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Sample records for borealis leaves extract

  1. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm) and mo...

  2. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  3. Bioactivities examination of Cinchona leaves ethanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Z.; Hanafi, M.; Jamilah, Kurniasih, Ida Rahmi; Primahana, Gian; Anita, Yulia; Sundowo, Andini; Kandace, Yoice Sri

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona species especially the barks are commonly known for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. Although it is also reported for treatment of depurative, whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. In this paper we reported in vitro examination of other bioactivities (antidiabetes, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity) of 70% ethanol extract of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra leaves as well as qunine, quinidine, and cinchonine the major alkaloids found in Cinchona species. Antidiabetes was conducted using α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. Antioxidant was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. In vitro cytotoxic activity was concucted by microscopic observation on growth of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The results showed that at concentration of 100 µg/ml, C. ledgeriana leaves ethanol extracts showed the best activity as antidiabetes (98% inhibitory of α-glucosidase activity) and antioxidant (92% DPPH free radical scavenging activity), whereas at the same concentration C. succirubra, quinine, quinidine and cinchonine showed very low activities of antidiabetes and antioxidant. Microscopic observation of in vitro cytotoxicity showed that C. ledgeriana also has excellent cytotoxicity to breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which better than quinine, quinidine and cinchonine, whereas C. succirubra showed low cytotoxicity. These results suggest that cinchona species have many potential as the source of drugs discovery and development other than just for malaria treatment. Therefore it is important to conduct further studies and to maintain the available Cinchona plantation in Indonesia.

  4. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  5. Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The impact of Morus alba leaves extract on neurotransmitters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... nor-adrenaline, serotonin, histamine, dopamine, and gamma amino butyric acid). Furthermore, Morus alba leaves leaf extract display hypoglycemic effect, diminish DNA damage and apoptosis of brain cells of diabetic rats. In conclusion ,our results suggest that The protective effect of Morus alba leaves extract could be ...

  7. Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana in rats. Georgette Nyah Njike, Pierre Watcho, Télesphore Benoît Nguelefack, Albert Kamanyi. Abstract. The hypoglycaemic properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Bersama engleriana were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats in ...

  8. Extraction and application of dyestuffs from the leaves of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Stevia leaves extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguta, Iryna; Stavinskaya, Oksana; Kazakova, Olga; Fesenko, Tetiana; Brychka, Sergey

    2018-02-01

    Three extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) were prepared using different types of raw materials: leaves of plants grown ex situ, leaves of plants grown in vitro, callus culture formed on damaged leaves. Composition of the extracts was studied by means of high-performance liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry; total phenol content was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau method. Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to be the main groups of phenol antioxidants available in the Stevia leaves, with the amount of these compounds in the extract being dependent on the type of raw material. The reducing properties of phenol compounds identified in the extracts were characterized using quantum chemical method; flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to have similar redox parameters. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) colloids were synthesized using three Stevia extracts; AgNPs size distribution were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. All the extracts revealed significant activity in AgNPs synthesis; the nanoparticles of predominantly spherical shape with the average sizes of 16-25 nm were formed. The reducing properties of the extracts were found to correlate with total phenol content; the activity of extracts from the leaves of plants grown ex situ and from callus culture in Ag+ ions reduction was similar to each other and exceeded the activity of extract from the leaves of plants grown in vitro.

  10. Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    Table 3: Effect of the ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudti leaves on some biochemical parameters of rats after CCl4 administration. PARAMETERS. GROUPS. Control. CCl4. 5ml/kg body weight. CCl4 + 200mg/kg. Pyrenacantha staudti extract. CCl4+ 400mg/kg. Pyrenacantha staudti extract. Aspartate aminotransferase ...

  11. Antimalaria activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Terminalia catappa were air dried, grounded and soaked with ethanol. The extracts obtained (47.23g, TC1) was fractionated sequentially using aqueous methanol with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate respectively. The residue of ethanol extract (marc) was extracted with 5M HCl, basified and ...

  12. Effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypoglycemic effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratisimum was investigated in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. A single administration of the extract at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was done. The aqueous extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg significantly lowered blood glucose level ...

  13. Antitumour Activity of Methanolic Extract of Plumeria alba L. Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate Plumeria alba leaves for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) bearing Swiss albino mice. Method: The antitumour activity of the methanolic extract of Plumeria alba leaves (MPA) was evaluated against EAC and DLA using in-vitro cytotoxic and ...

  14. Some Pharmacological Studies Of Aqueous Extract Of Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was set out to identify the pharmacological basis for the laxative effect of leaves of Euphorbia heterophylla as well as identify its other pharmacological properties: Material/ Methods: Effect of aqueous extract of the leaves was tested on isolated guinea pig ileum and isolated pregnant rat uterus using organ bath ...

  15. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. ... This mechanism is an immunological response following bacterial infection and is ... inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are mainly used in the treatment of pain and ...

  16. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  17. Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on acetaminophen - induced liver toxicity in albino rats. Samy Abdelfatah Abdel Azim, Mohamed Taha Abdelrahem, Mostafa Mohamed Said, Alshaimaa Khattab ...

  18. The potentials of henna ( Lawsonia inamis L .) leaves extracts as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawsonia inamis L.) leaves adopted as alternative counter stain in Gram staining reactions were studied. Different extracts were formulated into various staining solutions of different concentrations. The solutions were modified with hydrogen ...

  19. Efficacy of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. leaves extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. leaves extracts against some atmospheric fungi. M Afzal, FS Mehdi, FM Abbasi, H Ahmad, R Masood, J Alam, G Jan, M Islam, NU Amin, A Majid, M Fiaz, AH Shah ...

  20. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  1. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  2. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Kamuthachad, Ludthawun; Anthapanya, Methinee; Samakchan, Natthapon; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Potup, Pachuen; Ferrante, Antonio; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2016-04-01

    Although kaffir lime has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antileukemic activity, little is known about the antimicrobial effect of kaffir lime extract. Because Streptococcus mutans has been known to cause biofilm formation, it has been considered the most important causative pathogen of dental caries. Thus, the effective control of its effects on the oral biofilm is the key to the prevention of dental caries. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of kaffir lime leaves extract on biofilm formation and its antibacterial activity on S. mutans. We examined the effect of kaffir lime leaves extract on growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. For the investigation we used a kaffir lime extract with high phenolic content. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract was determined by broth microdilution assay. The inhibitory effect of the test substances on biofilm formation was also investigated by biofilm formation assay and qRT-PCR of biofilm formation-associated genes. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits the growth of S. mutans, corresponding to the activity of an antibiotic, ampicillin. Formation of biofilm by S. mutans was also inhibited by the extract. These results were confirmed by the down-regulation of genes associated with the biofilm formation. The findings highlight the ability of kaffir lime leaves extract to inhibit S. mutans activity, which may be beneficial in the prevention of biofilm formation on dental surface, reducing dental plaque and decreasing the chance of dental carries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF FICUS ARNOTTIANA (MIQ) LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandaker Amol; Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of leaves of Ficus arnottiana was used to evaluate the analgesic activity. The above activity was evaluated using the eddy’s hot plate and heat conduction method and acetic acid induced writing in mice. The dose used for the test of activity (100, 200. 400 mg/kg i.p). The extract at all doses tested significantly (P

  4. Effects of Methanolic Extracts from the Leaves of Brimstone, Cassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Methanolic Extracts from the Leaves of Brimstone, Cassia, Lemon Grass and Chanca Piedra on Meloidogyne Incognita in the Laboratory. ... and the highest level (20%) of aqueous extracts of all test plants completely inhibited egg hatch while the control (distilled water only) recorded 93% commulative egg hatch.

  5. Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaves Extract on Growth Response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Mangifera indica leaves extracts on growth response of Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated for 42 days. 5 diets at approximately 40% crude protein containing varying levels of the extracts at 0%, 5%, 15% and 25% were formulated. These were fed to fingerlings of O. niloticus (mean weight, 5.25 – 6.05g) that were ...

  6. Mangifera indica Leave Extracts as Organic Inhibitors on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibition efficiency and adsorption characteristics of alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins extracts of Mangifera indica leaves in controlling corrosion of Zinc sheet in 5 M hydrogentetraoxosulphate (VI) acid solution has been evaluated by gasometric method. The formulation consisting of 2 g/L of extract offers 96.2%, 85.3% ...

  7. Trypanocidal activity of the aqueous leave extract of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the trypanocidal activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of young Holarrhena africana. The trypanocidal activity was evaluated by treatment of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei at the peak of infection. The aqueous extract was administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days with varied ...

  8. evaluation of pawpaw leaves extract as anti-corrosion agent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Pawpaw leaves extract was examined as anti-corrosion agent for aluminium in hydrochloric acid medium. The extract and corrosion product were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). Thermometric, gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscopic methods were ...

  9. the potentials of henna (lawsonia inamis l.) leaves extracts as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The potentials of aqueous and ethanol extract solutions of the henna plant (Lawsonia inamis L.) leaves adopted as alternative counter stain in Gram staining reactions were studied. Different extracts were formulated into various staining solutions of different concentrations. The solutions were modified with ...

  10. Efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Chromolaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otarigho Benson

    The molluscicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Chromolaena odorata were investigated on adult, one week old juveniles and 3 to 4 days old egg-masses of Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Ten adults each were exposed to a serial dilution of 40, 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480 ppm distilled water extracts ...

  11. Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds from agarwood leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N. Y.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Idham, Z.; Ruslan, M. S. H.; Aziz, A. H. A.; Irwansyah, N.

    2016-11-01

    Agarwood commonly known as gaharu, aloeswood or eaglewood have been used as traditional medicine for centuries and its essential oil also being used as perfumery ingredients and aroma enhancers in food products. However, there is least study on the agarwood leaves though it contains large number of biomolecules component that show diverse pharmacological activity. Previous study showed that the extracted compounds from the leaves possess activities like anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-helminthic. The main objectives of this research were to determine bioactive compounds in agarwood leaves; leaves extract and oil yield obtained from maceration and soxhlet extraction methods respectively. The maceration process was performed at different operating temperature of 25°C, 50°C and 75°C and different retention time at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Meanwhile, various solvents were used to extract the oil from agarwood leaves using soxhlet method which are hexane, water, isopropanol and ethanol. The extracted oil from agarwood leaves by soxhlet extraction was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the highest extract of 1.53% was obtained when increase the temperature to 75 °C and longest retention time of 120 minutes gave the highest oil yield of 2.10 % by using maceration. This is because at higher temperature enhances the solubility solute and diffusivity coefficient, thus increase the extract yield while longer retention time allow the reaction between solvent and solute occurred more rapidly giving higher extract. Furthermore, the soxhlet extraction using n-hexane as the solvent gave the highest oil yield as compared to other solvent due to the non-polar properties of n-hexane increase the efficiency of oil which is also non-polar to soluble in the solvent. In addition, the results also reported that the oil extracted from agarwood leaves contains bioactive compounds which are phytol, squalene, n-hexadecanoic acid and

  12. Ultrasonically assisted antioxidant extraction from grape stalks and olive leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcel, Juan A.; García-Pérez, José V.; Mulet, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ligia; Riera, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Grape stalks and olive leaves present high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The extraction of these compounds may be considered a way to increase in value both agro-food by-products. Ultrasound is widely applied in extraction due to its effects (cavitation, microstirring or sponge effect) over the process. The goal of this work was to address the application of ultrasound on the antioxidant extraction of olive leaves and grape stalk. For that purpose, the extraction of antioxidant compounds from grape stalks and olive leaves, previously dried at 100 °C, were carried out using a ethanolic solution (80 % v/v) at 60 °C. Extractions were carried out with (US; 30 kHz; 600W)) and agitation (AG) without ultrasound application. In the AG experiments, the solution was agitated with a stirrer. Samples were obtained at different extraction time (10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 and 1440 min) and their antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP method. The Naik model was used to model the extraction kinetics, being identified the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B). For grape stalks, the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B) were higher in AG experiments than in US experiments. In the olive leaves extractions, the Y eq/B was of the same order for both treatments but Y eq was significantly higher for US experiments. The different influence of ultrasound for both by-products can be explained from their different geometry and structure.

  13. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  14. Flavonoids and antiulcerogenic activity from Byrsonima crassa leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannomiya, M; Fonseca, Vitor B; da Silva, M A; Rocha, L R M; Dos Santos, L C; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Souza Brito, A R M; Vilegas, W

    2005-02-10

    Byrsonima crassa Niedenzu (IK) (Malpighiaceae) is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric ulcers. In this study, we evaluated the potential antiulcerogenic effect of three different extracts obtained from the leaves of Byrsonima crassa namely hydromethanolic (80% MeOH), methanolic (MeOH) and chloroformic extracts (CHCl(3)). The oral administration (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) of all the extracts reduced the formation of lesions associated with HCl/ethanol administration in mice. The 80% MeOH extract significantly reduced the incidence of gastric lesions by 74, 78 and 92% at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively (PByrsonima crassa afforded five known substances: quercetin-3-O-beta-d-galactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside, the biflavonoid amentoflavone, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. The presence of these phenolic compounds may probably explain the antiulcerogenic effect of the extracts of Byrsonima crassa leaves.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  16. Analysis preliminary phytochemical raw extract of leaves Nephrolepis pectinata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natally Marreiros Gomes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nephrolepis pectinata popularly known as paulista fern, ladder-heaven, cat tail, belongs to the family Davalliaceae. For the beauty of the arrangements of their leaves ferns are quite commercialized in Brazil, however, have not been described in the literature studies on their pharmacological potential. Thus, the objective of this research was to analyze the phytochemical properties of the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata. To perform the phytochemical analysis were initially made the collection of the vegetable, preparation of voucher specimen, washing, drying and grinding. Then, extraction by percolation method and end the phytochemical analysis. Preliminary results phytochemicals the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata tested positive for reducing sugars, phenols/tannins (catechins tannins and catechins.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of free amino acids from broccoli leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnáiz, E; Bernal, J; Martín, M T; Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Toribio, L

    2012-08-10

    The extraction of free amino acids (AAs) from broccoli leaves using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) modified with methanol, is presented in this work. The effect of the different variables was studied, showing the percentage of methanol a strong influence on the extraction. The best results in terms of extraction yield were obtained at 250 bar, 70°C, 35% methanol as organic modifier, a flow rate of 2 mL/min, and 5 min and 30 min as static and dynamic extraction times, respectively. The extraction yield obtained with the SFE method was comparable to that obtained employing conventional solvent extraction with methanol-water (70:30) and minor than using water, but the relative proportion of the AAs in the extracts was very different. For example, the use of SFE allowed the enrichment in proline and glutamine of the extracts. The selected conditions were applied to obtain SFE extracts of broccoli leaves from different varieties (Naxos, Nubia, Marathon, Parthenon and Viola). The highest levels of AAs were found in the SFE extracts from the Nubia variety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CNS activity of leaves extract of Calotropis gigantea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dattatraya Ghule

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study central nervous system activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Calotropis gigantea (C. gigantea (Asclepiadaceae, such as anticonvulsant, sedative and muscle relaxation activity. Methods: The ethanolic extract of C. gigantea administered orally in experimental animals at different doses 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The anticonvulsant properties were studied on maximal electroshock test and strychnine-induced convulsions model. Sedative property studied using actophotometer and skeletal muscle relaxant property studied using rota rod. Results: This extract protected rats against maximal electroshock induced seizures, but had no or a moderate effect only against strychnine-induced seizures. Locomotor activity in mice found to be decreased and motor coordination was also decreased. The acute toxicity study revealed safely of the extract up to a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: With these effects, the leaves of C. gigantea possess anticonvulsant sedative and muscle relaxant effect that might explain its use as a traditional medicine.

  19. Costus afer leave extract as nontoxic corrosion inhibitor for mild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion inhibition performance of the ethanol extracts of Costus afer leaves (EECAL) on the corrosion of mild steel in 5 M H2SO4 solutions at 303K and elevated temperatures of 313, 323 and 333 K was investigated using weight loss method (gravimetric) and hydrogen evolution (gasometric) techniques respectively.

  20. Aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves reduces blood sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Telfairia Occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) were studied on some haematological indices, sperm parameters and blood glucose in male albino rats. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, twelve (12) male rats were divided into two groups of six (6) rats each.

  1. Oil extract from Gongronema latifolium leaves exhibit anti-diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chi

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... Air-dried, pulverized leaves of Gongronema latifolium were subjected to step wise fractionation using first, ethanol and subsequently fractionation of the dried ethanol extract using solvents of increasing polarity, n-hexane, chloroform, ... of the stomach against ulceration, lowers blood pressure and stimulate ...

  2. Effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides are used to improve agricultural yields; meanwhile they have detrimental effects on human and animal reproduction. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves against cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress and reproductive toxicity. Fifty male guinea pigs ...

  3. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT (CRUDE) OF LEAVES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude aqueous extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina on blood glucose, serum albumin and cholesterol levels on alloxan induced diabetic albino rats was investigated. Blood glucose, serum albumin and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced. From 296.75 ± 9.0mg/dl to 179.0 ± 7.3mg/dl for blood glucose; ...

  4. Analgesic properties of Capraria biflora leaves aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, S L; Muro, L V; Sacerio, A L; Peña, A R; Okwei, S N

    2003-12-01

    The analgesic properties of dried leaves of Capraria biflora were investigated. The aqueous extract (50-200 mg kg(-1)) produced moderate inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. At the same doses, a better analgesic effect was observed on the hot plate test.

  5. Consumption of aqueous extract of raw Aloe Vera leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-five juvenile tilapia and 30 weanling albino rats exposed to water containing 50, 100 and 150ppm of aqueous extract of Aloe Vera leaves for 96 hours and 28 days, respectively were used for this study. Fifteen tilapia and 10 rats exposed to clean water (0 ppm A. vera) served as controls. Clinical signs, mortality, gross ...

  6. Ethanol extracts of Newbouldia laevis stem and leaves modulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extracts of N. laevis leaves and stem possessed antioxidant activity as shown by increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and glutathione levels of the diabetic rats after treatment. High levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), which are typical of oxidative ...

  7. Effect of ethanolic leave extract of phyllantus amarus on carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peters

    ABSTRACT: Liver diseases associated with its function in detoxification of xenobiotics are one of the most common causes of death. Side effects of drugs treating liver diseases have marred their popularity. This work was therefore designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus ...

  8. Indigofera pulchra leaves extracts contain anti-Plasmodium berghei agents

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    Sani Ibrahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the anti-Plasmodium berghei activities of some extracts from Indigofera pulchra leaves. Six groups of mice were intraperitoneally infected with chloroquine sensitive P. berghei (NK 65 among which two groups were orally treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of methanol leaves extract while another two groups were treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of n-butanol fraction derived from the methanol extract. Another infected group was treated with chloroquine (25 mg/kg whereas the remaining infected group was left untreated. All infected treated groups possessed a significantly (p<0.05 lowered number of parasitized erythrocytes than the infected untreated group throughout the experimental period except at day 6 post-infection. However, the 200 mg/kg n-butanol fraction treated group demonstrated a persistently lower number of parasitized erythrocytes than other extract-treated groups after day 9 post infection to the termination of the experiment. The P. berghei was found to induce anemia whose severity was significantly (p<0.05 ameliorated by all the treatments. It was concluded that the methanol extract and n-butanol fraction of I. pulchra contains anti-P. berghei phytochemicals that could ameliorate the parasite-induced anemia.

  9. Zanthoxylum chiloperone leaves extract: first sustainable Chagas disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Elena; Cebrián-Torrejón, Gerardo; Corrales, Alba Segovia; Vera de Bilbao, Ninfa; Rolón, Miriam; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Leblanc, Karine; Yaluf, Gloria; Schinini, Alicia; Torres, Susana; Serna, Elva; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Poupon, Erwan; Fournet, Alain

    2011-02-16

    Zanthoxylum chiloperone var. angustifolium Engl. (Rutaceae) stem bark is used traditionally in Paraguay for its antiparasitic properties. Canthin-6-one is main compound isolated from Zanthoxylum chiloperone var angustifolium with broad spectrum antifungal, leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. The qualitative and quantitative characterization and the isolation of main alkaloidal components of different organs of Zanthoxylum chiloperone are investigated by HPLC-UV-MS. The in vitro biological activity of each extract against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites were evaluated, then comparison the in vivo efficacy of the ethanolic leaves extract of Zanthoxylum chiloperone with reference drug, benznidazole, in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infected mice when administered by oral route. We have also evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic activity of the main component of Zanthoxylum chiloperone, i.e. canthin-6-one, by mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The compositions of the ethanol extracts obtained after the maceration process were studied by HPLC-UV-MS methods. The quantitation analysis was performed by external standard method, using a calibration curve constructed utilizing solutions containing different concentrations of the reference samples. The anti-trypomastigote activity was evaluated by the lysis effect on mouse blood trypomastigotes (Y strain Trypanosoma cruzi). The anti-amastigote Trypanosoma cruzi activity was evaluated by a modified colorimetric method with chlorophenol red-β-d-galactopyranoside (CPRG). The cytotoxicity of extracts and compounds was performed on NCTC 929 cells. The in vivo efficacy of the ethanolic leaves extract of Zanthoxylum chiloperone and benznidazole, in acute Trypanosoma cruzi (two different strains) was evaluated in Trypanosoma cruzi infected mice; the drugs were administered by oral route. The mortality rates were recorded and parasitaemias in control and treated mice were determined once weekly

  10. Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus barbatus Leaves in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges Fernandes, Luciana Cristina; Campos Câmara, Carlos; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus barbatus is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth. We therefore sought to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. barbatus leaves on seizures induced by strychnine sulphate (2.0 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (600 mg/kg) in mice. The extract was administered orally at 1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg. We report that the P. barbatus extract had marked anticonvulsant activity against strychnine-induced convulsions, but was quite ineffective against pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules(s) and their mechanism(s) of action.

  11. Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus barbatus Leaves in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Borges Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth. We therefore sought to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. barbatus leaves on seizures induced by strychnine sulphate (2.0 mg/kg and pilocarpine (600 mg/kg in mice. The extract was administered orally at 1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg. We report that the P. barbatus extract had marked anticonvulsant activity against strychnine-induced convulsions, but was quite ineffective against pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules(s and their mechanism(s of action.

  12. Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus barbatus Leaves in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges Fernandes, Luciana Cristina; Campos Câmara, Carlos; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus barbatus is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth. We therefore sought to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. barbatus leaves on seizures induced by strychnine sulphate (2.0 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (600 mg/kg) in mice. The extract was administered orally at 1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg. We report that the P. barbatus extract had marked anticonvulsant activity against strychnine-induced convulsions, but was quite ineffective against pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules(s) and their mechanism(s) of action. PMID:21716675

  13. [Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction and component analysis of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Zhang, Feng-su; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jian-wei; Yao, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. Using the yield of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei as the index, investigated the effect of the extraction pressure, extraction temperature and extraction time on the extracting-rate of leaves oil. The chemical composition of the extracted leaves oil was analyzed by derivatized GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei were determined: CO2 compressor pump frequency was 10 Hz, the extraction pressure was 25 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 45 degrees C, the extraction time was 120 min, the isolator I pressure was 8.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 40 degrees C, the isolator II pressure was 5.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 35 degrees C. The extracted leaves oil was derivatized with boron trifluoride-methanol complex. Thirty-three kinds of fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The yield of leaves oils are different from Taxus chinensis var. mairei from 3 habitats. The yield of leaves oil from Donggang, Wuxi city is the highest, about 2.61%. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei have differences.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF STEVIA LEAVES EXTRACTS AND SILVER NANOPARTICLES COLLOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Laguta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni were prepared using various types of raw materials: leaves of plants grown ex situ, leaves of plants grown in vitro, callus culture formed on damaged leaves. Composition of the extracts, their activity in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles colloids, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracts and the colloids were investigated.

  15. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  16. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  17. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  18. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive potential of Cordia dichotoma leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaban Bhattacharya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the safety-risk ratio of steroidal contraceptives, the present work was carried out to evaluate ethno-contraceptive use of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst., Boraginaceae, leaves (LCD. Preliminary pharmacological screening was performed on post-coital female albino rats. The leaves extract (LD50 5.50 g/kg bw showed 100% anti-implantation activity (n=10 at 800 mg/kg dose level. (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD was used as bioavailability enhancer to form LCD-BCD complex, characterized by DLS, SEM and XRD analyses. The LCD-BCD complex (1:1, w/w exhibited 100% pregnancy interception (n=20 at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and also showed strong estrogenic potential with a luteal phase defect. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out. The LCD extract was standardized by a validated HPTLC method and two contraceptive phytoconstituents, apigenin and luteolin were isolated. A detailed pharmacological analyses followed by chronic toxicity study were performed to predict the reversible nature of the developed phytopharmaceutical. The histological and biochemical estimations detected the reversible contraceptive potential after withdrawal. The observations suggested that the developed phyto-pharmaceutical has potential antifertility activity with safety aspects.

  19. [Preliminary screening tests of molluscicidal effect of extracts from Eucalyptus leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Zhu, Dan; Li, Ming-Ya

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the molluscicidal effects of extracts from five Eucalyptus leaves collected from Guangdong Province, China. According to the WHO recommended indoor immersed method, the molluscicidal effects of extracts from five Eucalyptus leaves with 250, 100, 10 mg/L of water extraction, alcohol precipitation and organic solvent extraction were investigated. The dose-effect relationship showed that all the mortality rates of Oncomelania hupensis reached 80% with the volatile oil from five Eucalyptus leaves immersed at the concentrations of 100 mg/L for 48 h, and the mortality rates were both 93.3% with the volatile oil from Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus urophylla leaves. The mortality rate was up to 95% with the chloroform extract, and the mortality rate reached 60% at the concentrations of 10 mg/L for 48 h. The volatile oils from five Eucalyptus leaves and the chloroform extract in alcohol extraction from Eucalyptus urophylla leaves are better than other solvents.

  20. Chromatographic profiles of extractives from leaves of Eugenia uniflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle C.F. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, popularly known as “pitanga”, is used in traditional medicine due the properties attributed to its chemical content, these being mainly hydrolysable tannins and flavonoids. This study provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chemical profile from leaves of E. uniflora. The HPLC analysis was carried out on a C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm by gradient elution with methanol and water (acidified with trifluoracetic acid; and silica gel Plates 60-F 254 with 10–12 µm and 5–6 µm particles, respectively for TLC and High HPTLC analysis. The chromatographic data obtained from HPLC, TLC and HPTLC presented bands and peaks related to flavonoids (myricitrin and derivatives and tannins (gallic and ellagic acids, which were observed from different samples. The chromatographic similarities enabled the building of a typical fingerprint for the herbal material. The similarity analysis of the sample data by Pearson correlation showed R values >0.9 among peaks (HPLC and bands (HPTLC. In addition, the analytical methodology developed by HPLC enabled the satisfactory quantification of marker substances [ellagic acid = 0.22% and 0.20% (m/m; gallic acid = 0.20% and 0.43%; myricitrin = 0.42 and 1.74% (m/m in herbal drug and crude extract, respectively]. The procedure was also validated in accordance with the assays required by Brazilian legislation. Thus, the HPTLC and HPLC methods developed in this study provide helpful and simple tools for the quality evaluation both qualitatively and quantitatively of raw materials and extractives from leaves of E. uniflora.

  1. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  2. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-07-26

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  3. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  4. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

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    Raj Chanchal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods:Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o. of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results:TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior.

  5. The Best Extraction Technique for Kaempferol and Quercetin Isolation from Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Suparto, I. H.; Wulandari, N. S.

    2017-03-01

    Guava leaves contain various compounds that have biological activity such as kaempferol and quercetin as anticancer. Twelve extraction techniques were performed to obtain the best extraction technique to isolate kaempferol and quercetin from the guava leaves. Toxicity of extracts was tested against Artemia salina larvae. All extracts were toxic (LC50 value less than 1000 ppm) except extract of direct soxhletation on guava leaves, and extract of sonication and soxhletation using n-hexane. The extract with high content of total phenols and total flavonoids, low content of tannins, intense color of spot on thin layer chromatogram was selected for high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Direct sonication of guava leaves was chosen as the best extraction technique with kampferol and quercetin content of 0.02% and 2.15%, respectively. In addition to high content of kaempferol and quercetin, direct sonication was chosen due to the shortest extraction time, lesser impurities and high toxicity.

  6. Nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves: Beyond traditional root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Renu; Konar, Arpita; Kaul, Sunil C

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly increasing aging population and environmental stressors are the two main global concerns of the modern society. These have brought in light rapidly increasing incidence of a variety of pathological conditions including brain tumors, neurodegenerative & neuropsychiatric disorders, and new challenges for their treatment. The overlapping symptoms, complex etiology and lack of full understanding of the brain structure and function to-date further complicate these tasks. On the other hand, several herbal reagents with a long history of their use have been asserted to possess neurodifferentiation, neuroregenerative and neuroprotective potentials, and hence been recommended as supplement to enhance and maintain brain health and function. Although they have been claimed to function by holistic approach resulting in maintaining body homeostasis and brain health, there are not enough laboratory studies in support to these and mechanism(s) of such beneficial activities remain largely undefined. One such herb is Ashwagandha, also called "Queen of Ayurveda" for its popular use in Indian traditional home medicine because of its extensive benefits including anticancer, anti-stress and remedial potential for aging and neurodegenerative pathologies. However, active principles and underlying mechanism(s) of action remain largely unknown. Here we provide a review on the effects of Ashwagandha extracts and active principles, and underlying molecular mechanism(s) for brain pathologies. We highlight our findings on the nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves. The effects of Ashwagandha leaf extracts are multidimensional ranging from differentiation of neuroblastoma and glioma cells, reversal of Alzheimer and Parkinson's pathologies, protection against environmental neurotoxins and enhancement of memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antiulcer activity of the crude extract from the leaves of casearia sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertié, J A; Carvalho, J C; Panizza, S

    2000-01-01

    In rats, administration of Casearia sylvestris extract derived from fresh and dried leaves protects stomach mucosa without changing gastric pH. In stress-induced acute lesions, the preventive effect of extract from dried leaves is more effective than extract from fresh leaves. In acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer, both extracts reduce the size of ulceration and increase the number of collagen fibers after 5 days of treatment, and these effects are similar with both extracts. These antiulcer activities of Casearia sylvestris may be due to the presence of volatile oils, tannins and triterpenerelated compounds.

  8. Kenikir leaves (C. caudatus) extract antibacterial test toward the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in-vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astutiningrum, Theresia; Feroniasanti, Y. M. Lauda

    2017-08-01

    The skin wound could cause bacterial infection if not to be treated. One of the cause is Staphylococcusaureus bacteria. Kenikir leaves has been used to be consumed and for traditional medication. This research aims to know the antibacterial activity of Kenikir leaves extract, to test the difference of antibacterial activity through different extraction method of Kenikir leaves and also to know minimum inhibitory concentration. The method that was used to test antibacterial activity was Kirby-Bauer method. Antibacterial activity was characterized by the presence of clear zone around paper discs which were called an inhibitory zone. Method to test a minimum inhibitory concentration were solid dilution. The research used two methods of extraction, namely maceration with ethanol solvent and mashed with aquades solvent. Extract concentrations that were used were 30%, 45%, 60%.Result showed that Kenikir leaves extracts had antibacterial activity. The results of antibacterial activity of the extracts showed that there was no difference between the two extraction method. Mashed extract of Kenikir leaves had a smallest inhibiton zone at concentration of 30% which were 6,76 mm and the largest was 7,58 mm at concentration of 60%. Ethanol extract of Kenikir leaves at concentration of 30% had an inhibiton zone of 7,25 mm and concentration of 60% had 8,59 mm. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of antibacterial activity was not obtained. Kenikir leaves extract belongs to bacteriostatic group because of the compound could only inhibit the growth of bacteria.

  9. Insight in the phenolic composition and antioxidative properties of Vitis vinifera leaves extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Generalić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, leaf ethanolic extracts of Vitis vinifera were assayed for their polyphenolic composition and antioxidative properties. The leaves were collected during lush vegetation period (May leaves and after the harvest (September leaves. Air dried plant material was homogenized and the polyphenolic constituents were extracted using conventional solvent extraction procedure. Total phenolics, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, catechins and flavanols were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Both extracts were very rich in phenolic compounds. The concentration of total phenols in September leaves extract was about 30 % higher compared to May leaves extract, due to the increase of flavonoid (catechin fraction. Non-flavonoid compound content was almost equal in both extracts. The amount of flavanols, determined with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde method, was taken as indicator of flavan-3-ol monomers, while high catechin content determined by vanillin method, indicated the presence of polymeric fraction. The total catechin content in September leaves extract was more than 3 folds higher in comparison to May leaves extract. Principal phenolic compounds were separated by high pressure liquid chromatography on reverse phase. Antioxidant properties, determined as: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate radical cation scavenging ability, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, Fe2+ chelating activity, and using β-carotene bleaching assay, were total phenol concentration dependent. September leaves extract had better free radical scavenging capacity, higher reducing power, and was more efficient in protecting the oxidation of emulsified linoleic acid, in comparison with May leaves extract which showed better chelating ability. The presence of active phenolic compounds: phenolic acids (3-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, vanillin acid, flavonoids ((+-catechin, (--epicatechin

  10. Neuropharmacological activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin; Sheth, Navin

    2010-11-01

    Although Colocasia esculenta Linn. (Araceae), commonly known as elephant ear (English), possesses diverse pharmacological activities in animals, little is known about its neuropharmacological activity. The present study evaluated the neuropharmacological activities of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Colocasia esculenta (HECE) using several experimental models. Adult Wistar albino rats were subjected to behavior despair and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Thiopental-induced sedation and rotarod tests were conducted on Swiss albino mice. The effects of HECE on anxiety, depression, thiopental-induced sleeping time, and rotarod performance were evaluated. The anxiolytic activity of HECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) per os (p.o.) was characterized by increased time spent and number of entries in open arms in the EPM paradigm as compared to control group (p < 0.001). The HECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) showed dose-dependent significant reduction in duration of immobility (p < 0.01) in the behavior despair test. The HECE at the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. was found to produce a significant reduction in motor coordination (p < 0.001) and prolongation of thiopental-induced sleeping time (p < 0.001). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, β-sitosterol, and steroids. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses neuropharmacological activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the neurobehavioral activity of the constituents from this plant.

  11. Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. leaves and calyces extracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochani, Pooja C; D'Mello, Priscilla

    2009-04-01

    Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of the extracts of leaves and calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were investigated by studying their in vitro inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation and in vivo effects on cholesterol induced hyperlipidemia. Highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by ethanolic extract of calyces followed by ethanolic extract of leaves followed by aqueous extract of leaves of H. sabdariffa. In cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic model, groups of rats treated with extracts of calyces and leaves of H. sabdariffa showed a significant decrease in the serum TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TAG values alongwith an increase in serum HDL-C levels. The treated groups also showed significant decrease in the atherogenic index, LDL-C: HDL-C risk ratios, and in the levels of SGOT, SGPT and ALP activities compared to cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic control group. Significant antihyperlipidemic activity was shown by ethanolic extract of calyces, followed by ethanolic extract of leaves. It was observed from the histopathological findings that rats fed with H. sabdariffa extracts showed decrease in granular degeneration caused by cholesterol feedings. Results suggest that the ethanolic extracts of calyces and leaves of H. sabdarifa containing polyphenols and flavanols possess significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities.

  12. Xanthomendoza borealis - a bipolar lichen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LIndblom, Louise; Søchting, Ulrik

    It has been uncertain whether the two xanthorioid taxa known as Xanthoria mawsonii and Xanthomen-doza borealis truly are distinct species or if they should best be treated as one species. They are morphologically very similar, but inhabit two disjunct geographical areas, that is, circumpolar on t...

  13. The antifungal activity of methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    extracts from the leaves of Leonotis nepetafolia showed that they contain quinones, saponosides, flavonoids and tannins. The high amount of quinones was remarked in both methanol and ether extracts while saponins were more well extracted by methanol compared to ether. Tannins and flavonoids found in methanol ...

  14. Influence of the methanolic extract from Abutilon indicum leaves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanolic leaf extract of Abutilon indicum (AI) was investigated for hypoglycemic effect in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The chemical screening of the extract showed that phenolic compounds and flavonoid contents were 1.04 ± 0.01 mg/g and 59.92 ± 3.88 g/g extract, respectively. A single oral ...

  15. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-05-07

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.

  16. Effect of the extract from leaves of Liquidambar formosana Hance on S180 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y T; Wang, X L; Xie, Q J; Zhang, Y N

    2016-07-25

    We examined the effects of the extract from leaves of Liquidambar formosana Hance on S180 cells and screened for antitumor active sites in the plant. Solvent extraction was conducted to prepare extracts from the leaves of L. formosana Hance and conduct preliminary separation, an MTT assay to determine the effect of leaf extract on the proliferation of S180 cells, and inverted microscopy to observe the effect of chloroform extract on the morphology of S180 cells. Double-staining (Annexin V/propidium iodide) with flow cytometry was conducted to determine the effect of the chloroform extract on S180 cell apoptosis. At some concentrations, the different extracts from the leaves of L. formosana Hance dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of S180 cells. Among all extracts, the chloroform extract showed the strongest inhibitory effect on S180 cell proliferation. The IC50 values for the chloroform extract, ethyl acetate extract, n-butanol extract, and water layer were 0.238, 0.471, 0.844, and 0.411 mg/mL, respectively. We observed cell shrinkage, volume reduction, and varying sizes by inverted microscopy. Additionally, with increasing drug concentration, the number of cells decreased and debris increased. The cells showed typical apoptotic morphological changes. The chloroform extract induced the apoptosis of S180 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Different extracts from the leaves of L. formosana Hance inhibited the proliferation of S180 cells, and the chloroform extract was the main antitumor component. This extract from the leaves of L. formosana Hance inhibited the proliferation of S180 cells in part by inducing apoptosis.

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Acute Toxicity of Clausena excavata Leaves Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas Albaayit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clausena excavata (Lour., locally known as “Kemantu hitam,” is a common plant in Malaysian folklore medicine. This study evaluated the antioxidant properties of the solvent extracts of C. excavata leaves and determined the acute toxicity of methanolic extract C. excavata (MECE leaves in Sprague-Dawley rats. Harvested leaves were dried and subjected to solvent extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol in succession. The antioxidant activity of each extract was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl dihydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoids content (TFC were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and ethanolic aluminium chloride method, respectively. The chloroform extract was found to be highest in flavonoid content, while the methanolic extract showed the highest TPC and antioxidant activity. There was no mortality in rats treated with MECE leaves even at a high dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. However, the MECE leaves produced mild to moderate pathological changes in the liver and kidneys, shown by mild degenerative changes and leucocyte infiltration. The extract did not affect the haematological parameters or relative weights of the liver or kidneys. Overall, the MECE leaves have potent antioxidant activity and are presumed safe to be used orally as health-promoting product at low to moderate doses.

  18. In Vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from the leaves of Abies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, the leaves of Abies pindrow Royle are employed as an ayurvedic remedy for fever, hypoglycaemic, respiratory and inflammatory conditions. In this study, dichloromethane, methanol and acetone extracts of A. pindrow leaves were analysed for their phytochemical content and in vitro antioxidant activities.

  19. Sedative and anxiolytic effects of the extracts of the leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigations sought scientific evidence for the ethnomedicinal use of the leaves for the management of insomnia and anxiety as well as the neural mechanisms for the activities. The sedative and anxiolytic effects of the extracts of the leaves of Stachytarpheta cayennensis were examined in this study. The methanolic ...

  20. The study of henna leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaudhari H.G and Vashi R.T

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. The inhibitive action of henna (Lawsonia Inermis) leaves on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedance and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of methanol leaves extract of Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of hepatocytes, peripheral cramped chromatin, shrinkages (single cell death) of hepatocytes, fragmentation of hepatocytes while no histopathological changes were ... of the stem- bark, the roots, and the leaves of V. amyg- dalina are also reported to be ... Mice of the same sex were grouped into. 8 experimental and 1 control ...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of leaves of Pseudocedrela kotschyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... and leaves are used to treat rheumatism and dysentery. In Northern Nigeria, the plant serves as an occasional ingredient for use in arrow poison (Oliver-Bever, 1986). In. West Africa, it has been established that the root of P. kotschyi is widely used as chewing sticks for dental cleaning (Akande and Hayashi, ...

  3. Effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... significant health benefit. The leaves of African varieties are said ... In addition to health benefit, basil is used widely as a condiment or spice and as a .... Glycemic change (%) = [(Glucose concentration (2, 4, 8 or 24) – fasting blood glucose) / Fasting blood glucose] x 100. Blood glucose levels of Wistar rats.

  4. Phytochemical screening and in vitro anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of Terminalia citrina leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narhari Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Terminalia citrina (T. citrina plant belonging to the Combretaceae family. Methods: The tests of phytochemical screening included alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, quinines, anthocyanins, glycosides, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of T. citrina was evaluated against Pheretima posthuma at three different concentrations (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL of extracts which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Results: The phytochemical screening of T. citrina leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The present study indicated that methanolic extract significantly exhibited paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at highest concentration of 100 mg/mL, as compared to standard reference Albendazole (10 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study suggests that the leaves of T. citrina possess potent anthelmintic activity.

  5. Protective Role of Comfrey Leave Extracts on UV-induced Zebrafish Fin Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chien-Chung; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Yao-Chin; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2014-01-01

    In zebrafish, UV exposure leads to fin malformation phenotypes including fin reduction or absence. The present study evaluated UV-protective activities of comfrey leaves extracts in a zebrafish model by recording fin morphological changes. Chemopreventive effects of comfrey leave extracts were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. The results showed that (1) the mean times of return to normal fin in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 3.43 and ...

  6. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Xia, En-Qin; He, Tai-Ping; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen

    2014-01-27

    Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials.

  7. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  8. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In monospecific culture condition, the extract of A. annua seemed to appear as a source of carbon and energy for bacteria growth. In mixed cultures the influence of pH in the presence of the extract of A. annua in the dark seemed to foster trophic relations among bacteria in some cases and stimulate the production of ...

  9. THE EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    and testicular morphology of male Wistar rats was investigated. Thirty five rats were divided into seven groups ... extract of B. diffusa produced adverse effects in semen and testicular morphology of the rats. Key words: B. ... cancer chemopreventive properties (Rawat et al., 2008; Pari et al.,. 2008). In rats, aqueous extract of ...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of leaves of Pseudocedrela kotschyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to investigate the phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms used in folklore medicine in order to authenticate some of its therapeutic claims. The antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of ...

  11. Pandan leaves extract (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb) as a food preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Aini, Resmi; Mardiyaningsih, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Background : Food poisoning or foodborne disease is still a serious concern in Indonesia. The use of harmful synthetic chemical preservatives are still widely found in society. Therefore, it would require efforts to develop safe natural preservatives― for instance, from Pandan leaves (Pandanus amayllifolius Roxb) which are often used as a natural food coloring and flavor concentrates, and has also widely known to have anti-bacterial activities. Objective : This study aims to determine the pot...

  12. Pandan Leaves Extract (Pandanus Amaryllifolius Roxb) as a Food Preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Aini, Resmi; Mardiyaningsih, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Background : Food poisoning or foodborne disease is still a serious concern in Indonesia. The use of harmful synthetic chemical preservatives are still widely found in society. Therefore, it would require efforts to develop safe natural preservatives― for instance, from Pandan leaves (Pandanus amayllifolius Roxb) which are often used as a natural food coloring and flavor concentrates, and has also widely known to have anti-bacterial activities. Objective : This study aims to determine the pot...

  13. Flavonoids extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S.; Kuster, Ricardo M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). Relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g -1 dried leaves) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g -1 dried leaves) methods using 70% ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phytochemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  14. Flavonoids extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S., E-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais (NPPN). Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2010-07-01

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). Relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using 70% ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phytochemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  15. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal], e-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.com; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2009-01-15

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  16. Spectroscopic Study of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Suryanti, V.; Virgynia, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the analysis of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf extract in two different solvent systems (chloroform and ethyl acetate). In those solvents, two different peaks characterizing green tea are observed at different wavelengths, namely 296 nm and 329 nm (extracted in chloroform) and 391 nm and 534 nm (extracted in ethyl acetate). We then investigated the absorption spectra change as function of green tea concentration in both solvents. We found that light absorption increases linearly with the increase of green tea concentration. Different wavelengths, however, respond this change differently. However, the way it changes is wavelength dependence.

  17. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of Erythrina fusca leaves aquadest extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Sudiono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirically, Erythrina fusca has been used as traditional herb for its antibacterial and antiinflammation properties. Periodontal disease is one of the most oral infectious diseases with microorganism predominated as the contributing factors. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is one of the main bacteria pathogen found in periodontal diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the bactericidal effect of Erythrina fusca Leaves Aquadest Extract (EFLAE at various concentrations on P. gingivalis and cytotoxic effect on fibroblast. Methods: Pure P. gingivalis was cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI medium for 24 hours with or without various concentrations of treatment of EFLAE. Calculation and statistical analysis of remaining bacteria were performed by inhibitory zone method to evaluate the EFLAE bactericidal effect and compared to chlorhexidine as positive control. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect, NIH 3T3 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM containing of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, pH 7.2, in 5% CO2, and stored in humidified incubator under temperature 370 C. Cells were treated with/without various concentrations of EFLAE for 48 hours. The viable cells were then counted using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl tetrazodium bromide (MTT method. Results: EFLAE have bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis in a concentration dependent manner starting from 78%. The concentration of 90% EFLAE had stronger bactericidal effect (35.004 ± 1.546 than those of chlorhexidine as positive control (32.313 ± 1.619. One-way ANOVA showed significant bactericidal effect differences among concentrations of EFLAE and chlorhexidine (p<0.05 while Tuckey HSD test showed significant difference only between lower concentration of EFLAE (78%, 79% and chlorhexidine. With the highest concentration of EFLAE (100% applied in the bactericidal test, no cytotoxic effect

  18. Antioxidant activity of the various extracts of cyclamen graecum link tubers and leaves from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metin, H.; Aydin, C.; Mammadov, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol, acetone and petroleum benzine) obtained from tubers and leaves of Cyclamen graecum Link (Primulaceae) were determined. Antioxidant properties of various extracts from C. graecum were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In addition, total phenolic contents in all the extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents. Leaves extracts of C. graecum exhibited higher antioxidant activity than tuber extracts with all the types of solvent used. All extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves had effective free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging activity of C. graecum leaf-ethanol extract (97.3 +- 0.55%) was found more effective than BHT (92.30 +- 0.35%). A positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and amount of phenolic contents of the extracts. In this study, all types of extracts obtained from C. graecum have showed strong antioxidant activity. Therefore, this species can be used as a natural antioxidant in food processing and pharmaceutical industries. (author)

  19. In vitro antimicrobial activity of total extracts of the leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. (Anamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Ochoa Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of 13 total extracts was evaluated, 10 soft extracts (B and 3 blended extracts (E prepared from dry and fresh leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. Various solvents were used for their preparation: hydroalcoholic solution at 30%, 80% and isopropyl alcohol. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was tested by means of the method of Kirby-Bauer, using four bacterial strains from the ATCC collection (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a leveduriform fungus (Candida albicans. The following quality control parameters were determined for most active extracts: physical, physical-chemical and chemical parameters. The results were: nine extracts showed antibacterial activity, being the most concentrated (B8 and E3, the ones with the highest activity in the presence of the bacteria tested; the effect of blended extracts (E1, E2 and E3 was greater in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Blended extracts are considered more potent and active than soft extracts. No antifungal activity was obtained for both types of extracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined for both extracts, with the following results: MIC-soft extracts (>100 mg/mL, blended extracts (>50 mg/mL; MBC-soft extracts (≥400 mg/mL, blended extracts (≥200 mg/mL based on fresh leaves.

  20. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts from Laurus nobilis Leaves

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Shaza

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial properties of crude extracts from Laurus nobilis were investigated. With the use of the organic solvents, methanol and ethanol, crude extracts were obtained. To determine the availability of active bio‐compounds, an analysis using liquid chromatography was conducted. The crude extract was also tested for antimicrobial activity. The disc diffusion method was used against the bacterium Escherichia coli. The results showed a weak antimicrobial activity against E. coli. For cytotoxicity testing, the crude extract was studied on four cell-­lines: human breast adenocarcinoma, human embryonic kidney, HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and human lung fibroblast. From the alamarBlue® assay results, the extracts most potently affected the cell-­lines of human breast adenocarcinoma and human embryonic kidney. Using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, an effect on human embryonic kidney was most prominent. With these findings, a suggestion that the crude extract of Laurus nobilis may have antiproliferative properties is put forth, with the possibility of this mechanism being induction of apoptosis with the involvement of Nuclear Factor Kappa κB (NF κB).

  1. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  2. Antifertility effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asparagus africanus is claimed to have use in reproductive related health problems in some areas of Ethiopia. Objective: To study the potential antifertility effect of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves and roots of Asparagus africanus in rats. Methods: Water and ethanol extracts were given by ...

  3. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Albejo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: The genus Vernonia is one of the largest groups in the family Compositae constituting more than 500 species distributed widely in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and America. Traditionally the genus is used for the treatment of schistosomiasis, amoebic dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, malaria, venereal diseases, wounds, hepatitis, and diabetes. Vernonia auriculifera Hiern is used for healing wounds as ointment around the injured areas. Aims: To investigate the phytochemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern. Methods: Phytochemical screening tests were conducted to identify the class of compounds present in the leaves extracts of V. auriculifera. Silica gel column chromatographic technique was applied to separate the constituents of the extracts. Various spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135, COSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC were applied to determine the structures of isolated compounds. Results: Phytochemical screening of the methanol leaf extract revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and absence of anthraquinones, steroids, and alkaloids. Silica gel column chromatography of the methanol leaves extract yielded one compound. The hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. The methanol and water extracts showed promising growth suppression at minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 mg/mL. Conclusions: The polar extracts of the leaves of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern possess antimicrobial activity.

  4. Critical parameters in cost-effective alkaline extraction for high protein yield from leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves are potential resources for feed or food, but their applications are limited due to a high proportion of insoluble protein and inefficient processing. To overcome these problems, parameters of alkaline extraction were evaluated using green tea residue (GTR). Protein extraction could be

  5. Effects of extract of leaves of Newbouldia laevis on the activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effects of extract of leaves of Newbouldia laevis on some key enzymes of hepatic glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were treated orally with N. laevis extract for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, the activities ...

  6. Evaluation of pawpaw leaves extract as anti-corrosion agent for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pawpaw leaves extract was examined as anti-corrosion agent for aluminium in hydrochloric acid medium. The extract and corrosion product were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). Thermometric, gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscopic methods were ...

  7. In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Topical Cream of Cassia tora L. Leaves Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V.; Rathore, D. S.; Kansara, Niraj P.; Badiger, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of study was to determine the in vivo antioxidant activity of newly formulated O/W cream of methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves. Methods. Oil in water (O/W) creams (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%), cream base, methanolic extract of C. tora L. leaves (CTM), and standard (0.05% tretinoin cream) were screened for in vivo antioxidant activity. The ultraviolet- (UV-) B-induced rats were treated with different standard, O/W creams, cream base, and methanolic extract of Cassia tora...

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  9. Ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mormodica charantia has been shown to possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects while the kidneys have been shown to be the second largest repository of lead in lead poisoining. This study assessed the ameliorative effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Momordica charantia on lead nitrate induced kidney ...

  10. comparison of protein extraction methods for the leaves of ficus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. I. Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Keywords: Ficus deltoidea; protein extraction; TCA-acetone; phenol-SDS; pH. ... TCA-acetone/phenol-SDS did not improve the protein yield if compared to the single approach of TCA-acetone, but slightly ..... EDTA, 1% Triton X 100, 80% glycerol, 1M DTT and distilled water) and vortexed vigorously.

  11. Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Aqueous Extract of Pistia Stratiotes Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.19 mmol/L, 18.57 mmol/L and 27.27±2.37 mmol/L) between urea concentration of group 1, 2 and 3 before and after the administration of the extract. Serum creatinine concentration was found to be 108.51±3.21 mmol/L in controls, before the ...

  12. Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study ... The LD50 of the tested extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg, indicating its safety. Conclusion: This ...

  13. The Effect Of Hexane Extract Of Azidirachta indica Leaves On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved Neubauer's chamber was used to determine the testicular sperm reserve. The right testis, liver, kidney and spleen were routinely prepared for light microscopy. The control mice had significantly higher (P<0.05) testicular sperm reserve than the treatment group mice, which received the highest dose of the extract.

  14. Effects Of Extracts Of Telfairia occidental Is Leaves On Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic extract of the leaf of Telfairea occidentalis was orally administered to wistar rats for 14 days. On the 15th day the rats were sacrificed and blood was taken from their hearts for analysis. The levels of proteins, hemoglobin, protein fractions, glucose, cholesterol, alanine transaminase (ALAT) and aspartate ...

  15. Toxicological evaluation of methanol leaves extract of Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, at 800mg/kg kidney sections showed increased cellularity of glomerulus, urinary space obliteration and enlarged macula densa. Conclusion: This study suggests that the methanol leaf extract may have been phytotoxic to liver that resulted in a rise in serum AST, ALT and ALP levels. Key words: V. bipontini Vatke, ...

  16. Healing Potentials of Oral Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The effects of oral dose of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and tetracycline antibiotics on cutaneous wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus were studied in eighteen adult wistar rats (159±31.5g) randomized into three groups: Group A, n = 6, Moringa oleifera-(300 mg/kg). Group B, n = 6, tetracycline (9.4 ...

  17. THE EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    spermatogenesis (Orth, 1993). A dose dependent decrease in the weights of the epididymes, seminal vesicles and the testes with associated degeneration of the germinal epithelia and spermiostasis were also observed in this study. This result is consistent with a study evaluating sub- chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of ...

  18. Comparative Effects of Rothmannia Hispida Leaves Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both, manifesting in hyperglycaemia, polyuria, glucosuria etc. Various regimens have been used to alleviate the symptoms of this disorder; notable in orthodox medicine is insulin. Rothmannia hispida herb extract is ...

  19. Curative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringacea) is cultivated through out India and is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine to treat different diseases. This study was carried out to explore relationship between oxidative stress and the inflammatory process, and extends more to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ...

  20. Healing Potentials of Oral Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2Department of. Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Summary: The effects of oral dose of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and tetracycline antibiotics on cutaneous wounds infected with Staphylococcus ...

  1. The effect of aqueous extract of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, average weight, ...

  2. Effects of column fractions on the leaves extract of Bridelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antibacterial studies were carried out on both crude extracts and fractions obtained after column chromatography against medically important bacterial strains including; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for different concentrations of 30mg/ml, 60mg/ml, ...

  3. Gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum africanum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Bunwijit

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum africanum Lour. (hairy basil, hoary basil or lemon basil is an aromatic herb in Asian and Thai cuisine that has been used as a carminative, a digestion enhancement and remedy for gastrointestinal disturbance in Thai traditional medicine. This study was performed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of O.africanum leaf extract in acid/alcohol-induced gastric lesion in rats. Pretreatment of the plant extract can prevent the gastric damage in a dose-dependent manner. At 125 mg/kg of body weight, the plant extract attenuated the inflammation with % ulcer index of 5.08±1.41, whereas at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight, the gastric lesion was completely prevented in the manner similar to what was observed in omeprazole pretreated animals (% ulcer index of 1.0±61.94, 0.1±10.45 and 0.00±0.00, respectively. The protective effect of the plant extract against acid/alcohol-induced gastric damage relates to its high antioxidative property and the ability to enhance the activities of three antioxidative enzymes, i.e. superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Preliminary phytochemical investigation demonstrated that certain phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and vanillic acid might take part in the protective effects.

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus amarus Leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implantation and pregnancy were assessed. AEPA reduced the time frame for implantation in the treated rats and caused abortion of pregnant rats. Although the aqueous extract of phyllanthus amarus reduces the time frame for implantation, its abortificent effect does not support the traditional claim that it can treat sterility.

  5. Effect Of Ethanolic Extract From Elaeophorbia drupifera Leaves On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, regional differences occurred in the responsiveness of the tissue preparations. The ED50 values were found to be 25.12, 44.67 and 15.85 μg/ml for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum respectively. Certain conditions such as calcium availability and increase in bath temperature favoured the action of the extract on ...

  6. Antibacterial activity of leaves and pitchers extract of Nepenthes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This present study was to evaluate the potential of ethanolic extract of leaf and pitcher of Nepenthes gracilis in antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity was determined by using agar disk diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The leaf showed inhibitory activity with the zone of inhibition ranging ...

  7. Inhibition and Adsorption impact of Leave Extracts of Cnidoscolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion inhibition in the presence of alokaloid and non alkaloid extracts of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in 1M HCl was studied using the weight loss and hydrogen evolution techniques at 303, 313 and 333 K. The results obtained revealed that the inhibition efficiency decreased with increase in temperature. Inhibition ...

  8. Phytochemical screening and comparative antimicrobial potential of different extracts ofStevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Siddique

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial potential and phytochemical screening of the crude extracts of leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Methods: The essential oil and crude extracts were prepared by using different usual method. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities were measured by the well established methods. Results: Highest antifungal index [(12.13依0.08 mm] and lowest antifungal index [(9.13依0.04 mm] as well as highest antibacterial index [(11.89依0.07 mm] and lowest antibacterial index [(7.24依0.03 mm] were obtained for extracts B, H, A and F, respectively. Invariably extract C, E, I, J and H did not show antimicrobial activity. The extract F showed all antifungal and antibacterial activity except Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium. Conclusions: The above findings support the idea that plant extracts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves may have a role to be used as pharmaceuticals or preservatives.

  9. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce and Allium cepa L. (onion, as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water, resulting in a concentration of 10.0%. Distilled water was added in order to obtain dilutions of 7.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. The extraction was carried out with young leaves (in powder form and organic solvents of various polarities. We fractioned the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. The phytotoxic potential of the aqueous extract of young leaves S. saponaria varied according to the receiving species and the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The ethyl acetate extract, specifically fraction 6 (57-70, had the greatest inhibitory effect on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, indicating that the compounds responsible for the phytotoxic effect reside within this fraction.

  10. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenols from the Methanolic Extract of Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Pieroni, Lais Goyos [UNESP; de Rezende, Fernanda Mendes; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias [UNESP; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxida...

  11. Biochemical and molecular evidences for the antitumor potential of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; El-Mezayen, Hatem A; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Sayed, Alaa H; Ramadan, Aesha R

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest primary cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of 10% or less. This study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms in favor of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, the aim of this work was extended to explore the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in deterioration of HCC in rats. In the current study, HCC group experienced significant downregulation of ING-3 gene expression and upregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. Treatment of HCC groups with Ginkgo biloba leaves extract resulted in upregulation of ING-3 and downregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. In addition, there was significant increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and glypican-3 (GPC-3) levels in HCC group versus the negative control group. In contrast, the groups with HCC subjected to either high or low dose of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract elicited significant reduction (PGinkgo biloba leaves extract elicited marked improvement in the histological feature of liver tissue in HCC groups. In conclusion, this research indicated that the carcinogenic potency of N-nitrosodiethylamine targeted multiple systems on the cellular and molecular levels. In addition, the results of the current study shed light on the promising anticancer activity of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced chemically in the experimental model through its apoptotic and antiproliferative properties.

  12. Modulatory effects of ethanol extract of Spondias Mombin leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups B, D and F were administered the extract at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg respectively for 7 consecutive days in a single oral dose by gavaging before oral administration of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) (2.5mg/kg) on day 7. Groups G and H served as the negative control groups and received 0.2 ml diluted propylene glycol ...

  13. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  14. In vivo hypoglycemic study of Manilkara zapota leave and seed extracts

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    Saikat Ranjan Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic activity of pet-ether extracts of leaves and methanol extracts of seeds of Manilkara zapota was evaluated in the study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in mice treated with 2 mg/kg glucose solution and the blood glucose level was determined after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of administration. Alloxan (70 mg/kg was injected intravenously to induce diabetes in mice. The hypoglycemic study was carried out 7 days. In glucose tolerance test all extracts achieved significant p values (p<0.0001 at 60, 90 and 120 minutes compared to the glucose control. In hypoglycemic study all extracts started to reduce the blood glucose level rapidly even starting from the 2nd day of treatment and significant p values (p<0.0001 were achieved. So, the study evinced the hypoglycemic potency of the leave and seed extracts of M. zapota.

  15. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  16. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, Jun Ho; Lee, Hyun Ja; Byun, Myung Woo

    2003-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract.

  17. Formulation and Evaluation of Edible Film from Basil Leaves Extract (Ocimum americanum L. as Mouth Freshener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifi Harmely

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A research on formulation of edible film from basil leaves extract as mouth freshener has been done. The extract of basil leaves were used in various concentrations which are 2.5%, 5% and 7.5%. The products were evaluated for some parameters such as organoleptic, friability, drying shrinkage, pH, thickness, flavonoid contents and respondents preference. The results of evaluation showed that edible filmsfrom basil leaves extract meet requirements as required by Standard Nasional Indonesia (SNI and have such quality as product in the market. Statistical analysis using Kruskal Wallis test showed that respondents preferred for the F0 formulation in term of their appearance and taste while as mouth freshener, respondents preferred the F3 formulation.

  18. Method Development for Extraction and Quantification of Glycosides in Leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Norazlina Noordin

    2015-01-01

    A solid-liquid extraction and an UHPLC method for determination of glycosides from the leave parts of Stevia rebaudiana were developed. Steviol glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia are natural sweetener and commercially sold as sugar substitutes. Extraction of the glycosides consisted of solvent extraction of leaf powder using various solvents followed by its concentration using rotary evaporator and analysis using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). Existing analytical methods are mainly focused on the quantification of either rebaudioside A or stevioside, whereas other glycosides, such as rebaudioside B and rebaudioside D present in the leaves also contribute to sweetness or its biological activity. Therefore, we developed an improved method by changing the UHPLC conditions to enable a rapid and reliable determination of four steviol glycosides rather than just two using an isocratic UHPLC method. (author)

  19. Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

    2013-10-01

    Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Water Extractable Polysaccharides from Leaves of Plantago major L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukova, Paolina K; Karcheva-Bahchevanska, Diana P; Bivolarski, Veselin P; Mladenov, Rumen D; Iliev, Ilia N; Nikolova, Mariana M

    2017-06-01

    Plantago major L. leaves have been used for centuries by the traditional medicine in the treatment of infectious disorders of the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. Researchers have reported that hot water extracts of Plantago major possess a broad-spectrum of anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Their beneficial properties may be due to the significant content of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides that have been isolated from the leaves of Plantago major L. have different structures - pectic substances, galactans, arabinogalactans, glucomannans. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between the structure of the water extractable polysaccharides isolated from Plantago major L. leaves and their enzymatic hydrolysis with different carbohydrate hydrolases. The hydrolysis reactions were performed with the enzymes hemicellulase and mannanase. Spectrophotometric total reducing sugars assay was used to examine the hydrolysis yield. The monosaccharide and oligosaccharide compositions were determined using HPLC analysis. The highest hydrolysis yield of the water extractable polysaccharides from Plantago major leaves was obtained by treatment with hemicellulase. The hydrolysis yield increased with the augmentation of the ratio of enzyme to polysaccharide. Galactose was the prevalent monosaccharide identified in the composition of the isolated polysaccharides. Oligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization were also detected. The enzymatic hydrolysis of water extractable polysaccharides from Plantago major leaves allows us to obtain different types of oligosaccharides with beneficial effects on both human health and industry.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of ethanolic extract from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves: Genotoxicity and subchronic oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiannan; Yang, Hui; Li, Yongning; Liu, Haibo; Jia, Xudong

    2017-06-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves have a long history of use as an abundant source of sweetener. The aqueous extract of stevia leaves and the predominant constitutes steviol glycosides have been intensively investigated. However, rare studies provided toxicological evaluation of bioactive components in the polar extract regarding their safety on human health. This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves through a battery of in vitro and in vivo tests. Negative results were unanimously obtained from bacterial reverse mutation assay, mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay and mouse sperm malformation assay. Oral administration at dietary levels of 1.04%, 2.08% and 3.12% for 90 days did not induce significant behavioral, hematological, clinical, or histopathological changes in rats. Significant reduction of cholesterol, total protein and albumin was observed in female animals only at high dose level. The results demonstrated that Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves ethanolic extract, which is rich in isochlorogenic acids, does not possess adverse effects through oral administration in this study. Our data provided supportive evidence for the safety of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves that may potentially be used in functional foods as well as nutritional supplements beyond sweetner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolic Extracts from Wild Olive Leaves and Their Potential as Edible Oils Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora-Ioanna Lafka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model. As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions 180 min, solvent to sample ratio 5:1 v/w and pH 2. Ethanol extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity among solvent and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE extracts, which in addition showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to synthetic and natural food antioxidants such as BHT, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E. Antioxidant potential of SFE extract was quite high, although its phenolic potential was not. Leaf extracts were proven to be good protectors for olive and sunflower oils at levels of 150 ppm.

  3. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract from cultivated strawberries’ leaves (Fragariae folium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a member of the rose family (Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, tribe Potentilleae in the genus Fragaria. The cultivated varieties of commercial strawberries usually were designated as Fragaria ananassa. Root, leaf, flower and fruit have the healing properties. The strawberry leaves extract is used for blood cleaning, for treatment of oral inflammation, diarrhea, various gastro-intestinal inflammation, and hemorrhoids, as well as a diuretic. So far, many positive biological effects of strawberries (anticancer, antioxidant and anticoagulant effect have been proven. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract from cultivated strawberries (Fragariae folium, varieties Senga Sengana by using different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, FIC, H2O2 and TBA-MDA. Ethanolic extract from strawberry leaves was obtained by reflux extraction at the boiling temperature. Total phenols and total flavonoids content was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu and by method with AlCl3, respectively. In the extract was determined high content of total phenols, while the total flavonoid content is much lower. The concentrations of extract required to neutralize 50% of the initial concentration of DPPH radicals (EC50 after 20 minutes incubation and immediately after adding DPPH radical solution were 7,91 and 19,46 μgcm-3, respectively. Extract was achieved the maximum iron ions chelating ability (67.89% at a concentration of 2 mgcm-3. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation of 70% was achieved by extract concentration of 0.03125 mgcm-3, while the maximum neutralization of H2O2 (30.47% was achieved by extract concentration of 0.5 mgcm-3. FRAP value of the investigated extract is 284.51 mgFe/g of dry extract. Presented results of the antioxidant activity show that the obtained extract from the cultivated strawberry leaves is a potential source of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  4. Antiasthmatic and antiallergic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was antiasthmatic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., Simaroubaceae. Traditionally or in Indian system of medicine, A. excelsa is used in the treatment of asthma, cough, colic pain, cancer, diabetes and also used as antispasmodic, antifertility, bronchodilator. Stem bark of A. excelsa already reported for its potential against asthma. The pollens of Ailanthus excelsa reported allergic in nature and the time of collection of leaves were important in this study, generally the flowering stage of plant was avoided for the collection due to maximum chance of pollens at that time. Methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa was evaluated using in vitro goat tracheal chain preparation model and in vivo- Milk induced leucocytosis, eosinophilia, Clonidine induced catalepsy in mice model while Passive paw anaphylaxis and Clonidine induced mast cell degranulation in rat model. The extract showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, quassonoids and test was also positive for alkaloids and steroids. The extract also showed the presence of quercetin which is flavonoid and detected on the preparative TLC plate with the help of standard quercetin. Dose response studies of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa Roxb. were conducted at 100 µg mL-1 in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg kg-1 p.o. in vivo models. The treatment with methanolic extract of A. excelsa at different dose level showed the significant (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 antiasthmatic activity. Inhibition or decrease the release of inflammatory mediators potentiates the antiasthmatic as well as antiallergic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa.

  5. Phytochemical analysis of Binahong (Anredera Cordifolia) leaves extract to inhibit In Vitro growth of Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, Mohammad; Ginting, Prita Yulianti Anasta Br; Lesmana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) is one of the medicinal plants commonly used to treat the disease of living organisms. The secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves has been shown antibacterial activity. This study aimed to investigate the secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves showing antibacterial and analysis the effectiveness of antibacterial to inhibit the growth of bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. A paper disc soaked in a solution of A. cordifolia leaves extract was used to test in vitro at a concentration of 0% (w/v), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and positive control of antibiotic (oxytetracycline), respectively. The extracts then placed on a tryptone soy agar (TSA) medium containing bacteria A. hydrophila and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. In vitro test showed that A. cordifolia leaves extract inhibited the growth of bacteria A. hydrophila with an inhibition area around the paper disc. The inhibition growth of A. hydrophila increased with the increasing of extract concentration. Bacterial growth was inhibited in the diameter zone of A. hydrophila under different levels of the extracts were 0 mm (0 % negative control), 8.4 mm (0.2 %), 9.4 mm (0.4 %), 10.5 mm (0.6 %), 11.9 mm (0.8 %), 27.5 mm (positive control), respectively. Phytochemical screening of A. cordifolia leaves extract indicated that the extracts contained flavonoid, phenol, saponin, alkaloid, triterpenoid, and β-sitosterol. Our in vitro study demonstrated the inhibition growth of A. hydrophila that caused the disease of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS).

  6. Antiproliferative activity and caspase enhancement properties of Annona muricata leaves extract against colorectal cancer cells

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    Lili Indrawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of colorectal cancer is rising in Asia including Indonesia. Annona muricata tea leaves, that is traditionally used for maintaining health, and lately being used by cancer patients. The objectives of this study is to investigate its effects in human colorectal cancer cell in vitro and ex vivo.Methods: Thirty patients with colorectal cancer (CRC were enrolled in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. They were equally divided into two groups: those treated with 300 mg A. muricata leaf extract and placebo daily for 8 weeks. Serum from supplemented CRC patients of both groups was compared for caspase 9 and caspase 8 enhancement activity. Antiproliferative effect of water extract of A. muricata leaves and its fractions were evaluated against colorectal cancer cell line (DLD-1 and COLO 205 compared with 5-fluorouracil and placebo, the dose range was 62.5-2,000 µg/mL. Method used was 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. The p value was set at 0.05.Results: Ethanol-soluble fraction of A. muricata leaves extract water extract (ESFAM leaves extract had cytotoxicity effects on DLD-1 as well as COLO 205 cell line, as shown by the lower IC50 compared to 5-fluorouracil and placebo, 20.59 μg/mL and 654.9μg/mL, respectively. Serum of subjects supplemented with extract significantly induced caspase 9 (p=0.001 activity of DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell line, but not for caspase 8 activity (p=0.372.Conclusion: The study's results suggest the cytotoxicity potential of  A. muricata  leaves extract  in in vitro and ex vivo studies.

  7. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

  8. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of pirdot (saurauia vulcani korth.) leaves extract in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutahaean, Salomo; Tanjung, Masitta; Puspita Sari, Diah; Elfia Ningsih, Vevy

    2018-03-01

    Approximately eighty percent of deaths in diabetic patients result from atherosclerosis, which is related to hyperlipidemia tendencies in diabetes. In North Sumatra, the use of plant-based ingredients as diabetes therapy has long been recognized. One of the local species which traditionally used was the pirdot plant (Saurauia vulcani Korth.). In this paper, we report the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of the extract of pirdot leaves in model mice. In experiment I, twenty - five alloxan-induced diabetic mice was divided randomly into five groups of 5 mice, namely: control diabetic mice; diabetic mice + metformin; and three groups diabetic mice + pirdot leaves extract of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg BW respectively. All the treatments were given daily for 21 days by oral gavage. In experiment II, another twenty-five mice were divided randomly into five groups of 5 mice. The treatments were as follows: a control group that did not receive any treatment; hyperlipidemic control (received quail yolk diet) for 30 days; and three groups of hyperlipidemic mice + orally treated pirdot leaves extract at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg BW respectively. The result showed the pirdot leaves extract has the potential as antihyperglycemic. The effects obtained are equivalent to the effects of antidiabetic drug metformin. On the other hand, the antihyperlipidemic effect was not conclusive, because the extract lowered total cholesterol significantly, but no significant effect on triglyceride, marked reduced LDL, but significantly decreased the HDL level.

  9. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Monoterpenes from the Leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree

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    Deidre Tronson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was applied to various sample matrices under a range of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 densities and chamber temperatures. The purpose was to develop an effective extraction condition for the removal of eight target monoterpenes from Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel leaves. The optimum conditions for extraction were found to be 0.25 g/mL scCO2 density at a chamber temperature of 110oC. These condition were most effective when applied to whole fresh and rehydrated whole dried leaves, where it yielded maximum recovery of target analytes with minimum change in oil composition for the extractor system employed. This study demonstrates the importance of the type of sample matrix used in SFE work, and that a different extraction protocol would need to be developed for each matrix.

  10. Allelopathic potential and systematic evaluation of organic extracts from Canavalia ensiformis leaves (Jack beans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sonia; de Moraes, Maria de Lourdes Leite; da Silva Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the assessment of possible allelopathic potential of organic extracts obtained from leaves of Canavalia ensiformis under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, a systematic evaluation of these extracts was carried out using specific protocols developed in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to determine some groups of secondary metabolites. After the identification and quantification of compounds, the effects of compounds on germination of some common weeds was investigated, which are becoming a real problem in pastures in the state of Pará, Brazil.

  11. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tamil Jothi; G. Vimala Devi; Ch. Vamsi Anil Krishna; V. Suba

    2013-01-01

    In the present study ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of leaves of Tecomaria capensis was screened for cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic activity was performed by two models. One was short term cytotoxicity and another was long term cytotoxicity. In short term cytotoxicity assay Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines were used and for long term L929 cell lines (Lungs fibroblast) were used. In both methods ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed prot...

  12. Analytical chemical study of alkaloid fraction of methanolic extract of Croton baillonianus (AUBL) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes R, Cesar M.; Benavides, Angelyne; Pizza, Cosimo; Napolitano, Asunta; Basarello, Carla; Piacente, Sonia; Carbone Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study has been to extract and isolate the alkaloids from leaves of Croton baillonianus, corresponding to the methanolic extract by exclusion chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 followed by a purification by high performance liquid chromatography, obtaining six alkaloids. Two low polarity alkaloid and two glycoside alkaloids were analyzed by Electronic System impact mass spectrometry; these alkaloids belong to bencylisoquinolinic type; the study has connection to the determination of its antioxidant, antiulcerose and cytotoxic properties. (author).

  13. Comparative pharmacological study of hydroethanol extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, R D; Reginatto, F; de-Paris, F; Gosmann, G; Salgueiro, J B; Quevedo, J; Kapczinski, F; Ortega, G G; Schenkel, E P

    2001-03-01

    Several species of the genus Passiflora, known in Brazil as "maracujá", have widespread use in folk medicine as sedatives and tranquillizers. The anxiolytic activity of hydroethanol extracts of P. alata and P. edulis leaves was evaluated using the elevated plus-maze test. The extracts presented anxiolytic activity in dosages around 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN EXTRACTS FROM THE LEAVES OF LAURUS NOBILIS L.

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    N. M. Nasuhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. is an evergreen dioecious, rarely monecious plant up to 15 m high. Its natural area includes Mediterranean countries. For a long time this plant has been actively cultivated as a decorative plant in (Europe, Russia, USA and others as well as in Turkey, Algeria, Morocco, Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Mexico and Russia. Chemical composition of the Laurus leaves include essential oil components, sesquiterpenic lactones and phenolic compounds as the principal active groups of compounds.The aim of the study was the identification of phenolic compounds in water and water alcohol extracts from leaves of Laurus nobilis.Materials and methods. Examinations of qualitative composition of phenolic complex in extracts from Laurus samples under study were carried out using «Hitachi Chromaster» high-performance liquid chromatographer with «Column Oven 5310», «Pump 5110» and «UV-detector 5410».Results and discussion. The samples of Laurus nobilis leaves gathered in outskirts of Alushta (Republic of Crimea in July 2016 were the objects if the study. We identified caffeic, gallic, and chicoric acids, epigallocatechin gallate, luteolin-7-glycoside in the extracts obtained using ethanol 70%. And caffeic, gallic, isoferulic acids, dicoumarin, epicatechin, kaempferol, and isoquercitrin in ethanol 40% extracts. In water extracts we found the presence of ascorbic, gallic, and vanillic acids, epicatechin, quercetin-3-glycoside and kaempferol-3-galactoside.Conclusion. As the result of the Laurus nobilis leaves samples study, gathered in Alushta outskirts, ascorbic acid and 13 phenolic compounds were identified in water and water-alcohol (40% and 70% extracts using high performance liquid chromatography. Isoferulic and chicoric acids, epigallocatechin gallate, dicoumarin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-galactoside and luteolin-7-glycoside were identified in Laurus nobilis leaves for the first time. 

  15. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract.

  16. Copaifera langsdorffii: evaluation of potential gastroprotective of extract and isolated compounds obtained from leaves

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    Marivane Lemos

    Full Text Available AbstractGastric ulcer is a prevalent gastrointestinal disease, and the drugs currently used in the treatment produce several adverse effects. In this context, the search for new therapeutic antiulcer agents is essential, and medicinal plants have great potential. Here, we investigated the gastroprotective properties of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Fabaceae, hydroalcoholic extract obtained from leaves and its isolated compounds. The phytochemistry studies and the compounds isolations were performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic methodologies. The hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, stress-induced-ulcer and chronic ulcer-model. The effects on gastric content volume, pH, total acidity and mucus stomach production were evaluated in the pylorus ligated-model. The C. langsdorffii extract obtained from leaves (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg reduced the injured area compared to control group in all experiments. The extract showed a significant decrease in the total gastric juice acidity and an increase in mucus production (500 mg/kg when compared to vehicle. Among isolated compounds (30 mg/kg α-humulene, β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed greater gastroprotective activity in the ethanol/HCl induced ulcer model. The data herein obtained shown that C. langsdorffii leaves extract and isolated compounds from it, presented gastroprotective properties in different animal models of gastric ulcer. These effects may be associated with the ability of the extract to decrease gastric secretion and increase the mucus production.

  17. Volatiles composition and extraction kinetics from Schinus terebinthifolius and Schinus molle leaves and fruit

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    Adriano dos Santos Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available AbstractEssential oils extracted from Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, leaves and fruit hydrodistillation, as well as, their chemical composition and extraction kinetic were evaluated. For this proposal, 6 h extraction and aliquots collected at sequencing different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h were carried out allowing calculating accumulated content (% w/w and verifying essential oil chemical profile. β-caryophyllene (35.2%, α-pinene (28.1% and germacrene D (15.5% represent S. terebinthifolius dried leaves essential oil major components, as well as, α-pinene (44.9%, germacrene D (17.6% and β-pinene (15.1% in the fruit. Cubenol (27.1%, caryophyllene oxide (15.3% and spathulenol (12.4% represent S. molle dried leaves essential oil major components, and β-pinene (36.3% α-pinene (20.3%, germacrene D (12.1% and spathulenol in the fruit. Essential oil extraction kinetics showed a hyperbolic distribution; monoterpene content presented exponential decay in time function and sesquiterpene showed exponential growth. Faster monoterpene extraction than the sesquiterpene extraction was observed, however, both presented increasing exponential distribution.

  18. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, S N; Naranjo, A M; Herrera, A P

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au +3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl 4 ) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution. (paper)

  19. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  20. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-12-18

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  1. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw: Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro Hoyos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and 13C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22 were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225–494 gallic acid equivalents/g than for wood extracts (40–167 gallic acid equivalents/g. A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers [(+-catechin and (−-epicatechin], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure, flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa. Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  2. Toxicity studies on the methanolic extract of the leaves of cassia tora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity studies on the methanolic extract of the leaves of cassia tora linn in mice. SF Ambali, A Silas, JO Ayo, NDG Ibrahim, AA Obalowu, SO Salami. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol. 27 (1) 2005: pp. 54-61. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  3. Evaluation of phenolic compounds and lipid-lowering effect of Morus nigra leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeni, Ana Lúcia B; Moreira, Tatianne D; Dalmagro, Ana Paula; Camargo, Anderson; Bini, Larissa A; Simionatto, Edésio L; Scharf, Dilamara R

    2017-01-01

    Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) is a tree known as black mulberry and the leaves are used in folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol and menopause symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the M. nigra leaves phytochemical profile in different extractions and the hypolipidemic effect of the infusion comparing to the fenofibrate. Morus nigra infusion (MN) showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (83.85 mg/g and 79.96 µg/g, respectively), as well as antioxidant activity (83.85%) than decoction or hydromethanolic extracts. Although, decoction showed the best result for ascorbic acid (4.35 mg/100 g) than hydromethanolic or infusion (2.51 or 2.13 mg/100 g, respectively). The phenolic acids gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic and the flavonoids quercetin, rutin and catechin were found in the M. nigra extracts. Hyperlipidemic rats treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of MN decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides and normalized lipoproteins. Furthermore, MN inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain of hyperlipidemic rats. This study provides evidence that M. nigra leaves extracts are rich in polyphenols, mainly chlorogenic acid, which normalized hyperlipidemic disturbance. The results suggest a potential therapeutic effect of the M. nigra leaves infusion on dislipidemic condition and related oxidative stress.

  4. Evaluation of phenolic compounds and lipid-lowering effect of Morus nigra leaves extract

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    ANA LÚCIA B. ZENI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morus nigra L. (Moraceae is a tree known as black mulberry and the leaves are used in folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol and menopause symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the M. nigra leaves phytochemical profile in different extractions and the hypolipidemic effect of the infusion comparing to the fenofibrate. Morus nigra infusion (MN showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (83.85 mg/g and 79.96 µg/g, respectively, as well as antioxidant activity (83.85% than decoction or hydromethanolic extracts. Although, decoction showed the best result for ascorbic acid (4.35 mg/100 g than hydromethanolic or infusion (2.51 or 2.13 mg/100 g, respectively. The phenolic acids gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic and the flavonoids quercetin, rutin and catechin were found in the M. nigra extracts. Hyperlipidemic rats treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of MN decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides and normalized lipoproteins. Furthermore, MN inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain of hyperlipidemic rats. This study provides evidence that M. nigra leaves extracts are rich in polyphenols, mainly chlorogenic acid, which normalized hyperlipidemic disturbance. The results suggest a potential therapeutic effect of the M. nigra leaves infusion on dislipidemic condition and related oxidative stress.

  5. Haematopoietic agent(s) in the crude extract from the leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies showed that the crude extract from viscum album leaves had an LD50 value of 420.70mg/kg mice. Thirty-six male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 rats per group. The groups were: Group 1, the normal rats (controls) were fed with normal rat chow and given water ad libitum.

  6. Protective Role of Comfrey Leave Extracts on UV-induced Zebrafish Fin Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chien-Chung; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Yao-Chin; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2014-07-01

    In zebrafish, UV exposure leads to fin malformation phenotypes including fin reduction or absence. The present study evaluated UV-protective activities of comfrey leaves extracts in a zebrafish model by recording fin morphological changes. Chemopreventive effects of comfrey leave extracts were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. The results showed that (1) the mean times of return to normal fin in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 3.43 and 2.86 days and were quicker compared with that in the UV only group (4.21 days); (2) zebrafish fins in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 2.05 and 3.25 times more likely to return to normal than those in the UV only group; and (3) comfrey leave extracts had UV-absorbance abilities and significantly reduced ROS production in UV-exposed zebrafish embryos, which may attenuate UV-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, comfrey leaves extracts may have the potential to be developed as UV-protective agents to protect zebrafish embryos from UV-induced damage.

  7. Some hematological parameters of Wistar rats treated with Chromolaena odorata leave extracts

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    Henshaw Uchechi Okoroiwu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of the different extracts of Chromolaena odorata leave on the hematopoietic system of Wistar rats. Solvent extraction was used for the ethanol and aqueous extractions while decoction method was used for the crude extraction. Fifty Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 140-180 g were used for this study. They were divided into ten groups each containing five rats. The animals were fed the extracts by oral gavage once daily for 21 days. Blood sample was collected via cardiac artery. Hematological parameters were analyzed using automation method. The ethanol extract gave the highest extract yield. The aqueous, ethanol and crude extraction had median lethal toxicity (LD50 of 2738.6 mg/kg, 1581.1 mg/kg and 224.7 mg/kg, respectively. Significant difference (P<0.05 in the total white blood cell count was observed in the 75 mg/kg ethanol and 300 mg/kg crude extracts when compared with control group. Significant difference (P<0.05 in the hemoglobin concentration was observed in the 150 mg/kg ethanol extracts when compared with the control group. Significant difference (P<0.05 in the packed cell volume was seen in the 75 mg/kg aqueous, 150 mg/kg aqueous and 75 mg/kg ethanol extracts in respect to the control group. The mean cell volume, the mean platelet volume and platelet large cell ratio of the 75 mg/kg aqueous extract were significantly different (P<0.05 when compared with the control group. The present study showed possible treatment-induced hematopoietic function of C. odorata leave extracts.

  8. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg(-1) body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg(-1) body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg(-1)) or leaves (4.60 g kg(-1)) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest.

  9. Attenuating Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Extract on Liver Fibrosis Induced by Thioacetamide in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract on experimental liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in male albino mice. The experimental mice were divided into four groups. The mice of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were given 150 mg/kg body weight of TAA by intraperitoneal injection, twice weekly, for 9 weeks. The mice of the third group were exposed to TAA and supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The animals of the fourth group were supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were statistically increased while the levels of plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased. The levels of liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glycogen and total protein were notably declined, whereas the level of total lipid was increased in mice of the second group. Furthermore, microscopic examination of liver sections from mice treated with TAA showed an abnormal morphology characterized by nodular transformations in liver parenchyma which surrounded by fibrous septa. Administration of G. biloba leaves extract reduced extent and development of fibrous septa, liver cells change, and biochemical alterations in mice exposed to TAA. This study showed that G. biloba leaves extract has a potential activity against TAA-induced liver fibrosis and suggested that the chemical constituents of G. biloba are effective in modulation of oxidative stress induced by TAA. PMID:23091357

  10. GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in different extracts of an endemic plant Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco (Moraceae leaves

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    Franelyne Pataueg Casuga

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The three extracts possess major bioactive compounds that were identified and characterized spectroscopically. Thus, identification of different biologically active compounds in the extracts of B. luzonica leaves warrants further biological and pharmacological studies.

  11. Cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Sosa, Edgar; Mora Gonzalez, Nestor; Morris Quevedo, Humberto J

    2013-01-01

    Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) is traditionally used by patients suffering from cancer as an antitumoral resource. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of water extracts of Trichilia hirta leaves on tumour cells and identify through a phytochemical screening the principal families of phytocomponents contained in these extracts. The cytotoxic activity of these extracts was also evaluated on human melanoma cells (SK-mel-3) and human breast carcinoma (T-47D). The African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells Cercopithecus aethiops (Vero) were used as a non-tumour cells control. The results showed the presence of triterpenes/steroids, saponins, coumarins, reductor sugars, phenols and tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates/glycosides in the extracts. The water leaf extracts showed cytotoxic activity mainly on tumour cells, which contributes to explain the referred recovery by patients suffering form cancer that traditionally consume these extracts

  12. The Effect of Vitis vinifera L. Leaves Extract on Leishmania infantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Rym; Haouas, Najoua; Ben Kahla-Nakbi, Amel; Hammami, Saoussen; Mighri, Zine; Mhenni, Farouk; Babba, Hamouda

    2013-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L.is a traditional Asian herb widely used for different health problems. In the present research, the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts of Vitis vinifera L. leaves collected from shrub, grown in Tunisia, were prepared and evaluated for the antileishmanial activity against Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was determined and the results showed that the etahnolic extract is more active than the aqueous one (IC50= 0.108 mg/mL). Microscopic observations showed that the ethanolic extract promoted the destruction of cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes and altered the overall shape of the cell. In order to explain the difference of antileishmanial activity between ethanolic and aqueous extracts, anthocyanins amount was determined by spectrophotometry. It was found that the ethanolic extract is richer in anthocyanins than the aqueous one which can explain the higher antileishmanial activity of the ethanolic extract. PMID:24250641

  13. Optimization of Solid-Liquid Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Mulberry Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

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    Zoran Zeković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of solvent concentration (ethanol/water 40–80 %, by volume, temperature (40–80 °C and solvent/raw material ratio (10–30 mL/g on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity from black mulberry (Morus nigra L. leaves. Experimental values of total phenolic content were in the range from 18.6 to 48.7 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents per g of dried leaves and total flavonoids in the range from 6.0 to 21.4 mg of rutin eqivalents per g of dried leaves. Antioxidant activity expressed as the inhibition concentration at 50 % (IC50 value was in the range from 0.019 to 0.078 mg of mulberry extract per mL. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions and to investigate the effect of different variables on the observed properties of mulberry leaf extracts. The results show a good fit to the proposed model (R˄2>0.90. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of phenolics and flavonoids were within the experimental range. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the used model and the success of RSM in optimizing the investigated extraction conditions.

  14. Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175

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    Zubaidah Haji Abdul Rahim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and on partially purifed cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1; with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. RESULTS: It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001. S. mutans adhering to 100 µm² glass surfaces (with/without sucrose exhibited reduced cell surface area, fuffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. CONCLUSION: The SEM analysis confrmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are

  15. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Ishii, N.

    2012-01-01

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  16. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpenia crista leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Garima Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Caesalpenia crista (C. crista against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Paracetamol (2 g/kg body weight was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. crista was administered at the dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 7 d. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct, and triglycerides content. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Administration of ethanolic extract at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant reduction in elevated level of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin (total and direct and triglycerides when compared to positive control group. Conclusions: It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. crista leaves seems to justify the promising hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.

  17. Optimization of the extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brad, K.; Liu, W.

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves was optimized to maximize flavonoids yield in this study. A central composite design of response surface methodology involving extracting time, power, liquid-solid ratio, and concentration was used, and second-order model for Y was employed to generate the response surfaces. The optimum condition for flavonoids yield was determined as follows: extracting time 24.95 min, power 72.05, ethanol concentration 63.35%, liquid-solid ratio 10.04. Under the optimum condition, the flavonoids yield was 76.84 %. (author)

  18. Aphrodisiac activity of methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2003-04-01

    The aphrodisiac properties of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn. have been evaluated in mice by observing the mounting behaviour. The methanol extract of P. incarnata exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour in male mice at all doses, i.e. 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in different extracts of an endemic plant Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Franelyne Pataueg Casuga; Agnes Llamasares Castillo; Mary Jho-Anne Tolentino Corpuz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and characterize the chemical composition of the different crude extracts from the leaves of Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) (B. luzonica), an endemic plant in the Philippines. Methods: The air dried leaves were powdered and subjected to selective sequential extraction using solvents of increasing polarity through percolation, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol to obtain three different extracts. Then, each of the extracts was further subjected...

  20. Anti-Escherichia coli activity of extracts from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jessica H S; Simas, Naomi K; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S; Ventura, José A; de Lima, Eliandro J; Seabra, Sergio H; Kuster, Ricardo M

    2018-06-01

    Ethanol extracts obtained from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruits and leaves were active against Escherichia coli with MIC of 78 μg mL -1 for both extracts. Phytochemical analyses revealed a major presence of phenolic acids, tannins, fatty acids and acid triterpenes in the leaves and phenolic acids, fatty acids, acid triterpenes and biflavonoids in the fruits. Major compounds isolated from the plant, such as the acid triterpene schinol, the phenolic acid derivative ethyl gallate and the biflavonoids agathisflavone and tetrahydroamentoflavone, showed very little activity against E. coli. Bioautography of the ethanol extracts on silica gel plate showed inhibition zones for E. coli. They were removed from the plate and the compounds identified as a mixture of myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, heptadecanoic, stearic, nonadecanoic, eicosanoic, heneicosanoic and behenic fatty acids.

  1. Antidiabetic Activity of Cocor Bebek Leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas

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    Indah Dwiatmi Dewiyanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity of Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor and south of Tangerang city has been studied. The study was conducted in vitro using α glucosidase inhibitor method. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is 40.94 ppm, 33.58 ppm and 16.12 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is 10.22 ppm. The results showed that Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract had antidiabetic activity with IC50 less than 100 ppm. However, the activity is lesser than quercetin.

  2. Extraction of chlorophyll from pandan leaves using ethanol and mass transfer study

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    Putra Meilana Dharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green pigments are used in many industrial branches including food, drinks, soap and cosmetics. Chlorophyll can substitute synthetic dyes which may affect health. Chlorophyll can be extracted from pandan leaves; the pandan crop grows in many tropical areas. The effects of temperature, 30–70°C and agitation speed, 100–400 rpm on chlorophyll extraction from pandan leaves, using ethanol and the evaluation of mass transfer coefficient, using dimensionless analysis were investigated. The optimal conditions of extraction was obtained at 60°C and 300 rpm; the chlorophyll concentration was 107.1 mg L-1. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient increased with the temperature and agitation speed. Determination of volumetric mass transfer coefficient and dimensionless correlations are useful for further process development or industrial applications.

  3. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from young barley leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Zhang, Min; Fang, Zhongxiang; Zhong, Qifeng

    2017-01-01

    A central composite design combined with response surface methodology was utilized to optimise microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from young barley leaves. The results showed that using water as solvent, the optimum conditions of microwave-assisted extraction were extracted twice at 1.27 W g-1 microwave power and liquid-solid ratio 34.02 ml g-1 for 11.12 min. The maximum extraction yield of flavonoids (rutin equivalents) was 80.78±0.52%. Compared with conventional extraction method, the microwave-assisted extraction was more efficient as the extraction time was only 6.18% of conventional extraction, but the extraction yield of flavonoids was increased by 5.47%. The main flavonoid components from the young barley leaf extract were probably 33.36% of isoorientin-7-O-glueoside and 54.17% of isovitexin-7-O-glucoside, based on the HPLC-MS analysis. The barley leaf extract exhibited strong reducing power as well as the DPPH radical scavenging capacity.

  4. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

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    Himanshu Misra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimized for fast sample preparation for the faster quantitative determination of artemisinin, potential new generation antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of Artemisia annua L. A simple experiment was designed for the optimization of the appropriate solvent under same extraction conditions. The selected appropriate solvent was then standardized for various different extraction variables. The major parameters studied showed effects on extraction efficiency including processing time, strength of microwave, moisture content, volume and nature of the solvent. The most favorable conditions were obtained by using plant material of 25 mesh (particle size extracted with acetone for 120 seconds at 160 W (i.e., 20% of total power. Quantitative analysis was performed using thin-layer chromatography coupled with a densitometer (TLC densitometry. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  5. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Anderson A; Marques, Tamara R; Marcussi, Silvana; Corrêa, Angelita D

    2017-01-01

    Leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) have been widely used in the popular way for prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves aqueous extract from three cultivars of P. guajava (Pedro Sato, Paluma and Século XXI) on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes, in the presence or not of simulated gastric fluid and to determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. All cultivars presented the same composition in phenolic compounds, but in different proportions. The compounds identified are gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (which was the major compound in all the cultivars evaluated). In the absence of simulated gastric fluid, it was observed different inhibitions exercised by the leaves aqueous extracts from three cultivars of P. guajava on each enzyme. In presence of simulated gastric fluid, all cultivars showed increase in the inhibition of lipase and α-glycosidase, and decrease in inhibition of α-amylase and trypsin enzymes. These results indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemias.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca in liver of Wistar rats

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    THAYS K. SCHAFFER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca. The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or mineral oil (i.p.. After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders.

  8. Evaluation of phenolic compounds and lipid-lowering effect of Morus nigra leaves extract

    OpenAIRE

    ANA LÚCIA B. ZENI; TATIANNE D. MOREIRA; ANA PAULA DALMAGRO; ANDERSON CAMARGO; LARISSA A. BINI; EDÉSIO L. SIMIONATTO; DILAMARA R. SCHARF

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) is a tree known as black mulberry and the leaves are used in folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol and menopause symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the M. nigra leaves phytochemical profile in different extractions and the hypolipidemic effect of the infusion comparing to the fenofibrate. Morus nigra infusion (MN) showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (83.85 mg/g and 79.96 µg/g, respectively), as well as antiox...

  9. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Water Extractable Polysaccharides from Leaves of Plantago major L.

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    Lukova Paolina K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Plantago major L. leaves have been used for centuries by the traditional medicine in the treatment of infectious disorders of the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. Researchers have reported that hot water extracts of Plantago major possess a broad-spectrum of anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Their beneficial properties may be due to the significant content of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides that have been isolated from the leaves of Plantago major L. have different structures – pectic substances, galactans, arabinogalactans, glucomannans.

  10. Free radical scavenging activity of extracts prepared from fresh leaves of selected Chinese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fenglin; Lu, Ruili; Huang, Bao; Liang, Ming

    2004-01-01

    The free radical scavenging activity of the 80% methanolic extracts from fresh leaves of 300 Chinese medical woody plants was assessed with the aid of the stable DPPH radical. Among the plants screened, 56 species had strong free radical scavenging capacities, with IC50 values lower than 0.5 mg leaves per milliliter. Analysis of the medical uses of these plants showed that most of them are employed for their effects on hemostasis, as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial or for treatment of dysentery. These uses may be directly linked to the content in tannins and flavonoids and consequently to their free radical scavenging activities.

  11. Protein extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urribarrí, Lauris; Chacón, David; González, Orlaidy; Ferrer, Alexis

    2009-05-01

    In the present work, cassava leaves were treated with 0.5 kg ammonia/kg dry matter at 78 degrees C and 30% moisture content in a 2-kg reactor. Protein extraction was carried out with a calcium hydroxide solution (pH 10) for 30 min at several temperatures (30 degrees C, 45 degrees C, 60 degrees C, 75 degrees C, and 90 degrees C) and solid/liquid ratios (1:10 and 1:15) in a thermostatized bath. Soluble protein content of the extracts was determined by Lowry's method. Dry substrate concentrations of 5%, 7.5%, and 10% and enzyme doses of 2 and 5 IU/g dry matter were used for the enzymatic hydrolysis in an orbital incubator at 50 degrees C and 100 rpm. Both cellulase and xylanase were used. Reducing sugars produced were determined with the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The highest protein extraction yield for the ammonia-treated leaves was 29.10%, which was 50% higher than with the untreated leaves (20%), and was obtained at 90 degrees C with a 1:10 solid/liquid ratio. The concentrate had a protein content of 36.35% and the amino acid profile was suitable for swine and poultry. The highest sugar yield was 54.72% with respect to theoretical and was obtained with 5% solids and an enzyme dose of 5 IU/g dry matter. This yield was 3.4 times higher than the yield of the untreated leaves (16.13%). These results indicate that cassava leaves have a great potential for animal feeding and ethanol production. Both protein extraction and sugar yields may be enhanced by optimizing the ammonia treatment.

  12. Investigation of Some Metals in Leaves and Leaf Extracts of Lippia javanica: Its Daily Intake

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    Kanda Artwell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of plant extracts can be a source of essential elements or a route of human exposure to toxicants. Metal concentrations in leaves, leaf brew, and infusion of L. javanica collected from five sites were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid and aqueous extraction. Estimated daily intakes of metals in extracts were compared with recommended dietary allowances. Total metal concentrations in leaves varied with sampling sites (p Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb for sites SS2–SS5. The highest metal concentrations in leaves were recorded for SS3 (Cu: 15.32±4.53 and Mn: 734.99±105.49, SS5 (Fe: 210.27±17.17, SS2 (Pb: 3.11±0.21, and SS4 (Cr: 4.40±0.75 mg/kg. Leaf infusion appeared to release higher Cu and Mn concentrations in leaves across sites (Cu: 21.65; Mn: 28.01% than leaf brew (Cu: 11.95; Mn: 19.74%. Lead was not detected in leaf extracts. Estimated dietary intakes of Cr, Cu, Fe, and Mn were below recommended dietary allowances. A 250 ml cup of leaf infusion contributed 0.30–1.18% Cu and 4.46–13.83% Mn to the recommended dietary allowances of these elements per day. Lead did not pose any potential hazard when consumed in tea beverage made from brew and infusion of leaves of L. javanica.

  13. Optimization of Multistage Extraction of Olive Leaves for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds at Moderated Temperatures and Short Extraction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Chatzilazarou, Archontoula; Katsoyannos, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the recovery of polyphenols from olive leaves (OL) by optimizing a multistage extraction scheme; provided that the olive leaves have been previously steam blanched. The maximum total phenol content expressed in ppm caffeic acid equivalents was obtained at pH 2, particle size 0.315 mm, solid-liquid ratio 1:7 and aqueous ethanol concentration 70% (v/v). The optimum duration time of each extraction stage and the operation temperature, were chosen based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of oleuropein (OLE), verbascoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The optimum conditions for multistage extraction were 30 min total extraction time (10 min × 3 stages) at 85 °C. The 80% of the total yield of polyphenols was obtained at the 1st stage of the extraction. The total extraction yield of oleuropein was found 23 times higher (103.1 mg OLE/g dry weight (d.w.) OL) compared to the yield (4.6 mg OLE/g d.w. OL) obtained by the conventional extraction method (40 °C, 48 h). However, from an energetic and hence from an economical point of view it is preferable to work at 40 °C, since the total extraction yield of polyphenolic compounds was only 17% higher for a double increase in the operating temperature (i.e., 85 °C). PMID:28234304

  14. Antimutagenicity of supercritical CO2 extracts of Terminalia catappa leaves and cytotoxicity of the extracts to human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ting-Fu; Weng, Yih-Ming; Lin, Shwu-Bin; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2003-06-04

    Natural antimutagens may prevent cancer and are therefore of great interest to oncologists and the public at large. Phytochemicals are potent antimutagen candidates. When the Ames test was applied to examine the antimutagenic potency of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extracts of Terminalia catappa leaves at a dose of 0.5 mg/plate, toxicity and mutagenicity were not detected. The antimutagenic activity of SC-CO(2) extracts increased with decreases of temperature (60, 50, and 40 degrees C) and pressure (4000, 3000, and 2000 psi) used for extraction. The most potent antimutagenicity was observed in extracts obtained at 40 degrees C and 2000 psi. At a dose of 0.5 mg of extract/plate, approximately 80% of the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, with S-9) and 46% of the mutagenicity of N-methyl-N '-nitroguanidine (MNNG, without S-9) were inhibited. Media supplemented with SC-CO(2) extracts at a range of 0-500 microg/mL were used to cultivate human hepatoma (Huh 7) and normal liver (Chang liver) cells. The viability of the cells was assayed by measuring cellular acid phosphatase activity. A dose-dependent growth inhibition of both types of cells was observed. The SC-CO(2) extracts were more cytotoxic to Huh 7 cells than to Chang liver cells. The observation that SC-CO(2) extracts of T. catappa leaves did not induce mutagenicity at the doses tested while exhibiting potent antimutagenicity and were more cytotoxic to human hepatoma cells than to normal liver cells is of merit and warrants further investigation.

  15. Optimization of Multistage Extraction of Olive Leaves for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds at Moderated Temperatures and Short Extraction Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to improve the recovery of polyphenols from olive leaves (OL by optimizing a multistage extraction scheme; provided that the olive leaves have been previously steam blanched. The maximum total phenol content expressed in ppm caffeic acid equivalents was obtained at pH 2, particle size 0.315 mm, solid-liquid ratio 1:7 and aqueous ethanol concentration 70% (v/v. The optimum duration time of each extraction stage and the operation temperature, were chosen based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of oleuropein (OLE, verbascoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The optimum conditions for multistage extraction were 30 min total extraction time (10 min × 3 stages at 85 °C. The 80% of the total yield of polyphenols was obtained at the 1st stage of the extraction. The total extraction yield of oleuropein was found 23 times higher (103.1 mg OLE/g dry weight (d.w. OL compared to the yield (4.6 mg OLE/g d.w. OL obtained by the conventional extraction method (40 °C, 48 h. However, from an energetic and hence from an economical point of view it is preferable to work at 40 °C, since the total extraction yield of polyphenolic compounds was only 17% higher for a double increase in the operating temperature (i.e., 85 °C.

  16. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality. PMID:23481637

  17. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Wajsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min, higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  18. Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Extracts from Leaves of Some Malus domestica Cultivars: Antiradical and Antimicrobial Analysis of These Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sowa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanol, ethyl acetate, water extracts, and precipitate were obtained from leaves of Malus domestica cultivars: Golden delicious, Jonagold, Elstar, Ligol, and Mutsu. Antiradical activity of these extracts was measured using the ABTS+∙ radical, and antimicrobial activity was measured with the disk-diffusion method. Phenolic compounds were measured with the colorimetric method and identified with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The highest antiradical activity was observed for the Jonagold variety, and in particular strong activity was noted for ethyl acetate extracts. Antimicrobial activity was observed against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Candida glabrata. Particularly susceptible to the extracts activity appeared to be Staphylococcus aureus, but the growth of Candida glabrata was inhibited in the presence of ethyl acetate extracts. With the HPLC method we identified a high amount of phloridzin (above 500 mg per g of ethyl acetate extracts, lower amounts of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin, and traces of p-hydroxybenzoic and chlorogenic acids. The contribution of phloridzin to antiradical activity of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts was very high (above 90%. In water extract the contribution of phloridzin was between 38.9 and 55.2%, chlorogenic acid 22.7 and 36.1%, and hyperoside 12.2 and 13.3%.

  19. In vivo wound healing effects of Symphytum officinale L. leaves extract in different topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, L U; Reis, P G; Barbosa, L C O; Saúde-Guimarães, D A; Grabe-Guimarães, A; Mosqueira, V C F; Carneiro, C M; Silva-Barcellos, N M

    2012-04-01

    The present work evaluates wound healing activity of leaves extracts of Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) incorporated in three pharmaceutical formulations. Wound healing activity of comfrey was determined by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of open wound in rat model, using allantoin as positive control. Three topical formulations, carbomer gel, glycero-alcoholic solution and O/W emulsion (soft lotion) were compared. The histological analysis of the healing process shows significant differences in treatment, particularly on its intensity and rate. The results indicate that emulsion containing both extracts, commercial and prepared, induced the largest and furthest repair of damaged tissue. This could be evidenced from day 3 to 28 by increase in collagen deposition from 40% to 240% and reduction on cellular inflammatory infiltrate from 3% to 46%. However, 8% prepared extract in emulsion presented the best efficacy. This work clearly demonstrates that comfrey leaves have a wound healing activity. The O/W emulsion showed to be the vehicle most effective to induce healing activity, particularly with extracts obtained from comfrey leaves collected in Minas Gerais state in Brazil. It shows the best efficacy to control the inflammatory process and to induce collagen deposition at 8% concentration.

  20. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction of antioxidants from black bamboo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ya Fang; Kim, Sang Min; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-07-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovering bioactive compounds from natural plants, the potential of using pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) was examined on black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) leaves, with ethanol/water as solvents. The superheated PLE process showed a higher recovery of most constituents and antioxidative activity, compared to reflux extraction, with a significantly improved recovery of the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) content and DPPH radical scavenging ability. For a broad range of ethanol aqueous solutions and temperatures, 50% EtOH and 200°C (static time: 25min) gave the best performance, in terms of the TP and TF (75% EtOH) content yield and DPPH scavenging ability (25% EtOH). Under the optimised extraction conditions, eight main antioxidative compounds were isolated and identified with HPLC-ABTS(+) assay guidance and assessed for radical scavenging activity. The superheated extraction process for black bamboo leaves enhanced the antioxidant properties by increasing the extraction of the phenolic components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative antitumor and anti-proliferative activities of Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves extracts

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    Javid Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antitumor and anti-proliferative activities of methanol, aqueous, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Antitumor activities were evaluated by using the antitumor potato disc assay by using inoculums (Agrobacterium tumefaciens with three different concentrations of test samples (10, 100 and 1 000 mg/L. Anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by the given method of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The concentrations of the extract ranging from 0.039 to 10 mg/mL were tested against HeLa cells. Results: Highest tumors inhibition activity (60.9% and 55.8% was shown by methanol and ethanol extracts, with EC50 values of 424.41 and 434.61 mg/L respectively. At 10 mg/mL, The highest cell inhibition 75.61% was observed in methanol extract and the lowest 36.59% were calculated in n-hexane extract. The difference in tumor and cell inhibition (% may be due to the different concentration of active compounds responsible for antitumor and anti-proliferative activities. All extracts have considerable level of tumor and cell inhibitiory effect in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: Our finding showed that Hippophae rhamnoides leaves are a potent natural source of antitumor and antiproliferative agent.

  2. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of methanol extract of Polygonum minus leaves in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christapher, Parayil Varghese; Parasuraman, Subramani; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats. There were no behavioural or physiological changes and gross pathological abnormalities observed. The subchronic toxicity study of methanol extract of P. minus at 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg were conducted in both sexes of Sprague Dawley rats. There were no changes observed in the extract treated animal's body weight, food and water intake, motor coordination, behaviour and mental alertness. The values of haematological and biochemical parameters were not different between the treated and control animals. The relative organ weights of extract-treated animals did not differ with that of control animals. Based on the present findings, the methanol extract of P. minus leaves could be considered safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antidiabetic activity of extracts ofAnacardium occidentaleLinn. leaves onn-streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Y S; Tatke, P A; Gabhe, S Y; Vaidya, A B

    2017-10-01

    Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) is used in South Cameroon as well as in other tropical countries by traditional practitioners as a folk remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus. We demonstrated the antidiabetic potential of the plant extracts in n -streptozotocin diabetic rats. The aim of the current study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of ethanol extract of leaves of A. occidentale on neonatal streptozotocin diabetic rats. Two day old neonates were injected with 100 mg/kg of streptozotocin. At the end of the experimental period of 30 days, reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels, serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin levels, serum lipid parameters, and renal function biomarkers were estimated in the control and treated rats. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and pancreas were also carried out. On administration of 100 mg/kg of plant extract, blood glucose levels of the rats showed 8.01% and 19.25% decrease in the fasting blood glucose levels on day 15 and day 30, respectively. The administration of extract showed that the effects of extract treatment are comparable to treatment with the standard drug Pioglitazone. These results demonstrate significant antidiabetic potential of the ethanol extract of leaves of A. occidentale , justifying the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine. Further studies for investigating the specific compound(s) responsible for such beneficial role in diabetes would open new outlook in the therapy of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Diuretic activity of the aqueous extract leaves of Ficus glumosa Del. (Moraceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntchapda, Fidèle; Djedouboum Abakar; Kom, Blaise; Nana, Paulin; Bonabe, Christian; Maguirgue Kakesse; Talla, Emmanuel; Dimo, Théophile

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to validate the use of F. glumosa extract as a diuretic in the treatment of hypertension as claimed by traditional healers. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as check (Furosemide and Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide). The aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid. At the maximum of diuretic response, urinary osmolarity decreased significantly when compared with controls. The single dose treatment of the aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa has significantly increased urine volume 24 h after administration of the extract. The stability of aldosterone level, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and the increased clearance of free water in the animals receiving the extract show that increased diuresis and natriuresis moderate elevation are tubular in origin. The increase in Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) induced by the extract caused alkalinization of the urine and showed a strong inhibitory effect of carbonic anhydrase and saluretic. These effects were mainly observed at the dose of 375 mg/kg. These observations confirm the traditional use in the treatment of hypertension and support the importance of the conservation of local knowledge as well as the conservation of Cameroonian biodiversity.

  5. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahekar, Satish E; Kale, Ranjana S

    2015-01-01

    Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats.

  6. Phytochemical screening and antipyretic effects of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach leaves in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabira Sultana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antipyretic effect of the hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach leaves was investigated using the yeast induced pyrexia method in rabbits. Paracetamol was used as a positive control and negative control group received distilled water. Rectal temperatures of all rabbits were recorded immediately before the administration of the extract or vehical or paracetamol and again at 1 h interval for 6 h using digital thermometer. The extract was also phytochemically screened for alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and phenols. At 500 mg/kg dose the extract showed significant (p<0.0001 reduction in yeast-induced elevated temperature as compared with that of standard drug paracetamol whereas the extract dose 250 mg/kg was less effective when compared with higher dose (p<0.05. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and phenols. This study showed that the hydro-methanol extract of M. azedarach leaves at a dose of 500 mg/kg possesses significant antipyretic effect against the yeast-induced elevated temperature.

  7. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Additional Suji Leaves and Turmeric Extract on Physicochemical Characteristic and Antioxidant Activity of Arenga-Canna Noodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftakhussolikhah; Ariani, D.; Herawati, ERN; Nastiti, A.; Angwar, M.; Pranoto, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Canna can be used as raw material for noodle but need a substitute material such as arenga starch. Arenga-canna noodle has dark appearance. Addition coloring agents from suji leaves and turmeric extract was done to improve product appearance and its functional characteristics. In this study, noodle was made with five variations of suji leaves and turmeric extract. Physical and chemical properties of noodle were analyzed. The results showed addition suji leaves extract and turmeric extract 0.4 g suji leaf/ml water and 0.06 g turmeric/ml water respectively, produce the best arenga-canna noodle quality. The addition of natural coloring agents increased antioxidant activity.

  9. Sedative, membrane stability, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of methanol extract of leaves of Protium serratum Wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rafikul Islam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the sedative, membrane stability, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of the leaves of Protium serratum extracted using methanol. Methods: Sedative test was performed using hole cross and open field methods at 200 and 400 mg/kg. Membrane stability of red blood cell was used for anti-inflammatory test at different concentrations. Cytotoxic study was performed using brine shrimp lethality test. Total flavonoid contents, total phenol contents and reducing power were used to assess antioxidant properties of the extract. Results: Extract showed better sedative action at lower doses in both experiments. Maximum 73.33% locomotion reduction was found at 200 mg/kg at 1 20 min and that was 89.29% for diazepam in hole cross test. In membrane stability test, extract and standard drug diclofenac have 35.66% and 91.20% stability, respectively. LC50 value of the extract was 22.91 µg/mL. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were (55.53依14.63 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and (1 06.33依7.35 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of extract, respectively per gram of extract. Significant reducing power was observed as compared to ascorbic acid. Conclusions: Extract possesses good pharmacological properties. Hence, further extensive study is essential to find out possible active constituents for the treatment of anxiety, inflammation or sickle cell disease, cancer and free radical mediated abnormalities.

  10. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

  11. "Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of essential oil, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamal-Herrera, Isabel O; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Escalante-Réndiz, Diana Y; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Azamar-Barrios, José A

    2018-02-08

    Ocimum micranthum Willd is a plant used in traditional medicine practiced in the region of the Yucatan peninsula. In particular, it is used for the treatment of cutaneous infections and wound healing, however there are currently no existing scientific studies that support these applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and the in vitro proliferative activity (on healthy mammalian cell lines) of the essential oil and extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of this plant. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was determined using the microdilution technique. The in vitro proliferative activity of human fibroblast (hFB) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells treated with these extracts was evaluated using the MTT test. The hFB cell line was also evaluated using Trypan Blue assay. Candida albicans was more susceptible to the ethanolic extract and the aqueous extract (MIC value of 5 μL/mL and 80 μL/mL respectively). In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC of the aqueous and ethanolic extract was 125 μL/mL. The aqueous extract showed a significant (p essential oil and extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves are sufficient to cause an antiproliferative effect on the hFB cell line but do not produce an antimicrobial effect against the microorganisms evaluated. More studies are necessary to improve understanding of the mechanism of action of the compounds implicated in the bioactivities shown by the crude extracts.

  12. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using lemon leaves extract and its application for antimicrobial finish on fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankar, Padma S.; Shukla, Dhara

    2012-06-01

    Preparation of silver nanoparticles have been carried out using aqueous extract of lemon leaves ( Citrus limon) which acts as reducing agent and encapsulating cage for the silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles have been used for durable textile finish on cotton and silk fabrics. Remarkable antifungal activity has been observed in the treated fabrics. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles derived from lemon leaves showed enhancement in activity due to synergistic effect of silver and essential oil components of lemon leaves. The present investigation shows the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles by biotransformation using the extract of lemon leaves by controlled reduction of the Ag+ ion to Ag0. Further the silver nanoparticles were used for antifungal treatment of fabrics which was tested by antifungal activity assessment of textile material by Agar diffusion method against Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola. Formation of the metallic nanoparticles was established by FT-IR, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy.

  13. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Tao, Ran

    2016-01-15

    In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet (UV), thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL) acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE) and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  14. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultraviolet (UV, thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  15. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. leaves in female albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Salimon, S S

    2015-04-02

    Mangifera indica L. leaves have a long history of indigenous use, as an antidiarrhoeal agent among others, without any scientific study that has substantiated or refuted this claim. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the secondary metabolites in the aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves and its acclaimed antidiarrhoeal activity in rats. The aqueous leaf extract of Mangifera indica was screened for its constituent secondary plant metabolites. In each of the diarrhoeal models, female albino rats were assigned into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E) containing five animals each such that rats in groups A and B were the positive and negative controls respectively while those in groups C, D and E received 25, 50 and 100mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively in addition to specific requirements of the model. The extract contained alkaloids (4.20mg/g), flavonoids (13.60mg/g), phenolics (1.50mg/g) and saponins (3.10mg/g) while tannins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and steroids were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the onset time of diarrhoea was significantly prolonged by the 25 and 50mg/kg body weight whereas there was no episode in the 100mg/kg body weight treated animals. The extract (25 and 50mg/kg body weight) decreased the number, water content, fresh weight and total number of wet feaces and increased the inhibition of defecations. All the doses of the extract significantly increased the Na(+) -K(+) ATPase activity in the small intestine. The extract dose dependently decreased the masses and volume of intestinal fluid with corresponding increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the castor oil-induced enteropooling model. The extract also reduced the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the 30min gastrointestinal transit model. All these changes were similar to the reference drugs with the 100mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibiting the most profound antidiarrhoeal activity. The study concluded

  16. Solute-matrix and Solute-Solute Interactions during Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Sea Buckthorn Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, SI (2012), s. 1682-1691 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2012 and 15th Conference PRES 2012 /20./. Prague, 25.08.2012-29.08.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * sea buckthom leaves * solute-solute interaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  17. Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi

    2016-06-01

    50 of 38.24 ± 2.32 μg/mL, 21.06 ± 2.04 μg/mL and 27.52 ± 1.72 μg/mL against XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively. The extract also strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+. Conclusion: Guava leaves extract could serve as functional food for managing gout and hypertension and attenuating the oxidative stress associated with both diseases. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(2.000: 122-130

  18. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity from leaves extracts of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. et Zucc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Mariane Cruz Costa; Chaves, Mariana H.; Rinaldo, Daniel; Vilegas, Wagner; Vieira Junior, Gerardo Magela

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic leaves extracts of T. fagifolia led to the isolation of (+)-catechin, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, α and β tocopherol, a mixture of lupeol, α and β-amyrin, sitosterol and a mixture of glucoside flavonoids (CP-13). The structures of these compounds were identified by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. Absolute configuration of the catechin was determinate by circular dichroism. Antioxidant activity (EC 50 ), evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) assay system, decreased in the order: (+)-catechin > hydroalcoholic fraction > CP-13 > aqueous fraction > EtOH extract. (author)

  19. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant activities of various extracts of Hyoscyamus albus L. and Umbilicus rupestris L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Afaf BENHOUDA; Mouloud YAHIA; Djahida BENHOUDA; Nor Elhouda BOUSNANE; Souhila BENBIA; Nor Elhouda HANNACHI; Abdelmoudjib GHECHAM

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the antioxidant activity by the means of two methods: the β-carotene bleaching method and DPPH assay as well as testing the antimicrobial activity by the Agar-gel diffusion method and the microdilution method with liquid medium of the extracts (EEp, EChl and EMeOH) of the leaves of H. albus and (EEp, EChl and EMeOH) of U. rupestris. The quantitative analysis are showed that the highest content of total phenolic was concentrated in the butanolic extract of H....

  20. In vitro erythrocyte oxidative damage of Morinda citrifolia L (noni leaves extract

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    Alicia Lagarto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Slight decrease of hemoglobin and erythrocyte count was observed previously after subchronic oral dosing of Morinda citrifolia L leaves extract in rats. Induction of erythrocyte membrane damage could be the cause for these effects. Aims: The objective of this investigation was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of Morinda citrifolia L leaves extract and fractions on rat erythrocytes. Methods: Hemolytic damage was assayed in rat erythrocytes. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring methemoglobin formation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and enzyme antioxidant activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Results: Morinda citrifolia L extract caused no hemolysis and induced oxidative damage to red cells in vitro. Methemoglobin increase was observed at concentration between 2 and 8 mg/ml of the extract. Lipid peroxidation was increased and CAT and SOD activities were depleted indicating a possible increase of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals in erythrocytes. Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol fraction did not cause methemoglobin formation while water fraction increased methemoglobin level at doses up to 6 mg/ml. Conclusions: We concluded that high doses of Morinda citrifolia L extract promote erythrocyte oxidative damage due to metabolites present in water fraction. These could be the cause of decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels observed. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 135-140

  1. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  2. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  3. Antioxidant and wound healing potential of saponins extracted from the leaves of Algerian Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razika, Laoufi; Thanina, Affif Chaouche; Nadjiba, Chebouti-Meziou; Narimen, Benhabyles; Mahdi, Dahmani Mohamed; Karim, Arab

    2017-05-01

    The Nettle is a herbaceous and vivace plant of Asian origin. It is integrated in several areas especially alimentary, agricultural, industrial and medicinal. The aim of this work is to demonstrate through pharmacological tests a possible antioxidant and wound healing effect of crude saponins of the leaves of Urtica dioica L. The extraction method is based on the degree of solubility of saponins in organic solvents. The antioxidant activity of the leaves extracts was evaluated by the diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl test (DPPH). The wound healing effect is interpreted on the basis of the healing time and the evaluation of the surface of wounds. It appears from this study that the Nettle is rich in saponins, either 4.08% to 30 g of plant powder. The results also showed significant antioxidant effect similar to that of ascorbic acid (p> 0.05) with an IC 50 of 0.159mg/ml. As regards the healing power, treatment of rats with the product based on crude saponins is achieved after 15 days, either 100% of wound reduction. This value is much higher than that obtained by the reference product (Madécassol®) on the same duration of treatment with 93.73% of wound reduction. The achievement of pharmacological tests has thus shown that crude saponins extracted from the leaves of Urtica dioica L. can be integrated into the pharmaceutical field or even in cosmetic.

  4. Citrus aurantium leaves extracts as a sustainable corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in sulfuric acid

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    Karim H. Hassan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 was investigated in absence and presence of Citrus aurantium leaves extracts as a friendly inhibitor. The effect of temperature, time, and inhibitor concentration were studied using weight loss technique. The result obtained revealed that Citrus aurantium leaves extracts act as an inhibitor for mild steel in H2SO4 and reduces the corrosion rate. The inhibition efficiency was found to increases with increase in inhibitor concentration whereas the temperature shows otherwise. Higher inhibition efficiency was 89% at 40 °C and 10 ml/l inhibitor concentration. The adsorption of Citrus aurantium leaves extracts was found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The values of the free energy of adsorption was around −20 kJ/mol, which is indicative of physical adsorption between charged molecules and a charged metal. Quantum chemical calculations were also used as a theoretical support to the experimental results. Finally the scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were evaluated to examine surface morphology and molecular structure of inhibitor respectively.

  5. Effect of oral supplementation of bamboo grass leaves extract on cellular immune function in dairy cows

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    Hiromichi Ohtsuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta glucans extracted from bamboo (Sasa sensanensis grass leaves are known to have an immune-modulatory effect in animals. These glucans have been used for the treatment of diseases such as viral infections, inflammation, and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immuno-modulatory effect of SanSTAGETM (pure compounds obtained from the bamboo grass leaves; 25% of bamboo grass extract and 75% of dextrin on peripheral blood leukocyte population and mRNA expression of immune related molecules of 20 dairy cows. Ten cows were orally administered 30 mg/kg/day of SanSTAGETM for first two weeks; the other 10 cows were control without supplementation. The blood samples were collected in tubes containing dipotassium-EDTA for analysis of leukocyte population, and in tubes containing heparin for analysis of cytokine production. Cows supplemented with SanSTAGETM showed an increased number of CD8+ T cells and expression of perforin (cytotoxicity factor to virally infected cells and MX-2 (anti-virus factor. The study describes for the first time that oral administration of supplement extracted from Kumaizasa bamboo grass leaves affects cellar immune function of dairy cows, and can be recommended as part of diet for prevention of infectious diseases.

  6. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaves

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    Chan Pit Foong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the leaves of Annona muricata L., Annonaceae, are used to treat headaches, fever, toothache, cough and asthma. The decoction of the leaves has parasiticide, antirheumatic and antineuralgic effects when used internally, while the cooked leaves, applied topically, fight rheumatism and abscesses. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronic anti-inflammatory potential of an ethanolic leaf extract of A. muricata (AML in animal models. The ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaf extract was prepared and administered orally to experimental animals used. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by xylene-induced ear edema in mice and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results demonstrated that AML is effective for both acute and chronic inflammation. It also significantly attenuated both TNF-α and IL-1β levels in CFA-induced arthritis model. Thus, these results have suggested that AML possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities. The findings also suggest that AML presents notable anti-arthritic activity that may be mediated by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaves Growing in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

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    Gotep, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves growing in Vom, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria was carried out to verify claims by the locals of its medicinal properties. We tested the extract for activity against Staphylococcus aureus (G+, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes (G-. The extract exhibited activity against the organisms in varying degrees. In the agar diffusion test, Y. enterocolitica showed the highest zone of inhibition (18 mm at the highest concentration of extract tested (20 mg/mL while E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 17, 16, 15, 14 and 16 mm respectively. At extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, Y. enterocolitica and P. aeruginosa did not show any zones of inhibition while E.coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 7, 6, 6 and 7 mm respectively. Below extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, there was no zone of inhibition observed with any organism. The MIC of the extract against the organisms was 5 mg/mL except on S. aureus where the MIC was 2.5 mg/mL. The MBC of the extract was 10 mg/mL against Y. enterocolitica, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes, 5 mg/mL against E. coli and S. aureus. Preliminary phytochemical testing revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides while saponins, alkaloids and anthraquinones were not present. The result gives scientific backing to the use of the leaves by the local people in the treatment of conditions usually associated with the organisms tested.

  8. Impact of Ohmic-Assisted Decoction on Bioactive Components Extracted from Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. Leaves: Comparison with Conventional Decoction

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    Forough Khajehei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. leaves are a potentially rich source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. In this study, the effect of the extraction method (ohmic-assisted decoction (OH-DE and decoction (DE, yacon cultivar (red and white, and leaf age (young and old on the quality/quantity of extracted phytochemicals were investigated. Extraction yield, energy consumption, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were determined. Additionally, HPLC-DAD was used to identify the major individual phenolic and flavonoid compounds of yacon leaves. The results showed that a three-way interaction of process-variables (extraction method×yacon cultivar×age of leaves influenced the extraction yield, TPC, TFC, ABTS, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP, significantly (p < 0.05. However, energy consumption of the extraction process was only affected by method of extraction (p < 0.05 and was halved when OH-DE was applied as compared to DE alone. Additionally, the phytochemical quality of extracts was either improved or comparable when OH-DE was used for extraction. Also, it was shown that yacon leaves contained considerable amounts of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferrulic acid, myricetin, p-coumaric acid, and rutin, while leaves of the red cultivar had higher contents of each compound compared to leaves of the white cultivar.

  9. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant activities of various extracts of Hyoscyamus albus L. and Umbilicus rupestris L. leaves

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    Afaf BENHOUDA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our objectives were to investigate the antioxidant activity by the means of two methods: the β-carotene bleaching method and DPPH assay as well as testing the antimicrobial activity by the Agar-gel diffusion method and the microdilution method with liquid medium of the extracts (EEp, EChl and EMeOH of the leaves of H. albus and (EEp, EChl and EMeOH of U. rupestris. The quantitative analysis are showed that the highest content of total phenolic was concentrated in the butanolic extract of H.albus with 111 .1 ± 1.82 μg EAG/mg of extracts, in the second level the methanolic extract of U. rupestris with 105.7±0.37 μg EAG/mg of extracts. The content of flavonoids was determined by specrophotometry and showed the presence of these compounds in the all extracts from the two plants. In the β-carotene bleaching test, the EMeOH of H.albus displayed highest antioxidant activity (76.00 % and the EMeOH extract with a radical-scavenging activity (72.97%. On the other hand, the quantitative evaluation of the antiradical activity towards DPPH showed that the EMeOH of U. rupestris is the most active (IC50 = 35.33 ± 0.136 μg/ml followed by the EMeOH (IC50 = 75.19 ± 0.211 μg/ml of H. albus. All the polar extracts of the two plants reacted positively at least on one of the bacterial strains tested. These extracts showed different activities and the CMI were determined starting from the most active extracts in gelose medium, Extract EBut of H.albus testified to a strong antimicrobial activity followed by the EMe of U. rupestris. Results of the anticandidose activity showed the inefficiency of the all extracts against the yeast Candida albicans.

  10. Chemical composition and biological activities of extracts and essential oil of Boswellia dalzielii leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoude, Midéko Justin; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Agbani, Pierre; Ayedoun, Marc-Abel; Cazaux, Sylvie; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2017-12-01

    Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. (Burseraceae) is an aromatic plant. The leaves are used for beverage flavouring. This study investigates the chemical composition and biological activities of various extracts. The essential oil was prepared via hydrodistillation. Identification and quantification were realized via GC-MS and GC-FID. Consecutive extractions (cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) were carried out and various chemical groups (phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, antocyanins and sugar) were quantified. The volatile compounds of organic extracts were identified before and after derivatization. Antioxidant, antihyperuricemia, anti-Alzheimer, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated. In the essential oil, 50 compounds were identified, including 3-carene (27.72%) and α-pinene (15.18%). 2,5-Dihydroxy acetophenone and β-d-xylopyranose were identified in the methanol extract. Higher phenolic (315.97 g GAE/kg dry mass) and flavonoid (37.19 g QE/kg dry mass) contents were observed in the methanol extract. The methanol extract has presented remarkable IC 50  =   6.10 mg/L for antiDPPH, 35.10 mg/L for antixanthine oxidase and 28.01 mg/L for anti-5-lipoxygenase. For acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the best IC 50 (76.20 and 67.10 mg/L) were observed, respectively, with an ethyl acetate extract and the essential oil. At 50 mg/L, the dichloromethane extract inhibited OVCAR-3 cell lines by 65.10%, while cyclohexane extract inhibited IGROV-1 cell lines by 92.60%. Biological activities were fully correlated with the chemical groups of the extracts. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts could be considered as potential alternatives for use in dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of diseases because of these extracts natural antioxidant, antihyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenols from the Methanolic Extract of Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana Leaves

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    Anne Lígia Dokkedal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured using AAPH and DPPH radical assays. Chemical analysis was performed with the n-butanol fraction of the methanolic extract and the chloroformic extract, using different chromatographic techniques (CC, HPLC. The structural elucidation of compounds was performed using 500 MHz NMR and HPLC methods. The methanolic extract showed a high level of total phenolic contents; the results with antioxidant assays showed that the methanolic extract, the n-butanolic fraction and the isolated flavonoids from M. albicans had a significant scavenging capacity against AAPH and DPPH. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-(E-p-coumaroyl-α-amyrin was isolated from the n-butanolic fraction and α-amyrin, epi-betulinic acid, ursolic acid, epi-ursolic acid from the chloroformic extract. The results presented in this study demonstrate that M. albicans is a promising species in the search for biologically active compounds.

  12. Antioxidant activity and total phenols from the methanolic extract of Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Laís Goyos; de Rezende, Fernanda Mendes; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia

    2011-11-10

    Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured using AAPH and DPPH radical assays. Chemical analysis was performed with the n-butanol fraction of the methanolic extract and the chloroformic extract, using different chromatographic techniques (CC, HPLC). The structural elucidation of compounds was performed using 500 MHz NMR and HPLC methods. The methanolic extract showed a high level of total phenolic contents; the results with antioxidant assays showed that the methanolic extract, the n-butanolic fraction and the isolated flavonoids from M. albicans had a significant scavenging capacity against AAPH and DPPH. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-(E)-p-coumaroyl-α-amyrin was isolated from the n-butanolic fraction and α-amyrin, epi-betulinic acid, ursolic acid, epi-ursolic acid from the chloroformic extract. The results presented in this study demonstrate that M. albicans is a promising species in the search for biologically active compounds.

  13. Effects of the extracts from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves on analgesic and behavioral activities in experimental animals

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    Kitja Sawangjaroen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (M. speciosa were extracted with methanol to give methanol extract. The methanol extract was made in acid and then in alkaline and extracted with chloroform to give alkaloid extract. The effects of the methanol and alkaloid extracts on analgesic activities in hot plate test in mice and tail flick test in rats and behavioral activities in locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, were examined. In acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of oral administration of the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves in mice were 4.90 g/kg and 173.20 mg/kg, respectively. Oral administration (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract of M. speciosa leaves significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response on hot plate test in mice. The alkaloid extract of M. speciosa also increased the pain response latency at the dose of 20 mg/kg but less potent than those of the methanol extract (100 mg/kg in mice (comparing 5-10 mg/kg alkaloid extract with corresponding to approximately 200 mg/kg of methanol extract. The antinociceptive action of either methanol extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. or alkaloid extract (20 mg/kg, p.o. of M. speciosa leaves was blocked by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. Neither the methanol extract nor the alkaloid extract significantly prolonged latency of nociceptive response on tail flick test in rats. Both of the extracts had no significant change on spontaneous motor activity or pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, respectively. These results suggest that the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves possess the analgesic activity which partly acted at opioid receptors in the supraspinal opioid system.

  14. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

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    Nur Afiqah Arham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The hydroxyl groups of the polyphenols are capable to act as reducing agent for reduction reaction. The effect of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration were evaluated using central composite design which consists of 20 experimental runs. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to estimate the optimum parameters in extracting polyphenols from the palm leaves. The correspondence analysis of the results yielded a quadratic model which can be used to find optimum conditions of extraction process. The optimum extraction condition of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration are 70°C, at 70°C of 10 minutes, respectively. Total polyphenols were determined by application of the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method and the extract was found contain of 8 mg GAE/g dry palm leaves at optimum conditions. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis. International Journal of Science and

  15. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Feng, Zeng; Wu, Xinlan

    2015-01-01

    To optimization of extraction of antioxidant compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves and showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. The bioactive polysaccharide compounds of guava leaves (P. guajava L.) were obtained using ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Extraction was carried out according to Box-Behnken central composite design, and independent variables were temperature (20-60°C), time (20-40 min) and power (200-350 W). The extraction process was optimized by using response surface methodology for the highest crude extraction yield of bioactive polysaccharide compounds. The optimal conditions were identified as 55°C, 30 min, and 240 W. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging were conducted. The results of quantification showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds.

  16. Polyphenolic and biological activities of leaves extracts of Argemone subfusiformis (Papaveraceae and Urtica urens (Urticaceae

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    Florence Jimoh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a resurgence of interest in wild plants for their possible medicinal value in diets, since some epidemiological studies have demonstrated their effectiveness against important diseases. Generally, foods of plant origin contain many bioactive compounds, proteins, energy, vitamins and specific minerals; in addition, the popular wild plant species provide fibre, essential fatty acids and enhance the taste and colour in diets. We studied the nutritional and medicinal potential of leaves of A. subfusiformis and U. urens, collected in Alice, South Africa in November 2006. To asses this we analyzed the phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of leaves in acetone, methanol and water extracts, using standard analytical methods. The proximate analysis showed that the leaves of both plant species contained appreciable percentages of moisture; ashes; carbohydrates; crude proteins, lipids and fibres. Elemental analysis of macro and microelements showed higher values for U. urens that contained in decreasing order: iron>manganese>zinc>copper>calcium>potassium>nitrogen>magnesium> phosphorus>sodium, for A. subfusiformis resulted in iron>zinc>manganese>coppe r>calcium>potassium>nitrogen>magnesium>phosphorus>sodium. Besides, the chemical composition showed higher concentration of alkaloids, saponins and phytates in A. subfusiformis. The extracts also caused 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2-azinobis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging activities which were comparable to those of ascorbic acid. The extracts of both plants contained appreciable levels of polyphenols and also caused varied inhibition of some bacterial strains used in this study. When the nutrient and chemical constituents of these plants were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA values, the results revealed that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients, minerals, and phytochemicals and low levels of

  17. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-oxidative activities of Aquilaria crassna leaves extract in rodents

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    Jintana Sattayasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, the leaves of Aquilaria crassna have been used traditionally for the treatments of various disorders, but without any scientific analysis. In this study, the antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of A. crassna leaves extract were investigated at a wide dose range in rodents. Experimental animals were treated orally with an aqueous extract of Aquilaria crassna leaves (ACE. They were tested for antipyretic (Baker′s yeast-induced fever in rats, analgesic (hot plate test in mice and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats activities. An anti-oxidative effect of ACE was evaluated by using the DPPH anti-oxidant assay. The results showed that, after 5 hours of yeast injection, 400 and 800 mg/kg ACE significantly reduced the rectal temperature of rats. Mice were found significantly less sensitive to heat at an oral dose of 800 mg/kg ACE, after 60 and 90 min. No anti-inflammatory activity of ACE at an 800 mg/kg dose could be observed in the rat paw assay. An anti-oxidative activity of ACE was observed with an IC 50 value of 47.18 μg/ ml. No behavioral or movement change could be observed in mice after oral administration of ACE (800 or 8,000 mg/kg for seven consecutive days. Interestingly, from the second day of treatment, animals had a significant lower body weight at the 8,000 mg/kg dose of ACE compared to the control. No toxicity was identified and the results of this study state clearly that Aquilaria crassna leaves extracts possess antipyretic, analgesic and anti-oxidative properties without anti-inflammatory activity.

  18. EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM PETAI LEAVES (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND ASSISTED METHODS

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    Buanasari Buanasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant has an activity to neutralize free radical compound that the body needs to avoid damage cells and tissues. Phenolic is one of the compounds that have an antioxidant activity. The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions on phenolic compounds of Parkia speciosa Hassk. leaves were investigated. The effects of temperature (40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, time (10, 30 and 50 minutes and material-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:13, 1:15 were evaluated based on the yield, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity. The result showed that the highest yield (15.82% was obtained at 1:15 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 50°C of temperature and 50 minutes of extraction time for MAE. The highest yield of UAE is 15.53% that sample was obtained at 1:13 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 60°C of optimal temperature and 30 minutes extraction time. The highest IC50 of UAE method extract was 52.55 ppm, while the extract obtained using MAE method was 50.44 ppm. UAE is more stable at higher temperatures. Time and solvent which was used more efficient than MAE. Extract of petai leaves (Parkia speciosa Hassk. were very potential to be used as a source of natural antioxidants because they have IC50 values from 41.39 to 66.00 ppm. Its antioxidants capacity is ranged from strong to very strong capacity.

  19. [Study on ursolic acid extraction rate by ultramicro smashing and conventional smashing from leaves of Paulownia fortunei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Hui; Zhao, Lei; Shao, Jing; Chen, Lv-Yi; Chen, Yu-Hong

    2008-10-01

    To study on ursolic acid extraction rate from leaves of Paulownia fortunei by conventional powder and ultramicro powder. We spent different time extracting ursolic acid from coventional powder and ultramicro powder, then determined the content by HPLC and compared. In ultramicro powder the extraction of ursolic acid was nearly twice of conventional powder; The time reaching the maximum extraction of ultramicro powder was 5 minutes, but that of conventional powder was 20 minutes. The extraction of ursolic acid from leaves of Paulownia fortunei by ultramicro smashing is more efficient.

  20. Studies on neuropharmacological profile of ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Adewale G; Aderibigbe, Adegbuyi O; Ademowo, Olusegun G

    2013-10-07

    Moringa oleifera (family Moringaceae), commonly called Horseradish or tree of life, is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy and neurologic conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the neurobehavioural and anticonvulsant properties of the ethanol extract from the leaves of Moringa oleifera. Neurobehavioural properties were evaluated using the open field, hole board, Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM) and pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis. Pentylenetetrazole (leptazol), picrotoxin and strychnine induced convulsion tests were used to investigate the anti-convulsive actions of Moringa oleifera. The result showed that the extract (250-2000mg/kg) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in rearing, grooming, head dips and locomotion (P6.4g/kg. The findings from this study suggest that the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves possesses CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities possibly mediated through the enhancement of central inhibitory mechanism involving release γ-amino butyric acid (GABA). The results partially justified the traditional use of the extract for the treatment of epilepsy. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chlorophyll fluorescence extraction from water-leaving radiance of algae-containing water through polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Pang, Huifang; Liu, Yongjian; Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Lingling

    2017-12-01

    When measuring reflectance spectra, it is very important to accurately extract chlorophyll fluorescence from elastic- scattering light in water-leaving radiance. The elastic scattering of light by water particles produces partially polarized light. In contrast, chlorophyll fluorescence in planktonic algae yields completely unpolarized light. These properties can be used to separate fluorescent signals from the water-leaving radiance and thus to determine chlorophyll concentration. The algal species Aureococcus anophagefferens was used to conduct a laboratory polarization experiment. For the tests, we used a field spectroradiometer and a polarizer; measurements were collected using two different observation modes. The chlorophyll fluorescence curve extracted through polarization shows an excellent match with the results obtained using the fluorospectro photometer for both measurement modes, suggesting that polarization-based chlorophyll fluorescence extraction may be feasible. The extracted fluorescence is more reliable at incident zenith angles ranging from 30° to 60°. For algae-containing water, the results improve with increasing chlorophyll concentration. This method could help improve chlorophyll concentration measurement and the remote-sensing detection of resulting harmful algae blooms.

  2. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves

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    Chloe D. Goldsmith

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water—a “green” extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers.

  3. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  4. Analgesic properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Fotio, A L; Watcho, P; Wansi, S L; Dimo, T; Kamanyi, A

    2004-05-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the dry leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (300 and 600 mg/kg) were evaluated for their analgesic properties on the pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and heat in mice and by pressure on rats. The ethanol extract of K. crenata at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced an inhibition of 61.13% on pain induced by acetic acid and 50.13% for that induced by formalin. An inhibition of 67.18% was observed on pain induced by heat 45 min after the administration of the extract. The aqueous extract administered at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced a maximum effect of 25% on pain induced by pressure. These activities were similar to those produced by a paracetamol-codeine association, while indomethacin exhibited a protective effect only against the writhing test. Our results suggest that the leaves of K. crenata could be a source of analgesic compounds. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated compound from Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bhat, Tahir Ahmad; Singh, Rattan Deep

    2017-07-01

    The study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of extracts and isolated compound of Dalbergia stipulacea. Combined extracts (chloroform and methanol) of plant leaves fractionated with n-butanol loaded with column afforded a flavonoid glycoside compound identified as luteolin 4'-rutinoside. Different extracts and isolated compound exhibited pronounced antibacterial and antifungal varied activities against four bacteria (Clostridium acetobutylinium, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans, and Pseudomonas sp.) and one fungus (Candida albicans) susceptibility were determined using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts and isolated compounds was determined by broth dilution method. The maximum activity was shown by chloroform extract against C. albicans with a zone of inhibition of 17 mm and minimum activity was displayed by methanolic extract against Pseudomonas sp. with 5 mm. However, isolated compound has shown maximum activity against Pseudomonas sp. with 15 mm. The MIC values higher in methanol extract against Pseudomonas sp. and isolated compound shows good against Pseudomonas sp. and B. subtilis. Our findings indicate that plant could be used as a good antimicrobial agent in food, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide industries.

  6. Comparative evaluation of different extracts of leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. for hepatoprotective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Chanchal K; Das, Amit Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous) of P. guajava in acute experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol. The effects observed were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o.). In the acute liver damage induced by different hepatotoxins, P. guajava methanolic leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. P. guajava ethyl acetate leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity whereas P. guajava aqueous leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. P. guajava ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Histological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the methanolic extract of leaves of Psidium guajava plant possesses better hepatoprotective activity compared to other extracts.

  7. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis. L leaves against salivary Mutans streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlAnbori, Dalia K.A; AlNimer, Marwan S.M; AlWeheb, Athraa M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves in the selective reduction of Mutans streptococci count in saliva compared to chlorhexidine through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Ethanolic extract (2%) was prepared and screened by UV-visible spectrophotometer to detect peaks of active compounds. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of myrtle extract as well as chlorhexidine (0.12%) were determined against Mutans streptococci isolated from human saliva and identified bacteriologically in vivo experiments, the effect of single mouth rinse of myrtle extract or chlorhexidine was investigated against the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Mutans streptococci for two hours after rinse. The results showed the presence of one large peak at λ266.5 nm and a small one at λ672 of the extract in UV-visible spectra suggesting the presence of flavanoid. The MIC of myrtle was 106.6 μg/mL compared with 3.3 μg/mL of chlorhexidine. Single mouth rinse of myrtle extract significantly reduced the number of CFU of salivary Mutans streptococci but its effect was significantly less than that of chlorhexidine. It was concluded that the antibacterial effect of myrtle on Mutans streptococci was due to its flavanoid content. Therefore, ethanolic extract of myrtle could be a potential remedy for the prevention of colonization by Mutans streptococci thereby preventing or retarding development of dental caries. (author)

  8. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of Crassocephalum rubens leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Olusola B; Onasanya, Amos; Anadozie, Scholastica O; Abu, Miriam F; Akintan, Idowu A; Ogbole, Catherine J; Olayide, Israel I; Afolabi, Olakunle B; Jaiyesimi, Kikelomo F; Ajiboye, Bashir O; Fadaka, Adewale O

    2016-07-21

    Crassocephalum rubens is found throughout tropical Africa including the Indian Ocean islands. The leaves are commonly eaten in form of soups and sauces in South-Western Nigeria, also in other humid zones of Africa. Traditionally, it is used as an antidote against any form of poisoning; used to treat stomach and liver complaints; and externally to treat burns, sore eyes, earache, leprosy and breast cancer. In this study, acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves was evaluated in rats in order to assess its safety profile. In acute toxicity study, rats were given a single oral administration of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves at graded doses (250-5000mg/kg). The animals were monitored for behavioural changes and possible mortality over a period of 24h and thereafter, for 14 days. In the subacute toxicity study, rats of both sexes were administered C. rubens orally at doses of 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg, 750mg/kg and 1000mg/kg body weight daily, for 28 days. Rats were observed weekly for any changes in general behaviour and body weights. In addition, other relevant parameters were assayed at the end of the main and reversibility study periods. There was no observed adverse effect; including mortality in the animals. The extract caused no significant difference in the body weights as well as organs weights of treated groups when compared with the control groups. Haematological and biochemical parameters also revealed no toxic effects of the extract on rats. Histological assessments were normal in liver and kidney. It can therefore be suggested based on the results from this study that aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves, at dosage levels up to 1000mg/kg, is non-toxic and could also offer protection on some body tissues. Aqueous extract of C. rubens could therefore, be considered safe. This study supports the application of Crassocephalum rubens in traditional medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant Capacity Comparison of Ethanolic Extract of Soursop (Annona muricata Linn. Leaves and Seeds as Cancer Prevention Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widyastuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata Linn. (soursop is one of  tropical plants which have relatively complete chemical compounds. It has flavonoid, tannin, phytosterol, alkaloid, etc. The high antioxidant compound in soursop is believed as cancer prevention so the cancer threat in the world can be minimized. The antioxidant compound in soursop can be found not only in its fruit, but also in other parts like leaves, seeds, etc. Based on that potency, this study aimed to compare antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds, also to study about the utilization of soursop parts which is usually not used. This research began with maceration to extract leaves and seeds with 96% ethanol. Ethanolic extract of soursop leaves and seeds were then tested for antioxidant capacity with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The result showed that antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds are 85,66875% and 39,0166, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of leaves is higher than seeds due to seed’s extraction difficulty so its antioxidant compound could not be extracted optimally. However, either leaves or seeds extract in this study are potential as antioxidant resources because there are no significant differences between antioxidant capacity of both extract.

  10. Novel Methods to Generate Active Ingredients-Enriched Ashwagandha Leaves and Extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil C Kaul

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is an Ayurvedic herb commonly used in world-renowned traditional Indian home medicine system. Roots of Ashwagandha have been traditionally known to possess a variety of therapeutic and health promoting potentials that have not been sufficiently supported by laboratory studies. Nevertheless, most, if not all, of the preventive and therapeutic potentials have been assigned to its bioactive components, steroidal alkaloids and lactones. In contrast to the traditional use of roots, we have been exploring bioactivities in leaves of Ashwagandha. Here, we report that the leaves possess higher content of active Withanolides, Withaferin-A (Wi-A and Withanone (Wi-N, as compared to the roots. We also established, for the first time, hydroponic cultivation of Ashwagandha and investigated the effect of various cultivation conditions on the content of Wi-A and Wi-N by chemical analysis and bioassays. We report that the Withanone/Withaferin A-rich leaves could be obtained by manipulating light condition during hydroponic cultivation. Furthermore, we recruited cyclodextrins to prepare extracts with desired ratio of Wi-N and Wi-A. Hydroponically grown Ashwagandha and its extracts with high ratio of withanolides are valuable for cancer treatment.

  11. LC and UV determination of flavonoids from Passiflora alata medicinal extracts and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Simony D; Vasconcelos, Sonia B; Coelho, Michelly; Biavatti, Maique W

    2005-02-23

    The leaves of Passiflora alata Curtis (an official species in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia) are used to treat anxiety, as antispasmodics and sedatives. The development of new analytical methods for analysing flavonoids in Passiflora species is needed in order to improve the quality assurance of the plant and derived extracts and phytomedicines. A survey on the profile of flavonoids and content of isovitexin in the leaves and fluidextract of P. alata through LC was carried out, comparing its chromatographic profiles with a commercial P. incarnata fluidextract. Also, the concentration of the total flavonoids of extracts and leaves according to phamarcopoeial photometrical methods was determined and discussed. The fluidextract of P. alata was produced in accordance with the Pharmacopoeia Helvetica method; the presence of isovitexin in both species (which have distinct chromatographic profiles) was evidenced, this being the major flavonoid compound in the P. incarnata (1.198 g%), but not in P. alata (0.018 g%) fluidextract. Only traces of vitexin could be observed in the P. alata, as well as the absence of the other tested flavonoids: orientin and swertisin (P. incarnata markers), hyperoside, rutin, hesperidin and clorogenic acid. The LC developed method was shown to be appropriated for the qualitative and quantitative analyses and for differentiate species, suitable to be applied to commercial sample analysis. The spectrophotometrical results of three different methods described for P. incarnata were not comparable, the best performance being the British Pharmacopoeia method.

  12. Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, P; Annapurna, A; Rao, S Nageswara

    2012-05-01

    A large number of plants have been recognized to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Persistent hyperglycaemia is associated with decreased function of immune system and cerebral ischaemia mainly due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine for various purposes. In this study the effect of chronic administration (7 days) of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was studied in rats with experimentally induced diabetes, nootropic and immunostimulant activities were evaluated. The effect of acute administration of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was also studied for cerebroprotective activity. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) + nicotinamide (150 mg/kg). Various biochemical parameters were estimated using standard methods. A significant (PNootropic activity in terms of per cent reduction in latency period was more in type 2 diabetic rats. A significant increase in blood lymphocyte count, splenic lymphocyte count and peritoneal macrophage count was observed in both normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Immunostimulant activity was observed more in type 2 diabetic rats. The per cent decrease in cerebral infarction was more in type 2 diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. The per cent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels was more in type 2 diabetic rats. The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was evident by decreased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD levels. These properties may be responsible for the observed cerebroprotective activity. The methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata showed significant immunostimulant, cerebroprotective and nootropic activities in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  13. Antimutagenic activity of extracts of leaves of four common edible vegetable plants in Nigeria (west Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaseiki-Ebor, E E; Odukoya, K; Telikepalli, H; Mitscher, L A; Shankel, D M

    1993-06-01

    Organic solvent extracts of leaves of 4 common edible vegetable plants--Bryophyllum pinnatum, Dialium guincense, Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina--had inhibitory activity for His- to His+ reverse-mutations induced by ethyl methanesulfonate acting on Salmonella typhimurium TA100. The concentrated ethyl acetate, methanol and petroleum ether extracts were heat-stable when dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. The Bryophyllum ethyl acetate extract was fractionated into alkaloidal/water-soluble, acids, polar lipid and non-polar lipid fractions. The polar and non-polar lipid fractions inhibited reversion mutations induced by ethyl methanesulfonate acting on TA100 or TA102, and were also active against reversions induced by 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine and 2-aminofluorene in TA98. The alkaloidal/water-soluble and the acid fractions had no appreciable antimutagenic activities.

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of aqueous ethanol extract of Cestrum nocturnum against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imran Qadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activities of Cestrum nocturnum (Queen of Night was evaluated against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the mice. Aqueous ethanol (30:70 extract of plant was obtained by maceration. Results showed that aqueous ethanol extract of C. nocturnum (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05 hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice. Histopathalogical studied of liver further supported the hepatoprotective effects of C. notrunum. Phyto-chemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and volatile oils. Most of the flavonoids have hepatoprotective activity. Therefore, the hepatoprotective activity of C. nocturnum may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic components. It was concluded from the present study that aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of C. nocturnum has hepatoprotective activity against the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino mice.

  15. Hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic effect of aqueous extract leaves of Ficus glumosa (Moraceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntchapda, Fidele; Djedouboum, Abakar; Talla, Emmanuel; Sokeng Dongmo, Sélestin; Nana, Paulin; Adjia, Hamadjida; Nguimbou, Richard Marcel; Bonabe, Christian; Gaimatakon, Samuel; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Dimo, Théophile

    2015-02-01

    Leaves of Ficus glumosa are used in northern Cameroon and southern Chad for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, as food and as a stimulant for milk production in both women and animals. Atherosclerosis is a disease in which frequency increases with age. The first lesions appear at the young subject during adolescence. Atherosclerosis lesions appear very precociously and worsen with age. They interest the levels chronologically aortic, coronary then carotid. Age is a risk factor in that it reflects the exposure time of individual to the other risk factors. The frequency of the atherosclerosis increases with age because of the aging of the cells. This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic properties of aqueous extract of the leaves of F. glumosa in rats with hypercholesterolemia (HC). 60 male rats were fed for 4 weeks with a high-cholesterol diet (1%) and 3 doses (225, 300 and 375 mg/kg) of extract of F. glumosa were used in these experiments. The experiments were conducted under the same conditions with atorvastatin (1 mg/kg), as pharmacological reference substance. The effects of F. glumosa on weight gain, water and food consumption, levels of serum lipids and lipoprotein lipid oxidation and stress markers in the blood and liver were examined. The administration of F. glumosa extract prevented significant (P<0.05) elevation in TC, LDL-c, VLDL-c, hepatic and aortic TG and TC. The atherogenic, triglyceride, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) indexes were also decreased in the rats treated with the extract. F. glumosa favored the performance of fecal cholesterol. It also significantly inhibited the changes and the formation of aortic atherosclerotic plaques. These results revealed the hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of F. glumosa extract and support the traditional use of the extract of this plant in the treatment of hypertension and diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OFHOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA(G. DON) DUR. AND SCHINZ (APOCYNACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekou, Yao Patrick; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Yerbanga, Rakiswende Serge; Achoribo, Elom; Da, Ollo; Atakpama, Wouyo; Batawila, Komlan

    2017-01-01

    Holarrhena floribunda is a plant of wide usage in the Togolese folk medicine. A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study aimed to seek for the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of the plant in the treatment of these diseases. The antimicrobial test was performed using the agar well-diffusion and the NCCLS broth microdilution methods, while the in vivo antimalarial activity was evaluated following the four-day suppressive test of Peters. The acute toxic effects of the extract were monitored after a single oral dose (5,000 mg/kg body weight) administration in NMRI mice. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of leaves of H. floribunda was active on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MICs ranging from 0.62 to 1.25 mg/mL. The extract also showed significant parasitaemia suppression in a dose-dependent manner. In the acute toxicity assay, the oral administration of the extract to the mice did not affect the relative weight of vital organs, and there were no signs of toxicity or death during the study period. The LD50 of the tested extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg, indicating its safety. This study demonstrates the antibacterial and antimalarial activities of leaves of H. floribunda and then, supports its medicinal use in the treatment of microbial infections.

  17. Advances in the Studies of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves Extract on Aging-Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei; Yan, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Li, Jiantao; Mei, Dan

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of degenerative disorders in public health has promoted in-depth investigations of the underlying pathogenesis and the development of new treatment drugs. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb) is obtained from Ginkgo biloba leaves and has been used for thousands of years. In recent decades, both basic and clinical studies have established the effects of EGb. It is widely used in various degenerative diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, macroangiopathy and more. Here, we reviewed several pharmacological mechanisms of EGb, including its antioxidant properties, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunctions, and effect on apoptosis. We also described some clinical applications of EGb, such as its effect on neuro and cardiovascular protection, and anticancer properties. The above biological functions of EGb are mainly focused on aging-related disorders, but its effect on other diseases remains unclear. Thus, through this review, we aim to encourage further studies on EGb and discover more potential applications.

  18. Advances in the Studies of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves Extract on Aging-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei; Yan, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Li, Jiantao; Mei, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of degenerative disorders in public health has promoted in-depth investigations of the underlying pathogenesis and the development of new treatment drugs. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb) is obtained from Ginkgo biloba leaves and has been used for thousands of years. In recent decades, both basic and clinical studies have established the effects of EGb. It is widely used in various degenerative diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, macroangiopathy and more. Here, we reviewed several pharmacological mechanisms of EGb, including its antioxidant properties, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunctions, and effect on apoptosis. We also described some clinical applications of EGb, such as its effect on neuro and cardiovascular protection, and anticancer properties. The above biological functions of EGb are mainly focused on aging-related disorders, but its effect on other diseases remains unclear. Thus, through this review, we aim to encourage further studies on EGb and discover more potential applications PMID:29344418

  19. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. leaves' fluid extract on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, J C; Garcia-Diaz, J; Perez-Rosés, R; De la Vega, J; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J

    2014-01-01

    Tamarind leaves are edible; however, their saponin content could be toxic to human blood cells. In this article, the effect of tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) on human blood cells was evaluated by using several tests. Results revealed that TFE did not cause significant haemolysis on human red blood cells even at the lowest evaluated concentration (20 mg/mL). Blood protein denaturalisation ratio was consistently lower than in control at TFE concentrations greater than 40 mg/mL. Erythrocyte membrane damage caused by the action of oxidative H2O2 displayed a steady reduction with increasing TFE concentrations. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement by using flow cytometry assay, leucocyte viability was over 95% at tested concentrations, and a high ROS inhibition was also recorded. Protective behaviour found in TFE should be attributed to its polyphenol content. Thus, tamarind leaves can be regarded as a potential source of interesting phytochemicals.

  20. Effect of methanol extract of Bombax malabaricum leaves on nitric oxide production during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Emdad; Sarkar, Debjani; Chatterjee, Mitali; Chakraborty, Saikat; Mandal, Subhash C; Gupta, Jayanta K

    2013-01-01

    In different parts of India, Bombax malabaricum DC. (Family: Bombacaceae), a lofty deciduous tree with large leaves, is traditionally used in inflammation. The aim of the present study was to confirm its antiinflammatory activity and to search for the possible mechanism of action for methanol extract of Bombax malabaricum leaves (MEBM). The anti-inflammatory activity of MEBM was evaluated in a carrageenan-induced model of acute inflammation. As inflammation usually involves increased nitric oxide (NO) production, effect of MEBM on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in mouse peritoneal macrophages was studied to evaluate its possible mechanism of action. It was found that MEBM was non-toxic up to a dose of 2 g/kg for mice and rats, orally. MEBM (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (p production in macrophages in a dose-dependent fashion (p production.

  1. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anticariogenic activity and phytochemical studies of crude extract from some Indian plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K Barad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To screen the selected Indian plants for their antibacterial efficacy against four cariogenic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (MTCC- 447, Lactobacillus casei (MTCC-1423, Streptococcus mutans (MTCC-890 and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96.To identify and characterize active principle present in these plants for the treatment of dental caries.he dried plant leaves materials are extracted by cold extraction using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water. The solvents were evaporated and the dried masses were suspended in DMSO and used for anticariogenic activity by agar well diffusion method. MIC was evaluated by two-fold serial broth dilution method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of effective extract was carried out by TLC and bioautography.Ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Eucalyptus globules was found most effective against Lactobacillus acidophilus with MIC value 31 and micro;g/ml and 62 and micro;g/ml respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts of Acacia nilotica and methanolic extract of Eucalyptus globules also exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei with MIC value of 50 and micro;g/ml. Qualitative analysis of E. globules revealed presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and cardiac glycosides. The active principle responsible for the anticariogenic activity from E. globules were separated by TLC and subjected to bioautography using SMU, LA and LC.Anticariogenic activity and preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that E. globule have potential to treat dental caries. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 85-90

  3. Role of rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, G. S.; Goyal, P. K.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is a study of the modulatory effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract on radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice.The dose reduction factor for the Rosemary extract against gamma rays was calculated 1.53 from LD 50/30 values. The Rosemary extract was administered orally for 5 consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. The hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed from day 1 to 30 post-irradiation intervals. The total erythrocyte count, total leucocytes count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values in the experimental group were found to be elevated as compared to the control group of mice. Furthermore, the Rosemary extract treatment enhanced reduced glutathione content in the liver and blood against radiation-induced depletion. Treatment with the plant extract brought a significant fall in the lipid peroxidation level, suggesting rosemary's role in protection against radiation-induced membrane and cellular damage. The results from the present study suggest a radio-protective effect of the Rosemary extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice. (author)

  4. Antiulcerogenic effect and acute toxicity of a hydroethanolic extract from the cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Nzi André; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne

    2007-06-13

    The antiulcerogenic effect of a hydroethanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale L. leaves was investigated. The extract inhibited gastric lesions induced by HCl/ethanol in female rats. A dose-response effect study showed that the ED50 was 150 mg/kgb.w. Extract doses higher than 100 mg/kgb.w. were more effective than 30 mg/kg of lansoprazol in inhibiting gastric lesions. A methanolic fraction (257.12 mg/kg) which reduced gastric lesion at 88.20% is likely to contain the active principle of the antiulcer effect. No signs of acute toxicity were observed when mice were treated with extract dose up to 2000 mg/kgb.w. A chemical analysis of the extract allowed the identification of phenolic compounds as the major components. Glycosylated quercetin, amentoflavone derivate and a tetramer of proanthocyanidin were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The level of total phenolics in the extract was evaluated at 35.5% and flavonoid content was 2.58%.

  5. Anticariogenic activity and phytochemical studies of crude extract from some Indian plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Mahesh K; Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Chauhan, Jenabhai B

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to screen the selected Indian plants for their antibacterial efficacy against four cariogenic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA)(Microbial Type Culture Collection [MTCC]-*447), Lactobacillus casei (LC) (MTCC-1423), Streptococcus mutans (SMU) (MTCC-890) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96). To identify and characterize active principle present in these plants for the treatment of dental caries. The dried plant leaves materials are extracted by cold extraction using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and distilled water. The solvents were evaporated, and the dried masses were suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide and used for anticariogenic activity by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by two-fold serial broth dilution method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of effective extract was carried out by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and bioautography. Ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Eucalyptus globules was found most effective against L. acidophilus with MIC value 31 μg/ml and 62 μg/ml, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts of Acacia nilotica and methanolic extract of E. globules also exhibited antibacterial activity against SMU and L. casei with MIC value of 50 μg/ml. Qualitative analysis of E. globules revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and cardiac glycosides. The active principle responsible for the anticariogenic activity from E. globules were separated by TLC and subjected to bioautography using SMU, LA and LC. Anticariogenic activity and preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that E. globule have potential to treat dental caries.

  6. Study on tea leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A. B.; Suryanto; Haider, F. I.

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor from extraction of plant has been considered as the most preferable and most chosen technique to prevent corrosion of metal in acidic medium because of the environmental friendly factor. In this study, black tea leaves extraction was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.1M of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor. The efficiency and effectiveness of black tea as corrosion inhibitor was tested by using corrosion weight loss measurement experiment was carried out with varies parameters which with different concentration of black tea extract solution. The extraction of black tea solution was done by using aqueous solvent method. The FT-IR result shows that black tea extract containing compounds such as catechin, caffeine and tannins that act as anti-corrosive reagents and responsible to enhance the effectiveness of black tea extract as corrosion inhibitor by forming the hydrophobic thin film through absorption process. As a result of weight loss measurement, it shows that loss in weight of mild steel reduces as the concentration of inhibitor increases. The surface analysis was done on the mild steel samples by using SEM.

  7. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-05

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0 ± 0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64 kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antinociceptive activity of the alkaloid extract from Kopsia macrophylla leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunisa Sengsui

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Kopsia macrophylla Hk. f. K. (K. macrophylla on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in mice, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected K. macrophylla extract in mice was 318.46 mg/kg. Oral administration of K. macrophylla extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of contortions and stretchings induced by acetic acid and licking activity of the late phase in the formalin test but not in the heat-induced pain in mice. The K. macrophylla extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o. had no effect on fever induced by yeast in mice. The alkaloid extract of K. macrophylla prolonged the duration of pentobarbitalinduced sleep in mice. These results suggest that the alkaloid extract of K. macrophylla possesses analgesic action via peripheral pathway but no antipyretic activity.

  9. Effect of Plant Age on the Quantity and Quality of Proteins Extracted from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Vissers, Anne; Vincken, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant

  10. Phyto chemical and antioxidant screening of extracts of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa

    2010-01-01

    Aquilaria malaccensis is an endangered economic plant used for production of agar wood worldwide. The sequential maceration extraction methods utilizing solvents with different polarities namely hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded the corresponding crude extract. The aqueous and methanol extracts along with dry powder of leaf of the plant was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. They were also tested for antioxidant activities. The result indicates the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, triterpenoids, steroids and tannins. The phyto chemical screening suggests that flavanoids present in this species might provide a great value of antioxidant activity. Preliminary screenings of the free radical scavenging activity on the extracts of the plants with 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were tested and showed positive result. Quarcetine was used as reference standard. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 8.0 x 102 μg/ ml, 1.6 x 102 μg/ ml, 1.4 x 102 μg/ ml, 30.0 μg/ ml and 3.33 μg/ ml for hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate, methanol and quercetine respectively. Determination on antioxidant activity of each crude extract showed that methanol crude extract had the highest IC50 value than ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane crude extract. This means that methanol possess the highest inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to the other crudes but still lower than Quercetin (standard). Phyto chemical analysis on the hexane extract of Aquilaria malaccensis has been conducted. Several chromatographic methods have been employed to the hexane of the leaves which led to the isolation of three compounds namely Stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and 3-fridelanol. The present study has proved the usefulness of agar wood tree for medicinal purposes and its potential as a source of useful drugs. (author)

  11. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneluc, Taíse; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; de Almeida, Gisele Nunes; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribé; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2009-12-01

    The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL(-1)). In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg(-1), during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 microg.kg(-1)) and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL(-1). Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction.

  12. An expedient and versatile protocol for extracting high-quality DNA from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, C Eduardo

    2007-06-01

    INTRODUCTIONProtocols for extracting plant genomic DNA have to contend with two major challenges: preventing the oxidation of phenolic substances that can react with nucleic acids and proteins, and eliminating polysaccharides that interfere with downstream enzymatic manipulations of DNA. A protocol has been developed in which the above-mentioned substances are removed from the sample before the DNA is removed from the chromatin structure. This protocol requires only two tubes during extraction and a single precipitation step to yield high-quality DNA. DNA extracted with this method has virtually no protein or phenolic contaminants (A(260)/A(280)>1.8), is RNA-free, contains high-molecular-weight fragments according to CHEF electrophoresis, and is fully digestible by restriction enzymes. This protocol has been successfully tested with leaf samples from common bean and corn; with leaves known to be rich in phenolics (tomato and bell pepper), pectins (sweet orange, grapefruit, and peach), or both substances (Muscadine grape); and with leaves that contain latex in the sap (papaya).

  13. [Extraction and determination of volatile constituents in leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuhong; Liu, Xiongmin; Zhou, Yonghong; Guo, Zhanjing

    2005-11-01

    The volatile constituents in leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora, including oil fraction and water-soluble fraction, were extracted and determined. Oil fraction of volatile components was obtained through steam distillation. Ether was used as the solvent to extract the water-soluble fraction of volatile compounds from the liquid left after steam distillation in order to know the quantity and constituents of volatile compounds dissolved in the water phase. The oil yield in the oil fraction was 1.36%, and the oil yield in the water-soluble fraction was 0.48% (both on fresh weight basis). Both oil fraction and water-soluble fraction were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The results showed that 37 compounds (97.36%) in the oil fraction and 10 compounds (82.05%) in the water-soluble fraction were identified. There were 12 hydrocarbon compounds and 25 oxygenated compounds identified in oil fraction. The major constituents in oil fraction were citronellal (57.00%), followed by citronellol (15.89%) and citronellyl acetate (15.33%). Alcohols dominated the compounds in water-soluble fraction. cis-p-Menthane-3, 8-diol (53.43%) and trans-p-menthane-3, 8-diol (16. 48%) were found to be the major compounds, which have the activity to repel insects. It is concluded that the comprehensive utilization value of leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora was enhanced owing to the extraction of water-soluble volatile components.

  14. Qualitative comparison of active compounds between red and green Mariposa Christia Vespertillonis leaves extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M. S.; Ghani, Z. A.; Ismail, N. F.; Razak, N. A. A.; Jaapar, J.; Ariff, M. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    At present time, Mariposa Christia Vespertillonis (MCV) leave has become popular for its anti-cancer and thus is used widely among the traditional medicine in Malaysia. There are several types of MCV plants and the one that is currently well-known for traditional medicine in Malaysia is the green MCV (GMCV). Red MCV (RMCV) is another type of MCV plant which can also be found easily in Malaysia. In this study, the active compounds for GMCV and RMCV will be compared and analyzed by using Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The active compounds will be extracted from the MCV leaves by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE). The findings of this study indicates the global yield of the MCV oils is 31 mg/g while the compound identification indicates the presence of anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and beneficial phytochemicals. This work is an explorative study to reveal the potential of MCV to be extracted using SFE method as potential therapeutic plants for the traditional medicine in Malaysia.

  15. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel and Aluminium in 1 M Hydrochloric Acid by Leaves Extracts of Ficus sycomorus

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. Ogwo; J. C. Osuwa; I. E. Udoinyang; L. A. Nnanna

    2017-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of Ficus sycomorus leaves extracts on the corrosion of mild steel and aluminium in 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution was studied at temperature of 30°C using gravimetric technique. Corrosion rates of mild steel and aluminium in the aggressive medium were found to increase as temperature increased, but decreased upon the addition of leaves extract of Ficus sycomorus compared to the blank. At 30°C, the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentratio...

  16. ANALGESIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tamil Jothi; G. Vimala Devi; Ch. Vamsi Anil Krishna; V. Suba

    2013-01-01

    In the present study ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of leaves of Tecomaria capensis were screened for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity. The analgesic activity was performed by two thermal models. One is hot plate method and another one is tail flick method. The two extracts of Tecomaria capensis leaves have showed analgesic activity in both methods. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by two methods. One is carrageenan induced paw edema method (in-vivo) and...

  17. In vitro free radical scavenging and DNA damage protective property of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, S N; Anilakumar, K R

    2014-08-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), an everyday spice in the Indian kitchen is known to add flavor to the cuisine. It is an annual herb belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbellifera) family. The hydro-alcohol extract of Coriandrum sativum L. at the dose of 1 mg/ml was subjected to a series of in vitro assays viz. 2, 2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid, reducing power and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging in order to study its antioxidant efficacy in detail. The amount of flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract was found to be 44.5 μg and that of the total phenols was 133.74 μg gallic acid equivalents per mg extract. The extracts of the leaves showed metal chelating power, with IC50 values, 368.12 μg/ml where as that of standard EDTA was 26.7 μg/ml. The IC50 values for 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging was 222 μg/ml where as that of standard ascorbic acid was 22.6 μg/ml. The NO scavenging activity of the extract of the leaves showed IC50 value of 815.6 μg/ml; at the same time the standard BHA had 49.1 μg/ml. All the plant extracts provided DNA damage protection; however, the protection provided at the dose of 8 μg/ml was comparable to that of standard gallic acid. The Coriandrum sativum leaf extract was able to prevent in vitro lipid peroxidation with IC50 values; 589.6 μg/ml where as that of standard BHA was 16.3 μg/ml. Our results also showed significant ferric reducing power indicating the hydrogen donating ability of the extract. This study indicated the potential of the leaf extract as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals that could be of use in food industry with potential application to reduce oxidative stress in living system.

  18. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC 50 of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants

  19. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Ghassan Mohammad; Mohammed, Wasnaa Hatif; Marzoog, Thorria Radam; Al-Amiery, Ahmed Abdul Amir; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line. Methods Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Results UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50° and 44.76°. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles. PMID:23570018

  20. Evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic activity in an Aqueous Extract obtained from Bauhinia forficata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Christina Costa Mazzeo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia forficata Link, popularly known as pata-de-vaca, unha-de-vaca, casco-de-vaca, has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. Leaves of B. forficata are used in popular medicine as a diuretic, hypoglycemic, tonic and cleanser, and to combat elephantiasis. However, despite the wide range of ethnopharmacological data surrounding the plant, there are no scientific data demonstrating a probable anti-ulcerogenic activity conferred by use of that species. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiulcer properties of an infusion of fresh leaves of B. forficata Link. From the leaves of B. forficata, an Aqueous extract (AqE was obtained and the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonols in this extract. In the gastric ulcer induced by administration of HCl-Ethanol model performed with four different doses of AqE (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg.Kg-1, the AqE showed significant preventive activity (*p<0.01 at doses of 1000 mg.Kg-1. The antiulcer activity of AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 could also be demonstrated in experimental models of NSAID-bethanechol (**p<0.001 and absolute ethanol (**p<0.001. Moreover, AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 promoted a significant increase (**p<0.001 in the amount of gastric mucus. The data presented here demonstrated the potential gastroprotective activity from AqE, possibly attributed to the presence of flavonols in this extract. These results may serve as a support for the development of new treatments related to the pathology of gastric ulcer.Keywords: Gastric ulcer. Cytoprotection. Flavonoids. Bauhinia forficata.  

  1. Extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves using instant controlled pressure drop technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Hassani, Aicha; Besombes, Colette; Allaf, Karim

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, the new extraction process of Détente Instantanée Contrôlée DIC (French, for instant controlled pressure drop) was studied, developed, quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the conventional hydrodistillation method for the extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves. DIC was used as a thermomechanical treatment, DIC subjecting the product to a high-pressure saturated steam. The DIC cycle ends with an abrupt pressure drop towards vacuum, and this instantly leads to an autovaporization of myrtle volatile compounds. An immediate condensation in the vacuum tank produced a micro-emulsion of water and essential oils. Thus, an ultra-rapid cooling of residual leaves occurred, precluding any thermal degradation. An experimental protocol was designed with 3 independent variables: saturated steam pressure between 0.1 and 0.6 MPa, resulting in a temperature between 100 and 160°C, a total thermal processing time between 19 and 221 s, and between 2 and 6 DIC cycles. The essential oils yield was defined as the main dependent variable. This direct extraction gave high yields and high quality essential oil, as revealed by composition and antioxidant activity (results not shown). After this treatment, the myrtle leaves were recovered and hydrodistilled in order to quantify the essential oil content in residual DIC-treated samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed some modification of the structure with a slight destruction of cell walls after DIC treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of hypocholesterolemic activity of Algerian Pistacia lentiscus leaves extracts in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Cheurfa

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants are a large source of new bioactive molecules with therapeutic potentials. However, only a small amount of worldwide plants have been phytochemically investigated. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistacia lentiscus L., Anacardiaceae, leaves were evaluated for hypocholesterolemic activity in vivo. In this study, hypercholesterolemia was induced in animals by feeding them high cholesterol (1% food. The extracts of P. lentiscus were orally administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight along with a high cholesterol diet for thirty successive days. Lipid parameters such as total cholesterol, triacylglyceride, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein were measured in the plasma. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. Flavonoid content was found to be more present in the ethanolic extract (8.218 ± 0.009 mg of QE/g compared to the aqueous extract (3.107 ± 0.014 mg of QE/g. The administration of P. lentiscus extracts produced a significant decrease in total cholesterol, triacylglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (154.6 ± 18.10, 71.2 ± 4.38 and 99.36 ± 18.77 mg/dl respectively in the ethanolic extract, while the aqueous extract showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triacylglyceride (203.6 ± 9.18 and 97.6 ± 3.57 mg/dl respectively. The results of the investigation demonstrated that P. lentiscus leaf extract has hypocholesterolemic properties and might be used for the prevention of hypercholesterolemia associated disorders.

  3. Antioxidative properties of Thymus vulgaris leaves: comparison of different extracts and essential oil chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzola, Remigius; Michitsch, Hanneliese; Franz, Chlodwig

    2008-08-27

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) is a subshrub from the Lamiaceae family with plants that are rich in essential oils and antioxidative phenolic substances. Twelve accessions originating from southern France and the variety 'Deutscher Winter' were grown in an experimental field in eastern Austria. Leaf samples from these plants as well as from a commercial thyme rich in thymol were analyzed for their essential oil and the antioxidative potential in various extracts. The assays for antioxidative activity were the total phenolics according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method, DPPH decoloration, and Fe(3+) reduction (FRAP). Both extraction techniques used, in the water bath at 40 degrees C and in the ultrasonic bath at room temperature, proved to be efficient. The best results were obtained with 60% ethanol as extractant. In the comparison of the different accessions the less active and the most active of these extracts differed by factors of 2.1 and 2.6 in the total phenolics and FRAP assay, respectively, and by factors 1.5-2.0 in the DPPH assay. Rosmarinic acid accounted for 22-55% of the antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extracts. Essential oils with high proportions of the phenolic components thymol and/or carvacrol showed the highest antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts from the residues after distillation were considerably lower in antioxidant activity than the respective extracts from the dried leaves. Extracts with CH2Cl2 in the ultrasonic bath contained volatiles in proportions close to the essential oil but displayed very low antioxidant activity.

  4. Methanol leaves extract Hibiscus micranthus Linn exhibited antibacterial and wound healing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, Berhan; Mishra, Bharat; Tsegaw, Asegedech; Shewamene, Zewdneh

    2017-06-26

    Infectious diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Wound and wound infections are also major health problem. Nowadays, medicinal plants play a major role in treatment of infectious diseases and wound healing and they are easily available and more affordable as compared to synthetic compounds. The aim of this study is therefore, to investigate the antibacterial and wound healing activities of 80% methanol extract of Hibiscus micranthus leaves using disc diffusion methods and rat excision model respectively. In vitro antibacterial screening was carried out against S. aureus, S.pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis bacterial strains using disc-well diffusion assay. Would healing activity was done in rats divided into four groups each consisting of six animals. Group I was served as a negative control (ointment base), Group II served as a positive control Nitrofurazone (NFZ 0.2% ointment), Groups III and IV was treated 5 and 10% extracts respectively. The acute oral toxicity test and skin sensitivity test were also performed before conducting the actual study. The extract was analyzed for secondary metabolites using standard methods. Preliminary phytochemical screening have revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, phenols, diterpines, anthraquinones and the absence of glycosides, terpinoides and triterpines. Based on acute oral toxicity test the extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 2 g/kg. In addition, acute dermal toxicity test indicated no sign of skin irritation. The leaves extract exhibited varying degrees of sensitivity with zones of inhibition ranging from 14.00 ± 0.333 (S.pyogenes) to 22.67 ± 1.202 mm (S.aureus). It was found that S. aureus and S. pneumonia (p < 0.05) were the most sensitive to the extracts of the leaves at concentrations of 800 μg/ml and 400 μg/ml respectively followed by P. aeuruginosa [(18.33

  5. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Marcos; Chérigo, Lilia; Acosta, Hildaura; Otero, Rafael; Martínez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 μg of venom kg-1 b.m.) lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1) and quercetrin (2). The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY). A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 μmol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract.

  6. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of methylxanthines from maté tea leaves

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    M.D.A. Saldaña

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylxanthines are alkaloids found in natural products such as tea, coffee and guaraná. These alkaloids are commonly used in cola drinks and pharmaceutical products due principally to their stimulant and diuretic effects on the human organism. In this work, experimental data on the supercritical CO2 extraction of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine from herbal maté tea, a beverage traditionally consumed by the gauchos of southern Brazil, the Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay, were obtained using high pressure extraction equipment that allows adequate control of temperature and pressure. The continuous extraction/fractionation of maté tea leaves, Ilex paraguariensis in natura using carbon dioxide was carried out at 313.2 and 343.2 K and pressures of 13.8 and 25.5 MPa. Extraction/fractionation curves revealed the large influence of temperature and pressure on extraction yield. CO2 was also found to show a higher selectivity for caffeine than for theophylline and theobromine.

  7. Inhibition of Penicillium digitatum by a crude extract from Solanum nigrum leaves

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    Musto, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous crude extract from Solanum nigrum lyophilized leaves was evaluated for its phytochemical composition and antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum, the causative agent of green mold of citrus fruit. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of some bioactive substances such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, etc. The extract showed a remarkable inhibition zone against the pathogen in agar well diffusion assays carried out in Petri plates. Storage of the extract at 4 °C for 60 days had no effect on its in vitro antifungal activity. Further, the extract was tested for its in vivo (preventive- and curative treatments antifungal activity on lemons wound-inoculated with P. digitatum. An important preventive antifungal effect was observed after 7 days of storage (100% of inhibition, although this activity decreased after 14 and 21 days (85.71 and 57.14% of inhibition, respectively. A slight curative antifungal activity was observed only after 7 days of storage (14.29% of inhibition. Preliminary findings from this study may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the lemon fruits from postharvest fungal diseases.

  8. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

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    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  9. Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni fruit, leaves and root extracts

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    Mandukhail Saf-ur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F, leaves (Mc.Cr.L and roots (Mc.Cr.R. Results Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption. Conclusions These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia.

  10. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves

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    Salazar Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 μg of venom kg-1 b.m. lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1 and quercetrin (2. The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY. A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 μmol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract.

  12. The determination of antioxidant activity of Brazil-cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves extract using FRAP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Maulida, Ika Rahma; Muhaimin

    2017-12-01

    Brazil-cherry leaves (Eugenia uniflora L.) have antioxidant activity because they contain phenolic and flavonoids compounds. The aim of the study was to obtain antioxidant activity using FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) method. Brazil-cherry leaves were extracted using soxhlet method by ethanol 70%. The free radical activity absorbance was measured with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 711 nm and the total value of antioxidant activity was calculated based on the data absorbance. The results showed that Brazil-cherry leaves have the antioxidant activity with the value 2.493mgAAE/g extract.

  13. Larvicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves extract on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    K. Dass

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic and chemical insecticides to control mosquitoes result in environment hazards and development of resistance in vector species. This research work is about an alternative mosquito control method that is considered as safe to environment and non-target species and also bio-degradable. Hence an attempt was made to study the larvicidal effect of the extract of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves on III and IV instar larva and pupa of Culex quinquefasciatus. The LC50 value of Murraya exotica for III and IV instar larvae and pupae is 135.539 ppm, 154.361 ppm and 178.571 ppm respectively. Likewise for Lawsonia inermis it is 139.057 for III instar, 163.630 for IV instar and 188.151 for the pupa. Of these, two plants Murraya exotica plant extract is more effective than the Lawsonia inermis.

  14. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Biologically by Conocarpus erectus L. Aqueous Leaves Extract

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    Rihab Edan Kadhim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically, the nanoparticles of copper synthesized by aqueous leaves extract of Cono- carpus erectus L. The copper nanoparticles appear rapidly with change in color when the leaf extract mixed with CuSO4 (0.1mM. The copper nanoparticles were character- ized by UV Visible Absorption Spectrometer (UV-S, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR, and Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM. By using UV-S, the wave length was around 400 nm, while the size of copper nanoparticles was around 39 nm characterized by XRD and SEM. The technique of FTIR showed the presence of active sites for alcoholic, phenolic, amines and other compounds.

  15. Antioxidant and mercury chelating activity of Psidium guajava var. pomifera L. leaves hydroalcoholic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Antonio Ivanildo; Oliveira, Cláudia Sirlene; Lovato, Fabricio Luís; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Piccoli, Bruna Candia; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Leite, Nadghia Figueredo; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Posser, Thais; Da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is widely distributed in the environment and is known to produce several adverse effects in organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the in vitro antioxidant activity and Hg chelating ability of the hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guajava leaves (HEPG). In addition, the potential protective effects of HEPG against Hg(II) were evaluated using a yeast model (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). HEPG was found to exert significant antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenger and inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(II) assays in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract also exhibited significant Hg(II) chelating activity. In yeast, Hg(II) induced a significant decrease in cell viability. In contrast, HEPG partially prevented the fall in cell viability induced by Hg(II). In conclusion, HEPG exhibited protective effects against Hg(II)-mediated toxicity, which may be related to both antioxidant and Hg(II)-chelating activities.

  16. Biosythesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Putri Malu (Mimosa pudica Leaves Extract and Microwave Irradiation Method

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    Is Fatimah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Mimosa pudica extract is discussed. Mimosa pudica leaves extract using water as solvent was used as bio-reductor to an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3 and in order to accelerate the reduction, microwave irradiation method was applied. The AgNPs obtained were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectrophotometry, XRD, SEM-EDX, and particle size analysis based on dynamic scattering method. Effect of preparation method to the formation of AgNPs is also evaluated in antibacterial activity towards E.coli and P. aeruginosa. Rapid and ecofriendly biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles was observed in this study. The characterization results and antibacterial assay indicated the uniform and smaller particle size of AgNPs obtained by using microwave method and positively enhance the antibacterial activity against tested bacteria.

  17. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  18. Comparison study of moisture content, colour properties and essential oil compounds extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction between stem and leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogun citratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Shazlin; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Haiyee, Zaibunnisa Abdul

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the properties of moisture content, colour and essential oil compounds between stem and leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogun citratus). The essential oil was extracted using two different methods which are hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). There was no significant difference of moisture content between stem and leaves of lemongrass. The lightness (L) and yellowness (+b) values of the stems were significantly higher (pleaves. The highest yield of essential oil was obtained by extraction using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in leaves (˜ 0.7%) by treatment at 1700psi and 50°C. The main compound of extracted essential oil was citral (geranial and neral).

  19. Measurements of essential oil extract and antioxidant in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves using photo chemiluminescence assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayzafoon, G.; Odeh, A.; Mahzia, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracts and antioxidant measurements of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves as hydrophilic and hydrophobic existence species have been carried out. The plant leaves as a source of antioxidants was tested by the influence of its aqueous and essential oil extracts on the yield of photo chemiluminescence, PCL solution applying very sensitive and reliable method. By means of a photo chemiluminescence assay, it was possible to assess the total antioxidants capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic species existence in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves. It has been found that, the integral antioxidant capacity measurements value of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves was found in Kurdaha site which has a value of 465.67 1.18 nmol TE/g DM (total Trolox equivalent /gram of Dry material) . The following three mainly chemical species were found in the essential oil extracts: -Pinene, Cineole and Limonene. (author)

  20. RP-HPLC Analysis of Quercetin in the Extract of Sambong (Blumea balsamifera (L DC Leaves

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    Joanna V. Toralba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Blumea balsamifera (L DC, known in the Philippines as sambong, is an herb valued for its health benef its especially in the management of urolithiasis. Various phytochemicals, including flavonoids such as quercetin, have been determined in sambong leaves. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC was developed for the quantitative determination of quercetin in the methanol extract of sambong leaves obtained from Leyte, Cotabato, and Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The methanol extracts of sambong were prepared by maceration followed by rotary evaporation. The solid phase extraction (SPE for the sample cleanup involved the use of a C18 SPE packing, a 0.5-mL sample load (50 mg/mL solution, and elution with 4-mL of 80:20 Methanol:0.5% H3PO4. The HPLC conditions for the determination of quercetin involved the use of a C18 4.6-mm x 250-mm column maintained at 30°C, 254-nm UV detection, and a mobile phase composition of 25 parts methanol and 75 parts mixture of 0.5% H3PO4 and 0.2% triethylamine with a 1 mL/min flow rate in gradient elution. A good linearity at the concentration range of 3.72–124 μg/mL of quercetin standard (r2=0.9989 was observed with the limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ at 0.68 ng/mL and 2.28 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day (n=5- and inter-day (n=3 precision values were satisfactory (%RSD <2%. The recovery eff iciency of the SPE sample cleanup step, which was checked by spiking sambong solution with quercetin standard, was 102.41%. The quercetin contents are 0.2337mg, 0.1350mg, and 0.2940mg per gram of the powdered dried leaves of sambong from Nueva Ecija, Cotabato, and Leyte, respectively. This is the f irst report of quercetin content in the leaves of sambong collected from the Philippines.

  1. Hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohun, T R; Odufuwa, K T

    2010-11-25

    Anacardium occidentale Leave (Anacardiaceae), a plant natively grown in wastelands in Africa is used as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus. Previous studies, reported the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of A. occidentale in diabetic rats and its prophylactic activity against the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin This study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of a methanolic extract of streptozotocin leaves and its fractions in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats in comparison to Tolbutamide, a reference drug. For moderately diabetic rat, A. occidentale caused a 79.2 % change over 4 hours and Tolbutamide caused a 63.1 % change over this same time period. When the rat were considered to be severely diabetic, the A. occidentale decreased the blood glucose levels by 20.8% change over four hours and the mean percent change over 4 hours for Tolbutamide was 47.63%. These values were not considered significant. So the same conclusion can be made about the efficacy of A. occidentale, when compared to the reference drug, Tolbutamide. These results that show that A. occidentale has a similar ability compared with Tolbutamide to lower blood glucose levels.

  2. Alternative Use of Extracts of Chipilín Leaves (Crotalaria longirostrata Hook. & Arn as Antimicrobial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Miranda-Granados

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Crotalaria comprises about 600 species that are distributed throughout the tropics and subtropical regions of the world; they are antagonistic to nematodes in sustainable crop production systems, and have also shown antimicrobial capacity. Chipilín (C. longirostrata, which belongs to this genus, is a wild plant that grows in the state of Chiapas (Mexico and is traditionally is used as food. Its leaves also have medicinal properties and are used as hypnotics and narcotics; however, the plant has received little research attention to date. In the experimental part of this study, dried leaves were macerated by ethanol. The extract obtained was fractionated with ethyl ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, 2-propanone, and water. The extracts were evaluated against three bacteria—namely, Escherichia coli (Ec, Citrobacter freundii (Cf, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se—and three fungi—Fusarium oxysporum A. comiteca (FoC, Fusarium oxysporum A. tequilana (FoT, and Fusarium solani A. comiteca (FSC. During this preliminary study, a statistical analysis of the data showed that there is a significant difference between the control ciprofloxacin (antibacterial, the antifungal activity experiments (water was used as a negative control, and the fractions used. The aqueous fraction (WF was the most active against FoC, FsC, and FoT (30.65, 20.61, and 27.36% at 96 h, respectively and the ethyl ether fraction (EEF was the most active against Se (26.62% at 48 h.

  3. Evaluation of protein extraction methods for enhanced proteomic analysis of tomato leaves and roots

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    MILCA B. VILHENA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics is an outstanding area in science whose increasing application has advanced to distinct purposes. A crucial aspect to achieve a good proteome resolution is the establishment of a methodology that results in the best quality and wide range representation of total proteins. Another important aspect is that in many studies, limited amounts of tissue and total protein in the tissue to be studied are found, making difficult the analysis. In order to test different parameters, combinations using minimum amount of tissue with 4 protocols for protein extraction from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. leaves and roots were evaluated with special attention to their capacity for removing interferents and achieving suitable resolution in bidimensional gel electrophoresis, as well as satisfactory protein yield. Evaluation of the extraction protocols revealed large protein yield differences obtained for each one. TCA/acetone was shown to be the most efficient protocol, which allowed detection of 211 spots for leaves and 336 for roots using 500 µg of leaf protein and 800 µg of root protein per gel.

  4. LEAVES EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LINN FOR ANTIINFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY IN ANIMAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh N. Sharma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory andanalgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oraladministration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals.Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hindpaw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in pawvolume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan(1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy’s hotplate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanolextract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edemaand analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy’s hot platemethod and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showedanti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared withthe control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions werestatistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit ofMurraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  5. The effects of celery leave extract on male hormones in rats

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    Kooti Wesam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Celery (Apium graveolens belongs to the Umbelliferae family, and has a plenty of nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. The presence of phytoestrogenic compounds has been reported in this plant. These compounds may affect the pituitary-gonad axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extracts of celery leaves on serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, eight rats included in each. The control group did not receive any treatment. The placebo group received distilled water and the case groups received 200 and 300 mg/kg/B.W of hydro-alcoholic celery leaf extract for 20 consecutive days by oral administration. After completion of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized and blood sampling from their heart was carried out. Then, serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured using immunoassay methods. The obtained data were analyzed by the SPSS using the statistical ANOVA test. Results: The level of LH in the case group receiving 200 mg/kg B.W of celery extract showed a significant decrease compared with the control and placebo groups (P0.05. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that in the administered dose, celery extract does not have any considerable side effect on the secretion of hormones in male rats.

  6. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

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    Fabio F. Perazzo

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  7. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Hydroethanolic Extract of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Crassulaceae) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Aldilane Gonçalves; Ribeiro Dantas, Luzia Leiros Sena Fernandes; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Lima, Adley Antoninni Neves; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura

    2018-01-01

    The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis , known as "Saião , " has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis . The action of the extract (concentrations from 0.1 to 1000 uL/100 uL) in normal and tumor cells was evaluated using the MTT method. Acute toxicity and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in mice with doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg orally, following recognized protocols. The in vitro results indicated cytotoxic activity for 3T3 cell line (normal) and 786-0 (kidney carcinoma), showing the activity to be concentration-dependent, reaching 92.23% cell inhibition. In vivo , the extract showed no significant toxicity; only liver changes related to acute toxicity and some signs of liver damage, combining biochemical and histological data. In general, the extract showed low or no toxicity, introducing itself as safe for use with promising therapeutic potential.

  8. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Hydroethanolic Extract of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Crassulaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldilane Gonçalves Fonseca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis, known as “Saião,” has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis. The action of the extract (concentrations from 0.1 to 1000 uL/100 uL in normal and tumor cells was evaluated using the MTT method. Acute toxicity and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in mice with doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg orally, following recognized protocols. The in vitro results indicated cytotoxic activity for 3T3 cell line (normal and 786-0 (kidney carcinoma, showing the activity to be concentration-dependent, reaching 92.23% cell inhibition. In vivo, the extract showed no significant toxicity; only liver changes related to acute toxicity and some signs of liver damage, combining biochemical and histological data. In general, the extract showed low or no toxicity, introducing itself as safe for use with promising therapeutic potential.

  9. Extraction of pinocembrin from leaves of different species of Eucalyptus and its quantitative analysis by qNMR and HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarat, Isha; Choudhary, Alka; Sharma, Ram Jee; Dandia, Karthik; Marsh, Karen J; Foley, William J; Singh, Inder Pal

    2015-03-01

    Pinocembrin, a flavanone with a variety of biological activities was isolated from Eucalyptus sieberi leaves and quantified in several other Eucalyptus species using qNMR and HPTLC densitometry. The effect of different extraction procedures on the extraction of the compound from Eucalyptus sieberi was also studied. The methods were validated in terms ofselectivity, specificity, linearity, recovery, precision and repeatability.

  10. Evaluation of Anti-diarrheal Potential of Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Leaves of Murraya koenigii in Experimental Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Anand; Das, Saibal; Mani, Vasudevan; Sengottuvelu, S; Vinoth Prabhu, V

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous medical system of India mentions the use of Murraya koenigii leaves for the treatment of different types of diarrheas over ages. To evaluate the anti-diarrheal activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii and to check its effects on intestinal transits in experimental rat model. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Murraya koenigii leaves was obtained with Soxhlet extraction method. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6) receiving daily for three consecutive days: vehicle, standard drug atropine (3mg/kg, i.p.), leaf extracts 200 & 400 mg/kg respectively in oral route. Effects of the drugs on normal defecation were noted and then castor oil induced diarrhea was used to measure the effects of leaf extract on stool frequency and consistency. Finally, charcoal meal test was used to evaluate the effect of the extract on intestinal transit. Statistical evaluation was done using SPSS version 17, one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's t-test was done and P< 0.001 was considered as significant. Murraya koenigii leaf extracts in 200 and 400 mg/kg dose reduced stool frequency, increased stool consistency and increased small intestinal transit time. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Murraya koenigii leaves possesses significant anti-diarrheal activity due to its inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal motility, making it useful for a wide number of gastrointestinal diseases.

  11. Characterization of Melanogenesis Inhibitory Constituents of Morus alba Leaves and Optimization of Extraction Conditions Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Ji Yeon Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a natural pigment that plays an important role in the protection of skin, however, hyperpigmentation cause by excessive levels of melatonin is associated with several problems. Therefore, melanogenesis inhibitory natural products have been developed by the cosmetic industry as skin medications. The leaves of Morus alba (Moraceae have been reported to inhibit melanogenesis, therefore, characterization of the melanogenesis inhibitory constituents of M. alba leaves was attempted in this study. Twenty compounds including eight benzofurans, 10 flavonoids, one stilbenoid and one chalcone were isolated from M. alba leaves and these phenolic constituents were shown to significantly inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B6F10 melanoma cells. To maximize the melanogenesis inhibitory activity and active phenolic contents, optimized M. alba leave extraction conditions were predicted using response surface methodology as a methanol concentration of 85.2%; an extraction temperature of 53.2 °C and an extraction time of 2 h. The tyrosinase inhibition and total phenolic content under optimal conditions were found to be 74.8% inhibition and 24.8 μg GAE/mg extract, which were well-matched with the predicted values of 75.0% inhibition and 23.8 μg GAE/mg extract. These results shall provide useful information about melanogenesis inhibitory constituents and optimized extracts from M. alba leaves as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce skin hyperpigmentation.

  12. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

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    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  13. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of extracts from the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Nana, P; Atsamo, A D; Dimo, T; Watcho, P; Dongmo, A B; Tapondjou, L A; Njamen, D; Wansi, S L; Kamanyi, A

    2006-06-15

    Kalanchoe crenata Andr. (Crassulaceae) is a fleshy herbaceous plant used in the African traditional medicine as remedies against otitis, headache, inflammations, convulsions and general debility. In the present work, the analgesic effects of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) (CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH) extract and its hexane, methylene chloride (CH(2)Cl(2)), ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and aqueous residue have been evaluated using acetic acid, formalin and pressure test. The anticonvulsant effects of the CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract were also investigated on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 70 mg/kg), strychnine sulphate (STN 2.5 mg/kg) and thiosemicarbazide (TSC 50 mg/kg). CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its fractions, administered orally at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, exhibited protective effect of at least 30% on the pain induced by acetic acid. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at 300 mg/kg showed a maximal effect of 78.49%. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the first phase of pain induced by formalin while the second phase was completely inhibited. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction produced more than 45% reduction in the sensitivity to pain induced by pressure. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract of Kalanchoe crenata significantly increased the latency period in seizures induced by PTZ and significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by the three convulsant agents. The extract protected 20% of animals against death in seizures induced by TSC and STN. These results suggest a peripheral and central analgesic activities as well as an anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata.

  14. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Fractions of Leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanwase, Anil Subhash; Alagawadi, Kallanagouda Ramappa

    2016-01-01

    Ficus benghalensis is a folk medicine indigenous plant of India. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological profile of the plant. This study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of F. benghalensis leaf extract using various in vitro screening methods of both parameters. Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and it's four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) of leaves of F. benghalensis investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using 1-1-diphneyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. A dose-response curve was plotted and IC50 values were determined to assess antioxidant activity. Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and candidacidal assay were carried out to assess the immunomodulatory activity. Positive non-lymphoid cell number, mean particle number of killed C. albicans, percent value of killed C. albicans by neutrophils were calculated and presented. All extracts showed antioxidant and prominent immunomodulatory activity with compared to standard. Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and its four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) showed promising antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. Hydroalcoholic extract and its fractions of F. benghalensis Linn exhibited different DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity in concentration dependent manner.The extract, fractions and reference antioxidants showed DPPH scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB2 > FB1 > FB5 > FB4> FB3 and ABTS scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB1> FB2 > FB5 > FB3> FB4.FB2 and FB3 showed promising immunomodulatory activity at all concentrations.

  15. Effect of Noni Leaves Extract (Morinda citrifolia L. Supplementation in Feed on Physical Quality of Broiler Breast Meat

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    Aji Sukoco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to know the effect of noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia L. supplementation in feed on physical quality of broiler breast meat such as pH, Water Holding Capacity (WHC, Cooking Loss (CL, and tenderness. Ninety six 8-days old broiler chickens strain Lohmann and of undifferentiated sex (unsexed were used in this research. The broiler chickens will be reared until 35-days old. The research method was experimental using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six treatments and four replications, each replication consisted of four broiler chickens. The treatments consisted of P0 (Basal Feed, P1 (Basal Feed + tetracycline 0.05%, P2 (Basal Feed + noni leaves extract 0.05%, P3 (Basal feed + noni leaves extract 0.1%, P4 (Basal feed + noni leaves extract 0.15%, P5 (Basal feed + noni leaves extract 0.2%. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD test if there was significantly different result. The results showed that noni leaves extract did not give significant effect (P>0.05 on meat pH, water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and tenderness. However, these results were still acceptable normally such as pH between 5.38-5.57, water holding capacity 34.13-45.64%, cooking loss 33.05-36.97%, but tenderness 16.22-20.57N were less acceptable. The research concluded that supplementation of noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia L. in feed did not increase physical quality of broiler breast meat on pH, Water Holding Capacity (WHC, Cooking Loss (CL, and tenderness.

  16. Extraction with supercritical fluid and comparison of chemical composition from adults and young leaves of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba

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    Lourenço L.B. Santana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants differ in metabolism during their life cycle. In species used as phytotherapics, these changes determine the quality and effectiveness of the product. The aim of this study to evaluate the differences of chemical extracts obtained with supercritical CO2 from young and adult leaves of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba St.-Hil., Rutaceae, a species used in the folk medicine in Brazil. The chemical composition of the extracts was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The results showed difference in the composition of the leaves from Z. tingoassuiba and allowed the determination of parameters for the extraction of α-bisabolol and furanocoumarins in this vegetal matrix.

  17. Extraction with supercritical fluid and comparison of chemical composition from adults and young leaves of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço L.B. Santana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants differ in metabolism during their life cycle. In species used as phytotherapics, these changes determine the quality and effectiveness of the product. The aim of this study to evaluate the differences of chemical extracts obtained with supercritical CO2 from young and adult leaves of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba St.-Hil., Rutaceae, a species used in the folk medicine in Brazil. The chemical composition of the extracts was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The results showed difference in the composition of the leaves from Z. tingoassuiba and allowed the determination of parameters for the extraction of α-bisabolol and furanocoumarins in this vegetal matrix.

  18. Extraction of total RNA from leaves of Eucalyptus and other woody and herbaceous plants using sodium isoascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Hibino, T; Kawazu, T; Wada, T; Kihara, T; Koyama, H

    2003-05-01

    Rapid extraction of total RNA from Eucalyptus leaves is difficult due to the high content of polyphenolics and polysaccharides. A rapid and simple method was developed by using an extraction buffer containing sodium isoascorbate at a concentration of 500 mM. This method consisted of one or two chloroform extractions, one acid guanidium-phenol-chloroform extraction, and isopropanol precipitation alone. The yields of the RNA fractions were 246-1750 micrograms/g fresh weight when leaves of Eucalyptus, five other woody plants, and four herbaceous plants were used as samples. The contamination of the RNA fractions by proteins and polysaccharides was very limited as judged spectrophotometrically. When the RNA fractions were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, intact rRNA bands were detected. The RNA fractions could be used for RT-PCR. These results indicate that our new method achieves a simple and rapid preparation of high-quality RNA from leaves of Eucalyptus and other plant species.

  19. A pharmacological evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of leaves extract of Murraya koenigii in experimentally induced diarrhoea in rats

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    Praveen Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (M. koenigiiby using models of castor oil induced diarrhoea, charcoal meal test and PGE 2 induced diarrhoea. Methods: Alcoholic extract (400 mg/kg and aqueous extract (200 mg/kg of leaves of Murraya koenigii were used with loperamide as standard. Albino Wistar rats of both sexes weighing between 150-250 g were used for the anti-diarrhoeal activity. Results: The result suggested that it could act centrally and inhibit the PGE2 to give anti-diarrhoeal effects. Result of charcoal meal test also suggested its anti-muscarnic activity. Conclusions: These findings indicate that aqueous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii displays good antidiarrhoeal activity, corroborating the folk use of M. koenigii preparations and contributing for its pharmacological validation.

  20. Methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera leaves, fruits and roots possess antioxidant properties and antibacterial activities

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    Alam Nadia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt, fruits (WSFEt and leaves (WSLEt. Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 μg/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition, whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi.

  1. Burn drug made from ozonated vegetable oil mixture with white tumeric and cassava leaves extract

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    Moulydia Farah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to create a burn treatment performed with ozonation process from a mixture of vegetable oil and added extracts of herbal ingredients. Ozonation on vegetable oils proven to kill bacteria and safe for the body. Ozonated vegetable oil produced from the ozone reactor batch process by doing a variety of extraction mixture to Oleozon® and vegetable oils. Then the results of ozonation is added extracts of herbal ingredients that cassava leaves and white turmeric to increase effectiveness in killing bacteria. Cassava leaves have anti-inflammatory agent, namely Vitamin C. While white turmeric Curcuma zedoaria have substance, which of the two compounds can inhibit and kill bacteria. The quality of ozonated oil (Oleozon® analytically were tested by the method of iodine number, acid number, peroxide number, and FTIR. Ozonation increased the peroxide and acid values for both oils, the increase being higher for mixture of coconut oil and soybean oil. The results of such mixing is then tested in bacteria to determine their effectiveness in killing the bacteria. The best ozonation condition is in an increase of 386,85% acid value, peroxide value about 102,91 meq/kg oil, and decrease in iodine number up to 21%. The result showed that under these conditions, ozonized oil has an antiseptic effect against Staphylococcus aureus. The final results of this study are expected to be a new innovation in the healing of skin wounds caused by burns as an anti-inflammatory that is effective, safe, and environmentally friendly.

  2. Methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera leaves, fruits and roots possess antioxidant properties and antibacterial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt), fruits (WSFEt) and leaves (WSLEt). Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous chelation and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 μg/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition), whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi. PMID:23039061

  3. Evolving R Coronae Borealis Stars with MESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Lauer, Amber; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Frank, Juhan

    2018-01-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars form a small class of cool, carbon-rich supergiants that have almost no hydrogen. They undergo extreme, irregular declines in brightness of up to 8 magnitudes due to the formation of thick clouds of carbon dust. Two scenarios have been proposed for the origin of an RCB star: the merger of a CO/He white dwarf (WD) binary and a final helium-shell flash. We are using a combination of 3D hydrodynamics codes and the 1D MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) stellar evolution code including nucleosynthesis to construct post-merger spherical models based on realistic merger progenitor models and on our hydrodynamical simulations, and then following the evolution into the region of the HR diagram where RCB stars are located. We are investigating nucleosynthesis in the dynamically accreting material of CO/He WD mergers which may provide a suitable environment for significant production of 18O and the very low 16O/18O values observed.Our MESA modeling consists of two steps: first mimicking the WD merger event using two different techniques, (a) by choosing a very high mass accretion rate with appropriate abundances and (b) by applying "stellar engineering" to an initial CO WD model to account for the newly merged material by applying an entropy adjusting procedure. Second, we follow the post-merger evolution using a large nuclear reaction network including the effects of convective and rotational instabilities to the mixing of material in order to match the observed RCB abundances. MESA follows the evolution of the merger product as it expands and cools to become an RCB star. We then examine the surface abundances and compare them to the observed RCB abundances. We also investigate how long fusion continues in the He shell near the core and how this processed material is mixed up to the surface of the star. We then model the later evolution of RCB stars to determine their likely lifetimes and endpoints when they have returned to

  4. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of Euphorbia hirta leaves extract studied in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sorimuthu P; Bhuvaneshwari, Subramanian; Prasath, Gopalan S

    2011-09-01

    Euphorbia hirta, commonly known as asthma weed, is a popular folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments. Recent studies have indicated that plant has potent antioxidant properties. As part of an ongoing programme to validate the use of some reputed herbs in Indian traditional medicines, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of E. hirta leaves in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats. Oral administration of E. hirta leaves extract (300 mg/kg b.w./rat/day) for a period of 30 days indicated the antidiabetic nature of the leaves extract. Determination of the lipid peroxides, hydroperoxides, and both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants evidenced the antioxidant potential of the leaves extract. Assay of enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) revealed the non-toxic nature of E. hirta leaves. The hypoglycemic activity of the leaves extract was comparable with gliclazide, a standard reference drug.

  5. Preliminary Study on Kinetic Solid-Liquid Extraction and Bio-Active Components Analysis of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Irwan Zubairi; Haizulizam Suradi; Syazwan Aizad Abdul Mutalib; Zetty Shafiqa Othman; Norshahida Bustaman; Wan Ros Maryana Wan Musa

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis or commonly known as 'Hibiscus' is a kind of decorative flowers which often grown in a subtropical countries. This plant is often used in the preparation of traditional medicine because of its pharmacological properties that are capable of treating number of health problems. The plant contains several essential bio-active substances and nutrients especially in its flowers and leaves. One of the bioactive substances is β-sitosterol which is abundant in the leaf crude extract. Hibiscus leaves water extract yielded mucilage which is widely used in lowering high body temperature due to fever (antipyretic). Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to determine the maximum concentration of mucilage and time of exhaustive extraction from fresh and dried leaves using a Peleq's mathematical model. Moreover, several analyses were conducted such as qualitative analysis to determine the presence of bioactive substances using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determination of functional groups by means of fourier transform infrared method (FTIR). Physical properties of the extracts were evaluated to determine its acidity and viscosity of the mucilage with respect to different shear stress. The result show that the extract of dried Hibiscus leaves exhibited high in its concentrations even though the achieved exhaustive extraction was relatively slow as compared to fresh leaves (p < 0.05). Based on the HPLC analysis, the main bio-active substances of β-sitosterol was only existed in fresh leaves samples. The absence of β-sitosterol in dried leaves extract was caused by the loss of other important bio-active substances which possess surfactant capability, due to thermal degradation of drying process or the component itself was deteriorated during the pre-preparation drying process. Furthermore, the FTIR analysis shows that the same composition of the absorption peaks for both extracts with the highest absorption of O-H bonds was

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRACT OF SUCCULENT LEAVES OF LIVING PLANT WITH METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BERLERIA LUPULINA LINDL. AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROBES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berleria lupulina Lindl. was evaluated for its reported antimicrobial activity in a novel way. The extract of succulent leaves collected from living plant was studied along with conventional methanolic and watery extracts made from the dry leaves of the plant. The extracts were tested on three pathogenic bacteria and the antimicrobial activity was tested both by conventional single disc diffusion method and a novel Spectrophotometric method. In disc diffusion study, it was found that the methanolic extract (100 mg/ml. and 200 mg/ ml. diluted in 70% of methanol and extract of succulent leaves can induce 12 mm, 13 mm and 14 mm diameter zone of inhibition comparable with 24 mm of Ceftriaxone against Escherichia coli. The zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus were 13 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 25 mm and against Salmonella enteritides were 12 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 28 mm correspondingly. The watery extract made from the dry plant and the methanolic extract diluted in water failed to induce any inhibition in growth of the organisms. In spectrophotometric study, the methanolic extract showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. or above against Salmonella enteritides and Staphylococcus aureus. But against Escherichia coli, effective control was found in 20 mg/ml concentration. The fresh extract of the plant showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 16.5%. The anti microbial efficacy above that concentration cannot be detected in the available spectrophotometrical method for presence of color material in that fresh extract.

  7. Chilean berry Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit and leaves extracts with interesting antioxidant, antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Bustos, Fernanda; Valenzuela, Ximena; López-Carballo, Gracia; Vilariño, Jose M; Galotto, Maria Jose

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of the biological properties of fruits and leaves of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) has been owned by native Chilean culture. The present study investigated the phenolic content, the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase activities of different murta fruit and leaves extracts to approach their uses on future food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Extractions of murta fruit and leaves were carried out under water, ethanol and ethanol 50%. Phenolic content of these extracts was measured through Folin Ciocalteu test and the antioxidant power by four different antioxidant systems (ORAC, FRAP, DPPH and TEAC assays) owing to elucidate the main mechanism of antioxidant. Some flavonoids, such as rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin hydrate were identified and quantified through HPLC analysis. Antimicrobial activity was determined measuring minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and the effect of these extracts on L. monocytogenes was confirmed by flow cytometry. Highest contents of polyphenol compounds were obtained in hydroalcoholic extracts (28±1mggallicacid/g dry fruit, and 128±6mggallicacid/g dry leaves). The same trend was found for the values of biological properties: hydroalcoholic extracts showed the strongest activities. Leaves presented higher antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase properties than murta fruit. Highest antioxidant activity values according to ORAC, FRAP, TEAC and DPPH were 80±8mgTrolox/g, 70±2mgTrolox/g, 87±8mgTrolox/g and 110±12mgTrolox/g, respectively, for murta fruit samples, and 280±10mgTrolox/g, 192±4mgTrolox/g, 286±13mgTrolox/g and 361±13mgTrolox/g, respectively, for murta leaves. These activities were confirmed by HPLC analysis that revealed highest presence of analyzed compounds on leaves hydroalcoholic extract. Regarding to antimicrobial analysis, hydroalcoholic leaves extract presented the

  8. Aqueous extract from Orthosiphon stamineus leaves prevents bladder and kidney infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarshar, S; Brandt, S; Asadi Karam, M R; Habibi, M; Bouzari, S; Lechtenberg, M; Dobrindt, U; Qin, X; Goycoolea, F M; Hensel, A

    2017-05-15

    Extracts from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus are used in phytotherapy for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Evaluation of an aqueous extract against infection with uropathogenic Escherichia coli in vivo; investigation of underlying microbiological mechanisms. In vivo studies in mice and in vitro investigations on cytotoxicity, antiadhesive potential, influence on bacterial gene expression and quorum sensing. Extract OWE was prepared by hot water extraction. For in vivo studies BALB/c mice were used in an UPEC infection model. The effect of OWE on bacterial load in bladder/kidney tissue was monitored in pre- and posttreatment. Cytotoxicity of OWE against different UPEC strains, T24 bladder/A498 kidney cells, gene expression analysis, monitoring of phenotypic motility and quorum sensing was investigated by standard methods of microbiology. OWE was quantified (UHPLC) according to the content of rosmarinic acid, cichoric acid, caffeic acid. Three- and 5-day treatment of animals with OWE (750mg/kg) after transurethral infection with UPEC CFT073 reduced the bacterial load in bladder and kidney, similar to norfloxacin. Four- and 7-day pretreatment of mice prior to the infection with UPEC NU14 reduced bacterial bladder colonization. In vitro investigations indicated that OWE (≤2mg/ml) has no cytotoxic or proliferation-inhibiting activity against different UPEC strains as well as against T24 bladder and A498 kidney cells. OWE exerts a dose dependent antiadhesive activity against UPEC strains NU14 and UTI89. OWE reduced gene expression of fimH, but evoked increase of the expression of motility/fitness gene fliC. Increase of bacterial motility on gene level was confirmed by a changed bacterial phenotype by an increased bacterial motility in soft agar assay. OWE inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner bacterial quorum sensing. OWE is assessed as a strong antiadhesive plant extract for which the traditional use in phytotherapy for UTI might be

  9. Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Myrcia amazonica DC. (Myrtaceae) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Rodrigues, Mariana Cristina; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; Martins, Frederico Severino; Mourão, Rosa Helena V.; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myrcia amazonica. DC is a species predominantly found in northern Brazil, and belongs to the Myrtaceae family, which possess various species used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, infectious diseases, and hemorrhagic conditions and are known for their essential oil contents. Materials and Methods: This study aimed applied the Box–Behnken design combined with response surface methodology to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction of total polyphenols, total tannins (TT), and total flavonoids (TF) from M. amazonica DC. Results: The results indicated that the best conditions to obtain highest yields of TT were in lower levels of alcohol degree (65%), time (15 min), and also solid: Liquid ratio (solid to liquid ratio; 20 mg: 5 mL). The TF could be extracted with high amounts with higher extraction times (45 min), lower values of solid: Liquid ratio (20 mg: mL), and intermediate alcohol degree level. Conclusion: The exploitation of the natural plant resources present very important impact for the economic development, and also the valorization of great Brazilian biodiversity. The knowledge obtained from this work should be useful to further exploit and apply this raw material. SUMMARY Myrcia amazonica leaves possess phenolic compounds with biological applications;Lower levels of ethanolic strength are more suitable to obtain a igher levels of phenolic compouds such as tannins;Box-Behnken design indicates to be useful to explore the best conditions of ultrasound assisted extraction. Abbreviation used: Nomenclature ES: Ethanolic strength, ET: Extraction time, SLR: Solid to liquid ratio, TFc: Total flavonoid contents, TPc: Total polyphenol contents, TTc: Total tannin contents PMID:27019555

  10. Gastroprotective activity of methanol extract and marrubiin obtained from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula de Oliveira, Ana; Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Couto, Angélica Garcia; Meyre da Silva Bittencourt, Christiane; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Faloni de Andrade, Sérgio

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the gastroprotective properties of the methanol extract and the diterpene marrubiin obtained from the leaves of M. vulgare.   Assays were performed using different protocols in mice. Studies focusing on mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken. In the model of ethanol-induced ulcers, we observed a significant reduction in all the parameters analysed; the curative ratios obtained were 49.31±0.57, 74.31±0.91 and 79.86±0.59 for the groups treated with 50 and 100mg/kg of extract of M. vulgare and omeprazole (30mg/kg), respectively. For indomethacin-induced ulcers, the percentages of ulcer inhibition were 50.32±5.60, 66.24±4.30, 82.17±04.09 and 67.52±4.38, for the groups treated with 25, 50 and 100mg/kg M. vulgare and positive control (cimetidine), respectively. In both models, the marrubiin (25mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in all the parameters when compared with the control group (Pvulgare extract and marubiin. The results also demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by the extract and marubiin is related to the activity of nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls, which are important gastroprotective factors. The results of this study show that the extract of M. vulgare and marrubiin displays antiulcer activity and that this effect can be partly attributed to the isolated diterpene. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Anticonvulsant effect of ethanolic extract of Cyperus articulatus L. leaves on pentylenetetrazol induced seizure in mice

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    Oscar Herrera-Calderon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus articulatus (CA rhizomes have demonstrated different properties on nervous system. However, the leaves still have not studied to treat epilepsy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CA ethanolic extract on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced seizures in mice as well as measuring its antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro. Mice were divided into five groups: (1 control (PTZ 80 mg/kg; i.p., (2 PTZ-Diazepam (1 mg/kg; i.p., (3–5 PTZ-CA 50, PTZ-CA 150 and PTZ-CA 300 (50, 150 and 300 mg/kg of CA extract, 30 min prior to each PTZ injection. The PTZ-CA 150 group showed lower seizure scores (P < 0.01, latency (P < 0.01, frequency (P < 0.01 and duration (P < 0.01 than control group. The antioxidant activity of CA extract scavenged DPPH radical showed IC 50 = 16.9 ± 0.1 μg/mL and TEAC = 2.28 ± 0.08, mmol trolox/g of extract, the content of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA and malondialdehyde (MDA were significantly high (P < 0.01 at dose of 150 mg/kg (82 ± 1.2 ng/g tissue; 1.0 ± 2.2 mol/g tissue, respectively. The present research demonstrated that CA extract possesses a potential effect to prevent PTZ induced seizures, antioxidant activity in addition to increase GABA levels.

  12. Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis and Olive (Olea europaea L. Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon

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    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors.

  13. Potential Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging Activity of Doum Palm ( Hyphaene thebaica L. Leaves Extract

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    Mohamed M. Al-Azizi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of the aqueous ethanolic extract of Doum leaves, Hyphaene thebaica L. (Palmae, was studied. Data obtained showed that the extract scavenged superoxide anion radicals ( IC 50=1602 µg/ml in a dose dependant manner using xanthine/hypoxanthine oxidase assay. Four major flvonoidal compounds were identified by LC/SEI as; Quercetin glucoside , Kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, Dimethyoxyquercetin rhamnoglucoside . While , further in-depth phytochemical investigation of this extract lead to the isolation and identification of fourteen compounds ;their structures were elucidated based upon the interpretation of their spectral data(UV, 1H, 13C NMR and ESI/MS as; 8-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5, 7, 4`-trihydroxyflavone (vitexin 1, 6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5, 7, 4`-trihydroxyflavone (iso-vitexin 2, quercetin 3-O-β- 4C 1-D-glucopyranoside 3, gallic acid 4, quercetin 7-O-β- 4C 1-D-glucoside 5, luteolin 7-O-β- 4C 1-D-glucoside 6, tricin 5 O-β- 4C 1-D-glucoside 7, 7, 3` dimethoxy quercetin 3-O-[6''-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (Rhamnazin 3-O-rutinoside 8, kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-α- L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β- D-glucopyranoside (nicotiflorin 9, apigenin 10, luteolin 11, tricin 12, quercetin 13 and kaempferol 14

  14. Free radical scavenging and anti-edematogenic activities of Paullinia elegans Cambess., Sapindaceae, leaves extracts

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    Rodrigo N. Guimarães

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract of the leaves of Paullinia elegans Cambess., Sapindaceae, and its hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and hydroethanol fractions were evaluated for their antiedematogenic and free radical scavenging activities. The ethanol extract and the hexane fraction produced statistically significant inhibition (74.4 and 76.0%, respectively of the ear edema induced by croton oil in mice, observed at doses of 5 mg/ear. The ethyl acetate and hydroethanol fractions showed significant radical scavenging effect in the DPPH assay, with IC50 of 36.7 and 30.1 µg/mL, respectively. Fractionation of the extracts through chromatographic methods afforded epifriedelanol, oleanolic acid 3-O-acetyl, a mixture of stigmasterol 3-β-O-glucopyranoside and sitosterol 3-β-O-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3,7-O-α-dirhamnopyranoside, kaempeferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside and 2-O-methyl-chiro-inositol. The compounds were identified on the basis of their NMR spectral data and comparison with those of literature.

  15. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

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    Karim S. Allaf

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME and conventional hydrodistillation (HD. Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM; it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.

  16. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. Leaves Extracts

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    Vida Elsyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity.

  17. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S.

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD. PMID:22606003

  18. Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved

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    M. H. Mohd. Sani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test and thermal (hot plate test models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg was administered orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P<0.05 antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO donor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS, methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway, or their combination also caused significant (P<0.05 change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.

  19. Optimization of DNA Extraction for RAPD and ISSR Analysis of Arbutus unedo L. Leaves

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    Paula Baptista

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis of plants relies on high yields of pure DNA. For the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo this represents a great challenge since leaves can accumulate large amounts of polysaccharides, polyphenols and secondary metabolites, which co-purify with DNA. For this specie, standard protocols do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Here, we present for the first time an improved leaf-tissue protocol, based on the standard cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide protocol, which yields large amounts of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Key steps in the optimized protocol are the addition of antioxidant compounds—namely polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT and 2-mercaptoethanol, in the extraction buffer; the increasing of CTAB (3%, w/v and sodium chloride (2M concentration; and an extraction with organic solvents (phenol and chloroform with the incubation of samples on ice. Increasing the temperature for cell lyses to 70 °C also improved both DNA quality and yield. The yield of DNA extracted was 200.0 ± 78.0 µg/µL and the purity, evaluated by the ratio A260/A280, was 1.80 ± 0.021, indicative of minimal levels of contaminating metabolites. The quality of the DNA isolated was confirmed by random amplification polymorphism DNA and by inter-simple sequence repeat amplification, proving that the DNA can be amplified via PCR.

  20. Chemical profile, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect of extract from leaves of Erythrochiton brasiliensis Nees

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    Baj Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC and total flavonoid content (TFC as well as the antioxidant activity and the cytotoxic effect of the extract from leaves of Erythrochiton brasiliensis Nees & Mart. (Rutaceae were evaluated. Raw material was collected in different European botanical gardens. Statistical analysis revealed a clear grouping of populations according to their climatic zone. The average TPC, TTC and TFC in tested samples were 35.92 (± 7.11 mg GAE·g–1 DW, 14.98 (± 4.08 mg PyE·g–1 DW and 2.92 (± 0.76 mg QuE·g–1 DW, respectively. The scavenged DPPH and Trolox equivalents determined by EPR spectroscopy were 1.23–4.14 and 0.50–1.44 mmol·g–1 of dry extract, respectively. Thirteen compounds (derivatives of bezoic acid acid and trans-cinnammic acid were identified in the samples. The flavonoid vitexin was also present as the major component in three investigated samples. The in vitro cytotoxicity test of the extract on Vero cells provided IC50 and IC10 values of 175.6 and 72.5 μg·mL–1, respectively. Incubation of samples with HHV-1 infected Vero cells had no effect on the occurrence of cytopathic effect.

  1. SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL CELERY LEAVES (APIUM GRAVEOLENS L. EXTRACTS ON THE CONTRACTION OF ISOLATED RAT ILEUM

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    Suzana Branković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Celery (Apium graveolens L. is a plant species in the family Apiaceae, which has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. This study investigated the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts from celery leaves on intestinal contractility. Air-dried and powdered leaves were extracted with distilled water and 96% ethanol, respectively. The activities of the extracts on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated rat ileum model. The isolated rat ileum was mounted in a 10ml tissue bath. The results suggest that the cumulative concentrations of the extracts of celery statistically significantly inhibited spontaneous rat ileum contractions (p<0.01. The extracts dose-dependently reduced the contractile effects of acetylcholine on the isolated ileum (p<0.05. Ethanol extract exhibited significantly greater relaxant activity than the aqueous extract (p<0.05. These results suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery leaves can produce the inhibition of the spontaneous rat ileum contractions and contractions induced by acetylcholine. These data indicate that celery extracts act as intestinal smooth muscle relaxants, which justifies their use in gastrointestinal disorders.

  2. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandita; Islam, Md Ekramul; Jahan, Nusrat; Islam, Mohammad Saiful; Khan, Alam; Islam, Md Rafikul; Parvin, Mst Shahnaj

    2014-02-04

    Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly correlated with the antioxidant

  3. The aqueous extract from Toona sinensis leaves inhibits microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Chuan; Tsai, Yee-Jean; Hsieh, Ya-Ching; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2014-02-01

    The leaves of Toona sinensis, a well-known traditional oriental medicine, have been prescribed for the treatment of enteritis and infection. Recently, aqueous extracts of Toona sinensis leaves (TSL-1) have demonstrated many biological effects both in vitro and in vivo. In the central nervous system, microglial activation and their proinflammatory responses are considered an important therapeutic strategy for neuroinflammatory disorders such as cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The present study attempted to validate the effect of TSL-1 on microglia-mediated neuroinflammation stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As inflammatory parameters, the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase, and tumor necrosis factor-α were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that TSL-1 suppresses LPS-induced NO production, tumor necrosis factor-α secretion, and inducible NO synthase protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner, without causing cytotoxicity. In addition, the inhibitory effects of TSL-1 in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia were extended to post-treatment suggesting the therapeutic potential of TSL-1. Therefore, this work provides the future evaluation of the role of TSL-1 in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by inhibition of inflammatory mediator production in activated microglia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE.

  5. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Adenanthera pavonina

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    Md. Moniruzzaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenanthera pavonina is a deciduous tree commonly used in the traditional medicine to treat inflammation and rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of ethanol extract of leaves of A. pavonina (EEAP. EEAP was investigated using various nociceptive models induced thermally or chemically in mice including hot plate and tail immersion test, acetic acid-induced writhing, and glutamate- and formalin-induced licking tests at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight (p.o.. In addition, to assess the possible mechanisms, involvement of opioid system was verified using naloxone (2 mg/kg and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP signaling pathway by methylene blue (MB; 20 mg/kg. The results have demonstrated that EEAP produced a significant and dose-dependent increment in the hot plate latency and tail withdrawal time. It also reduced the number of abdominal constrictions and paw lickings induced by acetic acid and glutamate respectively. EEAP inhibited the nociceptive responses in both phases of formalin test. Besides, the reversal effects of naloxone indicated the association of opioid receptors on the exertion of EEAP action centrally. Moreover, the enhancement of writhing inhibitory activity by MB suggests the possible involvement of cGMP pathway in EEAP-mediated antinociception. These results prove the antinociceptive activity of the leaves of A. pavonina and support the traditional use of this plant.

  6. Punica granatum leave extract as green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in Hydrochloric acid

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    Abboud Y.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leave of Punica granatum extract (LPGE as green inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 1M HCl solution was studied using weight-loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results obtained revealed that LPGE has fairly good inhibiting properties for mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution, with efficiency of around 94 % at a concentration of 1 g/l. The inhibition was of a mixed anodic–cathodic nature. The film which is formed over the metal surface was analysed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Further examination using X-ray diffraction confirms the role of LPGE as an effective corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid media.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides Leaves Extract

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    Tayyaba Naseem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has accumulated an ultimate interest over the last decade due to their distinctive properties that make them applicable in various fields of science and technology. Metal nanoparticles that are synthesized by using plants have emerged as nontoxic and ecofriendly. In this study a very cheap and simple conventional heating method was used to obtain the iron nanoparticles (FeNPs using the leaves extract of Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides plant. The iron nanoparticles were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The antibacterial activity was studied against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus by using well-diffusion method.

  8. [Chemical Constituents from Ethyl Acetate Extract of Psidium guajava Leaves (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; He, Cui-xia; Chen, Xue-xiang; Ye, Shu-min; Peng, Shan; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Psidium guajava leaves. The constituents were separated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (1), phytyl-acetate (2), cubenol (3), eucalyptin (4), n-docosanoic acid-p-hydroxy-phenethylol ester (5),8-methyl-5,7- dihydroxy-flavonone (6), 6-methyl-5,7-dihydroxy-flavonone (7), betulinic acid (8), carnosol (9), quercetin (10), and 2,4,6-tirhydroxy- 3,5-dimethyl-diphenylketone-4-O-(6'"-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucoside (11). Compounds 1-9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  9. Availability of essential trace elements in the extract of Bacopa moneiri (Brahmi) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Garg, A.N.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Bacopa Monieri popularly known as Brahmi is a versatile memory enhancer, neuroprotective and antioxidant. Raw Brahmi leaves are enriched in K (16.0 ±1.3 mg/g), Ca (11.2 ±1.5 mg/g), P (2.92± 0.24 mg/g), Fe (3.43± 0.20 mg/g) as minor constituents and trace amounts of Mn (123 ±10 μg/g), Zn (69.2 ±2.4 μg/g), Cr (5.91 ±0.04 μg/g) and Se (0.20 ±0.01 μg/g). Several elements such as Mn, Co and Zn are extracted in moderate amounts in aqueous-methanol. (author)

  10. Effects of Mimosa pudica L. leaves extract on anxiety, depression and memory

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    Ganesh Patro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the neuropharmacological activities of ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica (EAMP leaves on anxiety, depression and memory in a mouse model. Materials and Methods: Anti-anxiety potential of EAMP was evaluated by elevated plus maze (EPM, light-dark box (LDB and social interaction (SI tests in mice.Anti-depressant potential of EAMP was evaluated by forced swimming (FST, tail suspension (TST, and open field tests (OFT. The behavioral findings were further corroborated with estimation of neurotransmitters and their metabolites from mouse brain homogenate. Effect on learning and memory was evaluated by EPM, passive avoidance (PA tests. Further, it was confirmed with assessment of acetylcholinesterase and caspase-3 activity in brain homogenate. Results: EAMP showed significant anti-anxiety activity by increasing the time spent in open arm of EPM, light box of LDB. Social interaction time was increased significantly (p

  11. Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly

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    Wardhana AH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3. Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0, 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV. Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM and Larval Rearing Media (LRM for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95 and lethal time (LT50 and LT95 were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock.

  12. Neuropharmacological and genotoxic evaluation of ethanol extract from Erythrina falcata leaves, a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone A. Dias

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine neurobehavioral and genotoxic activities of ethanol extract of Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae, leaves on rats. Animals were treated with ethanol extract of E. falcata (100, 300 or 500 mg/kg; i.p. and the open field and elevated plus-maze tasks were used as behavioral models to investigate a possible effect on the locomotor and exploratory activity and anxiety, respectively. Genotoxic effect was investigated using the Comet assay. Ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves decreased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field task and increased the latency to start locomotion, though it was not able to affect habituation to apparatus measured 24h after the first session. Behavioral parameters in the plus-maze test were not affected by E. falcata. Ethanol extract did not increase damage index and damage frequency in blood or brain, indicating no genotoxic effect. The results suggest that ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves was able to affect locomotion, exploration, and motivation of animals without anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect, indicating a possible depressant action on the central nervous system. Furthermore, the lack of DNA damage in brain is an indicative that ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves may not induce neurotoxic effects.

  13. Neuropharmacological and genotoxic evaluation of ethanol extract from Erythrina falcata leaves, a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone A. Dias

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine neurobehavioral and genotoxic activities of ethanol extract of Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae, leaves on rats. Animals were treated with ethanol extract of E. falcata (100, 300 or 500 mg/kg; i.p. and the open field and elevated plus-maze tasks were used as behavioral models to investigate a possible effect on the locomotor and exploratory activity and anxiety, respectively. Genotoxic effect was investigated using the Comet assay. Ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves decreased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field task and increased the latency to start locomotion, though it was not able to affect habituation to apparatus measured 24h after the first session. Behavioral parameters in the plus-maze test were not affected by E. falcata. Ethanol extract did not increase damage index and damage frequency in blood or brain, indicating no genotoxic effect. The results suggest that ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves was able to affect locomotion, exploration, and motivation of animals without anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect, indicating a possible depressant action on the central nervous system. Furthermore, the lack of DNA damage in brain is an indicative that ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves may not induce neurotoxic effects.

  14. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Leaves Extract of Barnoof Plant on Larval Development of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufngel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of irradiating parental male full grown pupae agrotis ipsilon with the two sub sterile doses 100 and 150 Gray (Gy) followed by treated F1 4 th instar larvae with three concentrations of the barnoof plant leaves extract (0,15000 and 30000 ppm) or each of them alone were studied. the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and the barnoof plant extract to F1 larvae had a deleterious effects on average larval duration, average weight of last larval instar, total morality, pupation, adult emergence and survival when compared with the effect of gamma irradiation or plant leaves extract which of them alone. gamma irradiation increased the susceptibility of F 1 Larvae descendant from irradiated parental male pupae with 100 and 150 Gy to the barnoof plant leaves extract. A gradual increase in susceptibility was noticed as the dose of radiation increase. the efficiency of gamma irradiation and/or plant leaves extract to inhibit the 4 th instar larvae of A-. ipsilon was evaluated. the results showed highly toxic effect to the 4 th instar larvae at the two concentrations (15000 and 30000 ppm). on the other hand the dose 150 Gy combined with 30000 ppm of plant extract treatment (Acetone or petroleum ether solvents) had highly effect on the 4 th instar larvae as compared with the other treatments

  15. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  16. Short Communication A stranding of Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication A stranding of Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson 1828) from Patagonia, Argentina, with notes on parasite infestation and diet. MS Leonardi, MF Grandi, NA García, G Svendsen, MA Romero, R González, EA Crespo ...

  17. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-03-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability.

  18. Preliminary study on fractions' activities of red betel vine (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) leaves ethanol extract toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawaty, Farida Juliantina; Julianto, Tatang Shabur; Tamhid, Hady Anshory

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to identify the antimycobacterial activity of fraction of red betel vine leaves ethanol extract (methanol fraction, ethyl acetate, and chloroform) toward M. tuberculosis. Red betel vine leaves ethanol extract was made with maceration method using ethanol solvent 70%. Resulted extract was then fractionated using Liquid Vacuum Chromatography (LVC) with methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform solvent. Each fractionation was exposed to M. tuberculosis with serial dilution method. Controls of fraction, media, bacteria, and isoniazid as standard drug were included in this research. The group of compound from the most active fraction was then identified. The research found that the best fraction for antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosisis chloroform fraction. The compound group of chloroform fraction was then identified. The fraction contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid. The fraction of methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform from red betel vine leaves has antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosis. Chloroform fraction has the best antimycobacterial activity and it contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid.

  19. Chemical content and antimicrobial properties of three different extracts of Mentha pulegium leaves from Mugla Region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan-Güvensen, Nur; Keskin, Dilek

    2016-11-01

    The extract of ethanol, methanol and DMSO of pennyroyal leaves from Mugla Region (Turkey) were tested for antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial and one yeast strain by disc diffusion method. Among the extracts assayed, the methanol extract of pennyroyal leaves exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with 20 mm diameter inhibition zone. The DMSO extract of pennyroyal leaves displayed significant activity against S.aureus (19 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (21mm) showing inhibition zone of 19 mm and 21 mm diameter, while the ethanolic extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against S.aureus (17mm) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (20mm) inhibition zones.? On comparint the MIC value of ethanol, methanol and DMSO leaf extract, methanolic extract of pennyroyal presented best activity (MIC 8 mg ml-1) against S. typhimurium CCM 583 and S.aureus ATCC 6538/P. Analyses of GC/MS determined eleven compounds viz., neophytadiene (69.95%), Pulejon 7.85%, Pinane 4.81%, Bicyclo (3.1.1 Heptane 2.6.6.6 trimethyl) 4.68%. In conclusion, methanolic extracts of M. pulegium showed antimicrobial activity because of high neophytadiene content.

  20. In vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic activities against prostate cancer of extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worawattananutai, Patsorn; Itharat, Arunporn; Ruangnoo, Srisopa

    2014-08-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) leaves are a vegetable, which is used as a healthy sour soup for protection against chronic diseases in Thai traditional medicine. To investigate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa leave extracts from diferent extraction methods. Fresh and dry Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were extracted by various methods such as maceration with 95% and 50% ethanol, squeeze, and boiling with water or decoction. All extracts were testedfor antioxidant activity by using DPPH radical scavenging assay, anti-inflammatory activity by determination on inhibitory effect of nitric oxide production on RAW264. 7 cell. Cytotoxic activity also tested against human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Total phenolic content determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results found that the 95% ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa dried leaves (HSDE95) showed the highest antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 34.51±2.62 μg/ml and had the highest phenolic content (57.00±3.73 mg GAE/g). HSDE95 also showed potent cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cell line with an IC50 of 8.58±0.68 μg/ml whereas HSDE95 and all of extracts ofHibiscus sabdariffa leaves had no anti-inflammatory activity. The obtained results revealed that HSDE95 extract showedpotent cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells but low antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This extract should be further isolated as active compounds against prostate cancer.

  1. Hydroxytyrosol rich extract from olive leaves modulates cell cycle progression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Han, Junkuy; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the history, olive (Olea europea L.) leaves have been heavily exploited for the prevention or the treatment of hypertension, carcinogenesis, diabetes, atherosclerosis and so many other traditional therapeutic uses. These activities are thought to be the output of olive micronutrients especially polyphenols. Hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein are considered as major polyphenolic compounds in olive leaf. In this work, a hydroxytyrosol rich olive leaves extract was investigated for potential anti-tumoral activities. In vitro cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast cancer cells were examined using MTT and neutral red tests. The anti-tumor activities were further investigated by flow cytometry and western blotting. Cytotoxicity assays resulted in a dose dependent growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells. This inhibition was due to the cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The understanding of the molecular mechanism by which olive leaves extract arrested cell growth showed a down-expression of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1 which in turn decreased the level of a G1 key protein; Cyclin D1. Additionally, olive leaves extract treatment up-regulated the AP1 transcription factor member, c-jun. Therefore, olive leaves extract will necessitate further deep investigation for a probable use as a cancer preventive food additive. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Water Extract of Ashwagandha Leaves Limits Proliferation and Migration, and Induces Differentiation in Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kataria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Root extracts of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha are commonly used as a remedy for a variety of ailments and a general tonic for overall health and longevity in the Indian traditional medicine system, Ayurveda. We undertook a study to investigate the anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing activities in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX by examining in glioma cells. Preliminary detection for phytochemicals was performed by thin-layer chromatography. Cytotoxicity was determined using trypan blue and MTT assays. Expression level of an hsp70 family protein (mortalin, glial cell differentiation marker [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP] and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Anti-migratory assay was also done using wound-scratch assay. Expression levels of mortalin, GFAP and NCAM showed changes, subsequent to the treatment with ASH-WEX. The data support the existence of anti-proliferative, differentiation-inducing and anti-migratory/anti-metastasis activities in ASH-WEX that could be used as potentially safe and complimentary therapy for glioma.

  3. CNS Depressant and Antiepileptic Activities of the Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Sivaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS depressant and antiepileptic activities of the methanol extract of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (IAF were investigated on various animal models including pentobarbitone sleeping time and hole-board exploratory behavior for sedation tests and strychnine, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., like chlorpromazine HCl (1 mg/kg, i.m., produced a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping time and suppression of exploratory behavior. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg produced dose-dependent and significant increases in onset to clonic and tonic convulsions and at 400 mg/kg, showed complete protection against seizures induced by strychnine and picrotoxin but not with pentylenetetrazole. Acute oral toxicity test, up to 14 days, did not produce any visible signs of toxicity. These results suggest that potentially antiepileptic compounds are present in leaf extract of IAF that deserve the study of their identity and mechanism of action.

  4. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Chenopodium quinoa leaves extracts - in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Sułkowski, Maciej; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara; Czyż, Jarosław

    2013-07-01

    The nutraceutical potential of Chenopodium quinoa Leaves (ChL) was assessed through analyses of their phenolic content, elucidation of the effect of ChL phenolic compounds on cancer cell properties and estimation of their antioxidative activity, bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro. Considerable amounts of ferulic, sinapinic and gallic acids, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and rutin were observed in the chemical ChL extract and were linked with its inhibitory effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation, motility and cellular competence for gap junctional communication. Both extracts, chemical and obtained after simulated digestion, exerted an inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase activity, paralleled by their considerable chelating, antioxidative, antiradical and reducing power. These observations indicate that phenolic ChL compounds may exert a chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic effect on oxidative stress and ROS-dependent intracellular signaling via synergic effects. The relatively high potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the compounds probably responsible for these effects demonstrates the suitability of ChL for dietary supplementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro activity of ethanolic and water extract of guava leaves at various concentrations against Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chemical substances used for prevention of dental caries are known to have many side-effects. Thus, natural products should be explored for their anticaries action. Objectives: To prepare 5% and 20% concentrations of ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves and to assess their activity against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: In vitro experimental study was conducted in Department of Biosciences. Ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves were prepared using Soxhlet extractor. Two concentrations 5% and 20% weight/volume of both extracts were prepared. Test organism L. acidophilus Microbial Type Culture Collection 447 was obtained in lyophillized form. After revival in nutrient broth, bacteria were grown on Lactobacilli de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar for further experiment. Antimicrobial testing of extracts was done using Agar well-diffusion method. Ten plates each were prepared for both extracts. Chlorhexidine (0.2% served as a positive control and distilled water as a negative control. Results: Mean zone of inhibition produced by 5% and 20% ethanolic extract was 11.2 mm and 14.1 mm respectively and by 5% and 20% water extract was 1.6 mm and 5.1 mm respectively. Statistical analysis of results using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey′s test revealed that activity of 5% ethanolic extract and 5%, 20% water extract was significantly less than that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. There was no statistical difference in efficacy of 20% ethanolic extract of guava and 0.2% chlorhexidine (P = 0.270. Conclusion: Ethanolic and water extracts of guava leaves possess antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus with 20% ethanolic extract being as efficacious as 0.2% chlorhexidine.

  6. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Alkharfy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%, leaves (11.42% and seeds (21.51% of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80. Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 3.21 μg/mL, followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50–6.70 mg/100 g DW; sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18–4.71 mg/100 g DW; vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52–0.65 mg/100 g DW as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of the methanolic extract of Hibiscus asper leaves in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritcu, Lucian; Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Stefan, Marius; Mihasan, Marius; Asongalem, Acha Emmanuel; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    While the Hibiscus asper Hook.f. (Malvaceae) is a traditional herb largely used in tropical region of the Africa as vegetable, potent sedative, tonic and restorative, anti-inflammatory and antidepressive drug, there is very little scientific data concerning the efficacy of this. The antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of the methanolic extract of Hibiscus asper leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg) were assessed using superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) specific activities, total glutathione (GSH) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) level (lipid peroxidation) and DNA fragmentation assays in male Wistar rats subjected to unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesion. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, methanolic extract of Hibiscus asper leaves showed potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. Chronic administration of the methanolic extract (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p., daily, for 7 days) significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPX and CAT), total GSH content and reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA level) in rat temporal lobe homogenates, suggesting antioxidant activity. Also, DNA cleavage patterns were absent in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats treated with methanolic extract of Hibiscus asper leaves, suggesting antiapoptotic activity. Taken together, our results suggest that the methanolic extract of Hibiscus asper leaves possesses neuroprotective activity against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity through antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities in Parkinson's disease model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of pre-treatment and extraction conditions on the antioxidant properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Abul; Moon, Hey Kyung; Kim, Jong-Kuk

    2017-11-01

    Persimmon is a very delicious fruit and the leaves of this tree are used as a traditional drug. This study aimed to investigate the effects of drying method (hot air and freeze-drying), extraction temperature (80, 90 and 100 °C) and extraction time (10, 30, 60 and 120 min) and harvest stage (flowering and fruiting) on the antioxidant contents and antioxidant activity of persimmon leaves. The results showed that the highest antioxidants were obtained in both methods of drying. Also, 100 °C for 120 min of extraction gave the highest antioxidant contents, but with no significant difference compared to 90 °C for 60 min of extraction. Persimmon leaves collected during flowering stage had the maximum amount of antioxidants compared to the fruiting stage. Finally, it can be said that persimmon leaves harvested during flowering stage and treated by hot air drying with these extraction conditions (90 °C for 60 min) are richer in bioactive compounds.

  9. In vitro antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Tharaphan, Pattamon; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tarning, Joel; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-18

    The emergence of drug resistant malaria is threatening our ability to treat and control malaria in the Southeast Asian region. There is an urgent need to develop novel and chemically diverse antimalarial drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimalarial and antioxidant potentials of Acacia nilotica plant extracts. The antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts were determined by standard antioxidant assays; reducing power capacity, % lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. The antimalarial activities of plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum parasites were determined by the 48 h schizont maturation inhibition assay. Further confirmation of schizonticide activity of extracts was made by extending the incubation period up to 96 h after removing the plant extract residues from parasites culture. Inhibition assays were analyzed by dose-response modelling. In all antioxidant assays, leaves of A. nilotica showed higher antioxidant activity than pods and bark. Antimalarial IC 50 values of leaves, pods and bark extracts were 1.29, 4.16 and 4.28 μg/ml respectively, in the 48 h maturation assay. The IC 50 values determined for leaves, pods and bark extracts were 3.72, 5.41 and 5.32 μg/ml respectively, after 96 h of incubation. All extracts inhibited the development of mature schizont, indicating schizonticide activity against P. falciparum. A. nilotica extracts showed promising antimalarial and antioxidant effects. However, further investigation is needed to isolate and identify the active components responsible for the antimalarial and antioxidant effects.

  10. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant polyphenols from a standardized methanolic extract of the leaves of Liquidambar styraciflua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. Eid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the leaves of Liquidambar styraciflua L. (Altingiaceae (LSE was evaluated for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities in carbon tetrachloride liver-damaged rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced via intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 1:9 in olive oil, at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg b.wt. The animals received the extract, orally, at two dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. The administration regimen was twice a week, for six consecutive weeks. LSE exhibited a significant dose-dependent protective effect by lowering the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA and ameliorating the level of serum protein. In addition, LSE showed antioxidant activity through improving the levels of blood glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, vitamin E and hepatic total protein contents. The LSE revealed activity approached that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent. These biochemical observations were supported by examination of the histopathological features of the liver. Chromatographic fractionation of LSE afforded seven phenolic compounds. These were identified on the basis of chromatographic, chemical and spectroscopic analyses as: gallic acid (1, isorugosin B (2, casuarictin (3, quercetin-3-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside (4, myricetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside (myricetrin (5, quercetin (6 and myricetin (7. The isolated phenolics probably account for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects exhibited by the parent extract. Furthermore, a validated RP-HPLC method was devised for standardization of LSE, in view to fulfill the requirements of efficient research methodology for evaluation of bioactive herbal drugs. The above findings suggested that LSE could be considered as a standardized herbal product with antifibrotic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential.

  11. Effect of Extraction Solvents and Drying Methods on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. Leaves

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    Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicteres hirsuta Lour. (H. hirsuta L. is widely distributed in southeast Asian countries and has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant. However, optimal conditions for preparation of dried materials for further processing and suitable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different extraction solvents and different drying conditions on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of the H. hirsuta L. leaves. The results showed that both extraction solvents and drying conditions had a significant impact on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of H. hirsuta L. leaves. Among the five solvents investigated, water could extract the highest level of solid content and phenolic compounds, whereas methanol was more effective for obtaining flavonoids and saponins than other solvents. The leaves dried under either hot-air drying at 80 °C (HAD80, or vacuum drying at 50 °C (VD50 yielded the highest amount of total phenolic compounds (7.77 and 8.33 mg GAE/g, respectively and total flavonoid content (5.79 and 4.62 mg CE/g, respectively, and possessed the strongest antioxidant power, while leaves dried using infrared drying at 30 °C had the lowest levels of bioactive compounds. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids had a strong correlation with antioxidant capacity. Therefore, HAD80 and VD50 are recommended for the preparation of dried H. hirsuta L. leaves. Water and methanol are suggested solvents to be used for extraction of phenolic compounds and saponins from H. hirsuta L. leaves for the potential application in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Baphia nitida Leaves Extract as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Media

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    V. O. Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibiting effect of Baphia nitida (BN leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl was studied at different temperatures using gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results showed that the leaves extract is a good inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in both acid media and better performances were obtained in 2 M HCl solutions. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreasing temperature. The addition of halides to the extract enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect which improved adsorption of cationic species present in the extract and was in the order KCl < KBr < KI suggesting possible role of radii of the halide ions. Thermodynamic parameters determined showed that the adsorption of BN on the metal surface is an exothermic and spontaneous process and that the adsorption was via a physisorption mechanism.

  13. Antidepressant effects of the water extract from Taraxacum officinale leaves and roots in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Cheng; Shen, Ji-Duo; Li, Yang-Yang; Huang, Qi

    2014-08-01

    The leaves and roots of the Taraxacum officinale F. (Asteraceae) is widely used as traditional medicinal herb in Eastern Asian countries. In the present study, the antidepressant-like effects of the water extract of T. officinale (WETO) leaves and roots were investigated in mice using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT). Effects of acute (1-day) and chronic treatments (14-days) with WETO (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) on the behavioral changes in FST, TST and OFT, and the serum corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone concentration were assessed in mice. Chronic treatment (14-days) with WETO at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased the immobility time in both FST (92.6, 85.1 and 77.4 s) and TST (84.8, 72.1 and 56.9 s). Acute treatment (1-day) with WETO at a dose of 200 mg/kg also markedly decreased the immobility time in both FST (81.7 s) and TST (73.2 s). However, all treatments did not affect the locomotor activity in the OFT. Moreover, FST induced a significant increase in serum CRF (5.8 ng/ml), ACTH (104.7 pg/ml) and corticosterone levels (37.3 ng/ml). Chronic treatment (14-days) with WETO decreased the serum CRF (200 mg/kg: 3.9 ng/ml) and corticosterone (50 mg/kg: 29.9 ng/ml; 100 mg/kg: 22.5 ng/ml; 200 mg/kg: 19.8 ng/ml) levels. These results clearly demonstrated the antidepressant effects of WETO in animal models of behavioral despair and suggested the mechanism involved in the neuroendocrine system.

  14. Extracts from Dendropanax morbifera Leaves Have Modulatory Effects on Neuroinflammation in Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Sinwoo; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Hye-Jin; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Dendropanax morbifera (D. morbifera), a species endemic to Korea, is largely distributed throughout the southern part of the country. Its leaves, stems, roots, and seeds have been used as a form of alternative medicine for various diseases and neurological disorders including paralysis, stroke, and migraine. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the remedial effects of D. morbifera remain largely unknown. In this paper, extracts from D. morbifera leaves were prepared using ethyl acetate as a solvent (abbreviated as DMLE). The modulatory effects of DMLE on neuroinflammation were studied in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 murine microglial cell line. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-[Formula: see text]B), and different M1/M2 activation states of microglia were examined. DMLE treatment suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] (TNF-[Formula: see text]), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. DMLE treatment also attenuated the activation of MAPKs and NF-[Formula: see text]B. In a novel discovery, we found that DMLE up-regulated the marker genes representing an alternative, anti-inflammatory M2 polarization, while suppressing the expression of the classical, pro-inflammatory M1 activation state genes. Here, we uncovered the cellular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of D. morbifera against neuroinflammation using BV2 microglia cells. These results strongly suggest that DMLE was able to counter the effects of LPS on BV2 cells via control of microglia polarization states. Additionally, study results indicated that DMLE may have therapeutic potential as a neuroinflammation-suppressing treatment for neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Evaluation of five protocols for DNA extraction from leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubakirova, K; Omasheva, M; Ryabushkina, N; Tazhibaev, T; Kampitova, G; Galiakparov, N

    2014-02-27

    Leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolites, which limit the high-quality DNA extraction performance. In this study, five extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and dried (with silica gel) leaves of these species. The modified protocol of Dellaporta et al., using polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds and a high molar concentration of potassium acetate to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides with DNA, produced the best DNA quality for all species tested. DNA extracted by this method had a 1.77-1.96 A260/280 nm ratio and successful amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. DNA concentrations of dried leaves were lower than those obtained from fresh leaves, which was likely due to aspects of the drying procedure. All five methods for grapevine produced DNA of obvious better quality from green canes compared to leaves, due to the relatively low content of secondary metabolites in the former. For grapevine and apricot, three methods can be equally used to obtain DNA of good quality: the Doyle and Doyle modified method using CTAB and high concentration of NaCl, the Jobes et al. modified method, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate mini preparation method of Edwards et al. The protocol of Jobes et al. using LiCl for RNA removal showed the best results for most of the M. sieversii samples examined.

  16. Phytochemical, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethylacetate Extract of the Leaves of Pseudocedrella Kotschyii

    OpenAIRE

    Musa, Y M; Haruna, A K; Ilyas, M; Yaro, A H; Ahmadu, A A; Usman, H

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethylacetate partition portion of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins as major chemical constituents. Alkaloids saponins, ca...

  17. Improvement of Fermented Fish Flour Quality Using Essential Oil Extracted From Fresh Leaves of Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore

    OpenAIRE

    Adjou, Euloge S.; D?gnon, Ren? G.; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M.; Sohounhloue, Dominique C. K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of Pimenta racemosa in the improvement of fermented fish flour producing technology. Essential oil of Pimenta racemosa was extracted by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition was determined by GC and GC/MS. Different types of fermented fish flours from Lesser African Threadfin (Galeoides decadactylus) were produced by the modification of the traditional processing technology and the int...

  18. Polyphenolic extracts of cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves as natural preservatives in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata; Efenberger, Magdalena; Krala, Lucjan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using polyphenolic extracts from cherry and blackcurrant leaves as natural antimicrobial agents in meat products. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was analyzed and their impact on the microbial quality, lipid oxidation, color, and sensory evaluation of pork sausages was studied. Polyphenolic extracts were obtained from leaves collected in September. The total polyphenolic content in sour cherry leaf extract was 1.5 times higher than that found in blackcurrant leaf extract. Analysis of the polyphenol profile of each extract revealed two major groups: phenolic acids and flavonoids, including epigallocatechin and glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. After chilling the sausages for 14 and 28 days, the extracts caused significantly lower MDA generation, indicating an antioxidant effect. Color changes after 28 days of storage were perceptible in the case of all treatments, with and without polyphenols. The application of sour cherry and black currant leaf extracts increased the shelf life of vacuum-packed sausages. Both extracts enhanced the microbial quality of the pork sausages over 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sour cherry leaf polyphenols were more effective against almost all studied groups of microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoids total of ethanolic extract of Ipomoea batata L. leaves (white, yellow, orange, and purple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewijanti, Indah Dwiatmi; Banjarnahor, Sofna D.; Triyuliani, Maryani, Faiza; Meilawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Antioxidant activity, phenolic and total flavonoids from sweet potato ethanol extract (Ipomea batatas L.) of different varieties (white, yellow, orange and purple) were studied. Sweet potatoes were collected from Research Centre for Chemistry. Sweet potato leaves have been used for numerous oxidative-associated diseases such as cancer, allergy, aging, HIV and cardiovascular. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to investigate antioxidant activity in leaves, in which the yellow and purple varieties showed the highest and the lowest scavenging activities of 47.65 µg/ ml (IC50) and 87.402 µg/ ml (IC50), respectively. In this study, the yellow leaves showed the highest concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoids contents at 11.293 µg/g and 44.963 µg/g, respectively. Therefore, sweet potato leaves can be used as a prospective natural antioxidant.

  20. Isolation of hydroxytyrosol from olive leaves extract, radioiodination and investigation of bioaffinity using in vivo/in vitro methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, M.; Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Kilcar, A. Yurt; Medine, E.I.; Unak, P. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2013-11-01

    It is known that medicinal plants like olive have biological activities due to their flavonoid content such as olueropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol etc. In current study, hydroxytrosol (HT) which is one of the major phenolic compounds in olive, olive leaves and olive oil, was isolated after methanol extraction and purification of olive leaves which are grown in the northern Anatolia region of Turkey. The isolated HT was radiolabeled with {sup 131}I ({sup 131}I-HT) and the bioaffinity of this radiolabeled component of olive leaves extract was investigated by using in vivo/in vitro methods. It was found that HT could be radiolabeled with {sup 131}I in yields of 95.6 {+-} 4.4% (n = 8), and in vivo studies showed that {sup 131}I-HT is taken up by urinary bladder, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, breast and prostate. Significant incorporation of activity was observed in cell lines via in vitro studies. (orig.)

  1. Effect of Plant Age on the Quantity and Quality of Proteins Extracted from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Vissers, Anne; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter Alexander

    2016-11-09

    Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant age (i.e., harvesting time), using leaves from sugar beets grown in a field (Rhino, Arrival) and in a greenhouse (Isabella). Within the same variety (Rhino, field; Arrival, field; Isabella, greenhouse) the protein content was similar for leaves from young and old plants (22 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 10 ± 3% w/w db, respectively). Variation in final protein isolation yield was mostly due to variation in nitrogen extractability (28-56%), although no consistent correlation with plant age was found. A significant effect of plant age was observed on the quality (color) of the extracted protein, that is, brown (indicative of polyphenol oxidase activity) and yellow for extracts from old and young plants, respectively.

  2. Effects of olive leave extract on metabolic disorders and oxidative stress induced by 2.45 GHz WIFI signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Myriam Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Abderraba, Manef

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effect of olive leaves extract administration on glucose metabolism and oxidative response in liver and kidneys of rats exposed to radio frequency (RF). The exposure of rats to RF (2.45 GHz, 1h/day during 21 consecutive days) induced a diabetes-like status. Moreover, RF decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, -33.33% and -49.40%) catalase (CAT, -43.39% and -39.62%) and the superoxide dismutase (SOD, -59.29% and -68.53%) and groups thiol amount (-62.68% and -34.85%), respectively in liver and kidneys. Indeed, exposure to RF increased the malondialdehyde (MDA, 29.69% and 51.35%) concentration respectively in liver and kidneys. Olive leaves extract administration (100 mg/kg, ip) in RF-exposed rats prevented glucose metabolism disruption and restored the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD and thiol group amount in liver and kidneys. Moreover, olive leave extract administration was able to bring down the elevated levels of MDA in liver but not in kidneys. Our investigations suggested that RF exposure induced a diabetes-like status through alteration of oxidative response. Olive leaves extract was able to correct glucose metabolism disorder by minimizing oxidative stress induced by RF in rat tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Approaches to the determination of antioxidant activity of extracts from bee bread and safflower leaves and flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Hudz

    2017-01-01

    in fall and in spring. Antioxidant activity of the extracts from leaves of spring sown safflower was higher compared with the total antioxidant activity of the extracts from fall sown plants. Ascorbic acid equivalents of the tested extracts could be ranged as follows: bee bread of 2016 pollen collection >bee bread of 2015 pollen collection >leaves of safflower spring sown >flowers of safflower spring sown >flowers of safflower fall sown >leaves of safflower fall sown. 

  4. Studies on the antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic activities of Viola odorata leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi Hasan S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to provide pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Viola odorata Linn. in hypertension and dyslipidemia using the in vivo and in vitro assays. Results Viola odorata leaves extract (Vo.Cr, which tested positive for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, coumarins and flavonoids, caused a dose-dependent (0.1-1.0 mg/kg decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. In isolated guinea-pig atria, Vo.Cr equally inhibited force and rate of spontaneous atrial contractions. On the baseline of rat thoracic aortae (endothelium-intact and denuded, the plant extract caused phentolamine-sensitive vasoconstriction. When tested on phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM and K+ (80 mM-induced vasoconstriction, Vo.Cr caused a concentration-dependent relaxation and also caused a rightward shift of Ca++ concentration-response curves as well as suppression of PE (1 μM control peaks in Ca++-free medium, similar to that caused by verapamil. In the presence of L-NAME, the relaxation curve of Vo.Cr was partially inhibited showing involvement of Nitric oxide (NO mediated pathway. In Tyloxapol-induced dyslipidemia, Vo.Cr caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia model, the plant extract caused a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-C, atherogenic index and prevented the increase in average body weights, while it increased HDL-C. Conclusions These data indicate that the vasodilator effect of the plant extract is mediated through multiple pathways like inhibition of Ca++ influx via membranous Ca++ channels, its release from intracellular stores and NO-mediated pathways, which possibly explain the fall in BP. The plant also showed reduction in body weight and antidyslipidemic effect which may be due to the inhibition of synthesis and absorption of lipids and antioxidant activities. Thus, this study provides a pharmacologic rationale to the medicinal

  5. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  6. Phytochemical studies of various polarities leave crude extracts of Omani Datura metel L. and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saleh Hamed Al-Jafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the chemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial potential of various crude extracts from leaves of Datura metel grown in Oman. Methods: The leaf samples were collected from the University of Nizwa and extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. The isolated crude extract was defatted with distilled water and extracted with solvents of different polarities including hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Chemical compositions of the crude extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and their antimicrobial potential was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method against one Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonus aeruginosa. Results: The crude extracts were composed of different organic compounds such as alkaloids, hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, terpenoids, vitamin etc. The methanol and its fractionated crude extracts showed antimicrobial potential with inhibition zone in the range of 0-13 mm. Conclusions: The selective crude extract from the leaves of Datura metel could be used as natural antibiotics.

  7. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves extract of Artemisia vulgaris and their potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Tahir; Bilal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Li, Chuanlong

    2017-10-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plant extracts is receiving enormous interest due to their abundant availability and a broad spectrum of bioactive reducing metabolites. In this study, the reducing potential of Artemisia vulgaris leaves extract (AVLE) was investigated for synthesizing silver nanoparticles without the addition of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of blackish brown color evidenced the complete synthesis of nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. UV-vis absorption profile of the bio-reduced sample elucidated the main peak around 420nm, which correspond to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. SEM and AFM analyses confirmed the morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles. Similarly, particles with a distinctive peak of silver were examined with EDX. The average diameter of silver nanoparticles was about 25nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). FTIR spectroscopy scrutinized the involvement of various functional groups during nanoparticle synthesis. The green synthesized nanoparticles presented effective antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria than AVLE alone. In-vitro antioxidant assays revealed that silver nanoparticles (AV-AgNPs) exhibited promising antioxidant properties. The nanoparticles also displayed a potent cytotoxic effect against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. In conclusion, the results supported the advantages of employing a bio-green approach for developing silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities in a simple and cost- competitive manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Nitin Mestry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum, due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p. in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  9. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Snehal Nitin; Dhodi, Jayesh Bachu; Kumbhar, Sangita Balbhim; Juvekar, Archana Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum , due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS) positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Preliminary phytochemical screening, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of leaves extract of moringa oleifera lam. from salt range, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Qureshi, R.; Arshad, M.; Ahmed, M.E.; Ikram, M.

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a miraculous plant that endowed with variety of medicinal properties and traditionally used as herbal drug as well as nutraceutical agent. There is sporadic information on phytochemical and antifungal activity of various solvents based leaves extracts. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore In vitro antifungal activity of M. oleifera leaves against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger and Candida albicans at four different concentrations (50-300 mg/ml) by ager well diffusion method. Leaves of this plant were collected from the Thal Desert, Pakistan, dried under shade, powdered and kept in air tight sterilized bottles. Polarity based solvent extraction of powdered samples were carried out with different solvents. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts were found the most effective against all selected fungal strains. The maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in the case of methanolic leaves extract (16 mm) against A. niger at a concentration of 300 mg/ml, which was at par to the standard antibiotic. Methanolic extract showed the highest MIC value (70 mg/ml) against A. niger. There was very strong activity in terms of IC50 against MCF-7, INS-1, RG2 and HeLa (<5 mu gmL-1). The quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed that leaves possessed high amount of flavonoids (21.76+-0.68), followed tannins (14.3+-0.26), saponins (12.56+-0.51) and alkaloids (2.4+-0.85). This piece of research would be used as benchmark to carry-out further detailed study ranging from isolation, characterization, pharmacological diagnosis and clinical trials prior to launching marketable drug. (author)

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Characterization of Pectic Polysaccharide from Oriental Tobacco Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.; Tian, Z.; Li, X.; He, P.; Xu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of pectic Polysaccharide from oriental tobacco leaves was studied by orthogonal matrix method (L9(3)4). Furthermore, the crude Polysaccharide was purified and two components (Fr-I and Fr-II) were obtained. FT-IR spectral analysis of the purified EPS revealed prominent characteristic groups. The monosaccharide composition analysis indicated the main composition between Fr-I and Fr-II was different. Furthermore, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated the degradation temperature (Td) of the Fr-I (215 degree C) was higher than those of Fr-II (162 degree C). Detected by the pyrolysis GC/MS, though the main kinds of pyrolysis products from both Fr-I and Fr-II were similar, the larger amount of heterocycle and aromatic compounds liberated after hydrolysis of Fr-II. Finally, On the basis of the antioxidant activity test in vitro, Fr-II has stronger antioxidant activities than Fr-I. The thermal behavior and antioxidant activity might be attributed to the configuration of the sugar units and chemical compositions. (author)

  12. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-07-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as both a food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC), made by extracting fresh leaves with water, utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates into moringa isothiocyanates. Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate, and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate exhibited 80% stability at 37°C for 30 days. MC, and both of the isothiocyanates described above significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, both attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFα at 1 and 5 μM. These results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates, delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Ayobami Oladele; Aderoju, Hameed Adeola; Alagbonsi, Isiaka Abdullateef

    2013-01-01

    While anti-oxidant effects of Moringa oleifera in much oxidative stress related diseases have been well reported, cryptorchidism on the other hand has been shown to cause oxidative stress. However, study is scanty on the likely role of Moringa oleifera in reducing cryptorchidism-induced oxidative stress in rats has not been studied. The present study looked into the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MEMO) on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats. Twenty male albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5 each). Groups A and B were sham-operated and treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively, while groups C and D were rendered cryptorchid and also treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively. Cryptorchid rats had lower testicular weight, sperm count, germ cell count, testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration, testicular total protein and higher testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration compared to sham-operated rats. MEMO had no significant effect on testicular weight and MDA concentration, while it significantly increased sperm count, germ cell count, testicular SOD and total protein in the cryptorchid rats. The present study suggests that MEMO ameliorates cryptorchidism associated germ cell loss and oxidative stress.

  14. Optimized extraction, separation and quantification of twelve intact glucosinolates in broccoli leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ana M; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José L; Bernal, José

    2014-01-01

    A new method has been developed and validated to determine twelve intact glucosinolates (glucoiberin, GIB; glucoraphanin, GRA; glucoerucin GER; gluconapin, GNA; glucotropaeolin, GTL; glucobrassicin, GBC; gluconasturtiin, GST; glucoalyssin, ALY; 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, 4-OH; 4-metoxyglucobrassicin, 4ME; neoglucobrassicin, NEO; sinigrin, SIN) in broccoli leaves using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to diode array (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection. An extraction procedure has also been proposed and optimized by means of statistical analysis (the Box-Behnken design and analysis of variance); this is based on the deactivation of myrosinase using a microwave and heated water. Low limits of detection and quantification were obtained, ranging from 10 to 72 μg/g with DAD and 0.01 to 0.23 μg/g with ESI-MS, and the resulting recovery values ranged from 87% to 106% in all cases. Finally, glucosinolates were analyzed in broccoli leaf samples from six different cultivars (Ramoso calabrese Parthenon, Marathon, Nubia, Naxos and Viola). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical composition of essential oils from plantago lanceolata L. leaves extracted by hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomáš; Janda, Václav; Bajerová, Petra; Kremr, Daniel; Eisner, Aleš; Ventura, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Extensive traditional use of medical plants leads to research dealing with chemical composition of essential oils. The aim of this work was evaluation of quality of the essential oil and extending of the knowledge about chemical composition of essential oil from ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) and proportional representation of compounds. Extractions of essential oils from samples of ribwort were performed by hydrodistillation. GC-MS and GC-FID techniques were used for investigation of the qualitative and semi-quantitative content of aromatic compounds in the essential oils, respectively. Major aroma constituents of ribwort leaves were groups of fatty acids 28.0-52.1 % (the most abundant palmitic acid 15.3-32.0 %), oxidated monoterpenes 4.3-13.2 % (linalool 2.7-3.5 %), aldehydes and ketones 6.9-10.0 % (pentyl vinyl ketone 2.0-3.4 %) and alcohols 3.8-9.2 % (1-octen-3-ol 2.4-8.2 %). In relative high amount were identified apocarotenoids (1.5-2.3 %) which are important constituents because of their intense fragrant. The importance is in potential manufacture control of feedstocks before producing of food supplements.

  16. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  17. Hypoglycemic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae

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    Edilene B. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The effect of the oral treatment (20 mg/kg x day with the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Averrhoa carambola L. (HELAC on fasting glycemia (15 h was examined. For this purpose, rats that received vehicle (Control group or HELAC (HELAC group during 15 days were compared. HELAC group showed lower fasting glycemia (p<0.05. In contrast, livers from HELAC group showed higher (p<0.05 glucose production from L-alanine (5 mM. This effect was mediated, at least part of it, by an activation of the catabolism of L-alanine inferred by the increased hepatic urea (p<0.05 and L-lactate (p<0.05 production. Differently of L-alanine, the glucose production from L-glutamine (5 mM, L-lactate (2 mM and glycerol (2 mM was similar (Control group vs. HELAC group. In addition, the HELAC treatment did not change the glucose uptake in soleus muscles, inferred by the incorporation of [14C]-glucose to glycogen (glycogen synthesis and [14C]-lactate production. Thus, we can conclude that the reduction of fasting glycemia promoted by the treatment with HELAC was not mediated by an inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and/or an increased glucose uptake by muscles.

  18. Triterpenoid Contents and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of the Methanol Extracts of Ligustrum Species Leaves

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    Yung-Ta Lin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ligustrum (privet plants are used by Chinese physicians to prevent and cure hepatitis and chronic bronchitis. Three common Ligustrum plant spp., namely Ligustrum lucidum Ait. (LL, L. pricei Hayata (LP and L. sinensis Lour. (LS were collected to assess their analgesic/anti-inflammatory properties on chemical-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rodents. The methanol extracts from Ligustrum plants leaves effectively inhibited nociceptive responses induced by 1% acetic acid and 1% formalin. LP and LL reduced the edema induced by 1% carrageenan. LP exhibited the best potency of the Ligustrum plants. Furthermore, LP reduced the abdominal Evan’s blue extravasations caused by lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, autocrines and sodium nitroprusside. The triterpenoid content of the three Ligustrum spp. was measured by high performance liquid chromatography using a photodiode array detector. LP contained the highest content of amyrin, betulinic acid and lupeol. LL had the highest content of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The various degrees of analgesic/anti-inflammatory effects among three Ligustrum plants may be related to their different triterpenoid contents. LP is a potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory Ligustrum plant. The effects of LP are partially related to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity and a decrease in microvascular permeability via the actions of autocrines and kinins.

  19. Evaluation of the toxicity and antiulcerogenic activity of the ethanol extract of Maytenus obtusifolia Mart. leaves

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    Kelly Samara de Lira Mota

    Full Text Available Maytenus obtusifolia is used in folk medicine for the treatment of serious ulcers, general inflammations and cancer. Despite of the ethnopharmacological importance of this species, no study was conducted to evaluate its toxicity and antiulcerogenic activity. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity and antiulcerogenic property of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Maytenus obtusifolia (MO-EtOH. The MO-EtOH (10-1000 µg/mL showed low toxicity for larvae of A. salina with LC50 higher than 1000 µg/mL. The MO-EtOH (2000 mg/kg, p.o. did not change the body and organs weight of the mice, but it was observed an increase in the water consumption of males and a decrease in the food consumption of females. During the study no deaths and no macroscopic changes in the organs were observed in the mice. MO-EtOH (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg and lansoprazole (30 mg/kg significantly reduced the ulcerative index for 65.58 ± 8.74, 43.00 ± 9.53, 15.50 ± 7.56, 54.75 ± 8.88 and 36.13 ± 9.55, respectively, in comparison with saline 82.13 ± 12.48. In conclusion, the MO-EtOH showed low toxicity and antiulcerogenic activity, confirming the popular use of M. obtusifolia.

  20. Reducing the level of leaves damage of (Brassica rapa) caused by armyworm (Spodoptera litura F.) through liquid bioinsecticide formulation of bintaro (Cerbera odollam) leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhatika, Sri; Ermavitalini, Dini; Saputro, Triono Bagus; Budiarti, Dwi Setia

    2017-06-01

    Bioinsecticide formulation conducted by adjuvant addition to improve its effecetiveness in the application. Its addition was only help to work whereas active compound and ingredient as a main core originated from plant simplicia. This research was utilized bintaro (Cerbera odollam) as simplicia. It already began to use it as bioinsecticide against armyworm (Spodoptera litura F) even formulation approachment was not conducted in mustard (Brassica rapa) in previous research. Mustard commodity commonly measured based on leaves performences, when its performance broke by pest such as armyworm might decline the commercial value. So this research aimed to determine the effectiveness of liquid biopesticide formulation of the active ingredient from bintaro (Cerbera odollam) leaf extract in pressing the attack larvae of S. litura F. Larvae deployed in mustard leaves (16 HST). Liquid bioinsecticide concentration formulated in 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%. Spraying method used to against S. litura F. consisted on preventive (15 HST) and curative (17 HST). Leaves damage observation conducted at day - 35th (HST). The result showed the formulation suppressed larvae from 40% concentration in preventive way 15 HST and 60% concentration as curative way at 17 HST.

  1. Molluscicidal Activity of the Methanol Extract of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertner) G.Don ex Loudon Fruits, Bark and Leaves against Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails

    OpenAIRE

    A Gohar, Ahmed; T Maatooq, Galal; R Gadara, Sahar; S Aboelmaaty, Walaa; M El-Shazly, Atef

    2014-01-01

    Methanol extracts of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. Ex Gaertner) G.Don Ex Loudon fruits, bark and leaves were tested for molluscicidal activity. Snails were collected and kept in dechlorinated water under standard condition. Ten adults Biomphalaria Alexandrina, of the same size, were introduced in plastic acquaria for each experiment. The fruits, barks and leaves were extracted with methanol and the methanol extracts were kept for testing as molluscicides. Different extracts proved to have mollu...

  2. Influence of agronomic variables on the composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) extracts obtained from CO2 extraction at 30 degrees C and 175 bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmelindro, Angela Aquino; Girardi, Jonathan Dos Santos; Mossi, Altemir; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Dariva, Cláudio

    2004-04-07

    The aim of this work is to assess the influence of light intensity (plants with direct sun exposure and in a controlled light intensity) and age of leaves (6-24 months) on the characteristics of the extracts of mate tea leaves obtained from carbon dioxide at high pressures. Samples of mate were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Industria e Comercio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. The content of selected organic compounds of the extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography together with mass spectrometry. Quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, phytol, vitamin E, squalene, and stigmasterol was performed, and the results showed that field variables exert a strong influence on the liquid yield and on the chemical distribution of the extracts.

  3. The evaluation of extraction techniques for Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) from apple (Malus domestica) and cherry (Prunus avium) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adrian L; Ullah, Roshan; Fountain, Michelle T

    2017-08-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a widespread polyphagous mite, found on a variety of fruit crops. Tetranychus urticae feeds on the underside of the leaves perforating plant cells and sucking the cell contents. Foliar damage and excess webbing produced by T. urticae can reduce fruit yield. Assessments of T. urticae populations while small provide reliable and accurate ways of targeting control strategies and recording their efficacy against T. urticae. The aim of this study was to evaluate four methods for extracting low levels of T. urticae from leaf samples, representative of developing infestations. These methods were compared to directly counting of mites on leaves under a dissecting microscope. These methods were ethanol washing, a modified paraffin/ethanol meniscus technique, Tullgren funnel extraction and the Henderson and McBurnie mite brushing machine with consideration to: accuracy, precision and simplicity. In addition, two physically different leaf morphologies were compared; Prunus leaves which are glabrous with Malus leaves which are setaceous. Ethanol extraction consistently yielded the highest numbers of mites and was the most rapid method for recovering T. urticae from leaf samples, irrespective of leaf structure. In addition the samples could be processed and stored before final counting. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in detail.

  4. Polyphenolic and biological activities of leaves extracts of Argemone subfusiformis (Papaveraceae and Urtica urens (Urticaceae

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    Florence Jimoh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a resurgence of interest in wild plants for their possible medicinal value in diets, since some epidemiological studies have demonstrated their effectiveness against important diseases. Generally, foods of plant origin contain many bioactive compounds, proteins, energy, vitamins and specific minerals; in addition, the popular wild plant species provide fibre, essential fatty acids and enhance the taste and colour in diets. We studied the nutritional and medicinal potential of leaves of A. subfusiformis and U. urens, collected in Alice, South Africa in November 2006. To asses this we analyzed the phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of leaves in acetone, methanol and water extracts, using standard analytical methods. The proximate analysis showed that the leaves of both plant species contained appreciable percentages of moisture; ashes; carbohydrates; crude proteins, lipids and fibres. Elemental analysis of macro and microelements showed higher values for U. urens that contained in decreasing order: iron>manganese>zinc>copper>calcium>potassium>nitrogen>magnesium> phosphorus>sodium, for A. subfusiformis resulted in iron>zinc>manganese>coppe r>calcium>potassium>nitrogen>magnesium>phosphorus>sodium. Besides, the chemical composition showed higher concentration of alkaloids, saponins and phytates in A. subfusiformis. The extracts also caused 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2-azinobis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging activities which were comparable to those of ascorbic acid. The extracts of both plants contained appreciable levels of polyphenols and also caused varied inhibition of some bacterial strains used in this study. When the nutrient and chemical constituents of these plants were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA values, the results revealed that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients, minerals, and phytochemicals and low levels of

  5. Assessment of the medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedapo, Adeolu A; Jimoh, Florence O; Koduru, Srinivas; Masika, Patrick J; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2009-07-06

    Buddleja saligna Willd (Loganiaceae) is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree; trunk short, often gnarled and crooked; crown dense, rounded or domed-shaped; foliage greyish green. The wild olives are traditionally used to lower blood pressures in many parts of the world. In southern Africa, bark and leaf decoctions are used to treat colic, coughs, colds, sore eyes, urinary problems and as purgatives. The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the leaves and stem extracts of Buddleja saligna were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Laboratory isolates of 10 bacteria species which included five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative strains were used to assay for antibacterial activity of this plant. The antioxidant activities of the leaves as determined by the ABTS and DPPH were similar to that of the stem. The flavonoids and the flavonols contents of the leaves were higher than that of the stem but the total phenols, proanthocyanidins and FRAP activities were higher in the methanol extracts of the stem. The extracts did show activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. For instance, while the methanol extract of the leaves showed good activities on all the organisms except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at MICs of between 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml, the extract of the stem only showed activities on Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyrogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the same concentration. The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of Buddleja saligna possess antioxidant properties and could serve as

  6. Assessment of the medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masika Patrick J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buddleja saligna Willd (Loganiaceae is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree; trunk short, often gnarled and crooked; crown dense, rounded or domed-shaped; foliage greyish green. The wild olives are traditionally used to lower blood pressures in many parts of the world. In southern Africa, bark and leaf decoctions are used to treat colic, coughs, colds, sore eyes, urinary problems and as purgatives. Methods The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the leaves and stem extracts of Buddleja saligna were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. Laboratory isolates of 10 bacteria species which included five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative strains were used to assay for antibacterial activity of this plant. Results The antioxidant activities of the leaves as determined by the ABTS and DPPH were similar to that of the stem. The flavonoids and the flavonols contents of the leaves were higher than that of the stem but the total phenols, proanthocyanidins and FRAP activities were higher in the methanol extracts of the stem. The extracts did show activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. For instance, while the methanol extract of the leaves showed good activities on all the organisms except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at MICs of between 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml, the extract of the stem only showed activities on Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyrogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the same concentration. Conclusion The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of

  7. In vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmehr, Banafsheh; Ghaznavi, Habib; Rahbar, Amir; Sadr, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed

    2014-06-01

    The anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves against extracellular (promastigote) and intracellular (amastigote) forms of Leishmania major were evaluated in this study. In the first stage, promastigote forms of L. major, were treated with different doses of the plant extracts in a 96-well tissue-culture microplate and IC50 values for each extract were measured with colorimetric MTT assay. In the second stage, macrophage cells were infected with L. major promastigotes. Infected macrophages were treated with plant extracts. Then the macrophages were stained with Gimsa and the number of infected macrophages and amastigotes were counted with a light microscope. The results indicated that the plant extracts inhibited the growth of promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for promastigote assay were 108.19, 155.15, and 184.32 μgmL(-1) for C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds and S. officinalis, respectively. The extracts also reduced the number of amastigotes in macrophage cells from 264 for control group to 88, 97, and 102 for test groups. Although the anti-leishmanial activity of the extracts were not comparable with the standard drug, miltefosine; but they showed significant efficiency in reducing the number of amastigotes in macrophages, in comparison with the control group (P officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds, and S. officinalis leaves to control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of ethyl acetate extract from persimmon leaves on Alzheimer's disease and its underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shun-Wang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Liu, Qing-Bo; Luo, Sheng-Yong; Peng, Ying; Sun, Bei; Wu, De-Ling; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2016-06-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders characterized by neuronal loss in the brain and cognitive impairment. AD is now considered to be the third major cause of death in developed countries, after cardiovascular disease and cancer. Persimmon leaves are used as a popular folk medicine to treat hypertension, angina and internal haemorrhage in Cyangbhina, and it has been reported that ethyl acetate extract of persimmon leaves (EAPL) displays a potential therapeutic effect on neurodegenerative diseases. This study was designed to investigate the effects of EAPL on AD, to clarify the possible mechanism by which EAPL exerts its beneficial effects and prevents AD, and to determine the major constituents involved. AD model was established by bilateral injection of Aβ1-42 into the hippocampus of rats. The cognitive performance was determined by the Morris water maze and step-down tests. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), apoptosis, total and phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK/p-JNK), caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 were determined. In addition, a sensitive and reliable LC-QTOF-MS method was applied to identify the major compounds present in EAPL. EAPL at doses of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg could markedly reduce the latency, significantly increase the time in the first quadrant and number of the target crossing times in Morris water maze test, markedly increase the latency and reduce the number of errors in the step-down test, significantly inhibit the reductions in SOD and GSH-Px activities, and increase the level of MDA. In addition, EAPL treatment attenuated neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus, reduced the expression of p-JNK, caspase-3, and the relative ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Meanwhile, 32 constituents were identified by LC-QTOF-MS/MS assays. The results indicate that EAPL has a potent protective effect on cognitive deficits induced by Aβ in rats and this effect appears to be

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of methanol extract of Carissa opaca leaves on CCl4-induced damage in rat

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    Khan Rahmat A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carissa opaca (Apocynaceae leaves possess antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative in hepatic disorders. The effect produced by methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves (MCL was investigated on CCl4-induced liver damages in rat. Methods 30 rats were divided into five groups of six animals of each, having free access to food and water ad libitum. Group I (control was given olive oil and DMSO, while group II, III and IV were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg as a 20% (v/v solution in olive oil twice a week for 8 weeks. Animals of group II received only CCl4. Rats of group III were given MCL intragastrically at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw while that of group IV received silymarin at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw twice a week for 8 weeks. However, animals of group V received MCL only at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw twice a week for 8 weeks. The activities of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT were determined in serum. Catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GSR and quinone reductase (QR activity was measured in liver homogenates. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS, glutathione (GSH and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration was also assessed in liver homogenates. Phytochemicals in MCL were determined through qualitative and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. Results Hepatotoxicity induced with CCl4 was evidenced by significant increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS and H2O2 level, serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and γ-GT. Level of GSH determined in liver was significantly reduced, as were the activities of antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px, GSR, GST and QR. On cirrhotic animals treated with

  10. Enhanced and green extraction polyphenols and furanocoumarins from Fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves using deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Peng; Guo, Na; Niu, Li-Li; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-10-25

    Nowadays, green extraction of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants has gained increasing attention. As green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) have been highly rated to replace toxic organic solvents in extraction process. In present study, to simultaneous extraction five main bioactive compounds from fig leaves, DES was tailor-made. The tailor-made DES composed of a 3:3:3 molar ratio of glycerol, xylitol and D-(-)-Fructose showed enhanced extraction yields for five target compounds simultaneously compared with traditional methanol and non-tailor DESs. Then, the tailor-made DES based extraction methods have compared and microwave-assisted extraction was selected and optimized due to its high extraction yields with lower time consumption. The influencing parameters including extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions the extraction yield of caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten was 6.482mg/g, 16.34mg/g, 5.207mg/g, 15.22mg/g and 2.475mg/g, respectively. Macroporous resin D101 has been used to recovery target compounds with recovery yields of 79.2%, 83.4%, 85.5%, 81.2% and 75.3% for caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten, respectively. The present study suggests that DESs are truly designer and efficient solvents and the method we developed was efficient and sustainable for extraction main compounds from Fig leaves.mg/g. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties, and Gas Chromatographic-Time of Flight Analysis of Sonchus arvensis Leaves Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itam, A.; Shah, A. M.; Majid, A.; Ismail, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Sonchus arvensis L. (Asteraceae) is one of the medicinal herbs used in traditional medicines, in which the leaf extract was used as a diuretic, lithotriptic and antiurolithiasis agent. The leaves of S. arvensis reported contain several compounds, including a variety of flavonoids, terpenoids and sterol, even this plant also contain silica and potassium. Flavonoids are secondary metabolite compound which have ability as antioxidant. In this study, the aims are to determine of antioxidants and antiangiogenic properties, and phytoconstituents quantitative of aqueous and methanol extracts of S. arvensis leaves. The antioxidant properties were studied using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, xanthine oxidase and beta-carotene-linoleate models system. Furthermore, the antiangiogenic property was evaluated using ex vivo rat aorta ring assay. Quantitative determination of extracts phytoconstituents were carried out by using Gas Chromatographic-Time of Flight (GC-TOF) mass spectrophotometric methods. The results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts have ability as antioxidant which is antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts on DPPH radical and inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity are higher than that of methanol extracts. Meanwhile antioxidant activity using beta-carotene-linoleate model system of S. arvensis aqueous extract is lower than that of methanol extracts. Nevertheless, the differences of these antioxidant activities are not significant. Antiangiogenic property of aqueous extract is also higher than that of methanol extract which is measured at 100 meu g mL/sup -1/ of extracts. This indicates that there is correlation between antioxidant activity and antiangigenic property, exhibiting that this plant possesses the potential to prevent or cure the diseases that related to angiogenesis such as cancer. (author)

  12. Comparative Analysis of Phenolics, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Methanolic, Hexanic and Aqueous Extracts from Adiantum caudatum Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dildar Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for new medicines, the methanolic, hexanic, and aqueous extracts of Adiantum caudatum leaves, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, were analyzed for phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. TPCs (total phenolic content of the methanolic, aqueous and hexanic extracts were 27.7, 21.1, and 16.7 μg of gallic acid equivalents per mL, respectively, while TFCs (total flavonoid content were 13.2, 11.6, and 10.0 μg of rutin equivalents per mL, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts in reducing power, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power, phosphomolybdate and ABTS assays follow the same order of methanolic ˃ aqueous ˃ hexanic. In the DPPH assay, however, the aqueous extract exhibited a slightly higher antioxidant activity than the methanolic one. Methanol is therefore a better solvent to extract most of the antioxidant components from A. caudatum leaves. In lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, the extracts showed almost similar behavior and their activity decreased gradually with time. The aqueous extract was the strongest inhibitor after two days, but the hexanic became the most potent after about three days. The antibacterial potential of the extracts was determined against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Towards all the microbes, the aqueous extract was the most potent and the hexanic the least. P. aeruginosa was the most susceptible strain, while the aqueous and methanolic extracts exhibited a slightly higher efficacy against this pathogen than the drug amoxicillin. In conclusion, A. caudatum can potentially provide a remedy against disorders caused by oxidative stress and infections.

  13. Short communication: Aqueous-acetone extraction improves the drawbacks of using dimethylsulfoxide as solvent for photometric pigment quantification in Quercus ilex leaves

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    Rosario Gonzalez-Cascon

    2017-10-01

    Research highlights: Oxidizing conditions and polyphenol concentrations in Q. ilex leaves generated brown colorations in the DMSO extraction procedure, interfering with the photometric measurements in the red-orange region. Aqueous-acetone extraction was free from interference. DMSO should be avoided for pigment determination in Q. ilex leaves or when comparing different tree species.

  14. Emblica Officinalis (Indian Gooseberry Leaves Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1N HCl Medium

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    R. Saratha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibition efficiency of acid extract of dry Emblica officinalis leaves for mild steel in 1N HCl medium is investigated in the present study. Experimental methods include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance studies. The results indicate Emblica officinalis leaves to be a good corrosion inhibitor of a mixed type and having efficiency of 87.9% at 2% v/v inhibitor concentration. Corrosion inhibition may be due to the spontaneous physical adsorption of the plant constituents on the mild steel surface. Experimental data fitted the Langmuir, Temkin, Freundlich and Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherms.

  15. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of Olea europaea leaves against Diclofenac-induced liver damages in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussi, Rawya; Hfaiedh, Najla; Guesmi, Fatma; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2018-04-20

    Historically, olive tree "Olea europaea" is one of the most important fruit trees in Mediterranean countries. Several studies suggest that olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds compared to olive oil and fruits. This study was undertaken to investigate, the protective effect of the aqueous extract of « Chemlali » olive leaves against diclofenac-induced damages in liver and haematological alterations in swiss albinos mice. For this, twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups: a control group, a diclofenac-treated group (2.37 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days, a group orally gavaged with aqueous extract of olive leaves, (3.3g/kg) during 28 days, and a group pre-treated with aqueous extract of olive leaves during 23 days then injected with diclofenac for 5 days. Results obtained from this study revealed that administration of diclofenac alone led to disturbance of some haematological parameters including red and white blood cells (RBC), (WBC) haemoglobin (Hb) and platelets content (PLT). However, diclofenac-treated mice group showed a increasing in the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, creatinine, urea, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). Additionally we noted a state of oxidative stress in hepatic tissue indicated by the increasing of lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Interstingly, pre-treatment with olive leaves extract improved the haematological parameters and minimised the adverse effect on the hepatic function markers induced by diclofenac. The beneficial effect of olive leaves could be attributed to its antioxidant components as confirmed by phytochemical analysis.

  16. Aqueous-acetone extraction improves the drawbacks of using dimethylsulfoxide as solvent for photometric pigment quantification in Quercus ilex leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Cascon, R.; Jiménez-Fenoy, L.; Verdú-Fillola, I.; Martín, M.P.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: We evaluated the use of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for the photometric determination of chlorophyll (Chla and Chlb) and carotenoids in Quercus ilex L. leaves by comparative analysis using aqueous-acetone extraction. Area of study: a Q. ilex dehesa in Las Majadas del Tietar, Cáceres, Spain Material and methods: Q. ilex leaves were sampled during two vegetative periods. Field SPAD-502 Chlorophyll measurements and photometric chlorophyll determinations were performed. Two procedures were used: extraction of intact foliar discs at 65ºC with DMSO and fine foliar powder with cold aqueous-acetone. Main results: DMSO produced Chlb overestimation and different fitting performance for SPAD vs pigment calibrations (R2=0.64, RMSE=0.20, p<0.0001 for Chla (µg/cm2); R2=0.33, RMSE=0.23, p<0.0001 for Chlb (µg/cm2) and R2=0.50, RMSE=0.23, p<0.0001 for carotenoids (µg/cm2)). Aqueous-acetone provided more accurate predictions (R2=0.90, RMSE=0.16, p<0.0001 for Chla and R2=0.91, RMSE=0.16, p<0.0001 for Chlb, R2=0.90, RMSE=0.02, p<0.0001 for carotenoids) and mean ratio Chla/Chlb=3.6 inside the range for sun exposed leaves. Research highlights: Oxidizing conditions and polyphenol concentrations in Q. ilex leaves generated brown coloration in the DMSO extraction procedure, interfering with the photometric measurements in the red-orange region. Aqueous-acetone extraction was free from interference. DMSO should be avoided for pigment determination in Q. ilex leaves or when comparing different tree species.

  17. Phytochemical, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethylacetate extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Y M; Haruna, A K; Ilyas, M; Yaro, A H; Ahmadu, A A; Usman, H

    2007-10-27

    Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethylacetate partition portion of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins as major chemical constituents. Alkaloids saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids were not dictated in the extract. The ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p) exhibited significant activity (pacetic acid-induced writhing in a dose dependent manner. In the anti-inflammatory activity the ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.) caused a slight effect against the raw egg albumin-induced oedema. The effect was however observed not to be dose dependent. All these effects were compared with standard drug piroxicam (20 mg/kg i.p.).

  18. Optimization and Comparison of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Estragole from Tarragon Leaves with Hydro-Distillation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Gholivand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and hydro-distillation was performed for fast extraction of estragole from tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L. dried leaves. Several influential parameters of the UAE procedure in the extraction of estragole (type of solvent, extraction cycles, solvent to material ratio, irradiation time and particle size were investigated and optimized. It was found that UAE offers a more rapid extraction of estragole than hydrodistillation. The optimum parameters were solvent to material ratio of 8:1 v/m, 96% (w/w ethanol in water as extraction solvent, particle size of 1.18 mm, irradiation time of 5 min, output power of 63 W, 9 pulses, and ultrasonic frequency of 20 kHz. The recovery of estragole by UAE under optimal conditions was 44.4% based on dry extract. The benefit of ultrasound was to decrease the extraction time (5 min relative to the classical hydrodistillation method (3 h. The experimental results also indicated that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a simple, rapid and effective method for extraction of the volatile oil components of tarragon.

  19. Antimicrobial and Antiradical Activity of Extracts Obtained from Leaves of Five Species of the Genus Bergenia: Identification of Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska, Beata; Franiczek, Roman; Sowa, Alina; Połukord, Grażyna; Krzyżanowska, Barbara; Sroka, Zbigniew

    2017-09-01

    An important focus of modern medicine is the search for new substances and strategies to combat infectious diseases, which present an increasing threat due to the growth of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Another problem concerns free radicals, which in excess can cause several serious diseases. An alternative to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial and antiradical compounds is to find active substances in plant raw materials. We prepared extracts from leaves of five species of the genus Bergenia: B. purpurascens, B. cordifolia, B. ligulata, B. crassifolia, and B. ciliata. Antimicrobial and antiradical features of extracts and raw materials were assessed, and the quantities of phenolic compounds were determined. We also evaluated, using high-performance liquid chromatography, the amounts of arbutin and hydroquinone, compounds related to antimicrobial activity of these raw materials. The strongest antiradical properties were shown by leaves of B. crassifolia and B. cordifolia, the lowest by leaves of B. ciliata. The antiradical activity of extracts showed a strong positive correlation with the amount of phenols. All raw materials have significant antimicrobial properties. Among them, the ethyl acetate extracts were the most active. Antimicrobial activity very weakly correlated with the amount of arbutin, but correlated very strongly with the contents of both hydroquinone and phenolic compounds. Additional experiments using artificially prepared mixtures of phenolic compounds and hydroquinone allowed us to conclude that the most active antimicrobial substance is hydroquinone.

  20. In Vitro Control of Uropathogenic Microorganisms with the Ethanolic Extract from the Leaves of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank Pilger

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    Danny Ellen Meireles Leme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The roots of Cochlospermum regium, popularly known as “algodãozinho-do-cerrado,” are used for the treatment of genitourinary infections. However, the removal of their subterranean structures results in the death of the plant, and the use of the leaves becomes a viable alternative. Therefore, the antimicrobial activity of Cochlospermum regium leaf’s ethanolic extract and its action on the biofilm formation of microorganisms associated with urinary infection were evaluated. The total phenolic compounds, flavoids, and tannins were quantified using the reagents Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride, and vanillin, respectively. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method and the effect of the extract in the biofilm treatment was measured by the drop plate method. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the method based on the reduction of MTS and the mutagenicity by the Ames test. The ethanolic extract of C. regium leaves presented 87.4 mg/EQ of flavonoids, 167.2 mg/EAG of total phenolic compounds, and 21.7 mg/ECA of condensed tannins. It presented reduction of the biofilm formation for E. coli and C. tropicalis and antimicrobial action of 1 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The extract showed no cytotoxicity and mutagenicity at the concentrations tested. This study demonstrated that C. regium leaves are a viable option for the treatment of genitourinary infections and for the species preservation.

  1. Evaluation of antihyperglycaemic activity of Calotropis procera leaves extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats

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    Mário C. L. Neto

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T.Aiton,Apocynaceae, popularly known as "algodão-de-seda", is a wild African bush, rich in bioactive substances that determine the medicinal potential of this species. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects about 10% of the population. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of C. procera of occurrence in coast of Pernambuco, Brazil. The hydroalcholic extract of the leaves of C. procera (300 and 600 mg/kg/day, vehicle, insulin (6U, s.c. or metformin (500 mg/ kg/day were administered orally to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 7/group for four weeks. Changes in body weight, food and water intake, biochemical markers, fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The results showed that the C. procera dried extract (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced significantly the level of blood glucose throughout the evaluation period and improved metabolic status of the animals and ameliorate the oral tolerance glucose test. The phytochemical screening revealed and quantified the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in a percentage of 29.1 and 2.9%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the extract of the leaves of C. procera has antihyperglycemic activity.

  2. THE CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF KERSEN(muntingia calabura linn. LEAVES USING THE BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY TEST (BSLT METHOD

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    Irma Sari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic activity experiment of n-hexane extract of kersen (Muntingia calabura Linn. leaves has been carried out using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT method. The purpose of this research is to identify the secondary metabolites, extract characterize, and determine the LC50 value of the extract against larvae shrimp Artemia salina Leach. Screening result showed that n-hexane extract of kersen leaves contain triterpenoid. Extract characterization showed the results water content of 2.59±0.18 %w/w, water soluble extractive content of 1.9%±0.19 %w/w, the ethanol soluble extractive content of 17.41±1,87 %w/w and total ash value 0.25% w/w. Extract showed LC50 value is 278,72 ppm were calculated by probit analysis. The LC50 value indicated that the n-hexane extract of kersen leaves potentially has cytotoxic activity.

  3. Analysis and Comparison of the Antioxidant Component of Portulaca Oleracea Leaves Obtained by Different Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Esterina

    2017-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a wild plant pest of orchards and gardens, but is also an edible vegetable rich in beneficial nutrients. It possesses many antioxidant properties due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 essential fatty acids and other healthful compounds; therefore, the intake of purslane and/or its bioactive compounds could help to improve the health and function of the whole human organism. Accordingly, in this work it was analyzed and compared to the extractive capacity of the antioxidant component of purslane leaves obtained by solid-liquid extraction techniques such as: hot-maceration, maceration with ultrasound, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction using the Naviglio extractor, and a combination of two techniques (mix extraction). The chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of the methanolic extract of dried purslane leaves allowed the identification of various polyphenolic compounds for comparison with the standards. In addition, the properties of the different extracts were calculated on dry matter and the antioxidant properties of the total polyphenol components analyzed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The results showed that mix extraction was the most efficient compared to other techniques. In fact, it obtained a quantity of polyphenols amounting to 237.8 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/100 g of fresh weight, while in other techniques, the range varied from 60–160 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight. In addition, a qualitative analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) of the phenolic compounds present in the purslane leaves examined was carried out. The compounds were identified by comparison of their molecular weight, fragmentation pattern and retention time with those of standards, using the “Multiple Reaction Monitoring” mode (MRM). Therefore, this study allowed the re-evaluation of a little-known plant that possesses as its beneficial properties, a

  4. Effects of Ficus carica L. Leaves Extract on Rats Exposed to gamma-Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawas, A.M.; Abdel Hamid, F.F.

    2010-01-01

    Ficus leaves water extract; Ficus carica L., Moraceae (FWE); 500 mg/kg body wt. were administrated for 14 days to study their effects on lipid peroxidation process and metallothionein levels (MT) in liver and kidney of male albino rats exposed to gamma-rays (5 Gy) as acute dose. Fe, Cu, Zn and Ca levels in liver, kidney, spleen and brain tissues were also, measured. FWE was administrated alone, or post-irradiation. Tissues samples were collected at the 7th and 14th days of radiation exposure or FWE treatment. Exposure to gamma-rays significantly increased the liver and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, at the 7th day, and significantly decreased the MT levels, at the 7th and 14th days compared to the control group. Administration of FWE significantly lowered the MDA level, at the 7th day, and the MT levels, at the 7th and 14th days, in liver and kidney tissues compared to the control group. At the 14th day of FWE administration MDA level showed a significant increase. Rats treated with FWE for 14 days post-exposure to gamma-rays showed a significant increase in the MDA and decrease in the MT levels in liver and kidney tissues compared to the irradiated group. Exposure to gamma-rays significantly increased the Fe level in all tested organs, Cu level in spleen, Zn level in liver and spleen at one and two weeks. Ca level increased in liver, spleen and brain tissues at the 14th day. Also gamma-rays significantly decreased the Cu and Ca levels in kidney. A significant decrease in Fe levels was observed in all organs after 14 days of FWE administration post-irradiation compared with irradiated group. On the other hand, administration of FWE post-irradiation caused a significant increase in Cu and Ca levels in kidney compared to irradiated group. FWE have no protective efficacy against gamma-radiation at the dose used

  5. Anxiolytic and sedative properties of hydroethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves in mice

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    Mutiu Y. Ajao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f., Cucurbitaceae, is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activities of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of T. occidentalis in mice. The hole-board, elevated plus maze, open-field, light-dark, and social interaction tests were used in this study. T. occidentalis (50-400 mg/kg and diazepam (1 mg/kg were administered p.o. to different groups of mice and appropriate observations were made. T. occidentalis increased the number of sectional crossings (p<0.01 and duration of head dips (p<0.05 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively; increased number of entries into open arms (p<0.01 at the dose of 100 mg/kg; increased number of central squares crossed (p<0.01 at the dose of 50 mg/kg; and increased number of social interactions (p<0.001 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. At the dose of 400 mg/kg, T. occidentalis reduced number of head dips and sectional crossings (p<0.01; reduced time spent in open arms and increased time spent in closed arms (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; reduced number of assisted rearings (p<0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; increased latency of entry into and time spent in dark box (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; and reduced number of social interactions (p<0.001 at the dose of 400 mg/kg. The findings in this study suggest that T. occidentalis possess anxiolytic property at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and sedative activity at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  6. Anxiolytic and sedative properties of hydroethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Y. Ajao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f., Cucurbitaceae, is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activities of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of T. occidentalis in mice. The hole-board, elevated plus maze, open-field, light-dark, and social interaction tests were used in this study. T. occidentalis (50-400 mg/kg and diazepam (1 mg/kg were administered p.o. to different groups of mice and appropriate observations were made. T. occidentalis increased the number of sectional crossings (p<0.01 and duration of head dips (p<0.05 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively; increased number of entries into open arms (p<0.01 at the dose of 100 mg/kg; increased number of central squares crossed (p<0.01 at the dose of 50 mg/kg; and increased number of social interactions (p<0.001 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. At the dose of 400 mg/kg, T. occidentalis reduced number of head dips and sectional crossings (p<0.01; reduced time spent in open arms and increased time spent in closed arms (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; reduced number of assisted rearings (p<0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; increased latency of entry into and time spent in dark box (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; and reduced number of social interactions (p<0.001 at the dose of 400 mg/kg. The findings in this study suggest that T. occidentalis possess anxiolytic property at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and sedative activity at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  7. Effects ofMimosa pudicaL. leaves extract on anxiety, depression and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Ganesh; Kumar Bhattamisra, Subrat; Kumar Mohanty, Bijay

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the neuropharmacological activities of ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica (EAMP) leaves on anxiety, depression and memory in a mouse model. Anti-anxiety potential of EAMP was evaluated by elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB) and social interaction (SI) tests in mice.Anti-depressant potential of EAMP was evaluated by forced swimming (FST), tail suspension (TST), and open field tests (OFT). The behavioral findings were further corroborated with estimation of neurotransmitters and their metabolites from mouse brain homogenate. Effect on learning and memory was evaluated by EPM, passive avoidance (PA) tests. Further, it was confirmed with assessment of acetylcholinesterase and caspase-3 activity in brain homogenate. EAMP showed significant anti-anxiety activity by increasing the time spent in open arm of EPM, light box of LDB. Social interaction time was increased significantly (p<0.01) as compared to vehicle control. There was also significant reduction of immobility time in both FST and TST without any changes in locomotor activity in the OFT. Monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine and norepinephrine) concentrations were increased significantly (p<0.01) after 4 weeks of treatment as compared to stress control and substantiated the anti-depressant activity. Step down latency was increased (p<0.01) in PA test and transfer latency was decreased (p<0.01) in EPM test of EAMP-treated mice. Acetylcholinesterase and caspase-3 activity was significantly (p<0.05) changed in mice treated with EAMP (200 and 400 mg/kg). The results revealed that EAMP has anti-anxiety, anti-depressant and memory enhancing activities that are mediated through multiple mechanisms.

  8. Prophylactic and curative effect of rosemary leaves extract in a bleomycin model of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Sana; Ben Ali, Ridha; Gasmi, Khaoula; Mlika, Mona; Fazaa, Saloua; Ksouri, Riadh; Serairi, Raja; Jameleddine, Saloua; Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating disease without effective treatment. Rosemary is appreciated since ancient times for its medicinal properties, while biomolecules originated from the plant have an antioxidant and antifibrotic effect. The effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) leaves extract (RO) on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis were investigated. Male Wistar rats were given a single dose of bleomycin (BLM, 4 mg/kg, intratracheal), while RO (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered 3 days later and continued for 4 weeks (BLM/RO1-curative group). Alternatively, RO was administered 2 weeks before BLM and continued 15 days thereafter (BLM/RO2-prophylactic group). Antioxidant activities of RO and lung tissues were studied by standard methods. Histological staining revealed lung architecture and collagen deposition. RO was characterized for its polyphenol content and by high-performance liquid chromatography. RO polyphenol content was 60.52 mg/g of dry weight, carnosic and rosmarinic acids being major components (6.886 and 2.351 mg/g). Antioxidant effect of RO (DPPH and FRAP assay) expressed as IC 50 values were 2.23 μg/mL and 0.074 μg/mL, respectively. In BLM/RO1 and BLM/RO2 lung architecture was less compromised compared to BLM, which was reflected in lower fibrosis score (2.33 ± 0.33 and 1.8 ± 0.32 vs 3.7 ± 0.3). Malondialdehyde levels were attenuated (141% and 108% vs 258% of normal value). Catalase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were normalized (103% and 117% vs 59%, 85% and 69% vs 23%, respectively). RO has a protective effect against BLM-induced oxidative stress and lung fibrosis due to its phenolic compounds.

  9. Gastrointestinal stimulatory and uterotonic activities of dietary radish leaves extract are mediated through multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2005-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, commonly known as radish, is a food plant known worldwide for its culinary and medicinal properties especially as a laxative and abortifacient. This study reports the gastrointestinal and uterine tone modulatory activities of the crude extract (Rl.Cr) of radish leaves. Rl.Cr, showing the presence of saponins and alkaloids, exhibited a spasmogenic effect (0.03-10 mg/mL) in isolated rabbit jejunum, rat stomach fundus and uterus which was partially blocked by atropine. In contrast, Rl.Cr was found to be devoid of any stimulatory effect in rat ileum, instead showed an inhibitory effect (0.1 mg/mL) on the ACh dose-response curves. A mild relaxant effect was also observed in rabbit jejunum at the lower doses (0.1-0.3 mg/mL) but not against K(+)-induced contractions, ruling out a calcium channel blocking effect. In guinea-pig ileum, Rl.Cr exhibited a stimulant effect resistant to atropine while sensitive to pyrilamine pretreatment. The aqueous fraction, showing a strong presence of saponins, was found to be more efficacious than the non-polar fractions in its spasmogenic effect. This study shows the presence of species-dependent gastrointestinal effects of radish mediated partially through cholinergic receptors in rabbit and rat tissues, but through histaminergic activation in the guinea-pig, providing a scientific basis for its use in gut and uterine affections while also giving a wider picture of the activity profile of radish by using different species of animals. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yuji Wang,1 Jingcheng Tang,1 Haimei Zhu,1 Xueyun Jiang,1 Jiawang Liu,1 Wenyun Xu,1 Haiping Ma,1 Qiqi Feng,1 Jianhui Wu,1 Ming Zhao,1,2 Shiqi Peng1 1Beijing Area Major Laboratory of Peptide and Small Molecular Drugs, Engineering Research Center of Endogenous Prophylactic of Ministry of Education of China, Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detector/(-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 µM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis. Keywords: R. rubescens, s

  11. Technical aspects of the production of dried extract of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves by jet spouted bed drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Daniel S; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2005-08-11

    This work presents an evaluation of the performance of jet spouted bed with inert particles for production of dried extracts of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves. The development of the extraction procedure was carried-out with the aid of three factors and three levels Box-Behnken design. The effects of the extraction variables, temperature (Text); stirring time (theta); and the ratio of the plant to solvent mass (m(p)/m(s)) on the extraction yield were investigated. The drying performance and product properties were evaluated through the measurement of the product size distribution, loss on drying (Up), flavonoid degradation (D) and, process thermal efficiency (eta). These parameters were measured as a function of the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (Tgi), the feed mass flow rate of the concentrated extract relative to mass flow rate of the spouting gas (Ws/Wg), the ratio between the feed flow rate of spouting gas relative to feed flow rate at a minimum spouting condition (Q/Qms) and the static bed height (H0). A powder product with a low degradation of active substances and good physical properties were obtained for selected operating conditions. These results indicate the feasibility of this drying equipment for the production of dried extracts of M. ilicifolia Martius ex Reiss leaves.

  12. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed

  13. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2012-01-01

    Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian

  14. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  15. Phytochemical study and antinociceptive effect of the hexanic extract of leaves from Combretum duarteanum and friedelin, a triterpene isolated from the hexanic extract, in orofacial nociceptive protocols

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    Jullyana S.S. Quintans

    Full Text Available Combretum duarteanum Cambess, Combretaceae, is a plant widely distributed in Northeastern Brazil and, in folk medicine, stems and leaves are used for pain treatment. We investigated the antinociceptive effects of the hexanic extract of leaves from C. duarteanum and of friedelin, its main compound, in formalin-, glutamate- and capsaicin- induced orofacial nociception models. In order to isolate friedelin from the hexanic extract, flash chromatography technique was used. Male mice (n = 8/group were pretreated with hexanic extract, friedelin, morphine or vehicle, before the injection of algogen agents into the right upper lip (perinasal area. The test of formalin-induced orofacial nociception showed that hexanic extract and friedelin significantly reduced nociception (p < 0.001 in both phases of testing. In the glutamate and capsaicin-induced orofacial nociception tests, pre-treatment with hexanic extract produced a significant reduction of orofacial nociception (p < 0.001 at all doses tested.The results suggest the hexanic extract and friedelin possess antinociceptive effects in models of orofacial nociception in rodents.

  16. Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml.

  17. Study of antisickling and vasorelaxant activities and acute toxicity assessment of crude extracts of leaves of Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdé-Tiendrébéogo, Alphonsine; Tibiri, André; Ouedraogo, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Sylvin; Nacoulma, Odile Germaine; Guissou, Innocent Pierre

    2014-06-01

    The leaves of Ficus sycomorus are used in Burkina Faso folk medicine for the treatment of sickle cell disease. The present comparative study of crude extracts of leaves (decoction, macerated extract and a 95% ethanol extract) was performed with the aim to assess the efficiency of this traditional use and to determine the most active of the three extracts. Antisickling activity was assessed by the Emmel's test. Vasorelaxant effect on rat aortic rings precontracted by phenylephrine with and without N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester chloride (L-NAME) was also evaluated. The 95% ethanol extract (20 mg mL(-1)) showed the most antisickling activity on sickle erythrocytes, by inhibiting completely sickling of double heterozygote SC cells in 60 min and that of homozygote SS cells in 90 min. On the aorta this extract exhibited a significant (p<0.05) vasorelaxant activity, better than that of the other extracts, with an IC50 value of 6.86±0.13 mg mL(-1) against 18.78±0.38 and 28.56±1.27 mg mL(-1), respectively for the macerated extract and the decoction. When the aortic rings were pretreated with L-NAME, only the ethanolic extract conserved its vasorelaxant activity, up to 73% of relaxation. The acute toxicity of the decoction, assessed by intraperitoneal route and using the Litchfield and Wilcoxon method, led to an LD50 value of 1553.61 mg kg(-1) b.wt. This places the drug among those with low toxicity according to the WHO scale. These results confirm those previously obtained and provide a scientific basis supporting the use of this plant in folk medicine against sickle cell disease. They indicate the importance of Ficus sycomorus in the research of new antisickling molecules.

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT ON N-HEXANE EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF Marsilea crenata Presl. LEAVES THROUGH GC-MS

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    Burhan Ma'arif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency causes various health problems in postmenopausal women, including osteoporosis. Phytoestrogen emerged as a potential alternative of estrogen with minimum side effects. Green clover (Marsilea crenata Presl. is a typical plant in East Java which suspected contains estrogen-like substances. The aim of this research was to report the phytochemical properties of M. crenata using GC-MS as a preliminary study. M. crenata leaves were dried and extracted with n-hexane, then separated using vacuum column chromatography to get four fractions, after that the n-hexane extract and four fractions were identified with GC-MS. The results of GC-MS analysis showed some compounds contained in M. crenata leaves like monoterpenoid, diterpenoid, fatty acid compounds, and other unknown compounds. The results obtained in this research indicated a promising potential of M. crenata as medicinal plants, especially as antiosteoporotic agent.

  19. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch leaves in mice model

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    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (S. colocasiifolia leaves. Methods: Swiss albino mice treated with 1% Tween solution, standard drugs and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia, respectively, were subjected to the neurological and antinociceptive investigations. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used for testing antidepressant activity, where the parameter is the measurement of immobility time. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by hole board model. Anti-nociceptive potential of the extract was also screened for centrally acting analgesic activity by using formalin induced licking response model and acetic acid induced writhing test was used for testing peripheral analgesic action. Results: Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia significantly decreased the period of immobility in both tested models (tail suspension and forced swimming models of antidepressant activity. In the hole board model, there was a dose dependant (at 100 and 200 mg/kg and a significant increase in the number of head dipping by comparing with control (1% Tween solution (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In formalin induced licking model, a significant inhibition of pain compared to standard diclofenac sodium was observed (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In acetic acid induced test, there was a significant reduction of writhing response and pain in mice treated with leaves extract of S. colocasiifolia at 200 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. Conclusions: The results proofed the prospective antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves.

  20. Anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (L leaves in high fatty diet rats

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    Sachin V. Tembhurne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-obesity activities of of Murraya koenigii leaves. Method: The study was performed in high fatty diet induced obesity rats. After 15 days baseline period the treatments animals were received ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii leaves (300 and 500 mg/kg in high fatty diet rats. All the treatments were given for one month. On 30th day all the fasted animals received an intraperitoneal injection of glucose (1 g/kg for glucose tolerance test. At the end of study body weight, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood glucose level were measured. Results: The results demonstrate clearly that repeated oral administration of Murraya koenigii leaves evoked a potent anti-hyperglycaemic activity in high fat diet obese rats. Postprandial hyperglycaemic peaks were significantly lower in plant-treated experimental groups. In other hand, high fatty diet group increased the both total cholesterol and triglycerides levels as compared to control group. While administration of Murraya koenigii leaves significantly decreased in both cholesterol as well as triglycerides. Conclusions: We can conclude that Murraya koenigii leaves evokes potent anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-obesity effects. This fact could support their use by the diabetes patient for controlling body weight as well as maintains the glycemic level.

  1. Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): a New Rapid and Greener Method for Extracting Two Steviol Glycosides (Stevioside and Rebaudioside A) from Stevia Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Vitulano, Manuela; Andolfi, Anna; DellaGreca, Marina; Conte, Esterina; Ciaravolo, Martina; Naviglio, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the main diterpene glycosides present in the leaves of the Stevia rebaudiana plant, which is used in the production of foods and low-calorie beverages. The difficulties associated with their extraction and purification are currently a problem for the food processing industries. The objective of this study was to develop an effective and economically viable method to obtain a high-quality product while trying to overcome the disadvantages derived from the conventional transformation processes. For this reason, extractions were carried out using a conventional maceration (CM) and a cyclically pressurized extraction known as rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE) by the Naviglio extractor (NE). After only 20 min of extraction using the NE, a quantity of rebaudioside A and stevioside equal to 1197.8 and 413.6 mg/L was obtained, respectively, while for the CM, the optimum time was 90 min. From the results, it can be stated that the extraction process by NE and its subsequent purification developed in this study is a simple, economical, environmentally friendly method for producing steviol glycosides. Therefore, this method constitutes a valid alternative to conventional extraction by reducing the extraction time and the consumption of toxic solvents and favouring the use of the extracted metabolites as food additives and/or nutraceuticals. As an added value and of local interest, the experiment was carried out on stevia leaves from the Benevento area (Italy), where a high content of rebaudioside A was observed, which exhibits a sweet taste compared to stevioside, which has a significant bitter aftertaste.

  2. The Influence of Extract of Papaya Seeds and leaves (Carica papaya Linn.) on the Mortality of Anopheles sp. Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Hasanuddin; Aras, Nurhidayah; Hakim, Buraerah H. Abd.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will be presented as oral presentation in the 47th APACPH Conference in Bandung, Indonesia dated October, 21-23rd 2015 Insecticide resistance and environmental damage as impact of application of synthetic larvicide continuesly, therefore it is necessarily alternative larvicide for vector control of Malaria. The aim of the research was to find out the influence of extracts of papaya seeds and leaves (Carica papaya Linn.) on the mortality of Anopheles sp. Larvae. The research m...

  3. Composition of Essential Oils and Ethanol Extracts of the Leaves of Lippia Species: Identification, Quantitation and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Maria T.S. Trevisan; Ricardo A. Marques; Maria G.V. Silva; Dominique Scherer; Roswitha Haubner; Cornelia M. Ulrich; Robert W. Owen

    2016-01-01

    The principal components of essential oils, obtained by steam-hydrodistillation from the fresh leaves of five species of the genus Lippia, namely Lippia gracilis AV, Lippia sidoides Mart , Lippia alba carvoneifera, Lippia alba citralifera and Lippia alba myrceneifera and ethanol extracts , were evaluated. The greater antioxidant capacity (IC 50 = 980 µg/mL; p < 0.05), assessed by the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, was determined in the essential oil obtained from Lippia alba ...

  4. Effect of Different Salinityon Growthand Carotenoid Content of Dunaliella sp. In Lamtoro Leaves Extract Media (Leucaena leucocephala

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    Dharta Mahardani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Page Header User You are logged in as... jat My Journals My Profile Log Out Notifications View Manage Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals Categories Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Home About User Home Categories Search Current Archives Announcements EDITORIAL TEAM Google Scholar SINTA SUBMISSIONS DOAJ PUBLICATION ETHICS FOCUS AND SCOPE PORTAL GARUDA Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2017 > Mahardani Effect of Different Salinityon Growthand Carotenoid Content of Dunaliella sp. In Lamtoro Leaves Extract Media (Leucaena leucocephala Dharta Mahardani, Berta Putri, Siti Hudaidah Abstract Dunaliella is a green microalgae that produces carotenoids, one of the carotenoid types produced is β-carotene which accumulated in very high amounts in some stressful conditions such as nitrogen limitations, high salinity and exposure high light intensity. Leucaena leucocephala is one of the natural ingredients that potential as a source of nutrition of Dunaliella sp. growth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different salinity in Lamtoro Leaves Extract Media on growth and carotenoid content Dunaliella sp. The research was conducted in Aquaculture Laboratory, Agriculture Faculty, Lampung University. The design of research was used completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The treatments used was Lamtoro Leaves extract media with salinity 30 ppt, 35 ppt, 40 ppt, and 45 ppt. The result showed that media of Lamtoro Leaves extract with different salinity gave significant effect on cell density and carotenoid content of Dunaliella sp. (p<0,05. The results of this study showed that the best cell growth occurred in the treatment of salinity 30 ppt with cell density reached 5,09×10 6 cells/ml, while the highest carotenoid content was produced at 35 ppt salinity treatment of 1,0668 g/ml

  5. Physalis minima Leaves Extract Induces Re-Endothelialization in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Rats

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    Dian Nugrahenny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The administration of deoxy-corticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt can induce oxidative stress leading to decrease the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO, increase senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, thus contributing to endothelial dysfunction. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Physalis minima L. leaves extract on serum NO levels, circulating EPCs number, and histopathology of tail artery endothelial cells in DOCA-salt-induced endothelial dysfunction in rats. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: rats without any treatment (normal, rats treated with DOCA (10 mg/kgBW s.c. twice weekly and given 0.9% NaCl to drink ad libitum for 6 weeks, and DOCA-salt-induced rats orally supplemented with P. minima leaves extract at doses of 500, 1500, or 2500 mg/kgBW for 4 weeks. Serum NO levels were measured by colorimetry. The number of circulating EPCs (CD34+/CD133+ cells was determined by flow cytometry. The tail artery sections were histologically processed with hematoxylin-eosin staining. DOCA-salt-induced rats showed significantly (p<0.05 decrease in serum NO levels and circulating EPCs number compared to the normal. There was also more detached tail artery endothelial cells in DOCA-salt-induced rats. P. minima leaves extract at a dose of 500 mg/kgBW significantly (p<0.05 increased serum NO level and circulating EPCs number, and also induced an optimal re-endothelialization in DOCA-salt-induced rats. P. minima leave extract dose-dependently increases NO bioavailability contributing to enhanced EPCs mobilization, thereby promoting re-endothelialization in DOCA-salt-induced endothelial dysfunction in rats.

  6. Chromatographic fingerprinting and free-radical scavenging activity of ethanol extracts of Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

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    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: M. calabura exhibited very high antioxidant activity in its leaves and stems ethanol extracts, both of which are used in traditional medicine. The TLC results demonstrated the presence of diverse secondary metabolites in the leaf and stem ethanol extracts, indicating that the antioxidant activity, including other bioactivities may be attributed to these phytochemical constituents. This paper has reported for the first time the TLC fingerprinting of M. calabura using visible light, UV 254 nm, UV 366 and post-derivatization with vanillin-spray to visualize separate spots on TLC plates.

  7. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ficus Iteophylla Leaves in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulmalik, IA; Sule, MI; Musa, A M; Yaro, A H; Abdullahi, MI; Abdulkadir, MF; Yusuf, H

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg−1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100mgkg−1, 200mgkg−1,...

  8. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Psidium Guajava Leaves on Liver Enzymes, Histological Integrity and Hematological Indices in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboh, Friday E.; Okon, Iniobong E.; Ekong, Moses B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin and total protein levels, as well as the tissue histological assay are known to be useful in assessing the functional integrity of the liver. Also, assessment of red and white blood cells count, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations is useful in determining the effect of some chemical substances on hemotopoietic system. In recent times, reports from medicinal plants research indicate that extracts from some plants are both hepatotoxic and hematotoxic, while others on the other hand are reported to be hepatoprotective and hematopoietic in action. This study considers the effects of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) leaves on the histology and biochemical indices of liver function as well as hematological indices in rats. Methods In this study, phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves was carried out. Also, male and female rats were administered with 200 mg/kg body weight oral daily doses of aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves for a period of 30 days. At the end of the administration period, the rats were anaesthesized with chloroform vapors and dissected for the collection of blood and liver tissues which were used for the hematopoietic and liver functions investigations. Results Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant leaves showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenols, reducing compounds, saponins and tannins. Liver function tests revealed that the serum ALT, AST and ALP, as well as the concentrations of total protein and albumin in male and female rats were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the oral administration of the extract. Histopathological study also did not show any adverse alteration in the morphological architecture of the liver tissues in both sexes of the animal model. However, red blood cell counts, hemotocrit and hemoglobin concentrations increased

  9. Phytochemically evaluation and net anti-oxidant activity of Tunisian Melia azedarach leaves extract from their ProAntidex parameter

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    Maroua Akacha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is a discipline which is interested in the design, the preparation and the interpretation of structure activity relationship of the natural bioactive molecules. In this context, ethanolic leaves extract of Melia azedarach L. was phytochemically analysed on the bases of HPLC and by GC–MS. Extract wase tested for his in vitro antioxidant activities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, H2O2, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Ferric Reducing Power (FRP and Ferrous ion chelating abilities methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. The ratio of pro-oxidant to the antioxidant activity (ProAntidex represents a useful index of the net free radical scavenging potential of the synthesized compounds. Tested extract showed significant antioxidant activity with a moderate ProAntidex.

  10. In vitro thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum leaves

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    Antara Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium indicum is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in Bangladesh as a folkloric treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic properties with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of X. indicum leaves. The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of phytosetrols and diterpenes. In thrombolytic assay, a significant clot lysis was observed at four concentrations of plant extract compare to the positive control streptokinase (30,000 IU, 15,000 IU and negative control normal saline. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. In anti-oxidant activity evaluation by two potential experiments namely total phenolic content determination and free radical scavenging assay by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the leaves extract possess good anti-oxidant property. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the crude extract showed potent (LC50 1.3 μg/mL cytotoxic activity compare to the vincristine sulfate as a positive control (LC50 0.8 μg/mL.

  11. Optimization of the Conditions for Extraction of Serine Protease from Kesinai Plant (Streblus asper Leaves Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper leaves. The effect of independent variables, namely temperature (42.5,47.5, X1, mixing time (2–6 min, X2, buffer content (0–80 mL, X3 and buffer pH (4.5–10.5, X4 on specific activity, storage stability, temperature and oxidizing agent stability of serine protease from kesinai leaves was investigated. The study demonstrated that use of the optimum temperature, mixing time, buffer content and buffer pH conditions protected serine protease during extraction, as demonstrated by low activity loss. It was found that the interaction effect of mixing time and buffer content improved the serine protease stability, and the buffer pH had the most significant effect on the specific activity of the enzyme. The most desirable conditions of 2.5 °C temperature, 4 min mixing time, 40 mL buffer at pH 7.5 was established for serine protease extraction from kesinai leaves.

  12. Activities test of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa leaves extract against Candida albicans of HIV/AIDS patients

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    Dewi Elianora

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Candida albicans is a local commensal flora of the oral cavity, with opportunistic nature and often causes oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients. Since long time, Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa known of having efficacy to treat various disease traditionally. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity test of Phaleria macrocarpa leaves extract against Candida albicans from HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: Experimental laboratory with samples colonies of the Candida albicans fungus obtained from patients with HIV/AIDS at Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital Padang. Research conducted during January-March 2016 in Microbiology and Chemistry Laboratory of Kopertis Region X, Microbiology Laboratory of Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital, and Microbiology Laboratory of Siti Rahmah Islamic Hospital, Padang, West Sumatra. Data was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The concentration of the Phaleria Macrocarpa leaves extract used in this study was 10, 20, 40 and 80%. Inhibition zone average value obtained 0,00 mm, means no inhibition zone, 9.217 mm and 18.017 mm with sig = 0.000 <0.05. Conclusion: The higher level of the Phaleria macrocarpa leaves extract concentration, the higher inhibition zone diameter against Candida albicans, with the highest in concentration 80%.

  13. Evaluation of extracts and essential oil from Callistemon viminalis leaves: antibacterial and antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed Z M; Ali, Hayssam M; El-Shanhorey, Nader A; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2013-10-01

    To investigate antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Callistemon viminalis (C. viminalis) leaves. The essential oil of C. viminalis leaves obtained by hydro-distillation was analyzed by GC/MS. Different extracts were tested for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in vitro antioxidant (DPPH assay) and antibacterial (agar disc diffusion and 96-well micro-plates methods) actives. Fourteen components were identified in the essential oil, representing 98.94% of the total oil. The major components were 1,8-cineole (64.53%) and α-pinene (9.69%). Leaf essential oil exhibited the highest antioxidant activity of (88.60±1.51)% comparable to gallic acid, a standard compound [(80.00±2.12)%]. Additionally, the biggest zone of inhibitions against the studied bacterial strains was observed by the essential oil when compared to the standard antibiotic (tetracycline). The crude methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction had a significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. It can be suggested that C. viminalis is a great potential source of antibacterial and antioxidant compounds useful for new antimicrobial drugs from the natural basis. The present study revealed that the essential oil as well as the methanol extracts and ethyl acetate fraction of C. viminalis leaves exhibited highly significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; AL-Raqmi, Khulood Ahmed Salim; AL-Mijizy, Zawan Hamood; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim

    2013-09-01

    To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  15. Antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts of Dissotis thollonii Cogn. (Melastomataceae

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    Ateufack Gilbert

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: The leaves of D. thollonii thus have antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal effects, which could result from their activities on blocking the inhibiting effects of the bacterial enzymes, inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis, allowing the rupture of the lipopolysaccharidic membrane, as well as on inhibiting prostaglandins-E2 synthesis or increasing the hydroelectrolytic reabsorption. These results attestted the ethnopharmacological use of D. thollonii leaves in the treatment of diarrhoea and gastro-intestinal infections.

  16. Protection by rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hepatic injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyal, Dhanraj; Jahan, Swafiya; Agrawal, Annapurna; Goyal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    The development of effective non-toxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest in the improvement of radio therapy of cancer and protection against unplanned exposures. The synthetic drugs developed in post-world war II have had serious constrains in clinical application due to their toxicity at the optimal protective dose level. Search for non toxic protectors from natural sources have indicated that some of the commonly used medicinal plants and the polyherbal formulation could prove to be valuable sources of the clinically used radioprotector as their ratio of effective dose to toxic dose is very high. A worldwide hunt is on for the development of non-toxic/less toxic radioprotectors. Keeping this view, the present study has been undertaken to find out the possible radioprotective potential of the Rosemarinus officinalis extract (ROE) in the liver of Swiss albino mice as its leaves have various medicinal properties like analgesic, anti-epileptic, antioxidant, hepatoprotactive and anti-cancer etc. Adult male Swiss albino mice, 6-8 weeks old with an average weight of 23±3 gms, were selected from an inbred colony and divided into two groups carrying equal number of animals in each. First group was orally administered DDW with the dose of 1000 mg/kg.b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days, while the second group received ROE with the dose of 1000 mg/kg.b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days. On 5th day, after half an hr. of the last administration of DDW or ROE, both the groups were exposed to single dose of 9 Gy of gamma radiation. All the animals were monitored regularly from the day of treatment till their autopsy time or survival with respect to food and water intake, body weight change, sickness, general activity, mobility, fur and skin lesions and other visible abnormalities, if any. These animals from both the groups were autopsied at 12 hrs., 24 hrs., 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days post-irradiation and their liver were removed, weighed, and after routine processing

  17. Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Extracts from Leaves of SomeMalus domesticaCultivars: Antiradical and Antimicrobial Analysis of These Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Alina; Zgórka, Grażyna; Szykuła, Aleksandra; Franiczek, Roman; Żbikowska, Beata; Gamian, Andrzej; Sroka, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In this study, methanol, ethyl acetate, water extracts, and precipitate were obtained from leaves of Malus domestica cultivars: Golden delicious, Jonagold, Elstar, Ligol, and Mutsu. Antiradical activity of these extracts was measured using the ABTS +∙ radical, and antimicrobial activity was measured with the disk-diffusion method. Phenolic compounds were measured with the colorimetric method and identified with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest antiradical activity was observed for the Jonagold variety, and in particular strong activity was noted for ethyl acetate extracts. Antimicrobial activity was observed against strains of Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , and the fungus Candida glabrata . Particularly susceptible to the extracts activity appeared to be Staphylococcus aureus , but the growth of Candida glabrata was inhibited in the presence of ethyl acetate extracts. With the HPLC method we identified a high amount of phloridzin (above 500 mg per g of ethyl acetate extracts), lower amounts of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin, and traces of p -hydroxybenzoic and chlorogenic acids. The contribution of phloridzin to antiradical activity of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts was very high (above 90%). In water extract the contribution of phloridzin was between 38.9 and 55.2%, chlorogenic acid 22.7 and 36.1%, and hyperoside 12.2 and 13.3%.

  18. Duration Effect of Acacia Nilotica Leaves Extract and Glibenclamide as Hypolipidaemic and Hypoglycaemic Activity in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Shah, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the duration and effects of aqueous methanol Acacia-nilotica leaves extract and glibenclamide as hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, from September 2010 to August 2011.Male Sprague Dawley albino rats were taken and divided into 8 equal groups. Groups I and II were the normal and diabetic control rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in group II to VIII by administering 110 mg/kg body weight alloxan and at day 4, fasting blood glucose level of >200 mg/dl confirmed diabetes. Acacia-nilotica leaves extract was given to group III, IV and V and glibenclamide to group VI to VIII for a period of 1-3 weeks. Blood samples were analysed for lipid profile using enzymatic calorimetric method and serum insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: There were 64 rats in the study, with 8(12.5 percent) in each group. Statistically significant decreases in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and an increase in high density lipoprotein and serum insulin levels were observed in diabetic rats compared to diabetic controls after 2 weeks of treatment with plant extract and glibenclamide (p<0.05 each).When plant extract and drug treated diabetic rats were compared, a significant difference in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were noted after 2 and 3 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Acacia-nilotica leaves extract resulted in hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats similar to glibenclamide. (author)

  19. Effects of Drying Temperature on Flavonoids Extraction Rate from Young Stems and Leaves of Two Cassava Varieties

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    WANG Ding-mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve flavonoids resources utilization level of young cassava stems and leaves, using cassava varieties SC09 and SC205 as ob jects, investigated the effect of different drying temperatures(40~120℃on the flavonoids extraction rate(FERand their stability in 120 d storage period after drying, explored a right drying storage method for postharvest young cassava stems and leaves. The research showed that total FER rised first, and then fell and rised again with the increase of drying temperature. During 40~80℃, the total FER was obviously in fluenced by variety and temperature, but only temperature was main factor affecting total FER during 90~120℃. Extract degree of flavonoids include rutin, amentoflavone or catechin, kaempferol, hesperidin, quercetin minished in order; the effect of cassava variety on the extraction rate of catechin and hesperidin was greater than that of drying temperature, but that contrary to other 4 flavonoids. Variety and temperature had a maximum impact respectively on catechin and rutin extraction rates. Whereas both of variety and temperature had a minimum impact on kaempferol extraction rate. FER reached higher levels of 1.42%and 1.53% respectively in SC09 after 120℃drying and SC205 after 110℃drying, and had best stability during 120 d storage period. The extraction rate of hesperidin increased after drying storage, and that of other 5 ingredients were changing with different varieties and temperatures; the coefficient variation(CV=1.03%~6.86%of kaempferol was minimum and its stability was best; extraction rates of rutin and kaempferol in SC205 after 110℃drying were maximum, whose increasing rates were 44.89%and 7.27%respectively with a small separate degree(CV were 6.94%, 4.59%and good extraction stability. Maximum in creasing rates of catechin, amentoflavone, quercetin and hesperidin were 211.60%,17.60%,186.39% and 538.08% respectively. However,their stabilities of extraction efficiency were poor

  20. GC-MS Based Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Different Solvent Extracts of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus Leaves

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    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the phytochemistry, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extracted in different solvents. The methanol extract contained the highest total phenolic (94.37±1.24 mg GAE/g and flavonoid contents (26.90±1.35 mg RE/g and exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (90.13 ± 3.32% followed by the acetone extract (80.23 ± 3.26% at 500 μg/mL concentration. Similarly, the highest ferric ion reduction potential (849.63±30.95 μM of Fe (II/g dry weight was exhibited by the methanol extract followed by the acetone extract (695.92±25.44 μM of Fe (II/g dry weight. The methanol extract showed greater antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. However, both hexane and acetone extracts failed to inhibit E. coli. S. aureus and C. albicans were more susceptible to all the extracts. Further, GC-MS analysis confirmed the occurrence of a total 46 phytocompounds in different solvent extracts. Some of the major compounds included carvacrol (37.7%, tetracontane (16.6%, squalene (15.6%, tetrapentacontane (13.7%, and Phytol (12.9%. In conclusion, extraction solvents influenced the recovery of phytocompounds and the highest pharmacological activities of the methanol extract could be correlated to the presence of additional bioactive compounds.

  1. GC-MS Based Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Different Solvent Extracts of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Arumugam, Greetha; Kaur, Ravinder; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Yusoff, Mazina Mohd; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the phytochemistry, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extracted in different solvents. The methanol extract contained the highest total phenolic (94.37 ± 1.24 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (26.90 ± 1.35 mg RE/g) and exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (90.13 ± 3.32%) followed by the acetone extract (80.23 ± 3.26%) at 500  μ g/mL concentration. Similarly, the highest ferric ion reduction potential (849.63 ± 30.95  μ M of Fe (II)/g dry weight) was exhibited by the methanol extract followed by the acetone extract (695.92 ± 25.44  μ M of Fe (II)/g dry weight). The methanol extract showed greater antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens ( Bacillus subtilis , Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , and Candida albicans ). However, both hexane and acetone extracts failed to inhibit E. coli . S. aureus and C. albicans were more susceptible to all the extracts. Further, GC-MS analysis confirmed the occurrence of a total 46 phytocompounds in different solvent extracts. Some of the major compounds included carvacrol (37.7%), tetracontane (16.6%), squalene (15.6%), tetrapentacontane (13.7%), and Phytol (12.9%). In conclusion, extraction solvents influenced the recovery of phytocompounds and the highest pharmacological activities of the methanol extract could be correlated to the presence of additional bioactive compounds.

  2. Antinociceptive and antioxidant potential of the crude ethanol extract of the leaves of Ageratum conyzoides grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Hemayet; Karmakar, Utpal Kumar; Biswas, Subrata Kumar; Shahid-Ud-Daula, A F M; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Adnan, Tarek; Chowdhury, Anusua

    2013-07-01

    Ageratum conyzoides Linn. (Asteraceae) is an annual herbaceous plant with a long history of traditional medicinal and agricultural uses; it is usually grown in the northeast part of Bangladesh. The ethanol extract of the plant leaves was evaluated for preliminary phytochemical screening with its antinociceptive and antioxidant activities. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed on the basis of standard procedures. The analgesic activity of the extract was investigated using the acetic acid-induced writhing method in mice. Five complementary tests such as DPPH free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, reducing power, Fe(++) ion chelating ability and total phenolic content were used for determining antioxidant activities. The results of preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, saponins, gums, steroids, tannins and flavonoids. The extract possessed a significant dose-dependent DPPH free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 18.91 μg/ml compared to ascorbic acid (IC50: 2.937 μg/ml) and butylated hydroxyanisole (IC50: 5.10 μg/ml). The IC50 value of the extract for NO scavenging (41.81 μg/ml) was also found to be significant compared to the IC50 value of ascorbic acid (37.93 μg/ml). Moreover, the extract showed reducing power activity and Fe(++) ion chelating ability. The total phenolic amount was also calculated as quite high (378.37 mg/g of gallic acid equivalents) in the crude ethanol extract. Therefore, the obtained results tend to suggest the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the plant leaves and justify its use in folkloric remedies.

  3. α-Glucosidase inhibition, 15-lipoxygenase inhibition, and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts and isolated compounds from Terminalia macroptera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Thu; Malterud, Karl Egil; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Diallo, Drissa; Wangensteen, Helle

    2014-09-01

    Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae), a tree that grows in West Africa, has been used in traditional medicine against a variety of diseases such as hepatitis, gonorrhea, skin diseases, and diabetes. To investigate enzyme inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and toxicity against brine shrimp of extracts and compounds from T. macroptera leaves. Methanol extract, ethyl acetate, and butanol extracts obtained from the methanol extract, six isolated polyphenols (chebulagic acid, chebulic acid trimethyl ester, corilagin, methyl gallate, narcissin, and rutin), and shikimic acid were evaluated for enzyme inhibition and toxicity. In enzyme inhibition assays, all extracts showed high or very high activity. Chebulagic acid showed an IC50 value of 0.05 µM towards α-glucosidase and 24.9 ± 0.4 µM towards 15-LO, in contrast to positive controls (acarbose: IC50 201 ± 28 µM towards α-glucosidase, quercetin: 93 ± 3 µM towards 15-LO). Corilagin and narcissin were good 15-LO and α-glucosidase inhibitors, as well, while shikimic acid, methyl gallate, and chebulic acid trimethyl ester were less active or inactive. Rutin was a good α-glucosidase inhibitor (IC50 ca. 3 µM), but less active towards 15-LO. None of the extracts or the isolated compounds seemed to be very toxic in the brine shrimp assay compared with the positive control podophyllotoxin. Inhibition of α-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract may be a rationale for the medicinal use of T. macroptera leaves against diabetes in traditional medicine in Mali. The plant extracts and its constituents show strong inhibition of the peroxidative enzyme 15-LO.

  4. The antioxidant activity and nitric oxide production of extracts obtained from the leaves of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Lan, Xiang-Zhen; Wu, Yan-Yi; Ou, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tsung Chi; Wu, Wen-Tzu

    2017-12-01

    Most reports have indicated the antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds. However, the leaves of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) are usually worthless and little known about their biological activities. In this study, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of the quinoa leaf extracts were explored. The crude leaf extracts of quinoa were extracted using water, 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol as solvent, denoted WQL, 50% EQL and 95% EQL, respectively. The antioxidant activities of quinoa leaf extracts were assessed by the ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and iron chelating. The total phenolic content was determined. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells was examined to gauge the anti-inflammatory activity. The 95% EQL showed a higher level of total phenolic content (569.5 mg GAE/g extract) and better DPPH scavenging activity. The WQL exhibited a better iron chelating capacity (28.9% at 10 mg/ml). The iron chelating activity of the 95% EQL increased in a concentration-dependent manner, which ranged from 10.9% up to 53.9%. The 50% EQL and 95% EQL significantly inhibited NO production in the LPSstimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We demonstrate that the extracts of quinoa leaves possess the biological activities of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Our finding suggests that the leaf extract of quinoa has potential to be utilized for natural health products. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  6. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract from the leaves of Artocarpus altilis "breadfruit" in Rattus norvegicus induced hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Campos Florián

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis, in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced with triton X-305, using Rattus norvegicus specimens males, mean weight 204.5 g, who were orally administered 0.05 g/100g and 0.2 g/100 g of aqueous extract of A. altilis; included a negative control group received physiological saline and hyperlipidemic positive control group. After 24 hours of administering the treatments were made measurements of the concentrations of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Found significant reductions (p < 0.01 in both cholesterol and triglyceride levels relative to the positive control group. We also found a significant difference (p < 0.01 between triglyceride concentrations of the animals treated with both doses of the aqueous extract of A. altilis. Conclude that the aqueous extract from the leaves of A. altilis has hypolipidemic effect at the doses tested for the model of hyperlipidemia induced with triton X-305.

  7. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Extracts from Leaves and Fruits of Schinusterebinthifolius Raddi from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oils composition from leaves and ripe fruits of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi growing in Tunisia were investigated using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Volatile oil extraction was achieved by hydrodistillation (HD using a Clevenger apparatus and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using carbon dioxide. All plant organs, gave SFE extracts chiefly composed by a -pinene, a -phellandrene, b -phellandrene, germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene. In the case of the fruits, both extraction techniques gave volatile oils of similar composition; whereas the comparison between the HD and SFE leave oils revealed important differences in the content of a -pinene (6.1 % vs traces, a -phellandrene (22.7 % vs 0.8 % and b -phellandrene (14.6 % vs 1.2 %. All volatile samples were evaluated against yeasts and dermatophyte strains, being more active against Cryptococcus neoformans, particularly the volatile oil from the fruits, with MIC values of (0.32-0.64 mg/mL.Moreover, this oil revealed an inhibitory effect on germ tube formation in C. albicans at sub-inhibitory concentration. At the concentration of MIC/8 the inhibition of filamentation was more than 70 %.

  8. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alisson Macário; Mesquita, Matheus da Silva; da Silva, Gabriela Cavalcante; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Souza, Ivone Antônia; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000 mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000 mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. PMID:26246840

  9. The neuromuscular blockade produced by pure alkaloid, mitragynine and methanol extract of kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Keawpradub, Niwat; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Kansenalak, Supaporn; Janchawee, Benjamas

    2010-06-16

    The effects of pure alkaloid, mitragynine and a methanolic extract of kratom leaves were investigated on neuromuscular junction and compound nerve action potential. Wistar rats were killed by cervical dislocation and decapitated. The phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms, hemidiaphragms and sciatic nerve were isolated. Kratom methanolic extract present at 0.1-1 mg/mL and mitragynine (0.0156 mg/mL) decreased the muscle twitch on the isolated phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm and hemidiaphragm preparation. Muscle relaxation caused by kratom extract (1 mg/mL) was greater than the effect of mitragynine. Pancuronium and succinylcholine potentiated the effect of kratom extract. It also had a direct relaxation effect on the hemidiaphragm muscle. The muscle relaxation caused by kratom extract was not antagonized by neostigmine, tetraethylammonium and calcium chloride. High concentrations of kratom extract (10-40 mg/mL) and mitragynine (2 mg/mL) blocked the nerve conduction, amplitude and duration of compound nerve action potential. The mechanism of action of kratom extract might not act as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine yet its dominant effect was at the neuromuscular junction and not at the skeletal muscle or somatic nerve. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Macário de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000 mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000 mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations.

  11. Isolamento do vírus rábico de morcego insetívoro , Lasyurus borealis Rabies virus isolation in insectivorous bat Lasyurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Fatima Alves Martorelli

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de raiva em morcego insetívoro, Lasyurus borealis, na região urbana, em bairro residencial, no Município de Jundiaí, SP (Brasil.A case of rabies in an insectivorous bat, Lasyurus borealis , in a residential suburb in an urban area in the southern region of Brazil, is reported.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of supercritical carbon dioxide extract and its isolated carnosic acid from Rosmarinus officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Feng; Su, Jeng-De; Chiu, Chun-Hung; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chang, Chi-Huang; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Huang, Shiau-Huei; Lee, Wen-Chin; Chyau, Charng-Cherng

    2011-04-27

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves possess a variety of bioactivities. Previous studies have shown that the extract of rosemary leaves from supercritical fluid extraction inhibits the expression of inflammatory mediators with apparent dose-dependent responses. In this study, three different extraction conditions (5000 psi at 40, 60, and 80 °C) of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) toward the extraction of antioxidants from rosemary were investigated. Furthermore, simultaneous comparison of the anti-inflammatory properties between rosemary extract prepared from SC-CO(2) under optimal conditions (5,000 psi and 80 °C) and its purified carnosic acid (CA) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells was also presented. Results showed that the yield of 3.92% and total phenolics of 213.5 mg/g extract obtained from the most effective extraction conditions showed a high inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 33.4 μg/mL). Both the SC-CO(2) extract and CA markedly suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated inhibitor-kappaB (P-IκB), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)/p65 in a dose-dependent manner. The five major compounds of verbenone, cirsimaritin, salvigenin, carnosol, and CA existing in the SC-CO(2) extract were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. CA was the most abundant recorded compound and the most important photochemical with an anti-inflammatory effect with an IC(50) of 22.5 μM or 7.47 μg/mL presented to the best inhibitory activity on NO production better than that of the 14.50 μg/mL dosage prepared from the SC-CO(2) extract. Nevertheless, the effective inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in RAW 264.7 cells from the SC-CO(2) extract extends the potential application of nutraceutical formulation for the

  13. Dynamic high pressure microfluidization-assisted extraction and bioactivities of Cyperus esculentus (C. esculentus L.) leaves flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Siqun; Wang, Saisai; Li, Qian; Zheng, Lian; Yue, Li; Fan, Shaoli; Tao, Guanjun

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM) on extracting total flavonoids from Cyperus esculentus L. (C. esculentus L.) leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity and antibacterial property of these flavonoids. In all the assays, pretreatment with DHPM was found to not only efficiently improve the yield of total flavonoids but also strengthen the antioxidant activity of the total flavonoids. C. esculentus L. leaves flavonoids had pronounced antioxidant activity in vivo that could significantly elevate the content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) without increasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and could also improve total antioxidant capacity in mice with a dose-dependent fashion. C. esculentus L. leaves flavonoids inhibited the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria while no obvious inhibitory effect on Penicillium and Aspergillus could be observed. Our studies indicate that flavonoids from C. esculentus L. leaves can be taken as a natural antioxidant and bacteriostatic substance in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From soil to leaves--aluminum fractionation by single step extraction procedures in polluted and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Siepak, Jerzy

    2013-09-30

    The paper presents the fractionation of aluminum in the samples of soil and plants of different species using a selective single-step extraction method. The study was conducted in the area located near a chemical plant, which for many years served as a post-crystallization leachate disposal site storing chemical waste (sector I), and in the area around the site: in Wielkopolski National Park, Rogalin Landscape Park and toward the infiltration ponds at the "Dębina" groundwater well-field for the city of Poznań (Poland) (sector II). The results of aluminum fractionation in samples of soil, leaves and plants showed heavy pollution with aluminum, especially in the water soluble aluminum fraction - Alsw (maximum concentration of aluminum in soil extract was 234.8 ± 4.8 mg kg(-1), in the leaves of Betula pendula it was 107.4 ± 1.8 mg kg(-1) and in the plants of Artemisia vulgaris (root) and Medicago sativa (leaves) it amounted to 464.7 ± 10.7 mg kg(-1)and 146.8 ± 1.2 mg kg(-1) respectively). In addition, the paper presents the problem of organic aluminum fractionation in biological samples and it shows the relationship between aluminum concentration in soil and the analysed woody and herbaceous species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu, E-mail: suixiaoyu@outlook.com; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  16. Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntz using in vivo and in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, C C; Talukdar, A; Begum, S A; Sarma, D K; Fathak, D C; Barua, A G; Bora, R S

    2009-12-01

    Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntz was studied by excision and incision wound model (in vivo) in Sprague Dawley rats and by Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model (In vitro) in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. In excision wound model, compared to the control group, per cent contraction of wound was significantly higher in A. brasiliana (5% w/w ointment) treated group. In incision wound model, tensile strength of the healing tissue after treatment with A. brasiliana was found to be significantly higher compared to the control group indicating better wound healing activity of the test plant. These findings were also confirmed by histopathological examination. The extract also promoted angiogenesis as evidenced by CAM model. The results suggested that methanolic extract of A. brasiliana possess significant wound healing potential in normal wound.

  17. IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE SUCCESSIVE EXTRACTS OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Gupta and Ramesh Kumar Singh*

    2013-01-01

    The importance of medicinal plant has been emphasized from time to time. It is believed that the drug of natural origin shall play an important role in health care particularly in rural areas of India. Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber .The leaves are alternate and elliptic. Flowers are small and bisexual .The leaves are about 2.5 – 3.2 cm long. Commercially it is cultivated in China & India. Ziziphus mauritiana is small to medium size...

  18. Antibacterial, mechanical, and barrier properties of sago starch film incorporated with Betel leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Leila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2014-05-01

    The antimicrobial, mechanical and barrier properties and light transmission of sago starch film incorporated with different percentage of Betel leaf extract (5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) were evaluated. With regard to mechanical properties, tensile strength decreased when the percentage of extract increased. Elongation at break (%) and seal strength (N/m) increased with increasing percentage of extract from 5% to 20%, while decreased for films containing 30% extract due to heterogeneity of films in this percentage. With regard to barrier properties, water vapour and oxygen barrier properties decreased in all samples when percentage of the extract increased. Antimicrobial activity of all the films increased against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as percentage of Betel leaf extract increased, except for Psuedomonas aeruginosa, which was not susceptible at any percentage of the extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of acacia nilotica leaves extract on hyperglycaemia, lipid profile and platelet aggregation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Munir, T.A.; Nadeem, A.

    2011-01-01

    To consider new hypoglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-platelet aggregation sources, aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves was investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 male albino rats by administering 50 mg/Kg body weight (bw) streptozotocin intraperitoneal y, and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetics rats treated with plant extract) and group D (diabetics rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given single dose of 300 mg/Kg bw, An extract, and 900 micro g/Kg bw glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels were measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia Med method, beta-thrombo globulin and insulin by ELISA technique, and lipid components were measured by enzymatic calorimetric method. Results: Significant differences (p<0.05) were noticed in blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats treated with AN extract and glyburide as compared to diabetic controlled rats. A significant difference (p<0.05) in beta-thrombo globulin and LDL levels was also noticed in rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic controlled rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose, beta-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than AN extract treated rats. Conclusions: Administration of AN leaves extract showed hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  20. Molluscicidal Activity of the Methanol Extract of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertner) G.Don ex Loudon Fruits, Bark and Leaves against Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Gohar, Ahmed; T Maatooq, Galal; R Gadara, Sahar; S Aboelmaaty, Walaa; M El-Shazly, Atef

    2014-01-01

    Methanol extracts of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. Ex Gaertner) G.Don Ex Loudon fruits, bark and leaves were tested for molluscicidal activity. Snails were collected and kept in dechlorinated water under standard condition. Ten adults Biomphalaria Alexandrina, of the same size, were introduced in plastic acquaria for each experiment. The fruits, barks and leaves were extracted with methanol and the methanol extracts were kept for testing as molluscicides. Different extracts proved to have molluscicidal activity against the vector of schistosomiasis, B. alexandrina snails. LC50 values for C. viminalis fruits, bark and leaves were 6.2, 32 and 40 ppm respectively. The C. viminalis fruits extract showed the highest effect against the tested snails. Histopathological studies proved that the site of action of all tested extracts was localized in the digestive system and hermaphrodite gland.

  1. Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) for the green recovery of bioactive compounds and steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Barba, Francisco J; Granato, Daniel; Galanakis, Charis M; Herceg, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Putnik, Predrag

    2018-07-15

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves are a natural source of diterpenic glycosides, and various bioactive compounds. The objectives were to characterize antioxidants and steviol glycosides in the extracts obtained from Stevia after "green" pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). PHWE extracts were obtained at different temperatures (100, 130, 160 °C); static extraction times (5 and 10 min), and cycle numbers (1, 2, 3) using a constant pressure of 10.34 MPa. Temperature was the most important parameter for extraction, where the highest recoveries of all bioactive compounds (except for carotenoids) were at 160 °C. Extracts obtained at longer static times had more steviol glycosides, condensed tannins, and chlorophyll A. Higher amounts of total phenols, condensed tannins, and steviol glycosides were obtained under higher cycle numbers. This study indicated that PHWE is useful for recovering polar and nonpolar antioxidants and steviol glycosides. PHWE may be a suitable technique for scale-up to industrial applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Syzygium polyanthum L. (Salam Leaves against Foodborne Pathogens and Application as Food Sanitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzita Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of S. polyanthum L. (salam leaves extract foodborne pathogens. All the foodborne pathogens were inhibited after treating with extract in disk diffusion test with range 6.67±0.58–9.67±0.58 mm of inhibition zone. The range of MIC values was between 0.63 and 1.25 mg/mL whereas MBC values were in the range 0.63 mg/mL to 2.50 mg/mL. In time-kill curve, L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa were found completely killed after exposing to extract in 1 h incubation at 4x MIC. Four hours had been taken to completely kill E. coli, S. aureus, V. cholerae, and V. parahaemolyticus at 4x MIC. However, the population of K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and S. typhimurium only reduced to 3 log CFU/mL. The treated cell showed cell rupture and leakage of the cell cytoplasm in SEM observation. The significant reduction of natural microflora in grapes fruit was started at 0.50% of extract at 5 min and this concentration also was parallel to sensory attributes acceptability where application of extract was accepted by the panellists until 5%. In conclusion, S. polyanthum extract exhibits antimicrobial activities and thus might be developed as natural sanitizer for washing raw food materials.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Syzygium polyanthum L. (Salam) Leaves against Foodborne Pathogens and Application as Food Sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Suzita; Radu, Son; Shaari, Khozirah; Rukayadi, Yaya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of S. polyanthum L. (salam) leaves extract foodborne pathogens. All the foodborne pathogens were inhibited after treating with extract in disk diffusion test with range 6.67 ± 0.58-9.67 ± 0.58 mm of inhibition zone. The range of MIC values was between 0.63 and 1.25 mg/mL whereas MBC values were in the range 0.63 mg/mL to 2.50 mg/mL. In time-kill curve, L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa were found completely killed after exposing to extract in 1 h incubation at 4x MIC. Four hours had been taken to completely kill E. coli , S. aureus , V. cholerae, and V. parahaemolyticus at 4x MIC. However, the population of K. pneumoniae , P. mirabilis, and S. typhimurium only reduced to 3 log CFU/mL. The treated cell showed cell rupture and leakage of the cell cytoplasm in SEM observation. The significant reduction of natural microflora in grapes fruit was started at 0.50% of extract at 5 min and this concentration also was parallel to sensory attributes acceptability where application of extract was accepted by the panellists until 5%. In conclusion, S. polyanthum extract exhibits antimicrobial activities and thus might be developed as natural sanitizer for washing raw food materials.

  4. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50 mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70 mg GAE/100 g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  5. Effect of flax seeds and date palm leaves extracts on serum concentrations of glucose and lipids in alloxan diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelgassim, Abuelgassim O

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine the effect of Flax Seeds (FS) and Date Palm Leaves (DPL) extracts on the concentration of serum glucose and lipids in alloxan diabetic rats. Rats were divided into six groups, normal control rats (without treatment with either FS or DPL), normal control rats treated with either FS or DPL extract for four weeks, diabetic control rats and diabetic rats treated with either FS or DPL extract for four weeks. The concentration of glucose in diabetic rats treated with FS (D+FS) for four weeks was significantly decreased from 17.20 +/- 2.33 to 8.14 +/- 0.54 mmol L(-1) (p DPL extract showed significant decrease by 40 and 31% respectively in the fourth week. Also, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration was significantly decreased after two weeks of treatment (p DPL extract significantly decreased serum concentration of TC and LDL-C. Present findings suggest that both of FS and DPL extracts could have a protective effect against diabetes complications as well as against hyperlipidemia through improvement of lipid profile.

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of Citrus spp. leaves extracts against Stemphyllium solani Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianella Iglesias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a horticultural crop with high acceptance worldwide, which is affected for several pathogens in those who find Stemphyllium solani Weber, responsible for the gray leaf spot. The control of this disease is based on application of chemical fungicides, which increase production costs and cause pollution to the environment, so the search for methods of agroecological control is necessary, as is the use of plant extracts. The aim of this work was to determine the "in vitro" antifungal activity of Critus spp. extracts against S. solani. The extracts were obtained by ultrasonic assisted extraction and then the total phenols content was quantified. For each extract was established the minimal inhibitory concentration, and then was determined the percentage of inhibition of micelial growth and the percentage of inhibition of conidial germination. In all extracts were obtained concentrations of totals phenols highest than 36 mg equivalent to galic acid mL-1 of extracts. The ethanolic extract of Citrus aurantium var. sinensis (L. Osbeck showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against S. solani. The tested extracts, except C. aurantium L. in ethanol, showed percentages of inhibition of mycelial growth of S. solani of 100 %. However, only the extracts of C. aurantium var. sinensis in ethanol and Citrus reticulata Blanco in methanol showed percentages of inhibition of conidial germination of 100 %, so they were selected as the most effective in the in vitro control of S. solani.

  7. Near-Critical Extraction of Pigments and Oleoresin from Stinging Nettle Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Bártlová, Milena; Opletal, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-224 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0550 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : Urtica dioica leaves * carbon dioxide * carotenoids Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2004

  8. The study of henna leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibitive action of henna (Lawsonia Inermis) leaves on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedance and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases. The corrosion inhibition efficiency ...

  9. The antifungal activity of methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractions F3 and F7 inhibited completely the growth of C. albicans and M. furfur. The MIC of F3 were found at 1.45 mg/ml and 2.38 ... are responsible of this activity. Key words:Leonotis nepetaefolia , leaves, natural products, phytochemical screening, chromatography, Candida albicans, Malassezia fulfur, antifungal activity.

  10. An extract of Apium graveolens var. dulce leaves: structure of the major constituent, apiin, and its anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencherini, T; Cau, A; Bianco, G; Della Loggia, R; Aquino, R P; Autore, G

    2007-06-01

    Flavonoids, natural compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom, are reported to affect the inflammatory process and to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunomodulatory activity in-vitro and in-vivo. Since nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of the inflammatory mediators, the effects of the ethanol/water (1:1) extract of the leaves of Apium graveolens var. dulce (celery) on iNOS expression and NO production in the J774.A1 macrophage cell line stimulated for 24 h with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were evaluated. The extract of A. graveolens var. dulce contained apiin as the major constituent (1.12%, w/w, of the extract). The extract and apiin showed significant inhibitory activity on nitrite (NO) production in-vitro (IC50 0.073 and 0.08 mg mL(-1) for the extract and apiin, respectively) and iNOS expression (IC50 0.095 and 0.049 mg mL(-1) for the extract and apiin, respectively) in LPS-activated J774.A1 cells. The croton-oil ear test on mice showed that the extract exerted anti-inflammatory activity in-vivo (ID50 730 microg cm(-2)), with a potency seven-times lower than that of indometacin (ID50 93 microg cm(-2)), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as reference. Our results clearly indicated the inhibitory activity of the extract and apiin in-vitro on iNOS expression and nitrite production when added before LPS stimulation in the medium of J774.A1 cells. The anti-inflammatory properties of the extract demonstrated in-vivo might have been due to reduction of iNOS enzyme expression.

  11. Effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae (pacari, in pain and inflammation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Alves Guimarães

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, popularly known as pacari, is a Cerrado's native specimen; the stem bark extract is used in folk for pain and inflammation, also showing sedating activity. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti inflammatory activities of ethanol extract from pacari leaves (EEPL. These activities were verified in mice. The previous treatment with EEPL 1.0 g/kg showed antinociceptive activity both in the acetic acid-induced writing test and in the formalin-induced model of pain, and in neurogenic and inflammatory phases as well. In the croton oil-induced ear edema, the pre-treatments with EEPL reduced the edema in a dose-dependent manner. Also in the carrageenan-induced peritonitis, the two major doses tested (2.0 and 1.5 g/kg p.o. were able to reduce the leukocyte migration in a dose-dependent manner. The Central Nervous System tests showed that the extract does not elicit uncoordinated motricity, hypnosis or sedating effects. The results showed that EEPL maintains the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the stem bark of pacari, being the collect of leaves more favorable to the preservation of this Cerrado's native specimen.

  12. The aqueous extract of Albizia adianthifolia leaves attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced anxiety, depression and oxidative stress in rat amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppe, Galba Jean; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Dimo, Théophile; Mihasan, Marius; Hritcu, Lucian

    2015-10-19

    While the Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach.) W. Wright (Fabaceae) is a traditional herb largely used in the African traditional medicine as analgesic, purgative, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, memory-enhancer, anxiolytic and antidepressant drug, there are no scientific data that clarify the anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned animal model of Parkinson's disease. This study was undertaken in order to identify the effects of aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced anxiety, depression and oxidative stress in the rat amygdala. The effect of the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves (150 and 300 mg/kg, orally, daily, for 21 days) on anxiety and depression was assessed using elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests, as animal models of anxiety and depression. Also, the antioxidant activity in the rat amygdala was assessed using assessed using superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase specific activities, the total content of the reduced glutathione, protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde levels. Statistical analyses were performed using by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were determined by Tukey's post hoc test. F values for which p amygdala. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract ameliorates 6-OHDA-induced anxiety and depression by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat amygdala. These pieces of evidence accentuate its use in traditional medicine.

  13. In-vitro study: Immunomodulatory and cytotoxicity effects of ethanolic leave extracts of Aegle marmelos and Ficus benghalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnyfred Crossia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of the coastal trees Aegle marmelos (A. marmelos and Ficus benghalensis (F. benghalensis by in-vitro methods. Methods: A. marmelos and F. benghalensis leaves were extracted with the solvents di-ethyl ether, ethanol and methanol. The extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and immunomodulatory activity against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, respectively. Results: F. benghalensis ethanol cold extract gave maximum inhibition zones against Escherichia coli NCIM 2931 (B2 at 18 mm and enhanced the growth of human PBMC. It was non-toxic to human PBMC shown by the Tryphan blue dye exclusion method, sulforhodamine B and MTT assays. IR phyto-chemical analysis demonstrated the presence of the functional groups: NH, CH2, CH3, CO, OH, -C-C=O, and C-S. We confirmed the presence of quantifiable amounts of tannins and alkaloids with traces of phenolic compounds by thin layer chromatography analysis. Conclusions: Leaves of A. marmelos and F. benghalensis provide both antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties.

  14. Water extract of Semecarpus parvifolia Thw. leaves inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on HEp-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, Preethi; Jayarthne, Panchima; Ranathunga, Imali

    2018-03-05

    Semecarpus parvifolia Thw is used as an ingredient of poly herbal decoctions to treat cancer in traditional medicine. The present study aims to investigate the antiproliferative activity on HEp 2 cells by the water extract of S. parvifolia leaves and to evaluate potential mechanisms. The plant extract was exposed to S. parvifolia for 24 hours and antiproliferative activity was quantified by Sulforhodamine B (SRB), 3-(4, 5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Morphological changes were observed after staining cells with ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/AO) and Giemsa dye. Comet assay was performed to evaluate the DNA damage. The toxicity of the plant extract was determined by brine shrimp lethality assay. S. parvifolia leaves reduced the cell proliferation in a dose and time dependent manner. A two fold increase in NO level was observed at higher concentrations. Morphological changes characteristic to apoptosis were observed in light microscopy, Giemsa and EB/AO stained cells. Fragmented DNA further confirmed its capacity to induce apoptosis. No lethality was observed with brine shrimps. The results suggest that Semecarpus parvifolia Thw induces apoptosis in HEp-2 cells through a NO dependent pathway.

  15. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves by multiresponse surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at studying the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) by multi-response surface methodology (RSM) to test their efficiency towards the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves. The extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TF), DPPH scavenging method and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay were considered as response variables while effects of extraction time, percentage of ethanol, and temperature were studied. Extraction time of 20 min, 42% ethanol and 158°C were the MAE optimum conditions for achieving extraction yield of 26 ± 2%, EC50 15 ± 2 μg/mL, 16 ± 1 Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 5.2 ± 0.5 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 86 ± 4 mg GAE/g dry leaf. Regarding PLE, the optimum conditions that allowed extraction yield of 56 ± 2%, EC50 21 ± 3 μg/mL, 12 ± 2 mmol Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 6.5 ± 0.2 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 59 ± 6 mg GAE/g dry leaf were 128°C, 35% of ethanol, and 20 min. PLE enabled the extraction of phenolic compounds with a higher number of hydroxyl-type substituents such as kaempferol diglycoside and its acetyl derivatives and those that are sensitive to high temperatures (glucosinolates or amino acids) while MAE allowed better recoveries of kaempferol, quercetin, and their glucosides derivatives. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Optimization of Solid-Liquid Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Mulberry Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Radojković, Marija; Zeković, Zoran; Jokić, Stela; Vidović, Senka; Lepojević, Žika; Milošević, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of solvent concentration (ethanol/water 40–80 %, by volume), temperature (40–80 °C) and solvent/raw material ratio (10–30 mL/g) on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and an...

  17. Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Functional Ingredients from Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Voća, Sandra; Dobričević, Nadica; Brnčić, Mladen; Dujmić, Filip; Rimac Brnčić, Suzana

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal an effective extraction procedure for maximization of the yield of steviol glycosides and total phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activity in stevia extracts. Ultrasound assisted extraction was compared with conventional solvent extraction. The examined solvents were water (100°C/24 h) and 70% ethanol (at 70°C for 30 min). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of steviol glycosides in the extracts obtained were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging capacity by 2, 2-azino-di-3-ethylbenzothialozine- sulphonic acid) assay were also determined. The highest content of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in stevia extracts were obtained when ultrasound assisted extraction was used. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was correlated with the total amount of phenolic compounds. The results indicated that the examined sonication parameters represented as the probe diameter (7 and 22 mm) and treatment time (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min) significantly contributed to the yield of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids. The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids were as follows: extraction time 10 min, probe diameter 22 mm, and temperature 81.2°C.

  18. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  19. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Medeiros de Freitas

    Full Text Available Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its pla