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Sample records for borealis leaves extract

  1. Corona Borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Northern Crown; abbrev. CrB, gen. Coronae Borealis; area 179 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Boötes and Hercules, and culminates at midnight in mid-May. It represents the crown that in Greek mythology was made by Hephaestus, god of fire, and worn by Princess Ariadne of Crete. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  2. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  3. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier;

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm) and mo...

  4. PHYTOCHEMICALANALYSIS OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA OF LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Solanki

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomoum tamala is found in tropical and sub tropical Himalaya and in some other places. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were done to screen their active constituents. Cinnamomum tamala is the member of Lauraceae family and its leaves are most popularly used as spice in Insian food. Along with spice, it is associates with many medicinal value such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antifungal etc. The phytochemicals are important in human health this is because ...

  5. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  6. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Javid Ali; Bashir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extrac...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz; Renato Péres-Roses; Imilci Urdaneta-Laffita; Miladis Isabel Camacho-Pozo; Jesús Rodríguez-Amado; Irina Licea-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona ae...

  8. EVALUATION OF ANTI ULCER ACTIVITY OF AEGLE MARMELOS LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Ashoka M. Shenoy*, Rajnikant Singh, Rajan Moses Samuel, R. Yedle and A.R. Shabraya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the anti ulcer activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos. The cause of ulceration in patients is mainly due to hypersecretion of gastric juice and pepsin. In traditional system of medicine a number of herbal preparations have been used for the treatment of peptic ulcers. The anti-ulcer activity of methanolic extract of Aegle marmelos leaves was investigated by aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats, Indometh...

  9. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Pistacia vera Fruits, Leaves and Gum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Sajadi Tabassi, Sayyed Abolghasem; Milani Moghadam, Negar; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Mehri, Soghra

    2012-01-01

    The side effects of synthetic antioxidants have been considered in different studies. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest toward the use of natural substances instead of the synthetic ones. In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistacia vera leaves and fruits as well as hydroalcoholic extract of gum were tested for a possible antioxidant activity using in vitro methods. Deoxyribose assay, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and liver misrosomal non- enzymatic lipid peroxidation tests were used as an in-vitro model for determination antioxidant activity. The extract were evaluated at different concentratios: 25,100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL. In all procedures, all extracts showed free radical scavenging activity. The effect of ethanolic extract of P. vera fruit at 1000 μg/mL was quite similar to positive control (DMSO 20 mM) in deoxyribose method. In two other tests, the ethanolic extracts of fruits and leaves were more effective than the aqueous extracts to inhibit malondialdehyde generation. Phytochemical tests showed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in Pistocia vera extracts. The present study showed that extracts of different part of P. vera have antioxidant activity in different in vitro methods. The ethanolic extracts of leaves and fruits showed more roles for antioxidant properties and gum hydroalcoholic extract demonstrated less antioxidant effect. PMID:24250515

  11. Optimization of extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens *

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao-Xin; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Chai, Wei-ming; Feng, Hui-ling; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Han-tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the conditions for extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction abilities of phenolics (EAP) and flavonoids (EAF), the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pierylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging potential, and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were used as quality indicators. The results of single-factor experiments showed that temperature, ethanol concentration, extraction time, and the number of ext...

  12. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACALYPHA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Vishesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract from the Acalypha indica leaves of investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (1%, 2.5% and 5% of extract were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. The anthelmintic activity of ethanol extract of Acalypha indica leaf therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  13. Toxicological Studies of Hydromethanolic Leaves Extract of Grewia crenata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Ukwuani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of hydro-methanolic extracts of Grewia crenata leaves were evaluated in rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during 14 days observation period. Therefore, LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the leaves extract revealed the plant to contain saponins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and glycosides. In the repeated dose 28days oral toxicity study, administration of 900, 1800, 2700 and 3600 mg/kg of body weight G. crenata leaves extracts revealed no significantly difference (p<0.05 in the hematological parameter except for reduced platelet and increased differential blood count shown in some of the treated groups. Analysis of serum liver enzymes, uric acid, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, electrolytes and creatinine revealed no significant (P<0.05 changes in the extract treated groups compared to control group. However, significant differences (P<0.05 were seen in glucose, urea and bilirubin of the treated groups when compared to the control group. These results suggest that the sub-chronic administration of hydro-methanolic leaves extracts of Grewia crenata has no marked acute and sub-chronic toxic effect in rats.

  14. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Muhammad Ayaz; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Ijaz Mohammad; Lubna Fazal

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/μL, 8.10×10 3/μL, 84.0% to 55×10 3/μL, 3.7×10 3/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/μL to 168×10 3/μL, WBC from 3.7×10 3/μL to 7.7×10 3/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Caricapapaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  17. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using in-vitro antioxidant assays model 1, 1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity. The antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidant agents such as ascorbic acid. Results: The antioxidant activities (% inhibition) of all the tested extracts were increased in the order i.e. menthol > ethanol > aqueous > acetone > chloroform > ethyl acetate > n-hexane. The methanol extract EC50 (µg/mL) value was compatible with vitamin C (standard). The antioxidant activity of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts increased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: It was observed that H. rhamnoides was a potential resource of antioxidants and thus could put off numerous radical linked diseases.

  19. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Abroma augusta Lnn. leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FK Saikot; Alam Khan; MF Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of acetone extract of leaves ofAbroma augusta. Methods: Disc diffusion method was used to demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activities. Cytotoxicity was determined against brine shrimp nauplii. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial dilution technique to determine antibacterial potency. Results: The extract showed significant antibacterial activities against three gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus) and four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Salmonella typhi) bacteria. The antifungal activity was found strong against five fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus). In cytotoxicity determination, LC50 of the extract against brine shrimp nauplii was 7.06μg/ml. Conclusions: The Abroma leaves extract may be consider as a potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic agent for further advance research.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Pistacia vera Fruits, Leaves and Gum Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Sajadi Tabassi, Sayyed Abolghasem; Milani Moghadam, Negar; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Mehri, Soghra

    2012-01-01

    The side effects of synthetic antioxidants have been considered in different studies. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest toward the use of natural substances instead of the synthetic ones. In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistacia vera leaves and fruits as well as hydroalcoholic extract of gum were tested for a possible antioxidant activity using in vitro methods. Deoxyribose assay, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and liver misrosomal non- enzymatic lipid...

  1. Antimicrobial and antipathogenic activity of Fallopia japonica leaves alcoholic extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana-Cristina Marinaş; Elisabeta-Irina Geană; Eliza Oprea; Carmen Chifiriuc; Veronica Lazăr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study consists in the investigation of the antimicrobial and antiphatogenic activity of ethanol extracts obtain from F. japonica leaves. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while their phenolic composition was specified by HPLC. In vitro antimicrobial activity of various concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 200 μL/mL of alcoholic (ethanol 70%) extract of F. japonica were analyzed on different clinical and reference bacterial strains (Staphylococcus a...

  2. The effect of extraction method on antioxidant activity of Atractylis babelii Hochr. leaves and flowers extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Khadidja Boudebaz; Samira Nia, Malika; Trabelsi Ayadi; Jamila Kalthoum Cherif

    2015-01-01

    In this study, leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii were chosen to investigate their antioxidant activities. Thus, a comparison between the antioxidant properties of ethanolic crude extracts obtained by two extraction methods, maceration and soxhlet extraction, was performed using two different tests; DPPH and ABTS radical assays. Besides, total polyphenol, flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were determined in leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii by colorimetric methods. The resu...

  3. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention. PMID:17177209

  4. Hypolipidemic Activity of Chloroform Extract of Mimosa pudica Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Rekha; Krishnakumar, Ekambaram

    2010-01-01

    Mimosa pudica Lin., known as chue Mue, is a stout straggling prostrate shrubby plant, with spinous stipules and globose pinkish flower heads, and grows as weed in almost all parts of the country. It is traditionally used for its various properties and hence in the present study, chloroform extract of Mimosa pudica leaves has been screened for its hypolipidemic activity. Hypolipidemic activity is screened by inducing hyperlipidemia with the help of atherogenic diet in wistar albino rats and se...

  5. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    OpenAIRE

    Cinthia M. Azuma; Flávia Cristina S. dos Santos; João Henrique G. Lago

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2). Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1) and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase) to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin), which h...

  6. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MEMECYLON MALABARICUM (MELASTOMATACEAE LEAVES

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    M. Ramaiah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Memecylon malabaricum cogn (Melastomataceae is an indigenous medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections, inflammation and skin diseases including herpes, chickenpox. It’s also a root ecbolic. The methanolic extract of Memecylon malabaricum leaves is subjected to antidiabetic activity using experimental model of alloxan induced diabetes. The results showed that the methanolic extract significantly decrease the raised blood glucose level, comparable to reference standard, gliclazide. The results of this study explicate justification of the use of this plant in the treatment of diabetes.  

  7. Effects of Prickly Pear Dried Leaves, Artichoke Leaves, Turmeric and Garlic Extracts, and Their Combinations on Preventing Dyslipidemia in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Qinna, Nidal A.; Basma S. Kamona; Alhussainy, Tawfiq M.; Hashem Taha; Badwan, Adnan A.; Matalka, Khalid Z.

    2012-01-01

    The successful use of herbal combinations in managing diseases or conditions over a single herb has lead us to evaluate the anti-dyslipidemic properties of the combination of the artichoke leaves extract, turmeric extract, prickly pear dried leaves (PPL) and garlic extract versus each one alone in two different hyperlipidemic animal models. A two-week treatment of each of the natural extracts, combination 1 (artichoke, turmeric and PPL) or combination 2 (artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic) p...

  8. Effects of Anethum chryseum Leaves Extracts on Gastric Irritation

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    Ali M. Bahrami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a folk remedy, Anethum chryseum leaves is used for some gastrointestinal ailments. We aimed to evaluate aqueous and ethanolic extracts of anti-ulcer and acute toxicity effects of the Anethum chryseum in mice. Gastric mucosal lesions were induced by oral administration of HCl (1 N and absolute ethanol in mice. The acidity and total acid content of gastric juice were measured in pylorus-ligated mice. LD50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 3.04 g kg-1 i.p., (1.5, 6.16 and 6.98 g kg-1, i.p., (5.69, 8.56, respectively. The efficacy of high dose of extracts (p.o. was similar to sucralfate. The acidity and total acid content were reduced by the orally or intraperitoneally administration of the extracts. The results suggest that A. chryseum leaves extracts have significant mucosal protective and antisecretory effects of the gastric mucosa in mice.

  9. Antimicrobial and antipathogenic activity of Fallopia japonica leaves alcoholic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Cristina Marinaş

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study consists in the investigation of the antimicrobial and antiphatogenic activity of ethanol extracts obtain from F. japonica leaves. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while their phenolic composition was specified by HPLC. In vitro antimicrobial activity of various concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 200 μL/mL of alcoholic (ethanol 70% extract of F. japonica were analyzed on different clinical and reference bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and fungal strains belonging to Candida spp. using agar disk diffusion method and broth dilution method. The anti-pathogenic properties were studied by determining the adhesion capacity of microbial strains to inert substrate. The soluble virulence factors were quantified using specific media with different biochemical substrats for revealing haemolysins, lecithinase, gelatinase, lipase, DN-ase, amylase and iron chelating agents. The antibiogram adapted technique assesseded the synergic effects of F. japonica leaves extracts with the clinical used antibiotics for different bacterial strains. The studied extract showed the best antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa (6.25 μL/mL due to phenolic compound identified (epicatechin, rutin and quercetin. In the Gram-positive strains’ case were observed phenotypic changes in the DNA-ase and lechitinase enzymes expression. In the antibioresistance pattern profiling it was observed that F. japonica leaves improved the Kanamycin activity for S. aureus, Colistin for P. aeruginosa and Meropenem for A. baumanii. In this respect, could be assumed that this extract could be used complementarily with antibiotherapy, by inhibiting the specific virulence factors.

  10. 18O enrichment in phosphorus pools extracted from soybean leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfahler, Verena; Dürr-Auster, Thilo; Tamburini, Federica; Bernasconi, M Stefano; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the isotopic composition of oxygen bound to phosphate (δ(18)O-PO(4)) in different phosphorus (P) pools in plant leaves. As a model plant we used soybean (Glycine max cv Toliman) grown in the presence of ample P in hydroponic cultures. The leaf blades were extracted with 0.3 M trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and with 10 M nitric acid. These extractions allowed measurement of the TCA-soluble reactive P (TCA P) that is rapidly cycled within the cell and the total leaf P. The difference between total leaf P and TCA P yielded the structural P which includes organic P compounds not extractable by TCA. P uptake and its translocation and transformation within the soybean plants lead to an (18)O enrichment of TCA P (δ(18)O-PO(4) between 16.9 and 27.5‰) and structural P (δ(18)O-PO(4) between 42.6 and 68.0 ‰) compared with 12.4‰ in the phosphate in the nutrient solution. δ(18)O values of phosphate extracted from soybean leaves grown under optimal conditions are greater than the δ(18)O-PO(4) values of the provided P source. Furthermore, the δ(18)O-PO(4) of TCA P seems to be controlled by the δ(18)O of leaf water and the activity of inorganic pyrophosphatase or other pyrophosphatases. PMID:23106517

  11. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CORCHORUS AESTUANS LINN LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Patel Rashmika P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Corchorus aestuans Linn are said to cure gonorrhea and used in making an injection for urethral discharge. In the present study, the antioxidant potency of Corchorus aestuans Linn crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water have been investigated, employing three different established in vitro testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, reducing power assay and β-carotene method. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of Corchorus aestuans Linn. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of Corchorus aestuans Linn.

  12. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  13. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  14. THE STUDY OF HENNA LEAVES EXTRACT AS GREEN CORROSION INHIBITOR FOR MILD STEEL IN ACETIC ACID.

    OpenAIRE

    H. G. Chaudhari; R. T. Vashi

    2016-01-01

    The inhibitive action of henna leaves extract on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedence and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration of extract. The result obtained revealed that henna leaves extract act as efficient inhibitor. The adsorption of the henna leaves extract obeyed Langmuir...

  15. Evaluation of Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Supercritical Fluid Extract of Leaves of Vitex negundo

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was tested for its antimicrobial potential and was compared with that of ethanol extract, ether extract and hydrodistilled oil of leaves. The chemical constituents of extracts were studied by chromatographic techniques. Extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against bacterial strains like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast Candida albicans. Extracts showed prominent an...

  16. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation. (paper)

  17. The R Coronae Borealis Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    1996-03-01

    This year marks the bicentennial of the discovery of the variability of R Coronae Borealis. The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are distinguished from other hydrogen-deficient objects by their spectacular dust formation episodes. They may decline by up to 8 magnitudes in a few weeks revealing a rich emission-line spectrum. Their atmospheres have unusual abundances with very little hydrogen and an overabundance of carbon and nitrogen. The RCB stars are thought to be the product of a final helium shell flash or the coalescence of a binary white-dwarf system. Dust may form in non-equilibrium conditions created behind shocks caused by pulsations in the atmospheres of these stars. The RCB stars are interesting and important, first because they represent a rare, or short-lived stage of stellar evolution, and second because these stars regularly produce large amounts of dust so they are laboratories for the study of dust formation and evolution. (SECTION: Invited Review Paper)

  18. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C. PMID:27472310

  19. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  20. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Chanchal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods:Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o. of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results:TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior.

  1. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    IETJE WIENTARSIH; RINI MADYASTUTI; BAYU FEBRAM PRASETYO; ANGGARA ALDOBRATA

    2012-01-01

    In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill) extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and e...

  2. Evaluation of Chloroform Extract and Its Fractions of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) Leaves for Cardioprotective Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dobhal Y

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of active extract and its fraction of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) leaves on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury using wister albino rats. Petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) leaves were prepared and screened for their cardioprotective potential. Among all the extracts chloroform extract reduce myocardial injury. The chloroform extract further purified using col...

  3. Effect of the extraction process on yield and composition of selected extracts from maidenhair tree green and yellow leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kobus-Cisowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of extraction process on the extraction efficiency and composition of selected extracts from the maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L. green and yellow leaves. Taken three-step extraction, where water, solution of acetone and water and ethyl alcohol were used, effectiveness by evaluating the content of total polyphenols was estimated. In the next step yield of selected extraction processes was estimated, then UV spectra of the obtained extracts and their content of phenolic acids. The content of phenolic compounds in the following extracts showed high efficiency of the first extraction process. Analysis of UV spectra allowed to deduce the presence of phenolic compounds in all tested extracts. The absorption maxima were recorded at wavelengths between 290 nm and 350 nm. Analysed extracts showed high content of phenolic acids. The largest of the sum of phenolic acids was estimated in the acetone-water extract from green leaves and in water extract from yellow leaves. In green leaves extracts the predominant acid was protocatechuic, while in yellow leaves extracts the greatest amount of p-hydroxybenzoic acid was shown.

  4. Effect of neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) seeds and leaves extract on some plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslem, M A; El-Kholie, E M

    2009-07-15

    In this study plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were chosen to study the effect of ethanolic, hexane and methanolic extracts of neem seeds and leaves. Antifungal effects of neem leave and seed extracts obtained by ethanol, hexane and ptrolium ether were examined separately in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that seeds and leaves extracts could cause growth inhibition of tested fungi, although the rate of inhibition of tested fungi varied with different extracts and concentrations. But all these extracts and concentrations of extract inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi at a significant level. Azadirachtin, nimonol and expoxyazdirodione were detected from neem extract by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We can conclude that neem leave and seed extracts were effective as antifungal against all tested fungi but F. oxysporum and R. solani were the most sensitive fungi. PMID:19947185

  5. Nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves: Beyond traditional root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Renu; Konar, Arpita; Kaul, Sunil C

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly increasing aging population and environmental stressors are the two main global concerns of the modern society. These have brought in light rapidly increasing incidence of a variety of pathological conditions including brain tumors, neurodegenerative & neuropsychiatric disorders, and new challenges for their treatment. The overlapping symptoms, complex etiology and lack of full understanding of the brain structure and function to-date further complicate these tasks. On the other hand, several herbal reagents with a long history of their use have been asserted to possess neurodifferentiation, neuroregenerative and neuroprotective potentials, and hence been recommended as supplement to enhance and maintain brain health and function. Although they have been claimed to function by holistic approach resulting in maintaining body homeostasis and brain health, there are not enough laboratory studies in support to these and mechanism(s) of such beneficial activities remain largely undefined. One such herb is Ashwagandha, also called "Queen of Ayurveda" for its popular use in Indian traditional home medicine because of its extensive benefits including anticancer, anti-stress and remedial potential for aging and neurodegenerative pathologies. However, active principles and underlying mechanism(s) of action remain largely unknown. Here we provide a review on the effects of Ashwagandha extracts and active principles, and underlying molecular mechanism(s) for brain pathologies. We highlight our findings on the nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves. The effects of Ashwagandha leaf extracts are multidimensional ranging from differentiation of neuroblastoma and glioma cells, reversal of Alzheimer and Parkinson's pathologies, protection against environmental neurotoxins and enhancement of memory. PMID:26361721

  6. Extraction of light filth from whole peppermint leaves: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, J; Nakashima, M; Glaze, L E

    1985-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from whole peppermint leaves. A 5 g sample is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux appartus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol solution, flotation with Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15), and trappings in a Wildman trap flask. Average recoveries obtained by 6 collaborators for 3 spike levels of rat hairs (5, 10, 15) were 83.3, 87.5, and 82.2%, respectively. For whole insects (5, 10, 15) recoveries averaged 85.0, 80.0 and 77.2% respectively; for insect fragments (20, 30, 50) recoveries averaged 79.6, 88.3, and 84.8%, respectively. The average recoveries for the 3 levels of each analyte were not significantly different. The method has been adopted official first action. PMID:4030641

  7. Homogenate extraction technology of camptothecine and hydroxycamptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-guo; ZU Yuan-gang; ZHAO Chun-jian; YANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Camptothecine (CPT) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), two kinds of anti-cancer alkaloids, were extracted from Camptotheca acuminata leaves using homogenate extraction technology under different conditions such as the ratio of material to liquid, ethanol concentration, and homogenate time. The optimum technology parameters for homogenate extraction of CPT and HCPT from C. acuminata leaves were determined as homogenate time at 8 min, ethanol concentration at 55% and the ratio of material to liquid at 1:15 (g:mL). By using the optimized parameters, we obtained 0.639‰ extraction rate for CPT and 0.437‰ for HCPT. The extraction yields of CPT and HCPT extracted by homogenating technology were higher than those by other extractive methods, such as ultrasonic, reflux, shaking in water bath. It is concluded that the homogenate extraction technology was an efficient method for extracting CPT and HCPT from C. acuminata leaves, with characteristics of less extraction time and high yield.

  8. Effect of the extraction process on yield and composition of selected extracts from maidenhair tree green and yellow leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kobus-Cisowska; Ewa Flaczyk; Aleksander Siger; Dominik Kmiecik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of extraction process on the extraction efficiency and composition of selected extracts from the maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.) green and yellow leaves. Taken three-step extraction, where water, solution of acetone and water and ethyl alcohol were used, effectiveness by evaluating the content of total polyphenols was estimated. In the next step yield of selected extraction processes was estimated, then UV spectra of the obtained extracts and...

  9. Phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Zahid Khorshid; Saggu, Shalini; Sakeran, Mohamed I.; Zidan, Nahla; Rehman, Hasibur; Abid A. Ansari

    2014-01-01

    The phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Cichorium intybus L., was determined. The leaves were found to possess comparatively higher values of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids. The phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, in the leaves of the plant. The leaf extract was found to show comparatively low value of IC50 for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition. The IC50 value of chicory le...

  10. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi; Sônia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri; Marli Aparecida Ranal; Denise Garcia de Santana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry) on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (onion), as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml o...

  11. Phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Zahid Khorshid; Saggu, Shalini; Sakeran, Mohamed I; Zidan, Nahla; Rehman, Hasibur; Ansari, Abid A

    2015-05-01

    The phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Cichorium intybus L., was determined. The leaves were found to possess comparatively higher values of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids. The phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, in the leaves of the plant. The leaf extract was found to show comparatively low value of IC50 for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition. The IC50 value of chicory leaves extract was found to be 67.2 ± 2.6 μg/ml. The extracts were found to contain high amount of mineral elements especially Mg and Zn. Due to good phytochemical and antioxidant composition, C. intybus L., leaves would be an important candidate in pharmaceutical formulations and play an important role in improving the human health by participating in the antioxidant defense system against free radical generation. PMID:25972754

  12. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Tejpat leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Akter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to investigate in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (Nees. The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala have shown good antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ascorbic acid used as a standard. The IC50 value of Cinnamomum tamala leaves was 13.55 μg/ml while the IC50 value of ascorbic acid was 5.35 μg/ml. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and vincristine sulphate used as a standard. In this assay, the LC50 value of the ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum tamala leaves was 17.82μg/ml whereas LC50 value of vincristine sulphate was 5.24μg/ml. Therefore, these results suggest that leaves extract of Cinnamomum tamala has antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.

  13. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Aqueous Extract on Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala A.H. Khattab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bachground: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of various liver diseases. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GbE have been proved to be an effective antioxidant, thereby can contribute to the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of GbE on acute liver injury induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. Material and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male rats by intraperitoneal (i.p injection of CCl4 1mL/ kg body weight (b.w. for every 72 h for 14 days, GbE was administered orally at a dose of 150 mg/kg b.w., daily started two weeks prior to CCl4 injection and continued until the end of the experiment. Results: CCl4 caused acute liver damage in rats, as evidenced by significant increase serum enzymes activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT & AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as significant decrease in weight gain percent, serum total protein (TP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH. Pretreatment with GbE prior to CCl4 injection elicited hepatoprotetcive activity by significant decreased the activities of liver enzymes and hepatic MDA, and significant increased the levels of TP, and hepatic GSH, as well as induced significant ameliorated in weight gain percent and lipid profile parameters as compared with CCl4 group. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues of CCl4 group represented the presence of hepatic necrosis associated with cells infiltration and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, while the pretreatment with GbE overcome these changes, the majority of the cells tend to be normal.Conclusion: The present findings indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of GbE against CCl4-induced oxidative damage may be due to its potent antioxidant activity. Therefore, GbE could be of potential

  14. A STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF VARIOUS PLANT LEAVES AGAINST SELECTED MICROBIAL SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Valarmathy,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extract of leaves were examined against four common bacterial isolates. The ethanolic extracts of various leaves such as Moringa oleifera (Murungai , Musa paradisiaca (Banana, Azardiratica indica (Neem, Cynodon dactylon(Grass, Alternanthera sessilis (Ponnangkani, Anisochilus carnosus (Karpooravalli, investigated individually for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method .These were investigated against selected species of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae to find the inhibitory activities of the microbes. The ethanolic extract of Azardiratica indica showed considerably high activity against Escherichia coli than other extracts. These results were compared with standard antibiotic Penicillin. But the extract showed higher activity than the given standard antibiotic.

  15. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, et...

  16. Effect of temperature and extraction process on antioxidant activity of various leaves crude extracts of Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad A Hossain; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Kawther Khalifa Al-Rashdi; Afaf M Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of temperature and extraction process on the estimation of antioxidant activity of various organic crude extracts from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (T.vulgaris ) species native to Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The dry powder samples of T. vulgaris were extracted with methanol using two different extraction methods. Both methanol crude extracts from the leaves of T. vulgaris were defatted with water and extracted successively with different polarities of solvents with increasing polarities, e.g., hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol.Results:The yield of methanol crude extract by Soxhlet extraction method is better than maceration method. The yield of extraction was increasing with increasing temperature. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from both extraction methods was measured by DPPH with modification. By Soxhlet extraction method, the activity result found in butanol crude extracts was highest and the lowest in hexane crude extract as the following order of butanol>methanol>ethyl acetate extract>chloroform>hexane extract. However, by maceration method, the activity was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in chloroform as the order of ethyl aectate>methanol extract>butanol>hexane >chloroform.Conclusions:In conclusion, the maceration method is the best method for the evaluation of antioxidant activity.

  17. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated. PMID:23651921

  18. PURIFICATION OF GINKGO LEAVES EXTRACT WITH MACROPOROUS ADSORBENT BASED ON UREA—FORMALDEHYDE CONDENSED POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMingcheng; XUMancai; 等

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the adsorption properties for the active components of ginkgo leaves and the structure of the adsorbents based on urea-formaldehyde condensed polymers was investigated.The results revealed that these adsorbents showed very high adsorpton selectivity for both flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones contained in ginkgo leaves.Thus,an adsorption separation procedure for purification of ginkgo leaves extracts was developed.

  19. Extractability of Rutin in Herbal Tea Preparations of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon Habtemariam; George K. Varghese

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala) and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera). It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better) antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopet...

  20. Assessment of bioactivities of ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Asadujjaman; Abu Saed; Md Aslam Hossain; Utpal Kumar Karmakar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess ethanolic extract of the leaves of Melia azedarach L. (Family-Meliaceae) for its possible antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in association with performing phytochemical evaluation.Methods:A number of phytochemical tests of this extract were utilized to distinguish the existence of different sorts of compounds. Qualitative and quantitative antioxidant activities were assessed by TLC and DPPH scavenging assay respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test in mice and disk diffusion assay of the leaves extract were carried out to demonstrate the analgesic and antibacterial activities respectively.Results:The phytochemical assessment revealed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and tannins like compounds. Ethanolic extract of the leaves demonstrated antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in vitro.Conclusion:Considering the study, this could justify the leaves extract’s bioactivities but, to substantiate the activity of individual compound further investigation is necessary.

  1. In vitro erythrocyte oxidative damage of Morinda citrifolia L (noni) leaves extract

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Lagarto; Jeney Ramirez; Yanier Nu and ntilde;ez; Pham Thi Nguyet Hang; Trinh Thi Diep

    2013-01-01

    Slight decrease of hemoglobin and erythrocyte count was observed previously after subchronic oral dosing of Morinda citrifolia L leaves extract in rats. Induction of erythrocyte membrane damage could be the cause for these effects. Aims: The objective of this investigation was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of Morinda citrifolia L leaves extract and fractions on rat erythrocytes. Methods: Hemolytic damage was assayed in rat erythrocytes. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring...

  2. Extraction of Continuous Fiber from Mengkuang Leaves: The Influence of Process Parameters during Alkaline Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamizol Muhammad Syahmi; Binti Megat Yusoff Puteri Sri Melor; Bin Abdul Latif Muhamad Ridzuan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, natural cellulose fiber composite is a promising prospect in the composite world. However, achieving uniform strength in natural fiber composite is a challenge due to limited fiber length and its random orientation in the composite. Thus, the focus of this paper was to obtain a continuous cellulose fiber from mengkuang leaves using chemical extraction process. The chemical extraction involved alkaline treatment of the mengkuang leave followed by bleaching. This paper focused on ext...

  3. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis leaves in experimental diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy Girija; Kuruba Lakshman; Nagaraj Pruthvi; Pulla Udaya Chandrika

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in normal and Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis was evaluated by using normal and STZ induced diabetic rats at dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by mouth per day for 21 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight was monitored at specific intervals, and differen...

  4. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Leaves in Rat Models of Oral Mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Alkesh; Biswas, Subhankar; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nandakumar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg...

  5. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of Crataegus orientalis leaves*

    OpenAIRE

    BOR, Zeynep; ARSLAN, Rana; BEKTAŞ, Nurcan; PIRILDAR, Sevda; DÖNMEZ, Ali Aslan

    2012-01-01

    To determine the in vitro antioxidant activity and to investigate the possible antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of the ethanol extract of Crataegus orientalis leaves. The medicinal use of extracts prepared from the leaves, flowers, and fruits of Crataegus (hawthorn) dates back to ancient times. It has been proposed that its antioxidant constituents account for these beneficial therapeutic effects. Materials and methods: To evaluate these effects, the hot-plate, tail-immersion, w...

  6. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Leaves Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Xia, En-Qin; He, Tai-Ping; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface m...

  8. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Rui ZHOU; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts v...

  9. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Tejpat) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Akter; Md. Ashraf Ali; Ranjan Kumar Barman; Bytul Mokaddesur Rahman; Mir Imam Ibne Wahed

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed to investigate in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (Nees). The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala have shown good antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ascorbic acid used as a standard. The IC50 value of Cinnamomum tamala leaves was 13.55 μg/ml while the IC50 value of ascorbic acid was 5.35 μg/ml. Cytotoxic...

  10. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Christy Jeyaseelan; S Jenothiny; MK Pathmanathan; JP Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/ 100 μl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  11. Flavonoids extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). Relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g-1 dried leaves) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g-1 dried leaves) methods using 70% ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phytochemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  12. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g-1 dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g-1 dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  13. Flavonoids extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S., E-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais (NPPN). Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2010-07-01

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). Relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using 70% ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phytochemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  14. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal], e-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.com; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2009-01-15

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  15. Optimization and orthogonal design of an ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process for extracting chlorogenic acid from dry tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Tongai Mazvimba; YU Ying; CUI Zhi-Qin; ZHANG Ying

    2012-01-01

    Processing parameters for heat reflux and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques were optimized.Optimal operating conditions,extraction solvents and extraction yields for both methods were established.Although methanol showed high extraction efficiency in heat reflux extraction,residual amounts of methanol caused adulteration of extracts.To circumvent this drawback,a novel ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process was optimized and orthogonally designed to pave the way for replacing the toxic organic solvent,methanol with water.A new approach which utilizes fractional volumes of an extraction solvent was developed to minimize solvent consumption,improve chlorogenic acid solubility in water and enhance its aqueous extraction from dried tobacco leaves.Desired trajectories for the new ultrasonic assisted aqueous extraction process were found.

  16. Effectivity of water soluble granule from kenikir leaves extract (Cosmos caudatus), noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia), and earthworm meal extract (Lumbricus rubellus) as a natural coccidiostat for broiler chickens against infection caused by Eimeri

    OpenAIRE

    Karimy MF; Julendr H; Hayati SN; Sofyan a; Damayanti E; Priyowidodo D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study effectivity of water soluble granule from kenikir leaves extract (Cosmos caudatus), noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia), and earthworm meal extract (Lumbricus rubellus) as a natural coccidiostat for broiler chickens against infection caused by Eimeria tenella. One hundred day old chick (DOC) of the Cobb strain broiler were randomly devided into 10 groups and each group consisted of 10 chickens. All groups were orally infected by 5000 sporulated oocys...

  17. Antioxidant activity of the various extracts of cyclamen graecum link tubers and leaves from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol, acetone and petroleum benzine) obtained from tubers and leaves of Cyclamen graecum Link (Primulaceae) were determined. Antioxidant properties of various extracts from C. graecum were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In addition, total phenolic contents in all the extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents. Leaves extracts of C. graecum exhibited higher antioxidant activity than tuber extracts with all the types of solvent used. All extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves had effective free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging activity of C. graecum leaf-ethanol extract (97.3 +- 0.55%) was found more effective than BHT (92.30 +- 0.35%). A positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and amount of phenolic contents of the extracts. In this study, all types of extracts obtained from C. graecum have showed strong antioxidant activity. Therefore, this species can be used as a natural antioxidant in food processing and pharmaceutical industries. (author)

  18. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Kumar Saini; Manmohan Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract using different models in rats. Methods:Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 days. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail immersion and formalin induced paw licking models in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Antipyretic activity was evaluated using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 days. This indicated that the methanol extract was safe up to a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the latency period in the tail immersion test, reduced the licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases in the formalin test. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract at the doses of (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the rectal temperature of the rats. Conclusions: This study exhibites that methanolic T.capensis leaves extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  19. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of Erythrina fusca leaves aquadest extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Sudiono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirically, Erythrina fusca has been used as traditional herb for its antibacterial and antiinflammation properties. Periodontal disease is one of the most oral infectious diseases with microorganism predominated as the contributing factors. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is one of the main bacteria pathogen found in periodontal diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the bactericidal effect of Erythrina fusca Leaves Aquadest Extract (EFLAE at various concentrations on P. gingivalis and cytotoxic effect on fibroblast. Methods: Pure P. gingivalis was cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI medium for 24 hours with or without various concentrations of treatment of EFLAE. Calculation and statistical analysis of remaining bacteria were performed by inhibitory zone method to evaluate the EFLAE bactericidal effect and compared to chlorhexidine as positive control. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect, NIH 3T3 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM containing of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, pH 7.2, in 5% CO2, and stored in humidified incubator under temperature 370 C. Cells were treated with/without various concentrations of EFLAE for 48 hours. The viable cells were then counted using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl tetrazodium bromide (MTT method. Results: EFLAE have bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis in a concentration dependent manner starting from 78%. The concentration of 90% EFLAE had stronger bactericidal effect (35.004 ± 1.546 than those of chlorhexidine as positive control (32.313 ± 1.619. One-way ANOVA showed significant bactericidal effect differences among concentrations of EFLAE and chlorhexidine (p<0.05 while Tuckey HSD test showed significant difference only between lower concentration of EFLAE (78%, 79% and chlorhexidine. With the highest concentration of EFLAE (100% applied in the bactericidal test, no cytotoxic effect

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity of total extracts of the leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. (Anamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Ochoa Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of 13 total extracts was evaluated, 10 soft extracts (B and 3 blended extracts (E prepared from dry and fresh leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. Various solvents were used for their preparation: hydroalcoholic solution at 30%, 80% and isopropyl alcohol. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was tested by means of the method of Kirby-Bauer, using four bacterial strains from the ATCC collection (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a leveduriform fungus (Candida albicans. The following quality control parameters were determined for most active extracts: physical, physical-chemical and chemical parameters. The results were: nine extracts showed antibacterial activity, being the most concentrated (B8 and E3, the ones with the highest activity in the presence of the bacteria tested; the effect of blended extracts (E1, E2 and E3 was greater in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Blended extracts are considered more potent and active than soft extracts. No antifungal activity was obtained for both types of extracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined for both extracts, with the following results: MIC-soft extracts (>100 mg/mL, blended extracts (>50 mg/mL; MBC-soft extracts (≥400 mg/mL, blended extracts (≥200 mg/mL based on fresh leaves.

  1. Voltammetric and spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant activity of Eugenia dysenterica DC leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino, Silva Elton; Garcia, Rezende Stefani; Moreira, Béda Roanna C Clícia; Pagliarini, Balest Aiessa; Cabral, Reis Bruna; Dâmaris, Silveira; de Souza, Gil Eric

    2016-03-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC (cagaiteira) is a native tree from Cerrado biome. Cagaita fruits are known and consumed in natura, mainly by inhabitants from Cerrado. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of leaves of this plant. For this evaluation we used four methods, the reduction of phosphomolybdenum, scanning by hydrogen peroxide, DPPH radical scavenging assay and determination of electrochemical parameters by differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicate that all extracts from leaves of this species have significant antioxidant potential, following the order: crude ethanol extract CEE) >crude aqueous extract (CAE) >crude hexane extract (CHE). The voltammetric approaches were also applied in order to evaluate the redox behavior of the hydrophilic extracts, as well as of their sub-extracts. Thus, the results suggest the presence of catechol-like polyphenols, which were confirmed by chromatography and phytochemical methods. Voltammetric analysis showed to be a reliable and fast method to determine redox behavior of E. dysenterica extracts. PMID:27087097

  2. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts from Laurus nobilis Leaves

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Shaza

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial properties of crude extracts from Laurus nobilis were investigated. With the use of the organic solvents, methanol and ethanol, crude extracts were obtained. To determine the availability of active bio‐compounds, an analysis using liquid chromatography was conducted. The crude extract was also tested for antimicrobial activity. The disc diffusion method was used against the bacterium Escherichia coli. The results showed a weak antimicrobial activity against E. coli. For cytotoxicity testing, the crude extract was studied on four cell-­lines: human breast adenocarcinoma, human embryonic kidney, HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and human lung fibroblast. From the alamarBlue® assay results, the extracts most potently affected the cell-­lines of human breast adenocarcinoma and human embryonic kidney. Using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, an effect on human embryonic kidney was most prominent. With these findings, a suggestion that the crude extract of Laurus nobilis may have antiproliferative properties is put forth, with the possibility of this mechanism being induction of apoptosis with the involvement of Nuclear Factor Kappa κB (NF κB).

  3. On the Procedures for the Extraction and Isolation of Flavonoids Present in the Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Acanthospermum Hispidiumdc

    OpenAIRE

    Abe R. T; Edewor-Kuponiyi, T. I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures of the extraction and isolation of flavonoids present in the methanolic leaf extract of Acanthospermum hispidium DC .The leaves of Acanthospermum hispidium dc was extracted with polar and non-polar solvents. The activecomponents (.i.e. flavonoids) were found in methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol while methanol, chloroform, ethylacetate and n-butanol contained steroids. From the chromatographic analysis, it was observed that the component 1and ...

  4. Physiological investigations on the effect of olive and rosemary leaves extracts in male rats exposed to thioacetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Atef M; Shawush, Nessreen A

    2014-11-01

    Physiologically, it is known that thioacetamide (TAA) toxicity is generally associated with hepatic fibrosis induction, complicated metabolic disorders and health problems. The capability of extracts of olive and rosemary leaves to attenuate the severe physiological disturbances induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication in male rats has been evaluated. Healthy male Wistar rats were used in the present study and were divided randomly into eight groups. Rats of the first group were served as normal control. Rats of the second group were administrated with TAA. Rats of the third, fourth and fifth groups were exposed to TAA plus olive leaves extract, TAA plus rosemary leaves extract and TAA plus olive and rosemary leaves extracts respectively. The sixth, seventh and eighth groups were supplemented with olive leaves extract, rosemary leaves extract, and olive and rosemary leaves extracts respectively. After 12 weeks of experimental treatments, the levels of serum glucose, total protein, albumin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased, while the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were statistically increased in rats exposed to TAA. Administration of the studied extracts inhibited the hematobiochemical parameters and improved the physiological disturbances induced by TAA intoxication. Additionally, most improvements were noted in rats administrated with rosemary leaves extract followed by olive and rosemary leaves extracts and olive leaves extract. These results suggested that the effect of these extracts might be due to their antioxidant activities against TAA toxicity. PMID:25313283

  5. Effect of Cardioactive Principle of Methanolic Extract of Allium Humile Leaves on Global Ischaemic Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Dobhal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In present study efficacy of active principle (AH-1 of Methanolic extract of Allium humile leaves has been evaluated to limit myocardial injury in ischaemic rat heart. Material and Methods: Various extracts of A. humile leaves were prepared using solvents of increasing polarity. Methanolic extract among all other extracts further purified using chromatographic technique results four major fractions A1, A2, A3, and A4. Cardioprotective potentials. Among these fractions A4 was found to be active fraction. AH-1 (active principle was isolated from the fraction A4 using column chromatography technique and evaluated for Cardioprotective effect. Results: The Methanolic extract of A. humile leaves and further fraction A4 of Methanolic extract significantly prevented myocardial infarct size as compared with that of standard Ramipril in the study. From fraction A4 of Methanolic extract, the isolated active principle AH-1 showing cardio protective effect at dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The study suggests that AH-1 is active Cardioprotective principle of Methanolic extract of Allium humile leaves and was found significant (p<0.05.

  6. Antiulcer activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Kaniganti

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Both the doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves exhibited significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation model, whereas only 200 mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract was effective in cold restrain stress model. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1353-1358

  7. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  8. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  9. [Study on technique of extraction and purifying chlorogenic acid in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhai; Qiu, Aiyong

    2004-12-01

    Ethanol was used as solvent to extract chlorogenic acid from leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaves. The optimum conditions are obtained by response surface analytical method. Optimized conditions for the extraction of chlorogenic acid were obtained: ethanol 51.7%, extraction temperature 55.8 degrees C, ratio of material to liquor 1:12.8, extraction time 2 h. The static adsorption tests are conducted among six kinds of macroporous resins to select NKA-II resin as a optimum resin to adsorb the chlorogenic acid in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaves. The optimum adsortion-elution conditions are as follow: adsorption flow rate is 2 ml/min, crude liquid flew twice through the adsorption column,the optimum adsorbent is 40% ethanol. PMID:15807249

  10. 北极蒿与中药常用蒿属植物的化学成分比较%Chemical comparison of Artemisia borealis and three Chinese Artemisia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田芳; 刘丽; 窦德强; 康廷国; Smith David

    2007-01-01

    目的 比较北极蒿与三种中药常用蒿属植物的化学成分并对北极蒿的化学成分进行初步研究.方法 采用薄层色谱及GC-MS比较小极性成分及挥发油的区别;采用HPLC指纹图谱对极性较大成分进行比较.结论 从北极蒿挥发油中分离出52个色谱峰,共鉴定了48个成分,占挥发油总成分的92%以上,其主要成分为香木兰烷-4-醇(24.73%).经HPLC指纹图谱分析,北极蒿与其他三种植物主要成分相似,但北极蒿的化学成分集中且含量高.青蒿、北极蒿、艾叶、茵陈中绿原酸含量分别是0.065%,0.617%,0.178%,0.192%,北极蒿中绿原酸含量是其它三种植物的六倍之多,提示有较高研究价值.%Aim To compare the chemical constituents of A rtemisia borealis with three other A rtemisia plants which are generally used in traditional Chinese medicine. Method The chemical components of essential oil from the leaves of A. borealis were analyzed by GCMS and the chemical components of water extracts of the four plants were compared by HPLC fingerprint method. Conclusion From the essential oil of A. borealis, 52 peaks were separate, 48 of them were identified by GC-MS analysis, indicative that aromadendrane-4-ol is the highest constituent, which made up 24.73% of the total essential oil. In addition the chief constituents of the leaves of A.borealis are similar to the three other plants but its pattern of HPLC fingerprint is different. The content of chlorogenic acid in aerial part of A.annus and A. scapillaries, leaves of A. borealis and A. argyi are 0.065, 0.192, 0.617and 0.178 % respectively.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of leaves and bark extracts of Ficus religiosa (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Ramakrishnaiah *1, T.Hariprasad2

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated antimicrobial activity of diethyl ether and methanol extractions of bark and leaves of Ficus religiosa plant against three bacteria (E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus & Pseudomonas aurignosa and one fungi (Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the methanol extracts of both leaves and bark showed antimicrobial activity on three tested bacteria and no effect on A.niger. In methanol extracts S.aureus showed maximum sensitivity (inhibition zone 28mm followed by E.coli (inhibition zone 16mm and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 12mm. Diethyl ether extracts of leaves were also showed maximum inhibition on S.aureus followed by E.coli and P.aeruginosa. Both methanol and diethyl ether extracts of bark showed antimicrobial activity on three types of tested bacteria and very less inhibition activity on A.niger. But comparatively bark extracts of both the solvents were showed less antimicrobial activity than leaves extracts on the tested microbes.

  12. IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES AND BARK EXTRACTS OF FICUS RELIGIOSA (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gampa Ramakrishnaiah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated antimicrobial activity of diethyl ether and methanol extractions of bark and leaves of Ficus religiosa plant against three bacteria (E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus & Pseudomonas aurignosa and one fungi (Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the methanol extracts of both leaves and bark showed antimicrobial activity on three tested bacteria and no effect on A.niger. In methanol extracts S.aureus showed maximum sensitivity (inhibition zone 28mm followed by E.coli (inhibition zone 16mm and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 12mm. Diethyl ether extracts of leaves were also showed maximum inhibition on S.aureus followed by E.coli and P.aeruginosa. Both methanol and diethyl ether extracts of bark showed antimicrobial activity on three types of tested bacteria and very less inhibition activity on A.niger. But comparatively bark extracts of both the solvents were showed less antimicrobial activity than leaves extracts on the tested microbes.

  13. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce and Allium cepa L. (onion, as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water, resulting in a concentration of 10.0%. Distilled water was added in order to obtain dilutions of 7.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. The extraction was carried out with young leaves (in powder form and organic solvents of various polarities. We fractioned the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. The phytotoxic potential of the aqueous extract of young leaves S. saponaria varied according to the receiving species and the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The ethyl acetate extract, specifically fraction 6 (57-70, had the greatest inhibitory effect on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, indicating that the compounds responsible for the phytotoxic effect reside within this fraction.

  14. Role of Rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya Garima S.; Goyal Pradeep K.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is a study of the modulatory effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract on radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice. The dose reduction factor for the Rosemary extract against gamma rays was calculated 1.53 from LD50/30 values. The Rosemary extract was administered orally for 5 consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. The hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed from day 1 to 30 post-irradiation intervals. The total...

  15. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CAMELLIA JAPONICA LEAVES AGAINST ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycaemic activity of the methanolic extract from Camellia japonica leaves were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. After oral administration of the extract at two different doses (100 and 200mg/kg body weight) to alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the blood glucose, level was assayed. The blood glucose levels after a single oral administration of the methanolic extract significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner, which is much faster and more than that of glibenclamide. The b...

  16. Volatiles composition and extraction kinetics from Schinus terebinthifolius and Schinus molle leaves and fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano dos Santos Cavalcanti; Marcela de Souza Alves; Laurine Cristina Paulo da Silva; Daiane dos Santos Patrocínio; Mirza Nalesso Sanches; Douglas Siqueira de Almeida Chaves; Marco Andre Alves de Souza

    2015-01-01

    AbstractEssential oils extracted from Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, leaves and fruit hydrodistillation, as well as, their chemical composition and extraction kinetic were evaluated. For this proposal, 6 h extraction and aliquots collected at sequencing different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h) were carried out allowing calculating accumulated content (% w/w) and verifying essential oil chemical profile. β-caryophyllene (35.2%), α-pinene (28.1%) and germacren...

  17. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative iden...

  18. Phenolic Extracts from Wild Olive Leaves and Their Potential as Edible Oils Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Theodora-Ioanna Lafka; Andriana E. Lazou; Vassilia J. Sinanoglou; Lazos, Evangelos S.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model). As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions 180 min, solvent to sample ratio 5...

  19. Evaluation of composition and antimicrobial activity of supercritical fluid extract of leaves of Vitex negundo

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarsekar K; Nagarsenker M; Kulkarni S.

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was tested for its antimicrobial potential and was compared with that of ethanol extract, ether extract and hydrodistilled oil of leaves. The chemical constituents of extracts were studied by chromatographic techniques. Extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against bacterial strains like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast Candida albicans. Extracts showed prominent an...

  20. UAE, MAE, SFE-CO2 and classical methods for the extraction of Mitragyna speciosa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Laura; Alexandru, Lavinia; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Barge, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia, is well known for its psychoactive properties. Its leaves are traditionally chewed by Thai and Malaysian farmers and manual labourers as it causes a numbing, stimulating effect. The present study aims to evaluate alkaloid yield and composition in the leaf extracts. For this purpose we have compared several non-conventional extraction techniques with classic procedures (room temperature or under heating). Dried M. speciosa leaves belonging to three batches of different origin (from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia) were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction SFE-CO(2), using methanol, ethanol, water and binary mixtures. The extracts were compared using an HPLC/ESI-MS analysis of mitragynine and four other related alkaloids which were present in the alkaloid fraction. The extraction technique influences both the raw product yield and the relative alkaloid content of M. speciosa leaves. Of the several methods tested, MAE in a closed vessel at 110 °C (60 W, methanol/water 1:1) gave the highest alkaloid fraction amount, while UAE with an immersion horn at 25 °C (21.4 kHz, 50 W, methanol) showed the best yield for mitragynine. This work may prove to be a useful contribution to forensic, toxicological and pharmacognosy studies. Although the potential applications of M. speciosa alkaloids clearly need further investigation, these results may facilitate the scaling-up of their extraction. PMID:22054912

  1. THE STUDY OF HENNA LEAVES EXTRACT AS GREEN CORROSION INHIBITOR FOR MILD STEEL IN ACETIC ACID.

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    H. G. Chaudhari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitive action of henna leaves extract on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedence and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration of extract. The result obtained revealed that henna leaves extract act as efficient inhibitor. The adsorption of the henna leaves extract obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic process accompanied by an increase in entropy. Cathodic and anodic polarization curves show that henna leaves extract is a mixed-type inhibitor. Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}   ABSTRACT:    The inhibitive action of henna leaves extract on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedence and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration of extract. The result obtained revealed that henna leaves extract act as efficient inhibitor. The adsorption of the henna leaves

  2. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ying Huang; Yu-Ru Lin; Ruei-Fen Ho; Ho-Yen Liu; Yung-Sheng Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography ...

  3. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

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    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  4. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPLC ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOID FROM METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA

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    Soni Himesh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phytochemical screening of therapeutic importance from Annona squamosa leaves, an important medicinal plant. This study involves the preliminary screening, qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of secondary metabolites from leaves of A. squamosa. Further, HPLC Flavonoids profile of the methanolic extract had been studied. The generated data has provided the basis for its wide uses as the therapeutant in the traditional and folk medicines.

  5. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPLC ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOID FROM METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA

    OpenAIRE

    Soni Himesh; Sharma Sarvesh; Patel Sita Sharan; Mishra K; Singhai A.K

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with the phytochemical screening of therapeutic importance from Annona squamosa leaves, an important medicinal plant. This study involves the preliminary screening, qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of secondary metabolites from leaves of A. squamosa. Further, HPLC Flavonoids profile of the methanolic extract had been studied. The generated data has provided the basis for its wide uses as the therapeutant in the traditional and folk medicines.

  6. Antimicrobial and antiradical activity of extracts obtained from leaves of three species of the genus pyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbigniew, Sroka; Beata, Żbikowska; Kamil, Janicki; Roman, Franiczek; Barbara, Krzyżanowska; Andrzej, Dryś

    2014-08-01

    In this study, extracts were obtained from leaves of Pyrus communis L., Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pall., and Pyrus pyrifolia (Bum.) Nak. These extracts were tested for antiradical and antibacterial activity, as well as for the amount of total phenolic compounds, hydroquinone and arbutin. The antiradical activity was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and antibacterial activity with the disk diffusion method. The amount of phenolic compounds was determined using Folin Ciocalteu's phenol reagent, but the amount of hydroquinone and arbutin was measured with high performance liquid chromatography. The strongest antiradical activity was observed for ethyl acetate extract from leaves of P. communis L., and the lowest for the poorly soluble fraction (precipitate) from leaves of P. elaeagrifolia Pall. The highest number of antiradical units per gram of raw materials was noted for leaves of P. communis. The strongest antibacterial activity was measured for ethyl acetate extracts. The calculation of Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicated the existence of a positive correlation between contents of hydroquinone in extracts and their antibacterial activity for almost all investigated bacterial strains. The strains of fungi such as Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were completely resistant to the action of extracts. PMID:24621262

  7. Extractability of Rutin in Herbal Tea Preparations of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

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    Solomon Habtemariam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera. It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis, which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4% when the leaves (1 g were boiled in water (200 mL. For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses.

  8. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract.

  9. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  10. Phenolic Extracts from Wild Olive Leaves and Their Potential as Edible Oils Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora-Ioanna Lafka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model. As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions 180 min, solvent to sample ratio 5:1 v/w and pH 2. Ethanol extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity among solvent and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE extracts, which in addition showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to synthetic and natural food antioxidants such as BHT, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E. Antioxidant potential of SFE extract was quite high, although its phenolic potential was not. Leaf extracts were proven to be good protectors for olive and sunflower oils at levels of 150 ppm.

  11. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Quan V. Vuong; Costas E. Stathopoulos; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water—a “green” extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out accor...

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extract of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    F. C. PIMENTA; L.M.F. TRESVENZOL; J.R. Paula; S. M.T. SABóIA-MORAIS; T. S. FIúZA

    2009-01-01

    Eugenia unifl ora L. is a tree whose leaves are used in popular medicine as an antihypertensive, antimicrobial drug, in the treatment of bronchitis, infl uenza and as an antipyretic. This paper reports the antimicrobial activity of a crude ethanol extract of E. unifl ora L. leaves. The crude extract was prepared from material collected in Goiânia, Goiás (Brazil), dried, pulverized and subjected to phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity was tested against spore-forming and non-spo...

  13. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract from cultivated strawberries’ leaves (Fragariae folium

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    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a member of the rose family (Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, tribe Potentilleae in the genus Fragaria. The cultivated varieties of commercial strawberries usually were designated as Fragaria ananassa. Root, leaf, flower and fruit have the healing properties. The strawberry leaves extract is used for blood cleaning, for treatment of oral inflammation, diarrhea, various gastro-intestinal inflammation, and hemorrhoids, as well as a diuretic. So far, many positive biological effects of strawberries (anticancer, antioxidant and anticoagulant effect have been proven. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract from cultivated strawberries (Fragariae folium, varieties Senga Sengana by using different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, FIC, H2O2 and TBA-MDA. Ethanolic extract from strawberry leaves was obtained by reflux extraction at the boiling temperature. Total phenols and total flavonoids content was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu and by method with AlCl3, respectively. In the extract was determined high content of total phenols, while the total flavonoid content is much lower. The concentrations of extract required to neutralize 50% of the initial concentration of DPPH radicals (EC50 after 20 minutes incubation and immediately after adding DPPH radical solution were 7,91 and 19,46 μgcm-3, respectively. Extract was achieved the maximum iron ions chelating ability (67.89% at a concentration of 2 mgcm-3. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation of 70% was achieved by extract concentration of 0.03125 mgcm-3, while the maximum neutralization of H2O2 (30.47% was achieved by extract concentration of 0.5 mgcm-3. FRAP value of the investigated extract is 284.51 mgFe/g of dry extract. Presented results of the antioxidant activity show that the obtained extract from the cultivated strawberry leaves is a potential source of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  14. Antiasthmatic and antiallergic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was antiasthmatic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., Simaroubaceae. Traditionally or in Indian system of medicine, A. excelsa is used in the treatment of asthma, cough, colic pain, cancer, diabetes and also used as antispasmodic, antifertility, bronchodilator. Stem bark of A. excelsa already reported for its potential against asthma. The pollens of Ailanthus excelsa reported allergic in nature and the time of collection of leaves were important in this study, generally the flowering stage of plant was avoided for the collection due to maximum chance of pollens at that time. Methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa was evaluated using in vitro goat tracheal chain preparation model and in vivo- Milk induced leucocytosis, eosinophilia, Clonidine induced catalepsy in mice model while Passive paw anaphylaxis and Clonidine induced mast cell degranulation in rat model. The extract showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, quassonoids and test was also positive for alkaloids and steroids. The extract also showed the presence of quercetin which is flavonoid and detected on the preparative TLC plate with the help of standard quercetin. Dose response studies of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa Roxb. were conducted at 100 µg mL-1 in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg kg-1 p.o. in vivo models. The treatment with methanolic extract of A. excelsa at different dose level showed the significant (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 antiasthmatic activity. Inhibition or decrease the release of inflammatory mediators potentiates the antiasthmatic as well as antiallergic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa.

  15. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Fansheng Kong; Shujuan Yu; Zeng Feng; Xinlan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To optimization of extraction of antioxidant compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves and showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. Materials and Methods: The bioactive polysaccharide compounds of guava leaves (P. guajava L.) were obtained using ultrasonic assisted extraction. Extraction was carried out according to Box Behnken central composite design, and independent variables were temperature (20–60°C), time (20–40 min) and power (20...

  16. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcel Gianni C; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson L; Câmara, Carlos C; Fontenele Neto, José Domingues; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. To measure acute toxicity, rats were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg of aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves by gavage. To analyze sub-chronic toxicity, rats were treated by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days with 0, 0.3, or 1.0 g/kg of extract of C. ambrosioides leaves. No animals from either trial exhibited any signs of toxicity. In the acute study, the highest dose of the extract led to an increase in the serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and a decrease in the serum levels of urea. In the sub-chronic test, rats treated with 1.0 g/kg for 15 days exhibited increased serum ALT activity and creatinine levels and mild cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes. The results indicate that aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves produce slight hepatotoxic lesions in rats. PMID:24892475

  17. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Rosemary Leaves against Pathogenic Strains

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    Zeynab Golshani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, the increased use of antibiotics lead to the incidence of resistant strains. We are faced with lack of new antimicrobial drugs that have fewer side effects than antibiotics. Rosemary is a medicinal plant that has many uses in traditional medicine. In this study, ethanol leaves extract of this plant is tested on various pathogens. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Rosmarinus officinalis was used to evaluate the antimicrobial effects on pathogens. Ethanol extract of the leaves of this plant, with concentrations of 400, 200, 100 and 50 mg/l were prepared, and antibacterial activities were evaluated by well diffusion method on strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was determined by the microplate method. Results: In this study, ethanol extract of rosemary leaves at concentrations of 400 mg/ml was active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract on the growth of these bacteria from 6.25 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml was change. Also MBC of extract showed range from 12.5 to 200 mg/ml respectively. Conclusion: Result from these finding suggest that, rosemary extract, on all strains, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has an inhibitory effect. Also, the effect of extract, risesed by increasing the concentration.

  18. The Antioxidative Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Rosemary and Green Tea Leaves: A Comparative Study

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    *N. M. Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of rosemary and green tea leaves, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, have been studied by using two different methods (reducing power and chelating ability. It was found that the total phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves were 13.44, 18.75, 39.38 and 48.44 mg/ 100 mg dry extract respectively. The flavonoids (which is a part of the phenolic compounds were found to be 9.54, 12.65, 17.69 and 22.70 mg/ 100 mg dry extract in aqueous and ethanolic extract of rosemary and green tea leaves respectively. The ethanolic extract shows high content of phenolic compounds and in turn highly antioxidative activiy for both rosemary and green tea leaves as compared with aqueous extract.The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves show high reducing power ability comparing with their abilities as chelating agents. Although, the phenolic compounds of green tea leave almost about 3-fold as compared with rosemary leave in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts, their extracts show extremely the same mode of action in both methods of determination (the reducing power and chelating ability. Therefore, we are fully recommended the rosemary leave extracts as a potent food preservative.

  19. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnamoni Das

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property.

  20. Xanthomendoza borealis - a bipolar lichen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LIndblom, Louise; Søchting, Ulrik

    It has been uncertain whether the two xanthorioid taxa known as Xanthoria mawsonii and Xanthomen-doza borealis truly are distinct species or if they should best be treated as one species. They are morphologically very similar, but inhabit two disjunct geographical areas, that is, circumpolar on t...

  1. In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Mollugo nudicaulis Lam. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Rameshkumar; TSivasudha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate invitro antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis leaves (MN). Methods:The total phenolic and flavonoids content was quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride method respectively. Invitro antioxidant activity was carried out by DPPH, ABTS and reducing power assays and antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method.Results:The phytochemical tests of Mollugo nudicaulis revealed the presence of alkaloid steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugar in the both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Terpenoids were absent in both aqueous and methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis. The total phenolics content of the methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves was 47.01 ± 0.8 and 46.4 ± 0.05 mg/100 g. The total flavonoid content was 41.3 ± 0.04 and 36.2 ± 0.01 mg/100 g respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves showed IC50 values of DPPH radical scavenging as 48 and 190 μg/ml respectively. The IC50 values of ABTS radical scavenging for methanolic of aqueous extracts was 83 and 198.3 μg/ml of plant extract respectively. The total phenolics and flavonoids content and invitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extract was higher compared with aqueous extract. The methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis used to determine antibacterial activity against bacterial species namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp, Streptococcus sp, Entrobacter sp. Conclusion: This investigation suggests that the methanolic extracts of Mollugo nudicaulis possess potential antioxidant and antibacterial compounds.

  2. Phyllanthus embilica Leaves Extract: A Potential Amylase enzyme Inhibitor with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Plants are an important source of chemical constituents, which have potential as functional food and therapeutic agents. The ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus emblica leaves exhibited inhibition (61.12% against α-amylase at pH 7 and temperature 40˚C. The extract acts as a non-competitive inhibitor and reduces turnover number (Kcat and catalytic efficiency (Kcat / Km. It contains phenol and vitamin C content, 117 and 5.12 mg g-1 respectively. Antioxidant activity of leave extract (600 µg ml-1 is equivalent to the 800 µg ml-1 strength of ascorbic acid. The extract has antibacterial effectiveness against  bacteria strains  E. coli and S. aureus test organisms.

  3. Analgesic properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Fotio, A L; Watcho, P; Wansi, S L; Dimo, T; Kamanyi, A

    2004-05-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the dry leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (300 and 600 mg/kg) were evaluated for their analgesic properties on the pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and heat in mice and by pressure on rats. The ethanol extract of K. crenata at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced an inhibition of 61.13% on pain induced by acetic acid and 50.13% for that induced by formalin. An inhibition of 67.18% was observed on pain induced by heat 45 min after the administration of the extract. The aqueous extract administered at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced a maximum effect of 25% on pain induced by pressure. These activities were similar to those produced by a paracetamol-codeine association, while indomethacin exhibited a protective effect only against the writhing test. Our results suggest that the leaves of K. crenata could be a source of analgesic compounds. PMID:15173998

  4. Screening of Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous extracts of Leaves, Flower and Stem of Eclipta alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhsimran Singh Sandhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the oldest source of pharmacologically active compounds, and have provided humankind with many medically useful compounds for centuries. In this study aqueous extract of leaves, stem and flower of Eclipta alba were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC25923,Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC10699, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC10741, Proteus vulgaris (ATCC12454 Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923 Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC15380 and Staphylococcus. Saprophyticus (ATCC35552 It was shown that leaves extract effective against E. cloacae & K .pneumoniae but not against others, while aquous extract of stem shown good antitimicrobial effect against E. cloacae, E. faecali, K. pneumoniae and S. saprophyticus but E. coli, P. vulgaris, S. aureus were found resistant and The aqueous extract of flower shown reliabe ZOI against P.vulgaris ,S.aureus and S.saprophyticus while resistant against all other microbes.

  5. Acute Toxicity and Efficacy of Psidium guajava Leaves Water Extract on Salmonella Typhi Infected Wistar Rats

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    E.U. Etuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity and efficacy of Psidium guajava leaves water extract on Salmonella typhi infected wistar rats had been studied. Oral administration of 10–50 mg/100 g of the extract showed no significant harmful effect in the animals after 72 h. The administration of 10-30 mg/100 g of the extract 12 h through the same route to rats infected with Salmonella typhi produced a recovery within seven days. The Salmonella infection equally responded to chloramphenicol, a conventional antibiotic used in the treatment of this infection. These results suggested that the water extract of Psidium guajava leave was non toxic at the tested doses and effective against Salmonella infection in wistar rats.

  6. DNA extraction of birch leaves by improved CTAB method and optimization of its ISSR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN hua; YANG Chuan-ping; WEI Zhi-gang; JIANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    The basic method of DNA extraction (CTAB) was improved as the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method and used to extract the DNA of birch leaved in this experiment. Results showed that the improved method is suitable not only for genomic DNA extraction of birch but also for that of other plants. The purity of genomic DNA extracted by the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method is higher than that by one time STE-CTAB method, and it does not need the process of RNase. The factors of influencing ISSR system were explored based on the genomic DNA of birch extracted by the two methods. The optimal conditions for ISSR system were determined as follows: cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 94℃, annealing for 30 s at 51 ℃, extension for 30 s at 72℃, and a final 7 min extension at 72 ℃.

  7. Kinetics of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition by an Aqueous Extract of Mentha longifolia Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Shekhar; Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors are the class of compounds which inhibit cholinesterase enzyme. These are used as drugs for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present study, evaluate anti-cholinesterase property of an aqueous extract of Mentha longifolia leaves, which is an aromatic plant traditionally used for several medicinal properties. Ellman’s method was used to determine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibitory activity of an aqueous extracts of Mentha longifolia...

  8. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shradha Bisht; Sisodia, S S

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally) for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose t...

  9. Analytical chemical study of alkaloid fraction of methanolic extract of Croton baillonianus (AUBL) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study has been to extract and isolate the alkaloids from leaves of Croton baillonianus, corresponding to the methanolic extract by exclusion chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 followed by a purification by high performance liquid chromatography, obtaining six alkaloids. Two low polarity alkaloid and two glycoside alkaloids were analyzed by Electronic System impact mass spectrometry; these alkaloids belong to bencylisoquinolinic type; the study has connection to the determination of its antioxidant, antiulcerose and cytotoxic properties. (author).

  10. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL SHAMPOO FROM ZIZIPHUS SPINA LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Heyam Saad; Rasool Bazigha Kadhim

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic preservatives and detergents have sometimes been the cause of adverse effects among consumers. A more radical approach in reducing the synthetic ingredients is by incorporating natural extract whose functionality is comparable with their synthetic ingredients. Selection of Ziziphus spina cristi (Z. spina cristi) leaves extract was based on its particular properties such as antimicrobial and detergent activities. This study aimed to formulate a self preserving shampoo having low conc...

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on dyes extracted from dried plant leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Taya, Sofyan A.; Taher M. El-Agez; ELREFI, Kamal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, natural dyes were extracted from dried plant leaves of plant cream, apricot, figs, apples, sage, thyme, mint, Ziziphus jujuba, orange, shade tree, basil, berry, Mirabelle plum, Victoria plum, peach, mango, pomegranate, banana, guava, and fluoridation-treated plant. The extracts were used as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The cells were assembled using nanostructured TiO2 films. The best performance was observed for the DSSC sensitized with Ziziphus juju...

  12. Free radical scavenging and anti-edematogenic activities of Paullinia elegans Cambess., Sapindaceae, leaves extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo N. Guimarães; Maria Conceição T. Truitti; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A.; Anelise S.N. Formagio; Flávia P. Cardoso; Willian F. da Costa; Maria Conceição de Souza; Maria Helena Sarragiotto

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol extract of the leaves of Paullinia elegans Cambess., Sapindaceae, and its hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and hydroethanol fractions were evaluated for their antiedematogenic and free radical scavenging activities. The ethanol extract and the hexane fraction produced statistically significant inhibition (74.4 and 76.0%, respectively) of the ear edema induced by croton oil in mice, observed at doses of 5 mg/ear. The ethyl acetate and hydroethanol fractions showed significant radical...

  13. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  14. Antioxidant Activities of Extracts and Main Components of Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Lei Liu; Yung-Husan Chen; Fang-Rong Chang; Yuan-Gang Zu; Yu-Jie Fu; Kuang Fu; Nan Wu; Cheng-Bo Gu; Wei Liu; Yu Kong

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves, as well as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions and the four main compounds separated from the ethanol extract, i.e. cajaninstilbene acid (3-hydroxy-4-prenylmethoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid), pinostrobin, vitexin and orientin, were examined by a DPPH radical-scavenging assay and a β-carotene-linoleic acid test. In the DPPH system, the antioxidant activity of t...

  15. Control of Wheat Rust by Leaves Extract of Poisonous Phanergamic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ayoub; Aman Ullah Niazi

    2001-01-01

    Wheat rust caused by Puccinia recondita was controlled by leaf extract of poisonous phanerogamic plants. Leave extract of 4 poisonous phanerogamic plants, Narium odorum, Calotropis gigantea, Azadirachta indica and Datura strimonium have 40. 60, 45. 45, 56.96 and 81.81% decrease of disease over control respectively. Whereas fungicide Baytan decrease the disease 84.84% which is at par with Datura strimonium.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora leaves against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana S. Fiuza; Sabóia Morais, Simone M.T.; José R. Paula; Leonice M.F. Tresvenzol; Carmo Filho, José R.; Fabiana C Pimenta

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. leaves against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 72 P. aeruginosa isolated from patients of three hospitals in Goiânia and 8 standard strains were selected to test antimicrobial activity. The bacteria susceptibility profile against 15 antimicrobial agents was determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the crude ethanol extract and the et...

  17. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  18. EVALUATION OF SEDATIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF VIGNA TRILOBATA (L. VERDC. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahir Chetan D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to evaluate the sedative activity of aqueous extract of Vigna trilobata (L verdc. Leaves using experimental animal models. In the present study aqueous extract of the Vigna trilobata leaves (AEVTL was used to investigate the sedative activity using Rotarod apparatus and Photoactometer in mice at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight and compared to standard diazepam (5mg/kg, i.p.. The result obtained from this study revealed that AEVTL possessed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 sedative activity at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg by reducing locomotor activity and fall off time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The results of this study justify the use of the leaves as sedative in traditional medicine. Further studies may be directed at characterizing the bioactive ingredients that are responsible for the observed sedative activity in the plant.

  19. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  20. Human erythrocytes are affected in vitro by extracts of Ugni molinae leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, M; Orellana, P; Avello, M; Villena, F; Sotomayor, C P

    2006-08-01

    Ugni molinae Turcz, also known as "Murtilla", is a plant that grows in the south of Chile. Infusions of their leaves have long been used in traditional native herbal medicine. The chemical composition of the leaves indicates the presence of polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of their antioxidant properties and the toxicity of the aqueous extracts of leaves, the extracts were induced to interact with human red cells, their isolated unsealed membranes (IUM) and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of dimyristoylphosphatidyltidylcholine (DMPC), representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the extracts achieved a significant alteration in the shape of the erythrocytes as they changed their discoid shape to echinocytes. According to the bilayer couple hypothesis, the shape change indicates that the polyphenols were located in the outer moiety of the red cell membrane. This conclusion was confirmed by the fluorescence experiments performed in IUM and DMPC LUV. In fact, the extracts produced slight initial increases followed by sharp decreases at higher concentrations in the anisotropy and general polarization parameters. These results imply that the extracts induced structural perturbations in the acyl chain and polar group packing arrangements of the erythrocyte IUM and DMPC LUV lipid bilayers: first ordering and afterwards disordering them as the extract concentration increased. PMID:16716480

  1. Antidiabetic and antidiarrheal effects of the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulatus leaves in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mst Hajera Khatun; Mst Luthfun Nesa; Rafikul Islam; Farhana Alam Ripa; Al mamum; Shahin Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anti-diabetic and antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulates (P. reticulates) leaves in an animal model. Methods: Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of P. reticulatus leaves has been performed. Antidiabetic activity have been done by OGTT, normoglycemic hyperglycemia and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Plant extracts (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, b.w.) were administered orally in fasting glucose loaded mice with regard to normal control and in alloxan induced (110 mg/kg body weight i.p.) diabetic mice in comparison with reference drug Metformin hydrochloride (100 mg/kg) during 7 day test period. Antidiarrheal test was conducted by castor oil and magnesium sulfate. Results:Findings confirmed that the continuous post-treatment for 7 days with both extracts showed significant (P<0.05) hypoglycemic activity in OGTT, normoglycemic and alloxan induced mouse models. Castor oil and Magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal test of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) has given significant effect in compairing to control diarrheal group. Conclusion:Methanolic extract of P. reticulatus leaves have shown significant antidiabetic and antidiarrheal properties.

  2. Volatiles composition and extraction kinetics from Schinus terebinthifolius and Schinus molle leaves and fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano dos Santos Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEssential oils extracted from Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, leaves and fruit hydrodistillation, as well as, their chemical composition and extraction kinetic were evaluated. For this proposal, 6 h extraction and aliquots collected at sequencing different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h were carried out allowing calculating accumulated content (% w/w and verifying essential oil chemical profile. β-caryophyllene (35.2%, α-pinene (28.1% and germacrene D (15.5% represent S. terebinthifolius dried leaves essential oil major components, as well as, α-pinene (44.9%, germacrene D (17.6% and β-pinene (15.1% in the fruit. Cubenol (27.1%, caryophyllene oxide (15.3% and spathulenol (12.4% represent S. molle dried leaves essential oil major components, and β-pinene (36.3% α-pinene (20.3%, germacrene D (12.1% and spathulenol in the fruit. Essential oil extraction kinetics showed a hyperbolic distribution; monoterpene content presented exponential decay in time function and sesquiterpene showed exponential growth. Faster monoterpene extraction than the sesquiterpene extraction was observed, however, both presented increasing exponential distribution.

  3. Copaifera langsdorffii: evaluation of potential gastroprotective of extract and isolated compounds obtained from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivane Lemos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGastric ulcer is a prevalent gastrointestinal disease, and the drugs currently used in the treatment produce several adverse effects. In this context, the search for new therapeutic antiulcer agents is essential, and medicinal plants have great potential. Here, we investigated the gastroprotective properties of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Fabaceae, hydroalcoholic extract obtained from leaves and its isolated compounds. The phytochemistry studies and the compounds isolations were performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic methodologies. The hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, stress-induced-ulcer and chronic ulcer-model. The effects on gastric content volume, pH, total acidity and mucus stomach production were evaluated in the pylorus ligated-model. The C. langsdorffii extract obtained from leaves (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg reduced the injured area compared to control group in all experiments. The extract showed a significant decrease in the total gastric juice acidity and an increase in mucus production (500 mg/kg when compared to vehicle. Among isolated compounds (30 mg/kg α-humulene, β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed greater gastroprotective activity in the ethanol/HCl induced ulcer model. The data herein obtained shown that C. langsdorffii leaves extract and isolated compounds from it, presented gastroprotective properties in different animal models of gastric ulcer. These effects may be associated with the ability of the extract to decrease gastric secretion and increase the mucus production.

  4. Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that the antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of E. scaber leaves may be due to the presence of flavonoids or steroids. Antiasthmatic action of the E. scaber could be due to its antihistaminic, anticholinergic and mast-cell-stabilizing property.

  5. Subacute oral toxicity study of ethanolic leaves extracts of Strobilanthes crispus in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kean Tatt Lim; Vuanghao Lim; Jin Han Chin

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the oral toxicity of repeated dosing of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) ethanol leaves extract on the liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods:Young female rats aged between 8 and 12 week-old were randomly assigned into four groups with five animals each group (n=5). The first group served as control, while the second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with a single dose daily with 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract for 14 d consecutively. Cage-side observation was conducted for first 4 h after each dosing. The body weight changes, food consumptions and water intake were also recorded. Serum biochemical parameters, i.e., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea were determined at Day 15. All results were expressed as mean±SD and analysed using Dunnett's test. Results: It was obtained that 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract did not cause any adverse effects or lethality to the female Sprague Dawley rats. No significant changes in serum biochemical parameters, relative organs weights, body weights, food intake and water consumptions were observed between the treatment groups and control. Conclusions:In conclusion, 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract was safe to be consumed in female rats without affecting the liver and kidney functions.

  6. Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Montoro, P.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL (Nyctaginaceae leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory potential.

  8. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw: Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro Hoyos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and 13C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22 were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225–494 gallic acid equivalents/g than for wood extracts (40–167 gallic acid equivalents/g. A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers [(+-catechin and (−-epicatechin], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure, flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa. Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  9. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest. PMID:26694348

  10. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  11. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian; Raquel Orejudos Rubio; Demetrio Lim Valle Jr; Juliana Janet Martin-Puzon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the bioactive phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. (M. calabura). Methods: Dried leaves and stems of M. calabura were extracted with 95%ethanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were examined using the disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each extract showing antimicrobial activity was determined. The dried extracts were subjected to phyto-chemical screening to determine the presence of bioactive components. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the aluminum chloride method, respectively. Results: Varying degrees of antimicrobial activity were exhibited by the leaf and stem extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans (C. albicans), with minimal activity against Escherichia coli. Based on the MIC, the extracts showed the highest activity against C. albicans, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins in the leaf extract; however, no triterpenes were detected. In the stem extract, triterpenes were detected along with relative amounts of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and tannins. Alkaloids and sterols were absent in the stem extract. Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of anti-bacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.

  12. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS LEAVES

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    E. Tamil Jothi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of leaves of Tecomaria capensis was screened for cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic activity was performed by two models. One was short term cytotoxicity and another was long term cytotoxicity. In short term cytotoxicity assay Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cell lines were used and for long term L929 cell lines (Lungs fibroblast were used. In both methods ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed protective action against the cell lines. Comparing both extracts, ethanol extract has shown better cytotoxic activity than the ethyl acetate extract and in comparison of standard both extracts have moderate cytotoxic activity.

  13. Cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) is traditionally used by patients suffering from cancer as an antitumoral resource. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on tumour cells and identify through a phytochemical screening the principal families of phytocomponents contained in these extracts. The cytotoxic activity of these extracts was also evaluated on human melanoma cells (SK-mel-3) and human breast carcinoma (T-47D). The African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells Cercopithecus aethiops (Vero) were used as a non-tumour cells control. The results showed the presence of triterpenes/steroids, saponins, coumarins, reductor sugars, phenols and tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates/glycosides in the extracts. The water leaf extracts showed cytotoxic activity mainly on tumour cells, which contributes to explain the referred recovery by patients suffering form cancer that traditionally consume these extracts

  14. Bronchodilatory effect of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis

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    Ramadan B Sopi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nyctanthes arbortristis has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma and cough. Aim: In this study, bronchodilatory effect of ethanolic extract of the N. arbortristis was investigated under in vitro conditions. The concentration-response curve of the tracheal smooth muscle (TSM to histamine was recorded in presence or absence of ethanolic extract and Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. Dose-response effect of ethanolic extract on pre-constricted tissues was investigated. The ethanolic extract inhibited the histamine-induced maximum contractile responses of TSM ( P < 0.001. Ethanolic extract also cause dose-dependent relaxation of TSM. These effects were reversed by L-NAME. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of typical plant constituents. These results suggest the possible use of extract of the leaves of N. arbortristis as a bronchodilator in therapeutic treatment of asthma.

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid M Alkharfy; Anwarul-Hassan Gilani; Ghulam Rasul; Ghulam Shabir; Farooq Anwar; Zahid Iqbal Sajid

    2012-01-01

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtain...

  16. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpenia crista leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Garima Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Caesalpenia crista (C. crista against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Paracetamol (2 g/kg body weight was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. crista was administered at the dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 7 d. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct, and triglycerides content. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Administration of ethanolic extract at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant reduction in elevated level of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin (total and direct and triglycerides when compared to positive control group. Conclusions: It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. crista leaves seems to justify the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.

  17. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpenia crista leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Garima Mishra; Ratan Lal Khosa; Pradeep Singh; Keshri Kishor Jha

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Caesalpenia crista (C. crista) against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods:Paracetamol (2 g/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. crista was administered at the dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 7 d. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct), and triglycerides content. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results:Administration of ethanolic extract at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant reduction in elevated level of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin (total and direct) and triglycerides when compared to positive control group. Conclusions:It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. crista leaves seems to justify the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.

  18. Antinociceptive activity of the alkaloid extract from Kopsia macrophylla leaves in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunisa Sengsui; Jittima Kalnaowakul; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Khemawenut Thanyapanit; Surapon Thienmontree; Wantana Reanmongkol

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Kopsia macrophylla Hk. f. K. (K. macrophylla) on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in mice, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected K. macrophylla extract in mice was 318.46 mg/kg. Oral administration of K. macrophylla extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significa...

  19. Optimization of the extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves was optimized to maximize flavonoids yield in this study. A central composite design of response surface methodology involving extracting time, power, liquid-solid ratio, and concentration was used, and second-order model for Y was employed to generate the response surfaces. The optimum condition for flavonoids yield was determined as follows: extracting time 24.95 min, power 72.05, ethanol concentration 63.35%, liquid-solid ratio 10.04. Under the optimum condition, the flavonoids yield was 76.84 %. (author)

  20. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF TURNERA ULMIFOLIA LINN.

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    D. Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnera ulmifolia Linn. belonging to family Turneraceae was investigated to evaluate in-vitro antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of the leaves against gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extract with standard ciprofloxin. The pathogens were used in the study was showed potential activity of the ethanolic extract of the plant. Maximum activity was seen in case of Pseudomonas fluorescens where the zone diameter was 32 mm (300μg/ml.

  1. Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Various Extracts of Rhus typhina Fruits and Leaves

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    Lan Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of various extracts (methanol, hexane, dichloro-methane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol water of Rhus typhina fruits and leaves were investigated using different methods and the main phenolic compounds were analyzed by LC-MS. The ethyl acetate extracts from fruits and leaves of R. typhina exhibited the highest DPPH, hydroxyl radical and nitrite scavenging activity, reducing potential and protein protection ability. The phenolic and flavonoïd contents were highest in the ethyl acetate fraction. The LC-MS analysis showed that the contents of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide in leaves are little higher (34.49 and 32.69%, respectively than that (32.49 and 27.89%, respectively in the fruits, the content of rutin in fruits (16.73% is higher than that (7.79% in the leaves. These results implied that the leaves of R. typhina might serve as a natural source of antioxidant using as the food additive for its good nutrition as well as the fruits of Rhus typhina.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca) in liver of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Thays K; Wohlenberg, Mariane F; Medeiros, Niara; Martins, Jéssica B; Agostini, Fabiana; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca). The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg) for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or mineral oil (i.p.). After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT) was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders. PMID:26959325

  3. Antifertility potential of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Jitender Singh; Anupama Baghotia; Vineet Mehta; Vikas Thakur; Manjusha Choudhary; Surender Verma; Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antifertility activity of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn (C. pulcherrima) leaves in albino female mice. Methods: Acute toxicity study of the extract was carried out in adult albino mice. The antifertility activity of the extract at dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) was evaluated in two experimental animal models i.e. antiimplantation and esterogenic/antiestrogenic activity in female mice by observing no. of implants, estrus cycle, vaginal cornification, uertus weight and cholesterol content. Results: The extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 4 000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. A good antiimplantation (66.66 %) activity in female mice was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally). The extract further showed more significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight and cholesterol content in immature mice. Simultaneous administration of extract alongwith ethinyl estradiol showed significant estrogenic activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanolic extract of C. pulcherrima leaves possess significant antifertility activity, therefore, justifying the traditional use of this plant in fertility regulation.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous, Ethanol and Acetone extracts of Sesbania grandiflora leaves and its phytochemical characterization

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    K. Padmalochana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are being highly explored as a major source of medicinal compounds due to the presence of various phytochemical groups. Leaves of Sesbania grandiflora was consumed in traditional medicinal system of Ayurveda for numerous harmful syndromes and infections. This present study was explored the various phytochemicals present in the plant leaves of S. grandiflora. The qualitative analysis of various phytochemicals was exploited using different solvent systems. The aqueous, 80% ethanol and 70% acetone extraction was carried out in this study. Ethanolic extract shown presence of high amount of Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Glycosides and steroids were confirmed by formation of colour intensity during chemical reactions. All the three extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic micro-organisms especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and dermatophytes Candida sp using Agar well diffusion method. Among these three extracts ethanol extracts shows good antibacterial activity compared with aqueous and acetone extracts. Because of the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and steroids ethanol extract shows high antibacterial activity. So these active compounds can be used in the field of medicine as therapeutic agent.

  5. Evaluation of Chloroform Extract and Its Fractions of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. Leaves for Cardioprotective Activity

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    Dobhal Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of active extract and its fraction of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. leaves on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury using wister albino rats. Petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. leaves were prepared and screened for their cardioprotective potential. Among all the extracts chloroform extract reduce myocardial injury. The chloroform extract further purified using column chromatographic technique that results four major fractions viz F1, F2, F3 and F4. These fractions screened for myocardial infarct size and LDH and CK-MB release in coronary effluent at dose level of 100mg/kg body weight as compared with that of standard Trimetazidine(35mg/kg body weight. The fraction F4 of chloroform extract significantly prevented myocardial infarct size and LDH and CK-MB release as compared with that of standard trimetazidine. Further, cardioprotective effect of the fraction F4 of chloroform extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. was significantly (p˂0.05 compared to vehicle control group.

  6. Anticonvulsant Effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae) Leaves Ethanolic Extract in Mice: Role of GABAergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Farhang, Forogh; Vahedi, Habib; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ejtemai Mehr, Shahram; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lippia citriodora Kunth is one of the Iranian traditional medicines for the treatment of convulsive disorders. The goal of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's leave ethanolic extract against electro- and chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (200, 400, 800 mg/kg, per os, p.o.) was investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenytoin (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) were used as reference drugs. In addition, for investigating the role of GABAergic system, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was also injected before L. citriodora. Results: The extract had not any toxicity and significantly decreased the duration and increased the latency of the seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg). In the MES test, L. citriodora displayed statistically significant reduction in hind limb tonic extension duration in a nondose-dependent manner. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's extract in the PTZ model. Conclusions: The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant's extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature.

  7. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Safithri, Mega; Puspita Sari, Yoana

    2016-01-01

    Development of α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from natural products is an opportunity for a more economic management of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to test the activity of α-glucosidase with or without potential inhibitor compounds. By in vitro method, α-glucosidase hydrolizes p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopiranoside to glucose and the yellow of p-nitrophenol which can be determined with spectrophotometry at 400 nm. The ability of ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. as a-glucosidase inhibitor was compared with that of commercial acarbose (Glucobay®). Acarbose showed strong inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase with IC50 values of 2.154 µg/mL. The crude ethanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach, however, showed less inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3, 444.114 µg/mL. Total phenolics of M. azedarach leaves EtOH extract showed 17.94 µg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids total compound of 9.55 µg QE/mg extract. Based on the published wide range of IC50 values of extracts reported as a-glucosidase inhibitor which were between 10, 000 ppm-0.66 ppm, our result suggests that extract of M.azedarach leaves is potential candidate for development of anti-hyperglycemic formulation.

  8. Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Viqar Khan; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; Indu Shukla; Athar Ali Khan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods: Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results: Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions: The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well.

  9. Cytotoxicity and phytochemical analyses of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves and flower extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahid, Alaa Abd; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Lamiaceae) is a plant with many ethnobotanical uses including antifungal and antibacterial activities. This study is aimed to determine the cytotoxicity and phytochemical content of O. stamineus leaves and flower using ethanol and water as solvents. The cytotoxicity of the extracts towards Vero cell was determined by MTT assay. The CC50 values were between 3.4-7.4 mg/ml and can be considered as nontoxic. Phytochemical screening revealed terpenes, alkaloid and phenolic were present in the leaves and flower of O. stamineus that might pose as the bioactive compound.

  10. Role of Rosemary Leaves Extract as A Protective Agent Against Azathioprine-Induced Toxicity in Rats

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    Hala M T El-Mougy*, Gehan A Youssef

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rosemary is widely found along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. Its leaves or extract were found to have a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. It is also used as an antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic and expectorant. These actions are mainly due to its content of essential oils. Azathioprine (AZA is an immunosuppressive drug. It is widely used in many diseases. A major drawback is the occurrence of side-effects, especially acute pancreatitis. Aim of the work: This work was done to study the effect of dietary supplement of rosemary leaves as a strategy for amelioration of the side-effects of azathioprine. Material and Methods: Thirty-two adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were equally divided into four groups. Group I: control group, group II: rosemary group, the animals were given a daily oral dose of rosemary leaves extract. Group III: azathioprine group, the animals were given a single dose of AZA intraperitoneally. Group IV: rosemary azathioprine group: the rats were given daily doses of rosemary leaves extract then azathioprine in the last day of the experiment as in the previous regimen. The experiment continued for ten days. Blood samples were taken from all groups and examined for tumour necrosis factor alpha, serum amylase enzyme, C-reactive protein and renal function tests (serum urea and creatinine. Results: Rosemary significantly decreased the levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha, serum amylase enzyme and serum urea and C-reactive protein in rosemary AZA group compared to AZA group . Conclusion: The aqueous rosemary leaves extract has the ability to ameliorate the biochemical pathways of the side-effects of azathioprine, so it is advisable to give it concomitantly to patients treated by azathioprine.

  11. Antibacterial activity of leaves and inter-nodal callus extracts of Mentha arvensis L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnsonM; WeselyEG; KavithaMS; UmaV

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the anti-bacterial efficacy of chloroform, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts of inter-nodal and leaves derived calli extracts from Mentha arvensis (M. arvensis) against Salmonella typhi(S. typhi), Streptococcus pyogenes(S. pyogenes), Proteus vulgaris(P. vulgaris) and Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis). Methods: The inter-nodal and leaves segments of M. arvensis were cut into 0.5-0.7 cm in length and cultured on Murashige and Skoog solid medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, gelled with 0.7% agar and different concentration of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetie acid (2,4-D) either alone or in combinations. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by Brindha et al method. Antibacterial efficacy was performed by disc diffusion method and incubated for 24 h at 37 ℃. Results: Maximum percentage of callus formation (inter-nodal segments 84.3±0.78;leaves segments 93.8±1.27) was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s basal medium supplemented with 3%sucrose and 1.5 mg/L of 2, 4-D. The ethanol extracts of leaves derived calli showed the maximum bio-efficacy than other solvents. The leaves and stem derived calli extracts on Proteus sp. showed that the plants can be used in the treatment of urinary tract infection associated with Proteus sp. Through the bacterial efficacy studies, it is confirmed that the in vitro raised calli tissue was more effective compared to in vivo tissue. Conclusions:The bio-efficacy study confirmed that the calli mediated tissues showed the maximum zone of inhibition. The present study paved a protocol to establish high potential cell lines by in vitro culture.

  12. Phytochemical screening and Haemolytic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Santalum album .L leaves

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    Deepak.TK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been designed to screen the phytochemical constituents present in the hydroalcoholic extract of Santalum album linn leaves to ascertain the presence of saponins and futher studies carried out on the extract to evaluate its haemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Haemolytic effect of S. album leaf extract was evaluated according to the WHO guidelines in which the varying concentration of the extract was treated with the blood and lysis was determined visually. The result revealed that the S. album leaf extract produced lysis of erythrocyte at a minimum concentration of 475μg/ml. These observations will stimulate further research in the field of phytochemistry and also in clinical application of the phytochemical constituents of S. album. L.

  13. ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA LEAVES AGAINST EHRLICH ASCITES INDUCED CARCINOMA IN MICE

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    Saroja M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa belongs to the family combretaceae and is popularly known as badam.It is a well known herb in Ayurvedic system of medicine The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlich ascetic Lymphoma (ELA in Swiss albino mice.The tumor was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of ELA cells (1X106cells/mice. Methanolic extract of Terminalia catappa was administered to the experimental animals at a dose of 75µg/kg/day after 24 h of tumor inoculation. The antitumor effect of extract was evaluated by assessing in vitro cytotoxicity, increase in lifespan, hematological parameters and liver enzymes. The methanolic extract brought back the altered levels of the hematological parameters and liver enzymes. Thus the present study revealed that methanolic extract of Terminalia catappa possessed significant antitumor activity.

  14. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from lemon balm and peppermint leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Voća, Sandra; Dobričević, Nadica; Pliestić, Stjepan; Galić, Ante; Boričević, Ana; Borić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction (frequency, time, temperature) on the content of bioactive compounds as well as on the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from fresh lemon balm and peppermint leaves. Total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, and radical scavenging capacity were determined. Moreover, the relationship between bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity was studied by linear regression. A significant increase in all studied bioactive compounds during ultrasonic extraction for 5 to 20 min was found. With the classical extraction method, the highest amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were determined, and the maximum amounts of total chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined during 20 min ultrasonic extraction. The correlation analysis revealed a strong, positive relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds.

  15. In-vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Solvent Extracts of Leaves of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae Against Enteric Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dahikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening of the plant leaves reveals the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and tannins. Petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanol extracts of leaves of Bauhinia racemosa Linn. were prepared and antibacterial activity were studied by disc diffusion method against certain enteric bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Proteus vulgaris. The Methanol extracts had wide range of antibacterial activity against enteric bacterial pathogens than the petroleum ether extract, where as ethyl acetate extract were slightly higher antibacterial activity than chloroform extract. Antibacterial activity of various extract of leaves of Bauhinia racemosa was carried in attempt to develop a new pharmaceutical drug from natural origin for prevention of enteric infection.

  16. EVALUATION PHYTOCHEMISTRY, CYTOTOXIC ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL GROSS ETHANOL EXTRACT OF LEAVES Annona muricata L. (ANNONACEAE

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    Daiani Patrícia Silva Alfaia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Annona muricata L. are widely used medicinally, against parasitic diseases, including helminths, dysentery, malaria and related symptoms. The Amapá population use as analgesics and against urinary infections. This research aimed to perform the phytochemical screening, analyze cytotoxic activity and antibacterial of the crude ethanol extract of leaves Annona muricata L. By the method described by Esteban et al. were detected classes: alkaloids, steroids and triterpenoids. Cytotoxicity was analyzed against the Artemia salina, by the method of Mayer with some adaptations, it was tested crude extract concentrations of leaves of 50µg/mL, 100µg/mL, 250µg/mL, 500µg/mL, 750µg/mL, 1000µg/mL, observed toxicity at concentrations from 250μg/mL extract. The antimicrobial analysis was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method with some adaptations, we used strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia. Were used three crude extract concentrations. The concentration of 25mg/mL and 50mg/mL showed zones of inhibition against the strain of E. coli. These results demonstrate the potential of this species to source of antibacterial compounds. Therefore, the results shown in this study partially justify its popular use. Keywords: Natural products; soursop; secondary metabolites.

  17. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality. PMID:23481637

  18. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Wajsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min, higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  19. Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract Attenuates Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury

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    Jurairat Khongrum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Neuropathic pain, a challenge of this decade, has been reported to be associated with the diversity conditions including diabetes. At present, there are no conventional analgesics that can effectively treat neuropathic pain with a satisfactory outcome. Due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy, the searching for novel effective remedies in the management of neuropathic pain is required. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g were induced diabetes mellitus by Streptozotocin (STZ (single injection, 65 mg kg-1 BW, i.p. Diabetic rats were induced neuropathic pain by Constricting the right sciatic nerve (CCI at permanently. Then, all rats were administered the extract of M. oleifera leaves at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW once daily in a period of 21 days. The analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated using Von Frey filament and hot plate tests every 3 days after CCI throughout 21-day experimental period. In addition, at the end of the experiment, the alteration of oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in the injured sciatic nerve were also evaluated. Results: The current results showed that rats subjected to M.oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 BW significantly reversed the decreased withdrawal threshold intensity and withdrawal latency in Von Frey filament and hot plate tests respectively. In addition, rats subjected to the medium dose extract also reversed the decreased activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the elevation of MDA level in the injured nerve. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract can attenuate neuropathic pain in diabetic condition. The possible underlying mechanism may occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress. However, other mechanisms may also involve. Conclusion: Our results suggest that M. oleifera leaves may be the potential novel adjuvant therapy for neuropathic pain management.

  20. Methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile action of acetylcholine on isolated rabbit jejunum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tavershima Dzenda; Joseph Olusegun Ayo; Alexander Babatunde Adelaiye; Ambrose Osemattah Adaudi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the modulating role of methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction of isolated rabbit jejunum. Methods: Rabbit jejunum segment was removed and placed in an organ bath containing Tyrode’s solution, and its contractions were recorded isometrically. Results: ACh (2.0 × 10-10 g/mL) and the extract (2.0 × 10-4 g/mL) individually increased the frequency of contraction (mean ± SEM) of the isolated smooth muscle tissue by 47.6% ± 9.5%and 77.8% ± 66.5%, respectively. When ACh and the extract were combined, the frequency of contraction of the tissue was increased by 222.2% ± 25.9%, representing a 366.7% increase (P < 0.001) over the effect of ACh alone. Similarly, ACh (2.0 × 10-9 g/mL) and the extract individually increased significantly (P < 0.001) the amplitude of contraction of the tissue by 685.7% ± 61.1% and 455.2% ± 38.1%, respectively. When ACh and the extract were combined, the amplitude of contraction of the tissue rose by 1263.8% ± 69.0%, representing 84.3% increase over the effect of ACh alone. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile effect of ACh on intestinal smooth muscle, supporting the traditional claim that the plant is purgative.

  1. Comparative antitumor and anti-proliferative activities of Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves extracts

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    Javid Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antitumor and anti-proliferative activities of methanol, aqueous, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Antitumor activities were evaluated by using the antitumor potato disc assay by using inoculums (Agrobacterium tumefaciens with three different concentrations of test samples (10, 100 and 1 000 mg/L. Anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by the given method of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The concentrations of the extract ranging from 0.039 to 10 mg/mL were tested against HeLa cells. Results: Highest tumors inhibition activity (60.9% and 55.8% was shown by methanol and ethanol extracts, with EC50 values of 424.41 and 434.61 mg/L respectively. At 10 mg/mL, The highest cell inhibition 75.61% was observed in methanol extract and the lowest 36.59% were calculated in n-hexane extract. The difference in tumor and cell inhibition (% may be due to the different concentration of active compounds responsible for antitumor and anti-proliferative activities. All extracts have considerable level of tumor and cell inhibitiory effect in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: Our finding showed that Hippophae rhamnoides leaves are a potent natural source of antitumor and antiproliferative agent.

  2. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%. PMID:25053094

  3. In vitro anti- bacterial activity of leaves extracts of Albizia lebbeck Benth against some selected pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Nazneen Bobby; Edward Gnanaraj Wesely; MarimuthuAntonisamy Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-bacterial activity of Albizia lebbeck (A. lebbeck) Benth leaves extract against the selected bacterial pathogens viz., Bacillus subtilis (MTCC441), Escherichia coli (MTCC443), Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC 109), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC742), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC741), Salmonella typhii (MTCC733) and Staphylococus aureus (MTCC96).Methods:The leaves extracts of A. lebbeck was tested against bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: Results of the present study indicated that different extracts of A. lebbeck showed inhibitory effects against the pathogens. The present study results demonstrated that methanolic extracts of A. lebbeck conferred the widest spectrum activities that inhibited the growth of all studied pathogens with the maximum zone of inhibition. The methanolic extracts ofA. lebbeck illustrated the highest zone of inhibition against the pathogens Bacillus subtilis (16 mm), Escherichia coli (22 mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (11 mm), Proteus vulgaris (18 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm), Salmonella typhii (23 mm) and Staphylococus aureus (17 mm). The ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (26 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm) and Klebsiella pneumonia (16 mm). Conclusions: It is expected that this study would direct to the establishment of some active compounds that could be used to formulate new and more potent anti-bacterial drugs of natural origin.

  4. Extraction of Protein from Common Plant Leaves for Use as Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Protein deficiency is one of the major nutritional problems in the developing world. The most disastrous consequences occur in children where protein malnutrition manifests itself in forms of two notorious diseases: Marasmus and kwashiorkor. Expansion of present agricultural practices into marginal lands is expected to solve this chronic protein shortage. The process of photosynthesis is the only non depletable protein source and can supply some essential amino acids as well as provide adequate nitrogen in the diet for synthesis of non essential amino acids in addition to vitamins and minerals. Approach: The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional values of common plant leaves and determine the feasibility of using them as a protein supplement. Six plants were cultivated and tested for their nutritional quality: amaranth, cowpea, sugar been, pumpkin, sweet potato and cabbage. Results: Pumpkin leaves recorded the highest protein yield (11.75% followed by amaranth (10.5% The protein contents in the leaves of sweet potato, cowpea, cabbage and sugar been were much lower (7.85, 6.95, 5.60 and 3.45%, respectively. Conclusion: Except for sugar bean, all plants had higher extractable protein content than cabbage. Proper use of the growing season can achieve high protein yield. Clean cutting will ensure that the leaves do not deteriorate within a few hours when kept in cool place and freezing leaves can improve protein extractability. The test plants should be given a trial as protein sources for human. Plant leaves have vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids and when consumed in adequate amounts they can supplement protein especially in areas where the environment is very hostile to livestock keeping or where fish protein is lacking. The optimum harvest age, fertilizer requirements and the possibility of combining two or more plants together to improve protein content should be studied. The amino acid, minerals and

  5. Effectivity of water soluble granule from kenikir leaves extract (Cosmos caudatus, noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia, and earthworm meal extract (Lumbricus rubellus as a natural coccidiostat for broiler chickens against infection caused by Eimeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimy MF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study effectivity of water soluble granule from kenikir leaves extract (Cosmos caudatus, noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia, and earthworm meal extract (Lumbricus rubellus as a natural coccidiostat for broiler chickens against infection caused by Eimeria tenella. One hundred day old chick (DOC of the Cobb strain broiler were randomly devided into 10 groups and each group consisted of 10 chickens. All groups were orally infected by 5000 sporulated oocyst of E. tenella on the 25th days old as a challenge infection. The chickens was treated by granule of kenikir leaves extract, noni leaves extract and granule of earthworm meal extract which level dosage was 100, 200 and 300 mg/kgbw, respectively on each treatment (K1, K2, K3; M1, M2, M3 and T1, T2, T3. Control (K0 did not treated by feed additive. Treatment was administered on drinking water. On the 5th days after challenge infection 5 chickens of each groups were slaughtered and necropted to evaluate lession score and histopatology of caeca. Oocyst per gram excreta was count on 7th days until 10th days after challenge infection of the others 5 chickens of each groups. The results showed that the lowest score of lession was obtained on M2 and M3 whereas the lowest total oocyst per gram excreta was obtained on M3. Histopathological observation revealed that there was no stadia development of E. tenella in M2 treatment. It was concluded that granule of noni leaves extract at 200 mg/kgbw (M2 was the most effective natural coccidiostat.

  6. Effects of the extracts from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves on analgesic and behavioral activities in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kitja Sawangjaroen; Wantana Reanmongkol; Niwat Keawpradub

    2007-01-01

    The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (M. speciosa) were extracted with methanol to give methanol extract. The methanol extract was made in acid and then in alkaline and extracted with chloroform to give alkaloid extract. The effects of the methanol and alkaloid extracts on analgesic activities in hot plate test in mice and tail flick test in rats and behavioral activities in locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, were examined. In acute toxicity test, the LD50 values o...

  7. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

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    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  8. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24688522

  9. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    OpenAIRE

    Maximillan Leite Santos; Chaiana Froés Magalhães; Marcelo Barcellos da Rosa; Daniel Assis Santos; Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro; Leandro Machado de Carvalho; Marcelo Barreto da Silva; Carlos Leomar Zani; Ezequias Pessoa de Siqueira; Rodrigo Loreto Peres; Anderson Assunção Andrade

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  10. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using lemon leaves extract and its application for antimicrobial finish on fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankar, Padma S.; Shukla, Dhara

    2012-06-01

    Preparation of silver nanoparticles have been carried out using aqueous extract of lemon leaves ( Citrus limon) which acts as reducing agent and encapsulating cage for the silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles have been used for durable textile finish on cotton and silk fabrics. Remarkable antifungal activity has been observed in the treated fabrics. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles derived from lemon leaves showed enhancement in activity due to synergistic effect of silver and essential oil components of lemon leaves. The present investigation shows the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles by biotransformation using the extract of lemon leaves by controlled reduction of the Ag+ ion to Ag0. Further the silver nanoparticles were used for antifungal treatment of fabrics which was tested by antifungal activity assessment of textile material by Agar diffusion method against Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola. Formation of the metallic nanoparticles was established by FT-IR, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy.

  11. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Syzygium cumini leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amal A; Ali, Sami I; El-Baz, Farouk K

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

  12. Effect of incorporation of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on quality of ground pork patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, M; Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Sen, A R; Sureshkumar, K

    2014-11-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of different levels of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (MLE) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in raw and cooked pork patties during refrigerated storage. Five treatments evaluated include: Control (without MLE/BHT), MLE 300 (300 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics), MLE 450 (450 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics), MLE 600 (600 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics) and BHT 200 (200 ppm BHT). Total phenolic content ranged from 60.78 to 70.27 mg per gram. A concentration dependent increase in reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of both MLE and BHT was noticed. Higher (P BHT 200 compared to control. Addition of MLE did not affect the sensory attributes or microbial quality. These results showed that M. oleifera leaves can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants to inhibit lipid oxidation in ground pork patties. PMID:26396309

  13. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch to an ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numa, S; Rodríguez, L; Rodríguez, D; Coy-Barrera, E

    2015-01-01

    One of the main pests of commercial rose crops in Colombia is the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. To manage this pest, synthetic chemicals have traditionally been used, some of which are well known to be potentially toxic to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative strategies for pest management in greenhouse crops have been developed in recent years, including biological control with natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms as well as chemical control using plant extracts. Such extracts have shown toxicity to insects, which has positioned them as a common alternative in programs of integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an unfractionated ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on adult females of T. urticae under laboratory conditions. The extract was chemically characterized by recording its metabolic profile via liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, along with tentative metabolite identification. The immersion technique and direct application to rose leaves were used to evaluate the effects of seven doses (10-2,000 µg/mL) of the ethanol extract of C. aconitifolius leaves on T. urticae females under laboratory conditions. The mortality and oviposition of individuals were recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that the C. aconitifolius leaf extract reduced fertility and increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The main metabolites identified included flavonoid- and sesquiterpene-type compounds, in addition to chromone- and xanthone-type compounds as minor constituents with potential acaricidal effects. PMID:26185740

  14. Role of Rosemary Leaves Extract as A Protective Agent Against Azathioprine-Induced Toxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hala M T El-Mougy*, Gehan A Youssef

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rosemary is widely found along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. Its leaves or extract were found to have a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. It is also used as an antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic and expectorant. These actions are mainly due to its content of essential oils. Azathioprine (AZA) is an immunosuppressive drug. It is widely used in many diseases. A major drawback is the occurrence of side-effects, especially acute pancreatitis. Aim of the wor...

  15. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Rosemary Leaves against Pathogenic Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynab Golshani; Ali Sharifzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, the increased use of antibiotics lead to the incidence of resistant strains. We are faced with lack of new antimicrobial drugs that have fewer side effects than antibiotics. Rosemary is a medicinal plant that has many uses in traditional medicine. In this study, ethanol leaves extract of this plant is tested on various pathogens. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Rosmarinus officinalis was used to evaluate the antimicrobial effects on pathogens. Ethanol ...

  16. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Ann Lila, Mary; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC) made by extracting fresh leaves with water utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates (1–4) into moringa isothiocyanates (5–8). Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, compound 5 (4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate), and compound 8 (4-[(4’-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate) content were established (1:5 fresh ...

  17. Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    P.Radhika; Annapurna, A.; Rao, S. Nageswara

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A large number of plants have been recognized to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Persistent hyperglycaemia is associated with decreased function of immune system and cerebral ischaemia mainly due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine for various purposes. In this study the effect of chronic administration (7 days) of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leav...

  18. Comparative Study of Erythrina indica Lam. (Febaceae) Leaves Extracts for Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sakat, SS; Juvekar, AR

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam leaves by in vitro methods viz. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method on isolated rat liver tissues. Quantitative analysis of antioxidative components like total amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols were estimated using the spec...

  19. Low Anti-ulcerogenic Potentials of Essential Oils and Methanolic Extract of Croton zambesicus Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaja Abdulazeez Akinlolu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the anti-ulcer properties of Croton zambesicus leaves. Materials and Methods: Group 1 was Control. 40mg/kg/bodyweight of Indomethacin (the ulcerogen was administered to rats of Groups II and #8211; VII. Four hours after administrations of ulcerogen; rats of Groups III and #8211; VII were treated daily with oral administrations of 40mg/kg/bodyweight of Omeprazole, 5 and 10mg/kg/bodyweight of essential oils, 250 and 500mg/kg bodyweight of methanolic extract of Croton zambesicus leaves respectively for four days. Rats were euthanized on Day 1 (Group II and Day 5 (Groups I and III and #8211; VII; thereafter, stomach and liver samples were removed for evaluations of gastric acidity, histo-pathological and alanine aminotransferase (ALT status. Results: Analyses of gastric acid assays and histo-pathological examinations showed dose-dependent statistically significant higher levels (P and #8804;0.05 of gastric acidity and non-restorations of the gastric mucosa layer to pre-ulceration states in rats of Groups IV and #8211; VII treated with extract doses when compared to Group III. Statistically non-significant (Group IV or significant (Groups V - VII higher ALT levels (P and #8804;0.05 were observed in liver samples of rats treated with doses of essential oils and methanolic extract of Croton zambesicus leaves when compared to Group II. Conclusion: Our study observed low anti-ulcerogenic potentials of doses of essential oils and methanolic extracts of Croton zambesicus leaves. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 97-102

  20. Solute-Matrix and Solute-Solute Interactions during Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Sea Buckthorn Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena

    Praha : Orgit, 2012, P5.48. ISBN 978-80-905035-1-9. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2012 and 15th Conference PRES 2012 /20./. Prague (CZ), 25.08.2012-29.08.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * sea buckthorn leaves * solute-solute interaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering www.chisa.cz/2012

  1. Solute-matrix and Solute-Solute Interactions during Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Sea Buckthorn Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, SI (2012), s. 1682-1691. ISSN 1877-7058. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2012 and 15th Conference PRES 2012 /20./. Prague, 25.08.2012-29.08.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * sea buckthom leaves * solute-solute interaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  2. Antiamoebic and Cytotoxicity of Ethanolic leaves Extract of Acacia nilotica (L

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    Ahmed Saeed Kabbashi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acacia nilotica (L related to family Fabaceae-Mimosoideae. The division of Acacia nilotica is Magnolophyta and class is Magnolipsida. The genus is Acacia and species is nilotica. The ailments treated by this plant include colds, congestion, fever, gallbladder, hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, leucorrhoea, ophthalmic, sclerosis and small pox. Acacia bark is drunk for intestinal pains and used for treating acute diarrhea. Other preparations are used for gargle, toothache, ophthalmic and syphilitic ulcers. The roots of Acacia are used to treat Tuberculosis. The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of morbidity worldwide, causing approximately 50 million cases of dysentery and 100,000 deaths annually. Intestinal amoebiasis due to the infection of E. histolytica is ranked third on the list of parasitic protozoan infections leading to death behind malaria and schistosomiasis. Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate antiamoebic activites (Entamoeba histolyica and cytotoxicity (MTT assay of ethanol extract of A. nilotica (leaves. Method: The extract of A. nilotica (leaves, with different concentration (500 ppm, 250 ppm and 125 ppm and metronidazole concentration (312.5 μg/ml to be investigated in vitro against Entamoeba histolyica trophozoites. And cytotoxicity (MTT assay with different concentration (500 ppm, 250 ppm and 125 ppm and compare triton-100 (the reference control. Result: The result was obtained from A. nilotica leaves ethanol extract which exhibited 100% mortality within 96 h, at a concentration 500 ppm; this was compared with Metronidazole which gave 96% inhibition at concentration 312.5 µg/ml at the same time. And MTT assay verified the safety of the examined extract. Conclusion: These studies conducted for both A. nilotica leaves was proved to have potent activities against Entamoeba histolyica trophozoites in vitro. And MTT assay verified the safety.

  3. CNS Depressant and Antiepileptic Activities of the Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasekaran Sivaraman; Palayan Muralidaran

    2010-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) depressant and antiepileptic activities of the methanol extract of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (IAF) were investigated on various animal models including pentobarbitone sleeping time and hole-board exploratory behavior for sedation tests and strychnine, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.), like chlorpromazine HCl (1 mg/kg, i.m.), produced a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping ...

  4. Ulcer Protective and Spasmolytic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Leaves in Experimental Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muthukumar A; Periyasamy M; Manohar R; Chinna RR; Anandm G

    2013-01-01

    Ethno pharmacological relevance: Solanum nigrum Linn. (solanaceae) is a widely growing and cultivated traditional medicinal plant mainly used for the treatment of gastric illness and mouth ulcer. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of aqueous leaves extract of Solanum nigrum Linn on irritable bowel syndrome and gastric ulcers. Materials and methods: Ulcer protective and anti spasmodic effect was investigated in cold restraint stress, aspirin induced and pyloric ligated ulc...

  5. Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit, leaves and root extracts

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    Mandukhail Saf-ur; Aziz Nauman; Gilani Anwarul-Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F), leaves (Mc.Cr.L) and roots (Mc.Cr.R). Results Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339) and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride l...

  6. In-Vitro Cytotoxic and Thrombolytic Potential of Methanolic Extract of Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman Rashaduz; Parvez Mohammed; Jakaria Md; Sayeed Mohammed Abu

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by in-vitro brine shrimp lethality bioassay and thrombolytic potentials of methanolic extract of leaves of Podocarpus neriifolius. In brine shrimp bioassay, the crude methanolic extract of leaf showed strong cytotoxic activity with LC 50 value of 18.24μg/ml compared to that of 0.839 μg/ml exhibited by standard vincristine sulphate. It has significant thrombolytic activity (44.82%) compared to standard streptokinase (77.66%). The res...

  7. In-Vitro Cytotoxic and Thrombolytic Potential of Methanolic Extract of Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don leaves

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    Zaman Rashaduz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aim to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by in-vitro brine shrimp lethality bioassay and thrombolytic potentials of methanolic extract of leaves of Podocarpus neriifolius. In brine shrimp bioassay, the crude methanolic extract of leaf showed strong cytotoxic activity with LC 50 value of 18.24μg/ml compared to that of 0.839 μg/ml exhibited by standard vincristine sulphate. It has significant thrombolytic activity (44.82% compared to standard streptokinase (77.66%. The results of this study confirm that this plant will be good candidate for future research of anticancer and thrombolytic drugs.

  8. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

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    Chang-Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultraviolet (UV, thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  9. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Tao, Ran

    2016-01-01

    In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet (UV), thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL) acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE) and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE. PMID:26784159

  10. Antidiarrheal effects of hydromethanolic extract ofCombretum dolichopetalum leaves in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Okwudili Onoja; Nkeiruka Emmanuela Udeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the hydromethanolic extract ofCombretum dolichopetalum (C. dolichopetalum) leaves. Methods: The antidiarrheal activity of the hydromethanolic extract ofC. dolichopetalum leaves was evaluated by inducing diarrhea with castor oil, testing small intestinal motility and establishing enteropooling models in mice. Five groups of animals were used for each model and were treated as follows: Group A received 10 mL/kg of distilled water, and Group B received loperamide (5 mg/kg) while Groups C, D, E received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of hydromethanolicC. dolichopetalumextract, respectively. Results: The pre-treatment of the mice with the extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) caused a significantly dose-dependent decrease in the mean percentage of wet faeces (P 0.05), compared with the negative control. Conclusions: The study shows thatC. dolichopetalum leaves possess antidiarrheal activity and validate its use in ethnomedicine for that purpose.

  11. Extraction of DNA suitable for PCR applications from mature leaves of Mangifera indica L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Abubakkar AZMAT; Iqrar Ahmad KHAN; Hafiza Masooma Naseer CHEEMA; Ishtiaq Ahmad RAJWANA; Ahmad Sattar KHAN; Asif Ali KHAN

    2012-01-01

    Good quality deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the pre-requisite for its downstream applications.The presence of high concentrations of polysaccharides,polyphenols,proteins,and other secondary metabolites in mango leaves poses problem in getting good quality DNA fit for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications.The problem is exacerbated when DNA is extracted from mature mango leaves.A reliable and modified protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for DNA extraction from mature mango leaves is described here.High concentrations of inert salt were used to remove polysaccharides; Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)and β-mercaptoethanol were employed to manage phenolic compounds.Extended chloroform-isoamyl alcohol treatment followed by RNase treatment yielded 950-1050 μg of good quality DNA,free of protein and RNA.The problems of DNA degradation,contamination,and low yield due to irreversible binding of phenolic compounds and coprecipitation of polysaccharides with DNA were avoided by this method.The DNA isolated by the modified method showed good PCR amplification using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers.This modified protocol can also be used to extract DNA from other woody plants having similar problems.

  12. Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal potential of ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica leaves

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    Md. Saifuddin Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a major public health problem in developing countries and is said to be endemic in many regions of Asia. It is a leading cause of high degree of morbidity and mortality. The anti-diarrhoeal potential of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Mimosa pudica Linn (Mimosaceae has been evaluated using several experimental models in Wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extract inhibited castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats and has also reduced gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration. The ethanolic extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg was showed significantly inhibited diarrhoea. There was a significant (P<0.001 dose-dependent decrease in the diarrhoea produced by all the three models in rats as compared to the standard drug. The anti-diarrhoeal property may be related to the tannin and flavonoids present in the extract. These results clearly indicated that ethanolic extract of the leaves of Mimosa pudica is effective against diarrhoeal disease

  13. In vitro erythrocyte oxidative damage of Morinda citrifolia L (noni leaves extract

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    Alicia Lagarto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Slight decrease of hemoglobin and erythrocyte count was observed previously after subchronic oral dosing of Morinda citrifolia L leaves extract in rats. Induction of erythrocyte membrane damage could be the cause for these effects. Aims: The objective of this investigation was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of Morinda citrifolia L leaves extract and fractions on rat erythrocytes. Methods: Hemolytic damage was assayed in rat erythrocytes. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring methemoglobin formation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and enzyme antioxidant activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Results: Morinda citrifolia L extract caused no hemolysis and induced oxidative damage to red cells in vitro. Methemoglobin increase was observed at concentration between 2 and 8 mg/ml of the extract. Lipid peroxidation was increased and CAT and SOD activities were depleted indicating a possible increase of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals in erythrocytes. Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol fraction did not cause methemoglobin formation while water fraction increased methemoglobin level at doses up to 6 mg/ml. Conclusions: We concluded that high doses of Morinda citrifolia L extract promote erythrocyte oxidative damage due to metabolites present in water fraction. These could be the cause of decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels observed. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 135-140

  14. Sedative and anxiolytic effects of ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irfan Newaz Khan; Md. Mominul Islam Sarker; Marzina Ajrin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate possible anxiogenic activity, sedative property and anxiolytic potential of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves.Methods:evaluated using standard animal behavioral models, such as hole cross and open field; sedative property and anxiolytic potential were evaluated by conducting thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests and elevated plus-maze test. The anxiogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves was Results: The crude ethanolic extract exhibited a significant (P<0.05, P<0.001) decrease of motor activity and exploratory behavior in hole cross and open field tests. The extract also markedly increased both the number of visits to and time spent in the corners of the open field. The extract treated rats spent more time in the open arm of elevated plus-maze, showing its antianxiety activity. There was a decrease in the locomotor activity.Conclusions:The obtained results provide support for the use of this species in traditional medicine and warrant further investigation to isolate the specific components that are responsible for the sedative and anxiolytic effects. Components from this plant may have a great potential value as medicinal agents, as leads or model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modifications and optimization, and as neuropharmacological probes.

  15. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative activity of fixed oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; ANANTASOMBOON, GUN; PIEWBANG, CHUTCHAI

    2016-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves have been shown to exert diverse potential benefits in a variety of stress conditions. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of the fixed oil extracted from OS leaves on the blood glucose levels and serum lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the anti-oxidative activity of OS leaves to protect various organs including the liver, kidney and heart was investigated. The fixed oil of the OS leaves was extracted using h...

  16. Sedative activity of methanolic extract of Glochidion multiloculare (Rottler ex Willd) Voigt leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Sekendar; Al Mamun, M Abdullah; Abu Sayeed, Mohammed; Rahman, Mohammad S; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2014-04-01

    Bangladesh is a good repository of medicinal plants. Traditional healers utilize them for treating many pathological states. Unfortunately, very few of them have been scientifically evaluated to know about the deep inside. The current study here is designed to evaluate the in vivo sedative activity of the leaves of Glochidion multiloculare (Rottler ex Willd) Voigt. With this purpose, the plant leaves were collected and powdered for extraction with methanol. Initially, the plant extract was subjected to brine shrimp lethality bioassay to monitor the presence of bioactive molecules. Later on, different neuropharmacological studies including hole cross, open field, thiopental-sodium induced sleeping time and Elevated-Plus Maze (EPM) tests were conducted to investigate sedative action. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the LC50 value of the extract was found 37.19 μg mL(-1), whereas the standard vincristine sulphate showed the LC50 10.50 μg mL(-1). The moderate toxicity of the extract on brine shrimp indicated the existence of bioactive secondary metabolites in this extract. Besides, the extract decreased the locomotor activity of mice in hole cross, open field and EPM test indicating the CNS depression capability of the plant. Moreover, the extract was very much effective for prolonging the sleeping time (103 min) with quick onset of action (22 min) in comparison to the control group. The efficacy of the plant extract was found closer to the common sedative drug diazepam. Further investigations are required to explore the underlying mechanism of the sedative action and isolate bioactive principles. PMID:25911846

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaves Growing in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

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    Gotep, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves growing in Vom, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria was carried out to verify claims by the locals of its medicinal properties. We tested the extract for activity against Staphylococcus aureus (G+, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes (G-. The extract exhibited activity against the organisms in varying degrees. In the agar diffusion test, Y. enterocolitica showed the highest zone of inhibition (18 mm at the highest concentration of extract tested (20 mg/mL while E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 17, 16, 15, 14 and 16 mm respectively. At extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, Y. enterocolitica and P. aeruginosa did not show any zones of inhibition while E.coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 7, 6, 6 and 7 mm respectively. Below extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, there was no zone of inhibition observed with any organism. The MIC of the extract against the organisms was 5 mg/mL except on S. aureus where the MIC was 2.5 mg/mL. The MBC of the extract was 10 mg/mL against Y. enterocolitica, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes, 5 mg/mL against E. coli and S. aureus. Preliminary phytochemical testing revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides while saponins, alkaloids and anthraquinones were not present. The result gives scientific backing to the use of the leaves by the local people in the treatment of conditions usually associated with the organisms tested.

  18. A STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM

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    Islam Md. Shamsul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the biological investigations of Clerodendrum viscosum – a plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The leaf of Clerodendrum viscosum was extracted with methanol and water. The crude extract of methanol of Clerodendrum viscosum was screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate was used as a positive control. From the result of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methanol extract possess cytotoxic principles (with LC50 3.696 µg/ml comparison with positive control vincristine sulphate (with LC50 0.773 µg /ml. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts from the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and five concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/ml of each extracts were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 50 mg/ml. Albendazole in 20mg/ml concentration extract was used as standard reference and saline solution as control. All the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner.

  19. Effects of the extracts from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves on analgesic and behavioral activities in experimental animals

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    Kitja Sawangjaroen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (M. speciosa were extracted with methanol to give methanol extract. The methanol extract was made in acid and then in alkaline and extracted with chloroform to give alkaloid extract. The effects of the methanol and alkaloid extracts on analgesic activities in hot plate test in mice and tail flick test in rats and behavioral activities in locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, were examined. In acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of oral administration of the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves in mice were 4.90 g/kg and 173.20 mg/kg, respectively. Oral administration (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract of M. speciosa leaves significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response on hot plate test in mice. The alkaloid extract of M. speciosa also increased the pain response latency at the dose of 20 mg/kg but less potent than those of the methanol extract (100 mg/kg in mice (comparing 5-10 mg/kg alkaloid extract with corresponding to approximately 200 mg/kg of methanol extract. The antinociceptive action of either methanol extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. or alkaloid extract (20 mg/kg, p.o. of M. speciosa leaves was blocked by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. Neither the methanol extract nor the alkaloid extract significantly prolonged latency of nociceptive response on tail flick test in rats. Both of the extracts had no significant change on spontaneous motor activity or pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, respectively. These results suggest that the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves possess the analgesic activity which partly acted at opioid receptors in the supraspinal opioid system.

  20. Antiulcer Activity of Methanol Extract of Erythrina indica Lam. Leaves in Experimental Animals

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    S Sakat Sachin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, which affects approximately 5-10% of people during their life. In recent years, abundant work has been carried out on herbal medicine to clarify their potential efficacy in gastric ulcer prevention or management. Here, present study was carried out to investigate antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Erythrina indica (family: Febaceae leaves in pylorus ligated and indomethacin induced ulceration in the albino rats. Preliminary methanol extract of E. indica was subjected to the acute oral toxicity study according to the OECD guideline no. 423. Based on which, three dose levels i.e. 125, 250 and 500mg/kg were selected for the further study. In pylorus ligation induced ulcer model, various parameters were studied viz. gastric volume, pH, total acidity free acidity, and ulcer index. Ulcer index and percentage inhibition of ulceration was determined for indomethacin induced ulcer model. Ranitidine at 100mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Pretreatment of methanol extract of E. indica leaves showed significant (P< 0.01 decrease in the gastric volume, total acidity and free acidity. However, pH of the gastric juice was significantly (P< 0.05 increased only at higher dose, 500mg/kg. It showed also significant (P< 0.01 decrease in number of ulcers and ulcer score index in pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced ulceration models. The methanol extract of E. indica leaves possess significant antiulcer properties in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion the antiulcer properties of the extract may be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds that are present in it.

  1. Sub-acute oral toxicity study of methanol leaves extract of Catharanthus roseus in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LYW Kevin; AH Hussin; I Zhari; JH Chin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the sub-acute (14 d) oral toxic effects of methanol leaves extract ofCatharanthus roseus (C. roseus) (Family: Apocynaceae) on liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Twenty four female SD rats were used throughout the experiment. The first group was orally treated with distilled water and served as control, whereas the remaining three groups were orally treated with single dose daily of 0.1 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1 g/kg of C. roseus extract, respectively for 14 d. Cage-side observations were done daily. Any animal died during the experiment was dissected for gross organ examination. Body weight changed, food consumption and water intake were recorded weekly. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture on day-15 and used for determination of serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. The relative organ weights were also measured. All results were expressed as mean ± S.E.M and analysed using Dunnett’s test. The level of significance was set at P<0.05 when compared to the control group. Results: Repeated oral administration of 0.5 g/kg and 1 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus caused mortality and diarrhoea in rats after few days of treatment. There were no significant changes observed in serum biochemical markers, body weight changed, water and food intake and relative organ weight in rats treated with a single dose daily of 0.1 g/kg of C. roseus extract treatment for 14 d when compared to control group. Conclusionds: Fourteen days repeated oral administration of 0.1 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus was safe in female SD rats without causing any significant damages to liver and kidney.

  2. Antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts of Dissotis thollonii Cogn. (Melastomataceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ateufack Gilbert; Tadjoua Tchoumbou Herve; Yousseu Nana William; Sama Fonkeng Leonard; Kuiate Jules-Roger; Kamanyi Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phytochemical test and selected pharmacological activities (antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity) of the aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts of Dissotis thollonii Cogn. (Melastomataceae) (D. thollonii). Methods:The aqueous and methanolic extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial activities on the in vitro growth of 2 clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri), and 5 reference bacteria strains [Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 (E. coli), E. coli ATCC 10536, Salmonella typhi ATCC 6539, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 and E. coli ATCC 11775] by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and bactericidal concentrations using broth microdilution method as well as on the infectious, secretory and osmotic induced diarrhoea models in rats. Results:The aqueous extract inhibited the in vitro growth of all bacteria tested (the 05 reference bacteria strains and the 02 clinical isolates), with MICs values comprised between 32 and 512 µg/mL, whereas the methanolic extract has done the same with the MICs values located between 128 and 512 µg/mL. In vivo, the methanolic and aqueous extracts provoqued at all doses, a significant decrease (P Conclusions:The leaves of D. thollonii thus have antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal effects, which could result from their activities on blocking the inhibiting effects of the bacterial enzymes, inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis, allowing the rupture of the lipopolysaccharidic membrane, as well as on inhibiting prostaglandins-E2 synthesis or increasing the hydroelectrolytic reabsorption. These results attestted the ethnopharmacological use of D. thollonii leaves in the treatment of diarrhoea and gastro-intestinal infections.

  3. Ethanopharmacological study of the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali-Abd Alrheam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropisprocera is a member of the plant family Asclepiadaceae, a shrub about 6m high and is widely distributed in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to show some medicinal potentials and biological activity of Calotropisprocera and to discover new natural, safe and effective materials available in the Saudi Arabia environment. Marerial and Methods:The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocerawere investigated for its anti-hyperglycemic effect in Male Wister Albino rats. Diabetes was induced by administration of single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg, I.P. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats as follows: Group I : Normal control, Group II: Diabetic control, Group III: Diabetic rats given Glibenclamide 600 and #956;g/kg, Group IV: Diabetic rats given aqueous leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group V: Diabetic rats given chloroform leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VI: Diabetic rats given ethanol leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VII: Diabetic rats given latex of C. procera200mg/kg b. wt.The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera were administered as single dose per day to diabetes-induced rats for a period of 15 days.The effect of C. proceraon blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile (Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density, and high density lipoprotein also were measured. The activities were also compared to that effect produced by a standard anti-diabetic agent, glibenclamide 500 and #956;g/kg. Results and Discussion:The results showed a significant decrease in the mean level of blood glucose and serum cholesterol, Triglycrides, HDL, LDL. Calotropisprocera appears to be a rich source of phytoconstituents that activate and inhence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the

  4. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

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    Nur Afiqah Arham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The hydroxyl groups of the polyphenols are capable to act as reducing agent for reduction reaction. The effect of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration were evaluated using central composite design which consists of 20 experimental runs. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to estimate the optimum parameters in extracting polyphenols from the palm leaves. The correspondence analysis of the results yielded a quadratic model which can be used to find optimum conditions of extraction process. The optimum extraction condition of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration are 70°C, at 70°C of 10 minutes, respectively. Total polyphenols were determined by application of the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method and the extract was found contain of 8 mg GAE/g dry palm leaves at optimum conditions. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis. International Journal of Science and

  5. Insecticidal activities and chemical components of alcohol extract from leaves of Rhodendron dauricum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Mo-long; WANG Tian-miao

    2011-01-01

    The extract from leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. was extracted with 95% alcohol by common method for studying its insecticidal activities. The chemical components of the alcohol extract and relative contents were analyzed by GC-MS. The insecticidal activities of the alcohol extract were tested on the 2nd-3rd instar larvae of Lymantria dispar L. for five days. Five concentrations of the extract samples were designed as 50, 10, 5, 1, and 0.5 g·L-1. The results show that the alcohol extracts from leaves of R. dauricum exhibited insecticidal activities against larvae of L. dispar. The corrected mortality of larvae of L. dispar for was over 50% for both contact toxicity and stomach toxicity at the extract concentration of ≥ 5 g·L-1 after five days of application. The insecticidal activity in contact toxicity is more effect than stomach toxicity for the alcohol extract. Twenty compounds, with total GC relative contents of 93.81% in the alcohol extract from leaves of R. dauricum were identified. The main chemical components in the cxtract are: (1) 4,5-Dihydro-5-oxo-3-(p-tolyl) isoxazole, with a relative content of 40.03%; (2) 1,3-Benzenediol, 5-methyl-2-(3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienyl)-, (E,E)-, the relative content 18.27%; (3) 3,6-Diphenyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-l,8-acridinedione, the relative content 3.89%;(4) 6H-[l ,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]indole, 4a,5,7,8,8a,9-hexahydro-9-methylene-, the relative content 2.99%; (5) 7-Amino-4-methyl-l,8-naphthyridino2-ol, the relative content 2.64%; (6) 4-Methyl-2,6-dihydroxyquinoline, the relative content 2.63%; (7) 2,4,6-Triaminoquilazoline, the relative content 2.27%; (8) 2(1H)-Quinolinone,4-hydroxy-1-methyl-, the relative content 2.02%.

  6. Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves

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    Elham Farsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels. CONCLUSION: The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg.

  7. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves

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    Chloe D. Goldsmith

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water—a “green” extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers.

  8. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Assessment of the Ethanol Leaves Extract of Heritiera fomes Buch. Ham. (Family- Sterculiaceae

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    Md. Aslam Hossain

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study was themed to phytochemical and pharmacological investigation to determine anti-nociceptive, antioxidant and analgesic activity to give an appropriate guide for future exploration. Methods: Standard test methods were used to explore phytochemical constituents. The acetic acid-induced writhing model was applied to inspect chemical anti-nociceptive effect while thermal nociception was evaluated by hot plate model. DPPH assay was the choice of method for quantitative determination of antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by disc diffusion assay method. Results: Phytochemical exploration of leaves extract demonstrated the presence of Reducing sugars, Saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, steroids, Flavonoids and Gums. The extract illustrated statistically significant anti-nociceptive activity (P<0.01 in dose dependent manner both chemically and thermally. Significant free radical scavenging activity in 1,1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was illustrated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Quantitatively, it disclosed stable DPPH radical scavenging activity with the IC50 value of 26.30µg/mL. The extract also showed significant antimicrobial activity against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion: It can be disclosed that the leaves extract of Heritiera fomes possess significant anti-nociceptive, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The potential of these activities may be due to the presence of phyto-constituents reported in the phytochemical tests and justify its uses as a habitual folk medicine.

  9. Preliminary study of the digestive effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae leaves extracts in goats

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    Daga Dadjo Florian,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the crude aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves on food intake and digestibility were evaluated with twelve Sahelian goats weighing about 25 kg. Three experimental groups, each consisting of three animals, were treated respectively with the dose of 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/kg of body weight. Treatment was daily and lasted three days. One control group, receiving the same diet as the experimental groups, was involved. The experiment revealed that the herbal extract induced a highly significant variation (p <0.01 in voluntary feed intake expressed in grams of dry matter (DM from 366.67 g ± 86 (control group to 631.67 g ± 106.37 (4ml/kg/BW treated group. Concerning digestibility, the results indicated an increase in the absorption of ash and fibre (39.65 % ± 2.65 to 51.38 % ± 4.91. But the digestibility of protein was only slightly influenced by the herbal extract. Animals treated with 4ml/kg/BW dosage had soft and pasty faeces. The aqueous extract of C. ambrosioides leaves would own interesting digestive effects in small ruminants in the fattening stage or those suffering from indigestion due to rumen stuffing. Further specialized studies may clarify those effects.

  10. Acute Toxicity Studies of Brucea javanica Merril Leaves Extract on Mice

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    Marissa Angelina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the oral acute toxicity of Brucea javanica Merril extract on both Male and Female DDY-Mice. Brucea javanica leaves have activity as a cytotoxic, anti-diarhhea, etc. Brucea javanica leaves extract was administered orally for first 24 hours at various dose levels (562.5mg/kg bw, 1125 mg/kg bw, 2250 mg/kg bw, and 4500 mg/kg bw to determine the toxicity effects. The treatment groups were compared to the normal control. Vital organs (liver, heart, lymph, lungs, etc and body weight were analyzed to study the toxicity. LD50 determined using Reed and Munich formula. Vital organs average weight showed no difference between control group and treatment groups from the lowest dose until the highest dose. In addition, the body weight data showed no difference between control group and treatment groups. LD50 for Brucea javanica extract using Reed and Munich formula was 1003.65 mg/kg bw. The result of the study showed that extract were categorized as “slightly toxic”.

  11. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis. L leaves against salivary Mutans streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves in the selective reduction of Mutans streptococci count in saliva compared to chlorhexidine through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Ethanolic extract (2%) was prepared and screened by UV-visible spectrophotometer to detect peaks of active compounds. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of myrtle extract as well as chlorhexidine (0.12%) were determined against Mutans streptococci isolated from human saliva and identified bacteriologically in vivo experiments, the effect of single mouth rinse of myrtle extract or chlorhexidine was investigated against the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Mutans streptococci for two hours after rinse. The results showed the presence of one large peak at λ266.5 nm and a small one at λ672 of the extract in UV-visible spectra suggesting the presence of flavanoid. The MIC of myrtle was 106.6 μg/mL compared with 3.3 μg/mL of chlorhexidine. Single mouth rinse of myrtle extract significantly reduced the number of CFU of salivary Mutans streptococci but its effect was significantly less than that of chlorhexidine. It was concluded that the antibacterial effect of myrtle on Mutans streptococci was due to its flavanoid content. Therefore, ethanolic extract of myrtle could be a potential remedy for the prevention of colonization by Mutans streptococci thereby preventing or retarding development of dental caries. (author)

  12. Delivery of tea polyphenols to the oral cavity by green tea leaves and black tea extract.

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    Lee, Mao-Jung; Lambert, Joshua D; Prabhu, Saileta; Meng, Xiaofeng; Lu, Hong; Maliakal, Pius; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yang, Chung S

    2004-01-01

    Catechins and theaflavins, polyphenolic compounds derived from tea (Camellia sinensis, fam. Theaceae), have been reported to have a wide range of biological activities including prevention of tooth decay and oral cancer. The present study was undertaken to determine the usefulness of green tea leaves and black tea extract for the delivery of catechins and theaflavins to the oral cavity. After holding either green tea leaves (2 g) or brewed black tea (2 g of black tea leaves in 100 ml) in the mouth for 2-5 min and thoroughly rinsing the mouth, high concentrations of catechins (C(max) = 131.0-2.2 micro M) and theaflavins (C(max) = 1.8-0.6 micro M) were observed in saliva in the 1st hour. Whereas there was significant interindividual variation in the peak levels of catechins and theaflavins, the overall kinetic profile was similar, with t(1/2) = 25-44 min and 49-76 min for catechins and theaflavins, respectively (average coefficient of variation in t(1/2) was 23.4%). In addition to the parent catechin and theaflavin peaks, five unidentified peaks were also observed in saliva after black tea treatment. Hydrolysis of theaflavin gallates, apparently by salivary esterases, was observed in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that tea leaves can be used as a convenient, slow-release source of catechins and theaflavins and provide information for the possible use of tea in the prevention of oral cancer and dental caries. PMID:14744744

  13. Crop species identification using machine vision of computer extracted individual leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Neto, João; Meyer, George E.

    2005-11-01

    An unsupervised method for plant species identification was developed which uses computer extracted individual whole leaves from color images of crop canopies. Green canopies were isolated from soil/residue backgrounds using a modified Excess Green and Excess Red separation method. Connected components of isolated green regions of interest were changed into pixel fragments using the Gustafson-Kessel fuzzy clustering method. The fragments were reassembled as individual leaves using a genetic optimization algorithm and a fitness method. Pixels of whole leaves were then analyzed using the elliptic Fourier shape and Haralick's classical textural feature analyses. A binary template was constructed to represent each selected leaf region of interest. Elliptic Fourier descriptors were generated from a chain encoding of the leaf boundary. Leaf template orientation was corrected by rotating each extracted leaf to a standard horizontal position. This was done using information provided from the first harmonic set of coefficients. Textural features were computed from the grayscale co-occurrence matrix of the leaf pixel set. Standardized leaf orientation significantly improved the leaf textural venation results. Principle component analysis from SAS (R) was used to select the best Fourier descriptors and textural indices. Indices of local homogeneity, and entropy were found to contribute to improved classification rates. A SAS classification model was developed and correctly classified 83% of redroot pigweed, 100% of sunflower 83% of soybean, and 73% of velvetleaf species. An overall plant species correct classification rate of 86% was attained.

  14. Hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma; Nwadike Constance Nnedimma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata (A. capitata) leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Methods:Cholesterol diet was administered to Wistar rats at a dose of 40 mg per 0.2 mL 3 times daily for 14 days while the control received distilled water. These animals were treated with extract of A. capitata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Lipid profiles were observed and compared. Results:Administration of A. capitata caused significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the control (P<0.05) which was dose dependent. Also, it was observed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with the control. Conclusions:This observation suggests that the leaf extract of A. capitata could probably serve as a potential natural product for treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  15. Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Shode, Francis O.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Elevated uric acid level, an index of gout resulting from the over-activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), increases the risk of developing hypertension. However, research has shown that plant-derived inhibitors of XO and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE), two enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension, respectively, can prevent or ameliorate both diseases, without noticeable side effects. Hence, this study characterized the polyphenolics composition of guava leaves extract and evaluated its inhibitory effect on XO and ACE in vitro. Materials and Methods: The polyphenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD). The XO, ACE, and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities, and free radicals (2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl [DPPH]* and 2,2´-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic [ABTS]*+) scavenging activities of the extract were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Flavonoids were present in the extract in the order of quercetin > kaempferol > catechin > quercitrin > rutin > luteolin > epicatechin; while phenolic acids were in the order of caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid > gallic acids. The extract effectively inhibited XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner; having half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 38.24 ± 2.32 μg/mL, 21.06 ± 2.04 μg/mL and 27.52 ± 1.72 μg/mL against XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively. The extract also strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+. Conclusion: Guava leaves extract could serve as functional food for managing gout and hypertension and attenuating the oxidative stress associated with both diseases. PMID:27104032

  16. Effect of purified gambir leaves extract to prevent atherosclerosis in rats

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    Nanang Yunarto

    2016-03-01

    , antiaterosklerosis AbstractBackground: Atherosclerosis is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. Catechin have highantioxidant activity that can prevent atherosclerosis. Gambir (Uncaria gambir, Roxb. leaves extract havehigh catechin content thereby potentially inhibiting atherosclerosis. This research was aimed to examineeffect of purified gambir leaves extract to prevent atherosclerosis in rats.Methods: The experimental laboratory study was conducted in Pharmacy Laboratory and Animal Laboratory,National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia in 2014.Gambir leaves extract were purified to gain optimum catechin. Afterwards, antioxidant activity was testedusing 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method, with ascorbic acid as positive control. Thirty six whitemale Sprague Dawley rats aged 2.5 months were randomly divided into six groups, i.e. normal control group,negative control group (aquadest, positive control group (atorvastatin 2 mg/200 g bw,extract dose I (20mg/200 g bw, dose II (40 mg/200 g bw and dose III (80 mg/200 g bw. The rats were given high fat diet andtreatment according to their group for 60 days, except for normal control group.Results: Catechin content in the purified gambir leaves extract was 92,69%. From antioxidant activity test, IC50 wasfound to be 11,76 μg/mL. Anti-atherosclerotic activity study shown that compared to negative control, all three dosesof purified gambir leaves extract were able to prevent atherosclerosis through inhibition of aortic wall thickening andfoam cell formation due to high fat diet (p<0.05. Anti-atherosclerotic activity increased with increasing dose.Conclusion: Gambir leaves purified extract had the effect of preventing the thickening of the walls andfoam cell formation rat aorta. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:105-10Keywords: gambir, catechin, antiatherosclerosis

  17. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases. PMID:26593607

  18. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Calpurnia aurea

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    Afolayan Anthony J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, Calpurnia aurea (Ait. Benth is used to destroy lice and to relieve itches, to destroy maggots and to treat allergic rashes, particularly those caused by caterpillars. Antioxidants play an important role protecting against damage by reactive oxygen species. Plants containing flavonoids have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Methods The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Calpurnia aurea were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Calpurnia aurea were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. Laboratory isolates of 10 bacteria species which included five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative strains were used to assay for antibacterial activity of this plant. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Calpurnia aurea as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, and FRAP methods were higher than that of the leaves. On the other hand, the leaf extract of the plant has higher level of total flavonols and proanthocyanidins. The leaf extract also has higher radical scavenging activity as shown in 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2,2¿-azinobis-3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assay. The leaf extract showed activity against seven of the bacterial organisms. Conclusion The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of Calpurnia aurea possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger or, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. Although, the antibacterial properties of Calpurnia aurea are not as

  19. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves

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    Pritipadma Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clerodendrum viscosum is commonly found in India and Bangladesh. Previously, various parts of this plant were reported for treatment of different types of diseases and there was no report on GC-Ms analysis. Objective: To analyze and characterize the phytochemical compounds of methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum using GC-MS. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract was carried out according to standard procedures described in WHO guidelines. Various bioactive compounds of the extract were determined by GC-MS technique. Results: The presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrate was found on phytochemical screening of methanol extract of the leaves. The GC-MS analysis showed 16 peaks of different phytoconstituents namely acetamide,N,N-carbonylbis-, 4-Pyranone,2,3-dihydro-, alpha-D-Galactofuranoside, methyl 2,3,5,6-tetra-O-methyl-, Glycerin, Xylitol, N,N-Dimethylglycine, 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2(1HPyrimidinone,1-methyl-, 2,4-Dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyrimidine, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone, 1,3-Methylene-d-arabitol, Orcinol, n-Hexadecanoic acid and Phenol,4,4′-(1-methyl ethylidene bis etc. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum suggest the application of this extract for the treatment of various diseases by the aborigine tribes.

  20. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g. PMID:27006224

  1. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Extract from Roots and Leaves of Citrullus lanatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jia-gang; WANG Shuo; GUO Li-cheng; FAN Li-li

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of extract from the roots and leaves of Citrulluslanatus and assess their acute toxicity in animals.Methods The mouse model with ear edema induced by xyleneand the rat model with paw edema or granuloma by carrageenin or cotton pellet were used for anti-inflammatoryeffects of the extract.Effects of the extract on analgesia was tested respectively by measuring the latency of micelicking hind foot from hot plates and by counting the times of body twisting in response to acetic acid.The acutetoxicity of the extract was determined with the method of Bliss.Results The extract significantly inhibited the earedema,granuloma hyperplasia,and paw edema.It significantly lifted the pain threshold on mouse hot-plateresponses and reduced their writhing times.During the 7 d observation period in its acute toxicity assay,no apparenttoxic reaction was shown and all mice survived at a dose of 87 g extract per kg body weight.Conclusion Theextract could protecte mice/rates from inflammation and analgesia,and may be safe as an orally administered naturalproduct for humans.

  2. Role of Rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice

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    Acharya Garima S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a study of the modulatory effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract on radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice. The dose reduction factor for the Rosemary extract against gamma rays was calculated 1.53 from LD50/30 values. The Rosemary extract was administered orally for 5 consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. The hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed from day 1 to 30 post-irradiation intervals. The total erythrocyte count, total leucocytes count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values in the experimental group were found to be elevated as compared to the control group of mice. Furthermore, the Rosemary extract treatment enhanced reduced glutathione content in the liver and blood against radiation-induced depletion. Treatment with the plant extract brought a significant fall in the lipid peroxidation level, suggesting rosemary's role in protection against radiation-induced membrane and cellular damage. The results from the present study suggest a radio-protective effect of the Rosemary extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice.

  3. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0 ± 0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64 kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant. PMID:26005139

  4. Chromatographic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae leaves hydroalcoholic extracts

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    Priscila D. Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. More than 300 composites have already been isolated and azadirachtin (AZA is its main active component. In the present work, Neem leaves hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation in 96% ethanol different concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% (v/v. The presence of AZA was tested by TLC by eluting the extracts and a standard solution of AZA through a chromatographic plate developed with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid solution followed by heating. By HPLC, extracts elution took place on a C18 column, water:acetonitrile (60:40 as mobile phase, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at λ217 nm. The extracts did not display AZA spots or peaks, however, they were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and a mold fungus. The extracts were tested in different increasing concentrations, in order to detect a dose-dependent relationship of the activity. Despite the absence of AZA, the 70% and 80% (v/v ethanol extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, this activity was not dose-dependent according to Tukey's test (q0,05;3;7.

  5. Phyto chemical and antioxidant screening of extracts of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilaria malaccensis is an endangered economic plant used for production of agar wood worldwide. The sequential maceration extraction methods utilizing solvents with different polarities namely hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded the corresponding crude extract. The aqueous and methanol extracts along with dry powder of leaf of the plant was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. They were also tested for antioxidant activities. The result indicates the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, triterpenoids, steroids and tannins. The phyto chemical screening suggests that flavanoids present in this species might provide a great value of antioxidant activity. Preliminary screenings of the free radical scavenging activity on the extracts of the plants with 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were tested and showed positive result. Quarcetine was used as reference standard. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 8.0 x 102 μg/ ml, 1.6 x 102 μg/ ml, 1.4 x 102 μg/ ml, 30.0 μg/ ml and 3.33 μg/ ml for hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate, methanol and quercetine respectively. Determination on antioxidant activity of each crude extract showed that methanol crude extract had the highest IC50 value than ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane crude extract. This means that methanol possess the highest inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to the other crudes but still lower than Quercetin (standard). Phyto chemical analysis on the hexane extract of Aquilaria malaccensis has been conducted. Several chromatographic methods have been employed to the hexane of the leaves which led to the isolation of three compounds namely Stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and 3-fridelanol. The present study has proved the usefulness of agar wood tree for medicinal purposes and its potential as a source of useful drugs. (author)

  6. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  7. Bronchospasmolytic activity of the extract and fractions of Asystasia gangetica leaves

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    A C Ezike

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The bronchospasmolytic constituent of leaves of Asystasia gangetica (L. T. Anderson, sub-specie micrantha (Nees Ensermu (Acanthaceae was isolated by bio-activity-guided technique. The bronchospasmolytic effect of the fractions of the leaf extract as well as the isolate AG-1 was evaluated using histamine-induced contraction of the guinea pig trachea and pre-contracted trachea (pathological tissue. The results showed that the fractions and AG-1 inhibited contractions of the guinea pig trachea induced by histamine in a dose dependent manner. The isolated constituent, (AG-1 caused 82% inhibition of maximal contraction produced by histamine at a concentration of 400μg/ml. On histamine (8μg/ml pre-contracted trachea, cumulative doses of the fractions evoked a dose dependent relaxation.  Phytochemical analysis showed that the isolated compound (AG-1 tested positive to terpenoids while the fractions contained typical constituents such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and glycosides. These findings suggest that the usefulness of leaves of A. gangetica in the treatment of asthma may derive from bronchospasmolytic effect of terpenoid compounds in the leaves.   Industrial relevance: Asthma is currently a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in both children and adults; a prevalence rate of 5 – 10% has been reported for Nigeria.  Drugs used in the management include bronchodilators which are short-term relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs which are long-term controllers. Despite the availability of oral and inhaled medications, the prevalence of asthma is on the rise (NHLBI/WHO 1995. The challenge of developing new effective, safe and long lasting antiasthmatic drugs from natural products appears inevitable. The leaves of Asystasia gangetica L. (T. (Acanthaceae, a traditional anti-asthma remedy, offer great potential for the development of a novel anti-asthmatic agent. The leaves have been shown to possess

  8. In Vitro Assessment of Antioxidant, Phytochemical and Nutritional Properties of Extracts from the Leaves of Ocimum Gratissimum (Linn)

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Uzunuigbe, Edwina O; Isoken H. Igbinosa; Emmanuel E. Odjadjare; Igiehon, Nicholas O.; Emuedo, Oke A

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant, phytochemical and nutritional properties of acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn) were investigated to evaluate the therapeutic and nutritional potential of the leaves of this plant. The antioxidant of the plant extracts were assessed against 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proan...

  9. Safety evaluation of Morinda citrifolia (noni) leaves extract: assessment of genotoxicity, oral short term and subchronic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Lagarto; Viviana Bueno; Nelson Merino; Janet Piloto; Odalys Valdes; Guillermo Aparicio; Addis Bellma; Micaela Couret; Yamile Vega

    2013-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia L (noni) is an evergreen or small tree that grows in many tropical regions of the world. The use of the noni leaves has not been so studied however; there are reports of its pharmacological benefits. Aims: The objective of this investigation was to assess the genotoxicity, short-term, and subchronic oral toxicity of Morinda citrifolia L leaves aqueous extract. Methods: The genotoxicity of the M. citrifolia extract was investigated by measuring the frequency of micr...

  10. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Nandita; Islam, Md. Ekramul; Jahan, Nusrat; Islam, Mohammad Saiful; Khan, Alam; Islam, Md Rafikul; Parvin, Mst Shahnaj

    2014-01-01

    Background Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Methods Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chlorofor...

  11. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad M. Hassan; Shahneaz A. Khan; Amir H. Shaikat; Md. Emran Hossain; Md. Ahasanul Hoque; Md Hasmat Ullah; Saiful Islam

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight...

  12. [Extraction and determination of volatile constituents in leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuhong; Liu, Xiongmin; Zhou, Yonghong; Guo, Zhanjing

    2005-11-01

    The volatile constituents in leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora, including oil fraction and water-soluble fraction, were extracted and determined. Oil fraction of volatile components was obtained through steam distillation. Ether was used as the solvent to extract the water-soluble fraction of volatile compounds from the liquid left after steam distillation in order to know the quantity and constituents of volatile compounds dissolved in the water phase. The oil yield in the oil fraction was 1.36%, and the oil yield in the water-soluble fraction was 0.48% (both on fresh weight basis). Both oil fraction and water-soluble fraction were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The results showed that 37 compounds (97.36%) in the oil fraction and 10 compounds (82.05%) in the water-soluble fraction were identified. There were 12 hydrocarbon compounds and 25 oxygenated compounds identified in oil fraction. The major constituents in oil fraction were citronellal (57.00%), followed by citronellol (15.89%) and citronellyl acetate (15.33%). Alcohols dominated the compounds in water-soluble fraction. cis-p-Menthane-3, 8-diol (53.43%) and trans-p-menthane-3, 8-diol (16. 48%) were found to be the major compounds, which have the activity to repel insects. It is concluded that the comprehensive utilization value of leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora was enhanced owing to the extraction of water-soluble volatile components. PMID:16498999

  13. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL SHAMPOO FROM ZIZIPHUS SPINA LEAVES EXTRACT

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    Ali Heyam Saad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic preservatives and detergents have sometimes been the cause of adverse effects among consumers. A more radical approach in reducing the synthetic ingredients is by incorporating natural extract whose functionality is comparable with their synthetic ingredients. Selection of Ziziphus spina cristi (Z. spina cristi leaves extract was based on its particular properties such as antimicrobial and detergent activities. This study aimed to formulate a self preserving shampoo having low concentration of the detergent using Ziziphus spina cristi leaves with emphasis on safety and efficacy; will avoid the risk posed by chemical ingredients. Formulation of three investigated shampoos was prepared containing different amounts of Ziziphus spina cristi extract and sodium laureth sulfate as a surfactant. Evaluation of organoleptic, physicochemical and performance tests were performed and compared with herbal marketed product (Cedr shampoo®, Sehat Company, Iran. The results indicated that F2 and F3 produced clear shampoos and their averaged pH values were in the range of 5.59-6.25 which were suitable to retain the acidic mantle of scalp. They provided stable foam, surface tension reduction, good cleaning and wetting effect and have pseudo plastic rheological behavior. Moreover, the aesthetic attributes, such as lather and clarity were comparable with the marketed shampoos. The foam volume was on a par and formulas showed higher detergency and foaming effects than the commercial herbal one (p< 0.05. Moreover they can be considered safe to children since less chemical contents were used and no side effects observed after application.

  14. Effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna Leaves' Methanolic Extract on CCl4-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

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    Musab Awad Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Background: Natural products with therapeutic properties such as plants, minerals and animal products, for many years, were the main sources of drugs for treatment of numerous diseases; hence selection of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna in order to study its hepatoprotective activity was considered. Objectives: This was an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Lawsonia inermis leaves' methanolic extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: The L. inermis leaves' methanolic extract, which obtained by maceration, was orally administered in doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg to the tested animals in order to assess it's effects on serum levels of hepatotoxicity parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin and total proteins along with histopathological liver sections examination, while silymarin (25mg/kg, a potent hepatoprotective drug, was used as standard control. Results: The two doses of the plant extract showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect, as evident by the significant reduction (P < 0.05 in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin along with the improvement in histopathological liver sections compared to CCl4-only treated animals. Conclusion: As experimentally evident, it could be concluded that, this plant material could provide a hepatoprotective effect which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 22-26

  15. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  16. The Antioxidative Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Rosemary and Green Tea Leaves: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    *N. M. Tariq; S. U. Wisam; H. M. Faik; T. H. Mayson

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of rosemary and green tea leaves, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, have been studied by using two different methods (reducing power and chelating ability). It was found that the total phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves were 13.44, 18.75, 39.38 and 48.44 mg/ 100 mg dry extract respectively. The flavonoids (which is a part of the phenolic compounds) were found to be 9.54, 12.65, 17.69 and 22.70 mg/ 100 mg dry extract i...

  17. In vitro free radical scavenging and DNA damage protective property of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, S N; Anilakumar, K R

    2014-08-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), an everyday spice in the Indian kitchen is known to add flavor to the cuisine. It is an annual herb belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbellifera) family. The hydro-alcohol extract of Coriandrum sativum L. at the dose of 1 mg/ml was subjected to a series of in vitro assays viz. 2, 2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid, reducing power and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging in order to study its antioxidant efficacy in detail. The amount of flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract was found to be 44.5 μg and that of the total phenols was 133.74 μg gallic acid equivalents per mg extract. The extracts of the leaves showed metal chelating power, with IC50 values, 368.12 μg/ml where as that of standard EDTA was 26.7 μg/ml. The IC50 values for 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging was 222 μg/ml where as that of standard ascorbic acid was 22.6 μg/ml. The NO scavenging activity of the extract of the leaves showed IC50 value of 815.6 μg/ml; at the same time the standard BHA had 49.1 μg/ml. All the plant extracts provided DNA damage protection; however, the protection provided at the dose of 8 μg/ml was comparable to that of standard gallic acid. The Coriandrum sativum leaf extract was able to prevent in vitro lipid peroxidation with IC50 values; 589.6 μg/ml where as that of standard BHA was 16.3 μg/ml. Our results also showed significant ferric reducing power indicating the hydrogen donating ability of the extract. This study indicated the potential of the leaf extract as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals that could be of use in food industry with potential application to reduce oxidative stress in living system. PMID:25114344

  18. Evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic activity in an Aqueous Extract obtained from Bauhinia forficata leaves

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    Giovanna Christina Costa Mazzeo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia forficata Link, popularly known as pata-de-vaca, unha-de-vaca, casco-de-vaca, has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. Leaves of B. forficata are used in popular medicine as a diuretic, hypoglycemic, tonic and cleanser, and to combat elephantiasis. However, despite the wide range of ethnopharmacological data surrounding the plant, there are no scientific data demonstrating a probable anti-ulcerogenic activity conferred by use of that species. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiulcer properties of an infusion of fresh leaves of B. forficata Link. From the leaves of B. forficata, an Aqueous extract (AqE was obtained and the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonols in this extract. In the gastric ulcer induced by administration of HCl-Ethanol model performed with four different doses of AqE (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg.Kg-1, the AqE showed significant preventive activity (*p<0.01 at doses of 1000 mg.Kg-1. The antiulcer activity of AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 could also be demonstrated in experimental models of NSAID-bethanechol (**p<0.001 and absolute ethanol (**p<0.001. Moreover, AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 promoted a significant increase (**p<0.001 in the amount of gastric mucus. The data presented here demonstrated the potential gastroprotective activity from AqE, possibly attributed to the presence of flavonols in this extract. These results may serve as a support for the development of new treatments related to the pathology of gastric ulcer.Keywords: Gastric ulcer. Cytoprotection. Flavonoids. Bauhinia forficata.  

  19. Efficacy of methanolic extract of Terminalia brownii bark and leaves in treating experimentally infected rabbits

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    O. O. Thoria,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of Terminalia brownii bark and leaves was tested in rabbits, experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida strain B2. Two experiments were performed, in one using the bark and in the other using the leaves of the plant. In each experiment 30 rabbits were used and divided into 5 groups 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, and 5a and 1b, 2b, 3b, 4b and 5b. Each group was injected subcutaneously with 0.2ml of an over night broth culture of Pasturalla Multocida strain B -2 -3 -6 2 (1x10 , 1x10 and 1x10 dilution. Groups 1a and 1b were kept as control. The methanolic extract of Terminalia brownii bark and leaves was prepared as a suspension in normal saline at a concentration of 50mg/ml and given orally by stomach tube at a dose rate of 100 mg/kg body weight to each infected rabbit two days before infection and then every day after infection for 12 days. Blood samples were taken before dosing and then every 3 days after doing for counting leuckocytes and finding the percentages of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The plant extracts were found to be effective when the rabbits were infected with low doses of Pasteurella multocida strain B2. In group 5a and 5b only half of the rabbits (50% died after survival for a number of days, while the other half recovered at the end of therapy. Rabbits of the other infected groups died within 24 hours after infection.

  20. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghassan Mohammad Sulaiman; Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed; Thorria Radam Marzoog; Ahmed Abdul Amir Al-Amiery; Abdul Amir H Kadhum; Abu Bakar Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line.Methods:Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Results: UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50 ° and 44.76 °. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  1. Green synthesis,antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghassan; Mohammad; Sulaiman; Wasnaa; Hatif; Mohammed; Thorria; Radam; Marzoog; Ahmed; Abdul; Amir; Al-Amiery; Abdul; Amir; H.Kadhum; Abu; Bakar; Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana(E.chapmaniana)and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria,yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia(HL-60)cell line.Methods:Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h.A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed.Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed.Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide,a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line(HL-60).Results:UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm.X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50°and 44.76°.The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions:It has been demonstrated that the extract of E.chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution.Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  2. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 60Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC50 of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants

  3. Cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects of the methanol extract Struchium sparganophora Ktze (Asteraceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Ayinde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global research into medicinal plants used in treating tumor-related ailments has become imperative due to the emergence of various forms of cancer diseases. Usually consumed as a vegetable, Struchium sparganophora is indicated in traditional herbal medicine as one of the plants used in treating tumor-related ailments. Materials and Methods: This claim was examined using bench-top assay methods involving the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the leaves to tadpoles of Raniceps ranninus at 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml. Also, the growth inhibitory effects of the extract on guinea corn radicle at 0.5, 1.0, 2 and 4 mg/ml in addition to evaluation of the phytochemical constituents of the leaves was performed. After 24 h, the crude extract and the chloroform fraction produced the highest cytotoxicity of 96.67 ± 4.71%, each at a concentration of 80 μg/ml, while the aqueous fraction produced 100% cytotoxicity at a concentration of 20 μg/ml. Results: The crude extract had an LC50 of 26 μg/ml, the chloroform fraction had 6.25 while the aqueous fraction had 5 μg/ml. On the inhibition of the guinea corn radicle growth, after 96 h, the controls had an average length of 67.81 ± 2.6 mm, whereas the seeds treated with 4 mg/ml of the crude extract had an average length of 35.83 ±1.75 mm, indicating 47.81% reduction in length. At the same concentration, the chloroform and the aqueous fractions showed 32.51 and 43.81% inhibitions. The plant material was observed to contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids, with no traces of anthracene derivatives. Conclusion: The results suggest the probable use of the plant in preparing recipes for tumor-related ailments.

  4. IMPACT OF VERMICOMPOST EXTRACT APPLICATION INTO SOIL AND ON PLANT LEAVES ON MAIZE PHYTOMASS FORMATION

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    Peter Kováčik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in scientific literature many opposing data are presented of the impacts of vermicompost extract on the quantity and quality of crop production. Therefore, the principal objective of two independent experiments was to study the effects of vermi-extracts, which were applied before maize sowing into soil and during the growing season on the maize leaves, on its phytomass formation. The first, field experiment consisted of 9 variants. Variant 1 was the control one without the extract application. We studied the effect of the rising doses (90, 130, 170, 210 dm3·ha-1 of vermi-extract applied into soil before the maize sowing in the variants E1, E2, E3, E4. In the variants E1+E, E2+E, E3+E, E4+E along with the rising doses of vermi-extract was also applied the uniform dose of vermi-extract (40 dm3·ha-1 at the growth stage BBCH 15. The second, pot experiment was pursued in the vegetation cage and comprised 3 variants: variant 1 was the control, in the variants 2 and 3 the foliar application of vermi-extract was used. The vermi-extract was applied once (growth stage BBCH 12 in the variant 2 and in the variant 3 it was used twice (at growth stages BBCH 12 and BBCH 16. The achieved results show that the vermi-extract applied in the presowing period increased the yield of maize grains if the application doses were 130–170 dm3·ha-1. The positive or negative impact of the foliar application by vermi-extract on the yield of maize grains depended on the period of application and the grown cultivar. In order to increase the starch content in grains it was more suitable to carry out the presowing vermi-extract application than during the growing season. The presowing application and the foliar application of vermi-extract tended to decrease the nitrogen content in grain. The foliar application of vermi-extract had the positive impact on the plant height and stalk thickness of the maize plants only in short term. The information obtained from the

  5. Punica granatum leave extract as green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in Hydrochloric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Abboud Y.; Chagraoui A.; Tanane O.; El Bouari A.; Hannache H.

    2013-01-01

    Leave of Punica granatum extract (LPGE) as green inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 1M HCl solution was studied using weight-loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results obtained revealed that LPGE has fairly good inhibiting properties for mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution, with efficiency of around 94 % at a concentration of 1 g/l. The inhibition was of a mixed anodic–cathodic nature. The film which is formed over the metal surface was analysed by FT-IR spe...

  6. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).Th...

  7. EVALUATION OF ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES IN RATS

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    Gadekar Dayanand H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydro-alcoholic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa of leaves was investigated for evaluation of exhibited anxiolytic activity in rats at a dose 100 and 200 mg/kg by p.o. route for Elevated Plus Maze test, Hole Board Test, Ketamine induced Sleep and Haloperidol Induced Catalepsy method.. Results of in-vivo activity lead to the conclusion that the hydro-alcoholic of Boerhaavia diffusa showed predominantly significant activity which is compared to the standard drug Diazepam (0.5mg/kg.

  8. Evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala in rats

    OpenAIRE

    NagaRaju, Bandaru; Ch, S.Vidhyadhara; Kumar, Aruna; Vikas, S.

    2016-01-01

                         The present study was designed to scientifically evaluate the cardio protective potential of Ethanolic Extract of dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (Family: Lauraceae) (EECT), against doxorubicin induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats. Myocardial infarction was produced in rats with 15mg/kg of doxorubicin administered intraperitoneally (i.p), in six divided doses for two weeks. Effect of oral treatment of EECT at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight), bot...

  9. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Maznah Ismail; Shahid Iqbal; Umer Younas; Kim Wei Chan; Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of differen...

  10. Phytochemical studies of various polarities leave crude extracts of Omani Datura metel L. and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Saleh Hamed Al-Jafari; Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the chemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial potential of various crude extracts from leaves of Datura metel grown in Oman. Methods: The leaf samples were collected from the University of Nizwa and extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. The isolated crude extract was defatted with distilled water and extracted with solvents of different polarities including hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Chemical compositions of the cr...

  11. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    Shradha Bisht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed before starting the experiment and blood glucose level was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way Analysis of Variance (using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences [SPSS] version 10.0 and student′s ′t′- test (Sigma Plot version 8.0. The values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results : Treatment of diabetic animals with Cinnamomum tamala extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level, and maintained body weight and lipid-profile parameters towards near normal range. Conclusion : The extract exhibited antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effect. Further, chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of this extract and to isolate the active principles responsible for these effects.

  12. Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni fruit, leaves and root extracts

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    Mandukhail Saf-ur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F, leaves (Mc.Cr.L and roots (Mc.Cr.R. Results Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption. Conclusions These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia.

  13. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves

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    Salazar Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 μg of venom kg-1 b.m. lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1 and quercetrin (2. The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY. A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 μmol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract.

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of methylxanthines from maté tea leaves

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    M.D.A. Saldaña

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylxanthines are alkaloids found in natural products such as tea, coffee and guaraná. These alkaloids are commonly used in cola drinks and pharmaceutical products due principally to their stimulant and diuretic effects on the human organism. In this work, experimental data on the supercritical CO2 extraction of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine from herbal maté tea, a beverage traditionally consumed by the gauchos of southern Brazil, the Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay, were obtained using high pressure extraction equipment that allows adequate control of temperature and pressure. The continuous extraction/fractionation of maté tea leaves, Ilex paraguariensis in natura using carbon dioxide was carried out at 313.2 and 343.2 K and pressures of 13.8 and 25.5 MPa. Extraction/fractionation curves revealed the large influence of temperature and pressure on extraction yield. CO2 was also found to show a higher selectivity for caffeine than for theophylline and theobromine.

  15. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

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    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  16. FORMULATION OF AN ANTI-DERMATOPHYTE CREAM FROM HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS LEAVES

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    E Moghimipour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, there has been an increasing incidence of fungal infections, and because of drug resistance and toxicity associated with long-term treatment with antifungal drugs, search for new drugs to treat fungal infections is ongoing. The aim of the present study was to formulate herbal antifungal cream containing hydro-alcoholic extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis as an anti-dermatophytic preparation and evaluate its physicochemical properties and stability. Firstly, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of E. camaldulensis was determined against various dermatophyte species by in vitro tube dilution technique. To select the best cream formulation, one general formula of cleansing cream was considered and then corrected. The best base formula was chosen according to its monotonousness, straightness and external attractiveness. The formulation containing 1% of the plant extract was prepared and controlled by standard methods. Finally, a cream containing bees wax 10%, liquid paraffin 58.8%, hard paraffin 1.2%, spermaceti 5%, borax 1.5%, tween 80 1.5%, 0.15% methyl paraben, 0.05% propyl paraben, 0.15% lactic acid, 1% Eucalyptus extract and water was chosen as the best formulation. The final product was a w/o emulsion cream with suitable appearance and desirable physicochemical stability. Due to the stability of the extract in the cream formulation, it can be formulated for treatment of fungal skin infections.

  17. Larvicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves extract on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    K. Dass

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic and chemical insecticides to control mosquitoes result in environment hazards and development of resistance in vector species. This research work is about an alternative mosquito control method that is considered as safe to environment and non-target species and also bio-degradable. Hence an attempt was made to study the larvicidal effect of the extract of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves on III and IV instar larva and pupa of Culex quinquefasciatus. The LC50 value of Murraya exotica for III and IV instar larvae and pupae is 135.539 ppm, 154.361 ppm and 178.571 ppm respectively. Likewise for Lawsonia inermis it is 139.057 for III instar, 163.630 for IV instar and 188.151 for the pupa. Of these, two plants Murraya exotica plant extract is more effective than the Lawsonia inermis.

  18. Visible light absorption and photo-sensitizing properties of spinach leaves and beetroot extracted natural dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Herein, chlorophyll and betalain dyes are extracted from fresh spinach leaves and beetroots. Fourier transform infrared spectra are used to identify the characteristic peaks of the extracted dyes. UV-vis light absorption characteristics of the dyes and their mixed counterpart are investigated by varying their pH and temperature. These dyes are used as photo sensitizer for fabrication of zinc oxide photo-anode based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photo-voltaic characteristics of the developed DSSCs are measured under simulated solar light (power of incident light 100 mW cm-2 from Air Mass 1.5G). The solar to electric conversion efficiencies for the chlorophyll, betalain and mixed dye based solar cells are estimated as 0.148%, 0.197% and 0.294% respectively. The highest conversion efficiency for mixed dye based solar cell is attributed due to the absorption of wider range of solar spectrum.

  19. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Antidermatophytic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Raamphal Plant (Annona reticulata Aqueous Leaves Extract

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    P. Shivakumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Annona reticulata leaf aqueous extract. The biosynthesised silver nanoparticles were confirmed by visual observation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of dark brown colour indicated the synthesis of silver in the reaction mixture. The silver nanoparticles were found to be spherical, rod, and triangular in shape with variable size ranging from 23.84 to 50.54 nm, as evident by X-ray diffraction studies, TEM. The X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and TEM analysis indicate that the particles are crystalline in nature. The nanoparticles appeared to be associated with some chemical compounds which possess hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, confirmed by FTIR. This is the first and novel report of silver nanoparticles synthesised from Annona reticulata leaves extract and their antidermatophytic activity.

  20. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

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    Badrul Alam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities ofthe methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL. Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO- as well as  inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p

  1. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF MAYTENUS EMARGINATA (WILLD. DING HOU LEAVES

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    Poonia Lalita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus emarginata (Willd. Dind Hou belongs to family Celastraceae, is an evergreen tree that tolerates various types of stresses of the desert, locally known as “Kankero”. Maytenus emarginata has been used for fever, asthama, rheumatism and gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Maytenus emarginata was investigated in rats to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity by using aspirin induced gastric ulcer pyloric ligation model. The parameters taken to assess anti-ulcer activity were volume of gastric secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. In present study the orally administered alcoholic extract significantly (P < 0.05 increases pH and decreases the volume of gastric acid secretion, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index with respect to control at a dose of 125 and 187 mg/kg body weight. This study lend support to the traditional use of Maytenus emarginata as antiulcerogenic.

  2. ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF ETANOLIC EXTRACT OF BAY LEAVES (SYZYGIUM POLYANTHUM [WIGHT.] WALP.

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    Abd. Malik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia people have been used of Bay Leaves (S. polyanthum [Wight.] Walp. to treat of antidiarrhea, cholesterol, hypertension, gastritis, and diabetes mellitus. Extrac of Bay Leaves can be inhibit growth of Escherichia coli, Vibrio Cholera, and Salmonella sp. It’s the bacterium that produce an entherotoxin so as to cause diarrhoea. Bioassay of antidiarrheal activity by using transit intestinal method and mice (Mus musculus as an animal model induced by castor oil. The mice were grouped into five groups. Group I is received Na-CMC as control, group II, III, and IV are received of Ethanolic Extract of Bay Leaves (EEBL with concentration 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively and group V as positive control by received Loperamide-HCl. The charcoal used to marker as indicators. The result of the test indicate that EEBL have antidiarrheal activity to animal model. Refers to analysis of variant p=0.05, showing that concentration 30% has an activity non significant with loperamide-HCl as positive control.

  3. Biological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Phthirusa pyrifolia (Kunth Eichler Leaves

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    Romero M.P.B. Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phthirusa pyrifolia (Kunth Eichler is claimed in medicinal practice in Brazil, to be useful in the treatment of respiratory diseases and liver injury, aphrodisiac effect, and also for to its antimicrobial properties, and is also used in Peru to treat fractures and sprains. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous extract from P. pyrifolia leaves in male rats submitted to oral administration. Animals in experimental protocol were submitted to natural oral ingestion of P. pyrifolia leaves aqueous extract over to 12 days. Total blood aliquots were collected for hormonal and biochemical-hematological analysis. After the treatment period, the rats were subcutaneously anesthetized, euthanized and afterwards orchidectomized. The biochemical parameters revealed a significant decrease in aspartate-aminotransferase, alanineaminotransferase and alkaline-phosphatase enzyme levels by about 40%, 27% and 52%, respectively. However, the extract does not cause liver injury and no impairment of renal function as well no affect any hematological parameters, but the histological analysis revealed a somatic action on the testes. The testosterone hormone levels of treated rats were drastically affected and showed a higher decrease (p<0.05 of about 82.31% than compared with the control, 46.0 (± 8.1 ng/dL and 260.0 (±4.1 ng/dL, respectively. We believe that the aqueous extract may be responsible to promote a decrease in the libido and reproduction in male rats, and induces hepatic-protective effects. Our results contribute towards validation of the traditional use of the plant.

  4. Free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Luffa cylindrica leaves

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    Neeraj Kant Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Free radicals contribute to more than one hundred disorders in humans including atherosclerosis, hypertension, arthritis, ischemia, gastritis, central nervous system injury, reperfusion injury of many tissues, cancer, Alzheimer′s disease, Parkinsonism, diabetes mellitus and AIDS. There is considerable evidence that antioxidants could help to prevent these diseases because they have the capacity to quench free radicals. Aim: Free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of the leaves of Luffa cylindrica (MELC was evaluated in various in vitro systems. Materials and Methods: The methods were extensively reviewed and free radical scavenging activity was performed by employing various in-vitro assay methods like DPPH, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activities. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Dunnett′s multiple comparison test and were expressed as mean ± SE of three observations. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: In all the studies, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals. The preliminary phytochemical screening of MELC indicated the presence of terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids and glycosides. The extract was found to contain 53.78 ± 1.01 =g/mg total polyphenolics expressed as GAE (micrograms per milligram of GAE. Conclusion: The results of the study suggested that the methanolic extract of the leaves of Luffa cylindrica possessed a significant scavenging effect with increasing concentrations probably due to its antioxidant potential and could serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants effective in treatments against free radical mediated diseases.

  5. Measurements of essential oil extract and antioxidant in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves using photo chemiluminescence assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential oil extracts and antioxidant measurements of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves as hydrophilic and hydrophobic existence species have been carried out. The plant leaves as a source of antioxidants was tested by the influence of its aqueous and essential oil extracts on the yield of photo chemiluminescence, PCL solution applying very sensitive and reliable method. By means of a photo chemiluminescence assay, it was possible to assess the total antioxidants capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic species existence in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves. It has been found that, the integral antioxidant capacity measurements value of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves was found in Kurdaha site which has a value of 465.67 1.18 nmol TE/g DM (total Trolox equivalent /gram of Dry material) . The following three mainly chemical species were found in the essential oil extracts: -Pinene, Cineole and Limonene. (author)

  6. Extraction of antibacterial active compounds from dry leaves of African plants of the Combretaceae family

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    Stefano Banfi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dry leaves of two African plants of the Combretaceae family, furnished by the botanist of the St. Jean de Dieu hospital of Tangueità (Benin, central Africa,were extracted with a sequence of 5 solvents with increasing polarity (from cyclohexane to water.The raw materials, obtained from these extractions following solvent evaporations, were tested for antibiotic activity against gram negative and gram positive bacterial strains. According to the results of a modified Kirby-Bauer test, no promising effect was obtained against Gram negative bacteria while interesting dose-effect activities were observed against Gram positive strains. In particular, from G. senegalensis active compounds were found in the low polarity extract (dichloromethane which, at a concentration of 800 μg/disk (13 mm diameter disk, resulted in a grow inhibition crown of 4.7 mm and 2.6 mm on Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus MSSA, respectively. An higher amount of the aqueous extract (4760 μg/disk also produced a good result as 5.7 mm and 5.0 mm crowns were observed. The extracts from C. micranthum showed an inhibiting effect in the more polar extracts (i.e. from ethanol and water which gave 1 mm of grow inhibition crown on both strains at a concentration of 1000 μg/disk. The most promising extract from each plant was partially purified and then tested on some clinical relevant bacterial strains: S. aureus MRSA, Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Corynebacterium striatum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophylus influenzae, Escherichia coli, obtaining a good killing effects on the Gram positive bacteria of the panel.

  7. Aqueous Extract of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Leaves as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

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    Ambrish Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by the extract of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata leaves extract has been studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. The effect of temperature, immersion time, and acid concentration on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 1 M HCl with addition of extract was also studied. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The adsorption of the molecules of the extract on the mild steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The protective film formed on the metal surface was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results obtained showed that the extract of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata leaves extract could serve as an effective inhibitor of the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid media.

  8. RP-HPLC Analysis of Quercetin in the Extract of Sambong (Blumea balsamifera (L DC Leaves

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    Joanna V. Toralba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Blumea balsamifera (L DC, known in the Philippines as sambong, is an herb valued for its health benef its especially in the management of urolithiasis. Various phytochemicals, including flavonoids such as quercetin, have been determined in sambong leaves. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC was developed for the quantitative determination of quercetin in the methanol extract of sambong leaves obtained from Leyte, Cotabato, and Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The methanol extracts of sambong were prepared by maceration followed by rotary evaporation. The solid phase extraction (SPE for the sample cleanup involved the use of a C18 SPE packing, a 0.5-mL sample load (50 mg/mL solution, and elution with 4-mL of 80:20 Methanol:0.5% H3PO4. The HPLC conditions for the determination of quercetin involved the use of a C18 4.6-mm x 250-mm column maintained at 30°C, 254-nm UV detection, and a mobile phase composition of 25 parts methanol and 75 parts mixture of 0.5% H3PO4 and 0.2% triethylamine with a 1 mL/min flow rate in gradient elution. A good linearity at the concentration range of 3.72–124 μg/mL of quercetin standard (r2=0.9989 was observed with the limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ at 0.68 ng/mL and 2.28 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day (n=5- and inter-day (n=3 precision values were satisfactory (%RSD <2%. The recovery eff iciency of the SPE sample cleanup step, which was checked by spiking sambong solution with quercetin standard, was 102.41%. The quercetin contents are 0.2337mg, 0.1350mg, and 0.2940mg per gram of the powdered dried leaves of sambong from Nueva Ecija, Cotabato, and Leyte, respectively. This is the f irst report of quercetin content in the leaves of sambong collected from the Philippines.

  9. Sub-chronic safety evaluation of the ethanol extract of Aralia elata leaves in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjin; He, Xiaoli; Niu, Wenying; Feng, Yuenan; Bian, Jingqi; Kuang, Haixue; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-08-01

    Aralia elata Seem. (A. elata) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat some diseases. This investigation aims to evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of the ethanol extract of A. elata leaves, namely ethanol leaves extract (ELE), in Beagle dogs. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, dogs were treated with the ELE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 12 weeks and followed by 4 weeks recovery period. During experimental period, clinical signs, mortality, body temperature, food consumption and body weight were recorded. Analysis of electrocardiogram, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights and histopathology were performed. The results showed that both food consumption and body weight significantly decreased in high-dose group. Treatment-related side effects and mortality were observed in high-dose female dogs. Some parameters showed significant alterations in electrocardiogram, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and relative organ weights. These alterations were not related to dose or consistent across gender, which were ascribed to incidental and biological variability. The findings in this study indicated that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the ELE was 100 mg/kg in dogs and provided a vital reference for selecting a safe application dosage for human consumption. PMID:27156779

  10. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material. PMID:3436916

  11. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract from Jacaranda decurrens leaves.

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    Junior Cesar Casagrande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leaves of Jacaranda decurrens are used in traditional Brazilian medicine to treat metabolic diseases related to increased reactive oxygen species. The present study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of hydroethanolic extract from the leaves of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and saponins were evaluated in an ethanol:water (80:20, v/v extract from the leaves of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata (E-Jds. The antioxidant activity of E-Jds was investigated by assessing the following: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity; protection against 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes; in vitro and in vivo malondialdehyde dosage; and the ability to activate antioxidant enzymes. K562 leukemia cells were used for the cytotoxic evaluation of E-Jds and for the assessment of the cell death profile through flow cytometry. KEY RESULTS: Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were quantified as 14.38% and 2.15%, respectively, of E-Jds. These phenolic and flavonoid compounds proved to be able to scavenge DPPH free radicals with an IC50 of 9.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL, to protect up to 50% of erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis and to reduce in vitro and in vivo malondialdehyde levels up to 84% and 22%, respectively. E-Jds also increased glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, with a concomitant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, and exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity on K562 erythroleukemia cells with cell death occurring via both late apoptosis and necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: E-Jds exhibits in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential, which may be the mechanism mediating the metabolic activities reported in folk medicine. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity identified in this study contributes with the knowledge of antiproliferative activities that have

  12. Antifilarial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex negundo leaves in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KN; Sahare; V; Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the possible antifilarial effect of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex negundo(Verhenaceae)leaves against Selaria cervi filarial parasite in vitro.Methods:In vitro screening was done by the method of motility inhibition and NTT reduction assay with concentralions of0.03 to 1.00 mg/mL for 2 to 24 h incubation periods respectively,for possible antifilarial effect by comparing with control.Results:In motility assay,complete inhibition of motility was observed and in MTT reduction assay which gave>50%reduction for concentrations 0.20,0.50and 1.00 mg/mL at 10,6 and 2 h incubation periods respectively in a dose dependent manner(P<0.05).An antifilarial effect imparted by plant extract was found to be a function of their relative concentrations.Inhibitory concentration(IC50)for the plant extract was found to be 0.16mg/mL.Conclusions:The present study recorded significant antifilarial effect of Vitex negundo plant extract and contributed toward the development of database for novel drug candidates for lymphatic fllariasis.

  13. Antifilarial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex negundo leaves in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KN Sahare; V Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the possible antifilarial effect of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) leaves against Setaria cervi filarial parasite in vitro. Methods:In vitro screening was done by the method of motility inhibition and MTT reduction assay with concentrations of 0.03 to 1.00 mg/mL for 2 to 24 h incubation periods respectively, for possible antifilarial effect by comparing with control. Results: In motility assay, complete inhibition of motility was observed and in MTT reduction assay which gave>50%reduction for concentrations 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/mL at 10, 6 and 2 h incubation periods respectively in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). An antifilarial effect imparted by plant extract was found to be a function of their relative concentrations. Inhibitory concentration (IC50) for the plant extract was found to be 0.16 mg/mL. Conclusions:The present study recorded significant antifilarial effect of Vitex negundo plant extract and contributed toward the development of database for novel drug candidates for lymphatic filariasis.

  14. Methanol and Butanol Extracts of Paeonia lutea Leaves Repress Metastasis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukudai, Yoshiki; Zhang, Meilin; Shiogama, Sunao; Kondo, Seiji; Ito, Chihiro; Motohashi, Hiromi; Kato, Kosuke; Fujii, Miharu; Shintani, Satoru; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Shirota, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common cancers of the head and neck region worldwide and is generally treated surgically in combination with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. However, anticancer agents have numerous serious side effects, and alternative, less toxic agents that are effective as chemotherapeutics for SCC are required. The Paeoniaceae family is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. We examined methanol and butanol extracts of Paeonia lutea (P. lutea) leaves for their potential as an anticancer agent. Both extracts decreased the proliferation of SCC cells, induced apoptotic cell death, and modulated migration, adhesion, chemotaxis, and haptotaxis in an extracellular matrix- (ECM-) dependent manner due to altered expression of several integrin subunits. Subsequently, SCC cells were subcutaneously transplanted into athymic nude mice; the extracts reduced the metastasis of SCC cells but had little effect on the volume of the primary tumor or survival or body weight of the mice. The results suggest that the extracts may hold promise for preventing cancer metastasis. PMID:27293462

  15. Novel sustained-release of Stryphnodendron obovatum leaves extract using natural rubber latex as carrier

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    Felipe Azevedo Borges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex biomembranes (NRL, obtained from rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Mull. Arg., have been used as sustained drug release of drugs and plant extracts with medicinal properties. The Stryphnodendron obovatum Bench (Fabaceae, popularly known as “barbatimão” has anti-inflammatory and healing properties already described in literature. Thus, the aim of this work were to study the release behavior of the hydroethanolic extract from the leaves of S. obovatum loaded in the NRL by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS. The release followed a bi- exponential pattern and the mechanism of release was Super Case II (n > 1. FTIR analyses did not show reaction between NRL and extract, only intermolecular interaction. From SEM was possible to observe the extract at the surface, responsible for the initial fast release, which the concentrations at 5.0 mg/mL released 2.4% and at 0.1 mg/mL released 96.8%; both reached the plateau in 7 days.Keywords: Stryphnodendron obovatum. Hevea brasiliensis. Sustained release. Barbatimão. Tannin. Natural rubber latex.  

  16. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

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    Fabio F. Perazzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  17. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  18. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Gori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cistus incanus (Cistaceae is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction, AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions, were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2. These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations.

  19. Antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and chemical composition of extracts from the leaves and stem of Chresta sphaerocephala

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    Larissa Saito da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of crude extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol from leaves and stem of Chresta sphaerocephala DC., Asteraceae, were investigated. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against ten human cancer cells and against VERO (no cancer cell. Antioxidant activities were determined using DPPH and ORAC-FL assays and the total phenolic content was estimated by Folin–Ciocalteu method. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts (leaves and stem exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI between 50.40 and 250 µg/ml. For VERO cell, TGI values were >250 µg/ml for all extracts, except to hexane extract of the stem (TGI 80.92 µg/ml. In an initial evaluation, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts (leaves and stem have shown levels of phenolic compounds between 6.94 and 30.96 mg GAE/kg in Folin–Ciocalteu assay, DPPH free-radical scavenging activity with SC50 in the range of 75.22 and 400 µg/ml and antioxidant capacity between 290.08 and 1088 µmol TE/g of extract in ORAC-FL assay. HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS analysis allowed the identification of flavonoids in the methanol extract from the leaves of C. sphaerocephala. Three steroids and nine triterpenoids were identified in the bioactive hexane extracts using HRGC.

  20. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. PMID:10685105

  1. Characterization of Melanogenesis Inhibitory Constituents of Morus alba Leaves and Optimization of Extraction Conditions Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Ji Yeon Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a natural pigment that plays an important role in the protection of skin, however, hyperpigmentation cause by excessive levels of melatonin is associated with several problems. Therefore, melanogenesis inhibitory natural products have been developed by the cosmetic industry as skin medications. The leaves of Morus alba (Moraceae have been reported to inhibit melanogenesis, therefore, characterization of the melanogenesis inhibitory constituents of M. alba leaves was attempted in this study. Twenty compounds including eight benzofurans, 10 flavonoids, one stilbenoid and one chalcone were isolated from M. alba leaves and these phenolic constituents were shown to significantly inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B6F10 melanoma cells. To maximize the melanogenesis inhibitory activity and active phenolic contents, optimized M. alba leave extraction conditions were predicted using response surface methodology as a methanol concentration of 85.2%; an extraction temperature of 53.2 °C and an extraction time of 2 h. The tyrosinase inhibition and total phenolic content under optimal conditions were found to be 74.8% inhibition and 24.8 μg GAE/mg extract, which were well-matched with the predicted values of 75.0% inhibition and 23.8 μg GAE/mg extract. These results shall provide useful information about melanogenesis inhibitory constituents and optimized extracts from M. alba leaves as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce skin hyperpigmentation.

  2. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

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    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  3. Antioxidant activities of extracts and main components of Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Fu, Kuang; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Yung-Husan; Liu, Xiao-Lei; Kong, Yu; Liu, Wei; Gu, Cheng-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves, as well as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions and the four main compounds separated from the ethanol extract, i.e. cajaninstilbene acid (3-hydroxy-4-prenylmethoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid), pinostrobin, vitexin and orientin, were examined by a DPPH radical-scavenging assay and a beta-carotene-linoleic acid test. In the DPPH system, the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was superior to that of the aqueous extracts, with IC(50) values were 242.01 and 404.91 microg/mL, respectively. Among the four fractions, the ethyl acetate one showed the highest scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 194.98 microg/mL. Cajaninstilbene acid (302.12 microg/mL) and orientin (316.21 microg/mL) showed more efficient radical-scavenging abilities than pinostrobin and vitexin. In the beta-carotene-linoleic acid test, the inhibition ratio (%) of the ethyl acetate fraction (94.13%+/-3.41%) was found to be the highest, being almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (93.89%+/-1.45%) at 4 mg/mL. Pinostrobin (>500 microg/mL) and vitexin (>500 microg/mL) showed insignificant antioxidant activities compared with cajaninstilbene (321.53 microg/mL) and orientin (444.61 microg/mL). In general, the ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract showed greater activity than the main compounds in both systems, such results might be attributed to the synergistic effects of the components. The antioxidant activities of all the tested samples were concentration-dependent. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that the pigeonpea leaf extracts may be valuable natural antioxidant sources and are potentially applicable in both medicine and the healthy food industry. PMID:19305357

  4. Antioxidant Activities of Extracts and Main Components of Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.] Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.] leaves, as well as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions and the four main compounds separated from the ethanol extract, i.e. cajaninstilbene acid (3-hydroxy-4-prenylmethoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid, pinostrobin, vitexin and orientin, were examined by a DPPH radical-scavenging assay and a β-carotene-linoleic acid test. In the DPPH system, the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was superior to that of the aqueous extracts, with IC50 values were 242.01 and 404.91 µg/mL, respectively. Among the four fractions, the ethyl acetate one showed the highest scavenging activity, with an IC50 value of 194.98 µg/mL. Cajaninstilbene acid (302.12 µg/mL and orientin (316.21 µg/mL showed more efficient radical-scavenging abilities than pinostrobin and vitexin. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid test, the inhibition ratio (% of the ethyl acetate fraction (94.13%±3.41% was found to be the highest, being almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (93.89%±1.45% at 4 mg/mL. Pinostrobin (>500 µg/mL and vitexin (>500 µg/mL showed insignificant antioxidant activities compared with cajaninstilbene (321.53 µg/mL and orientin (444.61 µg/mL. In general, the ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract showed greater activity than the main compounds in both systems, such results might be attributed to the synergistic effects of the components. The antioxidant activities of all the tested samples were concentration-dependent. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that the pigeonpea leaf extracts may be valuable natural antioxidant sources and are potentially applicable in both medicine and the healthy food industry.

  5. Antioxidant activity of raspberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves extract and its effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Tajik, Raheleh; Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein Haddad

    2015-08-01

    Efficacy of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilizing sunflower oil during accelerated storage has been studied. Extracts of R. fruticosus were prepared in different solvents which methanolic extract yield with 15.43 % was higher than water and acetone ones (11.87 and 6.62 %, respectively). Methanolic extract was chosen to evaluate its thermal stability at 70 °C in sunflower oil, due to the highest yield, antioxidant and antiradical potential and also high content of phenolic compounds campared to other solvents. So, different concentrations of methanolic extract (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 ppm) were added to sunflower oil. BHA and BHT at 200 ppm served as standards besides the control. Peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Moreover, antioxidant activity index (AAI) of the extract at 120 °C at rancimat were conducted. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting the highest efficiency of 1,000 ppm of the extract followed by BHT, BHA and other concentrations of the extract. Results reveal the R. fruticosus leaves extract to be a potent antioxidant for stabilization of sunflower oil. PMID:26243940

  6. Methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera leaves, fruits and roots possess antioxidant properties and antibacterial activities

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    Alam Nadia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt, fruits (WSFEt and leaves (WSLEt. Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 μg/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition, whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi.

  7. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits,flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L.from Jaffna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E; Christy; Jeyaseelan; S; Jenothiny; MK; Pathmanathan; JP; Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits,flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis(L against)some pathogenic bacteria.Methods:Powders of fruits,flowers and leaves of L inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane(DCM),ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature.The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method,and also the extracts were tested to detennine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly(P<0.05).The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus)and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa),and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli(E.coli)and Bacillus subtilis(6.subtilis).The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower,fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100μl against all test bacteria.Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  8. Preliminary Study on Kinetic Solid-Liquid Extraction and Bio-Active Components Analysis of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis or commonly known as 'Hibiscus' is a kind of decorative flowers which often grown in a subtropical countries. This plant is often used in the preparation of traditional medicine because of its pharmacological properties that are capable of treating number of health problems. The plant contains several essential bio-active substances and nutrients especially in its flowers and leaves. One of the bioactive substances is β-sitosterol which is abundant in the leaf crude extract. Hibiscus leaves water extract yielded mucilage which is widely used in lowering high body temperature due to fever (antipyretic). Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to determine the maximum concentration of mucilage and time of exhaustive extraction from fresh and dried leaves using a Peleq's mathematical model. Moreover, several analyses were conducted such as qualitative analysis to determine the presence of bioactive substances using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determination of functional groups by means of fourier transform infrared method (FTIR). Physical properties of the extracts were evaluated to determine its acidity and viscosity of the mucilage with respect to different shear stress. The result show that the extract of dried Hibiscus leaves exhibited high in its concentrations even though the achieved exhaustive extraction was relatively slow as compared to fresh leaves (p < 0.05). Based on the HPLC analysis, the main bio-active substances of β-sitosterol was only existed in fresh leaves samples. The absence of β-sitosterol in dried leaves extract was caused by the loss of other important bio-active substances which possess surfactant capability, due to thermal degradation of drying process or the component itself was deteriorated during the pre-preparation drying process. Furthermore, the FTIR analysis shows that the same composition of the absorption peaks for both extracts with the highest absorption of O-H bonds was

  9. Aqueous Extract of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) Leaves as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrish Singh; Singh, V. K.; M.A. Quraishi

    2010-01-01

    The inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by the extract of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) leaves extract has been studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. The effect of temperature, immersion time, and acid concentration on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 1 M HCl with addition of...

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRACT OF SUCCULENT LEAVES OF LIVING PLANT WITH METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BERLERIA LUPULINA LINDL. AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROBES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berleria lupulina Lindl. was evaluated for its reported antimicrobial activity in a novel way. The extract of succulent leaves collected from living plant was studied along with conventional methanolic and watery extracts made from the dry leaves of the plant. The extracts were tested on three pathogenic bacteria and the antimicrobial activity was tested both by conventional single disc diffusion method and a novel Spectrophotometric method. In disc diffusion study, it was found that the methanolic extract (100 mg/ml. and 200 mg/ ml. diluted in 70% of methanol and extract of succulent leaves can induce 12 mm, 13 mm and 14 mm diameter zone of inhibition comparable with 24 mm of Ceftriaxone against Escherichia coli. The zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus were 13 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 25 mm and against Salmonella enteritides were 12 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 28 mm correspondingly. The watery extract made from the dry plant and the methanolic extract diluted in water failed to induce any inhibition in growth of the organisms. In spectrophotometric study, the methanolic extract showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. or above against Salmonella enteritides and Staphylococcus aureus. But against Escherichia coli, effective control was found in 20 mg/ml concentration. The fresh extract of the plant showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 16.5%. The anti microbial efficacy above that concentration cannot be detected in the available spectrophotometrical method for presence of color material in that fresh extract.

  11. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57 °C, an extraction time of 80 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53 mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.92 ± 0.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10 μg/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry. PMID:26686153

  12. Optimization of DNA Extraction for RAPD and ISSR Analysis of Arbutus unedo L. Leaves

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    Paula Baptista

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis of plants relies on high yields of pure DNA. For the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo this represents a great challenge since leaves can accumulate large amounts of polysaccharides, polyphenols and secondary metabolites, which co-purify with DNA. For this specie, standard protocols do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Here, we present for the first time an improved leaf-tissue protocol, based on the standard cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide protocol, which yields large amounts of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Key steps in the optimized protocol are the addition of antioxidant compounds—namely polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT and 2-mercaptoethanol, in the extraction buffer; the increasing of CTAB (3%, w/v and sodium chloride (2M concentration; and an extraction with organic solvents (phenol and chloroform with the incubation of samples on ice. Increasing the temperature for cell lyses to 70 °C also improved both DNA quality and yield. The yield of DNA extracted was 200.0 ± 78.0 µg/µL and the purity, evaluated by the ratio A260/A280, was 1.80 ± 0.021, indicative of minimal levels of contaminating metabolites. The quality of the DNA isolated was confirmed by random amplification polymorphism DNA and by inter-simple sequence repeat amplification, proving that the DNA can be amplified via PCR.

  13. Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved

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    M. H. Mohd. Sani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test and thermal (hot plate test models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg was administered orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P<0.05 antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO donor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS, methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway, or their combination also caused significant (P<0.05 change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.

  14. Free radical scavenging and anti-edematogenic activities of Paullinia elegans Cambess., Sapindaceae, leaves extracts

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    Rodrigo N. Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract of the leaves of Paullinia elegans Cambess., Sapindaceae, and its hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and hydroethanol fractions were evaluated for their antiedematogenic and free radical scavenging activities. The ethanol extract and the hexane fraction produced statistically significant inhibition (74.4 and 76.0%, respectively of the ear edema induced by croton oil in mice, observed at doses of 5 mg/ear. The ethyl acetate and hydroethanol fractions showed significant radical scavenging effect in the DPPH assay, with IC50 of 36.7 and 30.1 µg/mL, respectively. Fractionation of the extracts through chromatographic methods afforded epifriedelanol, oleanolic acid 3-O-acetyl, a mixture of stigmasterol 3-β-O-glucopyranoside and sitosterol 3-β-O-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3,7-O-α-dirhamnopyranoside, kaempeferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside and 2-O-methyl-chiro-inositol. The compounds were identified on the basis of their NMR spectral data and comparison with those of literature.

  15. Antidiabetic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Polygonum glabrum Wild Leaves in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Faheemuddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the Plant leaves of Polygonum glabrum in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats using freshly prepared solution of Alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg b. wt. by Intraperitoneal route of drug administration. Methanolic extract of Polygonum glabrum (200, 400 mg/kg bwt/p.o was prepared freshly, administered to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 28 days. The standard drug glibenclamide (10 mg/kg of b. wt orally. Blood glucose levels was estimated on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days, serum glucose level, lipid profile, and histopathological changes in pancreas were examined after 28 days. OGTT was performed by administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w/p.o of methanolic extract of Polygonum glabrum and 10 mg/kg b.w /p.o of Glibenclamide to different groups respectively in normal rats. Results: significant(p<0.001 results were observed in the estimated parameters like reduction in blood glucose , Improved in regeneration of beta cells of langerhans of pancreas in rats by histopathological studies. Conclusion: The results were suggested that the whole plant extract of Polygonum glabrum having potent antidiabetic activity on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  16. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim S. Allaf

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME and conventional hydrodistillation (HD. Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM; it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.

  17. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  18. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  19. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Xanthium strumarium Linn. leaves extract in Swiss albino mice

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    Akarte Atul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the probable antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in Swiss albino mice by using models of Eddy′s hot plate test, tail immersion test and acetic acid induce writhing test. Swiss albino mice were treated i.p. with saline water (control, test group treated with 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg extract per oral, standard group treated with pentazocin 3 mg/kg. The results are expressed as the mean ± SEM. and statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by a Student-Newman-keuls test for multiple comparisons using Graph Pad Instant statistical program. Values of p < 0.05 were considered to be significant. The ethanolic extract showed the dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in Eddy′s hot plate test, tail immersion test and acetic acid induce writhing test at time intervals 15, 30, 60 and 120 min.

  20. Extraction, Preconcentration and Isolation of Flavonoids from Apocynum venetum L. Leaves Using Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction Coupled with an Aqueous Biphasic System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhijian Tan; Yongjian Yi; Hongying Wang; Wanlai Zhou; Chaoyun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as green solvents, and widely applied for the extraction of various compounds. Methods: The present research focuses on the extraction of flavonoids from Apocynum venetum L. leaves by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Several major influencing factors were optimized. Then, an aqueous biphasic system (ABS) was applied for further isolation of flavonoids. Results: The flavonoids were mainly distributed in the top phase, while impurities were ex...

  1. The Effect of Giving Moringa Leaves Extract to Pregnant Women Working in Informal Sector on DNA Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Muis, Masyita; Hadju, Veni; S. Russeng, Syamsiar; Burhanuddin, Laode

    2015-01-01

    Moringa leaves are the leaves of the Moringa tree containing various macro and micro nutrients and active ingredients that act as antioxidants. We assess the effect of leaf extracts of Moringa in pregnant women informal workers to DNA damage This study design was randomized, double-blind, controlled trials. Pregnant women working in informal sector (generally the laborers and sellers). Statistical analysis using paired and independent t-tests. Characteristics of the subjects before t...

  2. EVALUATION PHYTOCHEMISTRY, CYTOTOXIC ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL GROSS ETHANOL EXTRACT OF LEAVES Annona muricata L. (ANNONACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Daiani Patrícia Silva Alfaia; Sheylla Susan Moreida da Silva de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of Annona muricata L. are widely used medicinally, against parasitic diseases, including helminths, dysentery, malaria and related symptoms. The Amapá population use as analgesics and against urinary infections. This research aimed to perform the phytochemical screening, analyze cytotoxic activity and antibacterial of the crude ethanol extract of leaves Annona muricata L. By the method described by Esteban et al. were detected classes: alkaloids, steroids and triterpenoids. Cytotox...

  3. Acute and Long-Term Toxicity of Mango Leaves Extract in Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of mango leaves extract (MLE at the maximal dose (18.4 g/kg was studied in ICR mice and no abnormalities were detected during the experiment. The long-term studies at various doses of MLE (100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg in SD rats for 3 consecutive months revealed that, compared with the control group, rats in MLE treated groups showed slight body weight increase and higher fat weight; the serum TG and CHOL levels and the epididymis weight of male rats were a little higher; the serum K+ level of female rats was on the low side but the weights of liver, kidney, and adrenal gland were on the high side. In addition to this, no other obvious abnormalities were detected.

  4. Neuropharmcological potential of methanolic extract and a triterpene isolated from Madhuca longifolia L leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganakal, Triveni S; Ahmed, Md Liyakhat; Swamy, Paramjyothi

    2012-12-01

    The methanolic extract of M. longifolia (MLME) and a compound a triterpene, derivative of madhucic acid (dMA) isolated from the leaves of M. longifolia, were investigated for their possible neuropharmacological activities in mice using phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, spontaneous motor activity, marble burying test and Eddy's hot plate method. LD50 for MLME and dMA were 100 and 10 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. Both MLME and dMA (10 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg oral route respectively) exhibited significant increase in phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, greater reduction in spontaneous motor activity and marble burying activity, confirming their sedative nature. Both MLME and dMA also exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity in experimental animals. The results suggest that both MLME and dMA have CNS depressant activity in mice. PMID:23986969

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides Leaves Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Naseem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has accumulated an ultimate interest over the last decade due to their distinctive properties that make them applicable in various fields of science and technology. Metal nanoparticles that are synthesized by using plants have emerged as nontoxic and ecofriendly. In this study a very cheap and simple conventional heating method was used to obtain the iron nanoparticles (FeNPs using the leaves extract of Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides plant. The iron nanoparticles were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The antibacterial activity was studied against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus by using well-diffusion method.

  6. Punica granatum leave extract as green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in Hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Y.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leave of Punica granatum extract (LPGE as green inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 1M HCl solution was studied using weight-loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results obtained revealed that LPGE has fairly good inhibiting properties for mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution, with efficiency of around 94 % at a concentration of 1 g/l. The inhibition was of a mixed anodic–cathodic nature. The film which is formed over the metal surface was analysed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Further examination using X-ray diffraction confirms the role of LPGE as an effective corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid media.

  7. Extraction, partial purification and characterization of acidic peroxidase from cabbage leaves (Brasicca olearacea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The present work deals with extraction of cabbage peroxidase (CP from fresh cabbage leaves and subsequent purification using ammonium sulphate (80% w/v precipitation. The peroxidase extraction has been carried out by screening two different cabbage and then different parameters like different buffer systems, strength of buffers, buffer volumes, grinding time and cabbage leaves weight ratio to buffer volumes were optimized. The purified peroxidase showed maximum activity at pH 5.5 and at temperature 55 °C. The enzyme action followed the Michelis–Menton kinetics and gave a Km of 0.7018 mg/ml for Guaiacol oxidation over different concentrations (0 – 10 mg/ml at pH 5.0 and Vmax was obtained as 0.6498 mg/min.ml. The molecular weight of the partially purified enzyme was found to be about 67,000 Daltons using SDS-PAGE and zymogram method. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  8. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Leaves Extract of Barnoof Plant on Larval Development of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufngel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiating parental male full grown pupae agrotis ipsilon with the two sub sterile doses 100 and 150 Gray (Gy) followed by treated F1 4th instar larvae with three concentrations of the barnoof plant leaves extract (0,15000 and 30000 ppm) or each of them alone were studied. the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and the barnoof plant extract to F1 larvae had a deleterious effects on average larval duration, average weight of last larval instar, total morality, pupation, adult emergence and survival when compared with the effect of gamma irradiation or plant leaves extract which of them alone. gamma irradiation increased the susceptibility of F1 Larvae descendant from irradiated parental male pupae with 100 and 150 Gy to the barnoof plant leaves extract. A gradual increase in susceptibility was noticed as the dose of radiation increase. the efficiency of gamma irradiation and/or plant leaves extract to inhibit the 4th instar larvae of A-. ipsilon was evaluated. the results showed highly toxic effect to the 4th instar larvae at the two concentrations (15000 and 30000 ppm). on the other hand the dose 150 Gy combined with 30000 ppm of plant extract treatment (Acetone or petroleum ether solvents) had highly effect on the 4th instar larvae as compared with the other treatments

  9. Baphia nitida Leaves Extract as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Media

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku, V. O.; E. E. Oguzie; Obi, C.; Ayuk, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of Baphia nitida (BN) leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl was studied at different temperatures using gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results showed that the leaves extract is a good inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in both acid media and better performances were obtained in 2 M HCl solutions. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreasing temperature. The addition of hali...

  10. Hypoglycemic effect of the water extract of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) leaves in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybar, M J; Sánchez Riera, A N; Grau, A; Sánchez, S S

    2001-02-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of the water extract of the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) was examined in normal, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Ten-percent yacon decoction produced a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels in normal rats when administered by intraperitoneal injection or gastric tube. In a glucose tolerance test, a single administration of 10% yacon decoction lowered the plasma glucose levels in normal rats. In contrast, a single oral or intraperitoneal administration of yacon decoction produced no effect on the plasma glucose levels of STZ-induced diabetic rats. However, the administration of 2% yacon tea ad libitum instead of water for 30 days produced a significant hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats. After 30 days of tea administration, diabetic rats showed improved body (plasma glucose, plasma insulin levels, body weight) and renal parameters (kidney weight, kidney to body weight ratio, creatinine clearance, urinary albumin excretion) in comparison with the diabetic controls. Our results suggest that yacon water extract produces an increase in plasma insulin concentration. PMID:11167030

  11. Antidiarrheal and antimicrobial profiles extracts of the leaves from Trichilia emetica Vahl.(Meliaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiessoun; Konaté; Kassi; Yomalan; Oksana; Sytar; Marian; Brestic

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and-diarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of the bioactive fraction of Trichilia emetica in order to provide a scientific basis for the management of gastroenteritis in Burkina Faso.Methods:To do this,polyphenols content of extract and fractions were investigated.FolinCiocalteu,AlCl3 methods and tannic acid respectively were used for polyphenols content.The in vivo antidiarrhocal activity was done using Swiss albino mice of both sexes.In vitro antimicrobial activity(disc-diffusion assay,minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum microbicidal concentration or minimal bactericidal concentration) was assessed using seven bacteria strains(Gram-negative and Gram-positive).Results:About our study,it was found that ethyl acetate fraction effective attenuation factior(EAF) elicits the higher total phenolics and total flavonoids contents compared to the extracts of leaves of Trichilici emetica.EAF of Trichilia emetica Vahl..has positive effects in a dose dependent manner against diarrhoea induced by castor oil in experimental mice.The bioactive fraction also showed good antimicrobial activity against all tested Gram-negative and Grampositive bacteria strains.It was shown that experimental bacteria strains were more sensitive to the EAF effect compared to the ciprofloxacin.Conclusions:The obtained results allow justifying the traditional uses of Trichilia emetica and possess good antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of EAF from Trichilia emetica.Results of the present study have clearly supported the utilization of Trichilia emetica in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

  12. Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Zahid Iqbal; Anwar, Farooq; Shabir, Ghulam; Rasul, Ghulam; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 μg/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22466852

  13. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Alkharfy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%, leaves (11.42% and seeds (21.51% of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80. Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 3.21 μg/mL, followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50–6.70 mg/100 g DW; sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18–4.71 mg/100 g DW; vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52–0.65 mg/100 g DW as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  14. Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Type 2 Diabetes and Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats’ Pancreas by Phenolic Extracts of Avocado Pear Leaves and Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Isaac, Adelusi Temitope; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacobson; Ajani, Richard Akinlolu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana fruit and leaves had been known in folk medicine for their anti-diabetic prowess. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from avocado pear (Persea americana) leaves and fruits on some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase); and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rats’ pancreas in vitro. The phenolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves were extracted using methanol and 1...

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Manilkara zapota L. (chiku) leaves by sequential soxhlet extraction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mital Kaneria; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Manilkara zapota L. (chiku) leaves was studied. Methods: The antioxidant property of different solvent extracts of Manilkara zapota L. leaves was evaluated by DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing capacity assessment, while the antimicrobial property was evaluated by agar well diffusion method against some of the tested food borne, spoilage, pathogenic and skin disease causing microorganisms. Results: The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of acetone extract was better than that of standard ascorbic acid and superoxide anion scavenging activity of acetone extract was better than that of standard gallic acid. It showed good reducing capacity assessment also. Maximum phenol content was also present in acetone extract thus supporting the idea that phenolic content and antioxidant activity show a direct correlation. Acetone extract showed significant antimicrobial activity amongst all the different solvent extracts. Conclusion:Result presented here suggest that acetone extract of M. zapota leaves possess strong antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and it may be considered as an interesting and economic source of antioxidants and antimicrobics for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries and for food manufactures or pharmaceuticals.

  16. Effect of Extraction Solvents and Drying Methods on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicteres hirsuta Lour. (H. hirsuta L. is widely distributed in southeast Asian countries and has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant. However, optimal conditions for preparation of dried materials for further processing and suitable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different extraction solvents and different drying conditions on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of the H. hirsuta L. leaves. The results showed that both extraction solvents and drying conditions had a significant impact on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of H. hirsuta L. leaves. Among the five solvents investigated, water could extract the highest level of solid content and phenolic compounds, whereas methanol was more effective for obtaining flavonoids and saponins than other solvents. The leaves dried under either hot-air drying at 80 °C (HAD80, or vacuum drying at 50 °C (VD50 yielded the highest amount of total phenolic compounds (7.77 and 8.33 mg GAE/g, respectively and total flavonoid content (5.79 and 4.62 mg CE/g, respectively, and possessed the strongest antioxidant power, while leaves dried using infrared drying at 30 °C had the lowest levels of bioactive compounds. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids had a strong correlation with antioxidant capacity. Therefore, HAD80 and VD50 are recommended for the preparation of dried H. hirsuta L. leaves. Water and methanol are suggested solvents to be used for extraction of phenolic compounds and saponins from H. hirsuta L. leaves for the potential application in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Baphia nitida Leaves Extract as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibiting effect of Baphia nitida (BN leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl was studied at different temperatures using gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results showed that the leaves extract is a good inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in both acid media and better performances were obtained in 2 M HCl solutions. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreasing temperature. The addition of halides to the extract enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect which improved adsorption of cationic species present in the extract and was in the order KCl < KBr < KI suggesting possible role of radii of the halide ions. Thermodynamic parameters determined showed that the adsorption of BN on the metal surface is an exothermic and spontaneous process and that the adsorption was via a physisorption mechanism.

  18. Green approach to corrosion inhibition of 304 stainless steel in hydrochloric acid solution by the extract of Salvia officinalis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Salvia officinalis extract was examined as a corrosion inhibitor for steel. ► The inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing of extract concentration. ► Adsorption of S. officinalis extract on stainless steel surface is spontaneous. ► Activation energy decreases with addition of S. officinalis extract. - Abstract: The extract of Salvia officinalis (S. officinalis) leaves has been evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor for 304 stainless steel in 1 M HCl solution by means of weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Tafel polarization study revealed that extract of S. officinalis acts as a mixed type inhibitor. Adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Quantum chemical calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) and semi-empirical method (AM1) were performed to illustrate the process of adsorption of some specific components of the extract.

  19. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wibool Ridtitid; Peerati Ruangsang; Wantana Reanmongkol; Malinee Wongnawa

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P

  20. Polyphenolic extracts of cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves as natural preservatives in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata; Efenberger, Magdalena; Krala, Lucjan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using polyphenolic extracts from cherry and blackcurrant leaves as natural antimicrobial agents in meat products. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was analyzed and their impact on the microbial quality, lipid oxidation, color, and sensory evaluation of pork sausages was studied. Polyphenolic extracts were obtained from leaves collected in September. The total polyphenolic content in sour cherry leaf extract was 1.5 times higher than that found in blackcurrant leaf extract. Analysis of the polyphenol profile of each extract revealed two major groups: phenolic acids and flavonoids, including epigallocatechin and glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. After chilling the sausages for 14 and 28 days, the extracts caused significantly lower MDA generation, indicating an antioxidant effect. Color changes after 28 days of storage were perceptible in the case of all treatments, with and without polyphenols. The application of sour cherry and black currant leaf extracts increased the shelf life of vacuum-packed sausages. Both extracts enhanced the microbial quality of the pork sausages over 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sour cherry leaf polyphenols were more effective against almost all studied groups of microorganisms. PMID:27375255

  1. Isolation of hydroxytyrosol from olive leaves extract, radioiodination and investigation of bioaffinity using in vivo/in vitro methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, M.; Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Kilcar, A. Yurt; Medine, E.I.; Unak, P. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2013-11-01

    It is known that medicinal plants like olive have biological activities due to their flavonoid content such as olueropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol etc. In current study, hydroxytrosol (HT) which is one of the major phenolic compounds in olive, olive leaves and olive oil, was isolated after methanol extraction and purification of olive leaves which are grown in the northern Anatolia region of Turkey. The isolated HT was radiolabeled with {sup 131}I ({sup 131}I-HT) and the bioaffinity of this radiolabeled component of olive leaves extract was investigated by using in vivo/in vitro methods. It was found that HT could be radiolabeled with {sup 131}I in yields of 95.6 {+-} 4.4% (n = 8), and in vivo studies showed that {sup 131}I-HT is taken up by urinary bladder, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, breast and prostate. Significant incorporation of activity was observed in cell lines via in vitro studies. (orig.)

  2. Isolation of hydroxytyrosol from olive leaves extract, radioiodination and investigation of bioaffinity using in vivo/in vitro methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that medicinal plants like olive have biological activities due to their flavonoid content such as olueropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol etc. In current study, hydroxytrosol (HT) which is one of the major phenolic compounds in olive, olive leaves and olive oil, was isolated after methanol extraction and purification of olive leaves which are grown in the northern Anatolia region of Turkey. The isolated HT was radiolabeled with 131I (131I-HT) and the bioaffinity of this radiolabeled component of olive leaves extract was investigated by using in vivo/in vitro methods. It was found that HT could be radiolabeled with 131I in yields of 95.6 ± 4.4% (n = 8), and in vivo studies showed that 131I-HT is taken up by urinary bladder, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, breast and prostate. Significant incorporation of activity was observed in cell lines via in vitro studies. (orig.)

  3. Effects of olive leave extract on metabolic disorders and oxidative stress induced by 2.45 GHz WIFI signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Myriam Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Abderraba, Manef

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effect of olive leaves extract administration on glucose metabolism and oxidative response in liver and kidneys of rats exposed to radio frequency (RF). The exposure of rats to RF (2.45 GHz, 1h/day during 21 consecutive days) induced a diabetes-like status. Moreover, RF decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, -33.33% and -49.40%) catalase (CAT, -43.39% and -39.62%) and the superoxide dismutase (SOD, -59.29% and -68.53%) and groups thiol amount (-62.68% and -34.85%), respectively in liver and kidneys. Indeed, exposure to RF increased the malondialdehyde (MDA, 29.69% and 51.35%) concentration respectively in liver and kidneys. Olive leaves extract administration (100 mg/kg, ip) in RF-exposed rats prevented glucose metabolism disruption and restored the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD and thiol group amount in liver and kidneys. Moreover, olive leave extract administration was able to bring down the elevated levels of MDA in liver but not in kidneys. Our investigations suggested that RF exposure induced a diabetes-like status through alteration of oxidative response. Olive leaves extract was able to correct glucose metabolism disorder by minimizing oxidative stress induced by RF in rat tissues. PMID:23994945

  4. Antibacterial Activities and In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory (Membrane Stability Properties of Methanolic Extracts of Gardenia coronaria Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is carried out with Gardenia coronaria leaves that belong to the family Rubiaceae, which is a small-to-medium-sized but tall, deciduous tree, 7.6–9 m high on an average. Leaves are used for the treatment of rheumatic pain and bronchitis. The leaf of the plant consists of coronalolide, coronalolic acid, coronalolide methyl ester, ethyl coronalolate acetate triterpenes (secocycloartanes, and so forth. Methanol extract from the leaves of Gardenia coronaria was completely screened for membrane stability and antibacterial activity. The lower concentrations of Methanolic leaf extract of Gardenia coronaria gave good antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, but higher concentrations gave relatively more projecting antibacterial activity in vitro as compared with Kanamycin. The crude drug’s anti-inflammatory effects were compared with those of Aspirin as positive control. The Methanolic extracts of Gardenia coronaria leaves possessed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against a variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms like Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Shigella sonnei, Shigella boydii, and Proteus mirabilis, with a zone of inhibition from 10 to 16 mm. The extract also showed good membrane stability to be considered as having significant anti-inflammatory action.

  5. Study of sunscreen activity of aqueous, methanol and acetone extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L. pierre, fabaceae

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    Shenoy Priyank

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research work evaluates the photoabsorptive property of different extracts of the leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre, Fabaceae, in the ultraviolet region (200-400 nm and its comparison with a well-established standard sunscreen drug, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA. The shade-dried leaves of the plant were extracted in Soxhlet apparatus using three different solvents, i.e., water, methanol and acetone. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation of the solvent and finally dried to get dry extracts. Then, 20 mg of the dry extracts was dissolved in the respective solvents and their absorption spectra were measured using UV-visible spectrophotometer. Absorbance of different concentrations of the extracts, i.e., 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/100 ml was read at their respective wavelengths (λmax of maximum absorption. The aqueous and methanol extracts were found to be highly effective in the UVB and moderately effective in the UVA region. Acetone extract was found to greatly absorb exclusively in the UVA region. The known standard drug PABA showed its protective action in the UVB and UVC regions with least effectiveness in the UVA region. The extracts of the leaves of the plant under study showed extremely good absorbance throughout the UV region including UVA region. The P. pinnata extract can be used to formulate highly effective sunscreen preparations as it will enhance and effectively contribute to the UV absorbing properties of a conventional sunscreen. It will also help in broadening the UV protection ability of the sunscreens along with the greatest advantage of avoiding the adverse and undesired effects of synthetic sunscreen compounds.

  6. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Egyptian Basil Leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) Using Hydro-Distillation and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Chenni, Mohammed; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Fernandez, Xavier; CHEMAT, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and conventional hydro-distillation (HD) were used for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Egyptian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. The two resulting EOs were compared with regards to their chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The EO analyzed by GC and GC-MS, presented 65 compounds constituting 99.3% and 99.0% of the total oils obtained by SFME and HD, respectively. The main components of both oils were lin...

  7. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth Leaves Extract and Its Bioassay-Guided Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsnoussi Ali Hussin Mohamed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary investigations were carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the leaves of O. stamineus extracted serially with solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water; bioassay-guided purification of plant extracts using the subcutaneous glucose tolerance test (SbGTT was also carried out. Only the chloroform extract, given at 1 g/kg body weight (b.w., significantly reduced (P < 0.05 the blood glucose level of rats loaded subcutaneously with 150 mg/kg (b.w. glucose. The active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was separated into five fractions using a dry flash column chromatography method. Out of the five fractions tested, only chloroform fraction 2 (Cƒ2, at the dose of 1 g/kg (b.w. significantly inhibited (P < 0.05 blood glucose levels in SbGTT. Active Cƒ2 was split into two sub-fractions Cƒ2-A and Cƒ2-B, using a dry flash column chromatography method. The activities Cƒ2-A and Cƒ2-B were investigated using SbGTT, and the active sub-fraction was then further studied for anti-diabetic effects in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. The results clearly indicate that Cƒ2-B fraction exhibited a blood glucose lowering effect in fasted treated normal rats after glucose-loading of 150 mg/kg (b.w.. In the acute streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, Cƒ2-B did not exhibit a hypoglycemic effect on blood glucose levels up to 7 hours after treatment. Thus, it appears that Cƒ2-B functions similarly to metformin, which has no hypoglycemic effect but demonstrates an antihyperglycemic effect only in normogycemic models. The effect of Cƒ2-B may have no direct stimulatory effects on insulin secretion or on blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models. Verification of the active compound(s within the active fraction (Cƒ2-B indicated the presence of terpenoids and, flavonoids, including sinensitin.

  8. Studies on the antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic activities of Viola odorata leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi Hasan S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to provide pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Viola odorata Linn. in hypertension and dyslipidemia using the in vivo and in vitro assays. Results Viola odorata leaves extract (Vo.Cr, which tested positive for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, coumarins and flavonoids, caused a dose-dependent (0.1-1.0 mg/kg decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. In isolated guinea-pig atria, Vo.Cr equally inhibited force and rate of spontaneous atrial contractions. On the baseline of rat thoracic aortae (endothelium-intact and denuded, the plant extract caused phentolamine-sensitive vasoconstriction. When tested on phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM and K+ (80 mM-induced vasoconstriction, Vo.Cr caused a concentration-dependent relaxation and also caused a rightward shift of Ca++ concentration-response curves as well as suppression of PE (1 μM control peaks in Ca++-free medium, similar to that caused by verapamil. In the presence of L-NAME, the relaxation curve of Vo.Cr was partially inhibited showing involvement of Nitric oxide (NO mediated pathway. In Tyloxapol-induced dyslipidemia, Vo.Cr caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia model, the plant extract caused a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-C, atherogenic index and prevented the increase in average body weights, while it increased HDL-C. Conclusions These data indicate that the vasodilator effect of the plant extract is mediated through multiple pathways like inhibition of Ca++ influx via membranous Ca++ channels, its release from intracellular stores and NO-mediated pathways, which possibly explain the fall in BP. The plant also showed reduction in body weight and antidyslipidemic effect which may be due to the inhibition of synthesis and absorption of lipids and antioxidant activities. Thus, this study provides a pharmacologic rationale to the medicinal

  9. Phytochemical studies of various polarities leave crude extracts of Omani Datura metel L. and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saleh Hamed Al-Jafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the chemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial potential of various crude extracts from leaves of Datura metel grown in Oman. Methods: The leaf samples were collected from the University of Nizwa and extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. The isolated crude extract was defatted with distilled water and extracted with solvents of different polarities including hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Chemical compositions of the crude extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and their antimicrobial potential was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method against one Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonus aeruginosa. Results: The crude extracts were composed of different organic compounds such as alkaloids, hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, terpenoids, vitamin etc. The methanol and its fractionated crude extracts showed antimicrobial potential with inhibition zone in the range of 0-13 mm. Conclusions: The selective crude extract from the leaves of Datura metel could be used as natural antibiotics.

  10. Chemical investigation of different crude extracts from Teucrium ramosissimum leaves. Correlation with their antigenotoxic and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sghaier, M; Bhouri, W; Neffati, A; Boubaker, J; Skandrani, I; Bouhlel, I; Kilani, S; Chekir-Ghedira, L; Ghedira, K

    2011-01-01

    The effect of extracts obtained from Teucrium ramosissimum leaves on genotoxicity and SOS response induced by aflatoxin B(1) (0.5 μg/assay) as well as nitrofurantoin (5 μg/assay) was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e., the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The T. ramosissimum tested extracts exhibited no genotoxicity either with or without the external S9 activation mixture. However, all the extracts, particularly the total oligomers flavonoids (TOF) extract significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B(1) and nitrofurantoin. Antioxidant capacity of the tested extracts was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) (X/XOD) and the non-enzymatic (NBT/Riboflavine assay) systems. TOF extract was the most effective one in inhibiting both xanthine oxidase activity and NBT reduction. Our findings emphasize the potential of T. ramosissimum to prevent mutations and also its antioxidant effect. PMID:20965226

  11. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  12. In Vivo assay of Antidiarrhoeal activity of Methanoli c and Petroleum ether extracts of Manilkara Zapota Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manirujjaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the possible antidiarrhoeal action of Methanolic extract (MEMZ and petroleum ether (PEMZ extracts of leaves of Manilkara zapota(Sapotaceae. The anti-diarrheal activity of MEMZ & PEMZ extracts was investigated by castor oil and Magnesium sulfate induced diarrhea in albino mice. The parameters ofthis study were number of diarrheal episodes and mean weight of stool of mice. The percentage protection in extracts treated animals showing diarrhea was compared with castor oil and Magnesium sulfate treated and loperamide treated animals. In the Castor oil induced method only the PEMZ extract, showed statistically significant (p0.05. These results indicate that the extracts possess antidiarrhoeal activity in mice.

  13. Anti-Parkinson Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Ficus religiosa (L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra O. Bhangale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated anti-Parkinson’s activity of petroleum ether extract of Ficus religiosa (PEFRE leaves in haloperidol and 6 hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA induced experimental animal models. In this study, effects of Ficus religiosa (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o. were studied using in vivo behavioral parameters like catalepsy, muscle rigidity, and locomotor activity and its effects on neurochemical parameters (MDA, CAT, SOD, and GSH in rats. The experiment was designed by giving haloperidol to induce catalepsy and 6-OHDA to induce Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms. The increased cataleptic scores (induced by haloperidol were significantly (p<0.001 found to be reduced, with the PEFRE at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.. 6-OHDA significantly induced motor dysfunction (muscle rigidity and hypolocomotion. 6-OHDA administration showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation level and depleted superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione level. Daily administration of PEFRE (400 mg/kg significantly improved motor performance and also significantly attenuated oxidative damage. Thus, the study proved that Ficus religiosa treatment significantly attenuated the motor defects and also protected the brain from oxidative stress.

  14. Anti-Parkinson Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Ficus religiosa (L.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangale, Jitendra O; Acharya, Sanjeev R

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated anti-Parkinson's activity of petroleum ether extract of Ficus religiosa (PEFRE) leaves in haloperidol and 6 hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced experimental animal models. In this study, effects of Ficus religiosa (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) were studied using in vivo behavioral parameters like catalepsy, muscle rigidity, and locomotor activity and its effects on neurochemical parameters (MDA, CAT, SOD, and GSH) in rats. The experiment was designed by giving haloperidol to induce catalepsy and 6-OHDA to induce Parkinson's disease-like symptoms. The increased cataleptic scores (induced by haloperidol) were significantly (p < 0.001) found to be reduced, with the PEFRE at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.). 6-OHDA significantly induced motor dysfunction (muscle rigidity and hypolocomotion). 6-OHDA administration showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation level and depleted superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione level. Daily administration of PEFRE (400 mg/kg) significantly improved motor performance and also significantly attenuated oxidative damage. Thus, the study proved that Ficus religiosa treatment significantly attenuated the motor defects and also protected the brain from oxidative stress. PMID:26884755

  15. Inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts from Miracle Fruit leaves on mutation and oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tai-Yuan; Kang, Zhi-Chyang; Yen, Ming-Tsung; Huang, Ming-Hsing; Wang, Bor-Sen

    2015-02-15

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from Miracle Fruit leaves (AML) on mutation and oxidative damage. The results showed that AML in the range of 1-5mg/plate inhibited the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA), an indirect mutagen, and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO), a direct mutagen toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. On the other hand, AML in the range of 0.05-0.2mg/ml showed radical scavenging, reducing activities, liposome protection as well as decreased tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis suggested that the active phenolic constituents in AML are p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, trans-p-coumaric acid and veratric acid. These active phenolic components may contribute to the biological protection effects of AML in different models. The data suggest that AML exhibiting biological activities can be applied to antimutation as well as anti-oxidative damage. PMID:25236245

  16. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Characterization of Pectic Polysaccharide from Oriental Tobacco Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of pectic Polysaccharide from oriental tobacco leaves was studied by orthogonal matrix method (L9(3)4). Furthermore, the crude Polysaccharide was purified and two components (Fr-I and Fr-II) were obtained. FT-IR spectral analysis of the purified EPS revealed prominent characteristic groups. The monosaccharide composition analysis indicated the main composition between Fr-I and Fr-II was different. Furthermore, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated the degradation temperature (Td) of the Fr-I (215 degree C) was higher than those of Fr-II (162 degree C). Detected by the pyrolysis GC/MS, though the main kinds of pyrolysis products from both Fr-I and Fr-II were similar, the larger amount of heterocycle and aromatic compounds liberated after hydrolysis of Fr-II. Finally, On the basis of the antioxidant activity test in vitro, Fr-II has stronger antioxidant activities than Fr-I. The thermal behavior and antioxidant activity might be attributed to the configuration of the sugar units and chemical compositions. (author)

  17. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Helianthus Annus in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ejebe Daniel Emamuzo; Siminialayi Iyeopu Miniakiri; Ofesi Ufouma; Morka Lucky

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the ethanol extract of leaves of Helianthus annus L. (H. annus) in acclimatized Wistar rats. Methods: It was undertaken using the albumin induced paw edema model of inflammation as well as both the hotplate and tail immersion analgesic test methods. Doses of the extract tested in experimental rats were 0.5 g/kg, 2 g/kg and 4 g/kg while negative and positive control rats received distilled water and indomethacin respectively. Results: It was shown that treatment with the tested doses of the extract effectively inhibited paw edema induced by egg albumin. This effect was comparable if not better than the observations made in rats treated with 10 mg/kg of indomethacin orally. Treatment with the extract was also observed to have significantly increased the mean tolerance time of rats to thermal noxious stimuli compared to control animals that had distilled water and appeared to be more effective than 10 mg/kg of indomethacin treatment. Conclusions:These observations confirmed the presence of a strong anti-inflammatory and anti-noiciceptive activity in the ethanol extract of the leaves of H. annus and therefore validated the folkloric use of the leaves of this plant in treatment of pro-inflammatory, post traumatic situations.

  18. Extraction of oleuropein from olive leaves, in order to use as inhibitor against the corrosion of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFROSINI KOKALARI (TELI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oleuropein is the most abundant phenolic compound in olive leaves. This compound has been extensively studied for human health benefits. In recent years oleuropein, is proved to be an efficient inhibitor against the corrosion of metals and alloys. The use of chemical inhibitors has been limited, because of the environmental threat. The increasing ecological awareness among scientists have led to the development of “green” alternatives to mitigate corrosion. It is very important to choose cheap and safety handled compounds to be used as corrosion inhibitors.The extract of oleuropein from olive leaves, represent a great inhibitive action about 93%, against the corrosion of carbon steel in acidic media. Oleuropein, a natural product of the secoiridoid group, is a heterosidic ester of elenolic deteracid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol, containing a molecule of glucose, the hydrolysis of which yields elenolic acid glucoside and hydroxytyrosol. Oleuropein from the olive leaves was obtained by alcoholic extraction in room temperature using microwave irradiation. The extract was stored at 4oC and in the dark. The product of extraction was analyzed with HPLC, and infrared (IR spectroscopy, in order to define it’s chemical structure. Also we defined the yield, density and molecular weight of the product. The product of extraction was oleuropein and we propose to use it as corrosion inhibitor.

  19. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Sabetghadam; Surash Ramanathan; Sharif Mahsufi Mansor

    2010-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg), methanolic (50-200 mg/kg), and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg) extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepar...

  20. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam. leaves and stem bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Jince Mary Joseph; Dharmar Rajendrakumaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenolic content and in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of leaves and stem bark of Erythrina indica. Methods: Folin-ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation. Results:The methanol extract of stem bark of E. indica contains higher level of total phenolic content (412.8 mg GAE/g extract) and also exhibited higher xanthine oxidase inhibition activity (IC50 52.75μg/mL) than the leaves. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the stem bark of E. indica was highly effective in xanthine oxidase inhibition and might be used for the gout related disorders.

  1. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Sabetghadam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg, methanolic (50-200 mg/kg, and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepared and orally administered to nine groups of rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c. and aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o. were used as control. Antagonism of the antinociceptive activity was evaluated by pretreatment with naloxone at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.p.. Results showed that oral administration of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg, methanolic (200 mg/kg, and aqueous (400 mg/kg extracts significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response compared with control groups in both hot plate and tail flick tests (P < 0.05. Antinociceptive action of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg, methanolic (200 mg/kg, and aqueous (400 mg/kg extracts was significantly blocked by naloxone. In conclusion, these results suggest the presence of antinociceptive effect in various extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antinociceptive effective doses vary depending on the type of solvents used for extraction.

  2. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetghadam, Azadeh; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif Mahsuti

    2010-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg), methanolic (50-200 mg/kg), and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg) extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepared and orally administered to nine groups of rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as control. Antagonism of the antinociceptive activity was evaluated by pretreatment with naloxone at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.p.). Results showed that oral administration of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response compared with control groups in both hot plate and tail flick tests (P < 0.05). Antinociceptive action of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts was significantly blocked by naloxone. In conclusion, these results suggest the presence of antinociceptive effect in various extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antinociceptive effective doses vary depending on the type of solvents used for extraction. PMID:21808563

  3. THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL.) LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE'S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Shirly Kumala*, Hesty Utami and Wahyu Kartika Sari

    2013-01-01

    Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW) and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment was begun with feeding the mice with the test solution followed by feeding glucose solution (1.5 g/...

  4. Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties, and Gas Chromatographic-Time of Flight Analysis of Sonchus arvensis Leaves Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonchus arvensis L. (Asteraceae) is one of the medicinal herbs used in traditional medicines, in which the leaf extract was used as a diuretic, lithotriptic and antiurolithiasis agent. The leaves of S. arvensis reported contain several compounds, including a variety of flavonoids, terpenoids and sterol, even this plant also contain silica and potassium. Flavonoids are secondary metabolite compound which have ability as antioxidant. In this study, the aims are to determine of antioxidants and antiangiogenic properties, and phytoconstituents quantitative of aqueous and methanol extracts of S. arvensis leaves. The antioxidant properties were studied using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, xanthine oxidase and beta-carotene-linoleate models system. Furthermore, the antiangiogenic property was evaluated using ex vivo rat aorta ring assay. Quantitative determination of extracts phytoconstituents were carried out by using Gas Chromatographic-Time of Flight (GC-TOF) mass spectrophotometric methods. The results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts have ability as antioxidant which is antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts on DPPH radical and inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity are higher than that of methanol extracts. Meanwhile antioxidant activity using beta-carotene-linoleate model system of S. arvensis aqueous extract is lower than that of methanol extracts. Nevertheless, the differences of these antioxidant activities are not significant. Antiangiogenic property of aqueous extract is also higher than that of methanol extract which is measured at 100 meu g mL/sup -1/ of extracts. This indicates that there is correlation between antioxidant activity and antiangigenic property, exhibiting that this plant possesses the potential to prevent or cure the diseases that related to angiogenesis such as cancer. (author)

  5. Discovering New R Coronae Borealis Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tisserand, Patrick; Welch, Douglas L.; LeBleu, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs, or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a white-dwarf merger or a final-flash origin for RCB stars is contradictory. The distribution on the sky and radial velocities of the RCB stars tend toward those of the bulge population but a much larger sample of stars is needed to determine the true population. We need to discover RCB stars much more efficiently. In order to do this, we have used a series of IR color-color cuts, using the recent release of the WISE All-Sky Catalog, to produce a sample of 2200 candidates that may yield over 200 new RCB star identifications. Most of these candidates do not have lightcurves, the traditional technique of identifying RCB stars from their characteristic large and irregular light variations. We have obtained optical spectra of several hundred candidates and have confirmed over 40 new RCB stars in the Galaxy. We are attempting to develop a quantitative spectral classification system for the RCB stars so that they can be identified without an accompanying light curve. The cooler RCB stars look like carbon stars with strong C2 bands, but they can be differentiated from carbon stars by their extreme hydrogen deficiency and very low 13C/12C ratio. Also, the red CN bands are much weaker in RCB stars than in carbon stars. The number of RCB stars in the Galaxy may be consistent with the predicted number of He/CO white-dwarf mergers. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve would be a watershed event in the study of stellar evolution that will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

  6. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, ...

  7. Phenolic Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves Inhibits Key Enzymes Linked to Erectile Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Rats' Penile Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Olasehinde, Tosin A.; Oyeleye, Sunday I.; Boligon, Aline A.; Athayde, Margareth L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves on angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities in vitro. The extract was prepared and phenolic (total phenols and flavonoid) contents, radical (nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH)) scavenging abilities, and Fe2+-chelating ability were assessed. Characterization of the phenolic constituents was done via high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the extract on Fe2+-induced MDA production in rats' penile tissue homogenate as well as its action on ACE and arginase activities were also determined. The extract scavenged NO∗, OH∗, chelated Fe2+, and inhibited MDA production in a dose-dependent pattern with IC50 values of 1.36, 0.52, and 0.38 mg/mL and 194.23 µg/mL, respectively. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol were the most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the leaf extract. The extract also inhibited ACE and arginase activities in a dose-dependent pattern and their IC50 values were 303.03 and 159.59 µg/mL, respectively. The phenolic contents, inhibition of ACE, arginase, and Fe2+-induced MDA production, and radical (OH∗, NO∗) scavenging and Fe2+-chelating abilities could be some of the possible mechanisms by which M. oleifera leaves could be used in the treatment and/or management of erectile dysfunction. PMID:26557995

  8. Antinociceptive and acute toxicity evaluation of Vernonia condensata Baker leaves extracted with different solvents and their mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Wagner E; Scarminio, Ieda S; Moreira, Estefania G

    2010-08-01

    Extract of Vernonia condensata (Asteraceae = Compositae) leaves has different uses in Brazilian folk medicine, which includes analgesic and antiinflamatory agent. The aim of this study was to apply a modified simplex-centroid mixture design to evaluate the best extractor system for the antinociceptive activity, evaluated by writhing test. Different solvents (acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethyl acetate) as well as their binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures were used. For comparison, aqueous extract was also evaluated. LD50 was estimated and qualitative phytochemical screening, conducted. The extracts with antinociceptive activity were: aqueous, acetone, dicloromethane (DCM), ethanol (ETOH), acetone-DCM, acetone-ETOH, acetone-ethyl acetate, ETOH-ethyl acetate, acetone-DCM-ethyl acetate, acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate and DCM-ETOH-ethyl acetate. The higher margin of safety (LD50/ED50) was for acetone > acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate > aqueous > ETOH = acetone-ETOH > DCM > acetone-ethyl acetate > DCM-ETOH-ethyl acetate > acetone-DCM > acetone-DCM-ethyl acetate. Phytochemical screening showed that all the extracts contained alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. In conclusion, the extractor system influences both the pharmacological activity and acute toxicity of leaves from V. condensata. Acetone and the ternary mixture, acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate extracts showed higher margin of safety than aqueous extract. PMID:21341539

  9. Technical aspects of the production of dried extract of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves by jet spouted bed drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Daniel S; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2005-08-11

    This work presents an evaluation of the performance of jet spouted bed with inert particles for production of dried extracts of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves. The development of the extraction procedure was carried-out with the aid of three factors and three levels Box-Behnken design. The effects of the extraction variables, temperature (Text); stirring time (theta); and the ratio of the plant to solvent mass (m(p)/m(s)) on the extraction yield were investigated. The drying performance and product properties were evaluated through the measurement of the product size distribution, loss on drying (Up), flavonoid degradation (D) and, process thermal efficiency (eta). These parameters were measured as a function of the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (Tgi), the feed mass flow rate of the concentrated extract relative to mass flow rate of the spouting gas (Ws/Wg), the ratio between the feed flow rate of spouting gas relative to feed flow rate at a minimum spouting condition (Q/Qms) and the static bed height (H0). A powder product with a low degradation of active substances and good physical properties were obtained for selected operating conditions. These results indicate the feasibility of this drying equipment for the production of dried extracts of M. ilicifolia Martius ex Reiss leaves. PMID:15978755

  10. Imidacloprid Extraction from Citrus Leaves and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Jorge A; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Borejsza-Wysocki, Wlodzimierz S; Bauder, Victor S; Morgan, Kelly T

    2016-05-01

    A procedure was developed to extract Imidacloprid (IMD) from newly-flushed and fully-expanded citrus leaves. The extraction was conducted in a bullet blender, using a small sample mass (0.5 g of fresh tissue), stainless-steel beads (24 g), and methanol as extractant (10 mL). The extracts did not require further clean-up before analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated with control samples from IMD-untreated Hamlin orange trees. The method limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.04 and 0.12 μg g(-1), respectively. IMD recoveries from fortified leaf tissue were between 92 % and 102 %, with relative standard deviations of <8 %. The method was further evaluated by extracting leaves from Hamlin orange trees treated with IMD. The treated trees showed maximum concentrations of 10.8 and 21.8 µg g(-1), observed at 20 days after applying two soil-drenching rates (0.51 and 1.02 kg IMD ha(-1)), respectively. This extraction technique will generate useful data on IMD plant uptake, foliar concentration, and correlations with Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) mortality or control. The method could be used to generate baseline data to improve IMD soil-drenching applications as the main management practice to control the ACP. PMID:26988226

  11. Anxiolytic and sedative properties of hydroethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Y. Ajao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f., Cucurbitaceae, is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activities of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of T. occidentalis in mice. The hole-board, elevated plus maze, open-field, light-dark, and social interaction tests were used in this study. T. occidentalis (50-400 mg/kg and diazepam (1 mg/kg were administered p.o. to different groups of mice and appropriate observations were made. T. occidentalis increased the number of sectional crossings (p<0.01 and duration of head dips (p<0.05 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively; increased number of entries into open arms (p<0.01 at the dose of 100 mg/kg; increased number of central squares crossed (p<0.01 at the dose of 50 mg/kg; and increased number of social interactions (p<0.001 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. At the dose of 400 mg/kg, T. occidentalis reduced number of head dips and sectional crossings (p<0.01; reduced time spent in open arms and increased time spent in closed arms (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; reduced number of assisted rearings (p<0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; increased latency of entry into and time spent in dark box (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; and reduced number of social interactions (p<0.001 at the dose of 400 mg/kg. The findings in this study suggest that T. occidentalis possess anxiolytic property at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and sedative activity at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  12. Anxiolytic and sedative properties of hydroethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Y. Ajao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f., Cucurbitaceae, is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activities of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of T. occidentalis in mice. The hole-board, elevated plus maze, open-field, light-dark, and social interaction tests were used in this study. T. occidentalis (50-400 mg/kg and diazepam (1 mg/kg were administered p.o. to different groups of mice and appropriate observations were made. T. occidentalis increased the number of sectional crossings (p<0.01 and duration of head dips (p<0.05 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively; increased number of entries into open arms (p<0.01 at the dose of 100 mg/kg; increased number of central squares crossed (p<0.01 at the dose of 50 mg/kg; and increased number of social interactions (p<0.001 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. At the dose of 400 mg/kg, T. occidentalis reduced number of head dips and sectional crossings (p<0.01; reduced time spent in open arms and increased time spent in closed arms (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; reduced number of assisted rearings (p<0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; increased latency of entry into and time spent in dark box (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; and reduced number of social interactions (p<0.001 at the dose of 400 mg/kg. The findings in this study suggest that T. occidentalis possess anxiolytic property at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and sedative activity at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  13. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yuji Wang,1 Jingcheng Tang,1 Haimei Zhu,1 Xueyun Jiang,1 Jiawang Liu,1 Wenyun Xu,1 Haiping Ma,1 Qiqi Feng,1 Jianhui Wu,1 Ming Zhao,1,2 Shiqi Peng1 1Beijing Area Major Laboratory of Peptide and Small Molecular Drugs, Engineering Research Center of Endogenous Prophylactic of Ministry of Education of China, Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detector/(-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 µM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis. Keywords: R. rubescens, s

  14. In-Vitro Antioxidant activity of Isolated Tannins of alcoholic extract of dried leaves of Phyllanthus Amarusschonn and Thonn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasnik Ujwala

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tannins are naturally occurring, high molecular weight polyphenols which can be divided into hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins. Tannins are the most abundant antioxidants in the human diet and they exhibit many biologically important functions which include protection against oxidative stress and degenerative diseases.The tannin compounds are widely distributed in many species of plants, where they play a role in protection from predation, and perhaps also as pesticides, and in plant growth regulation. The stems, infusion of leaves and roots of Phyllanthusspecies are used in folk medicine for treating intestinal infections, diabetes, the hepatitis B virus and disturbances of the kidney and urinary bladder and it has antioxidants activity. The purpose of the present study was to isolate the tannins from alcoholic extract of P.amarus and to evaluate the in –vitro antioxidant activity of isolated tannins from the extract of dried leaves of P.amarus leaves. Dried leaves of P.amarus were defatted by using Pet.ether 60- 80o C for 48 hours. The extract was used to evaluate the presence /absence of various phytoconstituents. Comparative antioxidant potential of tannins isolated from alcoholic extract of P.amarus was evaluated for the various in-vitro antioxidant activity models. In-vitro anti-lipid peroxidation activity, nitric oxide, superoxide scavenging, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity were evaluated against standard antioxidants such as Curcumin and ascorbic acid were carried out. Tannins were isolated from Alcoholic extract of P.amarusleaves by lead acetate method and to evaluate its in-vitro antioxidant activity by various models. Isolated tannins from the alcoholic extract of P.amrusshowed significant in-vitro antioxidant activity in all the test systems. The tannins isolated from alcoholic extract of P.amarus showed good in-vitro antioxidant activity for all the antioxidant assays. Tannins isolated from

  15. Study of antisickling and vasorelaxant activities and acute toxicity assessment of crude extracts of leaves of Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdé-Tiendrébéogo, Alphonsine; Tibiri, André; Ouedraogo, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Sylvin; Nacoulma, Odile Germaine; Guissou, Innocent Pierre

    2014-06-01

    The leaves of Ficus sycomorus are used in Burkina Faso folk medicine for the treatment of sickle cell disease. The present comparative study of crude extracts of leaves (decoction, macerated extract and a 95% ethanol extract) was performed with the aim to assess the efficiency of this traditional use and to determine the most active of the three extracts. Antisickling activity was assessed by the Emmel's test. Vasorelaxant effect on rat aortic rings precontracted by phenylephrine with and without N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester chloride (L-NAME) was also evaluated. The 95% ethanol extract (20 mg mL(-1)) showed the most antisickling activity on sickle erythrocytes, by inhibiting completely sickling of double heterozygote SC cells in 60 min and that of homozygote SS cells in 90 min. On the aorta this extract exhibited a significant (p<0.05) vasorelaxant activity, better than that of the other extracts, with an IC50 value of 6.86±0.13 mg mL(-1) against 18.78±0.38 and 28.56±1.27 mg mL(-1), respectively for the macerated extract and the decoction. When the aortic rings were pretreated with L-NAME, only the ethanolic extract conserved its vasorelaxant activity, up to 73% of relaxation. The acute toxicity of the decoction, assessed by intraperitoneal route and using the Litchfield and Wilcoxon method, led to an LD50 value of 1553.61 mg kg(-1) b.wt. This places the drug among those with low toxicity according to the WHO scale. These results confirm those previously obtained and provide a scientific basis supporting the use of this plant in folk medicine against sickle cell disease. They indicate the importance of Ficus sycomorus in the research of new antisickling molecules. PMID:26035956

  16. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  17. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Misra; Darshana Mehta; B.K. Mehta; Jain, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimi...

  18. Evaluation of Anti-Ulcer Activity of Methanolic Extract of Abutilon indicum Linn Leaves in Experimental Rats

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    N. L. Dashputre

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, which affects approximately 5-10% of people during their life. In recent years, abundant work has been carried out on herbal medicine to clarify their potential efficacy in gastric ulcer prevention or management. Here, present study was carried out to investigate antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Abutilon indicum L. (Family: Malvaceae leaves in pylorus ligated and ethanol induced ulceration in the albino rats. Preliminary methanol extract of A. indicum was subjected to the acute oral toxicity study according to the OECD guideline no. 425. Based on which, two dose levels i.e. 250 and 500 mg/kg were selected for the further study. In pylorus ligation induced ulcer model, various parameters were studied viz. gastric volume, pH, total acidity, free acidity, and ulcer index. Ulcer index and percentage inhibition of ulceration was determined for ethanol induced ulcer model. Ranitidine at 50 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Pretreatment of methanol extract of A. indicum leaves showed significant (P<0.05 decrease in the gastric volume, total acidity and free acidity. However, pH of the gastric juice was significantly (P<0.05 increased only at higher dose, 500 mg/kg. It showed also significant (P<0.05 decrease in number of ulcers and ulcer score index in pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulceration models. The methanol extract of A. indicum leaves possess significant antiulcer properties in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion the antiulcer properties of the extract may be attributed to the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids (quercetin, alkaloids and tannins present in the plant extract with various biological activities.

  19. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch leaves in mice model

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    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (S. colocasiifolia leaves. Methods: Swiss albino mice treated with 1% Tween solution, standard drugs and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia, respectively, were subjected to the neurological and antinociceptive investigations. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used for testing antidepressant activity, where the parameter is the measurement of immobility time. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by hole board model. Anti-nociceptive potential of the extract was also screened for centrally acting analgesic activity by using formalin induced licking response model and acetic acid induced writhing test was used for testing peripheral analgesic action. Results: Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia significantly decreased the period of immobility in both tested models (tail suspension and forced swimming models of antidepressant activity. In the hole board model, there was a dose dependant (at 100 and 200 mg/kg and a significant increase in the number of head dipping by comparing with control (1% Tween solution (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In formalin induced licking model, a significant inhibition of pain compared to standard diclofenac sodium was observed (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In acetic acid induced test, there was a significant reduction of writhing response and pain in mice treated with leaves extract of S. colocasiifolia at 200 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. Conclusions: The results proofed the prospective antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves.

  20. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Mandal; Chandan Chatterjee; Mitali Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS) (family Nyctaginaceae) is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g). Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rot...

  1. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmeen Maniyar; Prabhu Bhixavatimath

    2012-01-01

    Background: India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world. The study of plants having antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities may give a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Objective: The study was intended to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Carica papaya Linn. (AECPL) in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohy...

  2. Physiological investigations on the effect of olive and rosemary leaves extracts in male rats exposed to thioacetamide

    OpenAIRE

    Atef M. Al-Attar; Shawush, Nessreen A.

    2014-01-01

    Physiologically, it is known that thioacetamide (TAA) toxicity is generally associated with hepatic fibrosis induction, complicated metabolic disorders and health problems. The capability of extracts of olive and rosemary leaves to attenuate the severe physiological disturbances induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication in male rats has been evaluated. Healthy male Wistar rats were used in the present study and were divided randomly into eight groups. Rats of the first group were served as ...

  3. Hypocholesterolemic mechanism of phenolics-enriched extract from Moringa oleifera leaves in HepG2 cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Peera Tabboon; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai; Kittisak Sripanidkulchai

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves via lowering serum levels of cholesterol, but the mechanism of action is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of a phenolics-enriched extract of Moringa oleifera leaf (PMO) in HepG2 cells. When compared to the control treatment, PMO significantly decreased total intracellular cholesterol, inhibited the activity of HMG CoA reductase in a dosedependent m...

  4. ANTI – INFLAMMATORY AND SEDATIVE – HYPNOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF MENTHA ARVENSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, S. M.; Arora, H.; R. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    Mentha arvensis Linn, a plant used as traditional medicine and in perfumery, has now been explored for its pharmacological activities as an anti-inflammatory and also as sedativehypnotic plant drug. The methanolic extract of the leaves after being processed, was taken for the pharmacological study. Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on albino rats. Further, the activity was compared to that of a standard anti-inflammatory drug – nimesulide and the percent inhibition of oedema determin...

  5. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Spray Dried Extracts of Psidium guajava Leaves by DPPH and Chemiluminescence Inhibition in Human Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β -cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assa...

  6. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF 75 PERCENT V/V METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ABUTILON INDICUM (LINN. SWEET LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ponnudurai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The active constituent of leaf extract of the plant (Abutilon indicum contains various components such as essential oils in particular eugenol which is reported to possess antioxidant potential. Eugenol is the one of the constituents of plant under investigation. Therefore based on the above facts, it is clear that no scientific studies have been carried out in Abutilon indicum regarding the anti-inflammatory and gastro protective activity, the present study has been carried out to investigate and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of 75 percent methanolic extract of Abutilon indicum (Linn. Sweet leaves.

  7. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Xanthium strumarium Linn. leaves extract in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Akarte Atul; Bhagat Vishwas; Deshmukh Pradeep; Disle Chandrakant

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the probable antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in Swiss albino mice by using models of Eddy′s hot plate test, tail immersion test and acetic acid induce writhing test. Swiss albino mice were treated i.p. with saline water (control), test group treated with 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg extract per oral, standard group treated with pentazocin 3 mg/kg. The results are expressed as the mean ± SEM. and...

  8. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTI-BACTERIAL, ANALGESIC, ANTI-DIARRHOEAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF POLYALTHIA SUBEROSA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Moazzem Hossen et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The MeOH extract of leaves of Polyalthia suberosa Roxb. (Annonaceae was screened for its antibacterial, analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities. The extract showed moderate anti-bacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Sheigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus saprophyticus. It also produced significant (P<0.01 writhing inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing in mice at dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg, which was comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Moreover, when tested for its antidiarrhoeal effects on castor oil induced diarrhea in mice, it decreased the frequency of defecation and increased mean latent period significantly (P<0.01 at the dose of 500 mg/kg comparable to the standard drug loperamide. The extract also exhibited high level of cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay (LC50: 30 µg/ml. The overall results tend to suggest the antibacterial, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities of the extract.

  9. Optimization of the Conditions for Extraction of Serine Protease from Kesinai Plant (Streblus asper Leaves Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper leaves. The effect of independent variables, namely temperature (42.5,47.5, X1, mixing time (2–6 min, X2, buffer content (0–80 mL, X3 and buffer pH (4.5–10.5, X4 on specific activity, storage stability, temperature and oxidizing agent stability of serine protease from kesinai leaves was investigated. The study demonstrated that use of the optimum temperature, mixing time, buffer content and buffer pH conditions protected serine protease during extraction, as demonstrated by low activity loss. It was found that the interaction effect of mixing time and buffer content improved the serine protease stability, and the buffer pH had the most significant effect on the specific activity of the enzyme. The most desirable conditions of 2.5 °C temperature, 4 min mixing time, 40 mL buffer at pH 7.5 was established for serine protease extraction from kesinai leaves.

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON THE CRUDE EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF CINERARIA ABYSSINICA SCH. BIP. EXA. RICH

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    Biruk Sintayehu*, Kaleab Asres and Avijit Mazumder

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aqueous decoction of the leaves of Cineraria abyssinica Sch. Bip. exA. Rich (Asteraceae is used for treatments of various ailments including diarrhea, however, to date, there appear to have been no reports on the phytochemistry and the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The main aim of this study was, therefore, to carry out preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities on leaf extracts of C. abyssinica. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and 80% methanolic crude extracts of the leaves of C. abyssinica were investigated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar disc diffusion method. Both the aqueous and 80% methanolic extracts showed various degrees of potent antibacterial activities comparable to the standard drug ciprofloxacin against all of the bacteria tested except Bacillus species. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids and phytosterols. The acute toxicity studies showed the nontoxic nature of the plant up to 3 g/kg. Therefore, the present study revealed for the first time the presence of antimicrobial phytochemicals in the leaves of C. abyssinica that scientifically validated the traditional use and its great potential to be used for treatment of infectious diarrhea.

  11. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch leaves in mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir; Mohammed Munawar Hossain; Md. Mominur Rahman; Shabbir Ahmad; Abul Hasanat; Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury; Md. Akramul Hoque; Nishan Chakrabarty; Md. Shakhawat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (S. colocasiifolia) leaves. Methods: Swiss albino mice treated with 1% Tween solution, standard drugs and ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia,respectively, were subjected to the neurological and antinociceptive investigations. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used for testing antidepressant activity, where the parameter is the measurement of immobility time. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by hole board model. Anti-nociceptive potential of the extract was also screened for centrally acting analgesic activity by using formalin induced licking response model and acetic acid induced writhing test was used for testing peripheral analgesic action. Results: Ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia significantly decreased the period of immobility in both tested models (tail suspension and forced swimming models) of antidepressant activity. In the hole board model, there was a dose dependant (at 100 and 200 mg/kg) and a significant increase in the number of head dipping by comparing with control (1% Tween solution) (P Conclusions: The results proofed the prospective antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia leaves.

  12. Investigating the Neuroprotective Effect of Alcholic Extracts of Achillea Biebersteinii Leave on α Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rats

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    M Alikhanzade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of injuries in peripheral nervous system returns to the cell body of neurons in central nervous system in a retrograde manner which leads to brain and spinal degeneration. It is probable that Achillea biebersteinii might prevent the injury progress. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of alcholic extract of Achillea biebersteinii leaves on spinal α motoneurons degenarion after sciatic nerve compression in rats. Methods: 30 male wistar rats were divided randomly into groups of control, compression, compression with treatment of 50, 75, 100 mg/kg doses. Sciatic nerve was exposed to compression for 60 s using locker pincers. Extract injection was done intraperitoneally in the first and second weeks after compression. Then 28 days after compression under perfusion method, the lumber spinal cord was sampled. After cutting and coloring, the density of motoneurons was measured using dissector methods. Results: The study results demonstrated a meaningful difference between compression and control groups in regard with neuronal density (P=0.000. Neuronal density showed also a significant meaningful increase (P<0.01 in alcoholic extract treatment groups of 50,75,100 mg/kg compared to the compression group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that Alcohlic extracts of Achillea biebersteinii leaves, containing growth and regeneration factors, has neuroprotective effect on spinal cord alpha motoneurons after injury. The extract with 75mg/kg dose was reported as the most effective one.

  13. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  14. Study of Antisickling and Vasorelaxant Activities and Acute Toxicity Assessment of Crude Extracts of Leaves of Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae

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    Alphonsine Ramde-Tiendrebeogo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Ficus sycomorus are used in Burkina Faso folk medicine for the treatment of sickle cell disease. The present comparative study of crude extracts of leaves (decoction, macerated extract and a 95% ethanol extract was performed with the aim to assess the efficiency of this traditional use and to determine the most active of the three extracts. Antisickling activity was assessed by the Emmel’s test. Vasorelaxant effect on rat aortic rings precontracted by phenylephrine with and without N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester chloride (L-NAME was also evaluated. The 95% ethanol extract (20 mg mL-1 showed the most antisickling activity on sickle erythrocytes, by inhibiting completely sickling of double heterozygote SC cells in 60 min and that of homozygote SS cells in 90 min. On the aorta this extract exhibited a significant (p50 value of 6.86±0.13 mg mL-1 against 18.78±0.38 and 28.56±1.27 mg mL-1, respectively for the macerated extract and the decoction. When the aortic rings were pretreated with L-NAME, only the ethanolic extract conserved its vasorelaxant activity, up to 73% of relaxation. The acute toxicity of the decoction, assessed by intraperitoneal route and using the Litchfield and Wilcoxon method, led to an LD50 value of 1553.61 mg kg-1 b.wt. This places the drug among those with low toxicity according to the WHO scale. These results confirm those previously obtained and provide a scientific basis supporting the use of this plant in folk medicine against sickle cell disease. They indicate the importance of Ficus sycomorus in the research of new antisickling molecules.

  15. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Khulood Ahmed Salim AL-Raqmi; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. Methods:The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Results: Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. Conclusions:The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  16. Analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Operculina turpethum leaves in mice

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    Maxwell I. Ezeja

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The study showed that O. turpethum possesses analgesic and antioxidant properties and confirmed the folkloric use of O. turpethum leaves in the traditional pain management. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 453-457

  17. ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF ETANOLIC EXTRACT OF BAY LEAVES (SYZYGIUM POLYANTHUM [WIGHT.] WALP.)

    OpenAIRE

    Abd. Malik; Aktsar Roskiana Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia people have been used of Bay Leaves (S. polyanthum [Wight.] Walp.) to treat of antidiarrhea, cholesterol, hypertension, gastritis, and diabetes mellitus. Extrac of Bay Leaves can be inhibit growth of Escherichia coli, Vibrio Cholera, and Salmonella sp. It’s the bacterium that produce an entherotoxin so as to cause diarrhoea. Bioassay of antidiarrheal activity by using transit intestinal method and mice (Mus musculus) as an animal model induced by castor oil. The mice were grouped in...

  18. Formation and relevance of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in bioactive subcritical water extracts from olive leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Castro-Puyana, M.; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Ferragut, José A.; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Although subcritical water extraction (SWE) has already shown its great potential for the attainment of natural bioactive extracts, concerns still remain on possible unexpected reactions that can arise during the extraction process, usually taking place at high pressure and temperature. It is already well-known that different components might be formed during the SWE extraction protocol due e.g. to Maillard reaction, which can improve the bioactivity of the obtained extracts. On the other han...

  19. Protection by rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hepatic injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of effective non-toxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest in the improvement of radio therapy of cancer and protection against unplanned exposures. The synthetic drugs developed in post-world war II have had serious constrains in clinical application due to their toxicity at the optimal protective dose level. Search for non toxic protectors from natural sources have indicated that some of the commonly used medicinal plants and the polyherbal formulation could prove to be valuable sources of the clinically used radioprotector as their ratio of effective dose to toxic dose is very high. A worldwide hunt is on for the development of non-toxic/less toxic radioprotectors. Keeping this view, the present study has been undertaken to find out the possible radioprotective potential of the Rosemarinus officinalis extract (ROE) in the liver of Swiss albino mice as its leaves have various medicinal properties like analgesic, anti-epileptic, antioxidant, hepatoprotactive and anti-cancer etc. Adult male Swiss albino mice, 6-8 weeks old with an average weight of 23±3 gms, were selected from an inbred colony and divided into two groups carrying equal number of animals in each. First group was orally administered DDW with the dose of 1000 mg/kg.b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days, while the second group received ROE with the dose of 1000 mg/kg.b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days. On 5th day, after half an hr. of the last administration of DDW or ROE, both the groups were exposed to single dose of 9 Gy of gamma radiation. All the animals were monitored regularly from the day of treatment till their autopsy time or survival with respect to food and water intake, body weight change, sickness, general activity, mobility, fur and skin lesions and other visible abnormalities, if any. These animals from both the groups were autopsied at 12 hrs., 24 hrs., 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days post-irradiation and their liver were removed, weighed, and after routine processing

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF NAPOLEONEAE IMPERIALIS FAMILY LECYTHIACEAE

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    C.F. Anowi , A.F. Onyegbule *, T.H. Gugu and U.A. Utoh- Nedosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Napoleonaea imperialis is used to treat wounds in most parts of Nigeria. Against this background, N-hexane extract of the leaves were screened against some microorganisms to ascertain this claim and to recommend it for further investigation for possible inclusion into official compendium. The plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with N-hexane for 24hours. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, glycoside, proteins and flavonoid using standard procedures. Antimicrobial screenings were carried out using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity was conducted by screening against six pathogens comprising both Gram positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus and Gram negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella, E. coli and S. typhi obtained from pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extract was screened against 24hour broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 400, 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25and 3.125 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 370C, for 24 hours and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The positive controls were ampicillin 20µg/ml for bacteria. The organisms were very sensitive to ampicillin. DMSO was used as negative control. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and proteins whereas flavonoids, resins and steroids were absent. N-hexane extract exhibited activity against all the test bacteria at 400mg/ml and 200mg/ml. The N-hexane extract exhibited varying activity as the concentration is reduced, to Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, P. saeruginosa, Kleb pneumonia, Salmonella typhi with minimal inhibitory concentration of 50, 25, 200, 50, 400 and 200 mg/ml of N-hexane extract respectively. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology and since the root extract are more

  1. Extraction, Preconcentration and Isolation of Flavonoids from Apocynum venetum L. Leaves Using Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction Coupled with an Aqueous Biphasic System

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    Zhijian Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ionic liquids (ILs are considered as green solvents, and widely applied for the extraction of various compounds. Methods: The present research focuses on the extraction of flavonoids from Apocynum venetum L. leaves by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. Several major influencing factors were optimized. Then, an aqueous biphasic system (ABS was applied for further isolation of flavonoids. Results: The flavonoids were mainly distributed in the top phase, while impurities were extracted to the bottom phase. The parameters influencing the extraction, namely type and concentration of salt, temperature, and pH, were studied in detail. Under optimized conditions (72.43% IL extract, 28.57% (NH42SO4, 25 °C temperature, pH 4.5, the preconcentration factor and extraction efficiency were found to be 3.78% and 93.35%, respectively. Conclusions: This simple and efficient methodology is expected to see great use in the extraction and isolation of pharmaceutically active components from medicinal plant resources.

  2. Early detection and classification of powdery mildew-infected rose leaves using ANFIS based on extracted features of thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehrnoosh; Minaei, Saeid; Safaie, Naser; Torkamani-Azar, Farah

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in surface temperature of infected and non-infected rose plant (Rosa hybrida cv. 'Angelina') leaves were visualized using digital infrared thermography. Infected areas exhibited a presymptomatic decrease in leaf temperature up to 2.3 °C. In this study, two experiments were conducted: one in the greenhouse (semi-controlled ambient conditions) and the other, in a growth chamber (controlled ambient conditions). Effect of drought stress and darkness on the thermal images were also studied in this research. It was found that thermal histograms of the infected leaves closely follow a standard normal distribution. They have a skewness near zero, kurtosis under 3, standard deviation larger than 0.6, and a Maximum Temperature Difference (MTD) more than 4. For each thermal histogram, central tendency, variability, and parameters of the best fitted Standard Normal and Laplace distributions were estimated. To classify healthy and infected leaves, feature selection was conducted and the best extracted thermal features with the largest linguistic hedge values were chosen. Among those features independent of absolute temperature measurement, MTD, SD, skewness, R2l, kurtosis and bn were selected. Then, a neuro-fuzzy classifier was trained to recognize the healthy leaves from the infected ones. The k-means clustering method was utilized to obtain the initial parameters and the fuzzy "if-then" rules. Best estimation rates of 92.55% and 92.3% were achieved in training and testing the classifier with 8 clusters. Results showed that drought stress had an adverse effect on the classification of healthy leaves. More healthy leaves under drought stress condition were classified as infected causing PPV and Specificity index values to decrease, accordingly. Image acquisition in the dark had no significant effect on the classification performance.

  3. Phytochemical investigation of Crataegi folium cum flos (hawthorn leaves and flowers) and Hyperici herba (st johns wort aerial parts) hydroalcoholic extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Cretu; Roxana Mihailescu; Gabriela Mitroi; Elena Iacob; Ramona Verdes; Carmen Tebrencu

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried leaves and flowers with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10), by reflux for two hours. St Johns Wort (Hypericum perforatum) hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried flowering aerial parts with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10), by reflux for two hours. Both extracts were qualitative and quantitative analyzed. The qualitative analysis consisted in phytochemical screening and spectroanalytica...

  4. In vitro anti-denaturation and anti-hyaluronidase activities of extracts and galactolipids from leaves of Impatiens parviflora DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Karolina; Podolak, Irma; Galanty, Agnieszka; Załuski, Daniel; Makowska-Wąs, Justyna; Sobolewska, Danuta; Janeczko, Zbigniew; Żmudzki, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    The in vitro anti-denaturation and anti-hyaluronidase activities of Impatiens parviflora extracts and isolated galactolipids (MGDG-1, DGDG-1) were investigated. This is the first report on these compounds in I. parviflora. All extracts showed anti-hyaluronidase activity, but only methanolic extract from fresh leaves exhibited significant activity against heat-induced denaturation of BSA in a dose-dependent manner. At 500 μg/mL, the extract and the reference drug showed 79.05% and 99.81% inhibition of protein denaturation, respectively. These results indicate that fresh leaves of I. parviflora may be beneficial in inflammatory conditions, especially those associated with protein denaturation, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The study revealed that only MGDG-1 showed weak activity in anti-denaturation assay but both galactolipids were potent inhibitors of hyaluronidase. MGDG-1 completely inhibited the enzyme activity at the concentration of 127.9 μg/mL. These results indicate the potential of galactolipids in the treatment of diseases associated with the loss of hyaluronic acid. PMID:26181315

  5. ANALGESIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS LEAVES

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    E. Tamil Jothi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of leaves of Tecomaria capensis were screened for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity. The analgesic activity was performed by two thermal models. One is hot plate method and another one is tail flick method. The two extracts of Tecomaria capensis leaves have showed analgesic activity in both methods. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by two methods. One is carrageenan induced paw edema method (in-vivo and other is HRBC stabilization method (in-vitro. In both methods ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-ulcer activity was done by aspirin induced method. In this, various biochemical parameters like ulcer index, gastric juice, pH, free acidity, total acidity and percentage protection has been investigated. Further, histopathological studies have also been examined. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts have showed anti-ulcer activity. In all the activities ethyl acetate showed a comparable activity to that of standard.

  6. Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Leaves Extract on Immobilization Stress Induced Changes in Rat’s Brain

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    Syed Kashif Zaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prophylactic or curative antioxidant efficacy of crude extract and the active constituent of S. nigrum leaves were evaluated in modulating inherent antioxidant system altered due to immobilization stress in rat brain tissues, in terms of measurement of glutathione (GSH, lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and free radical scavenging enzymes activities. Rats were treated with single dose of crude extract of S. nigrum prior to and after 6 h of immobilization stress exposure. Exposure to immobilization stress resulted in a decrease in the brain levels of glutathione, SOD, GST, and catalase, with an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels. Treatment of S. nigrum extract and its active constituents to both pre- and poststressed rats resulted in significant modulation in the above mentioned parameters towards their control values with a relative dominance by the latter. Brain is vulnerable to stress induced prooxidant insult due to high levels of fat content. Thus, as a safe herbal medication the S. nigrum leaves extract or its isolated constituents can be used as nutritional supplement for scavenging free radicals generated in the brain due to physical or psychological stress or any neuronal diseases per se.

  7. ISOLATION OF PRELIMINARY PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN. LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present studies that Isolation of preliminary phytoconstituents and anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Calotropis gigantea linn. Leaves Extracts. Therapeutic use of plants for the treatment of human illnesses dates back over man millennia. Evidence of their effectiveness in the diagnosis, cure and prevention of disease states exists in every culture throughout the world. Today “traditional medicine,” characterized by the use of herbs and other natural products still remains a regular component of health care in countries such as China, Japan, India, South America and Egypt. The search for anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent in modern was marked by the introduction of salicin for the treatment of inflammatory swellings due to rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis. The ethanol extract and distilled water extract showed good significant reduction in paw oedema as compared to control group, where as Petroleum ether (60-800C extract, Chloroform extract, Ethyl acetate, n-Butanol has showed comparatively less significant reduction in paw oedema volume. The chloroform and n-butanol extract showed good significant reduction in rectal temperature as compare to control group, where as pet. ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and distilled water extracts showed less significant reduction in rectal temperature. Hence, to put into the active principle of Calotropis gigantea linn like glycoside, sterols, carbohydrate, flavonoids, terpenoide may be responsible for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.

  8. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Macário de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000 mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000 mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations.

  9. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alisson Macário; Mesquita, Matheus da Silva; da Silva, Gabriela Cavalcante; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Souza, Ivone Antônia; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000 mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000 mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. PMID:26246840

  10. In vitro antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition activity of aqueous extract of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition potential of aqueous extract of Lantana camara leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of L. camara was estimated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, metal chelating activity and reducing power assay. DNA damage inhibition was performed by photolysing H2O2 by UV radiation in the presence of pBR322 and extract. Estimation of phenolic content was carried out by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Results: Extract exhibited high antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenng assay (IC50= 42.66 μg/ml), metal chelating activity (IC50= 1036.4μg/ml) and reducing power assay. Extract also exhibited the complete protection of pBR322 plasmid DNA during DNA damage inhibition assay. Extract showed high phenolic content which justified the antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition properties of the plant. Conclusions:These observations emphasize that aqueous extract of L. camara possess high antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition potential, thus, the plant can be used to develop natural antioxidant compounds for therapeutic use.

  11. Dynamic high pressure microfluidization-assisted extraction and bioactivities of Cyperus esculentus (C. esculentus L.) leaves flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Siqun; Wang, Saisai; Li, Qian; Zheng, Lian; Yue, Li; Fan, Shaoli; Tao, Guanjun

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM) on extracting total flavonoids from Cyperus esculentus L. (C. esculentus L.) leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity and antibacterial property of these flavonoids. In all the assays, pretreatment with DHPM was found to not only efficiently improve the yield of total flavonoids but also strengthen the antioxidant activity of the total flavonoids. C. esculentus L. leaves flavonoids had pronounced antioxidant activity in vivo that could significantly elevate the content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) without increasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and could also improve total antioxidant capacity in mice with a dose-dependent fashion. C. esculentus L. leaves flavonoids inhibited the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria while no obvious inhibitory effect on Penicillium and Aspergillus could be observed. Our studies indicate that flavonoids from C. esculentus L. leaves can be taken as a natural antioxidant and bacteriostatic substance in food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26304354

  12. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Hong Wang; Chen Cai; Xue-Mei Li

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1) at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (p

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Piper betel LEAVES FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    GOPALGHARE DIPALI; PALSHIKAR GAUTAM

    2015-01-01

    Plants can be extracted and used for research work and are known to produce and store many Biochemical products. Different types of Herbal extract are commercially available in market. Become a medical use the potency of these extracts should be compatible & as per the standards prescribed in Pharmacopeia. Our aim is to evaluate the marketed extract sample and to check its authenticity and purity as per the standard parameter. The present study deals with preliminary phytochemical analysis & ...

  14. THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE'S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirly Kumala*, Hesty Utami and Wahyu Kartika Sari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment was begun with feeding the mice with the test solution followed by feeding glucose solution (1.5 g/kg BW 30 minutes later. Blood glucose levels were assessed using glucometer kit, from zero to 3 hours, at ½ hourly interval. These results analysed by one way ANOVA showed there were significant difference (p<0.05 between Ethanol extract of avocado leaves treated with mice (0.490, 0.980 g/kg BW and control groups. Furthermore, when Tukey’s test was performed, avocado treated mice (1.960g/kg BW reduce glucose level to 64.27%. The effectiveness of this treatment was not significantly different to those treated with glipizide (68.50%.

  15. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. PMID:26709302

  16. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES)

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyanto; Ridi Arif; Mohammad Miftahurrohman; Yayuk Sri Rahayu; Erli Chandra; Alifiana Fitrianingrum; Risna Anggraeni; Diah Nugrahani Pristihadi; Aulia Andi Mustika; Wasmen Manalu

    2014-01-01

    Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet) were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the exper...

  17. Safety evaluation of Morinda citrifolia (noni leaves extract: assessment of genotoxicity, oral short term and subchronic toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Lagarto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia L (noni is an evergreen or small tree that grows in many tropical regions of the world. The use of the noni leaves has not been so studied however; there are reports of its pharmacological benefits. Aims: The objective of this investigation was to assess the genotoxicity, short-term, and subchronic oral toxicity of Morinda citrifolia L leaves aqueous extract. Methods: The genotoxicity of the M. citrifolia extract was investigated by measuring the frequency of micronuclei in mice bone marrow cells. The animals were treated with three doses of the extract (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg. For short-term toxicity, both sexes Wistar rats received 1000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Animals were sacrificed for hematological and biochemical evaluation. For the subchronic study, Wistar rats were administered with three doses of M. citrifolia extract (100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg by oral route for 90 days. Mortalities, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological examination were monitored during the study period. Results: Genotoxicity and short-term toxicity test resulted in absence of toxicity at doses between 500 and 2000 mg/kg. Significant differences were observed in hemoglobin, and differential leukocyte count after subchronic dosing of the extract. Histology evaluation did not reveal treatment-related abnormalities. Variations observed were within to normal range and reversible. Conclusions: In summary, 1000 mg/kg orally was the NOAEL for M. citrifolia extract for effects other than transient variations in some hematological parameters within normal range. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 15-22

  18. Phenolic Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves Inhibits Key Enzymes Linked to Erectile Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Rats' Penile Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves on angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities in vitro. The extract was prepared and phenolic (total phenols and flavonoid) contents, radical (nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH)) scavenging abilities, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability were assessed. Characterization of the phenolic constituents was done via high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the extract on Fe(2+)-induced MDA production in rats' penile tissue homogenate as well as its action on ACE and arginase activities were also determined. The extract scavenged NO (∗) , OH (∗) , chelated Fe(2+), and inhibited MDA production in a dose-dependent pattern with IC50 values of 1.36, 0.52, and 0.38 mg/mL and 194.23 µg/mL, respectively. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol were the most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the leaf extract. The extract also inhibited ACE and arginase activities in a dose-dependent pattern and their IC50 values were 303.03 and 159.59 µg/mL, respectively. The phenolic contents, inhibition of ACE, arginase, and Fe(2+)-induced MDA production, and radical (OH (∗) , NO (∗) ) scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities could be some of the possible mechanisms by which M. oleifera leaves could be used in the treatment and/or management of erectile dysfunction. PMID:26557995

  19. Effect of acacia nilotica leaves extract on hyperglycaemia, lipid profile and platelet aggregation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To consider new hypoglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-platelet aggregation sources, aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves was investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 male albino rats by administering 50 mg/Kg body weight (bw) streptozotocin intraperitoneal y, and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetics rats treated with plant extract) and group D (diabetics rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given single dose of 300 mg/Kg bw, An extract, and 900 micro g/Kg bw glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels were measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia Med method, beta-thrombo globulin and insulin by ELISA technique, and lipid components were measured by enzymatic calorimetric method. Results: Significant differences (p<0.05) were noticed in blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats treated with AN extract and glyburide as compared to diabetic controlled rats. A significant difference (p<0.05) in beta-thrombo globulin and LDL levels was also noticed in rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic controlled rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose, beta-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than AN extract treated rats. Conclusions: Administration of AN leaves extract showed hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Piper betel LEAVES FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOPALGHARE DIPALI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can be extracted and used for research work and are known to produce and store many Biochemical products. Different types of Herbal extract are commercially available in market. Become a medical use the potency of these extracts should be compatible & as per the standards prescribed in Pharmacopeia. Our aim is to evaluate the marketed extract sample and to check its authenticity and purity as per the standard parameter. The present study deals with preliminary phytochemical analysis & antibactertial activity of leaf with aqueous extract.

  1. Molluscicidal Activity of the Methanol Extract of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertner) G.Don ex Loudon Fruits, Bark and Leaves against Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Gohar, Ahmed; T Maatooq, Galal; R Gadara, Sahar; S Aboelmaaty, Walaa; M El-Shazly, Atef

    2014-01-01

    Methanol extracts of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. Ex Gaertner) G.Don Ex Loudon fruits, bark and leaves were tested for molluscicidal activity. Snails were collected and kept in dechlorinated water under standard condition. Ten adults Biomphalaria Alexandrina, of the same size, were introduced in plastic acquaria for each experiment. The fruits, barks and leaves were extracted with methanol and the methanol extracts were kept for testing as molluscicides. Different extracts proved to have molluscicidal activity against the vector of schistosomiasis, B. alexandrina snails. LC50 values for C. viminalis fruits, bark and leaves were 6.2, 32 and 40 ppm respectively. The C. viminalis fruits extract showed the highest effect against the tested snails. Histopathological studies proved that the site of action of all tested extracts was localized in the digestive system and hermaphrodite gland. PMID:25237345

  2. Effect of Butea monosperma Lam. leaves and bark extracts on blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that has significant impact on the health, quality of life and life expectancy, as well as on the health care system. Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntze (Fabaceae, commonly known as palash, is widely used in the treatment of various diseases and disorders including diabetes. Materials and Methods: The present study was planned to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extracts of B. monosperma leaves and bark in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups, with each consisting of six rats, viz. control, diabetic control, leaf extract-treated and bark extract-treated groups. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. The biochemical estimations included blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Histopathology of pancreas was also performed. Results: The results indicated that both leaf and bark extracts of B. monosperma produced insignificant antihyperglycemic activity. The leaf and bark extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent of 28% and 11%, respectively. It was also evidenced that both leaf and bark extracts did not increase insulin synthesis or secretion and did not improve pancreatic architecture as reflected by the histopathologic studies. Conclusions: The findings of the study emphasize that B. monosperma does not possess significant antidiabetic activity in severe experimental diabetes at the dosage tested.

  3. Role of the flavonoid-rich fraction in the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Bauhinia forficata Link. (Fabaceae) leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Natalizia; Buongiorno, Luigina Pasqualina; Celi, Maria Grazia; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Taviano, Maria Fernanda

    2016-06-01

    Bauhinia forficata Link. is utilised as an antidiabetic in Brazilian folk-medicine; furthermore, its antioxidant properties suggest a potential usefulness in the prevention of diabetes complications associated with oxidative stress. The contribution of a flavonoid-rich fraction (FRF), HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS characterised, to the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of B. forficata hydro-alcoholic leaves extract was evaluated for the first time. Both extract and FRF showed radical-scavenging activity and reducing power with a strong relationship with the flavonoid content found; hence, flavonoids are mainly responsible for the primary antioxidant activity of B. forficata extract. The extract significantly decreased FO-1 cell viability at the higher concentrations. FRF did not exert any effect; thus, flavonoids do not appear to be responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extract. The extract resulted virtually non-toxic against both Artemia salina and normal human lymphocytes, demonstrating potential selectivity in inhibiting cancer cell growth. Finally, no antimicrobial activity was observed against the bacteria and yeasts tested. PMID:26118983

  4. Acaricidal Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst. Alston against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Adarsh Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst. Alston (family: Vitaceae against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus was assessed using adult immersion test (AIT. The per cent of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity, and blocking of hatching of eggs were studied at different concentrations. The extract at 10% concentration showed 88.96% inhibition of fecundity, 58.32% of adult tick mortality, and 50% inhibition of hatching. Peak mortality rate was observed after day 5 of treatment. Mortality of engorged female ticks, inhibition of fecundity, and hatching of eggs were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of the extract against R. (B. annulatus was 10.46%. The HPTLC profiling of the petroleum ether extract revealed the presence of at least seven polyvalent components. In the petroleum ether extract, nicotine was identified as one of the components up to a concentration of 5.4%. However, nicotine did not reveal any acaricidal activity up to 20000 ppm (2%. Coconut oil, used as diluent for dissolving the extract, did not reveal any acaricidal effects. The results are indicative of the involvement of synergistic or additive action of the bioactive components in the tick mortality and inhibition of the oviposition.

  5. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in different extracts from the leaves of Acacia salicina from the center of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ines; Mansour, Hedi Ben; Limem, Ilef; Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Mahmoud, Amor; Chibani, Jemni Ben; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    The effect of extracts obtained from Acacia salicina on genotoxicity and SOS response induced by Benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) as well as nifuroxazide was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e., the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. Preparations obtained from the leaves of A. salicina exhibited no genotoxicity either with or without the external S9 activation mixture. However, all extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by (B[a]P) and nifuroxazide. Ethyl acetate, methanol and TOF extracts exhibited the highest inhibition level of the SOS response induced by the direct mutagen nifuroxazide. Whereas, aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts displayed the greatest level of protection towards the indirect mutagen, (B[a]P), induced response. In addition to their antigenotoxic activity, TOF, aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. These extracts showed IC(50) value of 36, 73, 65, and 87μg/ml respectively. Taken together, our finding showed that A. salicina exhibits significant antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities. PMID:21783737

  6. Antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of hexane extract ofMorinda pubescens leaves in human liver cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaya Kumar D; Jaya Santhi R

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of hexane extract ofMorinda pubescens leaves and to find the primary bioactive compound responsible for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.Methods: The individual compounds were isolated using column chromatography and were characterized by spectroscopic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated for all individual isolated compounds byDPPH method usingL-Ascorbic acid as standard and cytotoxicity was assessed for the extract and the hyoscyamine byMTT assay, caspase test andRT-PCR study.Results:The antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds and the extract increased as the concentration increased. One of the isolated compound hyoscyamine showed the high antioxidant activity. The extract and the hyoscyamine dose-dependently decreased the cell viability in HepG2 cells. Hyoscyamine induced caspase-3mediated apoptosis. Up regulation of p53 gene expression provides cue for apoptotic activity of hyoscyamine. Conclusions: The results indicate that hexane extract possessed potent antioxidant and cytotoxic activity and hyoscyamine is the principal bioactive compound in hexane extract.

  7. Inhibition of Pro-oxidant induced DNA Damage in isolated human peripheral lymphocytes by methanolic extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) leaves.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekar S; Umesha S,; Chethan Kumar M,; Chandan S

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary investigation reveals the anti-oxidant effects of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) leaves. Dried and powdered leaves of Tinospora cordifolia was subjected to methanol extraction, and total phenols, sugars and proteins were determined. DNA fragmentation was carried out using isolated human peripheral lymphocytes and Calf thymus DNA as a model system. The results showed that the methanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia is rich in total polyphenols (>3 mg/g) in comparison t...

  8. GC-MS analysis, determination of total phenolics, flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activities of various crude extracts of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Mooza Al-Owaisi; Nora Al-Hadiwi; Shah Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform phytochemical screening, estimate total phenolics, flavonoids and to evaluate antioxidant potential of Moringa peregrina (M. peregrina) leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of M. peregrina (150 g) were extracted exhaustively by Soxhlet with ethanol and then fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethy alacetate and methanol. All the prepared extracts were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and characterize the chemical compounds pres...

  9. Identification of bioactive candidate compounds responsible for oxidative challenge from hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Tangestani Fard, Masoumeh; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-09-01

    Free radicals trigger chain reaction and inflict damage to the cells and its components, which in turn ultimately interrupts their biological activities. To prevent free radical damage, together with an endogenous antioxidant system, an exogenous supply of antioxidant components to the body in the form of functional food or nutritional diet helps undeniably. Research conducted by the Natl. Inst. of Health claimed that Moringa oleifera Lam possess the highest antioxidant content among various natural food sources based on an oxygen radical absorbent capacity assay. In this study, a 90% (ethanol:distilled water--90:10) gradient solvent was identified as one of the best gradient solvents for the effectual extraction of bioactive components from M. oleifera leaves. This finding was confirmed by various antioxidant assays, including radical scavenging activity (that is, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H(2)O(2), and NO radical scavenging assay) and total antioxidant capacity (that is, ferric reducing antioxidant power and molybdenum assay). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of the 90% gradient extract visually showed few specific peaks, which on further analysis, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, were identified as flavonoids and their derivatives. Despite commonly reported flavonoids, that is, kaempferol and quercetin, we report here for the 1st time the presence of multiflorin-B and apigenin in M. oleifera leaves. These findings might help researchers to further scrutinize this high activity exhibiting gradient extract and its bio-active candidates for fruitful clinical/translational investigations. PMID:24024688

  10. Effect of Using Aqueous Extract of Salvia officinalis L. Leaves on Some Antioxidants Status in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAGE (Salvia officinalis L) is an aromatic and medicinal plant of Mediterranean origin with antioxidant properties. This study was dedicated to determine the modulatory protective effect of sage water extract against oxidative stress due to radiation exposure injury in male albino rats. Irradiation was performed as fractionated dose of 6 Grays (Gy) γ-irradiation delivered as 1.5 Gy two times a week for 2 weeks. Sage leaves water extract was given orally to rats at a dose level of 1mg/ kg body wt for 14 successive days during and in between exposure to γ-rays and continued for 7 successive days post irradiation of the rats. Rats were sacrificed at 7 and 10 days after the last dose of radiation. In irradiated rats group, the results revealed a significant increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) while, there was a significant decrease in the activity of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities. In treated-irradiated rats group, water extractable sage leaves application induced a significant improvement in all these tested parameters It was concluded that the traditional use of sage as an antioxidant is safe and may provide some beneficial effects; and could exhibit modulatory effects on γ-rays-induced oxidative damage in rats.

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content in methanol extract obtained from leaves Commiphora Myrrha

    OpenAIRE

    Celia Eliane de Lara da Silva; Rosilene Valota; Karimi Sater Gebara; Rogerio Cesar de Lara da Silva; Euclesio Simionatto

    2013-01-01

    This work presents shows the study of antioxidant activity and quantification of phenolic content determined for the methanol extract obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The high content of phenolic compounds were evaluated against the potential to sequester free radical through the model 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrizil hydrazyl (DPPH) and compared with a standard rutin. The results show that the inhibitory capacity of the extract (IC50) was 0.21 mg.L-1. The extract pursued an antioxidant activity of 91...

  12. Evaluation of ethanol extracts of leaves and fruit of Piper sarmentosum for in vivo hepatoprotective activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin

    2010-01-01

    The present study is aimed to describe hepatoprotective activity of extracts of a medicinal plant, Piper sarmentosum, in rats against CCl4-induced toxicity. Seven groups of Sprague Dawley rats each containing six animals were treated as: group I (CCl4), group II (control), group III and IV (fruit extract 500 and 250 mg/kg, respectively), group V and VI (leaf extract 500 and 250 mg/kg, respectively) and group VII (vitamin-E). The extracts and vitamin-E were administered orally for 14 days whil...

  13. Antidiarrheal and thrombolytic effects of methanol extract of Wikstroemia indica (L. C. A. Mey leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Khalilur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicinal plants contribute as potential sources of therapeutic uses. Wikstroemia indica, a traditional medicinal plant, has long been used as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimalarial, anti-mitotic, antitumor, and anti-HIV in different parts of the world. Aims: The aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and thrombolytic effect of W. indica leaf extract. Settings and Design: Sample collection, identification, solvent extraction, and crude extract preparations were led to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect in in vivo model and the thrombolytic effect in in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Castor oil-induced diarrhea and enteropooling assays and gastrointestinal motility tests were used to examine the in vivo antidiarrheal activity in Wistar albino rat. In vitro clot lysis model was undertaken to investigate the thrombolytic action of the extract. Data were analyzed using statistical software (Statistical Package for Social Science, SPSS, version 19.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The diarrheal episode was inhibited by 18.64% and 28.96% for the methanol extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The extract significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the intestinal volume and intestinal transit in comparison to control. The extract also reduced the rate of defecation, accumulation of fluid, and transit of charcoal oil. The extract showed a moderate thrombolytic effect compared to the reference control. Conclusion: Methanol extract of W. indica might be triggered the premonition of novel drug discovery in the future due to its antidiarrheal effect in the animal model.

  14. Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Functional Ingredients from Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Voća, Sandra; Dobričević, Nadica; Brnčić, Mladen; Dujmić, Filip; Rimac Brnčić, Suzana

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal an effective extraction procedure for maximization of the yield of steviol glycosides and total phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activity in stevia extracts. Ultrasound assisted extraction was compared with conventional solvent extraction. The examined solvents were water (100°C/24 h) and 70% ethanol (at 70°C for 30 min). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of steviol glycosides in the extracts obtained were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging capacity by 2, 2-azino-di-3-ethylbenzothialozine- sulphonic acid) assay were also determined. The highest content of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in stevia extracts were obtained when ultrasound assisted extraction was used. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was correlated with the total amount of phenolic compounds. The results indicated that the examined sonication parameters represented as the probe diameter (7 and 22 mm) and treatment time (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min) significantly contributed to the yield of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids. The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids were as follows: extraction time 10 min, probe diameter 22 mm, and temperature 81.2°C.

  15. In vitro antioxidant, cytotoxic, thrombolytic activities and phytochemical evaluation of methanol extract of the A. philippense L. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Sekendar Ali; Mohammad Ruhul Amin; Mohammad Aslam Hossain

    2013-01-01

    To study the leaves of Adiantum philippense L. for their antioxidant, cytotoxicity and thrombolytic activities and to perform phytochemical evaluation. Methods: In-vitro antioxidant activity of extract was studied using DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, total phenol and total flavonoid content determination assays. The cytotoxic activity was determined using brine shrimp lethality bioassay, thrombolytic activity by clot disruption and phytochemical potential by qualitative analysis. Results: The antioxidant activity of the extracts was found promising. The reducing power of this crude extract increase with the increase of concentration; IC50 values of DPPH scavenging activity was (140.00±0.86) µg/mL as compared to ascorbic acid [IC50 (130.00±0.76) µg/mL];Total phenol and total flavonoids content were (148.26±0.24) mg/mL and (163.06±0.56) mg/mL respectively. In cytotoxicity assay the LC50 values of the sample was (106.41±0.78) µg/mL where as for standard vincristin sulphate was (08.50±0.24) µg/mL as a positive control and the extract shows (12.86±1.02)% clot lytic whereas standard streptokinase shows (30.86±0.44% clot lytic activity in thrombolytic assay. The phytochemical evaluation indicates the presence of chemical constituents including carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids. Conclusions: This study shows that the methanol extract of leaves of Adiantum philippense L. has bioactivity but further compound isolation is necessary to confirm the activities of individual compounds.

  16. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves by multiresponse surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at studying the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) by multi-response surface methodology (RSM) to test their efficiency towards the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves. The extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TF), DPPH scavenging method and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay were considered as response variables while effects of extraction time, percentage of ethanol, and temperature were studied. Extraction time of 20 min, 42% ethanol and 158°C were the MAE optimum conditions for achieving extraction yield of 26 ± 2%, EC50 15 ± 2 μg/mL, 16 ± 1 Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 5.2 ± 0.5 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 86 ± 4 mg GAE/g dry leaf. Regarding PLE, the optimum conditions that allowed extraction yield of 56 ± 2%, EC50 21 ± 3 μg/mL, 12 ± 2 mmol Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 6.5 ± 0.2 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 59 ± 6 mg GAE/g dry leaf were 128°C, 35% of ethanol, and 20 min. PLE enabled the extraction of phenolic compounds with a higher number of hydroxyl-type substituents such as kaempferol diglycoside and its acetyl derivatives and those that are sensitive to high temperatures (glucosinolates or amino acids) while MAE allowed better recoveries of kaempferol, quercetin, and their glucosides derivatives. PMID:27122439

  17. Hypocholesterolemic mechanism of phenolics-enriched extract from Moringa oleifera leaves in HepG2 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peera Tabboon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves via lowering serum levels of cholesterol, but the mechanism of action is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of a phenolics-enriched extract of Moringa oleifera leaf (PMO in HepG2 cells. When compared to the control treatment, PMO significantly decreased total intracellular cholesterol, inhibited the activity of HMG CoA reductase in a dosedependent manner and enhanced LDL receptor binding activity. Moreover, PMO also significantly increased the genetic expressions of HMG CoA reductase and LDL receptor.

  18. Cell Cycle Inhibition from Ethylacetate Extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus, (Lour.) Spreng.) Leaves on HeLa Cells Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosidah; Hasibuan, Poppy Anjelisa Z.; Satria, Denny

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of ethylacetate extract (EAE) of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.) leaves on cell cyle on HeLa cell lines. Methods: Analysis of cell cycle distribution was performed using flowcytometer and the data was analyzed using ModFit LT 3.0 program. Results: The EAE changes the accumulation of cell cycle phase from G0 -G1 phase (54.61%) to sub-G1 phase (69.73%). Conclusions: Based on the results, EAE is potential to be developed as co-chemoth...

  19. Acute Toxicity Investigation and Anti-diarrhoeal Effect of the Chloroform-Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Persea americana

    OpenAIRE

    Christian E, Odo; Okwesili FC, Nwodo; Parker E, Joshua; Okechukwu PC, Ugwu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana is a plant used by traditional medicine practitioners to treat ailments including diarrhoea and diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. Hence, the chloroform and the methanol fractions of the chloroform-methanol extract of the leaves of P. americana were evaluated for their acute toxicity as well as anti-diarrhoeal effects in Wistar rats to substantiate this claim. The chloroform and methanol fractions [at graded doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight (b.w) of each] were studied for th...

  20. Comparison of Microwave-assisted Hydrodistillation with the Traditional Hydrodistillation Method in the Extraction of Essential Oils from Dwarfed Cinnamomum Camphora var. Linaolifera Fujita Leaves and Twigs

    OpenAIRE

    Linsheng Wei; Yafang Zhang; Boquan Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-Assisted Hydro Distillation (MAHD) and conventional Hydro Distillation (HD) are compared and evaluated in terms of extraction time, extraction yield, chemical composition, quality of the essential oil and operation consumption. Experiments results manifest that MAHD has no obvious advantage over traditional HD for the extraction of Dwarfed Cinnamomum Camphora var. Linaolifera Fujita (D-CCLF) twigs. Extraction of essential oils from D-CCLF leaves with MAHD is superior with regard to ...

  1. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.

  2. In Vitro TNF-α Inhibition Elicited by Extracts from Echinodorus grandiflorus Leaves and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eliana de Faria; de Oliveira, Mariana Assíria; Dourado, Luana Pereira Antunes; de Souza, Danielle Glória; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Braga, Fernão Castro

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of various extracts and fractions obtained from Echinodorus grandiflorus leaves on tumor necrosis factor-α release by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells, as well as to look at the association between bioactivity and phytochemical composition. To this end, a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection method was developed and validated, enabling the quantification of seven compounds in E. grandiflorus extracts and fractions. All of these samples showed antitumor necrosis factor-α activity, however, extracts prepared from 50% EtOH, water and dichloromethane, and a flavonoid-rich fraction elicited the most potent responses. trans-Aconitic acid and isoorientin were the major compounds in some preparations. Polynomial regression analysis showed the association between the contents of swertiajaponin, swertisin, trans-aconitic, and chicoric acids with the antitumor necrosis factor-α activity of the extracts and fractions. None of the compounds tested alone abolished tumor necrosis factor-α release completely, however, some extracts and fractions reached this result, suggesting a synergistic effect between the constituents. Therefore, it is clearly shown that the species E. grandiflorus has significant in vitro antitumor necrosis factor-α activity, a promising characteristic that deserves further investigations in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents from plants. PMID:26692456

  3. Diuretic and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of leaves of Cassia occidentalis(Linn.) in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Théophile; Dimo; Fidèle; Ntchapda; Joseph; Barama; David; Romain; Kemeta; Azambou; Paul; Faustin; Seke; Etet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the putative diuretic and antioxidant properties of Cassia occidentalis(C. occidentalis) leaves’ aqueous extract. Methods: Adult rats were administered with C. occidentalis leaves aqueous extract acutely(24-h) and subchronically(7 d), at doses 80, 160, 240, 320, and 400 mg/kg(per os). Negative control group received only an equivalent volume of distilled water, while the two positive control groups received the diuretic drugs furosemide(20 mg/kg, i.p.) and hydrochlorothiazide(HCTZ, 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Urinary elimination of electrolytes in response to treatments was evaluated, together with changes in concentrations of creatinine, urea, aldosterone, glucose, and albumin in urine and plasma. Various urinary indicators of kidney function and plasmatic markers of oxidative stress were also assessed. Results: The acute administration of C. occidentalis increased the urinary excretion of 107.58% at the higher dose tested, compared to negative control. The reference drugs furosemide and HCTZ induced increases of 84.27 % and 48.05 %, respectively. Acutely, the extract induced Na+ and Cl- elimination, whereas subchronically an increase in K+ elimination was also observed. The extract also improved the kidney function indexes and oxidative stress markers. These effects were dose-dependent and comparable with positive control observations. Conclusions: Our i ndings strongly suggest that C. occidentalis aqueous extract has diuretic and antioxidant activities, and deserves further studies considering the potential for the treatment of hypertension.

  4. Evaluation of the analgesic, sedative-anxiolytic, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potentials of the different extracts ofKalanchoe pinnata leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Razibul Habib; Mohammad Mustakim Billah; Mohammad Mahfuz-E-Alam; Kashfia Nawrin; Md Rakibul Hasan; Md Mominur Rahman; Md Anisul Islam; Irfan Newaz Khan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the analgesic, neuropharmacological, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potentials of the aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts ofKalanchoe pinnata leaves. Methods: At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, the analgesic activity of the extracts were evaluated by the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced persistent pain tests while neuropharmacological activity was evaluated by the open field, hole cross and elevated plus maze tests. The cytotoxic potential was observed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and the thrombolytic potential was investigated by clot lysis test. Results: The aqueous extract significantly suppressed the number of writhing (96.78%) as well as the formalin-induced persistent pain on the early phase (46.92%) and on the late phase (40.98%). Again in case of hole cross and open field tests, the locomotor activity was decreased significantly (P < 0.001) mostly by the ethyl acetate extract. Furthermore, the sedative-anxiolytic activity was supported by the increased percent (P < 0.01) of frequency into the open arm on elevated plus maze test. Besides, the extracts showed moderate lethality and thrombolytic activity. Conclusions: The findings showed that activities are comparable to the standards and in some cases are stronger than the standards. Therefore, based on the results, it is evident that it has great analgesic and sedative-anxiolytic activity with moderate cytotoxic and thrombolytic potential.

  5. Effects of methanol extract of Wedelia chinensis osbeck (asteraceae leaves against pathogenic bacteria with emphasise on Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Darah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Wedelia chinensis leave was studied and tested against three pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Stapylococcus aureus and three pathogenic Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus rettgeri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the disk diffusion assay and broth dilution methods. The extract exhibited favourable antibacterial activity against the bacterial cells but was more potent against Gram positive bacteria with the minimum inhibition concentration of 3.12 to 6.25 mg/ml compared to the Gram negative bacteria which had minimum inhibition concentration values of 25 mg/ml. The time-kill study suggested that the extract possessed bactericidal properties at higher concentrations and eradicated the growth of bacterial cells. The major abnormalities occurred to the bacterial cells after exposed to the extract were complete alterations in their morphology and collapsed of the cells beyond repair. The methanol extract of W. chinensis may be an effective antibacterial agent to treat bacterial infections.

  6. DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CENTELLA ASIATICA LEAVES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitrala Roopesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diuretics increase the rate of urine flow and are used to adjust the volume and composition of body fluids in a variety of clinical situations including hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, nephritic syndrome and cirrhosis. Traditionally, Centella asiatica has been used as antileprotic, anxiolytic, nootropic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral and antiinflammatory agent. The present study was under taken to investigate the diuretic effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Centella asiatica in wistar rats. The extract was given orally at a dose of 500mg/kg. Total urine volume and the concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in the urine were taken into account during the experimental work. The extracts showed a significant diuretic effect with increase in electrolyte concentration in urine when compared with standard drug furosemide (20mg/kg p.o.. Relatively the ethanolic extract showed potent diuretic activity than the methanolic extract.

  7. Optimization of DNA Extraction for RAPD and ISSR Analysis of Arbutus unedo L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Baptista; José Alberto Pereira; Olga Sá

    2011-01-01

    Genetic analysis of plants relies on high yields of pure DNA. For the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) this represents a great challenge since leaves can accumulate large amounts of polysaccharides, polyphenols and secondary metabolites, which co-purify with DNA. For this specie, standard protocols do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Here, we present for the first time an improved leaf-tissue protocol, based on the standard cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide protocol...

  8. Phytochemical investigation of leaves and fruits extracts of Chamaerops humilis L.

    OpenAIRE

    H. Benmehdi; O. Hasnaoui; Benali, O.; F. Salhi

    2011-01-01

    The major aim of this work is the research of the bioactif compounds isolated from the Chamaerops humilis L. From this perspective, phytochemical study was undertaken on this western Mediterranean plant. Phytochemical Screening based on tests of colouration and precipitation were undertaken by three solvents with different polarities such as water, ethanol and diethylether. The tests carried out on leaves and fruits show presence of tannins, flavonoids and saponins. However, less ...

  9. Comparison of extraction methods for the determination of essential oil content and composition of lavender leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Adaszy?ska-Skwirzy?ska, Michalina; ?mist, Ma?gorzata; Swarcewicz, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation of Lavandula angustifolia leaves is described. The comparison of the lavender essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. The oils contain 3...

  10. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Flavonoids and Polysaccharides Extract from Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao-Mei Ru; Li-Juan Wang; Wei-Ming Li; Jing-Lu Wang; Yu-Ting Ding

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, antioxidant properties of flavonoids and polysaccharides from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves were evaluated in several in vitro systems, e.g., scavenging activities on hydroxyl, superoxide anion, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and reducing power. Flavonoids showed much better activity than polysaccharides in scavenging activities on free radicals. When compared to the positive c...

  11. Alcoholic Extract of Ashwagandha Leaves Protects Against Amnesia by Regulation of Arc Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Akash; Kaul, Sunil C; Thakur, Mahendra K

    2016-04-01

    Our earlier report on scopolamine-induced amnesia and its improvement by pre-treatment with i-Extract (alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaf) suggested that the i-Extract mediated nootropic effect may involve neuronal immediate early gene, Arc. With a hypothesis that the i-Extract induced expression of Arc protein may cause augmentation in Arc function, we examined the effect of i-extract on a major function of Arc protein, i.e. F-actin expansion, using Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). Stereotaxic infusion of Arc antisense ODN in the CA1 region of hippocampus decreased the level of Arc protein as demonstrated by immunoblotting. However, this decrease was attenuated when treated with i-Extract prior to infusion of Arc antisense ODN. We noted a significant decrease in the polymerization of F-actin during scopolamine-induced amnesia as well as Arc antisense ODN infusion that was restored rather enhanced when pre-treated with i-Extract in both the cases. We also compared the corresponding changes between CA1 (the infusion site) and CA3 (neighbouring site of infusion) regions of hippocampus, and found more pronounced effects in CA1 than in the CA3 region. The extent of F-actin polymerization, as revealed by changes in the dendritic spine architecture through Golgi staining, showed that both scopolamine as well as Arc antisense ODN disrupted the spine density and mushroom-shaped morphology that was again regained if pre-treated with i-Extract. In conclusion, the findings reveal that the Arc helps in polymerization of F-actin and subsequent changes in the morphology of dendritic spines after pre-treatment with i-Extract in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice, suggesting an important role of Arc in scopolamine-induced amnesia and its recovery by i-Extract. PMID:25744565

  12. Inhibitory effect of extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves on VEGF-induced hyperpermeability of bovine coronary endothelial cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan QIU; Yao-cheng RUI; Tie-jun LI; Li ZHANG; Peng-yuan YANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study whether extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) can protect against atherosclerosis. METHODS: Confluent monolayers of bovine coronary endothelial cells (BCECs), bovine coronary smooth muscle cells (BCSMCs), and cocultures of the two were incubated with medium containing VEGF and/or EGb, and flux of 125Ⅰ-labeled oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) across the monolayers was measured. RESULTS: Incubation with VEGF significantly increased the permeability of BCEC monolayers to 125Ⅰ-ox-LDL in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on permeability of BCSMCs or endothelial cells-smooth muscle cells cocultures. EGb significantly inhibited the VEGF-induced hyperpermeability of BCECs. CONCLUSION: VEGF was important in the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The inhibition of VEGF-induced permeability by EGb suggests that extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves may have important clinical applications in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. 辣椒叶片总RNA快速提取%Rapid Extraction of Total RNA from Capsicum annuum Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小霞; 肖仲久; 宋培勇; 周逊; 谢语

    2011-01-01

    Trizol extraction method was modified to extract total RNA from Capsicum annuum leaves. The result of agar gel electrophoresis, ultraviolet ray photometer and RT-PCR showed that the total RNA obtained by modified Trizol method was of high quality, and suitable for downstream applications.%采用改良的Trizol法对辣椒(Capsicum annuum)叶片的总RNA进行了提取,利用琼脂糖凝胶电泳、紫外分光光度法、RT-PCR进行RNA纯度、完整性检测.结果表明,Trizol法提取可获得较高质量的辣椒叶片总RNA,能满足后续的研究需要.

  14. Antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extracts from leaves of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) subjected to drought and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, Elisabeth; Kaufman, Peter B; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Chang, Soo Chul

    2003-07-01

    Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) were subjected to drought and cold stress treatments, and polyphenolic extracts from control and stress-treated plants were assayed for antioxidant capacities using a modified version of the Total Antioxidant Status Assay (Randox, San Francisco, CA). In addition, these plants were analyzed for levels of flavanol-type substance [(-)-epicatechin] and flavonoid (vitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, acetylvitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, and hyperoside) constituents that are important metabolites in hawthorn herbal preparations used to treat patients with heart disease. Drought and cold stress treatments caused increases in levels of (-)-epicatechin and hyperoside in both Crataegus species. Such treatments also enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The results from this study thus indicate that these kinds of stress treatments can enhance the levels of important secondary metabolites and their total antioxidant capacities in leaves of Crataegus. PMID:12822932

  15. Acute, subacute and subchronic toxicological studies of carissa carandas leaves (ethanol extract): a plant active against cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Purpose of this research study was to examine the toxicological effects of aqueous: ethanol (1:1) extract of Carissa carandas leaves extracts in rats. Methodolgy: Acute toxicity studies were conducted to check the LD50 values in experimental animals. Autopsy after acute toxicity revealed that no gross changes were observed in organs like liver, spleen, heart and kidney among the animals of group N (control) and S (treated). The appearance of organs of Group S animals was comparable with that of Group N animals. Results: No signs of toxicity and mortality were observed in treated group after sub acute toxicity as compared to the control group. The histopathological studies after subchronic toxicity in doses of 1750 mg/kg (p.o.) and 5000 mg/kg (p.o) showed no toxic effects on organs like liver, heart, kidney and spleen. While chronic toxicity in dose 5000 mg/kg (p.o.) showed some histological changes. (author)

  16. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM, obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1 at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (p<0.0001. The verification experiments at the optimum conditions yielded gallic acid for 6.21 mg·g−1. Subsequently, under optimal conditions, four ionic liquids were used to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. The results indicated that the presence of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride allowed increasing the EE of gallic acid up to 8.90 mg·g−1. This might be interpreted in terms of the molecular interaction between ionic liquid and gallic acid. The use of ionic liquids involves a stronger gallic acid extraction capacity than conventional organic volatile solvents. A promising alternative process is proposed for the extraction of gallic acid of Suaeda glauca Bge.

  17. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibool Ridtitid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P<0.05, 18.6% (P<0.01 and 24.7% (P<0.01, respectively, compared to the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. with an inhibition of 33.3% (P<0.01. Only the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant inhibition ofcarrageenan-induced rat paw edema beginning at 2 h of 11.8% (P<0.01 and at 3, 4 and 5 h of 24.7% (P< 0.01, 14.1% (P<0.01 and 11.9% (P<0.01, respectively, whereas the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. exhibited a significant inhibition of edema beginning at 1 h of 15.6% (P<0.05 and at 2, 3, 4 and 5 h of 31.8% (P<0.01, 33.3% (P<0.01, 30.4% (P<0.01 and 30.2% (P<0.01, respectively. The methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. did not decrease brewerís yeast-induced pyrexia in rats, whereas aspirin at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant antipyretic activity by reducing fever in this animal model. In acute toxicity test, the methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves at the dose of 5g/kg did not produce any abnormal symptoms or mortality in rats.

  18. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    OpenAIRE

    Allaf, Karim S.; Farid Chemat; Baya Berka-Zougali; Aicha Hassani; Mohamed-Amine Ferhat

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed...

  19. Anti-oxidant activity of Methanolic extract of leaves of Eclipta Prostrata (L. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Devi D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta Prostrata (L.L is medicinally important plant species to treat of different diseases such as hepatic diseases. The present work is aimed to screen this medicinal plant for phytochemicals. leaf, stem, flower and seed of this plant were extracted in methanol solvents by sox let extraction and screened for secondary metabolites. The plant has been reported to contain alkaloids, steroids, polypeptides, phytosterol, β-amyrin, triterpenes, phenols, flavones, luteolin, coumarin and wedelolactone. The study confirmed that Eclipta Prostrata (L.L has good antihepatotoxic potential effects due to the presence of wedelolactone. Luteolin, coumarin using methanol extract

  20. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the experimentallaying hens were fed for 3 times and drinking water was provided ad libitum. Variables observed were thenumber of eggs, egg weight, time of first laying, egg laying intervals, egg quality ( water content, crudeprotein, and crude fat, and liver function (SGPT and SGOT values . Results of this research showed thatadministration of kemangi leaves extract at a dose of 3 mg/kg BW significantly increased the number ofegg production and egg weight (p<0.05. Time of first laying and laying interval did not show any significantdifference among treatments. Examination of moisture, crude protein, and crude fat content of the eggindicated that the administration of kemangi leaves extract did not affect egg quality. Extract of kemangileaves decreased SGPT and SGOT values that indicated improvement of liver function. It was concludedthat administration of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves could increase laying hens productivity byimprovement of liver function that is critical in vitellogenesis.

  1. The effect of extracts ofSelaginella involvens andSelaginella inaequalifolia leaves on poultry pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haripriya Duraiswamy; Selvan Nallaiyan; Jeyakumar Nelson; Periasamy Rathina samy; Marimuthu Johnson; Irudayaraj Varaprasadam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activity of some commonly available herbs against poultry pathogens such asEscherichia coli (E. coli) andPseudomonas species isolated from poultry litter.Methods:The extracts ofSelaginellainvolvensandSelaginellainaequalifolia were tested againstE. coli andPseudomonas isolated from poultry litter by the agar diffusion method.Results: Results indicated that different plant extracts showed inhibitory effects against E. coli (8-13 mm ) andPseudomonas (6.5-13 mm). The four different extracts ofSelaginella involvens andSelaginella inaequalifolia showed similar levels of antimicrobial activity onE. coli. Conclusions:The antimicrobial activities of all the four plant extracts are comparable and their potential as alternatives in the treatment of infections by these microorganisms were present in the poultry litter. Susceptibility testing is conduced on isolates using drugs selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use in poultry production.

  2. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelminthic resistance has limited the success of traditional control programmes in several countries, thereby forcing the researchers to search for alternatives. In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus were investigated against the egg and larvae of naturally infected sheep. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the main metabolites identified in the extract. The aqueous extract of E. globulus was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in naturally infected sheep. The various blood parameters, coupled with effects on marker enzymes and antioxidant status, were evaluated during the trial period. Methanolic extract showed better ED50 (3.756 mg/ml) and ED99 (33.809 mg/ml) values in comparison with aqueous extract (ED50 = 1.502 and ED99 = 7.10 mg/ml) in the egg hatch assay. Inverse was true in larval development and larval paralysis tests. The aqueous extract's ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml values in the larval development test and ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml in the larval paralysis test were more potent than those of its methanolic counterpart with ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml and ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml, respectively. A significant amount of 66% faecal egg count reduction was observed in in vivo trail using the aqueous extract on day 21 post treatment, although in initial stages it showed 58.0 and 80% effectiveness on days 7 and 14 post treatment. Though the FCER reduction was somewhat lower in terms of comparison with albendazole, nevertheless, significant and prolong reduction was noticed. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the haematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep. Though significant changes were observed in SGPT, RBCs, Hb and RDWc levels, other parameters showed nonsignificant variations within the

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Arutla Rajender; A. Suresh; V. Suresh; G. Saker; N. Varaprasad

    2011-01-01

    Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) has been reported to be used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and skin diseases. We studied the antiulcer potential of the methanolic extract in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the above-mentioned disorders. Gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extract of Anogeissus latifolia (ALE) (200 and 400 mg/kg/body weight) was studied on aspirin, and ethanol-induc...

  4. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Gowda; Kuntal Das; Vaibhav Bhosle; John Wilking Einstein; Benson Mathai K

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), isoniazid or isonicotinic hydrazide (INH) and maximal electroshock induced convulsion (MES) were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH). In the PTZ induced convulsio...

  5. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of beta-Sitosterol from Sea Buckthorn Pulp and Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bártlová, Milena

    Praha : Process Engineering Publisher, 2008, s. 542. ISBN 978-80-02-02049-3. [18th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2008. Praha (CZ), 24.08.2008-28.08.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06049; GA ČR GA104/06/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * hplc analysis * soxhlet extraction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  6. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of crude extracts of Ipomoea involucrata leaves in mice and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uche Fidelia Ijeoma; Shorinwa Olusayo Aderonke; Okorie Ogbonna; Mgbahurike Amaka Augustina; Chijioke-Nwauche Ifeyinwa

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of crude extract from Ipomoea involucrata leaves (Convolvulaceae) in mice and rats.Methods:The antinociceptive activity was tested using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using egg albumin–induced oedema of rat paw.Results:Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids and tannin. At the doses of 25-100 mg/kg,Ipomoea involucrata exhibited dose-dependent and significant increase in pain threshold in acetic acid–induced writhing test of mice (P<0.05, student t-test) The administration ofIpomoea involucrata leaf extract (25-100 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent decreases in paw volume of egg albumin induced oedema in rats and a significant higher anti-inflammatory activity compared to the standard control (Aspirin). Conclusions: These results support the claims on the traditional use of the ofIpomoea involucrata leaves in the treatment of toothache, rheumatic pains and other inflammatory conditions. Studies on the isolation and structural elucidation of the active principle are still needed being carried out.

  7. Tumoricidal Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Water Extract of Harjal Plant Leaves (Hayne) on Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to evaluate the antitumor effect of gamma irradiation and hot water extract of harjal (Solenostemma argel) plant leaves on Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) in female mice. The effect of Harjal plant leaves extract (HPE) on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cells and growth of transplantable EC were studied. HPE was administrated orally 3 times per week for 3 weeks to the experimental animals 24 hr and 7 days after EC inoculation at the dose level 15 mg/kg body weight. Experimental animals were exposed to 6 Gy of γ-radiation 7 days after tumor inoculation (ATI). Histopathological examination, apoptotic and necrotic detection in EC tissue were studied. Oxidative stress markers (MDA and GSH levels SOD and CAT activities) for EC tissue were also examined. HPE activates tumor cell death after two weeks. γ-irradiation and HPE either alone or combined significantly decrease tumor size and showed wide zones of apoptotic tumor cells in tumor tissue. γ-irradiation and HPE either alone or combined produced a non significant change in oxidative stress markers of EC tissue. Histopathologically, γ-irradiation and HPE represented large areas of apoptosis, hydropic degeneration and nuclei debris in tumor tissue sections. In conclosion, γ-irradiation and HPE represent antitumor activities either alone or combined

  8. ANALGESIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ACUTE TOXICITY EVALUATION OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF PTEROCARPUS SANTALINOIDES- FAMILY FABACEA

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    C.F. Anowi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus santalinoides, family- Fabaceae was claimed to have analgesic properties. The people of Ogidi in Idemili North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria used it in the management of aches and pains. This study is therefore aimed at determining this claim of the activities of Pterocarpus santalinoides using the leaves which will serve as a criterion to recommend the ethno pharmacological use of the plant. The leaves of Pterocarpus santalinoides family Fabaceae were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with methanol for 48hrs, it was concentrated using rotary evaporator. The analgesic activity was investigated in rats using hot plate method at a temperature of 40oC. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins and resins. Pterocarpus santalinoides extract (300 mg/kg induced analgesia in rats (p< 0.05 and this effect was comparable to that of Aspirin (100 mg/kg. Acute toxicity test also revealed that the drug is safe. The claimed benefits of Pterocarpus santalinoides in traditional medical management of aches and pains could be supported by the results of this investigation.

  9. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal effects on ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava(L.) Bat.leaves in Wister rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh; Mazumdar; Rashcda; Akter; Debashish; Talukder

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave(EEPGL) in Wisier rais to support its traditional uses.Methods:Oral glucose tolerance test model and alloxan induced diabetic test model were performed to evaluate antidiabetic activity of EEPGL at doses of 1.00.0.50 and 0.75 g/kg respectively.For antidiarrhoeal effects of EEPGL.castor oil-induced diarrhoea model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were also assessed at doses of750.500 and 250 mg/kg.respectively.Results:Administration of EEPGL at doses 1.00 and 0.50 g/kg significantly(P<0.05)decreased blood glucose levels in oral glucose tolerance test model as well as 0.75 g/kg dose in alloxan induced diabetic test model in Wister rats(P<0.001).Application of EEPGL at doses of 750 and 500 mg/kg showed antidiarrhoeal effect in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model(P<0.00 l and P<0.01,respectively),and 750 mg/kg(P<0.01),500 and 250 mg/kg(P<0.05)doses in barium sulphate milk model in aforesaid animals.Conclusions:These results exhibited the significant antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal activities of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave in Wister rats.

  10. The effect of leaves extracts ofClitoria ternatea Linn against the fish pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvamaleeswaran Ponnusamy; Wesely Ebenezer Gnanaraj; Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy; Velusamy Selvakumar; Jeyakumar Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activity ofClitoria ternatea(C. ternatea) against the fish pathogens viz.,Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa), Escherichia coli(E. coli), Klebsiella pneumonia(K. pneumonia), Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis), Aeromonas formican(A. formicans)s, Aeromonas hydrophila(A. hydrophila) andStreptococcus agalactiae(S.agalactiae)isolated from diseased Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).Methods:The extracts ofC. ternatea was tested against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumonia, B. subtilis, A. formicans, A. hydrophila andS. agalactiae by the agar well diffusion method.Results: Different extracts ofC. ternateashowed inhibitory effects againstP. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumonia, B. subtilis, A. formicans, A. hydrophila andS. agalactiae. Ethyl acetate extracts ofC. ternateashowed maximum of zone of inhibition againstA. formicans (18 mm) ,A. hydrophilia (19 mm),B. subtilis (19 mm) andP. aeruginosa (21 mm) next to that ethanol extract ofC. ternatea showedA. formicans (18 mm) andE. coli(14 mm) followed by Acetone extract showed maximum zone of inhibitionS. agalactiae (19 mm) andK. pneumonia (17 mm).Conclusions: The antimicrobial activities of all the four plant extracts are comparable and their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms was present in the fish. Susceptibility testing is conducted on isolates using drugs selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use in fish production.

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content in methanol extract obtained from leaves Commiphora Myrrha

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    Celia Eliane de Lara da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents shows the study of antioxidant activity and quantification of phenolic content determined for the methanol extract obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The high content of phenolic compounds were evaluated against the potential to sequester free radical through the model 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrizil hydrazyl (DPPH and compared with a standard rutin. The results show that the inhibitory capacity of the extract (IC50 was 0.21 mg.L-1. The extract pursued an antioxidant activity of 91.3% compared to the scavenging ability of rutin standard. The content of phenolic extract was assessed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu determined where the IC50 was 3,02 mg.L-1. The concentration of total phenols was determined 1.176 ± 0.263 mg gallic acid equivalent . g-1 of extract (n=5. The results show that extracts of C. myrrha have high antioxidant potential and additional studies are needed for isolation, characterization and use of their property in pharmaceutical, nutritinal and cosmetology.

  12. Examination of 1-methylimidazole series ionic liquids in the extraction of flavonoids from Chamaecyparis obtuse leaves using a response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baokun; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Yu Ri; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-08-15

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a new type of reagent that has accelerated research in extraction technology. On the other hand, few studies have systematically applied 1-methylimidazole ([MIM]) series ILs to the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants. In this study, [MIM] series ILs were used to extract four bioactive flavonoids, such as dihydrokaempferol, quercitrin, amentoflavone and myricetin, from Chamaecyparis obtuse (CO) leaves. First, a screen of the extraction method and solvent revealed the [MIM] series ILs to be suitable as additives in methanol in Soxhlet extraction. Second, an examination of a range of cations and anions of [MIM] series ILs for extraction revealed 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([DMIM][Br]) to be the best selection as an additive in methanol for the Soxhlet extraction of flavonoids from (CO) leaves. Finally, some factors of extraction, such as temperature, time and amount of samples, were examined systematically using a response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the above optimization, 2.41, 3.47, 0.76 and 3.15mg/g of dihydrokaempferol, quercitrin, amentoflavone and myricetin, respectively, were extracted from 15g of CO leaves by 2.5mgmL(-1) of [DMIM][Br] as additives in 200mL of methanol in Soxhlet extraction at 200°C for 8h. This study highlights the potential of [MIM] series ILs as promising reagents for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants. PMID:23845390

  13. Low anti-ulcerogenic potentials of essential oils and methanolic extract of Croton zambesicus leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Adelaja Abdulazeez Akinlolu; Ghazali Olaide Kamaldeen; Deborah Francis; Mubarak Oloduowo Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the anti-ulcer properties of Croton zambesicus leaves. Materials and Methods: Group 1 was Control. 40mg/kg/bodyweight of Indomethacin (the ulcerogen) was administered to rats of Groups II and #8211; VII. Four hours after administrations of ulcerogen; rats of Groups III and #8211; VII were treated daily with oral administrations of 40mg/kg/bodyweight of Omeprazole, 5 and 10mg/kg/bodyweight of essential oils, 250 and 500mg/kg bodyweight of methanolic extrac...

  14. Activation and stabilization of the hydroperoxide lyase enzymatic extract from mint leaves (Mentha spicata) using selected chemical additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akacha, Najla B; Karboune, Salwa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Kermasha, Selim

    2010-03-01

    The effects of selected lyoprotecting excipients and chemical additives on the specific activity and the thermal stability of the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) enzymatic extract from mint leaves were investigated. The addition of KCl (5%, w/w) and dextran (2.5%, w/w) to the enzymatic extract, prior to lyophilization, increased the HPL specific activity by 2.0- and 1.2-fold, respectively, compared to the control lyophilized extract. From half-life time (t (1/2)), it can be seen that KCl has enhanced the HPL stability by 1.3- to 2.3-fold, during long-period storage at -20 degrees Celsius and 4 degrees Celsius. Among the selected additives used throughout this study, glycine appeared to be the most effective one. In addition to the activation effect conferred by glycine, it also enhanced the HPL thermal stability. In contrast, polyhydroxyl-containing additives were not effective for stabilizing the HPL enzymatic extract. On the other hand, there was no signification increase in HPL activity and its thermal stability with the presence of Triton X-100. The results also showed that in the presence of glycine (10%), the catalytic efficiency of HPL was increased by 2.45-fold than that without additive. PMID:19430937

  15. Anti-nociceptive and anti-oedematogenic properties of the hydroethanolic extract of Sidastrum micranthum leaves in mice

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    Gabriela Mastrangelo Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil. Fryxell, Malvaceae, grows in the northeastern region of Brazil, where the leaves of this species are traditionally used to treat coughs, bronchitis or asthma. Male Swiss mice (20-22 g were tested in models of acute pain (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick and formalin test, oedema assessment test (paw oedema test and model for evaluation of spontaneous motor performance (open field test. The hydroethanolic extract of S. micranthum was administered orally at doses of 50-500 mg/kg. In addition were administered water, vehicle, morphine 5.01 mg/kg (evaluation of pain and motor performance and dexamethasone 2.25 mg/kg (evaluation of oedema formation. The extract showed a significant effect at all doses in the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and at the second phase of the formalin test, while in the first phase of this test and in the paw oedema test only at the highest dose (500 mg/kg. In the formalin and paw oedema tests, the extract had a potentiation of the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects by pretreatment with L-NAME and reduction of the effect by pretreatment with L-arginine. The extract was not toxic after oral administration (LD50 > 2000 mg/kg.

  16. New approaches to clarify antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract from Vernonia condensata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Fernandes, Felipe Valente; de Assis Dias Alves, Geórgia; de Matos, Dalyara Mendonça; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Ribeiro, Antônia; de Pinho, José de Jesus R G; Alves, Maria Silvana; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract from Vernonia condensata leaves in animal models, in order to afford a better understanding of these properties. The extract reduced the number of abdominal contortions at doses of 100 (51.00 ± 3.00), 200 (42.00 ± 2.98) and 400 mg/kg (39.00 ± 4.00). In formalin tests, a significant reduction in the licking time (p meprobamate. The extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effects by a decrease in paw edema. The extracts also reduced the exudate volume at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. The leukocyte migration had significant effect (p < 0.001) at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. The completion of additional experiments in the investigation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of V. condensata allowed a better understanding of the central and peripheral mechanisms involved. PMID:22272116

  17. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  18. Effects of the methanolic extracts of Zizyphus spina christi, Olea europaea and Morus alba leaves in Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats

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    A. I. Othman*, M. A. Amer*, M. Abdel-Mogib **, R. F. Samaha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:The present study aims to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidimic and antioxidant effect of the methanolic crude extracts of Zizyphus spina christi, Morus alba and Olea europaea leaves, individually or in combination against diabetes induced rats by Streptozotocin (STZ. Results:Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia except in high density lipoproteins (HDL were observed in serum after 5 weeks of STZ administration. This was associated with a depression in hepatic glutathione (GSH concentration as well as hepatic catalase (CAT, glutathione-s-transferase (GST and superoxide dismutase (SOD activates. In addition hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS and protein carbonyl (PC were significantly elevated, indicating increased lipid and protein oxidation and oxidative stress. Depression in blood hemoglobin (Hb content, serum insulin levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC and nitric oxide (NO levels as well as body weight gain were also observed in diabetic rats. Administration of 100mg/kg alcoholic extracts of Zizyphus spina christi, Morus alba and Olea europaea leaves 3 days before and after STZ injection daily for 5 weeks significantly ameliorated the oxidative stress evidenced by lowering TBARS & PC as well as increasing hepatic GSH concentration and CAT, GST and SOD activates as compared with STZ treated rats. These effects were paralleled with marked protection against STZ induced hyperglycemia and disturbance of lipid profile. They also caused a great improvement in insulin levels, TAOC, NO, Hb content and body weight gain. Conclussion:Thus, these results showed that the administration of the crude extracts of either Zizyphus spina christi, Morus alba or Olea europaea leaves individually or in combination might improve the clinical manifestation of diabetes and decrease the oxidative stress, this study supports the beneficial effects of these extracts especially Zizyphus spina christi, which showed marked amelioration

  19. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  20. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid–liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8–17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  1. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Attributes and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Leaves, Flowers and Bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Qaiser M.; Muhammad Afzal; Khalid, Zafar M; Bushra Sultana; Farooq Anwar; Ghulam Shabir; Ashrafuzzaman, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic components of different solvent (absolute methanol, absolute ethanol, absolute acetone, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone and deionized water) extracts of leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.]. The extract yields from leaves, flowers and bark ranged from 10.19 to 36.24, 12.97 to 48.47 and 4.22 to 8.48 g/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively. Overall, 80% methanol extract pr...

  2. Negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on the guinea pig atrium of extracts obtained from Averrhoa carambola L. leaves

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    Vasconcelos C.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that star fruit can lead to a fatal outcome in uremic patients. The intoxication syndrome consists of hiccups, mental confusion, dizziness, and vomiting. On the other hand, folk medicine uses teas and infusions of carambola leaves to treat headache, vomiting, cough, insomnia, and diabetes. This motivated us to determine if Averrhoa carambola can act on the contractility and automaticity of the guinea pig heart. We measured the atrial isometric force in stimulated left atria and determined the chronotropic changes in spontaneously beating right atria. The carambola leaf extracts (1.5 mg/ml abolished the contractile force in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the crude, methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous, and acetic extracts, the aqueous one was the most potent (EC50 = 520 ± 94 µg/ml; flavonoids and tannins are the main constituents; Na+ and K+ contents in 1.0 mg/ml of aqueous extract were 0.12 ± 0.016 and 1.19 ± 0.15 mM, respectively. The aqueous extract abolished the positive Bowditch staircase phenomenon and reduced the inotropic response to CaCl2 (0.17-8.22 mM, events that are dependent on the cellular Ca2+ inward current. The adrenergic, muscarinic or opioid membrane receptors do not seem to participate in the mechanism of action of the cardioactive substance(s. In spontaneously beating atria, the aqueous extract promoted a negative chronotropic effect that was antagonized by 0.1 µM isoproterenol bitartrate. With this agonist, the EC50 of the aqueous extract increased from 133 ± 58 to 650 ± 100 µg/ml. These data regarding the effect of A. carambola on guinea pig atrial contractility and automaticity indicate an L-type Ca2+ channel blockade.

  3. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extracts and compounds from the leaves of Psorospermum aurantiacum Engl. and Hypericum lanceolatum Lam.

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    Tchakam Patricia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psorospermun aurantiacum and Hypericum lanceolatum are plants locally used in Cameroon and other parts of Africa for the treatment of gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, skin infections, venereal diseases, gastrointestinal disorder, infertility, epilepsy as well as microbial infections. The present study was designed in order to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and radical scavenging activities of the extracts and isolated compounds from the leaves of these plants. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate and methanol and fractionated by column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses in conjunction with literature data. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. The antioxidant potentials of the extracts and their isolated compounds were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Results Five known compounds: physcion (1, 1,8-dihydroxy-3-geranyloxy-6-methylanthraquinone (2, kenganthranol B (3, vismiaquinone (4, and octacosanol (5 were isolated from the leaves of P. aurantiacum while six compounds including friedelin (6, betulinic acid (7, 2,2’,5,6’-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (8, allanxanthone A (9, 1,3,6- trihydroxyxanthone (10 and isogarcinol (11 were isolated from H. lanceolatum. Compound 8 and 4 exhibited the highest antibacterial and antifungal activities with MIC ranges of 2–8 μg/ml and 4–32 μg/ml respectively. P. aurantiacum crude extract (Rsa50 = 6.359 ± 0.101 showed greater radical scavenging activity compared with H. lanceolatum extract (Rsa50 = 30.996 ± 0.879. Compound 11 showed the highest radical scavenging activity (RSa50 = 1.012 ± 0.247 among the isolated compounds, comparable to that of L-arscobic acid (RSa50 = 0.0809 ± 0.045. Conclusions The experimental findings show

  4. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide. PMID:26151222

  5. ANTICARIES AND α-AMYLASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF JASMINUM ARBORESCENS ROXB. (OLEACEAE LEAVES EXTRACT

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    Bhagath K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine anti caries and α-amylase inhibitory activity of leaf extract of Jasminum arborescens Roxb. (Oleaceae. Anti caries activity was determined by Agar well diffusion assay against seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans (Sm-01 to Sm-07 recovered from dental caries subjects. Enzyme inhibitory activity was tested against α-amylase by spectrophometric method using starch as substrate. The extract exhibited dose dependent inhibition against cariogenic isolates. Among seven isolates, isolate Sm-04 and Sm-06 were inhibited to higher and least extent respectively. The extract was found to cause inhibition of α-amylase activity in a dose dependent manner and its IC50 value was found to be 17.45 mg/ml. The inhibitory activity could be attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites. The plant may be a potential source for development of agents which are active against dental caries pathogens and for diabetes mellitus.

  6. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models

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    Gautam Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS (family Nyctaginaceae is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g. Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The extract was freeze-dried (lyophilized and the yield was 8 g. This was used as an emulsion prepared in propylene glycol and orally administered (20 and 50 mg/kg. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of BS was evaluated using carrageenan and dextran whereas chronic anti-inflammatory (immunoregulatory activity was evaluated by Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Results: BS (20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg had shown significant anti-inflammatory effects 20.6% and 67.6%, respectively, on carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory models. In dextran-induced edema, the effect was 30% and 66%, respectively. The standard drug indomethacin (87.3% and 91.5%, respectively showed better inhibitory response in both models. In arthritic model 50 mg/kg of BS showed significant chronic anti-inflammatory effect (38.46% in comparison to the standard drug dexamethasone (84.6%. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the methanol extract of BS (50 mg/kg leaves has significant anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activity. Further studies involving isolation of active principles will help to pinpoint the mechanisms contributing to the observed activities of BS.

  7. Water extract of Ashwagandha leaves has anticancer activity: identification of an active component and its mechanism of action.

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    Renu Wadhwa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer is a leading cause of death accounting for 15-20% of global mortality. Although advancements in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have improved cancer survival statistics, 75% of the world population live in underdeveloped regions and have poor access to the advanced medical remedies. Natural therapies hence become an alternative choice of treatment. Ashwagandha, a tropical herb used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, has a long history of its health promoting and therapeutic effects. In the present study, we have investigated an anticancer activity in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anticancer activity in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX was detected by in vitro and in vivo assays. Bioactivity-based size fractionation and NMR analysis were performed to identify the active anticancer component(s. Mechanism of anticancer activity in the extract and its purified component was investigated by biochemical assays. We report that the ASH-WEX is cytotoxic to cancer cells selectively, and causes tumor suppression in vivo. Its active anticancer component was identified as triethylene glycol (TEG. Molecular analysis revealed activation of tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRB by ASH-WEX and TEG in cancer cells. In contrast to the hypophosphorylation of pRB, decrease in cyclin B1 and increase in cyclin D1 in ASH-WEX and TEG-treated cancer cells (undergoing growth arrest, normal cells showed increase in pRB phosphorylation and cyclin B1, and decrease in cyclin D1 (signifying their cell cycle progression. We also found that the MMP-3 and MMP-9 that regulate metastasis were down regulated in ASH-WEX and TEG-treated cancer cells; normal cells remained unaffected. CONCLUSION: We provide the first molecular evidence that the ASH-WEX and TEG have selective cancer cell growth arrest activity and hence may offer natural and economic resources for anticancer medicine.

  8. Effect of the methanol leaves extract of Clinacanthus nutans on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in male mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lau KW; Lee SK; Chin JH

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate thein vivoeffect of14 d repeatedly oral administration ofClinacanthus nutans(C. nutans) methanol leaves extract(250 mg/kg,500 mg/kg and1000 mg/kg bw) on the acetylcholinesterase(AChE) activity in maleBalb/C mice.Method:First group was served as control group, orally treated with distilled water as vehicle and group2-4 were orally treated with a single daily dose of250 mg/kg,500 mg/kg and1000 mg/kg bw ofC. nutans extract, respectively for14 d.Each group consisted of six animals(n=6).The activity of acetylcholinesterase in brain, liver, kidney and heart of mice was determined according toEllman method(1961).Results:From the results obtained, theAChE activity was found to be highest in mice liver, followed by brain, kidney and heart.Methanol extract ofC. nutans leaves at250 mg/kg(P<0.001),500 mg/kg(P<0.001) and1000 mg/kg(P<0.001) showed a significant increase in theAChE activity in mice kidney, liver and heart.On the other hand, theAChE activity obtained from the mice brain showed insignificant difference between the control group and treatment group.However, there was no abnormal behavioural change and adverse effect related to the central nervous system observed in all treated mice during14 d experimentation period.Conclusion:In conclusion,14 d oral administration ofC. nutans was able to modulate cholinergic neurotransmission by activating AChE activity in mice kidney, liver and heart.Compounds that responsible for the induction of AChE activity in mice liver, heart and kidney and its mechanism needs to be elucidated.

  9. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

  10. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhuraju, Perumal; Becker, Klaus

    2003-04-01

    Water, aqueous methanol, and aqueous ethanol extracts of freeze-dried leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. from different agroclimatic regions were examined for radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. All leaf extracts were capable of scavenging peroxyl and superoxyl radicals. Similar scavenging activities for different solvent extracts of each collection were found for the stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) radical. Among the three different moringa samples, both methanol and ethanol extracts of Indian origins showed the highest antioxidant activities, 65.1 and 66.8%, respectively, in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system. Nonetheless, increasing concentration of all the extracts had significantly (P flavonoid groups such as quercetin and kaempferol. On the basis of the results obtained, moringa leaves are found to be a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their marked antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from freeze-dried moringa leaves. Overall, both methanol (80%) and ethanol (70%) were found to be the best solvents for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from moringa leaves. PMID:12670148

  11. Content of Polyphenolics Constituents and the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts from Leaves and Fruits of Lannea microcarpa Engl. & K. Kraus (Anacardiaceae

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    J.H. Bationo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a number of studies on health benefits associated with natural compounds have been demonstrated. Polyphenolics in fruits, leaves, herbs and vegetables possess potent antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In the present study, a portion of Lannea microcarpa’s lyophilised fruits and leaves aqueous acetone extract, was fractionated by successive liquid-liquid partitioning to obtain ethyl acetate and n-butanol fraction. The total polyphenolic constituents and total flavonoid constituents from the extract and the two fractions were determined and were found to be the highest respectively in leaves butanol fraction (22.05±0.78 mg GAE/100 mg for polyphenolic constituents, and in leaves and fruits ethyl acetate fraction (1.61±0.02 mg QE/100 mg for the flavonoids constituents. Antioxidant activity of the extract and the two fractions were determined by in vitro model using DPPH; Antibacterial activity of these extracts and fractions was also assayed on two Gram+ bacteria and six Gram-bacteria by using disc diffusion and broth micro dilution method. Data indicated highest antioxidant activity obtained from leaves extracts and fractions IC50 (1.55±0.19 μg/mL, and inhibitory effect both on Gram- and Gram+ bacteria with highest antibacterial activity MIC (0.15625 mg/mL, obtained with leaves ethyl acetate and n butanol fraction on Bacillus cereus (ATCC 9144. All the results obtained from this study, showed that Lannea microcarpa’s fruit and leaves extract could be candidate for news antibacterial and antioxidant compounds.

  12. Intensified Separation of Steviol Glycosides from a Crude Aqueous Extract of Stevia rebaudiana Leaves Using Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.

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    Hubert, Jane; Borie, Nicolas; Chollet, Sébastien; Perret, Joël; Barbet-Massin, Claire; Berger, Monique; Daydé, Jean; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2015-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of Stevia rebaudiana leaves have been approved since 2008 by the Joint Expert Committee for Food Additives as sugar substitutes in many food and beverages in Western and Far East Asian countries. The compounds responsible for the natural sweetness of Stevia leaves include a diversity of diterpenoid glycosides derived from a steviol skeleton. These steviol glycosides also exhibit a low calorific value as well as promising therapeutic applications, particularly for the treatment of sugar metabolism disturbances. In this work, centrifugal partition chromatography is proposed as an efficient technical alternative to purify steviol glycosides from crude aqueous extracts of Stevia leaves on a multigram scale. Two different commercial instruments, including an ASCPC250® and a FCPE300® made of columns containing 1890 and 231 twin-cells, respectively, were evaluated and compared. All experiments were performed with a polar biphasic solvent system composed of ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in a gradient elution mode. When using the 1890 partition cell centrifugal partition chromatography column of 250 mL, 42 mg of stevioside, 68 mg of dulcoside A, and 172 mg of rebaudioside A, three major constituents of the initial extract were obtained from 1 g of the initial mixture at purities of 81%, 83%, and 99%, respectively. The productivity was further improved by intensifying the procedure on the 231 partition cell centrifugal partition chromatography column of 303 mL with the sample mass loading increased up to 5 g, resulting in the recovery of 1.2 g of stevioside, 100 mg of dulcoside A, and 1.1 g of rebaudioside A at purities of 79%, 62%, and 98%, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds were validated by HPLC-UV, ESI-MS, (1)H, and (13)C NMR analyses. Altogether, the results demonstrate that the column design (i.e., the partition cell number) is an important aspect to be considered for a larger scale centrifugal partition chromatography

  13. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

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    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  14. Protective Effects of Morus alba Leaves Extract on Ocular Functions of Pups from Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Mother Rats

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    H.I.H. El-Sayyad, M.A. El-Sherbiny, M.A. Sobh, A.M. Abou-El-Naga, M.A.N. Ibrahim, S.A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE, adrenaline (AD, nor-adrenaline (NAD, serotonin (5-HT, histamine (HS, dopamine (DA and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA. The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.

  15. GC-MS analysis,determination of total phenolics,flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activities of various crude extracts of Moringa peregrina(Forssk.) Fiori leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mooza; Al-Owaisi; Nora; Al-Hadiwi; Shah; Alam; Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To perform phytochemical screening,estimate total phenolics,flavonoids and to evaluate antioxidant potential of Moringa peregrina(M.peregrina) leaves.Methods:The dried powdered leaves of M.peregrina(150 g) were extracted exhaustively by Soxhlet with ethanol and then fractionated into hexane,chloroform,ethy alacetate and methanol.All the prepared extracts were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the crude extracts.Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts.Hydrogen peroxide and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were used to determine in vitro antioxidant activity.Results:Phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results revealed presence of 19 phytoconstituents in hexane extract,6 in ethyl acetate and 7 compounds in methanolic extract.Methanol extract was found to contain the highest phenolic content and flavonoids.In vitro antioxidant activities of all crude extracts were significant and comparable with the standard ascorbic acid.Conclusions:Results of this study show that the leaves of M.peregrina are the rich source of phenolic compounds that can play an important role in preventing the progression of many diseases.

  16. GC-MS analysis, determination of total phenolics, flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activities of various crude extracts of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MoozaAl-Owaisi; NoraAl-Hadiwi; ShahAlam Khan

    2014-01-01

    To perform phytochemical screening, estimate total phenolics, flavonoids and to evaluate antioxidant potential of Moringa peregrina (M. peregrina) leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of M. peregrina (150 g) were extracted exhaustively by Soxhlet with ethanol and then fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethy alacetate and methanol. All the prepared extracts were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the crude extracts. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. Hydrogen peroxide and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were used to determine in vitro antioxidant activity. Results: Phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results revealed presence of 19 phytoconstituents in hexane extract, 6 in ethyl acetate and 7 compounds in methanolic extract. Methanol extract was found to contain the highest phenolic content and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activities of all crude extracts were significant and comparable with the standard ascorbic acid. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the leaves of M. peregrina are the rich source of phenolic compounds that can play an important role in preventing the progression of many diseases.

  17. Amelioration of Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rat by the Administration of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura L. Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, N. D.; Mamat, S. S.; Kamisan, F. H.; Yahya, F.; Kamarolzaman, M. F. F.; Nasir, N.; Mohtarrudin, N.; Tohid, S. F. Md.; Zakaria, Z. A.

    2014-01-01

    Muntingia calabura L. is a tropical plant species that belongs to the Elaeocarpaceae family. The present study is aimed at determining the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) using two models of liver injury in rats. Rats were divided into five groups (n = 6) and received 10% DMSO (negative control), 50 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC; positive control), or MEMC (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg) orally once daily for 7 days and on the 8th day were subjected to the hepatotoxic induction using paracetamol (PCM). The blood and liver tissues were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant study using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH) and superoxide anion-radical scavenging assays. At the same time, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and total phenolic content were also determined. From the histological observation, lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis were observed in PCM-treated groups (negative control), whereas maintenance of hepatic structure was observed in group pretreated with N-acetylcysteine and MEMC. Hepatotoxic rats pretreated with NAC or MEMC exhibited significant decrease (P < 0.05) in ALT and AST enzymes level. Moreover, the extract also exhibited good antioxidant activity. In conclusion, MEMC exerts potential hepatoprotective activity that could be partly attributed to its antioxidant activity and, thus warrants further investigations. PMID:24868543

  18. Correlation among Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Hemolytic, and Antiproliferative Properties of Leiothrix spiralis Leaves Extract

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    Claudia Elena Sotomayor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of a plant extract depend on a complex sum of individual properties including the antioxidant activity. Several biological activities protect against the harmful action of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and here we focused our attention on the relationship between the biological activities tested and the antioxidant properties. In this study, the total flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant, antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities of the methanolic extract of Leitothrix spiralis leaves were evaluated. The extract showed a total flavonoid content of 19.26% and the chemical characterization by HPLC-PAD confirmed the presence of flavonoids as the major secondary metabolite compounds. Significant antioxidant activity (IC50 = 1.743 µg/mL ± 0.063 was demonstrated and was effective against Gram-negative organisms and all Candida strains tested, and showed an ability to inhibit hyphal formation. Non-hemolytic and antiproliferative activity could be demonstrated.

  19. Fast protocol for extraction of DNA from Prosopis spp leaves (plant adapted to arid environment) without liquid nitrogen.

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    Michel-López, C Y; González-Mendoza, D; Grimaldo-Juarez, O

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Prosopis spp for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is complicated, owing to the presence of a high percentage of secondary metabolites that bind to or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. In the present study, we report a modified sodium dodecyl sulfate/phenol protocol that eliminates the use of liquid nitrogen in the maceration process, β-mercaptoethanol in the buffer extraction, and the ethanol precipitation step. The A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 2.0 to 1.9, suggesting that the DNA fraction was pure and can be used for further PCR analysis. The DNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications; this technique could be applied to other organisms that have similar substances that hinder DNA extraction. Finally, this proposal represents an alternative fast, cheap, and effective method for the isolation of genomic DNA from fresh leaves of Prosopis spp, even in low-technology laboratories. PMID:24089098

  20. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity induced by methanol extract ofTerminalia citrina leaves in Sprague Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narhari Das; Durajan Goshwami; Md. Sharif Hasan; Sheikh Zahir Raihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate acute and subacute toxicity of methanol extract ofTerminalia citrina leaves (family: Combretaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The acute toxicity studies were conducted where the limit test dose of 3 200 mg/kg body weight used. Observations were made and recorded systemically on 1, 2, 4, 24 and 48 h after dose administration for behavior, breathing, cutaneous effects, sensory nervous system response or gastrointestinal effects. For the subacute toxicity, four groups of 10 female rats were received; distilled water (control), 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg of extracts respectively every 24 h orally for 28 days. Results: No significant variation in the body and organ weights between the control and the treated group was observed after 28 days of treatment. Haematological analysis and biochemical parameters revealed no toxic effects of the extract. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. No mortality was recorded in 28 days. Conclusions: It was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy.