 mg/ml. The inhibitory activity could be attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites. The plant may be a potential source for development of agents which are active against dental caries pathogens and for diabetes mellitus.

  3. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide.

  4. Effect of the methanol leaves extract of Clinacanthus nutans on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in male mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lau KW; Lee SK; Chin JH

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate thein vivoeffect of14 d repeatedly oral administration ofClinacanthus nutans(C. nutans) methanol leaves extract(250 mg/kg,500 mg/kg and1000 mg/kg bw) on the acetylcholinesterase(AChE) activity in maleBalb/C mice.Method:First group was served as control group, orally treated with distilled water as vehicle and group2-4 were orally treated with a single daily dose of250 mg/kg,500 mg/kg and1000 mg/kg bw ofC. nutans extract, respectively for14 d.Each group consisted of six animals(n=6).The activity of acetylcholinesterase in brain, liver, kidney and heart of mice was determined according toEllman method(1961).Results:From the results obtained, theAChE activity was found to be highest in mice liver, followed by brain, kidney and heart.Methanol extract ofC. nutans leaves at250 mg/kg(P<0.001),500 mg/kg(P<0.001) and1000 mg/kg(P<0.001) showed a significant increase in theAChE activity in mice kidney, liver and heart.On the other hand, theAChE activity obtained from the mice brain showed insignificant difference between the control group and treatment group.However, there was no abnormal behavioural change and adverse effect related to the central nervous system observed in all treated mice during14 d experimentation period.Conclusion:In conclusion,14 d oral administration ofC. nutans was able to modulate cholinergic neurotransmission by activating AChE activity in mice kidney, liver and heart.Compounds that responsible for the induction of AChE activity in mice liver, heart and kidney and its mechanism needs to be elucidated.

  5. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models

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    Gautam Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS (family Nyctaginaceae is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g. Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The extract was freeze-dried (lyophilized and the yield was 8 g. This was used as an emulsion prepared in propylene glycol and orally administered (20 and 50 mg/kg. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of BS was evaluated using carrageenan and dextran whereas chronic anti-inflammatory (immunoregulatory activity was evaluated by Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Results: BS (20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg had shown significant anti-inflammatory effects 20.6% and 67.6%, respectively, on carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory models. In dextran-induced edema, the effect was 30% and 66%, respectively. The standard drug indomethacin (87.3% and 91.5%, respectively showed better inhibitory response in both models. In arthritic model 50 mg/kg of BS showed significant chronic anti-inflammatory effect (38.46% in comparison to the standard drug dexamethasone (84.6%. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the methanol extract of BS (50 mg/kg leaves has significant anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activity. Further studies involving isolation of active principles will help to pinpoint the mechanisms contributing to the observed activities of BS.

  6. Water extract of Ashwagandha leaves has anticancer activity: identification of an active component and its mechanism of action.

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    Renu Wadhwa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer is a leading cause of death accounting for 15-20% of global mortality. Although advancements in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have improved cancer survival statistics, 75% of the world population live in underdeveloped regions and have poor access to the advanced medical remedies. Natural therapies hence become an alternative choice of treatment. Ashwagandha, a tropical herb used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, has a long history of its health promoting and therapeutic effects. In the present study, we have investigated an anticancer activity in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anticancer activity in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX was detected by in vitro and in vivo assays. Bioactivity-based size fractionation and NMR analysis were performed to identify the active anticancer component(s. Mechanism of anticancer activity in the extract and its purified component was investigated by biochemical assays. We report that the ASH-WEX is cytotoxic to cancer cells selectively, and causes tumor suppression in vivo. Its active anticancer component was identified as triethylene glycol (TEG. Molecular analysis revealed activation of tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRB by ASH-WEX and TEG in cancer cells. In contrast to the hypophosphorylation of pRB, decrease in cyclin B1 and increase in cyclin D1 in ASH-WEX and TEG-treated cancer cells (undergoing growth arrest, normal cells showed increase in pRB phosphorylation and cyclin B1, and decrease in cyclin D1 (signifying their cell cycle progression. We also found that the MMP-3 and MMP-9 that regulate metastasis were down regulated in ASH-WEX and TEG-treated cancer cells; normal cells remained unaffected. CONCLUSION: We provide the first molecular evidence that the ASH-WEX and TEG have selective cancer cell growth arrest activity and hence may offer natural and economic resources for anticancer medicine.

  7. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea, and leaves of Annona muricata. Materials and methods Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund’s adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. Results The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group (P<0.05). The histopathologic evaluation at 72 hours showed normal characteristics in the APS group. Conclusion Considering the clinical and histopathological signs, we conclude that the administration of the atomized extract of rhizome of C. longa, flowers of C. lutea, and leaves of A. muricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits. PMID:27877047

  8. Effects of Tannin Extract from Gongronema latifolium Leaves on Lipoxygenase Cucumeropsis manii Seeds

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    Sabinus O. O. Eze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.12 was partially purified from germinated seeds of Cucumeropsis manii to a purification fold of 47.14, enzyme activity recovery of 72.18%, and specific activity of 326.25 units/mg protein, using a three-step process of centrifugation, ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration. Kinetic properties show maximum activity at pH 6.0 and at optimum temperature of 40°C. Inhibitory effects of the extract from Gongronema latifolium and two other known antioxidants: ascorbic acid and propyl gallate on lipoxygenase from Cucumeropsis manii were studied. Result shows presence of inhibition with IC50 of 4.2×10−3 ± 0.09×10−3 g/L, 4.3×10−2 ± 0.11×10−2 g/L and 7.9×10−2 ± 0.11×10−2 g/L for the extract from ascorbic acid and propyl gallate, respectively. The extract when compared to the other antioxidants exhibits a competitive mechanism of inhibition. This tannin extract could be included during food processing as preservative against food deterioration that might be caused by oxidative enzymes such as lipoxygenase.

  9. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS LEAVES

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    G. Sarvankumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and pain are the most common health problems treated with traditional remedies which mainly comprise medicinal plants. A number of natural products are used in the traditional medical systems in many countries. An alternative medicine for the treatment of various diseases is getting more popular. Many medicinal plants provide relief of symptoms comparable to that of obtained from allopathic medicines. Therefore agents of natural origin with very little side effects are required as substitute chemicals therapeutics. The methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus (100& 200mg/kg Linn (Menispermaceae was investigated for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in laboratory animals. The analgesic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus was investigated by eddy’s hot plate model and acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cocculus hirsutus was studied by both in-vitro and in vivo models. Human red blood cells membrane stabilization method was adopted for the in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity and for in-vivo, Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats was employed. In eddy’s hot plate analgesic study, both the doses of Cocculus hirsutus showed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively analgesic activity. In acetic acid induced writhing model, the onset of writhing was delayed and duration of writhing was shortened by the methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus.In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus showed significant anti inflammatory activity in a concentration dependent manner. Cocculus hirsutus showed significant anti-inflammatory activity on both carrgeenan as well as cotton pellet induced granuloma models in rats. From the results, it was concluded that the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  10. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

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    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  11. Intensified Separation of Steviol Glycosides from a Crude Aqueous Extract of Stevia rebaudiana Leaves Using Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.

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    Hubert, Jane; Borie, Nicolas; Chollet, Sébastien; Perret, Joël; Barbet-Massin, Claire; Berger, Monique; Daydé, Jean; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2015-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of Stevia rebaudiana leaves have been approved since 2008 by the Joint Expert Committee for Food Additives as sugar substitutes in many food and beverages in Western and Far East Asian countries. The compounds responsible for the natural sweetness of Stevia leaves include a diversity of diterpenoid glycosides derived from a steviol skeleton. These steviol glycosides also exhibit a low calorific value as well as promising therapeutic applications, particularly for the treatment of sugar metabolism disturbances. In this work, centrifugal partition chromatography is proposed as an efficient technical alternative to purify steviol glycosides from crude aqueous extracts of Stevia leaves on a multigram scale. Two different commercial instruments, including an ASCPC250® and a FCPE300® made of columns containing 1890 and 231 twin-cells, respectively, were evaluated and compared. All experiments were performed with a polar biphasic solvent system composed of ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in a gradient elution mode. When using the 1890 partition cell centrifugal partition chromatography column of 250 mL, 42 mg of stevioside, 68 mg of dulcoside A, and 172 mg of rebaudioside A, three major constituents of the initial extract were obtained from 1 g of the initial mixture at purities of 81%, 83%, and 99%, respectively. The productivity was further improved by intensifying the procedure on the 231 partition cell centrifugal partition chromatography column of 303 mL with the sample mass loading increased up to 5 g, resulting in the recovery of 1.2 g of stevioside, 100 mg of dulcoside A, and 1.1 g of rebaudioside A at purities of 79%, 62%, and 98%, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds were validated by HPLC-UV, ESI-MS, (1)H, and (13)C NMR analyses. Altogether, the results demonstrate that the column design (i.e., the partition cell number) is an important aspect to be considered for a larger scale centrifugal partition chromatography

  12. GC-MS analysis, determination of total phenolics, flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activities of various crude extracts of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MoozaAl-Owaisi; NoraAl-Hadiwi; ShahAlam Khan

    2014-01-01

    To perform phytochemical screening, estimate total phenolics, flavonoids and to evaluate antioxidant potential of Moringa peregrina (M. peregrina) leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of M. peregrina (150 g) were extracted exhaustively by Soxhlet with ethanol and then fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethy alacetate and methanol. All the prepared extracts were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the crude extracts. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. Hydrogen peroxide and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were used to determine in vitro antioxidant activity. Results: Phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results revealed presence of 19 phytoconstituents in hexane extract, 6 in ethyl acetate and 7 compounds in methanolic extract. Methanol extract was found to contain the highest phenolic content and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activities of all crude extracts were significant and comparable with the standard ascorbic acid. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the leaves of M. peregrina are the rich source of phenolic compounds that can play an important role in preventing the progression of many diseases.

  13. GC-MS analysis,determination of total phenolics,flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activities of various crude extracts of Moringa peregrina(Forssk.) Fiori leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mooza; Al-Owaisi; Nora; Al-Hadiwi; Shah; Alam; Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To perform phytochemical screening,estimate total phenolics,flavonoids and to evaluate antioxidant potential of Moringa peregrina(M.peregrina) leaves.Methods:The dried powdered leaves of M.peregrina(150 g) were extracted exhaustively by Soxhlet with ethanol and then fractionated into hexane,chloroform,ethy alacetate and methanol.All the prepared extracts were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the crude extracts.Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts.Hydrogen peroxide and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were used to determine in vitro antioxidant activity.Results:Phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results revealed presence of 19 phytoconstituents in hexane extract,6 in ethyl acetate and 7 compounds in methanolic extract.Methanol extract was found to contain the highest phenolic content and flavonoids.In vitro antioxidant activities of all crude extracts were significant and comparable with the standard ascorbic acid.Conclusions:Results of this study show that the leaves of M.peregrina are the rich source of phenolic compounds that can play an important role in preventing the progression of many diseases.