WorldWideScience

Sample records for boreal forest birds

  1. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Niemi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.

  2. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L.; Ehnstroem, B.; Sjoeberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  3. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  4. Pennsylvania boreal conifer forests and their bird communities: past, present, and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. Gross

    2010-01-01

    Pennsylvania spruce (Picea spp.)- and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)-dominated forests, found primarily on glaciated parts of the Allegheny Plateau, are relicts of boreal forest that covered the region following glacial retreat. The timber era of the late 1800s and early 1900s (as late as 1942) destroyed most of the boreal...

  5. Can Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS and Forest Estimates Derived from Satellite Images Be Used to Predict Abundance and Species Richness of Birds and Beetles in Boreal Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lindberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In managed landscapes, conservation planning requires effective methods to identify high-biodiversity areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning (ALS and forest estimates derived from satellite images extracted at two spatial scales for predicting the stand-scale abundance and species richness of birds and beetles in a managed boreal forest landscape. Multiple regression models based on forest data from a 50-m radius (i.e., corresponding to a homogenous forest stand had better explanatory power than those based on a 200-m radius (i.e., including also parts of adjacent stands. Bird abundance and species richness were best explained by the ALS variables “maximum vegetation height” and “vegetation cover between 0.5 and 3 m” (both positive. Flying beetle abundance and species richness, as well as epigaeic (i.e., ground-living beetle richness were best explained by a model including the ALS variable “maximum vegetation height” (positive and the satellite-derived variable “proportion of pine” (negative. Epigaeic beetle abundance was best explained by “maximum vegetation height” at 50 m (positive and “stem volume” at 200 m (positive. Our results show that forest estimates derived from satellite images and ALS data provide complementary information for explaining forest biodiversity patterns. We conclude that these types of remote sensing data may provide an efficient tool for conservation planning in managed boreal landscapes.

  6. Newtonian boreal forest ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Hari, Pertti; Aakala, Tuomas; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Hollmén, Jaakko; Jõgiste, Kalev; Koupaei, Kourosh Kabiri; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Korpela, Mikko; Kulmala, Liisa; Nikinmaa, Eero; Pumpanen, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Simojoki, Asko

    2017-01-01

    Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by...

  7. Densities of breeding birds and changes in vegetation in an alaskan boreal forest following a massive disturbance by spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.; Ruthrauff, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    We examined bird and plant communities among forest stands with different levels of spruce mortality following a large outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) in the Copper River Basin, Alaska. Spruce beetles avoided stands with black spruce (Picea mariana) and selectively killed larger diameter white spruce (Picea glauca), thereby altering forest structure and increasing the dominance of black spruce in the region. Alders (Alnus sp.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) were more abundant in areas with heavy spruce mortality, possibly a response to the death of overstory spruce. Grasses and herbaceous plants did not proliferate as has been recorded following outbreaks in more coastal Alaskan forests. Two species closely tied to coniferous habitats, the tree-nesting Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) and the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a major nest predator, were less abundant in forest stands with high spruce mortality than in low-mortality stands. Understory-nesting birds as a group were more abundant in forest stands with high levels of spruce mortality, although the response of individual bird species to tree mortality was variable. Birds breeding in stands with high spruce mortality likely benefited reproductively from lower squirrel densities and a greater abundance of shrubs to conceal nests from predators.

  8. Silviculture's role in managing boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    1998-01-01

    Boreal forests, which are often undeveloped, are a major source of raw materials for many countries. They are circumpolar in extent and occupy a belt to a width of 1000 km in certain regions. Various conifer and hardwood species ranging from true firs to poplars grow in boreal forests. These species exhibit a wide range of shade tolerance and growth characteristics,...

  9. Competitive interactions among raptors in boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Harri; Mykrä, Sakari; Kurki, Sami; Tornberg, Risto; Jungell, Sven

    2004-11-01

    We examined inter-specific interactions among goshawks ( Accipiter gentilis), common buzzards (Buteo buteo) and honey buzzards (Pernis apivorus) in western Finland in 1983-1996. Because goshawks are among the largest birds of prey species in boreal forests they may take over the nest of smaller and less-competitive forest-dwelling raptors when searching for suitable places for breeding. Accordingly, more than half of newly established goshawk territories were found on the territories previously occupied by the common buzzard and the honey buzzard. Otherwise, territory sharing between these species was rare. Fledgling production of honey buzzards was not associated with the presence of goshawks, probably owing to the almost 2 months later onset of breeding. This probably decreases competitive interactions between these two species. An intensive interference competition, instead, seemed to be evident between common buzzards and goshawks, because the fledgling production of common buzzards was decreased by 20% as a result of failures during incubation and nestling period in the vicinity (nests. Similarly, territory occupancy of common buzzards till the next breeding season was significantly reduced in the presence of goshawks. Relatively high proportions of occupied buzzard territories (17%) in the study area were shared by breeding goshawks on the same territory. This suggests that although their diets are dissimilar they inhabit similar habitats and might compete for the available prime nesting habitats within forest landscapes. In addition, goshawks benefit from taking over the complete nests of other raptors, imposing upon the original owners of the nest, because building a large stick nest is probably energetically costly. As a large raptor, the goshawk apparently has a competitive advantage over smaller ones, and may have an ever-increasing impact on smaller birds of prey, if there is a lack of sheltered forests inducing competition for the available nest sites.

  10. Boreal Forest Fire Cools Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M.; Chambers, S. D.; Harden, J. W.; Hess, P. G.; Jin, Y.; Mack, M. C.; Pfister, G.; Schuur, E. A.; Treseder, K. K.; Welp, L. R.; Zender, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    We report measurements, modeling, and analysis of carbon and energy fluxes from a boreal forest fire that occurred in interior Alaska during 1999. In the first year after the fire, ozone production, atmospheric aerosol loading, greenhouse gas emissions, soot deposition, and decreases in summer albedo contributed to a positive annual radiative forcing (RF). These effects were partly offset by an increase in fall, winter, and spring albedo from reduced canopy cover and increased exposure of snow-covered surfaces. The atmospheric lifetime of aerosols and ozone and are relatively short (days to months). The radiative effects of soot on snow are also attenuated rapidly from the deposition of fresh snow. As a result, a year after the fire, only two classes of RF mechanisms remained: greenhouse gas emissions and post-fire changes in surface albedo. Summer albedo increased rapidly in subsequent years and was substantially higher than unburned control areas (by more than 0.03) after 4 years as a result of grass and shrub establishment. Satellite measurements from MODIS of other interior Alaska burn scars provided evidence that elevated levels of spring and summer albedo (relative to unburned control areas) persisted for at least 4 decades after fire. In parallel, our chamber, eddy covariance, and biomass measurements indicated that the post-fire ecosystems switch from a source to a sink within the first decade. Taken together, the extended period of increased spring and summer albedo and carbon uptake of intermediate-aged stands appears to more than offset the initial warming pulse caused by fire emissions, when compared using the RF concept. This result suggests that management of forests in northern countries to suppress fire and preserve carbon sinks may have the opposite effect on climate as that intended.

  11. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  12. Nitrogen alters carbon dynamics during early succession in boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Allison; Tracy B. Gartner; Michelle C. Mack; Krista McGuire; Kathleen. Treseder

    2010-01-01

    Boreal forests are an important source of wood products, and fertilizers could be used to improve forest yields, especially in nutrient poor regions of the boreal zone. With climate change, fire frequencies may increase, resulting in a larger fraction of the boreal landscape present in early successional stages. Since most fertilization studies have focused on mature...

  13. Boreal forest biomass classification with TanDEM-X

    OpenAIRE

    Torano Caicoya, Astor; Kugler, Florian; Papathanassiou, Kostas; Hajnsek, Irena

    2013-01-01

    High spatial resolution X-band interferometric SAR data from the TanDEM-X, in the operational DEM generation mode, are sensitive to forest structure and can therefore be used for thematic boreal forest classification of forest environments. The interferometric coherence in absence of temporal decorrelation depends strongly on forest height and structure. Due to the rather homogenous structure of boreal forest, forest biomass can be derived from forest height, on the basis of allometric equati...

  14. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  15. Simulation of Forest Cover Dynamics for Eastern Eurasian Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugart, H. H.; Yan, X.; Zhang, N.; Isaev, A. S.; Shuman, J. K.

    2006-12-01

    We are developing and testing a boreal zone forest dynamics model capable of simulating the forest cover dynamics of the Eurasian boreal forest, a major biospheric ecosystem with potentially large roles in the planetary carbon cycle and in the feedback between terrestrial surface and the atmosphere. In appreciating the role of this region in the coupling between atmosphere and terrestrial surface, on must understand the interactions between CO2 source/sink relationships (associated with growing or clearing forests) and the albedo effects (from changes in terrestrial surface cover). There is some evidence that in the Eurasian Boreal zone, the Carbon budget effects from forest change may oppose the albedo changes. This creates complex feedbacks between surface and atmosphere and motivates the need for a forest dynamics model that simultaneous represents forest vegetation and carbon storage and release. A forest dynamics model applied to Eastern Eurasia, FAREAST, has been tested using three types of information: 1. Direct species composition comparisons between simulated and observed mature forests at the same locations; 2. Forest type comparisons between simulated and observed forests along altitudinal gradients of several different mountains; 3. Comparison with forest stands in different succession stages of simulated forests. Model comparisons with independent data indicate the FAREAST model is capable of representing many of the broad features of the forests of Northeastern China. After model validation in the Northeast China region, model applications were developed for the forests of the Russian Far East. Continental-scale forest cover can be simulated to a relatively realistic degree using a forest gap model with standard representations of individual-plant processes. It appears that such a model, validated relatively locally in this case, in Northeastern China, can then be applied over a much larger region and under conditions of climatic change.

  16. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  17. Controls on moss evaporation in a boreal black spruce forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    [1] Mosses are an important component of the boreal forest, but little is known about their contribution to ecosystem carbon, water, and energy exchange. We studied the role of mosses in boreal forest evapotranspiration by conducting two experiments in a black spruce forest in Fairbanks, Alaska.

  18. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, Markus P.

    2010-01-01

    Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-domi...

  19. Rock, Paper, Protest: The Fight for the Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunz, Sally; Whittaker, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Canada's boreal forests are second only to the Amazon in producing life-giving oxygen and providing a habitat for thousands of species, from the large woodland caribou to the smallest organisms. The boreal forests are the lifeblood of many Aboriginal communities and the thousands of workers, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, who harvest and process…

  20. Bat and bird diversity along independent gradients of latitude and tree composition in European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Yohan M; Barbaro, Luc; Barnagaud, Jean-Yves; Ampoorter, Evy; Nezan, Julien; Verheyen, Kris; Jactel, Hervé

    2016-10-01

    Species assemblages are shaped by local and continental-scale processes that are seldom investigated together, due to the lack of surveys along independent gradients of latitude and habitat types. Our study investigated changes in the effects of forest composition and structure on bat and bird diversity across Europe. We compared the taxonomic and functional diversity of bat and bird assemblages in 209 mature forest plots spread along gradients of forest composition and vertical structure, replicated in 6 regions spanning from the Mediterranean to the boreal biomes. Species richness and functional evenness of both bat and bird communities were affected by the interactions between latitude and forest composition and structure. Bat and bird species richness increased with broadleaved tree cover in temperate and especially in boreal regions but not in the Mediterranean where they increased with conifer abundance. Bat species richness was lower in forests with smaller trees and denser understorey only in northern regions. Bird species richness was not affected by forest structure. Bird functional evenness increased in younger and denser forests. Bat functional evenness was also influenced by interactions between latitude and understorey structure, increasing in temperate forests but decreasing in the Mediterranean. Covariation between bat and bird abundances also shifted across Europe, from negative in southern forests to positive in northern forests. Our results suggest that community assembly processes in bats and birds of European forests are predominantly driven by abundance and accessibility of feeding resources, i.e., insect prey, and their changes across both forest types and latitudes.

  1. Carbon in boreal coniferous forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, C.J.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Liski, J.; Mecke, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Fritze, H.; Helmisaari, H.S.; Pietikaeinen, J.; Smolander, A. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The working hypothesis of the research was that the soil of boreal forests is a large carbon store and the amount of C is still increasing in young soils, like in the forest soils of Finland, which makes these soils important sinks for atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Since the processes defining the soil C balance, primary production of plants and decomposition, are dependent on environmental factors and site properties, it was assumed that the organic carbon pool in the soil is also dependent on the same factors. The soil C store is therefore likely to change in response to climatic warming. The aim of this research was to estimate the C balance of forest soil in Finland and predict changes in the balance in response to changes in climatic conditions. To achieve the aim (1) intensive empirical experimentation on the density of C in different pools in the soil and on fluxes between the pools was done was done, (2) the effect of site fertility and climate on the amount and properties of organic C in forest soil was investigated and (3) dynamic modelling for investigating dynamics of the soil C storage was used

  2. Carbon in boreal coniferous forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, C J; Ilvesniemi, H; Liski, J; Mecke, M [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Fritze, H; Helmisaari, H S; Pietikaeinen, J; Smolander, A [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The working hypothesis of the research was that the soil of boreal forests is a large carbon store and the amount of C is still increasing in young soils, like in the forest soils of Finland, which makes these soils important sinks for atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Since the processes defining the soil C balance, primary production of plants and decomposition, are dependent on environmental factors and site properties, it was assumed that the organic carbon pool in the soil is also dependent on the same factors. The soil C store is therefore likely to change in response to climatic warming. The aim of this research was to estimate the C balance of forest soil in Finland and predict changes in the balance in response to changes in climatic conditions. To achieve the aim (1) intensive empirical experimentation on the density of C in different pools in the soil and on fluxes between the pools was done was done, (2) the effect of site fertility and climate on the amount and properties of organic C in forest soil was investigated and (3) dynamic modelling for investigating dynamics of the soil C storage was used

  3. Global warming considerations in northern Boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The northern boreal forests of circumpolar lands are of special significance to questions of global climate change. Throughout its range, these forests are characterized by a relatively few tree species, although they may exhibit great spatial heterogeneity. Their ecosystems are simpler than temperate systems, and ecosystem processes are strongly affected by interactions between water, the landscape, and the biota. Northern boreal forest vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by forest fires, and distribution of forest generally coincides with occurrence of permafrost. Boreal forest landscapes are extremely sensitive to thermal disruption; global warming may result in lasting thermal and physical degradation of soils, altered rates and patterns of vegetation succession, and damage to engineered structures. A change in fire severity and frequency is also a significant concern. The total carbon pool of boreal forests and their associated peatlands is significant on a global scale; this carbon may amount to 10-20% of the global carbon pool. A change in latitudinal or elevational treeline has been suggested as a probable consequence of global warming. More subtle aspects of boreal forest ecosystems which may be affected by global warming include the depth of the active soil layer, the hydrologic cycle, and biological attributes of boreal stream systems. 48 refs., 2 figs

  4. NPP Boreal Forest: Kuusamo, Finland, 1967-1972, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three files (.txt format). One file provides stand characteristics, biomass, and production allocation data for an old-growth boreal forest...

  5. Global climate change adaptation: examples from Russian boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krankina, O.N.; Dixon, R.K.; Kirilenko, A.P.; Kobak, K.I.

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation contains approximately 20% of the world's timber resources and more than half of all boreal forests. These forests play a prominent role in environmental protection and economic development at global, national, and local levels, as well as, provide commodities for indigenous people and habitat for a variety of plant and animal species. The response and feedbacks of Russian boreal forests to projected global climate change are expected to be profound. Current understanding of the vulnerability of Russian forest resources to projected climate change is discussed and examples of possible adaptation measures for Russian forests are presented including: (1) artificial forestation techniques that can be applied with the advent of failed natural regeneration and to facilitate forest migration northward; (2) silvicultural measures that can influence the species mix to maintain productivity under future climates; (3) identifying forests at risk and developing special management adaption measures for them: (4) alternative processing and uses of wood and non-wood products from future forests; and (5) potential future infrastructure and transport systems that can be employed as boreal forests shift northward into melting permafrost zones. Current infrastructure and technology can be employed to help Russian boreal forests adapt to projected global environmental change, however many current forest management practices may have to be modified. Application of this technical knowledge can help policymakers identify priorities for climate change adaptation

  6. The changing effects of Alaska's boreal forest on the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.S. Euskirchen; A.D. McGuire; F.S. Chapin; T.S. Rupp

    2010-01-01

    In the boreal forests of Alaska, recent changes in climate have influenced the exchange of trace gases, water, and energy between these forests and the atmosphere. These changes in the structure and function of boreal forests can then feed back to impact regional and global climates. We examine the type and magnitude of the climate feedbacks from boreal forests in...

  7. Aerosol volatility in a boreal forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, S. A. K.; ńijälä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Riipinen, I.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and health effects of atmospheric aerosols are determined by their properties such as their chemical composition. Aerosol chemical composition can be studied indirectly by measuring volatility of aerosol particles. The volatility of submicron aerosol particles (20-500 nm) was studied in a boreal forest site at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II) station (Vesala et al., 1998) in Hyytiälä, Finland, during 01/2008-05/2010. The instrument used for the measurements was VDMPS (Volatility Differential Mobility Particle Sizer), which consists of two separate instruments: DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, Aalto et al., 2001) and TD (Thermodenuder, Wehner et al., 2002). Aerosol evaporation was examined by heating the aerosol and comparing the total aerosol mass before and after heating. In the VDMPS system ambient aerosol sample was heated up to temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 280 °C. The higher the heating temperature was the more aerosol material was evaporated. There was a non-volatile residual present in aerosol particles when heated up to 280 °C. This residual explained (20±8)% of the total aerosol mass. Aerosol non-volatile mass fraction was highest during winter and smallest during summer months. The role of black carbon in the observed non-volatile residual was determined. Black carbon explained 40 to 90% of the non-volatile mass. Especially during colder seasons noticeable amount of non-volatile material, something else than black carbon, was observed. According to Kalberer et al. (2004) some atmospheric organic species can form polymers that have high evaporation temperatures. Also low-volatile organic salts may contribute to the non-volatile aerosol (Smith et al., 2010). Aerosol mass composition measured directly with AMS (Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Jayne et al., 2000) was analyzed in order to examine the properties of the non-volatile material (other than black carbon). The AMS measurements were performed

  8. Mosaic boreal landscapes with open and forested wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, K.; Ericson, L.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. The boreal landscape was earlier characterized by a mosaic of open and forested wetlands and forests. Drainage and felling operation have largely changed that pattern. Several organisms depend upon the landscape mosaic. Natural ecotones between mire and forest provide food resources predictable in space and time contrasting to unpredictable edges in the silvicultured landscape. The mosaic is also a prerequisite for organisms dependent on non-substitutable resources in the landscape. The importance of swamp forests has increased as they function as refugia for earlier more widespread old-growth species. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal landscape should include the following points. First, the natural mosaic with open and forested wetlands must be maintained. Second, swamp forests must receive a general protection as they often constitute the only old-growth patches in the landscape. Third, we need to restore earlier disturbance regimes. Present strategy plans for conservation are insufficient, as they imply that a too large proportion of boreal organisms will not be able to survive outside protected areas. Instead, we need to focus more on how to preserve organisms in the man-influenced landscape. As a first step we need to understand how organisms are distributed in landscapes at various spatial scales. We need studies in landscapes where the original mosaic has faced various degrees of fragmentation. (au) 124 refs

  9. Amine Measurements in Boreal Forest Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmilä, Marja; Hellén, Heidi; Makkonen, Ulla; Hakola, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Amines are reactive, volatile bases in the air with a general formula of RNH2, R2NH or R3N. Especially small amines can stabilize sulphuric acid clusters and hence affect nucleation. Amines react rapidly with hydroxyl radical (OH˙) thus affecting oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The amine concentrations are higher in forest air than in urban air (Hellén et al., 2014), but the sources are not known. In order to get more information concerning amine sources, we conducted a measurement campaign in a boreal forest. At SMEAR II station at Hyytiälä, Southern Finland (61°510'N, 24°170'E, 180 m a.s.l.) The measurements cover seven months, from June to December 2014. For sampling and measuring we used MARGA (The instrument for Measuring AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air) which is an on-line ion chromatograph (IC) connected to a sampling system. The IC component of the MARGA system was coupled to an electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) to improve sensitivity of amine measurements. This new set-up enabled amine concentration measurements in ambient air both in aerosol and gas phases with a time resolution of only 1 hour. With MARGA-MS we analysed 7 different amines: monomethylamine (MMA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA), propylamine (PA) and butylamine (BA). In preliminary data-analysis we found out, that in June and July most of the measured amines were in gas phase, and particle phase amine concentrations were mostly under detection limits (<1.7 pptv). In June the gaseous amine concentrations were higher than in July. The measured concentrations of gaseous amines followed temperature variation, which could indicate that amines are produced and emitted from the environment or re-emitted from the surfaces as temperature rises after deposition during night-time. All measured amines had similar diurnal variation with maxima during afternoon and minima during night. Results from other months will also

  10. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Smoke aerosol and background aerosol particles were collected from the controlled burning of boreal forest where vegetation species and relative mass distributions are known. Chemical mass balances were constructed for the total mass of carbonaceous aerosol particles emitted during the prescribed burn. In addition, a carbonaceous species inventory was developed for aerosol particles presnt under background, smoldering, and full-fire conditions; the production of organic carbon and elemental carbon particles is noted for these two fire regimes. Distributions of the solvent-soluble organic components of the sampled aerosols were generated to identify molecular properties that can be traced to unburned and pyrolyzed materials present in the boreal forest fuels

  11. Are Boreal Ovenbirds, Seiurus aurocapilla, More Prone to Move across Inhospitable Landscapes in Alberta's Boreal Mixedwood Forest than in Southern Québec's Temperate Deciduous Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Population life-history traits such as the propensity to move across inhospitable landscapes should be shaped by exposure to landscape structure over evolutionary time. Thus, birds that recently evolved in landscapes fragmented by natural disturbances such as fire would be expected to show greater behavioral and morphological vagility relative to conspecifics that evolved under less patchy landscapes shaped by fewer and finer-scaled disturbances, i.e., the resilience hypothesis. These predictions are not new, but they remain largely untested, even for well-studied taxa such as neotropical migrant birds. We combined two experimental translocation, i.e., homing, studies to test whether Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla, from the historically dynamic boreal mixedwood forest of north-central Alberta (n = 55 is more vagile than Ovenbird from historically less dynamic deciduous forest of southern Québec (n = 89. We found no regional difference in either wing loading or the response of homing Ovenbird to landscape structure. Nevertheless, this study presents a heuristic framework that can advance the understanding of boreal landscape dynamics as an evolutionary force.

  12. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...

  13. Resilience of Alaska's Boreal Forest to Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. S., III; McGuire, A. D.; Ruess, R. W.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Kasischke, E. S.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Jones, J. B.; Jorgenson, M. T.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the resilience of Alaska s boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. Recent warming is associated with reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease and insect outbreaks, warming and thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes, increased wildfire extent, increased postfire recruitment of deciduous trees, and reduced safety of hunters traveling on river ice. These changes have modified key structural features, feedbacks, and interactions in the boreal forest, including reduced effects of upland permafrost on regional hydrology, expansion of boreal forest into tundra, and amplification of climate warming because of reduced albedo (shorter winter season) and carbon release from wildfires. Other temperature-sensitive processes for which no trends have been detected include composition of plant and microbial communities, long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks, stream discharge, mammalian population dynamics, and river access and subsistence opportunities for rural indigenous communities. Projections of continued warming suggest that Alaska s boreal forest will undergo significant functional and structural changes within the next few decades that are unprecedented in the last 6000 years. The impact of these social ecological changes will depend in part on the extent of landscape reorganization between uplands and lowlands and on policies regulating subsistence opportunities for rural communities.

  14. Modeling Alaska boreal forests with a controlled trend surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Jingjing Liang

    2012-01-01

    An approach of Controlled Trend Surface was proposed to simultaneously take into consideration large-scale spatial trends and nonspatial effects. A geospatial model of the Alaska boreal forest was developed from 446 permanent sample plots, which addressed large-scale spatial trends in recruitment, diameter growth, and mortality. The model was tested on two sets of...

  15. Resilience of Alaska’s boreal forest to climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F.S.; McGuire, A. David; Ruess, Roger W.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Mack, M.C.; Johnstone, J.F.; Kasischke, E.S.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Jones, J.B.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Kielland, K.; Kofinas, G.; Turetsky, M.R.; Yarie, J.; Lloyd, A.H.; Taylor, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the resilience of Alaska’s boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. Recent warming is associated with reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease and insect outbreaks, warming and thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes, increased wildfire extent, increased postfire recruitment of deciduous trees, and reduced safety of hunters traveling on river ice. These changes have modified key structural features, feedbacks, and interactions in the boreal forest, including reduced effects of upland permafrost on regional hydrology, expansion of boreal forest into tundra, and amplification of climate warming because of reduced albedo (shorter winter season) and carbon release from wildfires. Other temperature-sensitive processes for which no trends have been detected include composition of plant and microbial communities, long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks, stream discharge, mammalian population dynamics, and river access and subsistence opportunities for rural indigenous communities. Projections of continued warming suggest that Alaska’s boreal forest will undergo significant functional and structural changes within the next few decades that are unprecedented in the last 6000 years. The impact of these social–ecological changes will depend in part on the extent of landscape reorganization between uplands and lowlands and on policies regulating subsistence opportunities for rural communities.

  16. Moss-nitrogen input to boreal forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey; DeLuca, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria living epiphytically on mosses in pristine, unpolluted areas fix substantial amounts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and therefore represent a primary source of N in N-limited boreal forests. However, the fate of this N is unclear, in particular, how the fixed N2 enters the soil and bec...... and that transfer of N to the soil is not facilitated by fungal hyphae....

  17. TALL-HERB BOREAL FORESTS ON NORTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aleinikov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the pressing aims of today’s natural resource management is its re-orientation to preserving and restoring ecological functions of ecosystems, among which the function of biodiversity maintenance plays an indicator role. The majority of today’s forests have not retained their natural appearance as the result of long-standing human impact. In this connection, refugia studies are becoming particularly interesting, as they give us an insight into the natural appearance of forests. Materials and methods. Studies were performed in dark conifer forests of the Pechora–Ilych reserve, in the lower reaches of the Bol’shaya Porozhnyaya River in 2013 yr. Vegetation data sampling was done at 50 temporary square plots of a fixed size (100 m2 randomly placed within a forest type. A list of plant species with species abundance was made for each forest layer. The overstorey (or tree canopy layer was denoted by the Latin letter A. The understorey layer (indicated by the letter B included tree undergrowth and tall shrubs. Ground vegetation was subdivided into the layers C and D. Layer C (field layer comprised the herbaceous species (herbs, grasses, sedges and dwarf shrubs together with low shrubs, tree and shrub seedlings. The height of the field layer was defined by the maximal height of the herbaceous species, ferns, and dwarf shrubs; the height varied from several cm to more than 200 cm in the ‘tall-herb’ forest types. Layer D (bottom layer included cryptogamic species (bryophytes and lichens. Species abundance in the each layer was usually assessed using the Braun-Blanquet cover scale (Braun-Blanquet 1928. The nomenclature used follows Cherepanov’s (1995 for vascular plants, and Ignatov & Afonina’s (1992. Results. The present article contains descriptions of unique tall-herb boreal forests of European Russia preserved in certain refugia which did not experience prolonged anthropogenic impact or any other catastrophes

  18. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  19. The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J.T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M.G.; Chambers, S.D.; Jin, Y.; Hess, P.G.; Pfister, G.; Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Welp, L.R.; Chapin, F.S.; Harden, J.W.; Goulden, M.L.; Lyons, E.; Neff, J.C.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Zender, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 ?? 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative forcing when averaged over an 80-year fire cycle (-2.3 ?? 2.2 Watts per square meter) because multidecadal increases in surface albedo had a larger impact than fire-emitted greenhouse gases. This result implies that future increases in boreal fire may not accelerate climate warming.

  20. The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J T; Liu, H; Flanner, M G; Chambers, S D; Jin, Y; Hess, P G; Pfister, G; Mack, M C; Treseder, K K; Welp, L R; Chapin, F S; Harden, J W; Goulden, M L; Lyons, E; Neff, J C; Schuur, E A G; Zender, C S

    2006-11-17

    We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 +/- 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative forcing when averaged over an 80-year fire cycle (-2.3 +/- 2.2 Watts per square meter) because multidecadal increases in surface albedo had a larger impact than fire-emitted greenhouse gases. This result implies that future increases in boreal fire may not accelerate climate warming.

  1. Boreal forests and atmosphere - Biosphere exchange of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Jacoby, Gordon C.; Fung, Inez Y.

    1987-01-01

    Two approaches to investigating the role of boreal forests in the global carbon cycle are presented. First, a tracer support model which incorporates the normalized-difference vegetation index obtained from advanced, very high resolution radiometer radiances was used to simulate the annual cycle of CO2 in the atmosphere. Results indicate that the seasonal growth of the combined boreal forests of North America and Eurasia accounts for about 50 percent of the mean seasonal CO2 amplitude recorded at Pt. Barrow, Alaska and about 30 percent of the more globally representative CO2 signal at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Second, tree-ring width data from four boreal treeline sites in northern Canada were positively correlated with Pt. Barrow CO2 drawdown for the period 1971-1982. These results suggest that large-scale changes in the growth of boreal forests may be contributing to the observed increasing trend in CO2 amplitude. They further suggest that tree-ring data may be applicable as indices for CO2 uptake and remote sensing estimates of photosynthetic activity.

  2. Forest fires may cause cooling in boreal Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-08-01

    As climate in North America continues to become warmer and drier through the 21st century, a new study finds that fire may be playing an increasingly important role in shaping the climate of the boreal regions of Canada. Forest fires change the amount of shortwave radiation absorbed by Earth's surface by reducing vegetation cover and changing the composition of plant species, thereby changing the reflectivity of the surface (albedo). Fires also affect other ecosystem processes and increase aerosol (particularly soot) emission and deposition, all of which alter regional climate through a series of feedbacks mechanisms. Jin et al. used satellite observations of surface albedo from 2000 to 2011 and fire perimeter data since 1970 to study how forest fires affect surface albedo and associated shortwave radiation at the surface, across forests in boreal Canada.

  3. Growth Decline Linked to Warming-Induced Water Limitation in Hemi-Boreal Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Guo, Dali; Anenkhonov, Oleg A.; Badmaeva, Natalya K.; Sandanov, Denis V.

    2012-01-01

    Hemi-boreal forests, which make up the transition from temperate deciduous forests to boreal forests in southern Siberia, have experienced significant warming without any accompanying increase in precipitation during the last 80 years. This climatic change could have a profound impact on tree growth and on the stability of forest ecosystems in this region, but at present evidence for these impacts is lacking. In this study, we report a recent dramatic decline in the growth of hemi-boreal fore...

  4. Fire, humans, and climate: modeling distribution dynamics of boreal forest waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börger, Luca; Nudds, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of landscape change and environmental variability on ecological processes is important for evaluating resource management policies, such as the emulation of natural forest disturbances. We analyzed time series of detection/nondetection data using hierarchical models in a Bayesian multi-model inference framework to decompose the dynamics of species distributions into responses to environmental variability, spatial variation in habitat conditions, and population dynamics and interspecific interactions, while correcting for observation errors and variation in sampling regimes. We modeled distribution dynamics of 14 waterbird species (broadly defined, including wetland and riparian species) using data from two different breeding bird surveys collected in the Boreal Shield ecozone within Ontario, Canada. Temporal variation in species occupancy (2000-2006) was primarily driven by climatic variability. Only two species showed evidence of consistent temporal trends in distribution: Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) decreased, and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) increased. The models had good predictive ability on independent data over time (1997-1999). Spatial variation in species occupancy was strongly related to the distribution of specific land cover types and habitat disturbance: Fire and forest harvesting influenced occupancy more than did roads, settlements, or mines. Bioclimatic and habitat heterogeneity indices and geographic coordinates exerted negligible influence on most species distributions. Estimated habitat suitability indices had good predictive ability on spatially independent data (Hudson Bay Lowlands ecozone). Additionally, we detected effects of interspecific interactions. Species responses to fire and forest harvesting were similar for 13 of 14 species; thus, forest-harvesting practices in Ontario generally appeared to emulate the effects of fire for waterbirds over timescales of 10-20 years. Extrapolating to all

  5. Diverse growth trends and climate responses across Eurasia's boreal forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellmann, L.; Agafonov, L.; Ljungqvist, F. C.; Churakova (Sidorova), O.; Duethorn, E.; Esper, J.; Hulsmann, L.; Kirdyanov, A. V.; Moiseev, P.; Myglan, V. S.; Nikolaev, A. N.; Reinig, F.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Solomina, O.; Tegel, W.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), č. článku 074021. ISSN 1748-9326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : 20th-century summer warmth * tree-ring chronology * scots pine * 2 millennia * temperature variability * northern-hemisphere * central siberia * worlds forests * white spruce * carbon-cycle * boreal forest * climate variability * dendroecology * Eurasia * forest productivity * global warming * high northern latitudes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.404, year: 2016

  6. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  7. How well do regional or national Breeding Bird Survey data predict songbird population trends at an intact boreal site?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S. Machtans

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to monitor boreal songbird trends was initiated in 1998 in a relatively undisturbed and remote part of the boreal forest in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Eight years of point count data were collected over the 14 years of the study, 1998-2011. Trends were estimated for 50 bird species using generalized linear mixed-effects models, with random effects to account for temporal (repeat sampling within years and spatial (stations within stands autocorrelation and variability associated with multiple observers. We tested whether regional and national Breeding Bird Survey (BBS trends could, on average, predict trends in our study area. Significant increases in our study area outnumbered decreases by 12 species to 6, an opposite pattern compared to Alberta (6 versus 15, respectively and Canada (9 versus 20. Twenty-two species with relatively precise trend estimates (precision to detect > 30% decline in 10 years; observed SE ≤ 3.7%/year showed nonsignificant trends, similar to Alberta (24 and Canada (20. Precision-weighted trends for a sample of 19 species with both reliable trends at our site and small portions of their range covered by BBS in Canada were, on average, more negative for Alberta (1.34% per year lower and for Canada (1.15% per year lower relative to Fort Liard, though 95% credible intervals still contained zero. We suggest that part of the differences could be attributable to local resource pulses (insect outbreak. However, we also suggest that the tendency for BBS route coverage to disproportionately sample more southerly, developed areas in the boreal forest could result in BBS trends that are not representative of range-wide trends for species whose range is centred farther north.

  8. The effect of fire intensity on soil respiration in Siberia boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Baker; A. V. Bogorodskaya

    2010-01-01

    Russian boreal forests have an annual wildfire activity averaging 10 to 20 million ha, which has increased in recent years. This wildfire activity, in response to changing climate has the potential to significantly affect the carbon storage capacity of Siberian forests. A better understanding of the effect of fire on soil respiration rates in the boreal forest of...

  9. Proceedings of the 1999 Sustainable Forest Management Network conference: science and practice : sustaining the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeman, S.; Smith, D.W.; Purdy, B.G.; Salkie, F.J.; Larkin, G.A. [eds.

    1999-05-01

    The wide range and complex nature of research in sustainable forest management, supported cooperatively by the forest products industry, governments, the universities, First Nations and other groups, is reflected in the 128 papers presented at this conference. The range of topics discussed include historical perspectives of forest disturbances, including fires and harvesting, biological diversity, gaseous, liquid and solid wastes, community sustainability, public involvement, land aquatic interfaces, forest management planning tools, contaminant transfer, First Nations issues, certification, monitoring and resource trade-offs. The theme of the conference {sup S}cience and practice: sustaining the boreal forest` was selected to identify the key efforts of the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Network on boreal forest research. The objective of the conference was to exchange knowledge and integrate participants into a better working network for the improvement of forest management. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Gamma-ray irradiation of a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, J.E.; Dugle, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A long-term radiation ecology research project called Field Irradiator - Gamma (FIG) began at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in 1968. The experimental area is in southeastern Manitoba and is located on the western edge of the Precambrian shield. The project studies the ecological effects continuous exposure to a gradient of gamma radiation has on a mixed boreal forest ecosystem. The gradient ranges from 1 to 460,000 times the natural background radiation level. This paper describes the forest, the gamma irradiator and its radiation field, and the research program

  11. Climate-Induced Boreal Forest Change: Predictions versus Current Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Amber J.; Tchebakova, Nadezda M.; French, Nancy H. F.; Flannigan, Michael D.; Shugart, Herman H.; Stocks, Brian J.; Sukhinin, Anatoly I.; Parfenova, E. I.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    For about three decades, there have been many predictions of the potential ecological response in boreal regions to the currently warmer conditions. In essence, a widespread, naturally occurring experiment has been conducted over time. In this paper, we describe previously modeled predictions of ecological change in boreal Alaska, Canada and Russia, and then we investigate potential evidence of current climate-induced change. For instance, ecological models have suggested that warming will induce the northern and upslope migration of the treeline and an alteration in the current mosaic structure of boreal forests. We present evidence of the migration of keystone ecosystems in the upland and lowland treeline of mountainous regions across southern Siberia. Ecological models have also predicted a moisture-stress-related dieback in white spruce trees in Alaska, and current investigations show that as temperatures increase, white spruce tree growth is declining. Additionally, it was suggested that increases in infestation and wildfire disturbance would be catalysts that precipitate the alteration of the current mosaic forest composition. In Siberia, five of the last seven years have resulted in extreme fire seasons, and extreme fire years have also been more frequent in both Alaska and Canada. In addition, Alaska has experienced extreme and geographically expansive multi-year outbreaks of the spruce beetle, which had been previously limited by the cold, moist environment. We suggest that there is substantial evidence throughout the circumboreal region to conclude that the biosphere within the boreal terrestrial environment has already responded to the transient effects of climate change. Additionally, temperature increases and warming-induced change are progressing faster than had been predicted in some regions, suggesting a potential non-linear rapid response to changes in climate, as opposed to the predicted slow linear response to climate change.

  12. Biased representation of disturbance rates in the roadside sampling frame in boreal forests: implications for monitoring design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Van Wilgenburg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS is the principal source of data to inform researchers about the status of and trend for boreal forest birds. Unfortunately, little BBS coverage is available in the boreal forest, where increasing concern over the status of species breeding there has increased interest in northward expansion of the BBS. However, high disturbance rates in the boreal forest may complicate roadside monitoring. If the roadside sampling frame does not capture variation in disturbance rates because of either road placement or the use of roads for resource extraction, biased trend estimates might result. In this study, we examined roadside bias in the proportional representation of habitat disturbance via spatial data on forest "loss," forest fires, and anthropogenic disturbance. In each of 455 BBS routes, the area disturbed within multiple buffers away from the road was calculated and compared against the area disturbed in degree blocks and BBS strata. We found a nonlinear relationship between bias and distance from the road, suggesting forest loss and forest fires were underrepresented below 75 and 100 m, respectively. In contrast, anthropogenic disturbance was overrepresented at distances below 500 m and underrepresented thereafter. After accounting for distance from road, BBS routes were reasonably representative of the degree blocks they were within, with only a few strata showing biased representation. In general, anthropogenic disturbance is overrepresented in southern strata, and forest fires are underrepresented in almost all strata. Similar biases exist when comparing the entire road network and the subset sampled by BBS routes against the amount of disturbance within BBS strata; however, the magnitude of biases differed. Based on our results, we recommend that spatial stratification and rotating panel designs be used to spread limited BBS and off-road sampling effort in an unbiased fashion and that new BBS routes

  13. Forest disturbance by an ecosystem engineer: beaver in boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Nummi, Petri; Kuuluvainen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Natural disturbances are important for forest ecosystem dynamics and maintenance of biodiversity. In the boreal forest, large-scale disturbances such as wildfires and windstorms have been emphasized, while disturbance agents acting at smaller scales have received less attention. Especially in Europe beavers have long been neglected as forest disturbance agents because they were extirpated from most of their range centuries ago. However, now they are returning to many parts of their former dis...

  14. Mirror image hydrocarbons from Tropical and Boreal forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, emitted in large quantities by trees to attract pollinators and repel herbivores, can exist in mirror image forms called enantiomers. In this study such enantiomeric pairs have been measured in ambient air over extensive forest ecosystems in South America and northern Europe. For the dominant monoterpene, α-pinene, the (−-form was measured in large excess over the (+-form over the Tropical rainforest, whereas the reverse was observed over the Boreal forest. Interestingly, over the Tropical forest (−-α-pinene did not correlate with its own enantiomer, but correlated well with isoprene. The results indicate a remarkable ecosystem scale enantiomeric fingerprint and a nexus between the biosphere and atmosphere.

  15. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Monica A.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    During the boreal forest burn studied, the ambient concentrations for the particle carbon smoke aerosol are highest for the full-fire burn conditions and vary significantly throughout the burn. Collection strategies must accordingly define ranges in the smoke aerosol concentrations produced. While the highest elemental C concentrations are observed during full-fire conditions, the great majority of smoke aerosol particles are in the form of organic C particles irrespective of fire temperature. The formation of organic C light-scattering particles was a significant process in the burn studied.

  16. The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Randerson, J. T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M. G.; Chambers, S. D.; Jin, Y.; Hess, P. G.; Pfister, G.; Mack, M. C.; Treseder, K. K.; Welp, L. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Harden, J. W.; Goulden, M. L.; Lyons, E.; Neff, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 ± 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative forcing when averaged over an 80-year fire cycle (–2.3 ± 2.2 Watts per square meter) because multidecadal increases in surface albedo ha...

  17. Sorption of niobium on boreal forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, Mervi; Hakanen, Martti; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry

    2015-07-01

    The sorption of niobium (Nb) was investigated on humus and mineral soil samples taken from various depths of a four-metre deep forest soil pit on Olkiluoto Island, southwestern Finland. Mass distribution coefficients, K{sub d}, were determined in batch sorption tests. The steady state of Nb sorption was observed in the mineral soil samples already after one week of equilibration, and sorption decreased with depth from a very high value of 185000 mL/g at 0.7 m to 54000 mL/g at 3.4 m. The reason behind this decrease is probably the tenfold reduction in the specific surface area of the soil at the same depth range. Distribution coefficients were clearly lower in the humus layer (1000 mL/g). The K{sub d} values determined in pure water at a pH range of 4.7-6.5 were at a high level (above 55000 mL/g), but decreased dramatically above pH 6.5, corresponding to the change in the major Nb species from the neutral Nb(OH){sub 5} to the low-sorbing anionic Nb(OH){sub 6}{sup -} and Nb(OH){sub 7}{sup 2-}. However, the K{sub d} values in the model soil solution were in the slightly alkaline range an order of magnitude higher than in pure water, which is probably caused by the formation of calcium niobate surface precipitate or electrostatic interaction between surface-sorbed calcium and solute Nb. Among nine soil constituent minerals kaolinite performed best in retaining Nb in both pure water and model soil solution at pH 8, whereas potassium feldspar showed the poorest sorption. The K{sub d} value for kaolinite was above 500000 mL/g in both solutions, while the respective potassium feldspar values were in the range of 120-220 mL/g.

  18. Influence of the forest canopy on total and methyl mercury deposition in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.L. Witt; R.K. Kolka; E.A. Nater; T.R. Wickman

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition by wet and dry processes contributes mercury to terrestrial and aquatic systems. Factors influencing the amount of mercury deposited to boreal forests were identified in this study. Throughfall and open canopy precipitation samples were collected in 2005 and 2006 using passive precipitation collectors from pristine sites located across...

  19. The effects of boreal forest expansion on the summer Arctic frontal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liess, Stefan; Snyder, Peter K.; Harding, Keith J. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Over the last 100 years, Arctic warming has resulted in a longer growing season in boreal and tundra ecosystems. This has contributed to a slow northward expansion of the boreal forest and a decrease in the surface albedo. Corresponding changes to the surface and atmospheric energy budgets have contributed to a broad region of warming over areas of boreal forest expansion. In addition, mesoscale and synoptic scale patterns have changed as a result of the excess energy at and near the surface. Previous studies have identified a relationship between the positioning of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and the Arctic frontal zone in summer. This study examines the climate response to hypothetical boreal forest expansion and its influence on the summer Arctic frontal zone. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model over the Northern Hemisphere, an experiment was performed to evaluate the atmospheric response to expansion of evergreen and deciduous boreal needleleaf forests into open shrubland along the northern boundary of the existing forest. Results show that the lower surface albedo with forest expansion leads to a local increase in net radiation and an average hemispheric warming of 0.6 C at and near the surface during June with some locations warming by 1-2 C. This warming contributes to changes in the meridional temperature gradient that enhances the Arctic frontal zone and strengthens the summertime jet. This experiment suggests that continued Northern Hemisphere high-latitude warming and boreal forest expansion might contribute to additional climate changes during the summer. (orig.)

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiro, B D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1995-08-01

    The Field-Irradiator-Gamma (FIG) project chronically exposed a section of the boreal forest to ionizing radiation by placing a {sup 137}Cs source on tope of a 20-m tower at a forest site in southeastern Manitoba. The irradiation continued from 1973 to 1986 and the forest was exposed to radiological dose rates ranging from 65 mGy.h{sup -1} to 0.005 mGy.h{sup -1} along a gradient extending 500 m from the source. The irradiation killed the tree canopy close to the irradiator, resulting in the formation of a herbaceous zone of vegetation at high dose rates. After 14 years of irradiation, some tree species were still being affected at dose rates as low as about 1 mGy.h{sup -1}. The data gathered at the FIG site can be used to identify radiological dose rates that forest communities can tolerate. This information allows decisions to be made concerning guidelines for protection of the general environment from radionuclide emissions from various anthropogenic sources, such as nuclear reactors and uranium tailings. This report reviews the previous data collected at the FIG site during the pre-irradiation and irradiation phases and the methodology used to establish a baseline for future comparisons. Permanently marked sampling plots are a particular strength to the study, whereby researchers can compare the present forest community with that measured during the past 25 years. (author). 53 refs., 6 tabs., 22 figs.

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on the boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1995-08-01

    The Field-Irradiator-Gamma (FIG) project chronically exposed a section of the boreal forest to ionizing radiation by placing a 137 Cs source on tope of a 20-m tower at a forest site in southeastern Manitoba. The irradiation continued from 1973 to 1986 and the forest was exposed to radiological dose rates ranging from 65 mGy.h -1 to 0.005 mGy.h -1 along a gradient extending 500 m from the source. The irradiation killed the tree canopy close to the irradiator, resulting in the formation of a herbaceous zone of vegetation at high dose rates. After 14 years of irradiation, some tree species were still being affected at dose rates as low as about 1 mGy.h -1 . The data gathered at the FIG site can be used to identify radiological dose rates that forest communities can tolerate. This information allows decisions to be made concerning guidelines for protection of the general environment from radionuclide emissions from various anthropogenic sources, such as nuclear reactors and uranium tailings. This report reviews the previous data collected at the FIG site during the pre-irradiation and irradiation phases and the methodology used to establish a baseline for future comparisons. Permanently marked sampling plots are a particular strength to the study, whereby researchers can compare the present forest community with that measured during the past 25 years. (author). 53 refs., 6 tabs., 22 figs

  2. Identifying forest patterns from space to explore dynamics across the circumpolar boreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, P. M.; Neigh, C. S. R.; Feng, M.; Channan, S.; Sexton, J. O.; Wagner, W.; Wooten, M.; Poulter, B.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    A variety of forest patterns are the result of interactions between broad-scale climate and local-scale site factors and history across the northernmost portion of the circumpolar boreal. Patterns of forest extent, height, and cover help describe forest structure transitions that influence future and reflect past dynamics. Coarse spaceborne observations lack structural detail at forest transitions, which inhibits understanding of these dynamics. We highlight: (1) the use of sub-meter spaceborne stereogrammetry for deriving structure estimates in boreal forests; (2) its potential to complement other spaceborne estimates of forest structure at critical scales; and (3) the potential of these sub-meter and other Landsat-derived structure estimates for improving understanding of broad-scale boreal dynamics such as carbon flux and albedo, capturing the spatial variability of the boreal-tundra biome boundary, and assessing its potential for change.

  3. Nitrogen balance along a northern boreal forest fire chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank; Ritala, Kaisa; Duan, Baoli; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change. Nitrogen (N) is a key determinant of carbon sequestration in boreal forests because the shortage of N limits tree growth. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year non stand-replacing fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Pinus sylvestris forests in Finland. Two years after the fire, total ecosystem N pool was 622 kg ha-1 of which 16% was in the vegetation, 8% in the dead biomass and 76% in the soil. 155 years after the fire, total N pool was 960 kg ha-1, with 27% in the vegetation, 3% in the dead biomass and 69% in the soil. This implies an annual accumulation rate of 2.28 kg ha-1 which was distributed equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in N pools were consistent with the computed N balance +2.11 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period. Nitrogen deposition was an important component of the N balance. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N input during the 155 post-fire years. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1) and did not differ among post-fire age classes. The number and intensity of microbial genes involved in N cycling were lower at the site 60 years after fire compared to the youngest and the oldest sites indicating potential differences in soil N cycling processes. The results suggest that in sub-arctic pine forests, the non-stand-replacing, intermediate-severity fires decrease considerably N pools in biomass but changes in soil and total ecosystem N pools are slight. Current fire-return interval does not seem to pose a great threat to ecosystem productivity and N status in these sub-arctic forests.

  4. Production and Transport of Ozone From Boreal Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasick, David; Liu, Jane; Osman, Mohammed; Sioris, Christopher; Liu, Xiong; Najafabadi, Omid; Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul; Strawbridge, Kevin; Duck, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In the summer of 2010, the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) mission was planned by several universities and government agencies in the United Kingdom, Canada, and USA. Nearly 100 ozone soundings were made at 13 stations through the BORTAS Intensive Sounding Network, although aircraft measurements were unfortunately cancelled due to the volcanic eruption in Iceland. 2010 was actually an exceptional year for Canadian boreal fires. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire count data shows large fire events in Saskatchewan on several days in July. High amounts of NO2 close to the large fires are observed from OMI satellite data, indicating that not all NO2 is converted to PAN. Also associated with the fires, large amounts of CO, another precursor of ozone, are observed in MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere), AIRS and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) satellite data in the middle to upper troposphere. These chemical conditions combined with sunny weather all favour ozone production. Following days with large fire activity, layers of elevated ozone mixing ratio (over 100 ppbv) are observed downwind at several sites. Back-trajectories suggest the elevated ozone in the profile is traceable to the fires in Saskatchewan. Lidar profiles also detect layers of aerosol at the same heights. However, the layers of high ozone are also associated with low humidity, which is not expected from a combustion source, and suggests the possibility of entrainment of stratospheric air.

  5. Carbon dynamics in lakes of the boreal forest under a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoy, G.; Wrona, F. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). National Water Research Inst.; Cash, K. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre; McCauley, E. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2007-09-15

    This article reviewed factors influencing lake ecosystem carbon dynamics in boreal forest regions and identified research areas needed to accurately forecast the impacts of climate change on carbon pools and flux rates. The review suggested that carbon pools in profundal and littoral sediments across the boreal forest should be identified. Climate change experiments should be conducted to quantify ecosystem carbon dynamics as well as changes in aquatic food web structures. Whole system experiments are also needed to examine the hydrologic and bio-geochemical conditions in which allochthonous carbon is integrated into food webs in potentially drier climates. Results also indicated the need for a watershed-scale assessment of carbon budgets for lakes in transitional zones between boreal forests, prairies, parklands, forests, and tundra. It was concluded that studies are also needed to investigate the integration of lacustrine carbon pools and flux rates on carbon budgets at both the local watershed and boreal forest biome scale. 113 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Bird and bat predation services in tropical forests and agroforestry landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Bea; Karp, Daniel S; Bumrungsri, Sara; Darras, Kevin; Gonthier, David; Huang, Joe C-C; Lindell, Catherine A; Maine, Josiah J; Mestre, Laia; Michel, Nicole L; Morrison, Emily B; Perfecto, Ivette; Philpott, Stacy M; Şekercioğlu, Çagan H; Silva, Roberta M; Taylor, Peter J; Tscharntke, Teja; Van Bael, Sunshine A; Whelan, Christopher J; Williams-Guillén, Kimberly

    2016-11-01

    Understanding distribution patterns and multitrophic interactions is critical for managing bat- and bird-mediated ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest and non-pest arthropods. Despite the ecological and economic importance of bats and birds in tropical forests, agroforestry systems, and agricultural systems mixed with natural forest, a systematic review of their impact is still missing. A growing number of bird and bat exclosure experiments has improved our knowledge allowing new conclusions regarding their roles in food webs and associated ecosystem services. Here, we review the distribution patterns of insectivorous birds and bats, their local and landscape drivers, and their effects on trophic cascades in tropical ecosystems. We report that for birds but not bats community composition and relative importance of functional groups changes conspicuously from forests to habitats including both agricultural areas and forests, here termed 'forest-agri' habitats, with reduced representation of insectivores in the latter. In contrast to previous theory regarding trophic cascade strength, we find that birds and bats reduce the density and biomass of arthropods in the tropics with effect sizes similar to those in temperate and boreal communities. The relative importance of birds versus bats in regulating pest abundances varies with season, geography and management. Birds and bats may even suppress tropical arthropod outbreaks, although positive effects on plant growth are not always reported. As both bats and birds are major agents of pest suppression, a better understanding of the local and landscape factors driving the variability of their impact is needed. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of JERS-1 SAR to Discriminating Boreal Landscape Features for the Boreal Forest Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Williams, Cynthia; Podest, Erika; Chapman, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the JERS-1 North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project and a preliminary assessment of JERS-1 SAR imagery for application to discriminating features applicable to boreal landscape processes. The present focus of the JERS-1 North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project is the production of continental scale wintertime and summertime SAR mosaics of the North American boreal forest for distribution to the science community. As part of this effort, JERS-1 imagery has been collected over much of Alaska and Canada during the 1997-98 winter and 1998 summer seasons. To complete the mosaics, these data will be augmented with data collected during previous years. These data will be made available to the scientific community via CD ROM containing these and similar data sets compiled from companion studies of Asia and Europe. Regional landscape classification with SAR is important for the baseline information it will provide about distribution of woodlands, positions of treeline, current forest biomass, distribution of wetlands, and extent of major rivercourses. As well as setting the stage for longer term change detection, comparisons across several years provides additional baseline information about short-term landscape change. Rapid changes, including those driven by fire, permafrost heat balance, flooding, and insect outbreaks can dominate boreal systems. We examine JERS-1 imagery covering selected sites in Alaska and Canada to assess quality and applicability to such relevant ecological and hydrological issues. The data are generally of high quality and illustrate many potential applications. A texture-based classification scheme is applied to selected regions to assess the applicability of these data for distinguishing distribution of such landcover types as wetland, tundra, woodland and forested landscapes.

  8. Disturbance in boreal forest ecosystems: human impacts and natural processes. Proceedings of the International Boreal Forest Research Association 1997 annual meeting; 1997 August 4-7; Duluth, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The papers in these proceedings cover a wide range of topics related to human and natural disturbance processes in forests of the boreal zone in North America and Eurasia. Topics include historic and predicted landscape change; forest management; disturbance by insects, fire, air pollution, severe weather, and global climate change; and carbon cycling.

  9. Forest structure and downed woody debris in boreal, temperate, and tropical forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, William A; González, Grizelle; Hudak, Andrew T; Hollingsworth, Teresa Nettleton; Hollingsworth, Jamie

    2008-12-01

    Forest fragmentation affects the heterogeneity of accumulated fuels by increasing the diversity of forest types and by increasing forest edges. This heterogeneity has implications in how we manage fuels, fire, and forests. Understanding the relative importance of fragmentation on woody biomass within a single climatic regime, and along climatic gradients, will improve our ability to manage forest fuels and predict fire behavior. In this study we assessed forest fuel characteristics in stands of differing moisture, i.e., dry and moist forests, structure, i.e., open canopy (typically younger) vs. closed canopy (typically older) stands, and size, i.e., small (10-14 ha), medium (33 to 60 ha), and large (100-240 ha) along a climatic gradient of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests. We measured duff, litter, fine and coarse woody debris, standing dead, and live biomass in a series of plots along a transect from outside the forest edge to the fragment interior. The goal was to determine how forest structure and fuel characteristics varied along this transect and whether this variation differed with temperature, moisture, structure, and fragment size. We found nonlinear relationships of coarse woody debris, fine woody debris, standing dead and live tree biomass with mean annual median temperature. Biomass for these variables was greatest in temperate sites. Forest floor fuels (duff and litter) had a linear relationship with temperature and biomass was greatest in boreal sites. In a five-way multivariate analysis of variance we found that temperature, moisture, and age/structure had significant effects on forest floor fuels, downed woody debris, and live tree biomass. Fragment size had an effect on forest floor fuels and live tree biomass. Distance from forest edge had significant effects for only a few subgroups sampled. With some exceptions edges were not distinguishable from interiors in terms of fuels.

  10. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.

    1990-10-01

    The identity and ambient mass concentrations of radiatively important carbonaceous aerosols were measured for a boreal forest prescribed burn conducted in northern Ontario, CAN in August 1989. Nonsize-segregated airborne particles were collected for smoldering-fire and full-fire conditions using a helicopter sampling platform. Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Smoke plume mass concentrations of the OC and EC particles were greatest for full-fire conditions and had ranges of 1.560 to 2.160 mg/m -1 (OC) and 0.120 to 0.160 mg/m -3 (EC) with OC:EC ratios of 10 to 18, respectively. Smoldering fire conditions showed smoke plume OC and EC levels of 0.570--1.030 mg/m -3 (OC) and 0.006--0.050 mg/m -3 (EC) and much higher ratios of OC:EC (21 to 95). These aerosol data indicate the formation of EC particles is greatest during full-fire combustion of boreal forest material relative to smoldering combustion. However, EC particles comprise a minor fraction of the particulate carbon smoke aerosols for both full-fire and smoldering conditions; the major component of carbonaceous smoke aerosols emitted during the prescribed burn is OC. Overall, the OC and EC in-plume smoke aerosol data show nonuniform production of these particles during various stages of the prescribed burn, and major differences in the type of carbonaceous aerosol that is generated (OC versus EC)

  11. Storm Effects on Net Ecosystem Productivity in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestin, Patrik; Grelle, Achim; Lagergren, Fredrik; Hellström, Margareta; Langvall, Ola; Lindroth, Anders

    2010-05-01

    Regional carbon budgets are to some extent determined by disturbance in ecosystems. Disturbance is believed to be partly responsible for the large inter-annual variability of the terrestrial carbon balance. When neglecting anthropogenic disturbance, forest fires have been considered the most important kind of disturbance. However, also insect outbreaks and wind-throw may be major factors in regional carbon budgets. The effects of wind-throw on CO2 fluxes in boreal forests are not well known due to lack of data. Principally, the reduced carbon sequestration capacity, increased substrate availability and severe soil perturbation following wind-throw are expected to result in increased CO2 fluxes from the forest to the atmosphere. In January 2005, the storm Gudrun hit Sweden, which resulted in approx. 66 × 106m3storm-felled stem wood distributed over an area of approx. 272 000 ha. Eddy covariance flux measurements started at storm-felled areas in Asa and Toftaholm in central Sweden during summer 2005. Data from the first months suggests increased CO2 fluxes by a factor of 2.5-10, as compared to normal silviculture (clear-cutting). An important question is how long such enhanced CO2 fluxes persist. The BIOME-BGC model will be calibrated against measured CO2 fluxes from both sites for 2005 through 2009. Modeled data will be used to fill gaps in the data sets and annual carbon balances will be calculated. Data from Asa and Toftaholm will be presented at the conference.

  12. Bird species richness and abundance in different forest types at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The avifauna of differently disturbed forest types of Kakamega Afrotropical forest were compared from December 2004 to May 2005. A total of 11 220 individual birds comprising of 129 bird species were recorded. Significant differences in abundance of birds among Psidium guajava, Bischoffia javanica, mixed indigenous, ...

  13. Habitat Requirements of Breeding Black-Backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in Managed, Unburned Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior A. Tremblay

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated home-range characteristics and habitat selection by Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in an unburned, boreal forest landscape managed by mosaic harvesting in Quebec, Canada. Habitat selection by this species was specifically examined to determine home-range establishment and foraging activities. We hypothesized that Black-backed Woodpeckers would respond to harvesting by adjusting their home-range size as a function of the amount of dead wood available. Twenty-two birds were tracked using radiotelemetry, and reliable estimates of home-range size were obtained for seven breeding individuals (six males and one female. The average home-range size was 151.5 ± 18.8 ha (range: 100.4-256.4 ha. Our results indicate that this species establishes home ranges in areas where both open and forested habitats are available. However, during foraging activities, individuals preferentially selected areas dominated by old coniferous stands. The study also showed that the spatial distribution of preferred foraging habitat patches influenced space use, with home-range area increasing with the median distance between old coniferous habitat patches available within the landscape. Finally, these data show that Black-backed Woodpeckers may successfully breed in an unburned forest with at least 35 m3 • ha-1 of dead wood, of which 42% (15 m3 • ha-1 is represented by dead wood at the early decay stage.

  14. Tree and forest water use under elevated CO2 and temperature in Scandinavian boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Hasper, Thomas; Wallin, Göran; Lamba, Shubhangi; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Medhurst, Jane L.; Räntfors, Mats; Linder, Sune; Uddling, Johan

    2014-05-01

    According to experimental studies and models, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have the potential to affect stomatal conductance and, consequently, tree and forest transpiration. This effect has in turn the capacity to influence the terrestrial energy and water balance, including affecting of the magnitude of river runoff. Furthermore, forest productivity is currently water-limited in southern Scandinavia and in a near future, under the projected climatic change, this limitation may become a reality in the central and northern parts of Scandinavia. In this study we examine the water-use responses in 12 40-year old native boreal Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 °C in summer / +5.6 °C in winter), as well as of entire boreal forests to temporal variation in [CO2], temperature and precipitation over the past 50 years in central and northern Sweden. The controlled factorial CO2 and temperature whole-tree chamber experiment at Flakaliden study site demonstrated that Norway spruce trees lacked elevated [CO2]-induced water savings at guard cell, shoot, and tree levels in the years of measurements. Experimentally, elevated temperature did not result in increased shoot or tree water use as stomatal closure fully cancelled the effect of higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air environment. Consistent with these results, large scale river runoff data and evapotranspiration estimates from large forested watersheds in central Sweden supported lack of elevated CO2-mediated water savings, and rather suggested that the increasing evapotranspiration trend found in this study was primarily linked to increasing precipitation, rising temperature and more efficient forest management. The results from the whole-tree chamber experiment and boreal forested watersheds have important implications for more accurate

  15. The changing effects of Alaska's boreal forests on the climate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euskirchen, E.S.; Chapin, F.S. III [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Biology, Inst. of Arctic Biology; McGuire, A.D. [United Sates Geological Survey, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States); Rupp, T.S. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    2010-07-15

    The boreal forest is the northernmost forested biome and is expected to be sensitive to global warming. Recent climate warming in the boreal forests of Alaska has influenced the exchange of trace gases, water, and energy between the forests and the atmosphere. In turn, these changes in the structure and function of boreal forests can influence regional and global climates. This study examined the type and magnitude of the climate feedbacks from boreal forests in Alaska. Biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks were examined with particular reference to surface energy balance across boreal ecosystems and over the full annual cycle. The impact of ground heat exchange on permafrost was studied in terms of vegetation dynamics and disturbance regimes such as fires and insect outbreaks. In general, research has indicated that the net effect of a warming climate is a positive regional feedback to warming. The main positive climate feedbacks are currently related to decreases in surface albedo due to decreases in snow cover. Fewer negative feedbacks have been identified, and they may not be large enough to counterbalance the large positive feedbacks. These positive feedbacks are most dominant at the regional scale and reduce the resilience of the boreal vegetation by amplifying the rate of regional warming. This paper also described carbon and methane release from permafrost degradation, changes in lake area, changes in land use and snow season changes. The role of earth system models in representing climate feedbacks from Alaskan boreal forests was discussed. It was concluded that although the boreal forest provides climate regulation as an ecosystem service, the net effect of the climate feedbacks to climate warming are not fully understood. As such, there is a need to continue to evaluate feedback pathways, given the recent warming in Alaska and the large variety of associated mechanisms that can change terrestrial ecosystems and affect the climate system. 59 refs

  16. Indirect effects of rodents on arthropods in a Scandinavian boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Malá, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    Rodents in boreal forest are an important component of food webs. Their role as drivers of the boreal forest ecosystem is debated. As herbivores they affect plant communities and alter qualities of plants. Consequently availability of food resources for other herbivorous species is altered. In my thesis I studied whether rodents indirectly influence communities of arthropods via plant resources. It is assumed that phytophagous arthropods respond to changes in plant resources by different feed...

  17. Modeling impacts of fire severity on successional trajectories and future fire behavior in Alaskan boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill F. Johnstone; T. Scott Rupp; Mark Olson; David. Verbyla

    2011-01-01

    Much of the boreal forest in western North America and Alaska experiences frequent, stand-replacing wildfires. Secondary succession after fire initiates most forest stands and variations in fire characteristics can have strong effects on pathways of succession. Variations in surface fire severity that influence whether regenerating forests are dominated by coniferous...

  18. Wetlands in Canada's western boreal forest: Agents of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L.; Krogman, N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    2006-11-15

    Wetlands of the western boreal forest are poorly studied. In the last decade (1990-2000) there were approximately 1810 northern hemisphere scientific papers published addressing boreal wetlands, tundra, taiga, or bogs. We explore the extent of understanding and impacts of six major agents of change affecting forested wetlands of the boreal zone: (1) commercial forestry, (2) petroleum extraction, (3) mining (bitumen, coal, peat, ore, and diamonds), (4) agriculture, (5) climate change, and (6) hydrologic alteration. Finally, we address the social context, costs, and recommendations for wetland maintenance.

  19. The behaviour of radioactive caesium in a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Lidstroem, K.; Palo, T.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of radioactive caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in a boreal forest ecosystem is studied with focus in the dynamics of the turnover in, and loss from, the system. Measurements of the distribution in soil and vegetation, as well as the loss of radioactive caesium by run-off from a catchment, constitute the basis for an analysis of the caesium budget in the system. Comparisons of the distribution of 'old' Cs-137, i.e. originating from fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and that due to deposition after the accident in Chernobyl 1986 are used for extrapolations to future situations concerning transport of Cs-137 via the food chains over berries and moose to man. The exposure in a long term perspective due to the average intake of Cs-137 in the Swedish population by consumption of meat, milk, and milk products (i.e. of an agricultural origin) is compared to that due to ingestion of the forest products: berries (bilberry, lingonberries, and cloudberries) and moose meat. (au) (34 refs.)

  20. A Passive Microwave L-Band Boreal Forest Freeze/Thaw and Vegetation Phenology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Sonnentag, O.; Pappas, C.; Mavrovic, A.; Royer, A.; Berg, A. A.; Rowlandson, T. L.; Lemay, J.; Helgason, W.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.; Derksen, C.; Toose, P.

    2016-12-01

    The boreal forest is the second largest land biome in the world and thus plays a major role in the global and regional climate systems. The extent, timing and duration of seasonal freeze/thaw (F/T) state influences vegetation developmental stages (phenology) and, consequently, constitute an important control on how boreal forest ecosystems exchange carbon, water and energy with the atmosphere. The effective retrieval of seasonal F/T state from L-Band radiometry was demonstrated using satellite mission. However, disentangling the seasonally differing contributions from forest overstory and understory vegetation, and the soil surface to the satellite signal remains challenging. Here we present initial results from a radiometer field campaign to improve our understanding of the L-Band derived boreal forest F/T signal and vegetation phenology. Two L-Band surface-based radiometers (SBR) are installed on a micrometeorological tower at the Southern Old Black Spruce site in central Saskatchewan over the 2016-2017 F/T season. One radiometer unit is installed on the flux tower so it views forest including all overstory and understory vegetation and the moss-covered ground surface. A second radiometer unit is installed within the boreal forest overstory, viewing the understory and the ground surface. The objectives of our study are (i) to disentangle the L-Band F/T signal contribution of boreal forest overstory from the understory and ground surface, (ii) to link the L-Band F/T signal to related boreal forest structural and functional characteristics, and (iii) to investigate the use of the L-Band signal to characterize boreal forest carbon, water and energy fluxes. The SBR observations above and within the forest canopy are used to retrieve the transmissivity (γ) and the scattering albedo (ω), two parameters that describe the emission of the forest canopy though the F/T season. These two forest parameters are compared with boreal forest structural and functional

  1. Vulnerability of the boreal forest to climate change: are managed forests more susceptible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, A.; Gauthier, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper postulates that forests dominated by younger seral stages are less vulnerable to climate change that those composed of mature and overmature stands. To support this analysis, an overview of expected changes in climate conditions was provided. Expected changes include higher maximum temperatures, higher minimum temperatures and a decrease in periods of intense cold and fewer frost days; reduction in the diurnal temperature range; an increase in the apparent heat index; greater numbers of intense precipitation; and, increased risk of drought associated with air mass movements. A comparison between conditions in a managed forest mosaic and natural forests was made, with managed forests differing due to efforts to regulate the age structure. The inversion in the age structure of forest mosaics creates significant changes in structural characteristics and composition, including greater hardwood components and more even-aged stands. It was concluded that in Canada, managed boreal forests are younger and have less black spruce and more hardwoods and fir, making younger forests less vulnerable to fire and more amenable to fire control due to increased accessibility. It was also noted that because of their relative youth, managed forests are more vulnerable to regeneration failure and that managed forests with more balsam fir and trembling aspen are at greater risk for insect outbreaks. In addition, wind throw, a threat to older forests, is not significant in managed forests. 15 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  2. Simulating Changes in Fires and Ecology of the 21st Century Eurasian Boreal Forests of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Brazhnik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires release the greatest amount of carbon into the atmosphere compared to other forest disturbances. To understand how current and potential future fire regimes may affect the role of the Eurasian boreal forest in the global carbon cycle, we employed a new, spatially-explicit fire module DISTURB-F (DISTURBance-Fire in tandem with a spatially-explicit, individually-based gap dynamics model SIBBORK (SIBerian BOReal forest simulator calibrated to Krasnoyarsk Region. DISTURB-F simulates the effect of forest fire on the boreal ecosystem, namely the mortality of all or only the susceptible trees (loss of biomass, i.e., carbon within the forested landscape. The fire module captures some important feedbacks between climate, fire and vegetation structure. We investigated the potential climate-driven changes in the fire regime and vegetation in middle and south taiga in central Siberia, a region with extensive boreal forest and rapidly changing climate. The output from this coupled simulation can be used to estimate carbon losses from the ecosystem as a result of fires of different sizes and intensities over the course of secondary succession (decades to centuries. Furthermore, it may be used to assess the post-fire carbon storage capacity of potential future forests, the structure and composition of which may differ significantly from current Eurasian boreal forests due to regeneration under a different climate.

  3. Birds of isolated small forests in Uganda | Dranzoa | Scopus: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is also a strong indication of species turnover amongst the forest interior birds in these forests. The fact that, together and over time these small forests supported 37 forest interior species, suggests that, collectively, small forests (of which there are many in Uganda) do have conservation value. The evidence of species ...

  4. Monitoring Forest Recovery Following Wildfire and Harvest in Boreal Forests Using Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Madoui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the managed boreal forest, harvesting has become a disturbance as important as fire. To assess whether forest recovery following both types of disturbance is similar, we compared post-disturbance revegetation rates of forests in 22 fire events and 14 harvested agglomerations (harvested areas over 5–10 years in the same vicinity in the western boreal forest of Quebec. Pre-disturbance conditions were first compared in terms of vegetation cover types and surficial deposit types using an ordination technique. Post-disturbance changes over 30 years in land cover types were characterized by vectors of succession in an ordination. Four post-disturbance stages were identified from the 48 land thematic classes in the Landsat images: “S0” stand initiation phase; “S1” early regeneration phase; “S2” stem exclusion phase; and “S3” the coniferous forest. Analyses suggest that fire occurs in both productive and unproductive forests, which is not the case for harvesting. Revegetation rates (i.e., rapidity with which forest cover is re-established appeared to be more advanced in harvested agglomerations when compared with entire fire events. However, when considering only the productive forest fraction of each fire, the revegetation rates are comparable between the fire events and the harvested agglomerations. The S0 is practically absent from harvested agglomerations, which is not the case in the fire events. The difference in revegetation rates between the two disturbance types could therefore be attributed mostly to the fact that fire also occurs in unproductive forest, a factor that has to be taken into account in such comparisons.

  5. Net aboveground biomass declines of four major forest types with forest ageing and climate change in western Canada's boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han Y H; Luo, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Biomass change of the world's forests is critical to the global carbon cycle. Despite storing nearly half of global forest carbon, the boreal biome of diverse forest types and ages is a poorly understood component of the carbon cycle. Using data from 871 permanent plots in the western boreal forest of Canada, we examined net annual aboveground biomass change (ΔAGB) of four major forest types between 1958 and 2011. We found that ΔAGB was higher for deciduous broadleaf (DEC) (1.44 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) , 95% Bayesian confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.68) and early-successional coniferous forests (ESC) (1.42, CI, 1.30-1.56) than mixed forests (MIX) (0.80, CI, 0.50-1.11) and late-successional coniferous (LSC) forests (0.62, CI, 0.39-0.88). ΔAGB declined with forest age as well as calendar year. After accounting for the effects of forest age, ΔAGB declined by 0.035, 0.021, 0.032 and 0.069 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) per calendar year in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. The ΔAGB declines resulted from increased tree mortality and reduced growth in all forest types except DEC, in which a large biomass loss from mortality was accompanied with a small increase in growth. With every degree of annual temperature increase, ΔAGB decreased by 1.00, 0.20, 0.55 and 1.07 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. With every cm decrease of annual climatic moisture availability, ΔAGB decreased 0.030, 0.045 and 0.17 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in ESC, MIX and LSC forests, but changed little in DEC forests. Our results suggest that persistent warming and decreasing water availability have profound negative effects on forest biomass in the boreal forests of western Canada. Furthermore, our results indicate that forest responses to climate change are strongly dependent on forest composition with late-successional coniferous forests being most vulnerable to climate changes in terms of aboveground biomass. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, K; Luoto, M; Ihantola, A; Tomppo, E; Siikamäki, P

    2010-09-01

    The impacts of human-induced disturbance on birds have been studied in growing extent, but there are relatively few studies about the effects of recreation on forest bird communities in protected areas. In this paper, the relative importance of recreation as well as environmental variables on bird communities in Oulanka National Park, in northeastern Finland, was investigated using general additive models (GAM). Bird data collected using the line transect method along hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas were related to number of visits, area of tourism infrastructure, and habitat variables. We further examined the impact of spatial autocorrelation by calculating an autocovariate term for GAMs. Our results indicate that number of visits affects the occurrence and composition of bird communities, but it had no impact on total species richness. Open-cup nesters breeding on the ground showed strongest negative response to visitor pressure, whereas the open-cup nesters nesting in trees and shrubs were more tolerant. For cavity-nesting species, recreation had no significant impact. The contribution of the number of visits was generally low also in models in which it was selected, and the occurrence of birds was mainly determined by habitat characteristics of the area. However, our results show that the recreation-induced disturbance with relatively low visitor pressure can have negative impacts on some bird species and groups of species and should be considered in management of protected areas with recreational activities.

  7. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M.; Genet, Helene; McGuire, A. David; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R. N.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Romanovsky, V.; Breen, Amy L.; Bolton, W.R.

    2016-01-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  8. Field irradiator gamma: pre-irradiation occurrence of breeding birds in three boreal habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabloom, R.W.

    1975-10-01

    A trail census was conducted of the breeding birds found in three major habitats in the Field Irradiator Gamma area at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba. The area sampled was about 10.50 ha in size, and included 4.25 ha of upland forest, 4.75 ha of lowland conifers, and 1.50 ha of black spruce-tamarack bog. Forty-four species of birds were identified, of which 24 were considered to be resident in the study area. The highest population density was observed in the bog, followed by upland forest and lowland conifer respectively. In contrast, species diversity was greatest in the upland forest, while it decreased markedly in the relatively monotypic lowland conifer and bog habitats. (author)

  9. Offset of the potential carbon sink from boreal forestation by decreases in surface albedo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon uptake by forestation is one method proposed to reduce net carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and so limit the radiative forcing of climate change. But the overall impact of forestation on climate will also depend on other effects associated with the creation of new forests. In particular the albedo of a forested landscape is generally lower than that of cultivated land, especially when snow is lying, and decreasing albedo exerts a positive radiative forcing on climate. Here I simulate the radiative forcings associated with changes in surface albedo as a result of forestation in temperate and boreal forest areas, and translate these forcings into equivalent changes in local carbon stock for comparison with estimated carbon sequestration potentials. I suggest that in many boreal forest areas, the positive forcing induced by decreases in albedo can offset the negative forcing that is expected from carbon sequestration. Some high-latitude forestation activities may therefore increase climate change, rather that mitigating it as intended

  10. Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Swedish boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Lena [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    The main aim of this work has been to elucidate the species composition and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with mature trees and naturally regenerated seedlings in natural boreal forests in Sweden. Further, the effects of disturbances, such as wildfire and nitrogen inputs, were studied. Sporocarp surveys, morphological stratification and DNA-based analyses of mycorrhizas were used to describe the mycorrhizal fungal communities. In addition, a reference database useful for identifying individual mycorrhizas was developed based on analyses of sporocarp tissue. Overall, the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi was at least 30 to 40 times higher than that of their host trees. Naturally regenerated seedlings were colonized by the ectomycorrhizal fungal species present in the mycelial network of the old trees, indicating that the species composition will remain about the same provided that the host does not disappear. Wildfire, disturbing the fungal continuum, caused a shift in the frequencies of ectomycorrhizal fungi rather than a change in species composition. Nitrogen addition did not have any detectable effect on the abundance or species richness of mycorrhizas, but led to a decrease in sporocarp production. In all the studies, there was little resemblance between the species composition of sporocarps and that of mycorrhizas. The ITS-RFLP reference database was very useful in identifying single mycorrhizas, and proved to be a powerful tool for species identification of unknown mycorrhizas 76 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Food preferences of winter bird communities in different forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen C Renner

    Full Text Available Food availability for forest birds is a function of habitat type, forest management regime, and season. In winter, it is also impacted by variations in the weather. In the current study we assessed the food preferences of wild bird populations in two types of forest (spruce and beech during the months of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Schwäbische Alb Biodiversity Exploratory, south-western Germany. Our aim was to investigate whether local bird communities preferred fat-rich, carbohydrate-rich or wild fruits and to determine how forest structure, seasonality and local weather conditions affected food preferences. We found higher bird activity in beech forests for the eleven resident species. We observed a clear preference for fat-rich food for all birds in both forest types. Snow cover affected activity at food stations but did not affect food preferences. Periods of extreme low temperatures increased activity.

  12. Climate change implications of shifting forest management strategy in a boreal forest ecosystem of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Astrup, Rasmus; Cherubini, Francesco; Kvalevåg, Maria; Strømman, Anders H

    2014-02-01

    Empirical models alongside remotely sensed and station measured meteorological observations are employed to investigate both the local and global direct climate change impacts of alternative forest management strategies within a boreal ecosystem of eastern Norway. Stand-level analysis is firstly executed to attribute differences in daily, seasonal, and annual mean surface temperatures to differences in surface intrinsic biophysical properties across conifer, deciduous, and clear-cut sites. Relative to a conifer site, a slight local cooling of −0.13 °C at a deciduous site and −0.25 °C at a clear-cut site were observed over a 6-year period, which were mostly attributed to a higher albedo throughout the year. When monthly mean albedo trajectories over the entire managed forest landscape were taken into consideration, we found that strategies promoting natural regeneration of coniferous sites with native deciduous species led to substantial global direct climate cooling benefits relative to those maintaining current silviculture regimes – despite predicted long-term regional warming feedbacks and a reduced albedo in spring and autumn months. The magnitude and duration of the cooling benefit depended largely on whether management strategies jointly promoted an enhanced material supply over business-as-usual levels. Expressed in terms of an equivalent CO2 emission pulse at the start of the simulation, the net climate response at the end of the 21st century spanned −8 to −159 Tg-CO2-eq., depending on whether near-term harvest levels increased or followed current trends, respectively. This magnitude equates to approximately −20 to −300% of Norway's annual domestic (production) emission impact. Our analysis supports the assertion that a carbon-only focus in the design and implementation of forest management policy in boreal and other climatically similar regions can be counterproductive – and at best – suboptimal if boreal forests are to be used as a

  13. Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange from understory species in boreal forest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Although recent eddy covariance measurements in boreal forests provide CO2 and energy exchange data for the whole ecosystem, very little is known about the role of the understory vegetation. We conducted chamber flux measurements in an Alaskan black spruce forest in order to compare CO2 and water

  14. Quantifying the effect of fuel reduction treatments on fire behavior in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.W. Butler; R.D. Ottmar; T.S. Rupp; R. Jandt; E. Miller; K. Howard; R. Schmoll; S. Theisen; R.E. Vihnanek; D. Jimenez

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical (e.g., shearblading) and manual (e.g., thinning) fuel treatments have become the preferred strategy of many fire managers and agencies for reducing fire hazard in boreal forests. This study attempts to characterize the effectiveness of four fuel treatments through direct measurement of fire intensity and forest floor consumption during a single prescribed...

  15. Point Count Length and Detection of Forest Neotropical Migrant Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanna K. Dawson; David R. Smith; Chandler S. Robbins

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of bird abundances among years or among habitats assume that the rates at which birds are detected and counted are constant within species. We use point count data collected in forests of the Mid-Atlantic states to estimate detection probabilities for Neotropical migrant bird species as a function of count length. For some species, significant differences...

  16. Remote Sensing Techniques in Monitoring Post-Fire Effects and Patterns of Forest Recovery in Boreal Forest Regions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and severity of forest fires, coupled with changes in spatial and temporal precipitation and temperature patterns, are likely to severely affect the characteristics of forest and permafrost patterns in boreal eco-regions. Forest fires, however, are also an ecological factor in how forest ecosystems form and function, as they affect the rate and characteristics of tree recruitment. A better understanding of fire regimes and forest recovery patterns in different environmental and climatic conditions will improve the management of sustainable forests by facilitating the process of forest resilience. Remote sensing has been identified as an effective tool for preventing and monitoring forest fires, as well as being a potential tool for understanding how forest ecosystems respond to them. However, a number of challenges remain before remote sensing practitioners will be able to better understand the effects of forest fires and how vegetation responds afterward. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive review of current research with respect to remotely sensed data and methods used to model post-fire effects and forest recovery patterns in boreal forest regions. The review reveals that remote sensing-based monitoring of post-fire effects and forest recovery patterns in boreal forest regions is not only limited by the gaps in both field data and remotely sensed data, but also the complexity of far-northern fire regimes, climatic conditions and environmental conditions. We expect that the integration of different remotely sensed data coupled with field campaigns can provide an important data source to support the monitoring of post-fire effects and forest recovery patterns. Additionally, the variation and stratification of pre- and post-fire vegetation and environmental conditions should be considered to achieve a reasonable, operational model for monitoring post-fire effects and forest patterns in boreal regions.

  17. Regional Forest Fragmentation and the Nesting Success of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott K. Robinson; Frank R. Thompson III; Therese M. Donovan; Donald R. Whitehead; John Faaborg

    1995-01-01

    Forest fragmentation, the disruption in the continuity of forest habitat, is hypothesized to be a major cause of population decline for, some species of forest birds because fragmentation reduces nesting (reproductive) success. Nest predation and parasitism by cowbirds increased with forest fragmentation in nine midwestern (United States)landscapes that varied from 6...

  18. Bird communities in two oceanic island forests fragmented by roads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although most studies on road effects on birds have been conducted on continental grounds, road fragmentation on oceanic islands is often heavier. We assessed variation in bird communities near (≤ 25 m) and far (>100 m) from forest roads dividing laurel and pine forests on Tenerife, Canary Islands. Line transects were ...

  19. Bird Perches Increase Forest Seeds on Puerto Rican Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron B. Shiels; Lawrence R. Walker

    2003-01-01

    Landslides result in the loss of vertical vegetative structure, soil nutrients, and the soil seed bank. These losses impede timely recovery of tropical forest communities. In this study we added bird perches to six Puerto Rican landslides with three types of surfaces (bare, climbing fern, grass) in an effort to facilitate inputs of forest seeds through bird dispersal...

  20. Use of middle infrared radiation to estimate the leaf area index of a boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, D.S. [Kingston Univ., Surrey (United Kingdom). Centre for Earth and Environmental Science Research, School of Geography; Wicks, T. E.; Curran, P.J. [Southampton Univ., Southampton, Hampshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    2000-06-01

    Reflected radiation recorded by satellite sensors is a common procedure to estimate the leaf area index (LAI) of boreal forest. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), derived from measurements of visible and near infrared radiation were commonly used to estimate LAI. But research in tropical forest has shown that LAI is more closely related to radiation of middle infrared wavelengths than that of visible wavelengths. This research calculated a vegetation index (VI3) using radiation from vegetation recorded at near and middle infrared wavelengths. In the case of boreal forest, VI3 and LAI displayed a closer relationship than NDVI and LAI. Also, the use of VI3 explained approximately 76 per cent of the variation in field estimates of LAI, versus approximately 46 per cent for NDVI. The authors concluded that consideration should be given to information provided by middle infrared radiation to estimate the leaf area index of boreal forest. The research area was located in the Southern Study Area (SSA) of the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmospher Study (BOREAS), situated on the southern edge of the Canadian boreal forest, 40 km north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. 1 tab., 4 figs., 46 refs.

  1. Resilience of Alaska's boreal forest to climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, F.S. III; Ruess, R.W.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Jones, J.B.; Kielland, K.; Taylor, D.L. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Biology, Inst. of Arctic Biology; McGuire, A.D. [United Sates Geological Survey, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States); Hollingsworth, T.N. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Portland, OR (United States). Forest Services, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States); Mack, M.C. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Botany; Johnstone, J.F. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Kasischke, E.S. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Geography; Jorgenson, M.T. [Alaska Ecoscience, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Kofinas, G.P. [Alaska Univ., Fairanks, AK (United States). School of Natural Resources and Agricultureal Sciences, Inst. of Arctic Biology; Turetsky, M.R. [Guelph Univ., Guelph, ON (Canada). Dept. of Integrative Biology; Yarie, J. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences, Forest Soils Laboratory; Lloyd, A.H. [Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2010-07-15

    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the resilience of Alaska's boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. As the most northern and coldest forested biome, the boreal forest is underlain by discontinuous permafrost. High-latitude amplification of global warming has caused Alaska's boreal forest to warm twice as rapidly as the global average. Recent warming has resulted in reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease, insect outbreaks, thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes and increased wildfires. These changes have modified key structural features in the boreal forest, including long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks. This study reviewed the findings of the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research program and determined that the Alaskan boreal system remains quite resilient but is undergoing changes in ecosystem and landscape structure, feedbacks, and interactions that, with continued warming, will likely cause reorganization or potentially transformation to a fundamentally different system. Permafrost will also remain relatively resilient to continued warming except in high-ice-content lowlands and in areas burned by severe wildfires. The greatest sources of uncertainty are changes in snow cover, which will influence the rate at which these changes occur. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  2. The changing effects of Alaska’s boreal forests on the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A. David; Chapin, F.S.; Rupp, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    In the boreal forests of Alaska, recent changes in climate have influenced the exchange of trace gases, water, and energy between these forests and the atmosphere. These changes in the structure and function of boreal forests can then feed back to impact regional and global climates. In this manuscript, we examine the type and magnitude of the climate feedbacks from boreal forests in Alaska. Research generally suggests that the net effect of a warming climate is a positive regional feedback to warming. Currently, the primary positive climate feedbacks are likely related to decreases in surface albedo due to decreases in snow cover. Fewer negative feedbacks have been identified, and they may not be large enough to counterbalance the large positive feedbacks. These positive feedbacks are most pronounced at the regional scale and reduce the resilience of the boreal vegetation – climate system by amplifying the rate of regional warming. Given the recent warming in this region, the large variety of associated mechanisms that can alter terrestrial ecosystems and influence the climate system, and a reduction in the boreal forest resilience, there is a strong need to continue to quantify and evaluate the feedback pathways.

  3. Main dynamics and drivers of boreal forests fire regimes during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Blarquez, Olivier; Clear, Jennifer; Carcaillet, Christopher; Bradshaw, Richard HW

    2015-04-01

    Forest fire is one of the most critical ecosystem processes in the boreal megabiome, and it is likely that its frequency, size and severity have had a primary role in vegetation dynamics since the Last Ice Age (Kasischke & Stocks 2000). Fire not only organizes the physical and biological attributes of boreal forests, but also affects biogeochemical cycling, particularly the carbon balance (Balshi et al. 2007). Due to their location at climatically sensitive northern latitudes, boreal forests are likely to be significantly affected by global warming with a consequent increase in biomass burning (Soja et al. 2007), a variation in vegetation structure and composition (Johnstone et al. 2004) and a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (Bond-Lamberty et al. 2007). Even if the ecological role of wildfire in boreal forest is widely recognized, a clearer understanding of the environmental factors controlling fire dynamics and how variations in fire regimes impact forest ecosystems is essential in order to place modern fire processes in a meaningful context for projecting ecosystem behaviour in a changing environment (Kelly et al. 2013). Because fire return intervals and successional cycles in boreal forests occur over decadal to centennial timescales (Hu et al. 2006), palaeoecological research seems to be one of the most promising tool for elucidating ecosystem changes over a broad range of environmental conditions and temporal scales. Within this context, our first aim is to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of boreal forests fire dynamics during the Holocene based on sedimentary charcoal records. As a second step, trends in biomass burning will be statistically analysed in order to disentangle between regional and local drivers. The use of European and north-American sites will give us the unique possibility to perform a large scale analysis on one of the broadest biome in the world and to underline the different patterns of fire in these two

  4. Effects of harvesting on spatial and temporal diversity of carbon stocks in a boreal forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Colombo, Stephen J; Chen, Jiaxin

    2013-10-01

    Carbon stocks in managed forests of Ontario, Canada, and in harvested wood products originated from these forests were estimated for 2010-2100. Simulations included four future forest harvesting scenarios based on historical harvesting levels (low, average, high, and maximum available) and a no-harvest scenario. In four harvesting scenarios, forest carbon stocks in Ontario's managed forest were estimated to range from 6202 to 6227 Mt C (millions of tons of carbon) in 2010, and from 6121 to 6428 Mt C by 2100. Inclusion of carbon stored in harvested wood products in use and in landfills changed the projected range in 2100 to 6710-6742 Mt C. For the no-harvest scenario, forest carbon stocks were projected to change from 6246 Mt C in 2010 to 6680 Mt C in 2100. Spatial variation in projected forest carbon stocks was strongly related to changes in forest age (r = 0.603), but had weak correlation with harvesting rates. For all managed forests in Ontario combined, projected carbon stocks in combined forest and harvested wood products converged to within 2% difference by 2100. The results suggest that harvesting in the boreal forest, if applied within limits of sustainable forest management, will eventually have a relatively small effect on long-term combined forest and wood products carbon stocks. However, there was a large time lag to approach carbon equality, with more than 90 years with a net reduction in stored carbon in harvested forests plus wood products compared to nonharvested boreal forest which also has low rates of natural disturbance. The eventual near equivalency of carbon stocks in nonharvested forest and forest that is harvested and protected from natural disturbance reflects both the accumulation of carbon in harvested wood products and the relatively young age at which boreal forest stands undergo natural succession in the absence of disturbance.

  5. Management effects on carbon fluxes in boreal forests (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.; Vestin, P.; Hellström, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Norunda Bgs Team

    2010-12-01

    Disturbance by management or natural causes such as wind throw or fire are believed to be one of the main factors that are controlling the carbon balance of vegetation. In Northern Europe a large fraction of the forest area is managed with clear cutting and thinning as the main silvicultural methods. The effect of clear-cutting on carbon dioxide exchanges were studied in different chrono-sequences located in Sweden, Finland, UK and France, respectively. The combined results from these studies showed that a simple model could be developed describing relative net ecosystem exchange as a function of relative rotation length (age). A stand with a rotation length of 100 years, typical for Swedish conditions, looses substantial amounts of carbon during the first 12-15 years and the time it takes to reach cumulative balance after clear-cut, is 25-30 years. The mean net ecosystem exchange over the whole rotation length equals 50% of the maximum uptake. An interesting question is if it is possible to harvest without the substantial carbon losses that take place after clear-cutting. Selective harvest by thinning could potentially be such a method. We therefore studied the effect of thinning on soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes in a mixed pine and spruce forest in Central Sweden, the Norunda forest, located in the semi-boreal zone at 60.08°N, 17.48 °E. The CO2 fluxes from the forest were measured by eddy covariance method and soil effluxes were measured by automatic chambers. Maximum canopy height of the ca. 100 years-old forest was 28 m. The stand was composed of ca 72% pine, 28% before the thinning while the composition after the thinning became 82% pine and 18% spruce. The thinning was made in November/December 2008 in a half- circle from the tower with a radius of 200 m. The LAI decreased from 4.5 to 2.8 after the thinning operation. Immediately after the thinning, we found significantly higher soil effluxes, probably due to increased decomposition of dead roots. The

  6. NPP Boreal Forest: Kuusamo, Finland, 1967-1971, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains three files (.txt format). One file provides stand characteristics, biomass, and production allocation data for an old-growth boreal...

  7. NPP Boreal Forest: Schefferville, Canada, 1974, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two files (.txt format). One file provides above- and below-ground biomass, soil, and nutrient data for a mature boreal ecosystem (subarctic...

  8. NPP Boreal Forest: Schefferville, Canada, 1974, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two files (.txt format). One file provides above- and below-ground biomass, soil, and nutrient data for a mature boreal ecosystem...

  9. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention

  10. Quantifying the missing link between forest albedo and productivity in the boreal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovi, Aarne; Liang, Jingjing; Korhonen, Lauri; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rautiainen, Miina

    2016-11-01

    Albedo and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) determine the shortwave radiation balance and productivity of forests. Currently, the physical link between forest albedo and productivity is poorly understood, yet it is crucial for designing optimal forest management strategies for mitigating climate change. We investigated the relationships between boreal forest structure, albedo and FAPAR using a radiative transfer model called Forest Reflectance and Transmittance model FRT and extensive forest inventory data sets ranging from southern boreal forests to the northern tree line in Finland and Alaska (N = 1086 plots). The forests in the study areas vary widely in structure, species composition, and human interference, from intensively managed in Finland to natural growth in Alaska. We show that FAPAR of tree canopies (FAPARCAN) and albedo are tightly linked in boreal coniferous forests, but the relationship is weaker if the forest has broadleaved admixture, or if canopies have low leaf area and the composition of forest floor varies. Furthermore, the functional shape of the relationship between albedo and FAPARCAN depends on the angular distribution of incoming solar irradiance. We also show that forest floor can contribute to over 50 % of albedo or total ecosystem FAPAR. Based on our simulations, forest albedos can vary notably across the biome. Because of larger proportions of broadleaved trees, the studied plots in Alaska had higher albedo (0.141-0.184) than those in Finland (0.136-0.171) even though the albedo of pure coniferous forests was lower in Alaska. Our results reveal that variation in solar angle will need to be accounted for when evaluating climate effects of forest management in different latitudes. Furthermore, increasing the proportion of broadleaved trees in coniferous forests is the most important means of maximizing albedo without compromising productivity: based on our findings the potential of controlling forest

  11. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada's boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Junior A; Boulanger, Yan; Cyr, Dominic; Taylor, Anthony R; Price, David T; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2018-01-01

    Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change") were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus), a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5). However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of natural and

  12. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada's boreal forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior A Tremblay

    Full Text Available Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change" were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus, a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5. However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of

  13. Nesting ecology of Townsend's warblers in relation to habitat characteristics in a mature boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, Colleen M.; Roby, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the nesting ecology of Townsend's Warblers (Dendroica townsendi) from 1993-1995 in an unfragmented boreal forest along the lower slopes of the Chugach Mountains in southcentral Alaska. We examined habitat characteristics of nest sites in relation to factors influencing reproductive success. Almost all territory-holding males (98%, n = 40) were successful in acquiring mates. Nest success was 54% (n = 24 nests), with nest survivorship greater during incubation (87%) than during the nestling period (62%). Most nesting failure (80%) was attributable to predation, which occurred primarily during the nestling period. Fifty-five percent of nests containing nestling were infested with the larvae of bird blow-flies (Protocalliphora braueri and P. spenceri), obligatory blood-feeding parasites. The combined effects of Protocalliphora infestation and inclement weather apparently resulted in nestling mortality in 4 of the 24 nests. Nests that escaped predation were placed in white spruce with larger diameter than those lost to predation: nests that escaped blow-fly parasitism were located higher in nest trees and in areas with lower densities of woody shrubs than those that were infested. The availability of potential nest sites with these key features may be important in determining reproductive success in Townsend's Warblers.

  14. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  15. Patchwork policy, fragmented forests: In-situ oil sands, industrial development, and the ecological integrity of Alberta's boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCrimmon, G.; Marr-Laing, T.

    2000-05-01

    Environmental impacts of current oil sands industry activities and the potential cumulative impacts of new in-situ oil sands development on the boreal forest of northeastern Alberta are reviewed. The objective is to improve understanding of the impacts of existing industrial activity on the broader boreal forest ecosystem, and the environmental implications of further disturbance to this ecosystem from future development of heavy and conventional fossil fuel reserves in the province. The report also outlines elements of a boreal forest use framework that could assist in managing industrial activity within ecologically sustainable limits and makes recommendations for specific actions that need to be taken by government and industry to guide future development decisions. The top 50 key landscape areas of interest in the province, identified by the World Wildlife Federation, based primarily on a series of reports by Alberta Environmental Protection, are briefly described. Implications of failure to act are also outlined. 138 end-notes, 8 tabs., 16 figs

  16. Influence of different tree-harvesting intensities on forest soil carbon stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Gundersen, Per; Jönsson-Belyazid, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    ) stocks. This paper reviews the findings in the scientific literature concerning the effects of harvesting of different intensities on SOC stocks and fluxes in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems to evaluate the evidence for significant SOC losses following biomass removal. An overview...... on SOC stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems, which is in any case species-, site- and practice-specific. Properly conducted long-term experiments are therefore necessary to enable us to clarify the relative importance of different harvesting practices on the SOC stores, the key...

  17. Effects of disturbance and climate change on ecosystem performance in the Yukon River Basin boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Brisco, Brian; Mrnaghan, Kevin; Rover, Jennifer R.; Long, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    A warming climate influences boreal forest productivity, dynamics, and disturbance regimes. We used ecosystem models and 250 m satellite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data averaged over the growing season (GSN) to model current, and estimate future, ecosystem performance. We modeled Expected Ecosystem Performance (EEP), or anticipated productivity, in undisturbed stands over the 2000–2008 period from a variety of abiotic data sources, using a rule-based piecewise regression tree. The EEP model was applied to a future climate ensemble A1B projection to quantify expected changes to mature boreal forest performance. Ecosystem Performance Anomalies (EPA), were identified as the residuals of the EEP and GSN relationship and represent performance departures from expected performance conditions. These performance data were used to monitor successional events following fire. Results suggested that maximum EPA occurs 30–40 years following fire, and deciduous stands generally have higher EPA than coniferous stands. Mean undisturbed EEP is projected to increase 5.6% by 2040 and 8.7% by 2070, suggesting an increased deciduous component in boreal forests. Our results contribute to the understanding of boreal forest successional dynamics and its response to climate change. This information enables informed decisions to prepare for, and adapt to, climate change in the Yukon River Basin forest.

  18. The full annual carbon balance of Eurasian boreal forests is highly sensitive to precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öquist, Mats; Bishop, Kevin; Grelle, Achim; Klemedtsson, Leif; Köhler, Stephan; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lindroth, Anders; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Wallin, Marcus; Nilsson, Mats

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forest biomes are identified as one of the major sinks for anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 and are also predicted to be particularly sensitive to climate change. Recent advances in understanding the carbon balance of these biomes stems mainly from eddy-covariance measurements of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE). However, NEE includes only the vertical CO2 exchange driven by photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration. A full net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) also requires inclusion of lateral carbon export (LCE) through catchment discharge. Currently LCE is often regarded as negligible for the NECB of boreal forest ecosystems of the northern hemisphere, commonly corresponding to ~5% of annual NEE. Here we use long term (13 year) data showing that annual LCE and NEE are strongly correlated (p=0.003); years with low C sequestration by the forest coincide with years when lateral C loss is high. The fraction of NEE lost annually through LCE varied markedly from solar radiation caused by clouds. The dual effect of precipitation implies that both the observed and the predicted increases in annual precipitation at high latitudes may reduce NECB in boreal forest ecosystems. Based on regional scaling of hydrological discharge and observed spatio-temporal variations in forest NEE we conclude that our finding is relevant for large areas of the boreal Eurasian landscape.

  19. Growth decline linked to warming-induced water limitation in hemi-boreal forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchen Wu

    Full Text Available Hemi-boreal forests, which make up the transition from temperate deciduous forests to boreal forests in southern Siberia, have experienced significant warming without any accompanying increase in precipitation during the last 80 years. This climatic change could have a profound impact on tree growth and on the stability of forest ecosystems in this region, but at present evidence for these impacts is lacking. In this study, we report a recent dramatic decline in the growth of hemi-boreal forests, based on ring width measurements from three dominant tree-species (Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, sampled from eight sites in the region. We found that regional tree growth has become increasingly limited by low soil water content in the pre- and early-growing season (from October of the previous year to July of the current year over the past 80 years. A warming-induced reduction in soil water content has also increased the climate sensitivity of these three tree species. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a clear decline in growth is evident for both the pine forests and the larch forests, although there are increasing trends in the proxy of soil water use efficiencies. Our findings are consistent with those from other parts of the world and provide valuable insights into the regional carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, and should be useful for devising adaptive forest management strategies.

  20. Growth decline linked to warming-induced water limitation in hemi-boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Guo, Dali; Anenkhonov, Oleg A; Badmaeva, Natalya K; Sandanov, Denis V

    2012-01-01

    Hemi-boreal forests, which make up the transition from temperate deciduous forests to boreal forests in southern Siberia, have experienced significant warming without any accompanying increase in precipitation during the last 80 years. This climatic change could have a profound impact on tree growth and on the stability of forest ecosystems in this region, but at present evidence for these impacts is lacking. In this study, we report a recent dramatic decline in the growth of hemi-boreal forests, based on ring width measurements from three dominant tree-species (Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii), sampled from eight sites in the region. We found that regional tree growth has become increasingly limited by low soil water content in the pre- and early-growing season (from October of the previous year to July of the current year) over the past 80 years. A warming-induced reduction in soil water content has also increased the climate sensitivity of these three tree species. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a clear decline in growth is evident for both the pine forests and the larch forests, although there are increasing trends in the proxy of soil water use efficiencies. Our findings are consistent with those from other parts of the world and provide valuable insights into the regional carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, and should be useful for devising adaptive forest management strategies.

  1. Caesium-137 in a boreal forest ecosystem. Aspects on the long-term behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Nelin, P.; Palo, T.

    1993-11-01

    Cycling of radioactive caesium, particularly the isotope Cs-137, is studied in boreal forest biotopes mainly located at the Vindeln experimental forest, 60 km NW of Umeaa, Sweden, (64 degrees 16'N, 19 degrees 48'E). The distribution of radioactive caesium in this forest ecosystem, prior to and in different periods after the Chernobyl accident, reflects the existence of fast changes particularly at an early stage after the deposition, superimposed on slow redistribution over long time periods. The definite causes to this complex dynamic behaviour are not yet unambiguously established. In this work we use the specific results from local field studies as a basis to describe the general pattern and time dependence of Cs-137 redistribution in a boreal forest. We raise the hypothesis that: 'Cs-137 present in a boreal forest tends towards a homogenous distribution among the living cells of that system'. This hypothesis is based on physiological characteristics concerning transport over cell membranes and intracellular distribution in comparison to potassium, and the apparently conservative conditions prevailing for caesium in boreal ecosystems - e.g. the facts that very little of the radioactive caesium deposited over the forest area is lost from the system by run off, more than 90% of the total deposition of Cs-137 resides in the upper organic horizon in podzol areas, and that the availability in the ecosystem, as can be seen from the Cs-137 concentration in moose meat, is not significantly different in 1985 (i.e. prior to the Chernobyl accident) in comparison to the period 1986-1990. The aim of this work is to elucidate how predictions, based on our hypothesis about redistribution processes in the boreal forest, corroborates with the main features in the time-dependent change of Cs-137 activity, according to measurements on perennial vegetation from the local sites. In particular the implicit dependence of the dynamics of the redistribution processes on primary

  2. Disentangling Modern Fire-Climate-Vegetation Relationships across the Boreal Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. M.; Boschetti, L.; Duffy, P.; Hu, F.; Higuera, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fire regimes differ between Eurasian and North American boreal forests, due in part to differences in climate and the dominant forest types. While North American boreal forests are dominated by stand-replacing fires, much of the Eurasian boreal forest is characterized by lower intensity surface fires. These different fire regimes have important consequences for continental-scale biogeochemical cycling and surface-energy fluxes1. Here, we use generalized linear models (GLM) and boosted regression trees (BRT) to explore the relative importance of vegetation, annual climatic factors, and their interactions in determining annual fire occurrence across Eurasian and North American boreal forests. We use remotely sensed burned area (MCD64A1), land cover (MCD12Q1), and observed climate data (CRU) from 2002-2012 at 0.25° spatial resolution to quantify these relationships at annual temporal scales and continental spatial scales. The spatial distribution of boreal fire occurrence was well explained with climate and vegetation variables, with similarities and differences in fire-climate-vegetation relationships between Eurasia and North America. For example, while GLMs indicate vegetation is a significant factor determining fire occurrence in both continents, the effect of climate differed. Spring temperature and precipitation are significant factors explaining fire occurrence in Eurasia, but no climate variables were significant for explaining fire occurrence in North America. BRTs complement this analysis, highlighting climatic thresholds to fire occurrence in both continents. The nature of these thresholds can vary among vegetation types, even within each continent, further implying regional sensitivity to climate-induced shifts in wildfire activity. To build on these results and better understand regional sensitivity of northern-high latitude fire regimes, future work will explore these relationships in forest-tundra and arctic tundra ecosystems, and apply historical

  3. Ecophysiological modeling of photosynthesis and carbon allocation to the tree stem in the boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gennaretti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the coupling between photosynthesis and carbon allocation in the boreal forest, together with its associated environmental factors and mechanistic rules, is crucial to accurately predict boreal forest carbon stocks and fluxes, which are significant components of the global carbon budget. Here, we adapted the MAIDEN ecophysiological forest model to consider important processes for boreal tree species, such as nonlinear acclimation of photosynthesis to temperature changes, canopy development as a function of previous-year climate variables influencing bud formation and the temperature dependence of carbon partition in summer. We tested these modifications in the eastern Canadian taiga using black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. gross primary production and ring width data. MAIDEN explains 90 % of the observed daily gross primary production variability, 73 % of the annual ring width variability and 20–30 % of its high-frequency component (i.e., when decadal trends are removed. The positive effect on stem growth due to climate warming over the last several decades is well captured by the model. In addition, we illustrate how we improve the model with each introduced model adaptation and compare the model results with those of linear response functions. Our results demonstrate that MAIDEN simulates robust relationships with the most important climate variables (those detected by classical response-function analysis and is a powerful tool for understanding how environmental factors interact with black spruce ecophysiology to influence present-day and future boreal forest carbon fluxes.

  4. Ecophysiological modeling of photosynthesis and carbon allocation to the tree stem in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaretti, Fabio; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Boucher, Etienne; Berninger, Frank; Arseneault, Dominique; Guiot, Joel

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the coupling between photosynthesis and carbon allocation in the boreal forest, together with its associated environmental factors and mechanistic rules, is crucial to accurately predict boreal forest carbon stocks and fluxes, which are significant components of the global carbon budget. Here, we adapted the MAIDEN ecophysiological forest model to consider important processes for boreal tree species, such as nonlinear acclimation of photosynthesis to temperature changes, canopy development as a function of previous-year climate variables influencing bud formation and the temperature dependence of carbon partition in summer. We tested these modifications in the eastern Canadian taiga using black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) gross primary production and ring width data. MAIDEN explains 90 % of the observed daily gross primary production variability, 73 % of the annual ring width variability and 20-30 % of its high-frequency component (i.e., when decadal trends are removed). The positive effect on stem growth due to climate warming over the last several decades is well captured by the model. In addition, we illustrate how we improve the model with each introduced model adaptation and compare the model results with those of linear response functions. Our results demonstrate that MAIDEN simulates robust relationships with the most important climate variables (those detected by classical response-function analysis) and is a powerful tool for understanding how environmental factors interact with black spruce ecophysiology to influence present-day and future boreal forest carbon fluxes.

  5. Spatially explicit estimation of aboveground boreal forest biomass in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Brown, Dana R. N.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Alexander, Heather D.; Mack, Michelle C.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Chen, Xuexia; Pastick, Neal J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of aboveground biomass (AGB) in Alaska’s boreal forest is essential to the accurate evaluation of terrestrial carbon stocks and dynamics in northern high-latitude ecosystems. Our goal was to map AGB at 30 m resolution for the boreal forest in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska using Landsat data and ground measurements. We acquired Landsat images to generate a 3-year (2008–2010) composite of top-of-atmosphere reflectance for six bands as well as the brightness temperature (BT). We constructed a multiple regression model using field-observed AGB and Landsat-derived reflectance, BT, and vegetation indices. A basin-wide boreal forest AGB map at 30 m resolution was generated by applying the regression model to the Landsat composite. The fivefold cross-validation with field measurements had a mean absolute error (MAE) of 25.7 Mg ha−1 (relative MAE 47.5%) and a mean bias error (MBE) of 4.3 Mg ha−1(relative MBE 7.9%). The boreal forest AGB product was compared with lidar-based vegetation height data; the comparison indicated that there was a significant correlation between the two data sets.

  6. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Kulmala, M.; Nieminen, T.; Roebeling, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD) in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An

  7. Effects of fire severity on plant nutrient uptake reinforce alternate pathways of succession in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Shenoy; K. Kielland; J.F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Fire activity in the North American boreal region is projected to increase under a warming climate and trigger changes in vegetation composition. In black spruce forests of interior Alaska, fire severity impacts residual organic layer depth which is strongly linked to the relative dominance of deciduous versus coniferous trees in early succession. These alternate...

  8. Microbial transformations of C and N in a boreal forest floor as affected by temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.S.J.; Dam, van D.; Hefting, M.M.; Tietema, A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of temperature on N mineralization were studied in two organic surface horizons (LF and H) of soil from a boreal forest. The soil was incubated at 5 °C and 15 °C after adding 15 N and gross N fluxes were calculated using a numerical simulation model. The model was calibrated on microbial

  9. Fire spread probabilities for experimental beds composed of mixedwood boreal forest fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.B. Dickinson; E.A. Johnson; R. Artiaga

    2013-01-01

    Although fuel characteristics are assumed to have an important impact on fire regimes through their effects on extinction dynamics, limited capabilities exist for predicting whether a fire will spread in mixedwood boreal forest surface fuels. To improve predictive capabilities, we conducted 347 no-wind, laboratory test burns in surface fuels collected from the mixed-...

  10. Regional coherency of boreal forest growth defines Arctic driftwood provenancing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellmann, L.; Agafonov, L.; Churakova (Sidorova), O.; Düthorn, E.; Eggertsson, O.; Esper, J.; Kirdyanov, A. V.; Knorre, A. A.; Moiseev, P.; Myglan, V. S.; Nikolaev, A. N.; Reinig, F.; Schweingruber, F.; Solomina, O.; Tegel, W.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, sep (2016), s. 3-9 ISSN 1125-7865 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mackenzie river driftwood * tree-ring data * central siberia * origin * archipelago * holocene * ocean * sea * ice * circulation * Driftwood * Arctic * Dendro-provenancing * Boreal Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.259, year: 2016

  11. Influence of wildfires in the boreal forests of Eastern Siberia on atmospheric aerosol parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomshin, Oleg A.; Solovyev, Vladimir S.

    2017-11-01

    The results of studies of the dynamics of forest fires in the boreal forests of Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) for 2001-2016 are presented. Variations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), aerosol index (AI) and total carbon monoxide content during May-September were studied depending on the different forest fire activity level. It is shown that the seasonal variations of AOT, AI and CO in the most fire-dangerous years differ significantly from the fire seasons when forest fire activity was medium or low.

  12. Canopy interaction with precipitation and sulphur deposition in two boreal forests of Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Houle, D.; Duchesne, L.; Gagnon, C.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of atmospheric sulphur (S) was investigated within the canopies of two boreal forests in Québec, Canada. The net canopy exchange approach, i.e. the difference between S–SO 4 in throughfall and precipitation, suggests high proportion of dry deposition in winter (up to 53%) as compared to summer (1–9%). However, a 3.5‰ decrease in δ 18 O–SO 4 throughfall in summer compared to incident precipitation points towards a much larger proportion of dry deposition during the warm season. We suggest that a significant fraction of dry deposition (about 1.2 kg ha −1 yr −1 , representing 30–40% of annual wet S deposition) which contributed to the decreased δ 18 O–SO 4 in throughfall was taken up by the canopy. Overall, these results showed that, contrary to what is commonly considered, S interchanges in the canopy could be important in boreal forests with low absolute atmospheric S depositions. - Highlights: ► We investigated sulphur interactions with the canopy of two boreal forests, Québec. ► Sulphur interchanges within the canopy were large and vary with seasons. ► About 1.2 kg S–SO 4 ha −1 yr −1 was taken up by the canopy during warm seasons. ► This represents 30–40% of annual wet S–SO 4 deposition. ► Canopy uptake must be considered for sulphur budget estimations in boreal forests. - The equivalent of 30–40% of annual wet S–SO 4 deposition was taken up by the canopy of two boreal forests during warm seasons.

  13. The role of boreal forests and forestry in the global carbon budget : a synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyles, I.H.; Shaw, C.H.; Apps, M.J.; Karjalainen, T.; Stocks, B.J.; Running, S.W.; Kurz, W.A.; Weyerhaeuser, G.Jr.; Jarvis, P.G.

    2002-10-01

    This paper provides a synthesis of all papers presented at the conference on the role of boreal forests in the global carbon budget. The scientific community is recognizing the critical links between boreal forest ecosystems, carbon dynamics and global climate change. This paper addresses the five main topics discussed at the conference including: (1) carbon stocks and fluxes, (2) the effects of natural disturbances on carbon dynamics, (3) effects of management practices on carbon dynamics, (4) afforestation and carbon sequestration, and (5) effects of climate change and elevated carbon dioxide concentration on carbon dynamics. Large-scale model simulations suggest that increased global temperatures will result in increased net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Several model simulations also indicate that net primary productivity (NPP) will increase. While most forest stands are currently carbon sinks, disturbances such as fire, insects and tree harvesting make forests susceptible to becoming a source of carbon. In contrast, some studies suggest that climate change will cause shifting vegetation patterns, increased soil carbon and higher forest productivity that may result in higher sequestration of carbon in the boreal forest. 84 refs.

  14. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Susannah B.; Nislow, Keith H.; Nowak, David J.; DeStefano, Stephen; King, David I.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat to sustain bird and other wildlife populations. The primary goal of this study was to integrate wildlife suitability indices to an existing national urban forest assessment tool, i-Tree. We quantified available habitat characteristics of urban forests for ten northeastern U.S. cities, and summarized bird habitat relationships from the literature in terms of variables that were represented in the i-Tree datasets. With these data, we generated habitat suitability equations for nine bird species representing a range of life history traits and conservation status that predicts the habitat suitability based on i-Tree data. We applied these equations to the urban forest datasets to calculate the overall habitat suitability for each city and the habitat suitability for different types of land-use (e.g., residential, commercial, parkland) for each bird species. The proposed habitat models will help guide wildlife managers, urban planners, and landscape designers who require specific information such as desirable habitat conditions within an urban management project to help improve the suitability of urban forests for birds.

  15. Predicting Climate Change Impacts to the Canadian Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter temperature, precipitation, and seasonality with potentially acute impacts on Canada’s boreal. In this research we predicted future spatial distributions of biodiversity in Canada’s boreal for 2020, 2050, and 2080 using indirect indicators derived from remote sensing and based on vegetation productivity. Vegetation productivity indices, representing annual amounts and variability of greenness, have been shown to relate to tree and wildlife richness in Canada’s boreal. Relationships between historical satellite-derived productivity and climate data were applied to modelled scenarios of future climate to predict and map potential future vegetation productivity for 592 regions across Canada. Results indicated that the pattern of vegetation productivity will become more homogenous, particularly west of Hudson Bay. We expect climate change to impact biodiversity along north/south gradients and by 2080 vegetation distributions will be dominated by processes of seasonality in the north and a combination of cumulative greenness and minimum cover in the south. The Hudson Plains, which host the world’s largest and most contiguous wetland, are predicted to experience less seasonality and more greenness. The spatial distribution of predicted trends in vegetation productivity was emphasized over absolute values, in order to support regional biodiversity assessments and conservation planning.

  16. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O.; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O.

    2016-01-01

    Boreal peatlands play a crucial role in global carbon cycling, acting as an important carbon reservoir. However, little information is available on how peatland microbial communities are influenced by natural variability or human-induced disturbances. In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We have also compared the fungal communities during the primary colonization of wood with those of the surrounding soils. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that the community composition significantly differed between soil types (P peatlands; it further provides a baseline for the investigation of the dynamics of the fungal community in the boreal peatlands. PMID:26896139

  17. Understorey bird abundance and diversity before and after a forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The understorey bird species diversity before the forest was burned was substantially higher than ..... Conservation interventions are necessary and measures against forest fires are ... I would like to thank the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Tanzania for permission ... package for education and data analysis.

  18. Forest management strategy, spatial heterogeneity, and winter birds in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Haveri; A.B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Ecological management of second-growth forest holds great promise for conservation of biodiversity, yet little experimental evidence exists to compare alternative management approaches. Wintering birds are one of several groups of species most likely to be influenced by forest management activities. We compared species richness and proportion of stand area used over...

  19. Condition varies with habitat choice in postbreeding forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson

    2013-01-01

    Many birds that are experiencing population declines require extensive tracts of mature forest habitat for breeding. Recent work suggests that at least some may shift their habitat use to early-successional areas after nesting but before migration. I used constant-effort mist netting in regenerating clearcuts (4-8 years postcut) and dense mature-forest understories to...

  20. Graph SLAM correction for single scanner MLS forest data under boreal forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukko, Antero; Kaijaluoto, Risto; Kaartinen, Harri; Lehtola, Ville V.; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Hyyppä, Juha

    2017-10-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) provides kinematic means to collect three dimensional data from surroundings for various mapping and environmental analysis purposes. Vehicle based MLS has been used for road and urban asset surveys for about a decade. The equipment to derive the trajectory information for the point cloud generation from the laser data is almost without exception based on GNSS-IMU (Global Navigation Satellite System - Inertial Measurement Unit) technique. That is because of the GNSS ability to maintain global accuracy, and IMU to produce the attitude information needed to orientate the laser scanning and imaging sensor data. However, there are known challenges in maintaining accurate positioning when GNSS signal is weak or even absent over long periods of time. The duration of the signal loss affects the severity of degradation of the positioning solution depending on the quality/performance level of the IMU in use. The situation could be improved to a certain extent with higher performance IMUs, but increasing system expenses make such approach unsustainable in general. Another way to tackle the problem is to attach additional sensors to the system to overcome the degrading position accuracy: such that observe features from the environment to solve for short term system movements accurately enough to prevent the IMU solution to drift. This results in more complex system integration with need for more calibration and synchronization of multiple sensors into an operational approach. In this paper we study operation of an ATV (All -terrain vehicle) mounted, GNSS-IMU based single scanner MLS system in boreal forest conditions. The data generated by RoamerR2 system is targeted for generating 3D terrain and tree maps for optimizing harvester operations and forest inventory purposes at individual tree level. We investigate a process-flow and propose a graph optimization based method which uses data from a single scanner MLS for correcting the post

  1. Palaeodata-informed modelling of large carbon losses from recent burning of boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan; Genet, Helene; McGuire, A. David; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires play a key role in the boreal forest carbon cycle1, 2, and models suggest that accelerated burning will increase boreal C emissions in the coming century3. However, these predictions may be compromised because brief observational records provide limited constraints to model initial conditions4. We confronted this limitation by using palaeoenvironmental data to drive simulations of long-term C dynamics in the Alaskan boreal forest. Results show that fire was the dominant control on C cycling over the past millennium, with changes in fire frequency accounting for 84% of C stock variability. A recent rise in fire frequency inferred from the palaeorecord5 led to simulated C losses of 1.4 kg C m−2 (12% of ecosystem C stocks) from 1950 to 2006. In stark contrast, a small net C sink of 0.3 kg C m−2 occurred if the past fire regime was assumed to be similar to the modern regime, as is common in models of C dynamics. Although boreal fire regimes are heterogeneous, recent trends6 and future projections7 point to increasing fire activity in response to climate warming throughout the biome. Thus, predictions8 that terrestrial C sinks of northern high latitudes will mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 may be over-optimistic.

  2. Aboveground Biomass Monitoring over Siberian Boreal Forest Using Radar Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmaszczuk-Gorska, M. A.; Thiel, C. J.; Schmullius, C.

    2014-12-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) plays an essential role in ecosystem research, global cycles, and is of vital importance in climate studies. AGB accumulated in the forests is of special monitoring interest as it contains the most of biomass comparing with other land biomes. The largest of the land biomes is boreal forest, which has a substantial carbon accumulation capability; carbon stock estimated to be 272 +/-23 Pg C (32%) [1]. Russian's forests are of particular concern, due to the largest source of uncertainty in global carbon stock calculations [1], and old inventory data that have not been updated in the last 25 years [2]. In this research new empirical models for AGB estimation are proposed. Using radar L-band data for AGB retrieval and optical data for an update of in situ data the processing scheme was developed. The approach was trained and validated in the Asian part of the boreal forest, in southern Russian Central Siberia; two Siberian Federal Districts: Krasnoyarsk Kray and Irkutsk Oblast. Together the training and testing forest territories cover an area of approximately 3,500 km2. ALOS PALSAR L-band single (HH - horizontal transmitted and received) and dual (HH and HV - horizontal transmitted, horizontal and vertical received) polarizations in Single Look Complex format (SLC) were used to calculate backscattering coefficient in gamma nought and coherence. In total more than 150 images acquired between 2006 and 2011 were available. The data were obtained through the ALOS Kyoto and Carbon Initiative Project (K&C). The data were used to calibrate a randomForest algorithm. Additionally, a simple linear and multiple-regression approach was used. The uncertainty of the AGB estimation at pixel and stand level were calculated approximately as 35% by validation against an independent dataset. The previous studies employing ALOS PALSAR data over boreal forests reported uncertainty of 39.4% using randomForest approach [2] or 42.8% using semi-empirical approach [3].

  3. The Effects of Different Forest Loggings on Forest Birds Community Composition in Shastkolateh Forest, Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parsaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The species composition of a bird community is dependent upon many factors. Within any geographic area, vegetation structure may be the most important factor. The changes of bird community composition based on foraging behavior in relation to 3 different harvesting systems, including strip cutting, group selection logging, and single tree selection logging, was evaluated in a virgin area in this study. Birds and environmental variables were detected within 103 circle sampling plots with 25m radius. Based on the results, 4 groups of birds were observed in treatments based on the foraging behavior. Group 1 was ground foragers, group 2 consisted of foliage gleaning, group 3 included flycatchers, and group 4 represented bark foraging. The first group had the highest abundance in the strip treatment. The second group in group selection treatment, and the third and fourth groups had the highest abundance in the virgin area and then, in single tree selection treatment. The first group showed the highest correlation with shrub and herb or grass layer, stone cover and the number of trees 10-20m in height. The second, third and fourth groups showed the highest correlation with the number of trees>20m in height, basal areas, dead trees number, and the number of fagus trees. The results showed the single cutting treatment had a relatively minor effect on mature forest bird species and were more appropriate and sustainable methods to reduce the negative effects of forest harvesting on the birds.

  4. Climate effects on vegetation vitality at the treeline of boreal forests of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinge, Michael; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Erasmi, Stefan; Nikolaus Karger, Dirk; Hauck, Markus

    2018-03-01

    In northern Mongolia, at the southern boundary of the Siberian boreal forest belt, the distribution of steppe and forest is generally linked to climate and topography, making this region highly sensitive to climate change and human impact. Detailed investigations on the limiting parameters of forest and steppe in different biomes provide necessary information for paleoenvironmental reconstruction and prognosis of potential landscape change. In this study, remote sensing data and gridded climate data were analyzed in order to identify main distribution patterns of forest and steppe in Mongolia and to detect environmental factors driving forest development. Forest distribution and vegetation vitality derived from the normalized differentiated vegetation index (NDVI) were investigated for the three types of boreal forest present in Mongolia (taiga, subtaiga and forest-steppe), which cover a total area of 73 818 km2. In addition to the forest type areas, the analysis focused on subunits of forest and nonforested areas at the upper and lower treeline, which represent ecological borders between vegetation types. Climate and NDVI data were analyzed for a reference period of 15 years from 1999 to 2013. The presented approach for treeline delineation by identifying representative sites mostly bridges local forest disturbances like fire or tree cutting. Moreover, this procedure provides a valuable tool to distinguish the potential forested area. The upper treeline generally rises from 1800 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the northeast to 2700 m a.s.l. in the south. The lower treeline locally emerges at 1000 m a.s.l. in the northern taiga and rises southward to 2500 m a.s.l. The latitudinal gradient of both treelines turns into a longitudinal one on the eastern flank of mountain ranges due to higher aridity caused by rain-shadow effects. Less productive trees in terms of NDVI were identified at both the upper and lower treeline in relation to the respective total boreal forest

  5. Winter Responses of Forest Birds to Habitat Corridors and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss may disrupt the movement or dispersal of forest-dwelling birds. Despite much interest in the severity of these effects and ways of mitigating them, little is known about actual movement patterns in different habitat types. We studied the movement of wintering resident birds, lured by playbacks of mobbing calls, to compare the willingness of forest birds to travel various distances in continuous forest, along narrow corridors (fencerows, and across gaps in forest cover. We also quantified the willingness of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus to cross gaps when alternative forested detour routes were available. All species were less likely to respond to the calls as distance increased to 200 m, although White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis and Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus were generally less likely to respond than chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers (P. pubescens. Chickadees were as likely to travel in corridors as in continuous forest, but were less likely to cross gaps as the gap distance increased. The other species were less willing to travel in corridors and gaps relative to forest, and the differences among habitats also increased with distance. For chickadees, gap-crossing decisions in the presence of forested detours varied over the range of distances that we tested, and were primarily influenced by detour efficiency (the length of the shortcut relative to the available detour. Over short distances, birds used forested detours, regardless of their efficiency. As absolute distances increased, birds tended to employ larger shortcuts in the open when detour efficiency was low or initial distance in the open was high, but they limited their distance from the nearest forest edge to 25 m. Thus, chickadees were unwilling to cross gaps of > 50 m when they had forested alternatives, yet they sometimes crossed gaps as large as 200 m when no such choice existed. Our results suggest that

  6. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance : Insights from a global process-based vegetation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Chao; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, Patricia; Harden, J. L.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forests. They leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. This forest age dynamics must be included in vegetation models to accurately quantify the role of fire in the historical and

  7. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica R. Miesel; William C. Hockaday; Randy Kolka; Philip A. Townsend

    2015-01-01

    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition...

  8. Dominance and Diversity of Bird Community in Floodplain Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Poprach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to assessment of diversity and structure of bird community in floodplain forest ecosystem. Authors present results of analyses data on bird communities obtained at two transects in the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic in the period 1998–2012. Research of bird communities was carried out using the point-count method. The article deals with qualitative and quantitative representation of breeding bird species, including their relation to habitat type (closed floodplain forest, ecotone. Altogether 63 breeding species were recorded at the Vrapač transect and 67 at the Litovelské luhy transect, respectively. To be able to detect all recorded species, 11 out of 14 years of monitoring were needed at the Vrapač transect and all 8 years of monitoring at the Litovelské luhy transect, respectively. Authors show that the values in dominant bird species change significantly among the particular census dates within one season, mainly with respect to their activity and detectability. Results are discussed in the frame of sustainable forest management in floodplain forest ecosystems. The presented article can promote to discussion aimed to management strategy for floodplain forest ecosystems, which ranks among natural habitat types of Community interest protected under the Natura 2000 European network.

  9. Declining plant nitrogen supply and carbon accumulation in ageing primary boreal forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Mona N.; Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Trumbore, Susan; Högberg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forest soils are commonly characterized by a low plant nitrogen (N) supply. A high tree below-ground allocation of carbon (C) to roots and soil microorganisms in response to the shortage of N may lead to high microbial immobilisation of N, thus aggravating the N limitation. We studied the N supply at a Swedish boreal forest ecosystem chronosequence created by new land rising out of the sea due to iso-static rebound. The youngest soils develop with meadows by the coast, followed by a zone of dinitrogen fixing alder trees, and primary boreal conifer forest on ground up to 560 years old. With increasing ecosystem age, the proportion of microbial C out of the total soil C pool from the youngest to the oldest coniferous ecosystem was constant (c. 1-1.5%), whereas immobilised N (microbial N out of total soil N) increased and approached the levels commonly observed in similar boreal coniferous forests (c. 6-7 %), whereas gross N mineralization declined. Simultaneously, plant foliar N % decreased and the natural abundance of N-15 in the soil increased. More specifically, the difference in N-15 between plant foliage and soil increased, which is related to greater retention of N-15 relative to N-14 by ectomycorrhizal fungi as N is taken up from the soil and some N is transferred to the plant host. In the conifer forest, where these changes were greatest, we found increased fungal biomass in the F- and H-horizons of the mor-layer, in which ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to dominate (the uppermost horizon with litter and moss is dominated by saprotrophic fungi). Hence, we propose that the decreasing N supply to the plants and the subsequent decline in plant production in ageing boreal forests is linked to high tree belowground C allocation to C limited ectomycorrhizal fungi (and other soil microorganisms), a strong sink for available soil N. Data on organic matter C-14 suggested that the largest input of recently fixed plant C occurred in the younger coniferous forest

  10. Outbreaks of Tularemia in a Boreal Forest Region Depends on Mosquito Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Patrik; Björk, Rafael; Schäfer, Martina L.; Lundström, Jan O.; Petersén, Bodil; Lindblom, Anders; Forsman, Mats; Sjöstedt, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background. We aimed to evaluate the potential association of mosquito prevalence in a boreal forest area with transmission of the bacterial disease tularemia to humans, and model the annual variation of disease using local weather data. Methods. A prediction model for mosquito abundance was built using weather and mosquito catch data. Then a negative binomial regression model based on the predicted mosquito abundance and local weather data was built to predict annual numbers of humans contracting tularemia in Dalarna County, Sweden. Results. Three hundred seventy humans were diagnosed with tularemia between 1981 and 2007, 94% of them during 7 summer outbreaks. Disease transmission was concentrated along rivers in the area. The predicted mosquito abundance was correlated (0.41, P tularemia (temporal correlation, 0.76; P tularemia in a tularemia-endemic boreal forest area of Sweden and that environmental variables can be used as risk indicators. PMID:22124130

  11. Using the ratio of optical channels in satellite image decoding in monitoring biodiversity of boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, Yurj P.; Kondakova, Maria Y.

    2013-10-01

    The study contains the results of forest monitoring at three levels: the forests condition assessment at the time of recording or mapping for this indicator, the seasonal changes assessment in the forests condition, mainly during the vegetation period and the evaluation of long-term changes in the values of the studied parameters on the example of the forests recovery after a fire. The use of two indices - NDVI and Image Difference in the boreal forests monitoring is treated. NDVI assesses the state of plant biomass and its productivity. The rate of Image Difference characterizes the optical density and allows estimate the density of the forest stand. In addition, by identifying Image Difference on summer and autumn pictures it can makes a distinction of different wood species, to divide forest areas, which consist of deciduous and coniferous species and larch which shedded needles at the end of the vegetation period. Therefore, it is possible to differentiate the pine, cedar, spruce forests on the one side and birch, larch, alder on the other side. The optical density of the forest decreases after the needles- and the leaf sheddings. Using the index Image Difference in estimates of long-term changes of the forest stand shows the trend of changes of the forest density and the tree species composition. The results of the analysis of the recovery process of the forest after a fire in the period from 1995 to 2009 showed how shoots of birch, larch and pine recover wastelands.

  12. Variation in carbon storage and its distribution by stand age and forest type in boreal and temperate forests in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yawei; Li, Maihe; Chen, Hua; Lewis, Bernard J; Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wangming; Fang, Xiangmin; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Limin

    2013-01-01

    The northeastern forest region of China is an important component of total temperate and boreal forests in the northern hemisphere. But how carbon (C) pool size and distribution varies among tree, understory, forest floor and soil components, and across stand ages remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we selected three major temperate and two major boreal forest types in northeastern (NE) China. Within both forest zones, we focused on four stand age classes (young, mid-aged, mature and over-mature). Results showed that total C storage was greater in temperate than in boreal forests, and greater in older than in younger stands. Tree biomass C was the main C component, and its contribution to the total forest C storage increased with increasing stand age. It ranged from 27.7% in young to 62.8% in over-mature stands in boreal forests and from 26.5% in young to 72.8% in over-mature stands in temperate forests. Results from both forest zones thus confirm the large biomass C storage capacity of old-growth forests. Tree biomass C was influenced by forest zone, stand age, and forest type. Soil C contribution to total forest C storage ranged from 62.5% in young to 30.1% in over-mature stands in boreal and from 70.1% in young to 26.0% in over-mature in temperate forests. Thus soil C storage is a major C pool in forests of NE China. On the other hand, understory and forest floor C jointly contained less than 13% and forests respectively, and thus play a minor role in total forest C storage in NE China.

  13. What makes segmentation good? A case study in boreal forest habitat mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Rusanen, Antti; Kuitunen, Markku; Lensu, Anssi

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation goodness evaluation is a set of approaches meant for deciding which segmentation is good. In this study, we tested different supervised segmentation evaluation measures and visual interpretation in the case of boreal forest habitat mapping in Southern Finland. The data used were WorldView-2 satellite imagery, a lidar digital elevation model (DEM), and a canopy height model (CHM) in 2 m resolution. The segmentation methods tested were the fractal net evolution approach (FNEA) and ...

  14. Energy, water and carbon exchange in a boreal forest landscape - NOPEX experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldin, S.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Gottschalk, L.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the land surface in controlling climate is still underestimated and access to information from the boreal-forest zone is instrumental to improve this situation. This motivated the organisation of NOPEX (Northern hemisphere climate-Processes land-surface Experiment) in the southern part...... as an integrated part of this Special Issue. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current......, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future....

  16. Forest Plant and Bird Communities in the Lau Group, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Janet; Steadman, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background We examined species composition of forest and bird communities in relation to environmental and human disturbance gradients on Lakeba (55.9 km2), Nayau (18.4 km2), and Aiwa Levu (1.2 km2), islands in the Lau Group of Fiji, West Polynesia. The unique avifauna of West Polynesia (Fiji, Tonga, Samoa) has been subjected to prehistoric human-caused extinctions but little was previously known about this topic in the Lau Group. We expected that the degree of human disturbance would be a strong determinant of tree species composition and habitat quality for surviving landbirds, while island area would be unrelated to bird diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings All trees >5 cm diameter were measured and identified in 23 forest plots of 500 m2 each. We recognized four forest species assemblages differentiated by composition and structure: coastal forest, dominated by widely distributed species, and three forest types with differences related more to disturbance history (stages of secondary succession following clearing or selective logging) than to environmental gradients (elevation, slope, rockiness). Our point counts (73 locations in 1 or 2 seasons) recorded 18 of the 24 species of landbirds that exist on the three islands. The relative abundance and species richness of birds were greatest in the forested habitats least disturbed by people. These differences were due mostly to increased numbers of columbid frugivores and passerine insectivores in forests on Lakeba and Aiwa Levu. Considering only forested habitats, the relative abundance and species richness of birds were greater on the small but completely forested (and uninhabited) island of Aiwa Levu than on the much larger island of Lakeba. Conclusions/Significance Forest disturbance history is more important than island area in structuring both tree and landbird communities on remote Pacific islands. Even very small islands may be suitable for conservation reserves if they are protected from human

  17. Birds, Montane forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys in montane Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, provided a list of 82 bird species in four sitesvisited. Our protocol relied on standardized use of mist nets and observations. The birds recorded include 40 Atlanticforest endemics, three globally and two nationally Vulnerable species, and two regionally Endangered species. Data onspecies elevation are included and discussed. This work enhances baseline knowledge of these species to assist futurestudies in these poorly understood, but biologically important areas.

  18. Research and management priorities for Hawai‘i forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Laut, Megan; Vetter, J.P.; Kendall, Steve J.

    2018-01-01

    Hawai‘i’s forest birds face a number of conservation challenges that, if unaddressed, will likely lead to the extinction of multiple species in the coming decades. Threats include habitat loss, invasive plants, non-native predators, and introduced diseases. Climate change is predicted to increase the geographic extent and intensity of these threats, adding urgency to implementation of tractable conservation strategies. We present a set of actionable research and management approaches, identified by conservation practitioners in Hawai’i, that will be critical for the conservation of Hawaiian forest birds in the coming years. We also summarize recent progress on these conservation priorities. The threats facing Hawai‘i’s forest birds are not unique to Hawai‘i, and successful conservation strategies developed in Hawai‘i can serve as a model for other imperiled communities around the world, especially on islands.

  19. High-latitude cooling associated with landscape changes from North American boreal forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Rogers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fires in the boreal forests of North America are generally stand-replacing, killing the majority of trees and initiating succession that may last over a century. Functional variation during succession can affect local surface energy budgets and, potentially, regional climate. Burn area across Alaska and Canada has increased in the last few decades and is projected to be substantially higher by the end of the 21st century because of a warmer climate with longer growing seasons. Here we simulated changes in forest composition due to altered burn area using a stochastic model of fire occurrence, historical fire data from national inventories, and succession trajectories derived from remote sensing. When coupled to an Earth system model, younger vegetation from increased burning cooled the high-latitude atmosphere, primarily in the winter and spring, with noticeable feedbacks from the ocean and sea ice. Results from multiple scenarios suggest that a doubling of burn area would cool the surface by 0.23 ± 0.09 °C across boreal North America during winter and spring months (December through May. This could provide a negative feedback to winter warming on the order of 3–5% for a doubling, and 14–23% for a quadrupling, of burn area. Maximum cooling occurs in the areas of greatest burning, and between February and April when albedo changes are largest and solar insolation is moderate. Further work is needed to integrate all the climate drivers from boreal forest fires, including aerosols and greenhouse gasses.

  20. Winter climate controls soil carbon dynamics during summer in boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haei, Mahsa; Öquist, Mats G; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Laudon, Hjalmar; Kreyling, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Boreal forests, characterized by distinct winter seasons, store a large proportion of the global terrestrial carbon (C) pool. We studied summer soil C-dynamics in a boreal forest in northern Sweden using a seven-year experimental manipulation of soil frost. We found that winter soil climate conditions play a major role in controlling the dissolution/mineralization of soil organic-C in the following summer season. Intensified soil frost led to significantly higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Intensified soil frost also led to higher rates of basal heterotrophic CO 2 production in surface soil samples. However, frost-induced decline in the in situ soil CO 2 concentrations in summer suggests a substantial decline in root and/or plant associated rhizosphere CO 2 production, which overrides the effects of increased heterotrophic CO 2 production. Thus, colder winter soils, as a result of reduced snow cover, can substantially alter C-dynamics in boreal forests by reducing summer soil CO 2 efflux, and increasing DOC losses. (letter)

  1. Waterfowl populations are resilient to immediate and lagged impacts of wildfires in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler; Schmutz, Joel A.; Amundson, Courtney L.; Lindberg, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1. Wildfires are the principal disturbance in the boreal forest, and their size and frequency are increasing as the climate warms. Impacts of fires on boreal wildlife are largely unknown, especially for the tens of millions of waterfowl that breed in the region. This knowledge gap creates significant barriers to the integrative management of fires and waterfowl, leading to fire policies that largely disregard waterfowl. 2. Waterfowl populations across the western boreal forest of North America have been monitored annually since 1955 by the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey (BPOP), widely considered the most extensive wildlife survey in the world. Using these data, we examined impacts of forest fires on abundance of two waterfowl guilds – dabblers and divers. We modelled waterfowl abundance in relation to fire extent (i.e. amount of survey transect burned) and time since fire, examining both immediate and lagged fire impacts. 3. From 1955 to 2014, >1100 fires in the western boreal forest intersected BPOP survey transects, and many transects burned multiple times. Nonetheless, fires had no detectable impact on waterfowl abundance; annual transect counts of dabbler and diver pairs remained stable from the pre- to post-fire period. 4. The absence of fire impacts on waterfowl abundance extended from the years immediately following the fire to those more than a decade afterwards. Likewise, the amount of transect burned did not influence waterfowl abundance, with similar pair counts from the pre- to post-fire period for small (1–20% burned), medium (21–60%) and large (>60%) burns. 5. Policy implications. Waterfowl populations appear largely resilient to forest fires, providing initial evidence that current policies of limited fire suppression, which predominate throughout much of the boreal forest, have not been detrimental to waterfowl populations. Likewise, fire-related management actions, such as prescribed burning or targeted suppression

  2. Timing of plant phenophases since 1752 in the boreal forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubin, Eero; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Valkama, Jari

    2016-04-01

    Global warming and climate change will significantly affect on forest environment in northern latitudes. There is the strong evidence that increase of early spring and late autumn temperatures will have impacts on growth and growth cycles. In Finland the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Luke since 2015) established in 1996 National Phenological Network to study changes of phenophases all over the country representing southern, middle and northern boreal forest zones. Continuous detailed scientific monitoring includes eleven forest plant species and it forms an excellent basis to evaluate responses of forest vegetation in respect to climate change. Monitoring is done together with Universities and other Institutes. Prior to the establishment of the Finnish National Phenological Network observations has been made solely based on volunteers since 1752. This citizen-science data is very important to analyze phenophases together with the results of the National Network. The long-term data since 1752 shows e.g. an advancement in the onset of Prunus padus flowering by five days per 100 years and correspondingly three days in the rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). The latest results of the Finnish National Network (1996 - 2014) fits well to this long term trend. In the Finnish National Phenological Network we have monitored phenophases of forest spieces throughout the growth period, focusing on nine forest tree species and two dwarf shrubs. The results can be followed in real time at: http://www.metla.fi/metinfo/fenologia/index-en.htm. We have observed big differences in phenophases between southern and northern boreal zone. Onset of downy birch leafing happens one month later in the north compared with southern boreal zone. Coming into leaf has clearly occurred earlier during the research period since 1996 in the northern boreal zone compared with southern boreal zone. This indicates the response of climate change. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall was observed remained

  3. Climate effects on vegetation vitality at the treeline of boreal forests of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Klinge

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In northern Mongolia, at the southern boundary of the Siberian boreal forest belt, the distribution of steppe and forest is generally linked to climate and topography, making this region highly sensitive to climate change and human impact. Detailed investigations on the limiting parameters of forest and steppe in different biomes provide necessary information for paleoenvironmental reconstruction and prognosis of potential landscape change. In this study, remote sensing data and gridded climate data were analyzed in order to identify main distribution patterns of forest and steppe in Mongolia and to detect environmental factors driving forest development. Forest distribution and vegetation vitality derived from the normalized differentiated vegetation index (NDVI were investigated for the three types of boreal forest present in Mongolia (taiga, subtaiga and forest–steppe, which cover a total area of 73 818 km2. In addition to the forest type areas, the analysis focused on subunits of forest and nonforested areas at the upper and lower treeline, which represent ecological borders between vegetation types. Climate and NDVI data were analyzed for a reference period of 15 years from 1999 to 2013. The presented approach for treeline delineation by identifying representative sites mostly bridges local forest disturbances like fire or tree cutting. Moreover, this procedure provides a valuable tool to distinguish the potential forested area. The upper treeline generally rises from 1800 m above sea level (a.s.l. in the northeast to 2700 m a.s.l. in the south. The lower treeline locally emerges at 1000 m a.s.l. in the northern taiga and rises southward to 2500 m a.s.l. The latitudinal gradient of both treelines turns into a longitudinal one on the eastern flank of mountain ranges due to higher aridity caused by rain-shadow effects. Less productive trees in terms of NDVI were identified at both the upper and lower treeline in relation

  4. The role of novel forest ecosystems in the conservation of wood?inhabiting fungi in boreal broadleaved forests

    OpenAIRE

    Juutilainen, Katja; M?nkk?nen, Mikko; Kotiranta, Heikki; Halme, Panu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The increasing human impact on the earth's biosphere is inflicting changes at all spatial scales. As well as deterioration and fragmentation of natural biological systems, these changes also led to other, unprecedented effects and emergence of novel habitats. In boreal zone, intensive forest management has negatively impacted a multitude of deadwood?associated species. This is especially alarming given the important role wood?inhabiting fungi have in the natural decay processes. In t...

  5. Patterns of Canopy and Surface Layer Consumption in a Boreal Forest Fire from Repeat Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Michael; Morton, Douglas C.; Cook, Bruce D.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Babcock, Chad; Pattison, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fire in the boreal region is the dominant agent of forest disturbance with direct impacts on ecosystem structure, carbon cycling, and global climate. Global and biome-scale impacts are mediated by burn severity, measured as loss of forest canopy and consumption of the soil organic layer. To date, knowledge of the spatial variability in burn severity has been limited by sparse field sampling and moderate resolution satellite data. Here, we used pre- and post-fire airborne lidar data to directly estimate changes in canopy vertical structure and surface elevation for a 2005 boreal forest fire on Alaskas Kenai Peninsula. We found that both canopy and surface losses were strongly linked to pre-fire species composition and exhibited important fine-scale spatial variability at sub-30m resolution. The fractional reduction in canopy volume ranged from 0.61 in lowland black spruce stands to 0.27 in mixed white spruce and broad leaf forest. Residual structure largely reflects standing dead trees, highlighting the influence of pre-fire forest structure on delayed carbon losses from above ground biomass, post-fire albedo, and variability in understory light environments. Median loss of surface elevation was highest in lowland black spruce stands (0.18 m) but much lower in mixed stands (0.02 m), consistent with differences in pre-fire organic layer accumulation. Spatially continuous depth-of-burn estimates from repeat lidar measurements provide novel information to constrain carbon emissions from the surface organic layer and may inform related research on post-fire successional trajectories. Spectral measures of burn severity from Landsat were correlated with canopy (r = 0.76) and surface (r = -0.71) removal in black spruce stands but captured less of the spatial variability in fire effects for mixed stands (canopy r = 0.56, surface r = -0.26), underscoring the difficulty in capturing fire effects in heterogeneous boreal forest landscapes using proxy measures of burn severity

  6. Major losses of nutrients following a severe drought in a boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Daniel; Lajoie, Geneviève; Duchesne, Louis

    2016-11-28

    Because of global warming, the frequency and severity of droughts are expected to increase, which will have an impact on forest ecosystem health worldwide 1 . Although the impact of drought on tree growth and mortality is being increasingly documented 2-4 , very little is known about the impact on nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Here, based on long-term monitoring data, we report nutrient fluxes in a boreal forest before, during and following a severe drought in July 2012. During and shortly after the drought, we observed high throughfall (rain collected below the canopy) concentrations of nutrient base cations (potassium, calcium and magnesium), chlorine, phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), differing by one to two orders of magnitude relative to the long-term normal, and resulting in important canopy losses. The high throughfall fluxes had repercussions in the soil solution at a depth of 30 cm, leading to high DOC, chlorine and potassium concentrations. The net potassium losses (atmospheric deposition minus leaching losses) following the drought were especially important, being the equivalent of nearly 20 years of net losses under 'normal' conditions. Our data show that droughts have unexpected impacts on nutrient cycling through impacts on tree canopy and soils and may lead to important episodes of potassium losses from boreal forest ecosystems. The potassium losses associated with drought will add to those originating from tree harvesting and from forest fires and insect outbreaks 5-7 (with the last two being expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change), and may contribute to reduced potassium availability in boreal forests in a warming world.

  7. Remote Sensing of Forest Cover in Boreal Zones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedykh, V. N.

    2011-12-01

    Ecological tension resulting from human activities generates a need for joint efforts of countries in the boreal zone aimed at sustainable forest development, including: conservation of forests binding carbon and ensuring stability of the atmosphere gas composition; preservation of purity and water content of forest areas as conditions ensuring sustainability of the historically formed structure of forest landscapes; and preservation of all flora and fauna species composition diversity as a condition for sustainable existence and functioning of forest ecosystems. We have to address these problems urgently due to climate warming which can interact with the forest cover. In particular, in the forest zone of Siberia, the climate aridization will inevitably result in periodic drying of shallow bogs and upland forests with thick forest litter. This will bring fires of unprecedented intensity which will lead to catastrophic atmospheric pollution. In this connection, the above problems can be solved only by the united efforts of boreal-zone countries, through establishing a uniform system for remote sensing of forests aimed at obtaining and periodic update of comprehensive information for rational decision-making in prevention of adverse human effect on the forest. A need to join efforts in this field of natural resource management is determined by disparate data which were created expressly for economic accounting units used mainly for the solution of economic timber resource problems. However, ecological tasks outlined above can be solved appropriately only by using uniform technologies that are registered within natural territorial complexes (landscapes) established throughout the entire boreal zone. Knowledge of forest state within natural territorial entities having specific physiographic conditions, with account for current and future anthropogenic load, allow one to define evidence-based forest growth potential at these landscapes to ensure development of

  8. Impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on a boreal forest ecosystem (CLIMEX project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breemen, N. van; Jenkins, A.; Wright, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of climate change on boreal forest ecosystems, both atmospheric CO2 (to 560 ppmv) and air temperature (by 3 degrees-5 degrees C above ambient) were increased at a forested headwater catchment in southern Norway. The entire catchment (860 m(2)) is enclosed within...... and the growing season has been prolonged relative to the control area. This has helped to sustain an increase in plant growth relative to the control and has also promoted increased N export in stream water. Photosynthetic capacity and carbon-nitrogen ratio of new leaves of most plant species did not change...

  9. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jessica; Bolton, W. Robert; Bhatt, Uma; Cristobal, Jordi; Thoman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21–25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed <1%. We found that deciduous trees removed 17.8–20.9 billion m3 of snowmelt water, which is equivalent to 8.7–10.2% of the Yukon River’s annual discharge. Deciduous trees transpired 2–12% (0.4–2.2 billion m3) of the absorbed snowmelt water immediately after leaf-out, increasing favorable conditions for atmospheric convection, and an additional 10–30% (2.0–5.2 billion m3) between leaf-out and mid-summer. By 2100, boreal deciduous tree area is expected to increase by 1–15%, potentially resulting in an additional 0.3–3 billion m3 of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. This study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds.

  10. First Polarimetric GNSS-R Measurements from a Stratospheric Flight over Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Carreno-Luengo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The first-ever dual-frequency multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R polarimetric measurements over boreal forests and lakes from the stratosphere are presented. Data were collected during the European Space Agency (ESA sponsored Balloon Experiments for University Students (BEXUS 19 stratospheric balloon experiment using the P(Y and C/A Reflect Ometer (PYCARO instrument operated in closed-loop mode. Maps of the polarimetric ratio for L1 and L2 Global Positioning System (GPS and GLObal Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS, and for E1 Galileo signals are derived from the float phase at 27,000 m height, and the specular points are geolocalized on the Earth’s surface. Polarimetric ratio ( maps over boreal forests are shown to be in the range 2–16 dB for the different GNSS codes. This result suggests that the scattering is taking place not only over the soil, but over the different forests elements as well. Additionally to the interpretation of the experimental results a theoretical investigation of the different contributions to the total reflectivity over boreal forests is performed using a bistatic scattering model. The simulated cross- (reflected Left Hand Circular Polarization LHCP and co-polar (reflected Right Hand Circular Polarization RHCP reflectivities are evaluated for the soil, the canopy, and the canopy–soil interactions for three different biomass densities: 725 trees/ha, 150 trees/ha and 72 trees/ha. For elevation angles larger than the Brewster angle, it is found that the cross-polar signal is dominant when just single reflections over the forests are evaluated, while in the case of multiple reflections the co-polar signal becomes the largest one. The first-ever dual-frequency multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R polarimetric measurements over boreal forests and lakes from the stratosphere are presented. Data were collected during the European Space

  11. Rating a Wildfire Mitigation Strategy with an Insurance Premium: A Boreal Forest Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Rodriguez-Baca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis entails the systematic use of historical information to determine the frequency, magnitude and effects of unexpected events. Wildfire in boreal North America is a key driver of forest dynamics and may cause very significant economic losses. An actuarial approach to risk analysis based on cumulative probability distributions was developed to reduce the adverse effects of wildfire. To this effect, we developed spatially explicit landscape models to simulate the interactions between harvest, fire and forest succession over time in a boreal forest of eastern Canada. We estimated the amount of reduction of timber harvest necessary to build a buffer stock of sufficient size to cover fire losses and compared it to an insurance premium estimated in units of timber volume from the probability of occurrence and the amount of damage. Overall, the timber harvest reduction we applied was much more costly than the insurance premium even with a zero interest rate. This is due to the fact that the insurance premium is directly related to risk while the timber harvest reduction is not and, as a consequence, is much less efficient. These results, especially the comparison with a standard indicator such as an insurance premium, have useful implications at the time of choosing a mitigation strategy to protect timber supplies against risk without overly diminishing the provision of services from the forest. They are also promoting the use of insurance against disastrous events in forest management planning.

  12. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiaho, Janne S; Strandman, Harri; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-09-15

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed an optimal resource allocation by accounting for budget size and habitat availability of indicator species in different forest types. We also accounted for the perspective adopted towards sustainability, modeled via temporal preference and economic and ecological time discounting. Controversially, we found that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Breeding bird populations in Missouri Ozark forests with and without clearcutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R., III Thompson; William D. Dijak; Thomas G. Kulowiec; David A. Hamilton

    1992-01-01

    Concern has arisen that forest management practices that create edge (such as clearcutting) are contributing to regional declines in neotropical migrant birds that inhabit forest interiors. Consequently, we studied breeding bird populations in an extensively forested region of southern Missouri to determine if the numbers of breeding birds differed between areas (n = 9...

  14. n-Alkane distributions as indicators of novel ecosystem development in western boreal forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Charlotte; Dungait, Jennifer; Quideau, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    Novel ecosystem development is occurring within the western boreal forest of Canada due to land reclamation following surface mining in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Sphagnum peat is the primary organic matter amendment used to reconstruct soils in the novel ecosystems. We hypothesised that ecosystem recovery would be indicated by an increasing similarity in the biomolecular characteristics of novel reconstructed soil organic matter (SOM) derived from peat to those of natural boreal ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the use of the homologous series of very long chain (>C20) n-alkanes with odd-over-even predominance as biomarker signatures to monitor the re-establishment of boreal forests on reconstructed soils. The lipids were extracted from dominant vegetation inputs and SOM from a series of natural and novel ecosystem reference plots. We observed unique very long n-alkane signatures of the source vegetation, e.g. Sphagnum sp. was dominated by C31 and aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves by C25. Greater concentrations of very long chain n-alkanes were extracted from natural than novel ecosystem SOM (puse of n-alkanes as biomarkers of ecosystem development is a promising method.

  15. Fire Regime along Latitudinal Gradients of Continuous to Discontinuous Coniferous Boreal Forests in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Portier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire is the main disturbance in North American coniferous boreal forests. In Northern Quebec, Canada, where forest management is not allowed, the landscape is gradually constituted of more opened lichen woodlands. Those forests are discontinuous and show a low regeneration potential resulting from the cumulative effects of harsh climatic conditions and very short fire intervals. In a climate change context, and because the forest industry is interested in opening new territories to forest management in the north, it is crucial to better understand how and why fire risk varies from the north to the south at the transition between the discontinuous and continuous boreal forest. We used time-since-fire (TSF data from fire archives as well as a broad field campaign in Quebec’s coniferous boreal forests along four north-south transects in order to reconstruct the fire history of the past 150 to 300 years. We performed survival analyses in each transect in order to (1 determine if climate influences the fire risk along the latitudinal gradient; (2 fractionate the transects into different fire risk zones; and (3 quantify the fire cycle—defined as the time required to burn an area equivalent to the size of the study area—of each zone and compare its estimated value with current fire activity. Results suggest that drought conditions are moderately to highly responsible for the increasing fire risk from south to north in the three westernmost transects. No climate influence was observed in the last one, possibly because of its complex physical environment. Fire cycles are shortening from south to north, and from east to west. Limits between high and low fire risk zones are consistent with the limit between discontinuous and continuous forests, established based on recent fire activity. Compared to the last 40 years, fire cycles of the last 150–300 years are shorter. Our results suggest that as drought episodes are expected to become more frequent

  16. Vulnerability of carbon storage in North American boreal forests to wildfires during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, Anthony David; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The boreal forest contains large reserves of carbon. Across this region, wildfires influence the temporal and spatial dynamics of carbon storage. In this study, we estimate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage for boreal North America over the 21st century. We use a gridded data set developed with a multivariate adaptive regression spline approach to determine how area burned varies each year with changing climatic and fuel moisture conditions. We apply the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to evaluate the role of future fire on the carbon dynamics of boreal North America in the context of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and climate in the A2 and B2 emissions scenarios of the CGCM2 global climate model. Relative to the last decade of the 20th century, decadal total carbon emissions from fire increase by 2.5–4.4 times by 2091–2100, depending on the climate scenario and assumptions about CO2fertilization. Larger fire emissions occur with warmer climates or if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur. Despite the increases in fire emissions, our simulations indicate that boreal North America will be a carbon sink over the 21st century if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur in the future. In contrast, simulations excluding CO2 fertilization over the same period indicate that the region will change to a carbon source to the atmosphere, with the source being 2.1 times greater under the warmer A2 scenario than the B2 scenario. To improve estimates of wildfire on terrestrial carbon dynamics in boreal North America, future studies should incorporate the role of dynamic vegetation to represent more accurately post-fire successional processes, incorporate fire severity parameters that change in time and space, account for human influences through increased fire suppression, and integrate the role of other disturbances and their interactions with future fire regime.

  17. Functional ecology of advance regeneration in relation to light in boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, C.; Claveau, Y.; Kelly, C. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Doucet, R. [Quebec Ministere des Ressources Naturelles, Ste. Foy, PQ (Canada); Ruel, J.C. [Laval Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada); Lechowicz, M.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1999-06-01

    A comparative and functional approach is adopted that stresses the morphological and physiological qualities that may favor greater or lesser capacity to grow in the shaded understory. The current understanding of the functional basis for variation in the shade tolerance of the main boreal trees is reviewed, and a consideration is given to how shade tolerance is linked to the ability to respond effectively to small canopy openings. The most commercially important shade tolerant conifers in the boreal forests of North America are concentrated on including: balsam fir, black spruce, and white spruce. The functional basis of shade tolerance and competition among boreal trees are examined for understanding, by comparing these species to their most important shade intolerant counterparts: jack pine, lodgepole pine, trembling aspen, and paper birch. The functional basis for growth and survival of established seedlings and saplings up to pole size are stressed. The ability of boreal tree genera to grow and survive in shade up to pole size depends on the functional responses of saplings to the changing biotic and abiotic variables in the understory as overstory canopy changes over time. At the leaf level, the only consistent differences among boreal tree genera are in specific leaf mass and maximum photosynthetic capacity. At the shoot and crown levels, clear structural differences exist among conifer tree genera. Shoot and crown structural traits exhibit most plasticity in relation to light availability for firs and least for pines. At the whole-plant level, shade intolerant tree species such as pines tend to be more affected by shading than shade tolerant ones. Considering these main qualities, a framework is advanced for determining advance regeneration in sapling performance that relates interspecific differences in crown structural plasticity, growth strategies, and light requirements as size increases with the size and frequency of canopy gaps. Fir and spruce co

  18. Addressing sampling bias in counting forest birds: a West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addressing sampling bias in counting forest birds: a West African case study. ... result may occur because of the noise they may introduce into the analysis. ... used at all; and for all transects to reach their mid-point at the same time each day, ...

  19. Management strategies for the conservation of forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen E. Franzreb; Deborah M. Finch; Petra Bohall Wood; David E. Capen

    1999-01-01

    We recommend that managers of forest-associated bird species follow a five-step hierarchy in establishing and implementing management programs. In essence, a manager must evaluate the composition and physiognomy of the landscape mosaic in the context of the regional and subregional goals and objectives. Then he/she can explore alternatives that allow manipulation of...

  20. CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Inglima, I.; Jungs, M.; Richardson, A.; Reichsteins, M.; Papale, D.; Piao, S.L.; Schulzes, E.D.; Wingate, L.; Matteucci, G.; Aragaoss, L.; Aubinet, M.; Beers, van C.; Bernhofer, C.; Black, K.G.; Bonal, D.; Bonnefonds, J.M.; Chambers, J.; Ciais, P.; Cook, B.; Davis, K.J.; Dolman, A.J.; Gielen, B.; Goulden, M.; Grace, J.; Granier, A.; Grelle, A.; Griffis, T.; Grunwald, T.; Guidolotti, G.; Hanson, P.J.; Harding, R.; Hollinger, D.Y.; Hutyra, L.R.; Kolari, P.; Kruijt, B.; Kutsch, W.; Lagergren, F.; Laurila, T.; Law, B.E.; Maire, Le G.; Lindroth, A.; Loustau, D.; Malhi, Y.; Mateus, J.; Migliavacca, M.; Misson, L.; Montagnani, L.; Moncrief, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Nikinmaa, E.; Ollinger, S.V.; Pita, G.; Rebmann, C.; Roupsard, O.; Saigusa, N.; Sanz, M.J.; Seufert, G.; Sierra, C.; Smith, M.; Tang, J.; Valentini, R.; Vesala, T.; Janssens, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems sequester 2.1 Pg of atmospheric carbon annually. A large amount of the terrestrial sink is realized by forests. However, considerable uncertainties remain regarding the fate of this carbon over both short and long timescales. Relevant data to address these uncertainties are

  1. Multidecadal analysis of forest growth and albedo in boreal Finland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Stenberg, P.; Mottus, M.; Manninen, T.; Rautiainen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, OCT (2016), s. 296-305 ISSN 0303-2434 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Albedo * fAPAR * LAI * NDVI * Time series * Seasonal trends * Forest structure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  2. High Upward Fluxes of Formic Acid from a Boreal Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Lopez-Hilifiker, Felipe D.; Taipale, Ditte; Millet, Dylan B.; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Rantala, Pekka; Mammarella, Ivan; Zhou, Putian; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Lee, Ben H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Eddy covariance fluxes of formic acid, HCOOH, were measured over a boreal forest canopy in spring/summer 2014. The HCOOH fluxes were bidirectional but mostly upward during daytime, in contrast to studies elsewhere that reported mostly downward fluxes. Downward flux episodes were explained well by modeled dry deposition rates. The sum of net observed flux and modeled dry deposition yields an upward gross flux of HCOOH, which could not be quantitatively explained by literature estimates of direct vegetative soil emissions nor by efficient chemical production from other volatile organic compounds, suggesting missing or greatly underestimated HCOOH sources in the boreal ecosystem. We implemented a vegetative HCOOH source into the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to match our derived gross flux and evaluated the updated model against airborne and spaceborne observations. Model biases in the boundary layer were substantially reduced based on this revised treatment, but biases in the free troposphere remain unexplained.

  3. Habitat associations drive species vulnerability to climate change in boreal forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, María; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    if species sensitivity, the species ability to tolerate climatic variations determined by traits, plays a key role in determining vulnerability. We analyse the role of species’ habitat associations, a proxy for sensitivity, in explaining vulnerability for two poorly-known but species-rich taxa in boreal...... forest, saproxylic beetles and fungi, using three IPCC emissions scenarios. Towards the end of the 21st century we projected an improvement in habitat quality associated with an increase of deadwood, an important resource for species, as a consequence of increased tree growth under high emissions...... scenarios. However, climate change will potentially reduce habitat suitability for ~9–43 % of the threatened deadwood-associated species. This loss is likely caused by future increase in timber extraction and decomposition rates causing higher deadwood turnover, which have a strong negative effect on boreal...

  4. [Response of forest bird communities to forest gap in winter in southwestern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Dong; Wu, Ying-Huan; Lu, Zhou; Jiang, Guang-Wei; Zhou, Fang

    2013-06-01

    Although forest gap ecology is an important field of study, research remains limited. By plot setting and point counted observation, the response of birds to forest gaps in winter as well as bird distribution patterns in forest gaps and intact canopies were studied in a north tropical monsoon forest of southwestern China from November 2011 to February 2012 in the Fangcheng Golden Camellia National Nature Reserve, Guangxi. The regression equation of bird species diversity to habitat factor was Y1=0.611+0.002 X13+0.043 X2+0.002 X5-0.003 X8+0.006 X10+0.008 X1 and the regression equation of bird species dominance index to habitat factor was Y3=0.533+0.001 X13+0.019 X2+0.002 X3-0.017 X4+0.002 X1. There were 45 bird species (2 orders and 13 families) recorded in the forest gap, accounting for 84.9% of all birds (n=45), with an average of 9.6 species (range: 2-22). Thirty-nine bird species (5 orders and 14 families) were recorded in non-gap areas, accounting for 73.6% of all birds (n=39), with an average of 5.3 species (range: 1-12). These results suggested that gap size, arbor average height (10 m from gap margin), arbor quantity (10 m from gap margin), shrub quantity (10 m from gap margin), herbal average coverage (1 m from gap margin) and bare land ratio were the key forest gap factors that influenced bird diversities. On the whole, bird diversity in the forest gap was greater than in the intact canopy. Spatial distributions in the forest gaps were also observed in the bird community. Most birds foraged in the "middle" and "canopy" layers in the vertical stratification. In addition, "nearly from" and "close from" contained more birds in relation to horizontal stratification. Feeding niche differentiation was suggested as the main reason for these distribution patterns.

  5. Snowpack concentrations and estimated fluxes of volatile organic compounds in a boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aaltonen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil provides an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs to atmosphere, but in boreal forests these fluxes and their seasonal variations have not been characterized in detail. Especially wintertime fluxes are almost completely unstudied. In this study, we measured the VOC concentrations inside the snowpack in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forest in southern Finland, using adsorbent tubes and air samplers installed permanently in the snow profile. Based on the VOC concentrations at three heights inside the snowpack, we estimated the fluxes of these gases. We measured 20 VOCs from the snowpack, monoterpenes being the most abundant group with concentrations varying from 0.11 to 16 μg m−3. Sesquiterpenes and oxygen-containing monoterpenes were also detected. Inside the pristine snowpack, the concentrations of terpenoids decreased from soil surface towards the surface of the snow, suggesting soil as the source for terpenoids. Forest damages (i.e. broken treetops and branches, fallen trees resulting from heavy snow loading during the measurement period increased the terpenoid concentrations dramatically, especially in the upper part of the snowpack. The results show that soil processes are active and efficient VOC sources also during winter, and that natural or human disturbance can increase forest floor VOC concentrations substantially. Our results stress the importance of soil as a source of VOCs during the season when other biological sources, such as plants, have lower activity.

  6. Alaska's Changing Fire Regime - Implications for the Vulnerability of Its Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Hoy, E. E.; Verbyla, D. L.; Rupp, T. S.; Duffy, P. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Murphy, K. A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, J. L.; Calef, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha/year burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from humanignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

  7. Vulnerability to climate-induced changes in ecosystem services of boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Maria; Rankinen, Katri; Aalto, Tuula; Akujärvi, Anu; Nadir Arslan, Ali; Liski, Jari; Markkanen, Tiina; Mäkelä, Annikki; Peltoniemi, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forests provide an array of ecosystem services. They regulate climate, and carbon, water and nutrient fluxes, and provide renewable raw material, food, and recreational possibilities. Rapid climate warming is projected for the boreal zone, and has already been observed in Finland, which sets these services at risk. MONIMET (LIFE12 ENV/FI/000409, 2.9.2013 - 1.9.2017) is a project funded by EU Life programme about Climate Change Indicators and Vulnerability of Boreal Zone Applying Innovative Observation and Modeling Techniques. The coordinating beneficiary of the project is the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Associated beneficiaries are the Natural Resources Institute Finland, the Finnish Environment Institute and the University of Helsinki. In the MONIMET project, we use state-of-the-art models and new monitoring methods to investigate the impacts of a warming climate on the provision of ecosystem services of boreal forests. This poster presents results on carbon storage in soil and assessment of drought indices, as a preparation for assessing the vulnerability of society to climate-induced changes in ecosystem services. The risk of decreasing provision of ecosystem services depends on the sensitivity of the ecosystem as well as its exposure to climate stress. The vulnerability of society, in turn, depends on the risk of decreasing provision of a certain service in combination with society's demand for that service. In the next phase, we will look for solutions to challenges relating to the quantification of the demand for ecosystem services and differences in spatial extent and resolution of the information on future supply and demand.

  8. Multi-trophic resilience of boreal lake ecosystems to forest fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler L; Lindberg, Mark S; Schmutz, Joel A; Bertram, Mark R

    2014-05-01

    Fires are the major natural disturbance in the boreal forest, and their frequency and intensity will likely increase as the climate warms. Terrestrial nutrients released by fires may be transported to boreal lakes, stimulating increased primary productivity, which may radiate through multiple trophic levels. Using a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design, with pre- and postfire data from burned and unburned areas, we examined effects of a natural fire across several trophic levels of boreal lakes, from nutrient and chlorophyll levels, to macroinvertebrates, to waterbirds. Concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphorus were not affected by the fire. Chlorophyll a levels were also unaffected, likely reflecting the stable nutrient concentrations. For aquatic invertebrates, we found that densities of three functional feeding groups did not respond to the fire (filterers, gatherers, scrapers), while two groups increased (shredders, predators). Amphipods accounted for 98% of shredder numbers, and we hypothesize that fire-mediated habitat changes may have favored their generalist feeding and habitat ecology. This increase in amphipods may, in turn, have driven increased predator densities, as amphipods were the most numerous invertebrate in our lakes and are commonly taken as prey. Finally, abundance of waterbird young, which feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates, was not affected by the fire. Overall, ecosystems of our study lakes were largely resilient to forest fires, likely due to their high initial nutrient concentrations and small catchment sizes. Moreover, this resilience spanned multiple trophic levels, a significant result for ecologically similar boreal regions, especially given the high potential for increased fires with future climate change.

  9. Shifting Patterns of Boreal Forest Succession and Browning Over the Last 30 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, M.; Czimczik, C. I.; Randerson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Climate and fire largely control the productivity ("greenness") and biodiversity of boreal forests in North America. Our research focuses on better understanding: 1) the patterns of, controls on, and recent changes in North American Boreal Forest "Browning" and the declining Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observed in satellite records, and 2) the patterns of, controls on, and recent changes in North American Boreal Forest fire recovery and succession. Much of our effort has used the Landsat archive to analyze the patterns of wildfire and forest recovery along a transect cutting across central Canada; this study areas covers 3 Landsat rows x 25 paths with 2500 summer images. Key findings include: 1) Most (80-90%) of the recent NDVI trends in our study area are attributable to wildfire (areas that burned after 1995 and also before 1975 show browning; areas that burned in 1975-1995 show greening). 2) There are a significant number of non-fire related patches that show either browning or greening; some of these patches are related to fires or human disturbances that aren't in our disturbance database, but others occur in wetter areas, where there is a general tendency toward browning with many specific cases of greening. 3) Various remote sensing metrics yield complementary information providing a clearer sense of the biophysical trends during succession. 4) We see evidence of accelerating succession from 1985-1995 to 2005-2015. This acceleration isn't dramatic, just 1-3 years during early recovery and more during later succession, but it is a consistent feature of the analysis. We are not seeing a systematic decline in old-stand LAI. While NDVI declines in old stands with the loss of deciduous trees, we are not seeing a systematic decrease in old stand LAI or wide spread mortality.

  10. Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals widespread drought stress in boreal black spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Xanthe J; Mack, Michelle C; Johnstone, Jill F

    2015-08-01

    Unprecedented rates of climate warming over the past century have resulted in increased forest stress and mortality worldwide. Decreased tree growth in association with increasing temperatures is generally accepted as a signal of temperature-induced drought stress. However, variations in tree growth alone do not reveal the physiological mechanisms behind recent changes in tree growth. Examining stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings in addition to tree growth can provide a secondary line of evidence for physiological drought stress. In this study, we examined patterns of black spruce growth and carbon isotopic composition in tree rings in response to climate warming and drying in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We examined trees at three nested scales: landscape, toposequence, and a subsample of trees within the toposequence. At each scale, we studied the potential effects of differences in microclimate and moisture availability by sampling on northern and southern aspects. We found that black spruce radial growth responded negatively to monthly metrics of temperature at all examined scales, and we examined ∆(13)C responses on a subsample of trees as representative of the wider region. The negative ∆(13)C responses to temperature reveal that black spruce trees are experiencing moisture stress on both northern and southern aspects. Contrary to our expectations, ∆(13)C from trees on the northern aspect exhibited the strongest drought signal. Our results highlight the prominence of drought stress in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We conclude that if temperatures continue to warm, we can expect drought-induced productivity declines across large regions of the boreal forest, even for trees located in cool and moist landscape positions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: inference at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulinier, T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Flather, C.H.; Pollock, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing fragmentation of natural areas and a dramatic reduction of forest cover in several parts of the world, quantifying the impact of such changes on species richness and community dynamics has been a subject of much concern. Here, we tested whether in more fragmented landscapes there was a lower number of area-sensitive species and higher local extinction and turnover rates, which could explain higher temporal variability in species richness. To investigate such potential landscape effects at a regional scale, we merged two independent, large-scale monitoring efforts: the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Land Use and Land Cover Classification data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We used methods that accounted for heterogeneity in the probability of detecting species to estimate species richness and temporal changes in the bird communities for BBS routes in three mid-Atlantic U.S. states. Forest breeding bird species were grouped prior to the analyses into area-sensitive and non-area-sensitive species according to previous studies. We tested predictions relating measures of forest structure at one point in time (1974) to species richness at that time and to parameters of forest bird community change over the following 22-yr-period (1975-1996). We used the mean size of forest patches to characterize landscape structure, as high correlations among landscape variables did not allow us to disentangle the relative roles of habitat fragmentation per se and habitat loss. As predicted, together with lower species richness for area-sensitive species on routes surrounded by landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size, we found higher mean year-to-year rates of local extinction. Moreover, the mean year-to-year rates of local turnover (proportion of locally new species) for area-sensitive species were also higher in landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size. These associations were not observed for the non-area-sensitive species group. These

  12. Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

  13. An Approach for Forest Inventory in Canada's Northern Boreal region, Northwest Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, C.; Hopkinson, C.; Hall, R.; Filiatrault, M.

    2017-12-01

    The northern extent of Canada's northern boreal forest is largely inaccessible resulting in logistical, financial, and human challenges with respect to obtaining concise and accurate forest resource inventory (FRI) attributes such as stand height, aboveground biomass and forest carbon stocks. This challenge is further exacerbated by mandated government resource management and reporting of key attributes with respect to assessing impacts of natural disturbances, monitoring wildlife habitat and establishing policies to mitigate effects of climate change. This study presents a framework methodology utilized to inventory canopy height and crown closure over a 420,000 km2 area in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) by integrating field, LiDAR and satellite remote sensing data. Attributes are propagated from available field to coincident airborne LiDAR thru to satellite laser altimetry footprints. A quality controlled form of the latter are then submitted to a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) imputation algorithm to produce a continuous map of each attribute on a 30 m grid. The resultant kNN stand height (r=0.62, p=0.00) and crown closure (r=0.64, p=0.00) products were identified as statistically similar to a comprehensive independent airborne LiDAR source. Regional uncertainty can be produced with each attribute to identify areas of potential improvement through future strategic data acquisitions or the fine tuning of model parameters. This study's framework concept was developed to inform Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forest Service's Multisource Vegetation Inventory and update vast regions of Canada's northern forest inventories, however, its applicability can be generalized to any environment. Not only can such a framework approach incorporate other data sources (such as Synthetic Aperture Radar) to potentially better characterize forest attributes, but it can also utilize future Earth observation mission data (for example ICESat-2) to monitor forest dynamics and the

  14. Cost-effective age structure and geographical distribution of boreal forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johanna; Ohman, Karin; Perhans, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena; Bugman, Harald

    2011-02-01

    1. Forest reserves are established to preserve biodiversity, and to maintain natural functions and processes. Today there is heightened focus on old-growth stages, with less attention given to early successional stages. The biodiversity potential of younger forests has been overlooked, and the cost-effectiveness of incorporating different age classes in reserve networks has not yet been studied.2. We performed a reserve selection analysis in boreal Sweden using the Swedish National Forest Inventory plots. Seventeen structural variables were used as biodiversity indicators, and the cost of protecting each plot as a reserve was assessed using the Heureka system. A goal programming approach was applied, which allowed inclusion of several objectives and avoided a situation in which common indicators affected the result more than rare ones. The model was limited either by budget or area.3. All biodiversity indicators were found in all age classes, with more than half having the highest values in ages ≥ 100 years. Several large-tree indicators and all deadwood indicators had higher values in forests 0-14 years than in forests 15-69 years.4. It was most cost-effective to protect a large proportion of young forests since they generally have a lower net present value compared to older forests, but still contain structures of importance for biodiversity. However, it was more area-effective to protect a large proportion of old forests since they have a higher biodiversity potential per area.5. The geographical distribution of reserves selected with the budget-constrained model was strongly biassed towards the north-western section of boreal Sweden, with a large proportion of young forest, whereas the area-constrained model focussed on the south-eastern section, with dominance by the oldest age class.6.Synthesis and applications. We show that young forests with large amounts of structures important to biodiversity such as dead wood and remnant trees are cheap and cost

  15. Public Opinions and Use of Various Types of Recreational Infrastructure in Boreal Forest Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Gundersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated public preferences for use intensity and visual quality of forest recreational infrastructure. Forest infrastructure covers five classes, along a continuum from unmarked paths to paved walkways. Altogether, 39 sites were categorized into the five classes and measured with automatic counters. A sample of 545 respondents living in southeastern and middle Norway were asked to rate 15 forest scenes and 35 preconceptions of recreational settings. The path scenarios were depicted as digitally calibrated photos that systematically displayed physical path feature in boreal, semi-natural settings. Survey participants showed a clearly greater preference for photos and preconceptions of forests settings containing minor elements of forest infrastructure; unmarked paths received the highest score and forest roads/walkways/bikeways the lowest. We identified a clear mismatch between public preferences for forest infrastructure and the intensity of use; the less appreciated infrastructure was the most used. Planning and management has to consider these different needs for recreational infrastructure, and we propose an area zoning system that meets the different segments of forest visitors.

  16. Scaling Hydrologic Processes in Boreal Forest Stands: New Eco-hydrological Perspectives or Deja vu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, U.; Lieffers, V. J.; Landhausser, S. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Gan, T. Y.

    2006-12-01

    The leaf area of forest canopies is both main attribute of stands controlling water balance through transpiration and interception, and "engine" driving stand growth, stand dynamics, and forest succession. While transpiration and interception dynamics are classic themes in forest hydrology, we present results from our eco-hydrological research on boreal trees to highlight how more recent eco-physiological insights into species specific controls over water use and leaf area such as hydraulic architecture, cavitation, sapwood-leaf area relationships, and root system controls over water uptake are providing new insights into integrated atmospheric-autecological controls over these hydrologic processes. These results are discussed in the context of newer eco-hydrological frameworks which may serve to aid in exploring how forest disturbance and subsequent trajectories of hydrologic recovery are likely to affect both forest growth dynamics and hydrology of forested landscapes in response to forest management, severe forest pest epidemics such as the Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic in Western Canada, and climate change.

  17. Who is the new sheriff in town regulating boreal forest growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park Williams, A.; Xu, Chonggang; McDowell, Nate G.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change appears to be altering boreal forests. One recently observed symptom of these changes has been an apparent weakening of the positive relationship between high-latitude boreal tree growth and temperature at some sites (D'Arrigo et al 2008). This phenomenon is referred to as the 'divergence problem' or 'divergence effect' and is thought to reflect a non-linear relationship between temperature and tree growth, where recent warming has allowed other factors besides growing-season temperature to emerge as dominant regulators of annual growth rates. Figure 1 demonstrates this divergence phenomenon with records of tree-ring widths collected from 59 populations of white spruce in Alaska 1. Key tendencies among these populations include: (1) growth is most sensitive to temperature during relatively cold growing seasons (figure 1(a)), (2) populations at colder sites are more sensitive to temperature than those at warmer sites are (figure 1(a)), and (3) growth at warmer sites may respond negatively to increased temperature beyond some optimal growing-season temperature (figure 1(b)). Since temperature is rising rapidly at high latitudes, one interpretation of figures 1(a) and (b) is that warming has promoted increased growth at colder sites, but caused growth to plateau or slow at warmer sites. Corroborating this interpretation, satellite imagery and tree-ring data indicate increasing vegetation productivity near the forest-tundra boundary but declining productivity in warmer regions within forest interiors (e.g., Bunn and Goetz 2006, Beck and Goetz 2011, Beck et al 2011, Berner et al 2011). Will continued warming cause a northward migration of boreal forests, with mortality in the warmer, southern locations and expansion into the colder tundra? This question is difficult to answer because many factors besides temperature influence boreal forest dynamics. Widespread productivity declines within interior boreal forests appear to be related to warming

  18. Occupancy dynamics in a tropical bird community: unexpectedly high forest use by birds classified as non-forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Zipkin, Elise F.; Dhondt, Andre A.

    2010-01-01

    1. Worldwide loss of biodiversity necessitates a clear understanding of the factors driving population declines as well as informed predictions about which species and populations are at greatest risk. The biggest threat to the long-term persistence of populations is the reduction and changes in configuration of their natural habitat. 2. Inconsistencies have been noted in the responses of populations to the combined effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. These have been widely attributed to the effects of the matrix habitats in which remnant focal habitats are typically embedded. 3. We quantified the potential effects of the inter-patch matrix by estimating occupancy and colonization of forest and surrounding non-forest matrix (NF). We estimated species-specific parameters using a dynamic, multi-species hierarchical model on a bird community in southwestern Costa Rica. 4. Overall, we found higher probabilities of occupancy and colonization of forest relative to the NF across bird species, including those previously categorized as open habitat generalists not needing forest to persist. Forest dependency was a poor predictor of occupancy dynamics in our study region, largely predicting occupancy and colonization of only non-forest habitats. 5. Our results indicate that the protection of remnant forest habitats is key for the long-term persistence of all members of the bird community in this fragmented landscape, including species typically associated with open, non-forest habitats. 6.Synthesis and applications. We identified 39 bird species of conservation concern defined by having high estimates of forest occupancy, and low estimates of occupancy and colonization of non-forest. These species survive in forest but are unlikely to venture out into open, non-forested habitats, therefore, they are vulnerable to the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Our hierarchical community-level model can be used to estimate species-specific occupancy dynamics for focal

  19. The role of novel forest ecosystems in the conservation of wood-inhabiting fungi in boreal broadleaved forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juutilainen, Katja; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiranta, Heikki; Halme, Panu

    2016-10-01

    The increasing human impact on the earth's biosphere is inflicting changes at all spatial scales. As well as deterioration and fragmentation of natural biological systems, these changes also led to other, unprecedented effects and emergence of novel habitats. In boreal zone, intensive forest management has negatively impacted a multitude of deadwood-associated species. This is especially alarming given the important role wood-inhabiting fungi have in the natural decay processes. In the boreal zone, natural broad-leaved-dominated, herb-rich forests are threatened habitats which have high wood-inhabiting fungal species richness. Fungal diversity in other broadleaved forest habitat types is poorly known. Traditional wood pastures and man-made afforested fields are novel habitats that could potentially be important for wood-inhabiting fungi. This study compares species richness and fungal community composition across the aforementioned habitat types, based on data collected for wood-inhabiting fungi occupying all deadwood diameter fractions. Corticioid and polyporoid fungi were surveyed from 67 130 deadwood particles in four natural herb-rich forests, four birch-dominated wood pastures, and four birch-dominated afforested field sites in central Finland. As predicted, natural herb-rich forests were the most species-rich habitat. However, afforested fields also had considerably higher overall species richness than wood pastures. Many rare or rarely collected species were detected in each forest type. Finally, fungal community composition showed some divergence not only among the different habitat types, but also among deadwood diameter fractions. Synthesis and applications : In order to maintain biodiversity at both local and regional scales, conserving threatened natural habitat types and managing traditional landscapes is essential. Man-made secondary woody habitats could provide the necessary resources and serve as surrogate habitats for many broadleaved deadwood

  20. Nitrous oxide fluxes from forest floor, tree stems and canopies of boreal tree species during spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikarainen, Iikka; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Machacova, Katerina; Pihlatie, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Boreal forests are considered as small sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) due to microbial N2O production in the soils. Recent evidence shows that trees may play an important role in N2O exchange of forest ecosystems by offering pathways for soil produced N2O to the atmosphere. To confirm magnitude, variability and the origin of the tree mediated N2O emissions more research is needed, especially in boreal forests which have been in a minority in such investigation. We measured forest floor, tree stem and shoot N2O exchange of three boreal tree species at the beginning of the growing season (13.4.-13.6.2015) at SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, located in Southern Finland (61˚ 51´N, 24˚ 17´E, 181 a.s.l.). The fluxes were measured in silver birch (Betula pendula), downy birch (B. pubescens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) on two sites with differing soil type and characteristics (paludified and mineral soil), vegetation cover and forest structure. The aim was to study the vertical profile of N2O fluxes at stem level and to observe temporal changes in N2O fluxes over the beginning of the growing season. The N2O exchange was determined using the static chamber technique and gas chromatographic analyses. Scaffold towers were used for measurements at multiple stem heights and at the canopy level. Overall, the N2O fluxes from the forest floor and trees at both sites were very small and close to the detection limit. The measured trees mainly emitted N2O from their stems and shoots, while the forest floor acted as a sink of N2O at the paludified site and as a small source of N2O at the mineral soil site. Stem emissions from all the trees at both sites were on average below 0.5 μg N2O m-2 of stem area h-1, and the shoot emissions varied between 0.2 and 0.5 ng N2O m-2 g-1 dry biomass. When the N2O fluxes were scaled up to the whole forest ecosystem, based on the tree biomass and stand density, the N2O emissions from birch and spruce trees at the paludified site

  1. Does the amount of trees retained at clearfelling of temperate and boreal forests influence biodiversity response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedrowitz Katja

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clear-felling is one of the main methods used in many parts of the world for the production of pulp, timber and bioenergy, leading to a simplified forest structure and species composition. One of the measures to mitigate the impact of logging on biodiversity is the retention of trees at final harvest. Tree retention approaches in forestry are still rather new, although widely distributed across different continents. Several studies have been performed on the effects of retention trees on biodiversity but to date there is no evidence on the relation between the amounts of trees, i.e. the number, volume or area per ha retained, and the response of biodiversity. The overall aim of our review will be to provide forest practitioners and conservationists in temperate and boreal forests with more detailed recommendations regarding the amount of trees that should be retained in order to achieve positive effects for biodiversity compared to traditional clear-cutting.

  2. The impact of clearcutting in boreal forests of Russia on soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymov, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Data on the impact of tree logging in boreal forests of Russia on soils are systematized. Patterns of soil disturbances and transformation of microclimatic parameters within clearcutting areas are discussed. Changes in the conditions of pedogenesis in secondary forests are analyzed. It is suggested that the changes in forest soils upon reforestation of clearcutting areas might be considered as specific post-logging soil successions. Data characterizing changes in the thickness of litter horizons and in the intensity of elementary pedogenic processes, acidity, and the content of exchangeable bases in soils of clearcutting areas in the course of their natural reforestation are considered. The examples of human-disturbed (turbated) soil horizons and newly formed anthropogenic soils on clearcutting areas are described. It is suggested that the soils on mechanically disturbed parts of clearcutting areas can be separated as a specific group of detritus turbozems.

  3. Development of a spatial forest data base for the eastern boreal forest region of Ontario. Forest fragmentation and biodiversity project technical report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    In 1991, a spatial forest database over large regions of Ontario was initiated as the basis for research into forest fragmentation and biodiversity using data generated from the digital analysis of LANDSAT thematic mapper satellite data integrated into a geographic information system (GIS). The project was later extended into the eastern segment of the Boreal forest system. This report describes preparation of the spatial forest data base over the eastern Boreal Forest Region that extends from the northern boundary of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Forest Region and the southern margin of the James Bay Lowland, between the Ontario-Quebec border and a point west of Michipicoten on Lake Superior. The report describes the methodology used to produce the data base and results, including mapping of water, dense and sparse conifer forest, mixed forest, dense and sparse deciduous forest, poorly vegetated areas, recent cutovers of less than 10 years, old cutovers and burns, recent burns of less than 10 years, wetlands, bedrock outcrops, agriculture, built-up areas, and mine tailings.

  4. Estimation of Boreal Forest Biomass Using Spaceborne SAR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sassan; Moghaddam, Mahta

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the use of a semiempirical algorithm derived from a two layer radar backscatter model for forest canopies. The model stratifies the forest canopy into crown and stem layers, separates the structural and biometric attributes of the canopy. The structural parameters are estimated by training the model with polarimetric SAR (synthetic aperture radar) data acquired over homogeneous stands with known above ground biomass. Given the structural parameters, the semi-empirical algorithm has four remaining parameters, crown biomass, stem biomass, surface soil moisture, and surface rms height that can be estimated by at least four independent SAR measurements. The algorithm has been used to generate biomass maps over the entire images acquired by JPL AIRSAR and SIR-C SAR systems. The semi-empirical algorithms are then modified to be used by single frequency radar systems such as ERS-1, JERS-1, and Radarsat. The accuracy. of biomass estimation from single channel radars is compared with the case when the channels are used together in synergism or in a polarimetric system.

  5. Landscape heterogeneity, soil climate, and carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Allison L; Wofsy, Steven C; v H Bright, Alfram

    2009-03-01

    We measured soil climate and the turbulent fluxes of CO2, H2O, heat, and momentum on short towers (2 m) in a 160-yr-old boreal black spruce forest in Manitoba, Canada. Two distinct land cover types were studied: a Sphagnum-dominated wetland, and a feathermoss (Pleurozium and Hylocomium)-dominated upland, both lying within the footprint of a 30-m tower, which has measured whole-forest carbon exchange since 1994. Peak summertime uptake of CO2, was higher in the wetland than for the forest as a whole due to the influence of deciduous shrubs. Soil respiration rates in the wetland were approximately three times larger than in upland soils, and 30% greater than the mean of the whole forest, reflecting decomposition of soil organic matter. Soil respiration rates in the wetland were regulated by soil temperature, which was in turn influenced by water table depth through effects on soil heat capacity and conductivity. Warmer soil temperatures and deeper water tables favored increased heterotrophic respiration. Wetland drainage was limited by frost during the first half of the growing season, leading to high, perched water tables, cool soil temperatures, and much lower respiration rates than observed later in the growing season. Whole-forest evapotranspiration increased as water tables dropped, suggesting that photosynthesis in this forest was rarely subject to water stress. Our data indicate positive feedback between soil temperature, seasonal thawing, heterotrophic respiration, and evapotranspiration. As a result, climate warming could cause covariant changes in soil temperature and water table depths that may stimulate photosynthesis and strongly promote efflux of CO2 from peat soils in boreal wetlands.

  6. Regional assessment of boreal forest productivity using an ecological process model and remote sensing parameter maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J. S.; Keyser, A. R.; Running, S. W.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2000-06-01

    An ecological process model (BIOME-BGC) was used to assess boreal forest regional net primary production (NPP) and response to short-term, year-to-year weather fluctuations based on spatially explicit, land cover and biomass maps derived by radar remote sensing, as well as soil, terrain and daily weather information. Simulations were conducted at a 30-m spatial resolution, over a 1205 km(2) portion of the BOREAS Southern Study Area of central Saskatchewan, Canada, over a 3-year period (1994-1996). Simulations of NPP for the study region were spatially and temporally complex, averaging 2.2 (+/- 0.6), 1.8 (+/- 0.5) and 1.7 (+/- 0.5) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) for 1994, 1995 and 1996, respectively. Spatial variability of NPP was strongly controlled by the amount of aboveground biomass, particularly photosynthetic leaf area, whereas biophysical differences between broadleaf deciduous and evergreen coniferous vegetation were of secondary importance. Simulations of NPP were strongly sensitive to year-to-year variations in seasonal weather patterns, which influenced the timing of spring thaw and deciduous bud-burst. Reductions in annual NPP of approximately 17 and 22% for 1995 and 1996, respectively, were attributed to 3- and 5-week delays in spring thaw relative to 1994. Boreal forest stands with greater proportions of deciduous vegetation were more sensitive to the timing of spring thaw than evergreen coniferous stands. Similar relationships were found by comparing simulated snow depth records with 10-year records of aboveground NPP measurements obtained from biomass harvest plots within the BOREAS region. These results highlight the importance of sub-grid scale land cover complexity in controlling boreal forest regional productivity, the dynamic response of the biome to short-term interannual climate variations, and the potential implications of climate change and other large-scale disturbances.

  7. Nitrogen and carbon reallocation in fungal mycelia during decomposition of boreal forest litter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna B Boberg

    Full Text Available Boreal forests are characterized by spatially heterogeneous soils with low N availability. The decomposition of coniferous litter in these systems is primarily performed by basidiomycete fungi, which often form large mycelia with a well-developed capacity to reallocate resources spatially- an advantageous trait in heterogeneous environments. In axenic microcosm systems we tested whether fungi increase their biomass production by reallocating N between Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine needles at different stages of decomposition. We estimated fungal biomass production by analysing the accumulation of the fungal cell wall compound chitin. Monospecific systems were compared with systems with interspecific interactions. We found that the fungi reallocated assimilated N and mycelial growth away from well-degraded litter towards fresh litter components. This redistribution was accompanied by reduced decomposition of older litter. Interconnection of substrates increased over-all fungal C use efficiency (i.e. the allocation of assimilated C to biomass rather than respiration, presumably by enabling fungal translocation of growth-limiting N to litter with higher C quality. Fungal connection between different substrates also restricted N-mineralization and production of dissolved organic N, suggesting that litter saprotrophs in boreal forest ecosystems primarily act to redistribute rather than release N. This spatial integration of different resource qualities was hindered by interspecific interactions, in which litters of contrasting quality were colonised by two different basidiomycete species. The experiments provide a detailed picture of how resource reallocation in two decomposer fungi leads to a more efficient utilisation of spatially separated resources under N-limitation. From an ecosystem point of view, such economic fungal behaviour could potentially contribute to organic matter accumulation in the litter layers of boreal forests.

  8. Cross-scale controls on carbon emissions from boreal forest megafires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Xanthe J; Rogers, Brendan M; Baltzer, Jennifer L; Cumming, Steven G; Day, Nicola J; Goetz, Scott J; Johnstone, Jill F; Schuur, Edward A G; Turetsky, Merritt R; Mack, Michelle C

    2018-04-26

    Climate warming and drying is associated with increased wildfire disturbance and the emergence of megafires in North American boreal forests. Changes to the fire regime are expected to strongly increase combustion emissions of carbon (C) which could alter regional C balance and positively feedback to climate warming. In order to accurately estimate C emissions and thereby better predict future climate feedbacks, there is a need to understand the major sources of heterogeneity that impact C emissions at different scales. Here, we examined 211 field plots in boreal forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana) or jack pine (Pinus banksiana) of the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada after an unprecedentedly large area burned in 2014. We assessed both aboveground and soil organic layer (SOL) combustion, with the goal of determining the major drivers in total C emissions, as well as to develop a high spatial resolution model to scale emissions in a relatively understudied region of the boreal forest. On average, 3.35 kg C m -2 was combusted and almost 90% of this was from SOL combustion. Our results indicate that black spruce stands located at landscape positions with intermediate drainage contribute the most to C emissions. Indices associated with fire weather and date of burn did not impact emissions, which we attribute to the extreme fire weather over a short period of time. Using these results, we estimated a total of 94.3 Tg C emitted from 2.85 Mha of burned area across the entire 2014 NWT fire complex, which offsets almost 50% of mean annual net ecosystem production in terrestrial ecosystems of Canada. Our study also highlights the need for fine-scale estimates of burned area that represent small water bodies and regionally specific calibrations of combustion that account for spatial heterogeneity in order to accurately model emissions at the continental scale. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Nitrogen and carbon reallocation in fungal mycelia during decomposition of boreal forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Johanna B; Finlay, Roger D; Stenlid, Jan; Ekblad, Alf; Lindahl, Björn D

    2014-01-01

    Boreal forests are characterized by spatially heterogeneous soils with low N availability. The decomposition of coniferous litter in these systems is primarily performed by basidiomycete fungi, which often form large mycelia with a well-developed capacity to reallocate resources spatially- an advantageous trait in heterogeneous environments. In axenic microcosm systems we tested whether fungi increase their biomass production by reallocating N between Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) needles at different stages of decomposition. We estimated fungal biomass production by analysing the accumulation of the fungal cell wall compound chitin. Monospecific systems were compared with systems with interspecific interactions. We found that the fungi reallocated assimilated N and mycelial growth away from well-degraded litter towards fresh litter components. This redistribution was accompanied by reduced decomposition of older litter. Interconnection of substrates increased over-all fungal C use efficiency (i.e. the allocation of assimilated C to biomass rather than respiration), presumably by enabling fungal translocation of growth-limiting N to litter with higher C quality. Fungal connection between different substrates also restricted N-mineralization and production of dissolved organic N, suggesting that litter saprotrophs in boreal forest ecosystems primarily act to redistribute rather than release N. This spatial integration of different resource qualities was hindered by interspecific interactions, in which litters of contrasting quality were colonised by two different basidiomycete species. The experiments provide a detailed picture of how resource reallocation in two decomposer fungi leads to a more efficient utilisation of spatially separated resources under N-limitation. From an ecosystem point of view, such economic fungal behaviour could potentially contribute to organic matter accumulation in the litter layers of boreal forests.

  10. Total and methyl mercury concentrations and fluxes from small boreal forest catchments in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porvari, Petri; Verta, Matti

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands have higher methyl mercury output than uplands. - Total mercury (TotHg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were studied in runoff from eight small (0.02-1.3 km 2 ) boreal forest catchments (mineral soil and peatland) during 1990-1995. Runoff waters were extremely humic (TOC 7-70 mg l -1 ). TotHg concentrations varied between 0.84 and 24 ng l -1 and MeHg between 0.03 and 3.8 ng l -1 . TotHg fluxes from catchments ranged from 0.92 to 1.8 g km -2 a -1 , and MeHg fluxes from 0.03 to 0.33 g km -2 a -1 . TotHg concentrations and output fluxes measured in runoff water from small forest catchments in Finland were comparable with those measured in other boreal regions. By contrast, MeHg concentrations were generally higher. Estimates for MeHg output fluxes in this study were comparable at sites with forests and wetlands in Sweden and North America, but clearly higher than those measured at upland or agricultural sites in other studies. Peatland catchments released more MeHg than pure mineral soil or mineral soil catchments with minor area of peatland

  11. Adaptive root foraging strategies along a boreal-temperate forest gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostonen, Ivika; Truu, Marika; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Lukac, Martin; Borken, Werner; Vanguelova, Elena; Godbold, Douglas L; Lõhmus, Krista; Zang, Ulrich; Tedersoo, Leho; Preem, Jens-Konrad; Rosenvald, Katrin; Aosaar, Jürgen; Armolaitis, Kęstutis; Frey, Jane; Kabral, Naima; Kukumägi, Mai; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Merilä, Päivi; Napa, Ülle; Nöjd, Pekka; Parts, Kaarin; Uri, Veiko; Varik, Mats; Truu, Jaak

    2017-08-01

    The tree root-mycorhizosphere plays a key role in resource uptake, but also in the adaptation of forests to changing environments. The adaptive foraging mechanisms of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and fine roots of Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula were evaluated along a gradient from temperate to subarctic boreal forest (38 sites between latitudes 48°N and 69°N) in Europe. Variables describing tree resource uptake structures and processes (absorptive fine root biomass and morphology, nitrogen (N) concentration in absorptive roots, extramatrical mycelium (EMM) biomass, community structure of root-associated EcM fungi, soil and rhizosphere bacteria) were used to analyse relationships between root system functional traits and climate, soil and stand characteristics. Absorptive fine root biomass per stand basal area increased significantly from temperate to boreal forests, coinciding with longer and thinner root tips with higher tissue density, smaller EMM biomass per root length and a shift in soil microbial community structure. The soil carbon (C) : N ratio was found to explain most of the variability in absorptive fine root and EMM biomass, root tissue density, N concentration and rhizosphere bacterial community structure. We suggest a concept of absorptive fine root foraging strategies involving both qualitative and quantitative changes in the root-mycorrhiza-bacteria continuum along climate and soil C : N gradients. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Postfire Succession of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nesting in Dead Wood of Northern Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Philippe; Hébert, Christian; Francoeur, André; Sirois, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Dead wood decomposition begins immediately after tree death and involves a large array of invertebrates. Ecological successions are still poorly known for saproxylic organisms, particularly in boreal forests. We investigated the use of dead wood as nesting sites for ants along a 60-yr postfire chronosequence in northeastern coniferous forests. We sampled a total of 1,625 pieces of dead wood, in which 263 ant nests were found. Overall, ant abundance increased during the first 30 yr after wildfire, and then declined. Leptothorax cf. canadensis Provancher, the most abundant species in our study, was absent during the first 2 yr postfire, but increased steadily until 30 yr after fire, whereas Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler, second in abundance, was found at all stages of succession in the chronosequence. Six other species were less frequently found, among which Camponotus herculeanus (Linné), Formica neorufibarbis Emery, and Formica aserva Forel were locally abundant, but more scarcely distributed. Dead wood lying on the ground and showing numerous woodborer holes had a higher probability of being colonized by ants. The C:N ratio was lower for dead wood colonized by ants than for noncolonized dead wood, showing that the continuous occupation of dead wood by ants influences the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of dead wood after wildfire in northern boreal forests. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Edge effects at an induced forest-grassland boundary: forest birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bird species diversity and guild composition between the edge (5-10 m from the margin) of primary forest abutting grassland and the deep interior (> 500 m from the margin) in the Dngoye Forest Reserve were compared. Edge and interior sites were chosen that were homogeneous with respect to habitat physiognomy i.e. ...

  14. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada’s boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Yan; Cyr, Dominic; Taylor, Anthony R.; Price, David T.; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2018-01-01

    Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as “drivers of change”) were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus), a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5). However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of natural and

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungi contribute to soil organic matter cycling in sub-boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lori A; Ward, Valerie; Jones, Melanie D

    2014-03-01

    Soils of northern temperate and boreal forests represent a large terrestrial carbon (C) sink. The fate of this C under elevated atmospheric CO2 and climate change is still uncertain. A fundamental knowledge gap is the extent to which ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) and saprotrophic fungi contribute to C cycling in the systems by soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In this study, we used a novel approach to generate and compare enzymatically active EMF hyphae-dominated and saprotrophic hyphae-enriched communities under field conditions. Fermentation-humus (FH)-filled mesh bags, surrounded by a sand barrier, effectively trapped EMF hyphae with a community structure comparable to that found in the surrounding FH layer, at both trophic and taxonomic levels. In contrast, over half the sequences from mesh bags with no sand barrier were identified as belonging to saprotrophic fungi. The EMF hyphae-dominated systems exhibited levels of hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities that were comparable to or higher than saprotroph-enriched systems. The enzymes assayed included those associated with both labile and recalcitrant SOM degradation. Our study shows that EMF hyphae are likely important contributors to current SOM turnover in sub-boreal systems. Our results also suggest that any increased EMF biomass that might result from higher below-ground C allocation by trees would not suppress C fluxes from sub-boreal soils.

  16. The importance of micrometeorological variations for photosynthesis and transpiration in a boreal coniferous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schurgers, Guy; Lagergren, F.; Molder, M.

    2015-01-01

    the importance of vertical variations in light, temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity within the canopy for fluxes of photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal coniferous forest in central Sweden. A leaf-level photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model was used for aggregating these processes to canopy...... abovecanopy and within-canopy humidity, and despite large gradients in CO2 concentration during early morning hours after nights with stable conditions, neither humidity nor CO2 played an important role for vertical heterogeneity of photosynthesis and transpiration....

  17. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Morante-Filho

    Full Text Available Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%. At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  18. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Faria, Deborah; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists) and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores) to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%). At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  19. A multi-method analysis of forest fragmentation and loss: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lazie

    2014-02-01

    Feb 1, 2014 ... mented, where the fragmented landscape represents the endpoint of the ... For example, some plants can only be pollinated by a certain kind of bird or ... tropical forests, and of the remainder, temperate and boreal forests ...

  20. Temperate and boreal old-growth forests: how do their growth dynamics and biodiversity differ from young stands and managed forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, E.D.; Hessenmoeller, D; Knohl, A.; Luyssaert, S; Boerner, A; Grace, J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter investigates biomass, net primary productivity (NPP), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of boreal and temperate forest ecosystems in relation to stand density and age. Forests may accumulate woody biomass at constant rate for centuries and there is little evidence of an age-related

  1. Seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 emission in the boreal forests in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnykina, A. V.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Zyryanov, V.; Verkhovets, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    A large amount of carbon in soil is released to the atmosphere through soil respiration, which is the main pathway of transferring carbon from terrestrial ecosystems (Comstedt et al., 2011). Considering that boreal forests is a large terrestrial sink (Tans et al., 1990) and represent approximately 11 % of the Earth's total land area (Gower et al., 2001), even a small change in soil respiration could significantly intensify - or mitigate - current atmospheric increases of CO2, with potential feedbacks to climate change. The objectives of the present study are: (a) to study the dynamic of CO2emission from the soil surface during summer season (from May to October); (b) to identify the reaction of soil respiration to different amount of precipitation as the main limiting factor in the region. The research was carried out in the pine forests in Central Siberia (60°N, 90°E), Russia. Sample plots were represented by the lichen pine forest, moss pine forest, mixed forest and anthropogenic destroyed area. We used the automated soil CO2 flux system based on the infrared gas analyzer LI-8100 for measuring the soil efflux. Soil temperature was measured with Soil Temperature Probe Type E in three depths 5, 10, 15 cm. Volumetric soil moisture was measured with Theta Probe Model ML2. The presence and type of ground cover substantially affects the value of soil respiration fluxes. The carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface averaged was 5.4 ±2.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The destroyed area without plant cover demonstrated the lowest soil respiration (0.1-5.6 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The lowest soil respiration among forested areas was observed in the feathermoss pine forest. The lichen pine forest soil respiration was characterized by averages values. The maximum soil respiration values and seasonal fluctuations were obtained in the mixed forest (2.3-29.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The analysis of relation between soil CO2 efflux and amount of precipitation showed that the site without any

  2. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground

  3. [Prediction model of human-caused fire occurrence in the boreal forest of northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fu-tao; Su, Zhang-wen; Wang, Guang-yu; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Long; Yang, Ting-ting

    2015-07-01

    The Chinese boreal forest is an important forest resource in China. However, it has been suffering serious disturbances of forest fires, which were caused equally by natural disasters (e.g., lightning) and human activities. The literature on human-caused fires indicates that climate, topography, vegetation, and human infrastructure are significant factors that impact the occurrence and spread of human-caused fires. But the studies on human-caused fires in the boreal forest of northern China are limited and less comprehensive. This paper applied the spatial analysis tools in ArcGIS 10.0 and Logistic regression model to investigate the driving factors of human-caused fires. Our data included the geographic coordinates of human-caused fires, climate factors during year 1974-2009, topographic information, and forest map. The results indicated that distance to railway (x1) and average relative humidity (x2) significantly impacted the occurrence of human-caused fire in the study area. The logistic model for predicting the fire occurrence probability was formulated as P= 1/[11+e-(3.026-0.00011x1-0.047x2)] with an accuracy rate of 80%. The above model was used to predict the monthly fire occurrence during the fire season of 2015 based on the HADCM2 future weather data. The prediction results showed that the high risk of human-caused fire occurrence concentrated in the months of April, May, June and August, while April and May had higher risk of fire occurrence than other months. According to the spatial distribution of possibility of fire occurrence, the high fire risk zones were mainly in the west and southwest of Tahe, where the major railways were located.

  4. Belowground Competition Directs Spatial Patterns of Seedling Growth in Boreal Pine Forests in Fennoscandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petter Axelsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground competition is often argued to be the main process determining patterns of natural forest regeneration. However, the theory of multiple resource limitation suggests that seedling performance also depends on belowground competition and, thus, that their relative influence is of fundamental importance. Two approaches were used to address the relative importance of above- and below-ground competition on regeneration in a nutrient-poor pine (Pinus sylvestris boreal forest. Firstly, seedling establishment beneath trees stem-girdled 12 years ago show that a substantial proportion of the seedlings were established within two years after girdling, which corresponds to a time when nutrient uptake by tree roots was severely reduced without disrupting water transport to the tree canopy, which consequently was maintained. The establishment during these two years also corresponds to abundances high enough for normal stand replacement. Secondly, surveys of regeneration within forest gaps showed that surrounding forests depressed seedlings, so that satisfactory growth occurred only more than 5 m from forest edges and that higher solar radiation in south facing edges was not enough to mediate these effects. We conclude that disruption of belowground competitive interactions mediates regeneration and, thus, that belowground competition has a strong limiting influence on seedling establishment in these forests.

  5. Total OH Reactivity Measurements in the Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praplan, A. P.; Hellén, H.; Hakola, H.; Hatakka, J.

    2015-12-01

    INTRODUCTION Atmospheric total OH reactivity (Rtotal) can be measured (Kovacs and Brune, 2001; Sinha et al., 2008) or it can be calculated according to Rtotal = ∑i kOH+X_i [Xi] where kOH+X_i corresponds to the reaction rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with a given compound Xi and [Xi] its concentration. Studies suggest that in some environments a large fraction of missing reactivity, comparing calculated Rtotal with ambient total OH reactivity measurements (Di Carlo et al., 2004; Hofzumahaus et al., 2009). In this study Rtotal has been measured using the Comparative Reactivity Method (Sinha et al., 2008). Levels of the reference compound (pyrrole, C4H5N) are monitored by gas chromatography every 2 minutes and Rtotal is derived from the difference of reactivity between zero and ambient air. RESULTS Around 36 hours of preliminary total OH reactivity data (30 May until 2 June 2015) are presented in Fig. 1. Its range matches previous studies for this site (Nölscher et al., 2012; Sinha et al., 2010) and is similar to values in another pine forest (Nakashima et al., 2014). The setup used during the period presented here has been updated and more recent data will be presented, as well as a comparison with calculated OH reactivity from measured individual species. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by Academy of Finland (Academy Research Fellowship No. 275608). The authors acknowledge Juuso Raine for technical support. REFERENCES Di Carlo et al. (2004). Science 304, 722-725.Hofzumahaus et al. (2009). Science 324, 1702-1704.Kovacs and Brune (2001). J. Atmos. Chem. 39, 105-122.Nakashima et al. (2014). Atmos. Env. 85, 1-8.Nölscher et al. (2012). Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 8257-8270.Sinha et al. (2008). Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2213-2227.Sinha et al. (2010). Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 6614-6620.

  6. Hawai`i forest bird monitoring database: Database dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Genz, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1981, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (now U.S. Geological Survey – Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center [USGS-PIERC]) conducted systematic surveys of forest birds and plant communities on all the main Hawaiian Islands, except O‘ahu, as part of the Hawai‘i Forest Bird Surveys (HFBS). Results of this monumental effort have guided conservation efforts and provided the basis for many plant and bird recovery plans and land acquisition decisions in Hawai‘i. Unfortunately, these estimates and range maps are now seriously outdated, hindering modern conservation decision-making and recovery planning. HFBIDP staff work closely with land managers and others to identify the location of bird populations in need of protection. In addition, HFBIDP is able to assess field collection methods, census areas, and survey frequency for their effectiveness. Survey and geographical data are refined and released in successive versions, each more inclusive, detailed, and accurate than the previous release. Incrementally releasing data gives land managers and survey coordinators reasonably good data to work with early on rather than waiting for the release of ‘perfect’ data, ‘perfectly’ analyzed. Consequently, summary results are available in a timely manner.

  7. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition in boreal forests has a minor impact on the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundale, Michael J; From, Fredrik; Bach, Lisbet H; Nordin, Annika

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed that increases in anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr ) deposition may cause temperate and boreal forests to sequester a globally significant quantity of carbon (C); however, long-term data from boreal forests describing how C sequestration responds to realistic levels of chronic Nr deposition are scarce. Using a long-term (14-year) stand-scale (0.1 ha) N addition experiment (three levels: 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) in the boreal zone of northern Sweden, we evaluated how chronic N additions altered N uptake and biomass of understory communities, and whether changes in understory communities explained N uptake and C sequestration by trees. We hypothesized that understory communities (i.e. mosses and shrubs) serve as important sinks for low-level N additions, with the strength of these sinks weakening as chronic N addition rates increase, due to shifts in species composition. We further hypothesized that trees would exhibit nonlinear increases in N acquisition, and subsequent C sequestration as N addition rates increased, due to a weakening understory N sink. Our data showed that understory biomass was reduced by 50% in response to the high N addition treatment, mainly due to reduced moss biomass. A (15) N labeling experiment showed that feather mosses acquired the largest fraction of applied label, with this fraction decreasing as the chronic N addition level increased. Contrary to our hypothesis, the proportion of label taken up by trees was equal (ca. 8%) across all three N addition treatments. The relationship between N addition and C sequestration in all vegetation pools combined was linear, and had a slope of 16 kg C kg(-1)  N. While canopy retention of Nr deposition may cause C sequestration rates to be slightly different than this estimate, our data suggest that a minor quantity of annual anthropogenic CO2 emissions are sequestered into boreal forests as a result of Nr deposition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Epidemic pox and malaria in native forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C. T.; Dusek, R. J.; Iko, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies by Warner in the 1950’s and van Riper in the 1970’s identified disease as a potential limiting factor in the distribution and abundance of Hawaii’s native forest birds. Mosquito-transmitted protozoan and viral infections caused by malarial parasites and pox virus were especially significant. Both organisms were introduced to the islands after the arrival of Europeans and are thought to have affected avian communities the same way that measles devastated native Hawaiian peoples.

  9. APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING DATA FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE UJUK MOUNTAIN BOREAL FORESTS (THE TYVA REPUBLIC, RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulermaa B. Kuular

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some issues related to assessment and monitoring of forests insouthern Siberia. This study aims to evaluate the response of southern boreal forests to climate warming at local scale. Estimating the impacts of climate change on mountain boreal forests requires a more complete accounting of tree growth/climate interaction. We used both remote sensing and field data. Field measurements were made from the upper to lower timberline of dark deciduous forest in 2005 and 2012. The remote sensing datasets were generated from LANDSAT scenes of different dates (19.08.1988, 25.06.1992 and 18.08.2011. For estimation of forests changes, we used values of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio.

  10. Source tracing of natural organic matter bound mercury in boreal forest runoff with mercury stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Kronberg, Rose-Marie; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2017-10-18

    Terrestrial runoff represents a major source of mercury (Hg) to aquatic ecosystems. In boreal forest catchments, such as the one in northern Sweden studied here, mercury bound to natural organic matter (NOM) represents a large fraction of mercury in the runoff. We present a method to measure Hg stable isotope signatures of colloidal Hg, mainly complexed by high molecular weight or colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) in natural waters based on pre-enrichment by ultrafiltration, followed by freeze-drying and combustion. We report that Hg associated with high molecular weight NOM in the boreal forest runoff has very similar Hg isotope signatures as compared to the organic soil horizons of the catchment area. The mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures (Δ 199 Hg and Δ 200 Hg) measured in soils and runoff were in agreement with typical values reported for atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and distinctly different from reported Hg isotope signatures in precipitation. We therefore suggest that most Hg in the boreal terrestrial ecosystem originated from the deposition of Hg 0 through foliar uptake rather than precipitation. Using a mixing model we calculated the contribution of soil horizons to the Hg in the runoff. At moderate to high flow runoff conditions, that prevailed during sampling, the uppermost part of the organic horizon (Oe/He) contributed 50-70% of the Hg in the runoff, while the underlying more humified organic Oa/Ha and the mineral soil horizons displayed a lower mobility of Hg. The good agreement of the Hg isotope results with other source tracing approaches using radiocarbon signatures and Hg : C ratios provides additional support for the strong coupling between Hg and NOM. The exploratory results from this study illustrate the potential of Hg stable isotopes to trace the source of Hg from atmospheric deposition through the terrestrial ecosystem to soil runoff, and provide a basis for more in-depth studies investigating the

  11. Can Runoff Responses be Used to Predict Aquatic Biogeochemical Fluxes from Boreal Forest Ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; Ziegler, S. E.; Billings, S. A.; Edwards, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has direct effects on precipitation and temperature, which contribute to indirect changes in ecosystem productivity, runoff, biogeochemical processes, and species composition. In this research, we examine water balances in boreal forest watersheds to determine spatial and inter-annual variations in their responses to changes in precipitation. Our research indicates that Central and Western N. American boreal watersheds with mean annual precipitation (MAP) of less than 1000 mm exhibit positive relationships between annual precipitation and annual evapotranspiration, suggesting an increase in forest productivity during wet years often without increased runoff. In Maritime boreal watersheds in Eastern N. America and N. Europe, runoff is a significantly larger portion of the water balance and runoff increases with precipitation This regionalism in the water balance may have significant consequences for biogeochemical fluxes; for example, where MAP >1000 mm, a future wetter climate may result in increases in the terrestrial-to-aquatic transport of solutes. To test this idea, we examined inter-annual variations in hydrologic and dissolved organic carbon fluxes in watersheds in Newfoundland and Labrador along a longitudinal transect. Mean annual temperature varies from 0-5.2oC along the transect, and MAP varies from 1050 to 1500 mm. Data indicate an increase in evapotranspiration, runoff, and soil DOC fluxes with the increasing mean annual precipitation among watersheds along the transect. During the 2011-2015 period of study there was significant overlap in annual precipitation among the sites. Although wet water years also produced higher amounts of runoff from most watersheds, the annual soil DOC flux within each region was not significantly affected by these inter-annual changes in precipitation. Stream and groundwater monitoring data from the catchments reveal seasonal variations in evapotranspiration and runoff and their role in solute fluxes, and

  12. Neutralization of acidic raindrops on leaves of agricultural crop and boreal forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Adams, C.M.; Gaber, B.A.

    1986-10-01

    The abilities of foliage of selected agricultural crop and native boreal forest species to neutralize acidic raindrops were compared. The species differed widely in their responses. Neutralization was influenced to a large extent by leaf wettability and was poorly related with species' susceptibility to foliar injury from acid rain sprayings. Little neutralization of pH 3.0 droplets occurred on very waxy leaves, e.g. cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), due to the small contact area between the leaf surface and raindrops. In contrast, on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves, which are pubescent and easily wettable, neutralization was considerable. For all agricultural crop species examined, the pH of droplets drying on cotyledons was consistently higher than on the leaves. The pH values of raindrops were also higher when the foliage was injured by the acid rain, probably due to leakage of cellular contents. Among boreal forest species examined, bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) was particularly good at neutralizing natural acid rain, increasing the pH from 3.9 to 6.6 after 9 hr of foliar contact, while the response of other boreal species ranged from a final pH of 4.8 to 5.7 under the same conditions. Simulated raindrops on wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.) were never neutralized but increased in acidity as they evaporated. Chemical analyses of droplets collected from foliage showed calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) to be the major cations entering the neutralized droplets. Neutralization of acidic raindrops appears to occur through two processes; solubilization of alkaline dusts and exudates on the leaf surface, and ion exchange removal of H/sup +/ by the foliage. 14 references.

  13. Neutralization of acidic raindrops on leaves of agricultural crop and boreal forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Adams, C.M.; Gaber, B.A.

    1986-11-01

    The abilities of foliage of selected agricultural crop and native boreal forest species to neutralize acidic raindrops were compared. The species differed widely in their responses. Neutralization was influenced to a large extent by leaf wettability and was poorly related with species' susceptibility to foliar injury from acid rain sprayings. Little neutralization of pH 3.0 droplets occurred on very waxy leaves, e.g. cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), due to the small contact area between the leaf surface and raindrops. In contrast, on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves, which are pubescent and easily wettable, neutralization was considerable. For all agricultural crop species examined, the pH of droplets drying on cotyledons was consistently higher than on the leaves. The pH values of raindrops were also higher when the foliage was injured by the acid rain, probably due to leakage of cellular contents. Among boreal forest species examined, bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) was particularly good at neutralizing natural acid rain, increasing the pH from 3.9 to 6.6 after 9 hr of foliar contact, while the response of other boreal species ranged from a final pH of 4.8 to 5.7 under the same conditions. Simulated raindrops on wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.) were never neutralized but increased in acidity as they evaporated. Chemical analyses of droplets collected from foliage showed calcium and potassium to be the major cations entering the neutralized droplets. Neutralization of acidic raindrops appears to occur through two processes: solubilization of alkaline dusts and exudates on the leaf surface, and ion exchange removal of H/sup +/ by the foliage. 14 refs.

  14. The formation and fate of chlorinated organic substances in temperate and boreal forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Fuksová, Kvetoslava; Gryndler, Milan; Lachmanová, Zora; Liste, Hans-Holger; Rohlenová, Jana; Schroll, Reiner; Schröder, Peter; Matucha, Miroslav

    2009-03-01

    Chlorine is an abundant element, commonly occurring in nature either as chloride ions or as chlorinated organic compounds (OCls). Chlorinated organic substances were long considered purely anthropogenic products; however, they are, in addition, a commonly occurring and important part of natural ecosystems. Formation of OCls may affect the degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus the carbon cycle with implications for the ability of forest soils to sequester carbon, whilst the occurrence of potentially toxic OCls in groundwater aquifers is of concern with regard to water quality. It is thus important to understand the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine, both inorganic and organic, to get information about the relevant processes in the forest ecosystem and the effects on these from human activities, including forestry practices. A survey is given of processes in the soil of temperate and boreal forests, predominantly in Europe, including the participation of chlorine, and gaps in knowledge and the need for further work are discussed. Chlorine is present as chloride ion and/or OCls in all compartments of temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. It contributes to the degradation of SOM, thus also affecting carbon sequestration in the forest soil. The most important source of chloride to coastal forest ecosystems is sea salt deposition, and volcanoes and coal burning can also be important sources. Locally, de-icing salt can be an important chloride input near major roads. In addition, anthropogenic sources of OCls are manifold. However, results also indicate the formation of chlorinated organics by microorganisms as an important source, together with natural abiotic formation. In fact, the soil pool of OCls seems to be a result of the balance between chlorination and degradation processes. Ecologically, organochlorines may function as antibiotics, signal substances and energy equivalents, in descending order of significance. Forest management practices can affect

  15. Response of Boreal forest tree canopy cover to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    A section of the Canadian Boreal forest was irradiated chronically by a point source of 137 Cs from 1973 to 1986. Tree canopy cover was measured at permanently marked locations during the pre-irradiation, irradiation and post-irradiation phases, spanning a period of two decades. The tree canopy was severely affected at dose rates greater than 10 mGy/h delivered chronically. The canopy of sensitive coniferous tree species, such as Abies balsamea and Picea Mariana, decreased at dose rates greater than 2 mGy/h, but in some cases the tree canopy was replaced by more resistant species, such as Populus tremuloides and Salix bebbiana. Effects on canopy cover could not be detected at dose rates less than 0.1 mGy/h. Even at dose rates of 5 mGy/h, the forest canopy is recovering six years after irradiation stopped. (author)

  16. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity.

  17. Disturbance legacies and climate jointly drive tree growth and mortality in an intensively studied boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Rocha, Adrian; Calvin, Katherine V.; Holmes, Bruce; Wang, Chuankuan; Goulden, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    How will regional growth and mortality change with even relatively small climate shifts, even independent of catastrophic disturbances? This question is particularly acute for the North American boreal forest, which is carbon-dense and subject The goals of this study were to combine dendrochronological sampling, inventory records, and machine-learning algorithms to understand how tree growth and death have changed at one highly studied site (Northern Old Black Spruce, NOBS) in the central Canadian boreal forest. Over the 1999-2012 inventory period, mean DBH increased even as stand density and basal area declined significantly from 41.3 to 37.5 m2 ha-1. Tree mortality averaged 1.4±0.6% yr-1, with most mortality occurring in medium-sized trees. A combined tree ring chronology constructed from 2001, 2004, and 2012 sampling showed several periods of extreme growth depression, with increased mortality lagging depressed growth by ~5 years. Minimum and maximum air temperatures exerted a negative influence on tree growth, while precipitation and climate moisture index had a positive effect; both current- and previous-year data exerted significant effects. Models based on these variables explained 23-44% of the ring-width variability. There have been at least one, and probably two, significant recruitment episodes since stand initiation, and we infer that past climate extremes led to significant NOBS mortality still visible in the current forest structure. These results imply that a combination of successional and demographic processes, along with mortality driven by abiotic factors, continue to affect the stand, with significant implications for our understanding of previous work at NOBS and the sustainable management of regional forests.

  18. Boreal coniferous forest density leads to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bastianelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At the northernmost extent of the managed forest in Quebec, Canada, the boreal forest is currently undergoing an ecological transition between two forest ecosystems. Open lichen woodlands (LW are spreading southward at the expense of more productive closed-canopy black spruce–moss forests (MF. The objective of this study was to investigate whether soil properties could distinguish MF from LW in the transition zone where both ecosystem types coexist. This study brings out clear evidence that differences in vegetation cover can lead to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties.Here, we showed that soil carbon, exchangeable cations, and iron and aluminium crystallinity vary between boreal closed-canopy forests and open lichen woodlands, likely attributed to variations in soil microclimatic conditions. All the soils studied were typical podzolic soil profiles evolved from glacial till deposits that shared a similar texture of the C layer. However, soil humus and the B layer varied in thickness and chemistry between the two forest ecosystems at the pedon scale. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate how soil properties could help distinguish the two types at the site scale. MF humus (FH horizons horizons composing the O layer showed significantly higher concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen and of the main exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg than LW soils. The B horizon of LW sites held higher concentrations of total Al and Fe oxides and particularly greater concentrations of inorganic amorphous Fe oxides than MF mineral soils, while showing a thinner B layer. Overall, our results show that MF store three times more organic carbon in their soils (B+FH horizons, roots apart than LW. We suggest that variations in soil properties between MF and LW are linked to a cascade of events involving the impacts of natural disturbances such as wildfires on forest regeneration that determines the vegetation

  19. Boreal coniferous forest density leads to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, Carole; Ali, Adam A.; Beguin, Julien; Bergeron, Yves; Grondin, Pierre; Hély, Christelle; Paré, David

    2017-07-01

    At the northernmost extent of the managed forest in Quebec, Canada, the boreal forest is currently undergoing an ecological transition between two forest ecosystems. Open lichen woodlands (LW) are spreading southward at the expense of more productive closed-canopy black spruce-moss forests (MF). The objective of this study was to investigate whether soil properties could distinguish MF from LW in the transition zone where both ecosystem types coexist. This study brings out clear evidence that differences in vegetation cover can lead to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties.Here, we showed that soil carbon, exchangeable cations, and iron and aluminium crystallinity vary between boreal closed-canopy forests and open lichen woodlands, likely attributed to variations in soil microclimatic conditions. All the soils studied were typical podzolic soil profiles evolved from glacial till deposits that shared a similar texture of the C layer. However, soil humus and the B layer varied in thickness and chemistry between the two forest ecosystems at the pedon scale. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate how soil properties could help distinguish the two types at the site scale. MF humus (FH horizons horizons composing the O layer) showed significantly higher concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen and of the main exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg) than LW soils. The B horizon of LW sites held higher concentrations of total Al and Fe oxides and particularly greater concentrations of inorganic amorphous Fe oxides than MF mineral soils, while showing a thinner B layer. Overall, our results show that MF store three times more organic carbon in their soils (B+FH horizons, roots apart) than LW. We suggest that variations in soil properties between MF and LW are linked to a cascade of events involving the impacts of natural disturbances such as wildfires on forest regeneration that determines the vegetation structure (stand density

  20. The field-irradiator gamma study: Fourteen years of irradiation of the boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Hawkins, J.L.; Laverock, M.J.; Sheppard, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Field-Irradiator Gamma (FIG) project is a long-term experiment on the response of boreal forest vegetation to chronic ionizing radiation. The forest was irradiated from 1973 to 1986 by a 370 TBq point source of 137 Cs placed at a height of 20 m. The forest is now in the recovery phase. The irradiated forest included several different community types, and each of these was affected differently by the radiation stress. New vegetation zones have now been created because of the selective tolerance to radiation along a gradient from background dose rates to a maximum of 65 mGy h -1 . One of the easiest measured indicators of the radiation stress has been photographic documentation of changes in forest communities over time. Measured changes in species composition and the decrease in tree canopy cover at dose rates >2 Gy h -1 have also helped quantify radiation effects. Indicators such as trends in annual growth rings have been less satisfactory. Our experiment suggests that there are no visible impacts at chronic dose rates less than 0.1 mGy h -1 and the threshold for effects likely is between 0.1 and 1 mGy h -1 . The experimental area has been preserved to allow measurements of long-term recovery of the site

  1. Plant and bird diversity in natural forests and in native and exotic plantations in NW Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Vânia M.; Pereira, Henrique M.; Guilherme, João; Vicente, Luís

    2010-03-01

    Forest ecosystems have been subjected to continuous dynamics between deforestation and forestation. Assessing the effects of these processes on biodiversity could be essential for conservation planning. We analyzed patterns of species richness, diversity and evenness of plants and birds in patches of natural forest of Quercus spp. and in stands of native Pinus pinaster and exotic Eucalyptus globulus in NW Portugal. We analyzed data of forest and non-forest species separately, at the intra-patch, patch and inter-patch scales. Forest plant richness, diversity and evenness were higher in oak forest than in pine and eucalypt plantations. In total, 52 species of forest plants were observed in oak forest, 33 in pine plantation and 28 in eucalypt plantation. Some forest species, such as Euphorbia dulcis, Omphalodes nitida and Eryngium juresianum, were exclusively or mostly observed in oak forest. Forest bird richness and diversity were higher in both oak and pine forests than in eucalypt forest; evenness did not differ among forests. In total, 16 species of forest birds were observed in oak forest, 18 in pine forest and 11 in eucalypt forest. Species such as Certhia brachydactyla, Sitta europaea and Dendrocopos major were common in oak and/or pine patches but were absent from eucalypt stands. Species-area relationships of forest plants and forest birds in oak patches had consistently a higher slope, at both the intra and inter-patch scales, than species-area relationships of forest species in plantations and non-forest species in oak forest. These findings demonstrate the importance of oak forest for the conservation of forest species diversity, pointing the need to conserve large areas of oak forest due to the apparent vulnerability of forest species to area loss. Additionally, diversity patterns in pine forest were intermediate between oak forest and eucalypt forest, suggesting that forest species patterns may be affected by forest naturalness.

  2. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  3. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from a fire chronosequence in subarctic boreal forests of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2017-12-01

    Forest fires are one of the most important natural disturbances in boreal forests, and their occurrence and severity are expected to increase as a result of climate warming. A combination of factors induced by fire leads to a thawing of the near-surface permafrost layer in subarctic boreal forest. Earlier studies reported that an increase in the active layer thickness results in higher carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions. We studied changes in CO 2 , CH 4 and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes in this study, and the significance of several environmental factors that influence the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at three forest sites that last had fires in 2012, 1990 and 1969, and we compared these to a control area that had no fire for at least 100years. The soils in our study acted as sources of CO 2 and N 2 O and sinks for CH 4 . The elapsed time since the last forest fire was the only factor that significantly influenced all studied GHG fluxes. Soil temperature affected the uptake of CH 4 , and the N 2 O fluxes were significantly influenced by nitrogen and carbon content of the soil, and by the active layer depth. Results of our study confirm that the impacts of a forest fire on GHGs last for a rather long period of time in boreal forests, and are influenced by the fire induced changes in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectral contribution of understory to forest reflectance in a boreal site: an analysis of EO-1 Hyperion data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rautianien, M.; Lukeš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 171, dec (2015), s. 98-104 ISSN 0034-4257 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest reflectance model * hyperspectral * boreal * leaf area index * understory Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.881, year: 2015

  5. Impact of wildfire on stream nutrient chemistry and ecosystem metabolism in boreal forest catchments of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma F. Betts; Jeremy B. Jones

    2009-01-01

    With climatic warming, wildfire occurrence is increasing in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Loss of catchment vegetation during fire can impact streams directly through altered solute and debris inputs and changed light and temperature regimes. Over longer time scales, fire can accelerate permafrost degradation, altering catchment hydrology and stream nutrient...

  6. Establishment and growth of white spruce on a boreal forest floodplain: interactions between microclimate and mammalian herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Angell; Knut. Kielland

    2009-01-01

    White spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) is a dominant species in late-successional ecosystems along the Tanana River, interior Alaska, and the most important commercial timber species in these boreal floodplain forests. Whereas white spruce commonly seed in on young terraces in early primary succession, the species does not become a conspicuous...

  7. The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010): an overview of meteorological and chemical influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, J.; Crowley, J.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H.; Martinez, M.; Ouwersloot, H.G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lelieveld, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the background, instrumentation, goals, and the regional influences on the HUMPPACOPEC intensive field measurement campaign, conducted at the Boreal forest research station SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relation) in Hyyti¨al¨a, Finland from 12 July–12

  8. Linking sediment-charcoal records and ecological modeling to understand causes of fire-regime change in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda B. Brubaker; Philip E. Higuera; T. Scott Rupp; Mark A. Olson; Patricia M. Anderson; Feng Sheng. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between vegetation and fire have the potential to overshadow direct effects of climate change on fire regimes in boreal forests of North America. We develop methods to compare sediment-charcoal records with fire regimes simulated by an ecological model, ALFRESCO (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) and apply these methods to evaluate potential causes of a...

  9. No diurnal variation in rate or carbon isotope composition of soil respiration in a boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betson, N.R.; Gottlicher, S.G.; Hogberg, P.; Hall, M.; Wallin, G.; Richter, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the diurnal variability in the rate and stable carbon isotope ratio ((delta) 13 C) of soil respiration in a northern boreal forest, measured with opaque chambers after the removal of understory vegetation. The experiment was conducted in June and August 2004 at the Picea abies L. Karst-dominated Flakaliden Research Forest in northern Sweden, using unfertilized girdled-tree plots and unfertilized non-girdled tree plots. Soil respiration and (delta) 13 C of soil-respired carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) were measured every 4 hours on 6 plots, with a total of 11 sampling times over each 48 hour period. The purpose was to clarify an earlier study regarding the origin of diurnal patterns of soil CO 2 flux. This study explored whether the diurnal patterns were the result of photosynthetic CO 2 uptake during the day by the understory or whether there were underlying trends in soil respiration driven by plant root allocation. The sampling campaigns undertaken in this study investigated whether diurnal variations in soil respiration rate and (delta) 13 C exist in this ecosystem when no understory vegetation is present. Shoot photosynthesis and environmental parameters were measured simultaneously. Despite significant variations in climatic conditions and shoot photosynthetic rates in non-girdled trees, no diurnal patterns in soil respiration rates and (delta) 13 C were noted in either treatment. The lack of detectable diurnal changes in both treatments indicates that modeling of daily boreal forest carbon balances based on single instantaneous measurements are unlikely to be misconstrued by substantial diurnal trends. However, it was suggested that spatial variable should be accounted for, given the large standard errors. The impact of tree girdling on soil respiration rates also emphasized the significance of canopy photosynthesis in driving soil processes. 37 refs., 2 figs

  10. Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Peckham, Scott D.; Gower, Stith T.; Ewers, Brent

    2009-04-08

    Changes in fire regimes are driving the carbon balance of much of the North American boreal forest, but few studies have examined fire-driven changes in evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. This study used a version of the Biome-BGC process model with dynamic and competing vegetation types, and explicit spatial representation of a large (106 km2) region, to simulate the effects of wildfire on ET and its components from 1948 to 2005 by comparing the fire dynamics of the 1948-1967 period with those of 1968-2005. Simulated ET averaged, over the entire temporal and spatial modeling domain, 323 mm yr-1; simulation results indicated that changes in fire in recent decades decreased regional ET by 1.4% over the entire simulation, and by 3.9% in the last ten years (1996-2005). Conifers dominated the transpiration (EC) flux (120 mm yr-1) but decreased by 18% relative to deciduous broadleaf trees in the last part of the 20th century, when increased fire resulted in increased soil evaporation, lower canopy evaporation, lower EC and a younger and more deciduous forest. Well- and poorly-drained areas had similar rates of evaporation from the canopy and soil, but EC was twice as high in the well-drained areas. Mosses comprised a significant part of the evaporative flux to the atmosphere (22 mm yr-1). Modeled annual ET was correlated with net primary production, but not with temperature or precipitation; ET and its components were consistent with previous field and modeling studies. Wildfire is thus driving significant changes in hydrological processes, changes that may control the future carbon balance of the boreal forest.

  11. Simulating effects of fire disturbance and climate change on boreal forest productivity and evapotranspiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sinkyu [Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Kangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kimball, John S.; Running, Steven W. [Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    We used a terrestrial ecosystem process model, BIOME-BGC, to investigate historical climate change and fire disturbance effects on regional carbon and water budgets within a 357,500 km{sup 2} portion of the Canadian boreal forest. Historical patterns of increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2}, climate change, and regional fire activity were used as model drivers to evaluate the relative effects of these impacts to spatial patterns and temporal trends in forest net primary production (NPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Historical trends of increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} resulted in overall 13% and 5% increases in annual NPP and ET from 1994 to 1996, respectively. NPP was found to be relatively sensitive to changes in air temperature (T{sub a}), while ET was more sensitive to precipitation (P) change within the ranges of observed climate variability (e.g., +/-2 {sup o}C for T{sub a} and +/-20% for P). In addition, the potential effect of climate change related warming on NPP is exacerbated or offset depending on whether these changes are accompanied by respective decreases or increases in precipitation. Historical fire activity generally resulted in reductions of both NPP and ET, which consumed an average of approximately 6% of annual NPP from 1959 to 1996. Areas currently occupied by dry conifer forests were found to be subject to more frequent fire activity, which consumed approximately 8% of annual NPP. The results of this study show that the North American boreal ecosystem is sensitive to historical patterns of increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2}, climate change and regional fire activity. The relative impacts of these disturbances on NPP and ET interact in complex ways and are spatially variable depending on regional land cover and climate gradients. (author)

  12. Simulating effects of fire disturbance and climate change on boreal forest productivity and evapotranspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sinkyu; Kimball, John S; Running, Steven W

    2006-06-01

    We used a terrestrial ecosystem process model, BIOME-BGC, to investigate historical climate change and fire disturbance effects on regional carbon and water budgets within a 357,500 km(2) portion of the Canadian boreal forest. Historical patterns of increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and regional fire activity were used as model drivers to evaluate the relative effects of these impacts to spatial patterns and temporal trends in forest net primary production (NPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Historical trends of increasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in overall 13% and 5% increases in annual NPP and ET from 1994 to 1996, respectively. NPP was found to be relatively sensitive to changes in air temperature (T(a)), while ET was more sensitive to precipitation (P) change within the ranges of observed climate variability (e.g., +/-2 degrees C for T(a) and +/-20% for P). In addition, the potential effect of climate change related warming on NPP is exacerbated or offset depending on whether these changes are accompanied by respective decreases or increases in precipitation. Historical fire activity generally resulted in reductions of both NPP and ET, which consumed an average of approximately 6% of annual NPP from 1959 to 1996. Areas currently occupied by dry conifer forests were found to be subject to more frequent fire activity, which consumed approximately 8% of annual NPP. The results of this study show that the North American boreal ecosystem is sensitive to historical patterns of increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change and regional fire activity. The relative impacts of these disturbances on NPP and ET interact in complex ways and are spatially variable depending on regional land cover and climate gradients.

  13. Simulating effects of fire disturbance and climate change on boreal forest productivity and evapotranspiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sinkyu; Kimball, John S.; Running, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    We used a terrestrial ecosystem process model, BIOME-BGC, to investigate historical climate change and fire disturbance effects on regional carbon and water budgets within a 357,500 km 2 portion of the Canadian boreal forest. Historical patterns of increasing atmospheric CO 2 , climate change, and regional fire activity were used as model drivers to evaluate the relative effects of these impacts to spatial patterns and temporal trends in forest net primary production (NPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Historical trends of increasing atmospheric CO 2 resulted in overall 13% and 5% increases in annual NPP and ET from 1994 to 1996, respectively. NPP was found to be relatively sensitive to changes in air temperature (T a ), while ET was more sensitive to precipitation (P) change within the ranges of observed climate variability (e.g., +/-2 o C for T a and +/-20% for P). In addition, the potential effect of climate change related warming on NPP is exacerbated or offset depending on whether these changes are accompanied by respective decreases or increases in precipitation. Historical fire activity generally resulted in reductions of both NPP and ET, which consumed an average of approximately 6% of annual NPP from 1959 to 1996. Areas currently occupied by dry conifer forests were found to be subject to more frequent fire activity, which consumed approximately 8% of annual NPP. The results of this study show that the North American boreal ecosystem is sensitive to historical patterns of increasing atmospheric CO 2 , climate change and regional fire activity. The relative impacts of these disturbances on NPP and ET interact in complex ways and are spatially variable depending on regional land cover and climate gradients. (author)

  14. Drivers of lignin composition in boreal forest organic soils across a climate gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers-Pigg, A.; Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Lignin diagenesis in soils, including the cumulative effects of degradation and leaching, increases with experimental warming, signifying a potentially important change relevant to soil organic matter accumulation and fate. However, decadal to centennial climatic effects including changes in precipitation, litterfall inputs, and understory sources, on lignin composition are poorly constrained. We examined the lignin content and composition, via cupric oxide oxidation (CuO), within the organic layers of podzolic soils under similar balsam fir forests across a latitudinal climate gradient in Atlantic Canada. By exploring variation in lignin by both soil depth and climate region, this study informs on the climate drivers of lignin stability within boreal forest soil. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant variations in common signatures of CuO by-products with depth and/or site, indicating source and/or diagenetic controllers. Importantly, none of these signatures, with the exception of p-hydroxyphenols, exhibited a site by depth interaction indicating a similar degree of diagenetic alternation with depth across climates. The site by depth interaction for p-hydroxyphenols is a result of greater moss input in the northernmost site. To better elucidate this climate-induced source variation on our interpretation of lignin diagenesis, a principle component (PCA) model was built using signatures varying by site (pforest soils. A lignin diagenesis PCA model was built using (1) all non-moss related signatures identified in the first PCA model, and (2) scores for additional sites within each region, calculated from modeled lignin composition based on 13C-NMR spectra. The combined results indicate that the lignin diagenetic states among soils is similar, despite the large increase in soil C turnover with climate warming across this transect. Thus our results indicate that shifts in moss contribution, and not increased diagenesis, controls CuO by

  15. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-05-01

    Boreal peatlands play a crucial role in global carbon cycling, acting as an important carbon reservoir. However, little information is available on how peatland microbial communities are influenced by natural variability or human-induced disturbances. In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We have also compared the fungal communities during the primary colonization of wood with those of the surrounding soils. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that the community composition significantly differed between soil types (P< 0.001) and tree species (P< 0.001). The distance-based linear models analysis showed that environmental variables were significantly correlated with community structure (P< 0.04). The availability of soil nutrients (Ca [P= 0.002], Fe [P= 0.003], and P [P= 0.003]) within the site was an important factor in the fungal community composition. The species richness in wood was significantly lower than in the corresponding soil (P< 0.004). The results of the molecular identification were supplemented by fruiting body surveys. Seven of the genera of Agaricomycotina identified in our surveys were among the top 20 genera observed in pyrosequencing data. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, fungal high-throughput next-generation sequencing study performed on peatlands; it further provides a baseline for the investigation of the dynamics of the fungal community in the boreal peatlands. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Thermal Acclimation of Photosynthesis and Respiration Differ Across Mature Conifer Species in a Boreal Forest Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenge, M. E.; Stinziano, J. R.; Warren, J.; Ward, E. J.; Wullschleger, S.; Hanson, P. J.; Way, D.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal forests are often assumed to be temperature-limited, and warming is therefore expected to stimulate their carbon uptake. However, much of our information on the ability of boreal conifers to acclimate photosynthesis and respiration to rising temperatures comes from seedlings. We measured net CO2 assimilation rates (A) and dark respiration (R) at 25 °C (A25 and R25) and at prevailing growth temperatures (Ag and Rg) in mature Picea mariana (spruce) and Larix laricina (tamarack) exposed to ambient, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9 °C warming treatments in open top chambers in the field at the SPRUCE experiment (MN, USA). In spruce, A25 and Ag were similar across plots in May and June. In August, spruce in warmer treatments had higher A25, an effect that was offset by warmer leaf temperatures in the Ag data. In tamarack, A25 was stimulated by warming in both June and August, an effect that was mainly offset by higher leaf temperatures when Ag was assessed in June, while in August, Ag was still slightly higher in the warmest treatments (+6.75 and +9) compared to the ambient plots. In spruce, R25 was enhanced in warm-grown trees in May, but was similar across treatments in June and August, indicating little acclimation of R. Rg slightly increased with warming treatments across the season in spruce. In contrast, R in tamarack thermally acclimated, as R25 decreased with warming. But while this acclimation generated homeostatic Rg in June, Rg in August was still highest in the warmest treatments. Our work suggests that the capacity for thermal acclimation in both photosynthesis and respiration varies among boreal tree species, which may lead to shifts in the performance of these species as the climate warms.

  17. Response of the boreal forest ecosystem to climatic change and its silvicultural implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellomaeki, S.; Haenninen, H.; Karjalainen, T. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry] [and others

    1996-12-31

    During the next 100 years, the mean annual temperature is expected to be 1-6 deg C higher than at present. It is also expected to be accompanied by a lengthening of the thermal growing season and increased precipitation. Consequently, climatic change will increase the uncertainty of the management of forest ecosystems in the future. In this context, this research project aimed to outline the ecological and silvicultural implications of climatic change with regard to (1) how the expected climatic change might modify the functioning and structure of the boreal forest ecosystem, and (2) how the silvicultural management of the forest ecosystem should be modified in order to maintain sustainable forest yield under changing climatic conditions. The experimental component of the project concerned first the effect that elevating temperature and elevating concentration of atmospheric carbon have on the ontogenetic development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) and on the subsequent increase in frost damage during winter. The second part of the study looked the effect of elevating temperature and elevating concentration of atmospheric carbon on the growth of Scots pine through photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, nutrient supply, and changes in crown structure. This experiment was utilised in several subprojects of the overall project

  18. Newtonian boreal forest ecology: The Scots pine ecosystem as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti Hari

    Full Text Available Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by Newton. The forest ecosystem is a complicated entity and hence we needed altogether 27 concepts to describe the material and energy flows in the metabolism of trees, ground vegetation and microbes in the soil, and to describe the regularities in tree structure. Thirtyfour axioms described the most important features in the behaviour of the forest ecosystem. We utilised numerical simulations in the analysis of the behaviour of the system resulting in clear predictions that could be tested with field data. We collected retrospective time series of diameters and heights for test material from 6 stands in southern Finland and five stands in Estonia. The numerical simulations succeeded to predict the measured diameters and heights, providing clear corroboration with our theory.

  19. Response of the boreal forest ecosystem to climatic change and its silvicultural implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellomaeki, S; Haenninen, H; Karjalainen, T [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; and others

    1997-12-31

    During the next 100 years, the mean annual temperature is expected to be 1-6 deg C higher than at present. It is also expected to be accompanied by a lengthening of the thermal growing season and increased precipitation. Consequently, climatic change will increase the uncertainty of the management of forest ecosystems in the future. In this context, this research project aimed to outline the ecological and silvicultural implications of climatic change with regard to (1) how the expected climatic change might modify the functioning and structure of the boreal forest ecosystem, and (2) how the silvicultural management of the forest ecosystem should be modified in order to maintain sustainable forest yield under changing climatic conditions. The experimental component of the project concerned first the effect that elevating temperature and elevating concentration of atmospheric carbon have on the ontogenetic development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) and on the subsequent increase in frost damage during winter. The second part of the study looked the effect of elevating temperature and elevating concentration of atmospheric carbon on the growth of Scots pine through photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, nutrient supply, and changes in crown structure. This experiment was utilised in several subprojects of the overall project

  20. Response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Aurela, Mika; Mammarella, Ivan; Thum, Tea; Tsuruta, Aki; Yang, Huiyi; Aalto, Tuula

    2017-09-01

    The influence of drought on plant functioning has received considerable attention in recent years, however our understanding of the response of carbon and water coupling to drought in terrestrial ecosystems still needs to be improved. A severe soil moisture drought occurred in southern Finland in the late summer of 2006. In this study, we investigated the response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) on the daily time scale mainly using eddy covariance flux data from the Hyytiälä (southern Finland) flux site. In addition, simulation results from the JSBACH land surface model were evaluated against the observed results. Based on observed data, the ecosystem level water use efficiency (EWUE; the ratio of gross primary production, GPP, to evapotranspiration, ET) showed a decrease during the severe soil moisture drought, while the inherent water use efficiency (IWUE; a quantity defined as EWUE multiplied with mean daytime vapour pressure deficit, VPD) increased and the underlying water use efficiency (uWUE, a metric based on IWUE and a simple stomatal model, is the ratio of GPP multiplied with a square root of VPD to ET) was unchanged during the drought. The decrease in EWUE was due to the stronger decline in GPP than in ET. The increase in IWUE was because of the decreased stomatal conductance under increased VPD. The unchanged uWUE indicates that the trade-off between carbon assimilation and transpiration of the boreal Scots pine forest was not disturbed by this drought event at the site. The JSBACH simulation showed declines of both GPP and ET under the severe soil moisture drought, but to a smaller extent compared to the observed GPP and ET. Simulated GPP and ET led to a smaller decrease in EWUE but a larger increase in IWUE because of the severe soil moisture drought in comparison to observations. As in the observations, the simulated uWUE showed no changes in the drought event. The model deficiencies exist

  1. Spatial Variability of Tree Transpiration Along a Soil Drainage Gradient of Boreal Black Spruce Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Amiro, B.; Gower, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    Boreal forests are an integral component in obtaining a predictive understanding of global climate change because they comprise 33% of the world's forests and store large amounts of carbon. Much of this carbon storage is a result of peat formation in cold, poorly-drained soils. Transpiration plays a crucial role in the interaction between carbon and water cycles due to stomatal control of these fluxes. The primary focus of this study is to quantify the spatial variability and drivers of tree transpiration in boreal forest stands across a well- to poorly-drained soil drainage gradient. Species composition of this region of boreal forest changes during succession in well-drained soils from being primarily dominated by Picea mariana with co-dominant Pinus banksiana and Populus tremuloides in younger stands to being dominated solely by Picea marianain older stands. Poorly-drained soils are dominated by Picea mariana and change little with succession. Previous work in well-drained stands showed that 1) tree transpiration changed substantially with stand age due to sapwood-to-leaf area ratio dynamics and 2) minimum leaf water potential (Ψ) was kept constant to prevent excessive cavitation. We hypothesized that 1) minimum Ψ would be constant, 2) transpiration would be proportional to the sapwood-to-leaf area ratio across a soil drainage gradient, and 3) spatial relationships between trees would vary depending on stomatal responses to vapor pressure deficit (D). We tested these hypotheses by measuring Ψ of 33 trees and sap flux from 204 trees utilizing cyclic sampling constructed to study spatial relationships. Measurements were conducted at a 42-year-old stand representing maximum tree diversity during succession. There were no significant differences between growing season averaged Ψ in well- (-0.35 and -1.37 for pre-dawn and mid-day respectively) and poorly- drained soil conditions (-0.38 and -1.41 for pre-dawn and mid-day respectively) for Picea mariana. Water use

  2. The role of entrainment in surface-atmosphere interactions over the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K.J. [Minnesota Univ., St. Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Soil Science; Lenschow, D.H.; Oncley, S.P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Kiemle, C.; Ehret, G.; Giez, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Mann, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-07-01

    We present a description of the evolution of the convective boundary layer (CBL) over the boreal forests of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, as observed by the national center for atmospheric research (NCAR) Electra research aircraft during the 1994 boreal ecosystem-atmosphere study (BOREAS). All observations were made between 1530 and 2230 UT (0930-1630 local solar time, LST). We show that the CBL flux divergence often led to drying of the CBL over the course of the day, with the greatest drying (approaching 0.5 gkg{sup -1}hr{sup -1}) observed in the morning, 1000-1200 LST, and decreasing over time to nearly no drying (0 to 0.1 gkg{sup -1}hr{sup -1}) by midafternoon (1500-1600 LST). The maximum warming (0.45 Khr{sup -1}) also occurred in the morning and decreased slightly to about 0.4 Khr{sup -1} by midafternoon. The CBL vapor pressure deficit (VPD) increases over the course of the day. A significant portion of this increase can be explained by the vertical flux divergence, though horizontal advection also appears to be important. We suggest a linkage between boundary layer growth, the vertical flux divergences, and boundary layer cloud formation, with cloud activity peaking at midday in response to rapid CBL growth, then decreasing somewhat later in the day in response to CBL warming and decreased growth. We also see evidence of feedback between increasing VPD and stomatal control. (orig.) 39 refs.

  3. Detecting Local Drivers of Fire Cycle Heterogeneity in Boreal Forests: A Scale Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Claude Bélisle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Severe crown fires are determining disturbances for the composition and structure of boreal forests in North America. Fire cycle (FC associations with continental climate gradients are well known, but smaller scale controls remain poorly documented. Using a time since fire map (time scale of 300 years, the study aims to assess the relative contributions of local and regional controls on FC and to describe the relationship between FC heterogeneity and vegetation patterns. The study area, located in boreal eastern North America, was partitioned into watersheds according to five scales going from local (3 km2 to landscape (2800 km2 scales. Using survival analysis, we observed that dry surficial deposits and hydrography density better predict FC when measured at the local scale, while terrain complexity and slope position perform better when measured at the middle and landscape scales. The most parsimonious model was selected according to the Akaike information criterion to predict FC throughout the study area. We detected two FC zones, one short (159 years and one long (303 years, with specific age structures and tree compositions. We argue that the local heterogeneity of the fire regime contributes to ecosystem diversity and must be considered in ecosystem management.

  4. Broadleaf deciduous forest counterbalanced the direct effect of climate on Holocene fire regime in hemiboreal/boreal region (NE Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Veski, Siim; Florescu, Gabriela; Vannière, Boris; Pfeiffer, Mirjam; O'Hara, Robert B.; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Heinsalu, Atko; Vassiljev, Jüri; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Disturbances by fire are essential for the functioning of boreal/hemiboreal forests, but knowledge of long-term fire regime dynamics is limited. We analysed macrocharcoal morphologies and pollen of a sediment record from Lake Lielais Svētiņu (eastern Latvia), and in conjunction with fire traits analysis present the first record of Holocene variability in fire regime, fuel sources and fire types in boreal forests of the Baltic region. We found a phase of moderate to high fire activity during the cool and moist early (mean fire return interval; mFRI of ∼280 years; 11,700-7500 cal yr BP) and the late (mFRI of ∼190 years; 4500-0 cal yr BP) Holocene and low fire activity (mFRI of ∼630 years) during the Holocene Thermal Optimum (7500-4500 cal yr BP). Charcoal morphotypes and the pollen record show the predominance of frequent surface fires, occasionally transitioning to the crown during Pinus sylvestris-Betula boreal forests and less frequent surface fires during the dominance of temperate deciduous forests. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that fires in boreal forests are mostly low to moderate severity surface fires, we found evidence for common occurrence of stand-replacing crown fires in Picea abies canopy. Our results highlight that charcoal morphotypes analysis allows for distinguishing the fuel types and surface from crown fires, therefore significantly advancing our interpretation of fire regime. Future warmer temperatures and increase in the frequency of dry spells and abundant biomass accumulation can enhance the fire risk on the one hand, but will probably promote the expansion of broadleaf deciduous forests to higher latitudes, on the other hand. By highlighting the capability of broadleaf deciduous forests to act as fire-suppressing landscape elements, our results suggest that fire activity may not increase in the Baltic area under future climate change.

  5. Decadal-scale ecosystem memory reveals interactive effects of drought and insect defoliation on boreal forest productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itter, M.; D'Orangeville, L.; Dawson, A.; Kneeshaw, D.; Finley, A. O.

    2017-12-01

    Drought and insect defoliation have lasting impacts on the dynamics of the boreal forest. Impacts are expected to worsen under global climate change as hotter, drier conditions forecast for much of the boreal increase the frequency and severity of drought and defoliation events. Contemporary ecological theory predicts physiological feedbacks in tree responses to drought and defoliation amplify impacts potentially causing large-scale productivity losses and forest mortality. Quantifying the interactive impacts of drought and insect defoliation on regional forest health is difficult given delayed and persistent responses to disturbance events. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate forest growth responses to interactions between drought and insect defoliation by species and size class. Delayed and persistent responses to past drought and defoliation were quantified using empirical memory functions allowing for improved detection of interactions. The model was applied to tree-ring data from stands in Western (Alberta) and Eastern (Québec) regions of the Canadian boreal forest with different species compositions, disturbance regimes, and regional climates. Western stands experience chronic water deficit and forest tent caterpillar (FTC) defoliation; Eastern stands experience irregular water deficit and spruce budworm (SBW) defoliation. Ecosystem memory to past water deficit peaked in the year previous to growth and decayed to zero within 5 (West) to 8 (East) years; memory to past defoliation ranged from 8 (West) to 12 (East) years. The drier regional climate and faster FTC defoliation dynamics (compared to SBW) likely contribute to shorter ecosystem memory in the West. Drought and defoliation had the largest negative impact on large-diameter, host tree growth. Surprisingly, a positive interaction was observed between drought and defoliation for large-diameter, non-host trees likely due to reduced stand-level competition for water. Results highlight the

  6. Quantifying Boreal Forest Structure and Composition Using UAV Structure from Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Alonzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast extent and inaccessibility of boreal forest ecosystems are barriers to routine monitoring of forest structure and composition. In this research, we bridge the scale gap between intensive but sparse plot measurements and extensive remote sensing studies by collecting forest inventory variables at the plot scale using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and a structure from motion (SfM approach. At 20 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA subplots in interior Alaska, we acquired overlapping imagery and generated dense, 3D, RGB (red, green, blue point clouds. We used these data to model forest type at the individual crown scale as well as subplot-scale tree density (TD, basal area (BA, and aboveground biomass (AGB. We achieved 85% cross-validation accuracy for five species at the crown level. Classification accuracy was maximized using three variables representing crown height, form, and color. Consistent with previous UAV-based studies, SfM point cloud data generated robust models of TD (r2 = 0.91, BA (r2 = 0.79, and AGB (r2 = 0.92, using a mix of plot- and crown-scale information. Precise estimation of TD required either segment counts or species information to differentiate black spruce from mixed white spruce plots. The accuracy of species-specific estimates of TD, BA, and AGB at the plot scale was somewhat variable, ranging from accurate estimates of black spruce TD (+/−1% and aspen BA (−2% to misallocation of aspen AGB (+118% and white spruce AGB (−50%. These results convey the potential utility of SfM data for forest type discrimination in FIA plots and the remaining challenges to develop classification approaches for species-specific estimates at the plot scale that are more robust to segmentation error.

  7. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. J. Simpson; S. K. Akagi; B. Barletta; N. J. Blake; Y. Choi; G. S. Diskin; A. Fried; H. E. Fuelberg; S. Meinardi; F. S. Rowland; S. A. Vay; A. J. Weinheimer; P. O. Wennberg; P. Wiebring; A. Wisthaler; M. Yang; R. J. Yokelson; D. R. Blake

    2011-01-01

    Boreal regions comprise about 17% of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic...

  8. High-resolution records detect human-caused changes to the boreal forest wildfire regime in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Wooller, Matthew J.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2016-01-01

    Stand-replacing wildfires are a keystone disturbance in the boreal forest, and they are becoming more common as the climate warms. Paleo-fire archives from the wildland–urban interface can quantify the prehistoric fire regime and assess how both human land-use and climate change impact ecosystem dynamics. Here, we use a combination of a sedimentary charcoal record preserved in varved lake sediments (annually layered) and fire scars in living trees to document changes in local fire return intervals (FRIs) and regional fire activity over the last 500 years. Ace Lake is within the boreal forest, located near the town of Fairbanks in interior Alaska, which was settled by gold miners in AD 1902. In the 400 years before settlement, fires occurred near the lake on average every 58 years. After settlement, fires became much more frequent (average every 18  years), and background charcoal flux rates rose to four times their preindustrial levels, indicating a region-wide increase in burning. Despite this surge in burning, the preindustrial boreal forest ecosystem and permafrost in the watershed have remained intact. Although fire suppression has reduced charcoal influx since the 1950s, an aging fuel load experiencing increasingly warm summers may pose management problems for this and other boreal sites that have similar land-use and fire histories. The large human-caused fire events that we identify can be used to test how increasingly common megafires may alter ecosystem dynamics in the future.

  9. The effects of forest-savanna-grassland gradients on bird communities of Chiquitano Dry Forests domain, in western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Mauricio N; Souza, Edivaldo O DE

    2016-01-01

    Different vegetation types are distributed in mountains according to altitude, topography and soil. The composition and structure of bird communities in these areas can change in relation to the vegetation gradient, with particular communities occupying each habitat type. In this study we present the changes in composition, species richness and bird abundance over the gradient of forests, savannas and altitudinal grasslands of Maciço do Urucum, a mountainous region located in the Chiquitano Dry Forests domain in western Brazil. We recorded 165 bird species through qualitative and quantitative methods. Forested savannas, riparian forests and submontane forests presented the highest richness and abundance of birds, while arboreal savannas and altitudinal grasslands had intermediate and low values, respectively. The bird composition was similar between riparian and submontane forests, while other vegetation types present more dissimilar bird communities. Our results show differences in composition, richness and bird abundance among the vegetation types present at Maciço do Urucum, and highlight an important function of vegetation gradients for the conservation of bird communities in mountains. Additionally, this is the first study of the bird communities in the Brazilian Chiquitano Dry Forests, an important domain in the west of Brazil which has been poorly studied.

  10. The Effect of Pollution on Newly-Formed Particle Composition in Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaattovaara, Petri

    2010-05-01

    Petri Vaattovaara (1), Tuukka Petäjä (2), Jorma Joutsensaari (1), Pasi Miettinen (1), Boris Zaprudin (1,6), Aki Kortelainen (1), Juha Heijari (3,7), Pasi Yli-Pirilä (3), Pasi Aalto (2), Doug R. Worsnop (4), and Ari Laaksonen(1,5) (1) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (2) University of Helsinki, Finland (3) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (4) Aerodyne Research Inc., USA (5) Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland (6) Currently at University of Turku, Finland (7) Currently at Maritime Research Centre, Finland Email address of the Corresponding author: Petri.Vaattovaara@uef.fi The geographical extent of the tropical, temperate and boreal forests is about 30% of the Earth's land surface. Those forests are located around the world in different climate zones effecting widely on atmospheric composition via new particle formation. The Boreal forests solely cover one third of the forests extent and are one of the largest vegetation environments, forming a circumpolar band throughout the northern hemisphere continents, with a high potential to affect climate processes [1]. In order to more fully understand the possible climatic effects of the forests, the properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in varying conditions (e.g. a change in meteorological parameters or in the concentrations of biogenic and antropogenic trace gases) need to be better known. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer [2]) and the UFH-TDMA (ultrafine hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer [3]) methods parallel to shed light on the evolution of the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions (via physic-chemical properties) at a virgin boreal forest site in varying conditions. The measurements were carried out at Hyytiälä forest station in Northern Europe (Finland) during 15 spring nucleation events. We also carried out a statistical analysis using linear correlations in order to explain the variability in

  11. A Multi-Scale Perspective of the Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Birds in Eastern Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Thompson; Therese M. Donovan; Richard M. DeGraff; John Faaborg; Scott K. Robinson

    2002-01-01

    We propose a model that considers forest fragmentation within a spatial hierarchy that includes regional or biogeographic effects, landscape-level fragmentation effects, and local habitat effects. We hypothesize that effects operate "top down" in that larger scale effects provide constraints or context for smaller scale effects. Bird species' abundance...

  12. Climate Warming Can Increase Soil Carbon Fluxes Without Decreasing Soil Carbon Stocks in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, S. E.; Benner, R. H.; Billings, S. A.; Edwards, K. A.; Philben, M. J.; Zhu, X.; Laganiere, J.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystem C fluxes respond positively to climate warming, however, the net impact of changing C fluxes on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks over decadal scales remains unclear. Manipulative studies and global-scale observations have informed much of the existing knowledge of SOC responses to climate, providing insights on relatively short (e.g. days to years) and long (centuries to millennia) time scales, respectively. Natural climate gradient studies capture integrated ecosystem responses to climate on decadal time scales. Here we report the soil C reservoirs, fluxes into and out of those reservoirs, and the chemical composition of inputs and soil organic matter pools along a mesic boreal forest climate transect. The sites studied consist of similar forest composition, successional stage, and soil moisture but differ by 5.2°C mean annual temperature. Carbon fluxes through these boreal forest soils were greatest in the lowest latitude regions and indicate that enhanced C inputs can offset soil C losses with warming in these forests. Respiration rates increased by 55% and the flux of dissolved organic carbon from the organic to mineral soil horizons tripled across this climate gradient. The 2-fold increase in litterfall inputs to these soils coincided with a significant increase in the organic horizon C stock with warming, however, no significant difference in the surface mineral soil C stocks was observed. The younger mean age of the mineral soil C ( 70 versus 330 YBP) provided further evidence for the greater turnover of SOC in the warmer climate soils. In spite of these differences in mean radiocarbon age, mineral SOC exhibited chemical characteristics of highly decomposed material across all regions. In contrast with depth trends in soil OM diagenetic indices, diagenetic shifts with latitude were limited to increases in C:N and alkyl to O-alkyl ratios in the overlying organic horizons in the warmer relative to the colder regions. These data indicate that the

  13. The effect to the water stress to soil CO2 efflux in the Siberian boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnykina, A. V.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Verkhovets, S. V.; Koshurnikova, N. N.

    2017-12-01

    The boreal forests in Siberia covered more than 70% area of this region. Due to the climate change this ecosystems represent a very sensitive and significant source of carbon. In forests, total ecosystem respiration tends to be dominated by soil respiration, which accounts for approximately 69% of this large flux (Janssens et al., 2001). Dynamic global vegetation models predict that soil respiration will increase more than total net primary productivity in response to warmer temperatures and increase in precipitation, the terrestrial carbon sink is expected to decline significantly (Bonan et al., 2003). The aim of the present study was to identify the response of the soil CO2 efflux to the different amount of water input for two highly differentiated years by the precipitation conditions in the middle taiga forests in Central Siberia. The study was conducted in the pine forests in Central Siberia (60°N, 90°E), Russia. We used the automated soil CO2 flux system LI-8100 for measuring the soil efflux. Soil temperature was measured with Soil Temperature Probe Type E in three depths 5, 10, 15 cm. Volumetric soil moisture was measured with Theta Probe Model ML2. We constructed the field experiment based on the addition of different amount of water (0%, 25%, 50% and 100% sites) after each rain event during the growing season. We found that the amount of precipitation have a huge impact to the value of soil CO2 efflux. For the more precipitated year (2015) the fluxes were almost twice higher compared to less precipitated year (2016). The max fluxes during the season in 2015 observed at the site without any water input there and the min one - for the 100% precipitation site (natural rain conditions). In 2016 we identified the opposite response: the max soil efflux demonstrated the site with 100% precipitation conditions (Fig. 1). We also detected the high dependence between the soil temperature and soil CO2 efflux for the site with 0% additional water input in more

  14. Bichromatic Scintillometer Measurements of Sensible and Latent Heat Fluxes over a Boreal Forested Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, P. E.; Nadeau, D.; Parent, A. C.; Rousseau, A. N.; Jutras, S.; Anctil, F.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal forest covers roughly 10% of the earth emerged surface, making it one of the world most common type of landscape. There is a large number of studies on the land-atmosphere exchanges of water and energy for this type of forested surfaces. However, few were located in complex terrain, and, to the best of our knowledge, none have looked at continuous regional scale fluxes. Scintillometry is a powerful tool that allows such measurements, but is usually used over flat homogeneous terrain due to its dependency on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory. However, some recent studies have applied this method over slopes, measuring fluxes comparable to those using the eddy covariance method. Still, more experiments are needed using scintillometry over sloped surfaces. This study presents bichromatic scintillometer measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a boreal-forested valley. The field site is located in the Montmorency Forest, Québec, Canada (47°17'N; 71°10'W). The instrumented valley is surrounded by ridges at 900 m elevation, with the bottom stream at 785 m, and follows a 300-120° azimuth coinciding with the two main wind direction (up and down-valley, respectively). Vegetation mostly includes balsam firs 6-10 m tall, creating a rough but homogeneous surface. Scintillometer transmitters and receivers are installed on top of the ridges enclosing the valley, making the path 1.35 km long and its effective height 70-m tall. The setup includes a large aperture and a micro-wave scintillometer with crossing paths allowing the use of the bichromatic method. Measurement are taken continuously from August to October 2017. Scintillometer fluxes are compared with those measured by a 15-m eddy covariance tower located 100 m west of the measurement path, on the southern slope of the valley. Net radiation is also measured to assess energy budget closure over the valley. The setup allows us to test the limits of applicability of scintillometer measurements, especially

  15. Boreal Forests Sequester Large Amounts of Mercury over Millennial Time Scales in the Absence of Wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Reiner; Clemmensen, Karina E; Wardle, David A; Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard

    2017-03-07

    Alterations in fire activity due to climate change and fire suppression may have profound effects on the balance between storage and release of carbon (C) and associated volatile elements. Stored soil mercury (Hg) is known to volatilize due to wildfires and this could substantially affect the land-air exchange of Hg; conversely the absence of fires and human disturbance may increase the time period over which Hg is sequestered. Here we show for a wildfire chronosequence spanning over more than 5000 years in boreal forest in northern Sweden that belowground inventories of total Hg are strongly related to soil humus C accumulation (R 2 = 0.94, p millennial time scales in the prolonged absence of fire.

  16. Evidence for Diverse Biogeochemical Drivers of Boreal Forest New Particle Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Michael J.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Ehn, Mikael; Mauldin, R. Lee; Sarnela, Nina; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N.

    2018-02-01

    New particle formation (NPF) is an important contributor to particle number in many locations, but the chemical drivers for this process are not well understood. Daytime NPF events occur regularly in the springtime Finnish boreal forest and strongly impact aerosol abundance. In April 2014 size-resolved chemical measurements of ambient nanoparticles were made using the Time-of-Flight Thermal Desorption Chemical ionization Mass Spectrometer and we report results from two NPF events. While growth overall was dominated by terpene oxidation products, newly formed 20-70 nm particles showed enhancement in apparent alkanoic acids. The events occurred on days with rapid transport of marine air, which correlated with low background aerosol loading and higher gas phase methanesulfonic acid levels. These results are broadly consistent with previous studies on Nordic NPF but indicate that further attention should be given to the sources and role of non-terpenoid organics and the possible contribution of transported marine compounds in this process.

  17. Biological pathways of radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout in a boreal forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillitte, O. (Unite de Radioecologie, Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Gembloux (Belgium)); Melin, J.; Wallberg, L. (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-10-14

    In an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of radiocaesium in the understorey vegetation, 39 macromycetes species and 33 plant species, together with humus samples, were systematically collected from the undercover vegetation in a boreal coniferous forest. The results indicate that the main factors determining interspecific differences in contamination level are the rooting depth in plants, the depth of mycelium in fungi, and the ecophysiological behaviour of fungi, mycotrophism or plant parasitism. A comparison between the investigated species and the same species growing in similar ecosystems, albeit under different climatic conditions, resulted in an almost identical ranking in terms of radiocaesium contamination levels; the contamination ratios between species were also relatively constant. From an experiment involving humus samples, it was shown that up to 40% of the radiocaesium could be retained by the microflora, particularly by mycelia.

  18. Analysis of long-term forest bird monitoring data from national forests of the western Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Niemi; Robert W. Howe; Brian R. Sturtevant; Linda R. Parker; Alexis R. Grinde; Nicholas P. Danz; Mark D. Nelson; Edmund J. Zlonis; Nicholas G. Walton; Erin E. Gnass Giese; Sue M. Lietz

    2016-01-01

    Breeding bird communities in forests of the western Great Lakes region are among the most diverse in North America, but the forest environment in this region has changed dramatically during the past 150 years. To address concerns about loss of biodiversity due to ongoing forest harvesting and to better inform forest planning, researchers have systematically monitored...

  19. Plant hydraulic strategies and their variability at high latitudes: insights from a southern Canadian boreal forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C.; Matheny, A. M.; Maillet, J.; Baltzer, J. L.; Stephens, J.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.; Sonnentag, O.

    2016-12-01

    Boreal forests cover about one third of the world's forested area with a large part of the boreal zone located in Canada. These high-latitude ecosystems respond rapidly to environmental changes. Plant water stress and the resulting drought-induced mortality has been recently hypothesised as a major driver of forest changes in western Canada. Although boreal forests often exhibit low floristic complexity, local scale abiotic heterogeneities may lead to highly variable plant functional traits and thus to diverging plant responses to environmental changes. However, detailed measurements of plant hydraulic strategies and their inter- and intra-specific variability are still lacking for these ecosystems. Here, we quantify plant water use and hydraulic strategies of black spruce (Picea mariana) and larch (Larix laricina), that are widespread in the boreal zone, at a long-term monitoring site located in central Saskatchewan (53.99° N, 105.12° W; elevation 628.94 m a.s.l.). The site is characterized by a mature black spruce overstorey that dominates the landscape with few larch individuals. The ground cover consists mainly of mosses with some peat moss and lichens over a rich soil organic layer. Tree-level sap flux density, measured with Granier-style thermal dissipation probes (N=39), and concurrently recorded radial stem dynamics, measured with high frequency dendrometers (N=13), are used to quantify plant hydraulic functioning during the 2016 growing season. Hydrometeorological measurements, including soil moisture and micrometeorological data, are used to describe environmental constraints in plant water use. Tree-level dynamics are then integrated to the landscape and compared with ecosystem-level evapotranspiration measurements from an adjacent eddy-covariance flux tower. This experimental design allows us to quantify the main environmental drivers that shape plant hydraulic strategies in this southern boreal zone and to provide new insights into the inter- and

  20. Patterns of NPP, GPP, respiration, and NEP during boreal forest succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, M.L.; Mcmillan, A.M.S.; Winston, G.C.; Rocha, A.V.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2011-01-01

    We combined year-round eddy covariance with biometry and biomass harvests along a chronosequence of boreal forest stands that were 1, 6, 15, 23, 40, 74, and 154 years old to understand how ecosystem production and carbon stocks change during recovery from stand-replacing crown fire. Live biomass (Clive) was low in the 1 and 6 year old stands, and increased following a logistic pattern to high levels in the 74 and 154year old stands. Carbon stocks in the forest floor (Cforest floor) and coarse woody debris (CCWD) were comparatively high in the 1year old stand, reduced in the 6 through 40year old stands, and highest in the 74 and 154year old stands. Total net primary production (TNPP) was reduced in the 1 and 6year old stands, highest in the 23 through 74year old stands and somewhat reduced in the 154year old stand. The NPP decline at the 154year old stand was related to increased autotrophic respiration rather than decreased gross primary production (GPP). Net ecosystem production (NEP), calculated by integrated eddy covariance, indicated the 1 and 6 year old stands were losing carbon, the 15year old stand was gaining a small amount of carbon, the 23 and 74year old stands were gaining considerable carbon, and the 40 and 154year old stands were gaining modest amounts of carbon. The recovery from fire was rapid; a linear fit through the NEP observations at the 6 and 15year old stands indicated the transition from carbon source to sink occurred within 11-12 years. The NEP decline at the 154year old stand appears related to increased losses from Clive by tree mortality and possibly from Cforest floor by decomposition. Our findings support the idea that NPP, carbon production efficiency (NPP/GPP), NEP, and carbon storage efficiency (NEP/TNPP) all decrease in old boreal stands. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Amines in boreal forest air at SMEAR II station in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmilä, Marja; Hellén, Heidi; Virkkula, Aki; Makkonen, Ulla; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Kontkanen, Jenni; Ahonen, Lauri; Kulmala, Markku; Hakola, Hannele

    2018-05-01

    We measured amines in boreal forest air in Finland both in gas and particle phases with 1 h time resolution using an online ion chromatograph (instrument for Measuring AeRosols and Gases in Ambient Air - MARGA) connected to an electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). The developed MARGA-MS method was able to separate and detect seven different amines: monomethylamine (MMA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA), propylamine (PA), and butylamine (BA). The detection limits of the method for amines were low (0.2-3.1 ng m-3), the accuracy of IC-MS analysis was 11-37 %, and the precision 10-15 %. The proper measurements in the boreal forest covered about 8 weeks between March and December 2015. The amines were found to be an inhomogeneous group of compounds, showing different seasonal and diurnal variability. Total MMA (MMA(tot)) peaked together with the sum of ammonia and ammonium ions already in March. In March, monthly means for MMA were NH4+ these were 52 ± 16 and 425 ± 371 ng m-3, respectively. Monthly medians in March for MMA(tot), NH3, and NH4+ were 90 %, gas-phase DMA correlated well with 1.1-2 nm particle number concentration (R2 = 0.63) suggesting that it participates in atmospheric clustering. EA concentrations were low all the time. Its July means were < 0.36 and 0.4 ± 0.4 ng m-3 in gas and aerosol phases, respectively, but individual concentration data correlated well with monoterpene concentrations in July. Monthly means of PA and BA were below detection limits at all times.

  2. Characterizing Zinc Speciation in Soils from a Smelter-Affected Boreal Forest Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jordan G; Farrell, Richard E; Chen, Ning; Feng, Renfei; Reid, Joel; Peak, Derek

    2016-03-01

    HudBay Minerals, Inc., has mined and/or processed Zn and Cu ore in Flin Flon, MB, Canada, since the 1930s. The boreal forest ecosystem and soil surrounding these facilities have been severely impacted by mixed metal contamination and HSO deposition. Zinc is one of the most prevalent smelter-derived contaminants and has been identified as a key factor that may be limiting revegetation. Metal toxicity is related to both total concentrations and speciation; therefore, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping were used to characterize Zn speciation in soils throughout the most heavily contaminated areas of the landscape. Zinc speciation was linked to two distinct soil types. Group I soils consist of exposed soils in weathered positions of bedrock outcrops with Zn present primarily as franklinite, a (ZnFeO) spinel mineral. Group II soils are stabilized by an invasive metal-tolerant grass species, with Zn found as a mixture of octahedral (Fe oxides) and tetrahedral Mn oxides) adsorption complexes with a franklinite component. Soil erosion influences Zn speciation through the redistribution of Zn and soil particulates from Group I landscape positions to Group II soils. Despite Group II soils having the highest concentrations of CaCl-extractable Zn, they support metal-tolerant plant growth. The metal-tolerant plants are probably preferentially colonizing these areas due to better soil and nutrient conditions as a result of soil deposition from upslope Group I areas. Zinc concentration and speciation appears to not influence the colonization by metal-tolerant grasses, but the overall soil properties and erosion effects prevent the revegetation by native boreal forest species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Priming effects in boreal black spruce forest soils: quantitative evaluation and sensitivity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Fan

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies show that introduction of fresh and easily decomposable organic carbon (OC into soil-water systems can stimulate the decomposition of soil OC (SOC via priming effects in temperate forests, shrublands, grasslands, and agro-ecosystems. However, priming effects are still not well understood in the field setting for temperate ecosystems and virtually nothing is known about priming effects (e.g., existence, frequency, and magnitude in boreal ecosystems. In this study, a coupled dissolved OC (DOC transport and microbial biomass dynamics model was developed to simultaneously simulate co-occurring hydrological, physical, and biological processes and their interactions in soil pore-water systems. The developed model was then used to examine the importance of priming effects in two black spruce forest soils, with and without underlying permafrost. Our simulations showed that priming effects were strongly controlled by the frequency and intensity of DOC input, with greater priming effects associated with greater DOC inputs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that priming effects were most sensitive to variations in the quality of SOC, followed by variations in microbial biomass dynamics (i.e., microbial death and maintenance respiration, highlighting the urgent need to better discern these key parameters in future experiments and to consider these dynamics in existing ecosystem models. Water movement carries DOC to deep soil layers that have high SOC stocks in boreal soils. Thus, greater priming effects were predicted for the site with favorable water movement than for the site with limited water flow, suggesting that priming effects might be accelerated for sites where permafrost degradation leads to the formation of dry thermokarst.

  4. Priming effects in boreal black spruce forest soils: quantitative evaluation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhaosheng; Jastrow, Julie D; Liang, Chao; Matamala, Roser; Miller, Raymond Michael

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory studies show that introduction of fresh and easily decomposable organic carbon (OC) into soil-water systems can stimulate the decomposition of soil OC (SOC) via priming effects in temperate forests, shrublands, grasslands, and agro-ecosystems. However, priming effects are still not well understood in the field setting for temperate ecosystems and virtually nothing is known about priming effects (e.g., existence, frequency, and magnitude) in boreal ecosystems. In this study, a coupled dissolved OC (DOC) transport and microbial biomass dynamics model was developed to simultaneously simulate co-occurring hydrological, physical, and biological processes and their interactions in soil pore-water systems. The developed model was then used to examine the importance of priming effects in two black spruce forest soils, with and without underlying permafrost. Our simulations showed that priming effects were strongly controlled by the frequency and intensity of DOC input, with greater priming effects associated with greater DOC inputs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that priming effects were most sensitive to variations in the quality of SOC, followed by variations in microbial biomass dynamics (i.e., microbial death and maintenance respiration), highlighting the urgent need to better discern these key parameters in future experiments and to consider these dynamics in existing ecosystem models. Water movement carries DOC to deep soil layers that have high SOC stocks in boreal soils. Thus, greater priming effects were predicted for the site with favorable water movement than for the site with limited water flow, suggesting that priming effects might be accelerated for sites where permafrost degradation leads to the formation of dry thermokarst.

  5. Mechanisms for success after long-term nutrient enrichment in a boreal forest understory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Nahanni Grainger

    Full Text Available Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest

  6. Mammalian Herbivores in the Boreal Forests: Their Numerical Fluctuations and Use by Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Danell

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the boreal zone, there are about 50 native mammalian herbivore species that belong to the orders Artiodactyla, Rodentia, and Lagomorpha. Of these species, 31 occur in the Nearctic and 24 in the Palaearctic. Only six species occur in both regions. Species of the family Cervidae have probably been, and still are, the most important group for man, as they provide both meat and hides. Pelts from squirrels, muskrats, and hares were commercially harvested at the beginning of the century, but have less value today. The semi-domestic reindeer in the Palaearctic produces meat and hides on a commercial basis. It is also used for milking, to a limited extent, as is the semi-domestic moose in Russia. The Siberian musk deer is used for its musk and is raised in captivity in China. All species heavier than 1 kg are utilized by man, those with a body mass in the range 1 kg - 1 hg are sometimes used, and species lighter than 1 hg are rarely used. Here, we review the numerical fluctuations in terms of periodicity and amplitude, based on an extensive data set found in the literature, especially from the former Soviet Union. Current understanding of the underlying factors behind the population fluctuations is briefly reviewed. Management and conservation aspects of the mammalian herbivores in the boreal zone are also discussed. We conclude that there is a challenge to manage the forests for the mammalian herbivores, but there is also a challenge to manage the populations of mammalian herbivores for the forests.

  7. Effects of climatic changes on carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes in boreal forest ecosystems of European part of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olchev, A; Kurbatova, J; Novenko, E; Desherevskaya, O; Krasnorutskaya, K

    2009-01-01

    Effects of possible climatic and vegetation changes on H 2 O and CO 2 fluxes in boreal forest ecosystems of the central part of European Russia were quantified using modeling and experimental data. The future pattern of climatic conditions for the period up to 2100 was derived using the global climatic model ECHAM5 (Roeckner et al 2003 The Atmospheric General Circulation Model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model Description, Report 349 (Hamburg: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) p 127) with the A1B emission scenario. The possible trends of future vegetation changes were obtained by reconstructions of vegetation cover and paleoclimatic conditions in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, as provided from pollen and plant macrofossil analysis of profiles in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR). Applying the method of paleoanalogues demonstrates that increasing the mean annual temperature, even by 1-2 deg. C, could result in reducing the proportion of spruce in boreal forest stands by up to 40%. Modeling experiments, carried out using a process-based Mixfor-SVAT model, show that the expected future climatic and vegetation changes lead to a significant increase of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and gross primary productivity (GPP) of the boreal forests. Despite the expected warming and moistening of the climate, the modeling experiments indicate a relatively weak increase of annual evapotranspiration (ET) and even a reduction of transpiration (TR) rates of forest ecosystems compared to present conditions.

  8. C2-C10 hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal wetland and forest floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hellén

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of various C2-C10 hydrocarbons (VOCs and halogenated hydrocarbons (VHOCs from a boreal wetland and a Scots pine forest floor in south-western Finland were measured by the static chamber technique. Isoprene was the main non-methane hydrocarbon emitted by the wetland, but small emissions of ethene, propane, propene, 1-butene, 2-methylpropene, butane, pentane and hexane were also detected. The isoprene emission from the wetland was observed to follow the commonly-used isoprene emission algorithm. The mean emission potential of isoprene was 224 µg m-2 h-1 for the whole season. This is lower than the emission potentials published earlier; that is probably at least partly due to the cold and cloudy weather during the measurements. No emissions were detected of monoterpenes or halogenated hydrocarbons from the wetland. The highest hydrocarbon emissions from the Scots pine forest floor were measured in spring and autumn. However, only a few measurements were conducted during summer. The main compounds emitted were monoterpenes. Isoprene emissions were negligible. The total monoterpene emission rates varied from zero to 373 µg m-2 h-1. The results indicated that decaying plant litter may be the source for these emissions. Small emissions of chloroform (100-800 ng m-2 h-1, ethene, propane, propene, 2-methylpropene, cis-2-butene, pentane, hexane and heptane were detected. Comparison with Scots pine emissions showed that the forest floor may be an important monoterpene source, especially in spring.

  9. Effects of Lakes on Wildfire Activity in the Boreal Forests of Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Nielsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large lakes can act as firebreaks resulting in distinct patterns in the forest mosaic. Although this is well acknowledged, much less is known about how wildfire is affected by different landscape measures of water and their interactions. Here we examine how these factors relate to historic patterns of wildfire over a 35-year period (1980–2014 for the boreal forest of Saskatchewan, Canada. This includes the amount of water in different-sized neighborhoods, the presence of islands, and the direction, distance, and shape of nearest lake of different sizes. All individual factors affected wildfire presence, with lake sizes ≥5000 ha and amount of water within a 1000-ha surrounding area the most supported spatial scales. Overall, wildfires were two-times less likely on islands, more likely further from lakes that were circular in shape, and in areas with less surrounding water. Interactive effects were common, including the effect of direction to lake as a function of distance from lakeshore and amount of surrounding water. Our results point to a strong, but complex, bottom-up control of local wildfire activity based on the configuration of natural firebreaks. In fact, fire rotation periods predicted for one area varied more than 15-fold (<47 to >700 years depending on local patterns in lakes. Old-growth forests within this fire-prone ecosystem are therefore likely to depend on the surrounding configuration of larger lakes.

  10. The Uncertainty of Biomass Estimates from Modeled ICESat-2 Returns Across a Boreal Forest Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, P. M.; Rosette, J.; Sun, G.; North, P.; Nelson, R. F.; Dubayah, R. O.; Ranson, K. J.; Kharuk, V.

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Light (FLIGHT) radiative transfer model was used to examine the uncertainty of vegetation structure measurements from NASA's planned ICESat-2 photon counting light detection and ranging (LiDAR) instrument across a synthetic Larix forest gradient in the taiga-tundra ecotone. The simulations demonstrate how measurements from the planned spaceborne mission, which differ from those of previous LiDAR systems, may perform across a boreal forest to non-forest structure gradient in globally important ecological region of northern Siberia. We used a modified version of FLIGHT to simulate the acquisition parameters of ICESat-2. Modeled returns were analyzed from collections of sequential footprints along LiDAR tracks (link-scales) of lengths ranging from 20 m-90 m. These link-scales traversed synthetic forest stands that were initialized with parameters drawn from field surveys in Siberian Larix forests. LiDAR returns from vegetation were compiled for 100 simulated LiDAR collections for each 10 Mg · ha(exp -1) interval in the 0-100 Mg · ha(exp -1) above-ground biomass density (AGB) forest gradient. Canopy height metrics were computed and AGB was inferred from empirical models. The root mean square error (RMSE) and RMSE uncertainty associated with the distribution of inferred AGB within each AGB interval across the gradient was examined. Simulation results of the bright daylight and low vegetation reflectivity conditions for collecting photon counting LiDAR with no topographic relief show that 1-2 photons are returned for 79%-88% of LiDAR shots. Signal photons account for approximately 67% of all LiDAR returns, while approximately 50% of shots result in 1 signal photon returned. The proportion of these signal photon returns do not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) for AGB intervals greater than 20 Mg · ha(exp -1). The 50m link-scale approximates the finest horizontal resolution (length) at which photon counting LiDAR collection provides strong model

  11. Cumulative Effects of Barriers on the Movements of Forest Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration from habitat loss (composition, and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these limitations by standardizing differences in forest cover in a clearly anisotropic configuration of habitat fragmentation by conducting a homing experiment with three species of forest birds in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park, Canada. Birds were translocated (1.2-3.5  km either parallel or perpendicular to four/five parallel barriers that are assumed to impede the cross-valley travel of forest-dependent animals. Taken together, individuals exhibited longer return times when they were translocated across these barriers, but differences among species suggest a more complex interpretation. A long-distance migrant (Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata behaved as predicted, but a short-distance migrant (Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa was indifferent to barrier configuration. A resident (Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis exhibited longer return times when it was translocated parallel to the barriers. Our results suggest that an anisotropic arrangement of small, open areas in fragmented landscapes can have a cumulative barrier effect on the movement of forest animals, but that both modelers and managers will have to acknowledge potentially counterintuitive differences among species to predict the effect that these may have on individual movement and, ultimately, dispersal.

  12. Measurement and modeling of bryophyte evaporation in a boreal forest chronosequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Gower, Stith T.; Amiro, Brian; Ewers, Brent

    2011-01-19

    The effects of changing climate and disturbance on forest water cycling are not well understood. In particular bryophytes contribute significantly to forest evapotranspiration (ET) in poorly-drained boreal forests, but few studies have directly measured this flux and how it changes with stand age and soil drainage. We used large chambers to measure bryophyte evaporation (E) in Canadian Picea mariana forests of varying ages and soil drainages, as well under controlled laboratory conditions, and modeled daily E using site-specific meteorological data to drive a Penman-Monteith-based model. Field measurements of E averaged 0.37 mm day-1, and ranged from 0.03 (Pleurozium schreberii in a 77-year-old dry stand) to 1.43 mm day-1 (Sphagnum riparium in a 43-year-old bog). canopy resistance ranged from ~0 (at 25 °C, some values were <0) to ~1500 s m-1 for dry, cold (5 °C) mosses. In the laboratory, moss canopy resistance was constant until a moss water content of ~6 g g-1 and then climbed sharply with further drying; no difference was observed between the three moss groups (feather mosses, hollow mosses, and hummock mosses) tested. Modeled annual E fluxes from bryophytes ranged from 0.4 mm day-1, in the well-drained stands, to ~1 mm day-1 in the 43-year-old bog, during the growing season. Eddy covariance data imply that bryophytes contributed 18-31% and 49-69% to the total ET flux, at the well- and poorly-drained stands respectively. Bryophyte E was greater in bogs than in upland stands, was driven by low-lying mosses, and did not vary with stand age; this suggests that shifts in forest age due to increasing fire will have little effect on the bryophyte contribution to ET.

  13. Visualizing the Forest in a Boreal Forest Landscape—The Perspective of Swedish Municipal Comprehensive Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Thellbro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available At the international policy level, there is a clear link between access to information about forests and the work towards sustainable land use. However, involving forests in planning for sustainable development (SuD at the Swedish local level, by means of municipal comprehensive planning (MCP, is complicated by sector structure and legislation. Currently, there is a gap or hole in the MCP process when it comes to use and access to knowledge about forest conditions and forest land use. This hole limits the possibilities to formulate well-informed municipal visions and goals for sustainable forest land use as well as for overall SuD. Here we introduce an approach for compilation and presentation of geographic information to increase the preconditions for integrating forest information into Swedish MCP. We produce information about forest ownership patterns and forest conditions in terms of age and significant ecological and social values in forests for a case study municipality. We conclude that it is possible to effectively compile geographic and forest-related information to fill the hole in the municipal land use map. Through our approach, MCP could be strengthened as a tool for overall land use planning and hence as a base in SuD planning.

  14. Status of the globally threatened forest birds of northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Alves Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil hosts a unique biota which is among the most threatened in the Neotropics. Near-total conversion of forest habitat to sugar cane monocultures has left the region's endemic forest-dependent avifauna marooned in a few highly-fragmented and degraded forest remnants. Here we summarise the current status of 16 globally threatened species based on surveys conducted over the last 11 years. We found a bleak situation for most of these species and consider that three endemics: Glaucidium mooreorum (Pernambuco Pygmy-owl, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (Cryptic Treehunter and Philydor novaesi (Alagoas Foliage-gleaner are most likely globally extinct. Some positive news can, however, be reported for both Leptodon forbesi (White-collared Kite and Synallaxis infuscata (Pinto's Spinetail which may warrant re-evaluation of their respective red list statuses. We outline a road map to prioritise conservation interventions in the region directed at preventing the extinction of this suite of threatened bird species and their companion biota.

  15. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D Rittenhouse

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance.We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States.Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years. Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these findings suggest some regions of the United

  16. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Pidgeon, Anna M; Albright, Thomas P; Culbert, Patrick D; Clayton, Murray K; Flather, Curtis H; Huang, Chengquan; Masek, Jeffrey G; Stewart, Susan I; Radeloff, Volker C

    2010-08-02

    Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance. We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period) and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route) that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States. Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years). Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these findings suggest some regions of the United States may

  17. Plant component features of forest-bog ecotones of eutrophic paludification in the south of boreal forest zone of West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, N. V.; Chernova, N. A.; Pologova, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    Paludified forests formed in transitional forest-bog zone aren’t studied enough, inspite of its high expected diversity and large areas in the south of boreal forest zone of West Siberia. In this article wet birch (Betula pubescens) forests of forest-bog ecotones of eutrophic paludification are investigated on Vasyugan plain with nutrient-rich calcareous clays as soil-forming rocks. Species diversity and ecocoenotic structure of these phytocoenoses are discussed. They correlated with wetness and nutrient-availability of habitats evaluated with indicator values of plants. The participation of hydrophylous species is increasing as wetness of habitats increasing in the forest-to-bog direction like in mesotrophic paludification series. However the number of species is higher in the phytocoenoses of eutrophic paludification. The share of species required to nutrient availability is also higher, both in number and in abundance. A lot of these species are usual for eutrophic boreal forested swamps with groundwater input and absent in forests of mesotrophic paludification. Accordingly the nutrient-availability of habitats is also higher. All these features we connect with birch to be a forest forming species instead of dark-coniferous and with the influence of nutrient-rich parent rocks, which is evident in forest-bog ecotones of Vasyugan plain gradually decreasing together with peat horizon thickening.

  18. Regional Instability in the Abundance of Open Stands in the Boreal Forest of Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rija Rapanoela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fires are a key disturbance of boreal forests. In fact, they are the main source of renewal and evolution for forest stands. The variability of fire through space and time results in a diversified forest mosaic, altering their species composition, structure and productivity. A resilient forest is assumed to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the fire regime, so that the composition, age structure and succession stages of forests should be consistent with the fire regime. Dense spruce-moss stands tend, however, to diminish in favour of more open stands similar to spruce-lichen stands when subjected to more frequent and recurring disturbances. This study therefore focused on the effects of spatial and temporal variations in burn rates on the proportion of open stands over a large geographic area (175,000 km2 covered by black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton, Sterns, Poggenb.. The study area was divided into 10 different zones according to burn rates, as measured using fire-related data collected between 1940 and 2006. To test if the abundance of open stands was unstable over time and not in equilibrium with the current fire regime, forest succession was simulated using a landscape dynamics model that showed that the abundance of open stands should increase progressively over time in zones where the average burn rate is high. The proportion of open stands generated during a specific historical period is correlated with the burn rate observed during the same period. Rising annual burn rates over the past two decades have thereby resulted in an immediate increase in the proportion of open stands. There is therefore a difference between the current proportion of open stands and the one expected if vegetation was in equilibrium with the disturbance regime, reflecting an instability that may significantly impact the way forest resources are managed. It is apparent from this study that forestry planning should consider the risks associated

  19. Impacts of Potential Oak Forest Change on Breeding Birds in Northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. James

    2004-01-01

    Birds found on existing census routes in the Ozark region of northwestern Arkansas were used to predict avifaunal changes that could occur in the area due to oak-hickory forest degradation caused by red oak borer beetle infestations. The two census routes used passed through high elevation forests where red oaks thrive the best. Analysis showed that 21 bird species...

  20. SUBMONTANE FOREST AT BANTIMURUNG BULUSARAUNG NATIONAL PARK: HOTSPOT OF BIRD DIVERSITY AND ITS MANAGEMENT CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra A.S.L.P. Putri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Submontane forest is considered as one of the biodiversity hotspot.  Scientific information on bird diversity in this forest, however are lacking.  The aim of this research was to find out submontane forest bird diversity and its conservation management.  The research was carried out in three forests areas at Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park submontane forest.  Point Count method was used to observe bird population. Data were analyzed using Shannon-Weiner diversity index, Pielou Evenness index, Simpson dominance index, Margalef species richness index, and Sorensen Similarity index. The significance different between the number of individual bird was tested using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.  The result showed that submontane forest at Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park is rich in bird diversity, bird endemic species and protected bird species.  There was a significant different on the number of individual bird at several human disturbance levels.  Based on these conditions, it is important to enhance understanding of the local people regarding zonation and develop cooperation with many stakeholders to increase the local community awareness concerning forest conservation. It is also necessary to ensure the sustainability of the National Park’s conservation program to maintain the submontane forest conservation.

  1. Use of Hardwood Tree Species by Birds Nesting in Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Douglas A. Drynan

    2008-01-01

    We examined the use of hardwood tree species for nesting by bird species breeding in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the Sierra National Forest, California. From 1995 through 2002, we located 668 nests of 36 bird species nesting in trees and snags on four 60-ha study sites. Two-thirds of all species nesting in trees or snags used...

  2. Birds on fragmented islands : persistence in the forests of Java and Bali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, van S.

    1999-01-01

    This study describes, analyses and provides suggestions for the amelioration of the impact of age-long deforestation on the distribution of forest birds on the islands of Java and Bali (Indonesia). The first section deals with colonisation and extinction processes of forest birds in a

  3. USDA Forest Service goals and programs for monitoring neotropical migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Manley

    1993-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) developed goals, objectives, and guidelines for monitoring neotropical migratory birds (NTMB) on National Forest System lands in response to the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program Partners in Flight. A USFS task group developed a hierarchical monitoring framework designed to define priorities for type of monitoring data....

  4. Changes in plant water use efficiency over the recent past reconstructed using palaeo plant records from the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagen, M.; Finsinger, W.; McCarroll, D.; Wagner, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Boreal forests contains 33% of the earth's forest cover and are located at the latitude where most of the estimated global warming is predicted to occur. Warming as a consequence of rising carbon dioxide will affect evapotranspiration within the biome, with significant consequences given that water vapour is an important greenhouse gas. However, there is also a physiological forcing associated with the effects of rising carbon dioxide on plants. Higher atmospheric carbon dioxide will reduce evapotraspiration because tree stomata tend to close under elevated carbon dioxide. The warming associated with reduced evapotranspiration is known as carbon dioxide physiological forcing and it is not well constrained. Here we suggest that future predictions of evapotranspiration flux within the Boreal forest zone might be more accurately gauged by taking account of palaeo evidence of changing plant water use efficiency and stomatal density in the two most important Boreal plant species: Pinus sylvestris and Betula nana. Stable carbon isotope ratios in tree ring cellulose and stomatal density measurements, from preserved leaves falling on the forest floor, hold a record of the plant physiological changes associated with adjustment to rising carbon dioxide. We present evidence that, rather than plants simply closing their stomatal apertures under recent elevated carbon dioxide, over the last 150 years reduced evapotranspiration in the northern Boreal forest has been associated with a powerful plastic response including reductions in stomatal conductance via changes in stomatal density and pore length. Furthermore we present evidence that trees may be reaching the limits of their ability to respond plastically to rising carbon dioxide by increasing their water use efficiency.

  5. Interspecific variation in growth responses to tree size, competition and climate of western Canadian boreal mixed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Huang, Jian-Guo; Cheng, Jiong; Dawson, Andria; Stadt, Kenneth J; Comeau, Philip G; Chen, Han Y H

    2018-08-01

    Tree growth of boreal forest plays an important role on global carbon (C) cycle, while tree growth in the western Canadian boreal mixed forests has been predicted to be negatively affected by regional drought. Individual tree growth can be controlled by many factors, such as competition, climate, tree size and age. However, information about contributions of different factors to tree growth is still limited in this region. In order to address this uncertainty, tree rings of two dominant tree species, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss), were sampled from boreal mixed forest stands distributed across Alberta, Canada. Tree growth rates over different time intervals (10years interval, 1998-2007; 20years interval, 1988-2007; 30years interval, 1978-2007) were calculated to study the effects of different factors (tree size, competition, climate, and age) on tree growth. Results indicated that tree growth of two species were both primarily affected by competition or tree size, while climatic indices showed less effects on tree growth. Growth of trembling aspen was significantly affected by inter- and intraspecific competition, while growth of white spruce was primarily influenced by tree size, followed by competition. Positive relationship was found between growth of white spruce and competition index of coniferous group, suggesting an intraspecific mutualism mechanism within coniferous group. Our results further suggested that competition driven succession was the primary process of forest composition shift in the western Canadian boreal mixed forest. Although drought stress increased tree mortality, decline of stem density under climate change released competition stress of surviving trees, which in turn sustained growth of surviving trees. Therefore, climatic indices showed fewer effects on growth of dominant tree species compared to other factors in our study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Salvage logging following fires can minimize boreal caribou habitat loss while maintaining forest quotas: An example of compensatory cumulative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguin, Julien; McIntire, Eliot J B; Raulier, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Protected area networks are the dominant conservation approach that is used worldwide for protecting biodiversity. Conservation planning in managed forests, however, presents challenges when endangered species use old-growth forests targeted by the forest industry for timber supply. In many ecosystems, this challenge is further complicated by the occurrence of natural disturbance events that disrupt forest attributes at multiple scales. Using spatially explicit landscape simulation experiments, we gather insights into how these large scale, multifaceted processes (fire risk, timber harvesting and the amount of protected area) influenced both the persistence of the threatened boreal caribou and the level of timber supply in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. Our result showed that failure to account explicitly and a priori for fire risk in the calculation of timber supply led to an overestimation of timber harvest volume, which in turn led to rates of cumulative disturbances that threatened both the long-term persistence of boreal caribou and the sustainability of the timber supply itself. Salvage logging, however, allowed some compensatory cumulative effects. It minimised the reductions of timber supply within a range of ∼10% while reducing the negative impact of cumulative disturbances caused by fire and logging on caribou. With the global increase of the human footprint on forest ecosystems, our approach and results provide useful tools and insights for managers to resolve what often appear as lose-lose situation between the persistence of species at risk and timber harvest in other forest ecosystems. These tools contribute to bridge the gap between conservation and forest management, two disciplines that remain too often disconnected in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: insights from a global process-based vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, P.; Harden, J.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forests. They leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. This forest age dynamics must be included in vegetation models to accurately quantify the role of fire in the historical and current regional forest carbon balance. The present study adapted the global process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate the CO2 emissions from boreal forest fire and the subsequent recovery after a stand-replacing fire; the model represents postfire new cohort establishment, forest stand structure and the self-thinning process. Simulation results are evaluated against observations of three clusters of postfire forest chronosequences in Canada and Alaska. The variables evaluated include: fire carbon emissions, CO2 fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange), leaf area index, and biometric measurements (aboveground biomass carbon, forest floor carbon, woody debris carbon, stand individual density, stand basal area, and mean diameter at breast height). When forced by local climate and the atmospheric CO2 history at each chronosequence site, the model simulations generally match the observed CO2 fluxes and carbon stock data well, with model-measurement mean square root of deviation comparable with the measurement accuracy (for CO2 flux ~100 g C m−2 yr−1, for biomass carbon ~1000 g C m−2 and for soil carbon ~2000 g C m−2). We find that the current postfire forest carbon sink at the evaluation sites, as observed by chronosequence methods, is mainly due to a combination of historical CO2 increase and forest succession. Climate change and variability during this period offsets some of these expected carbon gains. The negative impacts of climate were a likely consequence of increasing water stress caused by significant temperature increases that were not matched by concurrent increases in precipitation. Our simulation

  8. Evaporation components of a boreal forest: variations during the growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelle, A.; Lundberg, A.; Lindroth, A.; Morén, A.-S.; Cienciala, E.

    1997-10-01

    To improve the understanding of interactions between the boreal forest and the climate system as a key issue for global climate change, the water budget of a mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden was estimated by measurements of the water flux components and the total evaporation flux during the period 16 May-31 October 1995. Total evaporation was measured using eddy correlation and the components were obtained using measurements of precipitation, throughfall, tree transpiration, and forest floor evaporation. On a daily basis, tree transpiration was the dominant evaporation component during the vegetation period. However, it could be efficiently blocked by a wet canopy associated with large interception evaporation. The accumulated total evaporation was 399 mm, transpiration was 243 mm, forest floor evaporation was 56 mm and interception evaporation was 74 mm. The accumulated sum of interception, transpiration, and floor evaporation was 51 mm larger than the actual measured total evaporation. This difference was mainly attributed to the fact that transpiration was measured in a rather dense 50-year-old stand while total evaporation represented the average conditions of older, roughly 100-year-old stands. To compare eddy-correlation measurements with small-scale measurements of evaporation components, a source area analysis was made to select the flux data that give the best representation of the investigated stand. Especially under stable atmospheric conditions the requirements for surface homogeneity were very high and extreme care had to be taken to be aware of the flux source areas. Canopy water storage was determined by two methods: by the water balance of the canopy, which gave a result of 3.3 mm; and by the so-called minimum method based on plots of throughfall versus precipitation, which gave a much lower value of 1.5 mm. Seasonal interception evaporation constituted 30% of the precipitation.

  9. Optimizing continuous cover management of boreal forest when timber prices and tree growth are stochastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Decisions on forest management are made under risk and uncertainty because the stand development cannot be predicted exactly and future timber prices are unknown. Deterministic calculations may lead to biased advice on optimal forest management. The study optimized continuous cover management of boreal forest in a situation where tree growth, regeneration, and timber prices include uncertainty. Methods Both anticipatory and adaptive optimization approaches were used. The adaptive approach optimized the reservation price function instead of fixed cutting years. The future prices of different timber assortments were described by cross-correlated auto-regressive models. The high variation around ingrowth model was simulated using a model that describes the cross- and autocorrelations of the regeneration results of different species and years. Tree growth was predicted with individual tree models, the predictions of which were adjusted on the basis of a climate-induced growth trend, which was stochastic. Residuals of the deterministic diameter growth model were also simulated. They consisted of random tree factors and cross- and autocorrelated temporal terms. Results Of the analyzed factors, timber price caused most uncertainty in the calculation of the net present value of a certain management schedule. Ingrowth and climate trend were less significant sources of risk and uncertainty than tree growth. Stochastic anticipatory optimization led to more diverse post-cutting stand structures than obtained in deterministic optimization. Cutting interval was shorter when risk and uncertainty were included in the analyses. Conclusions Adaptive optimization and management led to 6%–14% higher net present values than obtained in management that was based on anticipatory optimization. Increasing risk aversion of the forest landowner led to earlier cuttings in a mature stand. The effect of risk attitude on optimization results was small.

  10. Mapping Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Pools in Boreal Forests: The Case for Airborne Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Terje; Næsset, Erik; Ohlson, Mikael; Bolstad, Paul V; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of evidence has demonstrated that airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) systems can be an effective tool in measuring and monitoring above-ground forest tree biomass. However, the potential of lidar as an all-round tool for assisting in assessment of carbon (C) stocks in soil and non-tree vegetation components of the forest ecosystem has been given much less attention. Here we combine the use airborne small footprint scanning lidar with fine-scale spatial C data relating to vegetation and the soil surface to describe and contrast the size and spatial distribution of C pools within and among multilayered Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands. Predictor variables from lidar derived metrics delivered precise models of above- and below-ground tree C, which comprised the largest C pool in our study stands. We also found evidence that lidar canopy data correlated well with the variation in field layer C stock, consisting mainly of ericaceous dwarf shrubs and herbaceous plants. However, lidar metrics derived directly from understory echoes did not yield significant models. Furthermore, our results indicate that the variation in both the mosses and soil organic layer C stock plots appears less influenced by differences in stand structure properties than topographical gradients. By using topographical models from lidar ground returns we were able to establish a strong correlation between lidar data and the organic layer C stock at a stand level. Increasing the topographical resolution from plot averages (~2000 m2) towards individual grid cells (1 m2) did not yield consistent models. Our study demonstrates a connection between the size and distribution of different forest C pools and models derived from airborne lidar data, providing a foundation for future research concerning the use of lidar for assessing and monitoring boreal forest C.

  11. Uav-Based Photogrammetric Point Clouds and Hyperspectral Imaging for Mapping Biodiversity Indicators in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, N.; Vastaranta, M.; Näsi, R.; Rosnell, T.; Hakala, T.; Honkavaara, E.; Wulder, M. A.; Luoma, V.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Imai, N. N.; Ribeiro, E. A. W.; Guimarães, R. B.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppä, J.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiversity is commonly referred to as species diversity but in forest ecosystems variability in structural and functional characteristics can also be treated as measures of biodiversity. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a means for characterizing forest ecosystem with high spatial resolution, permitting measuring physical characteristics of a forest ecosystem from a viewpoint of biodiversity. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of photogrammetric point clouds and hyperspectral imaging acquired with a small UAV helicopter in mapping biodiversity indicators, such as structural complexity as well as the amount of deciduous and dead trees at plot level in southern boreal forests. Standard deviation of tree heights within a sample plot, used as a proxy for structural complexity, was the most accurately derived biodiversity indicator resulting in a mean error of 0.5 m, with a standard deviation of 0.9 m. The volume predictions for deciduous and dead trees were underestimated by 32.4 m3/ha and 1.7 m3/ha, respectively, with standard deviation of 50.2 m3/ha for deciduous and 3.2 m3/ha for dead trees. The spectral features describing brightness (i.e. higher reflectance values) were prevailing in feature selection but several wavelengths were represented. Thus, it can be concluded that structural complexity can be predicted reliably but at the same time can be expected to be underestimated with photogrammetric point clouds obtained with a small UAV. Additionally, plot-level volume of dead trees can be predicted with small mean error whereas identifying deciduous species was more challenging at plot level.

  12. Spatiotemporal variability and modeling of the solar irradiance transmissivity through a boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, D.; Isabelle, P. E.; Asselin, M. H.; Parent, A. C.; Jutras, S.; Anctil, F.

    2017-12-01

    Solar irradiance is the largest driver of land-surface exchanges of energy, water and trace gases. Its absorption by a forest canopy generates considerable sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as tree temperature changes. A fraction of the irradiance gets transmitted through the canopy and powers another layer of energy fluxes, which can reach substantial values. Transmitted radiation is also of particular relevance to understory vegetation photosynthesis, snowpack energetics and soil temperature dynamics. Boreal forest canopy transmissivity needs to be quantified to properly reproduce land-atmosphere interactions in the circumpolar boreal biome, but its high spatiotemporal variability makes it a challenging task. The objective of this study is to characterize the spatiotemporal variability in under-canopy radiation and to evaluate the performance of various models in representing plot-scale observations. The study site is located in Montmorency Forest (47°N, 71°W), in southern Quebec, Canada. The vegetation includes mostly juvenile balsam firs, up to 6 to 8 m tall. Since January 2016, a 15-m flux tower measures the four components of radiation, as well as other relevant fluxes and meteorological variables, on a ≈10° northeast-facing slope. In summer 2016, 20 portable weather stations were mounted in a 150 m x 200 m grid around the flux tower. These stations were equipped with silicon-cell pyranometers and provided measurements of downwelling irradiance at a height of 2 m. This setup allowed us to compute irradiance transmissivity and to assess its spatiotemporal variability at the site. First, we show that the average of daily incoming energy varies tremendously across the sites, from 1 MJ/m2 to nearly 9 MJ/m2, due to large variations in canopy structure over short distances. Using a regression tree analysis, we show that transmissivity mostly depends on sun elevation, diffuse fraction of radiation, sky and sun view fraction and wind speed above canopy. We

  13. Humus layer is the main locus of secondary SO4 production in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Daniel; Marty, Charles; Duchesne, Louis; Gagnon, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Identifying the sources of S exported from catchments and the reactivity of the large soil organic S pool is crucial to understand the mid- or long-term response of forested catchments to decreasing atmospheric S deposition and global warming. Sulfur fluxes as well as S and O isotopes of SO4 were measured in precipitation, throughfall, soil solutions and streams at two boreal forest catchments respectively dominated by black spruce (BS) and balsam fir (BF) in Quebec, Canada. Overall, δ34S-SO4 signature showed relatively small variations among various solution types. However, at both sites, δ18O-SO4 in precipitation (averages of 10.5-11.1‰) was decreased by 3.5-3.6‰ in throughfall because of the production of secondary SO4 through oxidation of SO2 deposited on the canopy. Throughfall δ18O-SO4 was decreased by a further 5.4-6.6‰ in the solution leaving the humus layer which was attributed to the production of secondary SO4 under the action of soil microorganisms through the oxidation of organic S during which the S atom acquired O from water and gaseous O2 present in the soil. A mixing equation based on known isotopic signature of each source suggested that ˜67-81% of the S-SO4 leaving the catchments had interacted with the canopy and the humus layer. The stability of δ18O-SO4 in the mineral soil solution and in the stream of both sites, suggests that SO4 does not undergo reduction-oxidation cycles after its passage through the humus layer. Despite its huge size, the organic S reservoir within the mineral soil would be largely inert. Given the chemical nature of SO4 transformation in the canopy, the humus layer would be responsible for nearly 100% of the biological production of secondary SO4 in the whole watershed at both sites. Taking into account the substantial production of dissolved organic S in the humus layer further emphasizes the crucial importance of the latter in the S cycling of boreal forests.

  14. Varying boreal forest response to Arctic environmental change at the Firth River, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu-Hayles, Laia; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott; Frank, David

    2011-01-01

    The response of boreal forests to anthropogenic climate change remains uncertain, with potentially significant impacts for the global carbon cycle, albedo, canopy evapotranspiration and feedbacks into further climate change. Here, we focus on tree-ring data from the Firth River site at treeline in northeastern Alaska, in a tundra–forest transition region where pronounced warming has already occurred. Both tree-ring width (TRW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) chronologies were developed to identify the nature of tree growth and density responses to climatic and environmental changes in white spruce (Picea glauca), a dominant Arctic treeline species. Good agreement was found between the interannual fluctuations in the TRW chronology and summer temperatures from 1901 to 1950, whereas no significant relationships were found from 1951 to 2001, supporting evidence of significant divergence between TRW and summer temperature in the second half of the 20th century. In contrast to this unstable climatic response in the TRW record, the high frequency July–August temperature signal in the MXD series seems reasonably stable through the 20th century. Wider and denser rings were more frequent during the 20th century, particularly after 1950, than in previous centuries. Finally, comparison between the tree-ring proxies and a satellite-derived vegetation index suggests that TRW and MXD correlate with vegetation productivity at the landscape level at different times of the growing season.

  15. Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Leonie; Sølhaug, Knut Asbjorn; Esseen, Per-Anders; Bilger, Wolfgang; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2014-06-01

    Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that species-specific sunscreening fungal pigments protect underlying symbiotic algae differently against high light, and thus shape the vertical canopy gradient of epiphytes. Three pale species with the reflecting pigment usnic acid (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasypoga, U. longissima) and three with dark, absorbing melanins (Bryoria capillaris, B. fremontii, B. fuscescens) were compared. We subjected the lichens to desiccation stress with and without light, and assessed their performance with chlorophyll fluorescence. Desiccation alone only affected U. longissima. By contrast, light in combination with desiccation caused photoinhibitory damage in all species. Usnic lichens were significantly more susceptible to light during desiccation than melanic ones. Thus, melanin is a more efficient light-screening pigment than usnic acid. Thereby, the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in forest canopies is consistent with a shift in type and functioning of sunscreening pigments, from high-light-tolerant Bryoria in the upper to susceptible Alectoria and Usnea in the lower canopy.

  16. Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasischke, E.S.; French, N.H.F.; Harrell, P.; Christensen, N.L. Jr.; Ustin, S.L.; Barry, D.

    1993-01-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries of wildfires within the interior region of Alaska were obtained from the Alaska Fire Service, and compared to the AVHRR-derived fire-boundary map. It was found that AVHRR detected 89.5% of all fires with sizes greater than 2,000ha with no false alarms and that, for most cases, the general shape of the fire boundary detected by AVHRR matched those mapped by field observers. However, the total area contained within the fire boundaries mapped by AVHRR were only 61% of those mapped by the field observers. However, the AVHRR data used in this study did not span the entire time period during which fires occurred, and it is believed the areal estimates could be improved significantly if an expanded AVHRR data set were used

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on the boreal forest: Canada's FIG experiment, with implications for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Sheppard, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Field-Irradiator Gamma (FIG) experiment chronically irradiated a section of the Canadian boreal forest over a period of 14 years. Forest trees were affected at dose rates >0.1 mGy·h -1 , but a berbaceous plant community thrived at dose rates up to 65 mGy·h -1 . Irradiation resulted in the establishment of four zones of vegetation: a herbaceous community, a shrub community, a narrow zone of dying trees, and a zone with no apparent impacts. Concentrations of 14 C, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs and 226 Ra that could cause a dose rate of 0.1 mGy·h -1 within vegetation were calculated. Chemical toxic effects on plants would be caused by 99 Tc and 129 I before radiological effects are predicted to occur. The calculated 226 Ra concentration is about a factor of 10 greater than that measured at some natural sites. Sufficiently high concentrations of 14 C and 137 Cs to cause an impact are unlikely unless a site is severely contaminated. (author)

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation on the boreal forest: Canada's FIG experiment, with implications for radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiro, B D; Sheppard, S C

    1994-07-01

    The Field-Irradiator Gamma (FIG) experiment chronically irradiated a section of the Canadian boreal forest over a period of 14 years. Forest trees were affected at dose rates >0.1 mGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}, but a berbaceous plant community thrived at dose rates up to 65 mGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Irradiation resulted in the establishment of four zones of vegetation: a herbaceous community, a shrub community, a narrow zone of dying trees, and a zone with no apparent impacts. Concentrations of {sup 14}C, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra that could cause a dose rate of 0.1 mGy{center_dot}h{sup -1} within vegetation were calculated. Chemical toxic effects on plants would be caused by {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I before radiological effects are predicted to occur. The calculated {sup 226}Ra concentration is about a factor of 10 greater than that measured at some natural sites. Sufficiently high concentrations of {sup 14}C and {sup 137}Cs to cause an impact are unlikely unless a site is severely contaminated. (author)

  19. Interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 rectification over a boreal forest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Worthy, Douglas E. J.

    2005-08-01

    Ecosystem CO2 exchange with the atmosphere and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The strength of this kind of covariation is quantified as the rectifier effect, and it affects the vertical gradient of CO2 and thus the global CO2 distribution pattern. An 11-year (1990-1996, 1999-2002), continuous CO2 record from Fraserdale, Ontario (49°52'29.9″N, 81°34'12.3″W), along with a coupled vertical diffusion scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), are used to investigate the interannual variability of the rectifier effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well (r2 = 0.70 and 0.87, at 40 m at hourly and daily time steps, respectively) in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. The simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effect varies from 3.99 to 5.52 ppm, while the diurnal rectifying effect accounted for about a quarter of the annual total (22.8˜28.9%).The atmospheric rectification of CO2 is not simply influenced by terrestrial source and sink strengths, but by seasonal and diurnal variations in the land CO2 flux and their interaction with PBL dynamics. Air temperature and moisture are found to be the dominant climatic factors controlling the rectifier effect. The annual rectifier effect is highly correlated with annual mean temperature (r2 = 0.84), while annual mean air relative humidity can explain 51% of the interannual variation in rectification. Seasonal rectifier effect is also found to be more sensitive to climate variability than diurnal rectifier effect.

  20. Enabling intelligent copernicus services for carbon and water balance modeling of boreal forest ecosystems - North State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häme, Tuomas; Mutanen, Teemu; Rauste, Yrjö; Antropov, Oleg; Molinier, Matthieu; Quegan, Shaun; Kantzas, Euripides; Mäkelä, Annikki; Minunno, Francesco; Atli Benediktsson, Jon; Falco, Nicola; Arnason, Kolbeinn; Storvold, Rune; Haarpaintner, Jörg; Elsakov, Vladimir; Rasinmäki, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of project North State, funded by Framework Program 7 of the European Union, is to develop innovative data fusion methods that exploit the new generation of multi-source data from Sentinels and other satellites in an intelligent, self-learning framework. The remote sensing outputs are interfaced with state-of-the-art carbon and water flux models for monitoring the fluxes over boreal Europe to reduce current large uncertainties. This will provide a paradigm for the development of products for future Copernicus services. The models to be interfaced are a dynamic vegetation model and a light use efficiency model. We have identified four groups of variables that will be estimated with remote sensed data: land cover variables, forest characteristics, vegetation activity, and hydrological variables. The estimates will be used as model inputs and to validate the model outputs. The earth observation variables are computed as automatically as possible, with an objective to completely automatic estimation. North State has two sites for intensive studies in southern and northern Finland, respectively, one in Iceland and one in state Komi of Russia. Additionally, the model input variables will be estimated and models applied over European boreal and sub-arctic region from Ural Mountains to Iceland. The accuracy assessment of the earth observation variables will follow statistical sampling design. Model output predictions are compared to earth observation variables. Also flux tower measurements are applied in the model assessment. In the paper, results of hyperspectral, Sentinel-1, and Landsat data and their use in the models is presented. Also an example of a completely automatic land cover class prediction is reported.

  1. Can lowland dry forests represent a refuge from avian malaria for native Hawaiian birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Mohl, Katherine; Hart, Patrick; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii's native birds have become increasingly threatened over the past century. Introduced mosquito borne diseases such as avian malaria may be responsible for the near absence of endemic Hawaiian forest birds in low-elevation habitats. The recent recognition that some native Hawaiian forest birds may be repopulating moist lowland habitats as a result of evolved resistance to this disease has increased the conservation value of these areas. Here, we investigate whether remnant low elevation dry forests on Hawaii Island provide natural 'refuges' from mosquito-transmitted malaria by nature of their low rainfall and absence of suitable natural sources of water for mosquito breeding. Unlike lowland wet forests where high rates of disease transmission may be selecting for disease resistance, lowland dry forests may provide some refuge for native forest birds without natural resistance to malaria. We mistnetted forest birds in two lowland dry forests and tested all native birds by microscopy and serology for avian malaria caused by the Plasmodium relictum parasite. We also conducted surveys for standing water and mosquito larvae. Overall prevalence of infections with Plasmodium relictum in the Hawaii Amakihi Hemignathus virens virens was 15%. Most infected birds had lowlevel parasitemias, suggesting chronic infections. Although avian malaria is present in these lowland dry forest Amakihi populations, infection rates are significantly lower than in wet forest populations at similar elevations. Sources of breeding mosquitoes in these forests appeared to be largely anthropogenic; thus, there is potential to manage dry forests as mosquito-free habitat for Hawaii Amakihi and other Hawaiian forest birds.

  2. [Responses of boreal forest landscape in northern Great Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China to climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Na; He, Hong-Shi; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Yu

    2012-12-01

    With the combination of forest landscape model (LANDIS) and forest gap model (LINKAGES), this paper simulated the effects of climate change on the boreal forest landscape in the Great Xing'an Mountains, and compared the direct effects of climate change and the effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape. The results showed that under the current climate conditions and fire disturbances, the forest landscape in the study area could maintain its dynamic balance, and Larix gmelinii was still the dominant tree species. Under the future climate and fire disturbances scenario, the distribution area of L. gmelinii and Pinus pumila would be decreased, while that of Betula platyphylla, Populus davidiana, Populus suaveolens, Chosenia arbutifolia, and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica would be increased, and the forest fragmentation and forest diversity would have an increase. The changes of the forest landscape lagged behind climate change. Climate warming would increase the growth of most tree species except L. gmelinii, while the increased fires would increase the distribution area of P. davidiana, P. suaveolens, and C. arbutifolia and decrease the distribution area of L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. pumila. The effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape were almost equal to the direct effects of climate change, and aggravated the direct effects of climate change on forest composition, forest landscape fragmentation, and forest landscape diversity.

  3. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  4. Evaluation of a new battery of toxicity tests for boreal forest soils: assessment of the impact of hydrocarbons and salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princz, Juliska I; Moody, Mary; Fraser, Christopher; Van der Vliet, Leana; Lemieux, Heather; Scroggins, Rick; Siciliano, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    The ability to assess the toxic potential of soil contamination within boreal regions is currently limited to test species representative of arable lands. This study evaluated the use of six boreal plant species (Pinus banksiana, Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Populus tremuloides, Calamagrostis Canadensis, and Solidago canadensis) and four invertebrate species (Dendrodrilus rubidus, Folsomia nivalis, Proisotoma minuta, and Oppia nitens) and compared their performance to a suite of standard agronomic soil test species using site soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) and salt contamination. To maintain horizon-specific differences, individual soil horizons were collected from impacted sites and relayered within the test vessels. Use of the boreal species was directly applicable to the assessment of the contaminated forest soils and, in the case of the hydrocarbon-impacted soil, demonstrated greater overall sensitivity (25th percentile of estimated species sensitivity distribution [ESSD25] = 5.6% contamination: 10,600 mg/kg fraction 3 [F3; equivalent hydrocarbon range of >C16 to C34] Of/Oh horizon, and 270 mg/kg F3 Ahg horizon) relative to the standard test species (ESSD25 = 23% contamination: 44,000 mg/kg F3 Of/Oh horizon, and 1,100 mg/kg F3 Ahg horizon). For salinity, there was no difference between boreal and standard species with a combined ESSD25 = 2.3%, equating to 0.24 and 0.25 dS/m for the Ah and Ck horizons. The unequal distribution of soil invertebrates within the layered test vessels can confound test results and the interpretation of the toxic potential of a site. The use of test species relevant to boreal eco-zones strengthens the applicability of the data in support of realistic ecological risk assessments applicable to the boreal regions. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  5. Fine-scale movement decisions of tropical forest birds in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Cameron S; Beyer, Hawthorne L; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2011-04-01

    The persistence of forest-dependent species in fragmented landscapes is fundamentally linked to the movement of individuals among subpopulations. The paths taken by dispersing individuals can be considered a series of steps built from individual route choices. Despite the importance of these fine-scale movement decisions, it has proved difficult to collect such data that reveal how forest birds move in novel landscapes. We collected unprecedented route information about the movement of translocated forest birds from two species in the highly fragmented tropical dry forest of Costa Rica. In this pasture-dominated landscape, forest remains in patches or riparian corridors, with lesser amounts of living fencerows and individual trees or "stepping stones." We used step selection functions to quantify how route choice was influenced by these habitat elements. We found that the amount of risk these birds were willing to take by crossing open habitat was context dependent. The forest-specialist Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus) exhibited stronger selection for forested routes when moving in novel landscapes distant from its territory relative to locations closer to its territory. It also selected forested routes when its step originated in forest habitat. It preferred steps ending in stepping stones when the available routes had little forest cover, but avoided them when routes had greater forest cover. The forest-generalist Rufous-naped Wren (Campylorhynchus rufinucha) preferred steps that contained more pasture, but only when starting from non-forest habitats. Our results showed that forested corridors (i.e., riparian corridors) best facilitated the movement of a sensitive forest specialist through this fragmented landscape. They also suggested that stepping stones can be important in highly fragmented forests with little remaining forest cover. We expect that naturally dispersing birds and species with greater forest dependence would exhibit even stronger

  6. Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: Environmental and chemical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Black spruce forests are a dominant covertype in the boreal forest region, and they inhabit landscapes that span a wide range of hydrologic and thermal conditions. These forests often have large stores of soil organic carbon. Recent increases in temperature at northern latitudes may be stimulating decomposition rates of this soil carbon. It is unclear, however, how changes in environmental conditions influence decomposition in these systems, and if substrate controls of decomposition vary with hydrologic and thermal regime. We addressed these issues by investigating the effects of temperature, moisture, and organic matter chemical characteristics on decomposition of fibric soil horizons from three black spruce forest sites. The sites varied in drainage and permafrost, and included a "Well Drained" site where permafrost was absent, and "Moderately well Drained" and "Poorly Drained" sites where permafrost was present at about 0.5 m depth. Samples collected from each site were incubated at five different moisture contents (2, 25, 50, 75, and 100% saturation) and two different temperatures (10??C and 20??C) in a full factorial design for two months. Organic matter chemistry was analyzed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils held at 20??C, 50% saturation. Mean cumulative mineralization, normalized to initial carbon content, ranged from 0.2% to 4.7%, and was dependent on temperature, moisture, and site. The effect of temperature on mineralization was significantly influenced by moisture content, as mineralization was greatest at 20??C and 50-75% saturation. While the relative effects of temperature and moisture were similar for all soils, mineralization rates were significantly greater for samples from the "Well Drained" site compared to the other sites. Variations in the relative abundances of polysaccharide-derivatives and compounds of undetermined source (such as toluene, phenol, 4-methyl phenol, and

  7. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Aasa; Laudon, Hjalmar [Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Koehler, Stephan J. [Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7050, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  8. Carbon input increases microbial nitrogen demand, but not microbial nitrogen mining in boreal forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Alaei, Saeed; Bengtson, Per; Bodé, Samuel; Boeckx, Pascal; Schnecker, Jörg; Mayerhofer, Werner; Rütting, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Plant primary production at mid and high latitudes is often limited by low soil N availability. It has been hypothesized that plants can indirectly increase soil N availability via root exudation, i.e., via the release of easily degradable organic compounds such as sugars into the soil. These compounds can stimulate microbial activity and extracellular enzyme synthesis, and thus promote soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition ("priming effect"). Even more, increased C availability in the rhizosphere might specifically stimulate the synthesis of enzymes targeting N-rich polymers such as proteins that store most of the soil N, but are too large for immediate uptake ("N mining"). This effect might be particularly important in boreal forests, where plants often maintain high primary production in spite of low soil N availability. We here tested the hypothesis that increased C availability promotes protein depolymerization, and thus soil N availability. In a laboratory incubation experiment, we added 13C-labeled glucose to a range of soil samples derived from boreal forests across Sweden, and monitored the release of CO2 by C mineralization, distinguishing between CO2 from the added glucose and from the native, unlabeled soil organic C (SOC). Using a set of 15N pool dilution assays, we further measured gross rates of protein depolymerization (the breakdown of proteins into amino acids) and N mineralization (the microbial release of excess N as ammonium). Comparing unamended control samples, we found a high variability in C and N mineralization rates, even when normalized by SOC content. Both C and N mineralization were significantly correlated to SOM C/N ratios, with high C mineralization at high C/N and high N mineralization at low C/N, suggesting that microorganisms adjusted C and N mineralization rates to the C/N ratio of their substrate and released C or N that was in excess. The addition of glucose significantly stimulated the mineralization of native SOC in soils

  9. The relations between forest fragmentation and bird community body size and biodiversity and bird community body size.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopman, F.

    2017-01-01

    Bachelor thesis Future Planet Studies, major biologie ABSTRACT Animal species with a larger body-size tend to have larger home ranges than small-bodied animals. Therefore it is likely that they are more affected by habitat fragmentation than small-bodied species. Body size of birds also seems to have a negative relation with species richness. This research has therefore looked into whether birds with a larger body-size are more sensitive to habitat fragmentation caused by forest...

  10. Using MOPITT data and a Chemistry and Transport Model to Investigate Injection Height of Plumes from Boreal Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Allen, D. J.; Kasischke, E. S.; Warner, J. X.

    2003-12-01

    Trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires are a significant factor in atmospheric composition and its interannual variability. A number of recent observations of emissions plumes above individual fire events (Fromm and Servranckx, 2003; COBRA 2003; Lamarque et al., 2003; Wotawa and Trainer, 2000) suggest that vertical properties of forest fire emission plumes can be very different from fossil fuel emission plumes. Understanding and constraining the vertical properties of forest fire emission plumes and their injection into the atmosphere during fire events is critical for accurate modeling of atmospheric transport and chemistry. While excellent data have been collected in a handful of experiments on individual fire events, a systematic examination of the range of behavior observed in fire events has been hampered by the scarcity of vertical profiles of atmospheric composition. In this study, we used a high-resolution model of boreal forest fire emissions (Kasischke et al, in review) as input to the Goddard/UM CTM driven by the GEOS-3 DAS, operating at 2 by 2.5 degrees with 35 vertical levels. We modeled atmospheric injection and transport of CO emissions during the fire season of 2000 (May-September). We altered the parameters of the model to simulate a range of scenarios of plume injection, and compared the resulting output to the CO profiles from the MOPITT instrument. The results presented here pertain to the boreal forest, but our methods should be useful for atmospheric modelers hoping to more realistically model transport of emission plumes from biomass burning. References: COBRA2003: see http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~cobra/smoke_canada_030530.pdf Fromm, M. and R. Servranckx, 2003. "Stratospheric Injection of Forest Fire Emissions on August 4, 1998: A Satellite Image Analysis of the Causal Supercell Convection." Geophysical Research Abstracts 5:13118. Kasischke, E.S.; E.J. Hyer, N.H.F. French, A.I. Sukhinin, J.H. Hewson, B.J. Stocks, in review. "Carbon

  11. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  12. REAL AND SIMULATED WAVEFORM RECORDING LIDAR DATA IN BOREAL JUVENILE FOREST VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hovi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne small-footprint LiDAR is replacing field measurements in regional-level forest inventories, but auxiliary field work is still required for the optimal management of young stands. Waveform (WF recording sensors can provide a more detailed description of the vegetation compared to discrete return (DR systems. Furthermore, knowing the shape of the signal facilitates comparisons between real data and those obtained with simulation tools. We performed a quantitative validation of a Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT -based LiDAR simulator against real data and used simulations and empirical data to study the WF recording LiDAR for the classification of boreal juvenile forest vegetation. Geometric-optical models of three common species were used as input for the MCRT model. Simulated radiometric and geometric WF features were in good agreement with the real data, and interspecies differences were preserved. We used the simulator to study the effects of sensor parameters on species classification performance. An increase in footprint size improved the classification accuracy up to a certain footprint size, while the emitted pulse width and the WF sampling rate had minor effects. Analyses on empirical data showed small improvement in performance compared to existing studies, when classifying seedling stand vegetation to four operational classes. The results on simulator validation serve as a basis for the future use of simulation models e.g. in LiDAR survey planning or in the simulation of synthetic training data, while the empirical findings clarify the potential of WF LiDAR data in the inventory chain for the operational forest management planning in Finland.

  13. Shifts in microbial communities and soil nutrients along a fire chronosequence in Alaskan boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, K. K.; Mack, M. C.; Cross, A.

    2002-12-01

    Fires are important pathways of carbon loss from boreal forests, while microbial communities form equally important mechanisms for carbon accumulation between fires. We used a chronosequence in Alaska to examine shifts in microbial abundance and community composition in the several decades following severe fire, and then related these responses to soil characteristics in the same sites. The sites are located in upland forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, and represent stages at 3-, 15-, 45-, and over 100-yr following fire. Plant communities shift from herbaceous species in the youngest site, to deciduous shrubs and trees (e.g. Populus tremuloides and Salix) in the intermediate sites, to black spruce (Picea mariana) forest in the oldest site. Soil organic matter accumulated 2.8-fold over time. Potential mineralization was highest in the intermediate-aged sites, as was nitrification and standing pools of inorganic nitrogen. In contrast, inorganic phosphorus pools were highest immediately following fire, and then decreased nine-fold with age. As measured with BiologTM plates, bacterial diversity and abundance were greatest in the oldest sites. Plant roots in the intermediate-aged sites displayed higher colonization by ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than those in the youngest and oldest sites. Likewise, glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, was most abundant in the 14-yr old site. Glomalin is believed to contribute to the formation of water-stable aggregates in the soil. However, water stable aggregates were most abundant in the younger sites and did not follow the pattern of glomalin or arbuscular mycorrhizal abundance. Our results indicate that fire may maintain landscape-level diversity of microbial functional groups, and that carbon sequestration in microbial tissues (e.g. glomalin and fungal biomass) may be greatest in areas that have burned several decades earlier. Changes in soil structure may not be directly attributable to

  14. Effect of Organic Layer Thickness on Black Spruce Aging Mistakes in Canadian Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laamrani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Boreal black spruce (Picea mariana forests are prone to developing thick organic layers (paludification. Black spruce is adapted to this environment by the continuous development of adventitious roots, masking the root collar and making it difficult to age trees. Ring counts above the root collar underestimate age of trees, but the magnitude of age underestimation of trees in relation to organic layer thickness (OLT is unknown. This age underestimation is required to produce appropriate age-correction tools to be used in land resource management. The goal of this study was to assess aging errors that are done with standard ring counts of trees growing in sites with different degrees of paludification (OLT; 0–25 cm, 26–65 cm, >65 cm. Age of 81 trees sampled at three geographical locations was determined by ring counts at ground level and at 1 m height, and real age of trees was determined by cross-dating growth rings down to the root collar (root/shoot interface. Ring counts at 1 m height underestimated age of trees by a mean of 22 years (range 13–49 and 52 years (range 14–112 in null to low vs. moderately to highly paludified stands, respectively. The percentage of aging-error explained by our linear model was relatively high (R2adj = 0.71 and showed that OLT class and age at 0-m could be used to predict total aging-error while neither DBH nor geographic location could. The resulting model has important implications for forest management to accurately estimate productivity of these forests.

  15. Fire severity filters regeneration traits to shape community assembly in Alaska's boreal forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa N Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available Disturbance can both initiate and shape patterns of secondary succession by affecting processes of community assembly. Thus, understanding assembly rules is a key element of predicting ecological responses to changing disturbance regimes. We measured the composition and trait characteristics of plant communities early after widespread wildfires in Alaska to assess how variations in disturbance characteristics influenced the relative success of different plant regeneration strategies. We compared patterns of post-fire community composition and abundance of regeneration traits across a range of fire severities within a single pre-fire forest type- black spruce forests of Interior Alaska. Patterns of community composition, as captured by multivariate ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling, were primarily related to gradients in fire severity (biomass combustion and residual vegetation and secondarily to gradients in soil pH and regional climate. This pattern was apparent in both the full dataset (n = 87 sites and for a reduced subset of sites (n = 49 that minimized the correlation between site moisture and fire severity. Changes in community composition across the fire-severity gradient in Alaska were strongly correlated to variations in plant regeneration strategy and rooting depth. The tight coupling of fire severity with regeneration traits and vegetation composition after fire supports the hypothesis that disturbance characteristics influence patterns of community assembly by affecting the relative success of different regeneration strategies. This study further demonstrated that variations in disturbance characteristics can dominate over environmental constraints in determining early patterns of community assembly. By affecting the success of regeneration traits, changes in fire regime directly shape the outcomes of community assembly, and thus may override the effects of slower environmental change on boreal forest

  16. Use of ground-based radiometers for L-Band Freeze/Thaw retrieval in a boreal forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Sonnentag, O.; Derksen, C.; Toose, P.; Pappas, C.; Mavrovic, A.; El Amine, M.; Royer, A.; Berg, A. A.; Rowlandson, T. L.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The boreal forest is the second largest land biome in the world and thus plays a major role in the global and regional climate systems. The extent, timing and duration of the seasonal freeze/thaw (F/T) state influences vegetation developmental stages (phenology) and, consequently, constitutes an important control on how boreal forest ecosystems exchange carbon, water and energy with the atmosphere. Recently, new L-Band satellite-derived F/T information has become available. However, disentangling the seasonally differing contributions from forest overstory and understory vegetation, and the ground surface to the satellite signal remains challenging. Here we present results from an ongoing campaign with two L-Band surface-based radiometers (SBR) installed on a micrometeorological tower at the Southern Old Black Spruce site (53.99°N / 105.12°W) in central Saskatchewan. One radiometer unit is installed on top of the tower viewing the multi-layer vegetation canopy from above. A second radiometer unit is installed within the multi-layer canopy, viewing the understory and the ground surface only. The objectives of our study are to (i) disentangle the L-Band F/T signal contribution of boreal forest overstory from the combined understory and ground surface contribution, and (ii) link the L-Band F/T signal to related boreal forest structural and functional characteristics. Analysis of these radiometer measurements made from September to November 2016 shows that when the ground surface is thawed, the main contributor to both radiometer signals is soil moisture. The Pearson correlation coefficient between brightness temperature (TB) at vertical polarization (V-pol) and soil permittivity is 0.79 for the radiometer above the canopy and 0.74 for the radiometer below the canopy. Under cold conditions when the soil was thawed (snow insulation) and the trees were frozen (below 0°C), TB at V-pol is negatively correlated with tree permittivity. The freezing tree contribution to

  17. Determination of the biogenic secondary organic aerosol fraction in the boreal forest by NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Finessi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the sources of fine organic aerosol (OA in the boreal forest, based on measurements including both filter sampling (PM1 and online methods and carried out during a one-month campaign held in Hyytiälä, Finland, in spring 2007. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (Q-AMS, ToF-AMS were employed to measure on-line concentrations of major non-refractory aerosol species, while the water extracts of the filter samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy for organic functional group characterization of the polar organic fraction of the aerosol. AMS and NMR spectra were processed separately by non-negative factorization algorithms, in order to apportion the main components underlying the submicrometer organic aerosol composition and depict them in terms of both mass fragmentation patterns and functional group compositions.

    The NMR results supported the AMS speciation of oxidized organic aerosol (OOA into two main fractions, which could be generally labelled as more and less oxidized organics. The more oxidized component was characterized by a mass spectrum dominated by the m/z 44 peak, and in parallel by a NMR spectrum showing aromatic and aliphatic backbones highly substituted with oxygenated functional groups (carbonyls/carboxyls and hydroxyls. Such component, contributing on average 50% of the OA mass throughout the observing period, was associated with pollution outbreaks from the Central Europe. The less oxidized component was enhanced in concomitance with air masses originating from the North-to-West sector, in agreement with previous investigations conducted at this site. NMR factor analysis was able to separate two distinct components under the less oxidized fraction of OA. One of these NMR-factors was associated with the formation of terrestrial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA, based on the comparison with spectral profiles obtained from laboratory experiments of

  18. Deciduous birch canopy as unexpected contributor to stand level atmospheric reactivity in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Jaana; Taipale, Ditte; Aalto, Juho

    2017-04-01

    In boreal forests, deciduous trees such as birches may in future climate become more abundant due to their large biomass production capacity, relatively good resource use ability and large acclimation potential to elevated CO2 levels and warmer climate. Increase in birch abundance may lead to unpredicted consequences in atmospheric composition. Currently it is acknowledged that conifers such as Scots pine and Norway spruce are important sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially monoterpenes, throughout the year, although the strong temperature relationships implies that emissions are highest in summertime. However, the dynamics of the deciduous birch foliage VOC emissions and their relationship with environmental drivers during the development, maturation and senescence of foliage has not been well analyzed. Long-term measurements of birch, which are unfortunately very sparse, can provide very useful information for the development of biosphere-atmosphere models that simulate boreal and subarctic forested areas where birch is often a sub-canopy species, occurs as a mixture among conifers or forms even pure stands in the higher latitudes. We measured the branch level VOC emissions from a mature Silver birch with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer during 2014 and 2015 at the SMEAR II station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), southern Finland. Our results showed that the Silver birch foliage is a huge source for both short-chained volatiles such as methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone, as well as for monoterpenes. The mean emission rates from birch leaves were 5 to 10 times higher than the corresponding emissions from Scots pine shoots. We compared several semi-empirical model approaches for determining the birch foliage monoterpene standardized emission potentials, and utilized the continuous emission measurements from the two growing seasons for development of a novel algorithm which accounts for the leaf development and

  19. Threshold responses of forest birds to landscape changes around exurban development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suarez-Rubio

    Full Text Available Low-density residential development (i.e., exurban development is often embedded within a matrix of protected areas and natural amenities, raising concern about its ecological consequences. Forest-dependent species are particularly susceptible to human settlement even at low housing densities typical of exurban areas. However, few studies have examined the response of forest birds to this increasingly common form of land conversion. The aim of this study was to assess whether, how, and at what scale forest birds respond to changes in habitat due to exurban growth. We evaluated changes in habitat composition (amount and configuration (arrangement for forest and forest-edge species around North America Breeding Bird Survey (BBS stops between 1986 and 2009. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect change points in species occurrence at two spatial extents (400-m and 1-km radius buffer. Our results show that exurban development reduced forest cover and increased habitat fragmentation around BBS stops. Forest birds responded nonlinearly to most measures of habitat loss and fragmentation at both the local and landscape extents. However, the strength and even direction of the response changed with the extent for several of the metrics. The majority of forest birds' responses could be predicted by their habitat preferences indicating that management practices in exurban areas might target the maintenance of forested habitats, for example through easements or more focused management for birds within existing or new protected areas.

  20. Short-Term Effects of Understory and Overstory Management on Breeding Birds in Arkansas Oak-Hickory Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Rodewald; Kimberly G. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the effects of uneven-aged forest management practices on eastern forest birds, despite the fact that such methods are now commonly practiced. In 1993-94, we studied the short-term effects of uneven-aged forest management on bird communities in oak-hickory forests of north-western Arkansas. We estimated bird abundance in mature forests...

  1. Simulating ectomycorrhiza in boreal forests: implementing ectomycorrhizal fungi model MYCOFON in CoupModel (v5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongxing; Meyer, Astrid; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Rütting, Tobias; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2018-02-01

    The symbiosis between plants and Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) is shown to considerably influence the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes between the soil, rhizosphere, and plants in boreal forest ecosystems. However, ECM are either neglected or presented as an implicit, undynamic term in most ecosystem models, which can potentially reduce the predictive power of models.In order to investigate the necessity of an explicit consideration of ECM in ecosystem models, we implement the previously developed MYCOFON model into a detailed process-based, soil-plant-atmosphere model, Coup-MYCOFON, which explicitly describes the C and N fluxes between ECM and roots. This new Coup-MYCOFON model approach (ECM explicit) is compared with two simpler model approaches: one containing ECM implicitly as a dynamic uptake of organic N considering the plant roots to represent the ECM (ECM implicit), and the other a static N approach in which plant growth is limited to a fixed N level (nonlim). Parameter uncertainties are quantified using Bayesian calibration in which the model outputs are constrained to current forest growth and soil C / N ratio for four forest sites along a climate and N deposition gradient in Sweden and simulated over a 100-year period.The nonlim approach could not describe the soil C / N ratio due to large overestimation of soil N sequestration but simulate the forest growth reasonably well. The ECM implicit and explicit approaches both describe the soil C / N ratio well but slightly underestimate the forest growth. The implicit approach simulated lower litter production and soil respiration than the explicit approach. The ECM explicit Coup-MYCOFON model provides a more detailed description of internal ecosystem fluxes and feedbacks of C and N between plants, soil, and ECM. Our modeling highlights the need to incorporate ECM and organic N uptake into ecosystem models, and the nonlim approach is not recommended for future long-term soil C and N predictions. We also

  2. Terrestrial liming benefits birds in an acidified forest in the northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Sarah E; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2007-12-01

    Studies in Europe have reported negative effects of acid deposition on forest birds, and research in North America has identified links between forest bird abundance and rates of acid deposition. We examined the bird community in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania (USA) and evaluated the effects of terrestrial lime application on birds. We used a before-after control-impact (BACI) study design, with one year of observation before (2003) and three years after lime application (2004, 2005, and 2006). Between the 2003 and 2004 field seasons, 4500 kg/ha of dolomitic lime were applied to two of four 100-ha watersheds. Each year, we monitored bird abundance and Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) eggshell thickness and territory size. Soil and snail abundance data were also collected. The bird community and territory size results indicated that the study area may be providing low-quality habitat for forest birds, perhaps as a result of acid deposition. We found lower forest bird abundances than have been found in less acidified areas of Pennsylvania, and larger Ovenbird territory sizes than have been found in other studies. We found a significant positive relationship between soil calcium and bird abundance, indicating that soil calcium may affect bird abundance. Liming increased soil calcium and pH and led to increased snail and bird abundances. After liming, bird abundance was positively related to snail abundance. No significant changes occurred in Ovenbird territory size or eggshell thickness. Our results suggest that acid deposition could be responsible for reduced bird abundance, and that liming is a potential mitigation technique.

  3. Effect of Group-Selection Opening Size on Breeding Bird Habitat Use in a Bottomland Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, C.E.; D.C. Guynn, Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Research on the effects of creating group-selection openings of various sizes on breeding birds habitat use in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Creation of 0.5-ha group selection openings in southern bottomland forests should provide breeding habitat for some field-edge species in gaps and habitat for forest-interior species and canopy-dwelling forest-edge species between gaps provided that enough mature forest is made available.

  4. Different regional climatic drivers of Holocene large wildfires in boreal forests of northeastern America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Cécile C.; Hély, Christelle; Blarquez, Olivier; Magnan, Gabriel; Bergeron, Yves; Lavoie, Martin; Ali, Adam A.

    2017-03-01

    Global warming could increase climatic instability and large wildfire activity in circumboreal regions, potentially impairing both ecosystem functioning and human health. However, links between large wildfire events and climatic and/or meteorological conditions are still poorly understood, partly because few studies have covered a wide range of past climate-fire interactions. We compared palaeofire and simulated climatic data over the last 7000 years to assess causes of large wildfire events in three coniferous boreal forest regions in north-eastern Canada. These regions span an east-west cline, from a hilly region influenced by the Atlantic Ocean currently dominated by Picea mariana and Abies balsamea to a flatter continental region dominated by Picea mariana and Pinus banksiana. The largest wildfires occurred across the entire study zone between 3000 and 1000 cal. BP. In western and central continental regions these events were triggered by increases in both the fire-season length and summer/spring temperatures, while in the eastern region close to the ocean they were likely responses to hydrological (precipitation/evapotranspiration) variability. The impact of climatic drivers on fire size varied spatially across the study zone, confirming that regional climate dynamics could modulate effects of global climate change on wildfire regimes.

  5. Direct radiative feedback due to biogenic secondary organic aerosol estimated from boreal forest site observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihavainen, Heikki; Asmi, Eija; Aaltonen, Veijo; Makkonen, Ulla; Kerminen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    We used more than five years of continuous aerosol measurements to estimate the direct radiative feedback parameter associated with the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) at a remote continental site at the edge of the boreal forest zone in Northern Finland. Our upper-limit estimate for this feedback parameter during the summer period (ambient temperatures above 10 °C) was −97 ± 66 mW m −2 K −1 (mean ± STD) when using measurements of the aerosol optical depth (f AOD ) and −63 ± 40 mW m −2 K −1 when using measurements of the ‘dry’ aerosol scattering coefficient at the ground level (f σ ). Here STD represents the variability in f caused by the observed variability in the quantities used to derive the value of f. Compared with our measurement site, the magnitude of the direct radiative feedback associated with BSOA is expected to be larger in warmer continental regions with more abundant biogenic emissions, and even larger in regions where biogenic emissions are mixed with anthropogenic pollution. (letter)

  6. Remote sensing of photosynthetic-light-use efficiency of a Siberian boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichol, C.J.; Grace, J.; Shibistova, O.; Matsubara, S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between a physiological index called the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and photosynthetic light-use-efficiency (LUE) of a Siberian boreal forest during the winter-spring transition, or green-up period, was investigated in 2000. During this time the photosynthetic apparatus was considered under stress as a result of extremes of temperature (from -20 to 35 deg C) coupled with a high radiation load. Reflectance measurements of four stands were made from a helicopter-mounted spectro radiometer and PRI was calculated from these data. Eddy covariance towers were operating at the four stands and offered a means to calculate LUE. A significant linear relationship was apparent between PRI, calculated from the helicopter spectral data, and LUE, calculated from the eddy covariance data, for the four sites sampled. Reflectance measurements were also made of a Scots pine stand from the eddy covariance tower. Needles were also sampled during the time of spectral data acquisition for xanthophyll pigment determination. Strong linear relationships were observed among PRI, the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle (EPS) and LUE over the green-up period and the diurnal cycle at the canopy scale

  7. Nitrogen-addition effects on leaf traits and photosynthetic carbon gain of boreal forest understory shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmroth, Sari; Bach, Lisbet Holm; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boreal coniferous forests are characterized by fairly open canopies where understory vegetation is an important component of ecosystem C and N cycling. We used an ecophysiological approach to study the effects of N additions on uptake and partitioning of C and N in two dominant understory shrubs: deciduous Vaccinium myrtillus in a Picea abies stand and evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea in a Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. N was added to these stands for 16 and 8 years, respectively, at rates of 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). N addition at the highest rate increased foliar N and chlorophyll concentrations in both understory species. Canopy cover of P. abies also increased, decreasing light availability and leaf mass per area of V. myrtillus. Among leaves of either shrub, foliar N content did not explain variation in light-saturated CO2 exchange rates. Instead photosynthetic capacity varied with stomatal conductance possibly reflecting plant hydraulic properties and within-site variation in water availability. Moreover, likely due to increased shading under P. abies and due to water limitations in the sandy soil under P. sylvestris, individuals of the two shrubs did not increase their biomass or shift their allocation between above- and belowground parts in response to N additions. Altogether, our results indicate that the understory shrubs in these systems show little response to N additions in terms of photosynthetic physiology or growth and that changes in their performance are mostly associated with responses of the tree canopy.

  8. Evaluating hillslope and riparian contributions to dissolved nitrogen (N) export from a boreal forest catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, M.; Ledesma, José L. J.; Näsholm, Torgny; Laudon, Hjalmar; Sponseller, Ryan A.

    2017-02-01

    Catchment science has long held that the chemistry of small streams reflects the landscapes they drain. However, understanding the contribution of different landscape units to stream chemistry remains a challenge which frequently limits our understanding of export dynamics. For limiting nutrients such as nitrogen (N), an implicit assumption is that the most spatially extensive landscape units (e.g., uplands) act as the primary sources to surface waters, while near-stream zones function more often as sinks. These assumptions, based largely on studies in high-gradient systems or in regions with elevated inputs of anthropogenic N, may not apply to low-gradient, nutrient-poor, and peat-rich catchments characteristic of many northern ecosystems. We quantified patterns of N mobilization along a hillslope transect in a northern boreal catchment to assess the extent to which organic matter-rich riparian soils regulate the flux of N to streams. Contrary to the prevailing view of riparian functioning, we found that near-stream, organic soils supported concentrations and fluxes of ammonium (NH4+) and dissolved organic nitrogen that were much higher than the contributing upslope forest soils. These results suggest that stream N chemistry is connected to N mobilization and mineralization within the riparian zone rather than the wider landscape. Results further suggest that water table fluctuation in near-surface riparian soils may promote elevated rates of net N mineralization in these landscapes.

  9. Size-mediated tree transpiration along soil drainage gradients in a boreal black spruce forest wildfire chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J L; Ewers, B E; Kwon, H

    2012-05-01

    Boreal forests are crucial to climate change predictions because of their large land area and ability to sequester and store carbon, which is controlled by water availability. Heterogeneity of these forests is predicted to increase with climate change through more frequent wildfires, warmer, longer growing seasons and potential drainage of forested wetlands. This study aims at quantifying controls over tree transpiration with drainage condition, stand age and species in a central Canadian black spruce boreal forest. Heat dissipation sensors were installed in 2007 and data were collected through 2008 on 118 trees (69 Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (black spruce), 25 Populus tremuloides Michx. (trembling aspen), 19 Pinus banksiana Lamb. (jack pine), 3 Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch (tamarack) and 2 Salix spp. (willow)) at four stand ages (18, 43, 77 and 157 years old) each containing a well- and poorly-drained stand. Transpiration estimates from sap flux were expressed per unit xylem area, J(S), per unit ground area, E(C) and per unit leaf area, E(L), using sapwood (A(S)) and leaf (A(L)) area calculated from stand- and species-specific allometry. Soil drainage differences in transpiration were variable; only the 43- and 157-year-old poorly-drained stands had ∼ 50% higher total stand E(C) than well-drained locations. Total stand E(C) tended to decrease with stand age after an initial increase between the 18- and 43-year-old stands. Soil drainage differences in transpiration were controlled primarily by short-term physiological drivers such as vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture whereas stand age differences were controlled by successional species shifts and changes in tree size (i.e., A(S)). Future predictions of boreal climate change must include stand age, species and soil drainage heterogeneity to avoid biased estimates of forest water loss and latent energy exchanges.

  10. The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010): an overview of meteorological and chemical influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J.; Petäjä, T.

    2012-04-01

    This submission describes the background, instrumentation, goals, and the regional influences on the HUMPPA-COPEC intensive field measurement campaign, conducted at the Boreal forest research station SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relation) in Hyytiälä, Finland from 12th July-12th August 2010. The prevailing meteorological conditions during the campaign are examined and contrasted with those of the past six years. Back trajectory analyses show that meteorological conditions at the site in 2010 were characterized by a higher proportion of southerly flow than in the other years studied. As a result the summer of 2010 was anomalously warm and high in ozone making the campaign relevant for the analysis of possible future climates. A comprehensive land use analysis, provided on both 5 and 50 km scales, shows that the main vegetation types surrounding the site on both the regional and local scales are: coniferous forest (Scots pine and/or Norway spruce); mixed forest (Birch and conifers); and woodland scrub (e.g. Willows, Aspen); indicating that the campaign results can be taken as representative of the Boreal forest ecosystem. In addition to the influence of biogenic emissions, the measurement site was occasionally impacted by sources other than vegetation. Specific tracers have been used here to identify the time periods when such sources have impacted the site namely: biomass burning (acetonitrile and CO), urban anthropogenic pollution (pentane and SO2) and the nearby Korkeakoski sawmill (enantiomeric ratio of chiral monoterpenes). None of these sources dominated the study period, allowing the Boreal forest summertime emissions to be assessed and contrasted with various other source signatures.

  11. The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010: an overview of meteorological and chemical influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the background, instrumentation, goals, and the regional influences on the HUMPPA-COPEC intensive field measurement campaign, conducted at the Boreal forest research station SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relation in Hyytiälä, Finland from 12 July–12 August 2010. The prevailing meteorological conditions during the campaign are examined and contrasted with those of the past six years. Back trajectory analyses show that meteorological conditions at the site in 2010 were characterized by a higher proportion of southerly flow than in the other years studied. As a result the summer of 2010 was anomalously warm and high in ozone making the campaign relevant for the analysis of possible future climates. A comprehensive land use analysis, provided on both 5 and 50 km scales, shows that the main vegetation types surrounding the site on both the regional and local scales are: coniferous forest (Scots pine and/or Norway spruce; mixed forest (Birch and conifers; and woodland scrub (e.g. Willows, Aspen; indicating that the campaign results can be taken as representative of the Boreal forest ecosystem. In addition to the influence of biogenic emissions, the measurement site was occasionally impacted by sources other than vegetation. Specific tracers have been used here to identify the time periods when such sources have impacted the site namely: biomass burning (acetonitrile and CO, urban anthropogenic pollution (pentane and SO2 and the nearby Korkeakoski sawmill (enantiomeric ratio of chiral monoterpenes. None of these sources dominated the study period, allowing the Boreal forest summertime emissions to be assessed and contrasted with various other source signatures.

  12. Drivers of variability in tree transpiration in a Boreal Black Spruce Forest Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forests are of particular interest in climate change studies because of their large land area and ability to sequester and store carbon, which is controlled by water availability. Heterogeneity of these forests is predicted to increase with climate change through the impact of more frequent wildfires, warmer, longer growing seasons, and potential drainage of forested wetlands. This study aims to quantify the influence of stand age, drainage condition, and species on tree transpiration and its drivers in a central Canadian black spruce boreal forest. Heat dissipation sensors were installed in 113 trees (69 Picea mariana (black spruce), 25 Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), and 19 Pinus banksiana (jack pine) at four stand ages, each containing a well- and poorly-drained site over three growing seasons (2006-2008). Sap flux per unit xylem area, JS, was expressed as transpiration per unit ground area, EC, and transpiration per unit leaf area, EL, using site- and species-specific allometry to obtain sapwood area (AS)and leaf area(AL)per unit ground area. Well-drained, younger Picea mariana daily JS was 47-64% greater than the older well-drained burn ages and younger poorly-drained stands were 64-68% greater than the two oldest poorly-drained stands. Daily EL in the well-drained Picea mariana stands was on average 12-33% higher in younger stand than in the two oldest stands whereas young, poorly-drained Picea mariana had 71% greater daily EL than the older stands. Well-drained Picea mariana trees had 52% higher daily EC than older trees and poorly-drained Picea mariana in the 1964 burn had 42-81% higher daily EC than the oldest stands. Populus tremuloides located in the two youngest stands had daily JS 38-58% greater rates than the 1930 burn, whereas daily EL and EC had no distint differences due to high interannual variability. Pinus banksiana experienced 21-33% greater daily JS in the 1989 burn than in the older 1964 burn for well- and poorly-drained sites

  13. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jushan Liu

    Full Text Available Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively, indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they

  14. Direct measurement of NO3 radical reactivity in a boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Jonathan; Karu, Einar; Sobanski, Nicolas; Schuladen, Jan; Ehn, Mikael; Schallhart, Simon; Quéléver, Lauriane; Hellen, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Williams, Jonathan; Fischer, Horst; Lelieveld, Jos; Crowley, John N.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first direct measurements of NO3 reactivity (or inverse lifetime, s-1) in the Finnish boreal forest. The data were obtained during the IBAIRN campaign (Influence of Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions on the Reactive Nitrogen budget) which took place in Hyytiälä, Finland during the summer/autumn transition in September 2016. The NO3 reactivity was generally very high with a maximum value of 0.94 s-1 and displayed a strong diel variation with a campaign-averaged nighttime mean value of 0.11 s-1 compared to a daytime value of 0.04 s-1. The highest nighttime NO3 reactivity was accompanied by major depletion of canopy level ozone and was associated with strong temperature inversions and high levels of monoterpenes. The daytime reactivity was sufficiently large that reactions of NO3 with organic trace gases could compete with photolysis and reaction with NO. There was no significant reduction in the measured NO3 reactivity between the beginning and end of the campaign, indicating that any seasonal reduction in canopy emissions of reactive biogenic trace gases was offset by emissions from the forest floor. Observations of biogenic hydrocarbons (BVOCs) suggested a dominant role for monoterpenes in determining the NO3 reactivity. Reactivity not accounted for by in situ measurement of NO and BVOCs was variable across the diel cycle with, on average, ≈ 30 % missing during nighttime and ≈ 60 % missing during the day. Measurement of the NO3 reactivity at various heights (8.5 to 25 m) both above and below the canopy, revealed a strong nighttime, vertical gradient with maximum values closest to the ground. The gradient disappeared during the daytime due to efficient vertical mixing.

  15. The potentiation of zinc toxicity by soil moisture in a boreal forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owojori, Olugbenga J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Northern boreal forests often experience forest dieback as a result of metal ore mining and smelting. The common solution is to lime the soil, which increases pH, reducing metal toxicity and encouraging recovery. In certain situations, however, such as in Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada, liming has yielded only moderate benefits, with some locations responding well to liming and other locations not at all. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the ecorestoration strategy, the authors investigated if these differences in liming responsiveness were linked to differences in toxicity. Toxicity of metal-impacted Flin Flon soils on the oribatid mite Oppia nitens and the collembolan Folsomia candida was assessed, with a view toward identifying the metal of concern in the area. The effects of moisture content on metal sorption, uptake, and toxicity to the invertebrates were also investigated. Toxicity tests with the invertebrates were conducted using either Flin Flon soils or artificial soils with moisture content adjusted to 30%, 45%, 60%, or 75% of the maximum water-holding capacity of the soil samples. The Relative to Cd Toxicity Model identified Zn as the metal of concern in the area, and this was confirmed using validation tests with field contaminated soils. Furthermore, increasing the moisture content in soils increased the amount of mobile Zn available for uptake with the ion exchange resin. Survival and reproduction of both invertebrates were reduced under Zn exposure as moisture level increased. Thus, moisture-collecting landforms, which are often also associated with high Zn concentrations at Flin Flon, have, as a result, higher Zn toxicity to the soil ecosystem because of increases in soil moisture. © 2014 SETAC.

  16. Canadian boreal forest greening and browning trends: an analysis of biogeographic patterns and the relative roles of disturbance versus climate drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulla-Menashe, Damien; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Friedl, Mark A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have used satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series to explore geographic patterns in boreal forest greening and browning. A number of these studies indicate that boreal forests are experiencing widespread browning, and have suggested that these patterns reflect decreases in forest productivity induced by climate change. Here we use NDVI time series from Landsat, which has much higher quality and spatial resolution than imagery used in most previous studies, to characterize biogeographic patterns in greening and browning across Canada’s boreal forest and to explore the drivers behind observed trends. Our results show that the majority of NDVI changes in Canada’s boreal forest reflect disturbance-recovery dynamics not climate change impacts, that greening and browning trends outside of disturbed forests are consistent with expected ecological responses to regional changes in climate, and that observed NDVI changes are geographically limited and relatively small in magnitude. By examining covariance between changes in NDVI and temperature and precipitation in locations not affected by disturbance, our results isolate and characterize the nature and magnitude of greening and browning directly associated with climate change. Consistent with biogeographic theory, greening and browning unrelated to disturbance tended to be located in ecotones near boundaries of the boreal forest bioclimatic envelope. We observed greening to be most prevalent in Eastern Canada, which is more humid, and browning to be most prevalent in Western Canada, where forests are more prone to moisture stress. We conclude that continued long-term climate change has the potential to significantly alter the character and function of Canada’s boreal forest, but recent changes have been modest and near-term impacts are likely to be focused in or near ecotones.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal colonization of naturally regenerating Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings growing in different micro-habitats in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwański, Michał; Rudawska, Maria

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the species richness and composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi colonizing Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings naturally regenerating in boreal forest, in three different microhabitats: on forest ground, on decaying stumps, and within moss layer on erratic boulders. We tested the hypothesis that habitat differences would affect the composition of the EM community of regenerating pine seedlings. In total, 16 EM species were detected, from which none occurred on seedlings growing in all three microhabitats. Piloderma croceum and Cenococcum geophilum were common for seedlings growing in forest ground and on boulders, while Tricholoma aestuans and Suillus luteus were shared between seedlings growing on forest ground and decaying stumps. EM species richness and composition were strikingly different between seedlings regenerating in different microhabitats. Results are discussed as a function of dispersal and niche differentiation of EM fungi.

  18. Seasonal Effects of Habitat on Sources and Rates of Snowshoe Hare Predation in Alaskan Boreal Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashiell Feierabend

    greater influence on the sources of predation than the amount of cover in any given location within a habitat. Our observations illustrate the vulnerability of hares to predators in even the densest coniferous habitat available in the boreal forest, and indicate strong seasonal changes in the rates and sources of predation.

  19. Tree growth response to climate change at the deciduous-boreal forest ecotone, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldblum, D. [Wisconsin-Whitewater Univ., Whitewater, WI (United States). Dept. of Geography and Geology; Rigg, L.S. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geography

    2005-11-01

    Recent interest in the impact that future climate change may have on forest communities can be attributed to the fact that migration of tree species has been slow with respect to past climate changes and also because of the high degree of habitat fragmentation that has occurred in the recent past. For that reason, this study examined the implications of climate change on the future of sugar maple, white spruce and balsam fir. These trees represent the 3 dominant forest species at the deciduous-boreal forest ecotone in Ontario, Canada. The analysis was based on the responses of individual species to past monthly temperature and precipitation conditions as well as simulated monthly temperature and precipitation conditions in the study area for the 2080s. The sensitivity of the tree species to past climate with predicted conditions for the 2080 period was also considered. In particular, tree-ring analysis was used to compare local species-specific growth responses with instrumental climate records since 1900 to determine which climate variables control growth rates of these 3 species. Present temperature and precipitation averages were compared with general circulation model (GCM) predictions of monthly temperature and monthly precipitation to evaluate the potential benefit or harm to the dominant tree species over the next 80 years. It was concluded that sugar maple may persist in the medium term up to several centuries, as existing trees pass through their natural life-span without reproductive replacement. However, with extreme climate change, over many centuries, even the sugar maple at this northern range limit might be in jeopardy. White spruce is likely to benefit less, and the dominant balsam fir is likely to experience a decrease in growth potential. These projected changes would enhance the future status of sugar maple at its northern limit and facilitate range expansion northward in response to global warming. Although the study concerns only a small area

  20. Traditional Uses of Medicinal Plants from the Canadian Boreal Forest for the Management of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Yadav; Lacasse, Anaïs; Asselin, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain is more prevalent in indigenous populations who often prefer traditional remedies over allopathic drugs. Our objective was to investigate the traditional uses of medicinal plants from the Canadian boreal forest for the management of chronic pain syndromes. We reviewed the most extensive database on medicinal plants used by aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest to investigate the plants used in the management of 3 of the most common chronic pain syndromes: arthritis/rheumatism; back pain; and headache/migraine. We also reviewed the pharmacology and phytochemistry literature to investigate concordance with indigenous knowledge. A total of 114 medicinal plant species were reported, of which 27 (23.5%) were used to treat more than 1 chronic pain syndrome. Pharmacological or phytochemical evidence to explain plant function as chronic pain remedy was available in the literature for only 38 species (33%), with several species reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties effective in treating chronic pain syndromes. Our study showed the potential of boreal plants as alternative and complementary medicines for the treatment of chronic pain syndromes that could be enhanced by further research on efficacy and safety issues. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Palaeoecological data as a tool to predict possible future vegetation changes in the boreal forest zone of European Russia: a case study from the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, E. Yu; Tsyganov, A. N.; Olchev, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    New multi-proxy records (pollen, testate amoebae, and charcoal) were applied to reconstruct the vegetation dynamics in the boreal forest area of the southern part of Valdai Hills (the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve) during the Holocene. The reconstructions of the mean annual temperature and precipitation, the climate moisture index (CMI), peatland surface moisture, and fire activity have shown that climate change has a significant impact on the boreal forests of European Russia. Temperature growth and decreased moistening during the warmest phases of the Holocene Thermal Maximum in 7.0-6.2 ka BP and 6.0-5.5 ka BP and in the relatively warm phase in 3.4-2.5 ka BP led to structural changes in plant communities, specifically an increase in the abundance of broadleaf tree species in forest stands and the suppression of Picea. The frequency of forest fires was higher in that period, and it resulted in the replacement of spruce forests by secondary stands with Betula and Pinus. Despite significant changes in the climatic parameters projected for the 21st century using even the optimistic RCP2.6 scenario, the time lag between climate changes and vegetation responses makes any catastrophic vegetation disturbances (due to natural reasons) in the area in the 21st century unlikely.

  2. Surface albedo in relation to disturbance and early stand dynamics in the boreal forest: Implications for climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, M. A.; Thomas, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Surface albedo is the most important biophysical radiative forcing in the boreal forest. General Circulation Model studies have suggested that harvesting of boreal forest has a net cooling effect, in contrast to other terrestrial biomes, by increasing surface albedo. However, albedo estimation in these models has been achieved by simplifying processes governing albedo at a coarse scale (both spatial and temporal). Biophysical processes that determine albedo likely operate on small spatial and temporal scales, requiring more direct estimates of effects of landcover change on net radiation. We established a chronosequence study in post-fire and post-clearcut sites (2013, 2006, 1998), logging data from July 2013 to July 2017 in boreal forest sites in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Each age-class X disturbance had 3 three replicates, matched to 18 permanent circular plots (10-m radius) each with an instrumented tower measuring surface albedo, air and soil temperature, and soil moisture. We also measured leaf area index, species composition and soil organic matter content at each site. BRDF-corrected surface albedo was calculated from daily 30m x 30m reflectance data fused from the MODIS MOD09GA product and Landsat 7 reflectance data. Calculated albedo was verified using ground-based measurements. Results show that fire sites generally had lower (15-25%) albedo than clearcut sites in all seasons. Because of rapid forest regrowth, large perturbations of clearcut harvests on forest albedo started to fade out within a year. Albedo differences between fire and clearcut sites also declined sharply with stand age. Younger stands generally had higher albedo than older stands mainly due to the presence of broadleaf species (for example, Populus tremuloides). In spring, snow melted 10-12 days earlier in recent (2013) clearcut sites compared to closed-canopy sites, causing a sharp reduction in surface albedo in comparison to old clearcut/fire sites (2006 and 1998). Snow melted

  3. Classification of boreal forest by satellite and inventory data using neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop methodology for boreal (Siberian Taiga) land cover classification in a high accuracy level. The study area covers the territories of Central Siberian several parts along the Yenisei River (60-62 degrees North Latitude): the right bank includes mixed forest and dark taiga, the left - pine forests; so were taken as a high heterogeneity and statistically equal surfaces concerning spectral characteristics. Two main types of data were used: time series of middle spatial resolution satellite images (Landsat 5, 7 and SPOT4) and inventory datasets from the nature fieldworks (used for training samples sets preparation). Method of collecting field datasets included a short botany description (type/species of vegetation, density, compactness of the crowns, individual height and max/min diameters representative of each type, surface altitude of the plot), at the same time the geometric characteristic of each training sample unit corresponded to the spatial resolution of satellite images and geo-referenced (prepared datasets both of the preliminary processing and verification). The network of test plots was planned as irregular and determined by the landscape oriented approach. The main focus of the thematic data processing has been allocated for the use of neural networks (fuzzy logic inc.); therefore, the results of field studies have been converting input parameter of type / species of vegetation cover of each unit and the degree of variability. Proposed approach involves the processing of time series separately for each image mainly for the verification: shooting parameters taken into consideration (time, albedo) and thus expected to assess the quality of mapping. So the input variables for the networks were sensor bands, surface altitude, solar angels and land surface temperature (for a few experiments); also given attention to the formation of the formula class on the basis of statistical pre-processing of results of

  4. Forest floor carbon exchange of a boreal black spruce forest in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, O.; Margolis, H. A.; Coursolle, C.

    2009-09-01

    This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C) exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto) and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff) to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj) and Pff (Pff-eco) relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re) and photosynthesis (Peco), respectively, were also quantified. Shallow (5 cm) soil temperature explained 67-86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper (50 and 100 cm) soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring. Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pff-max) saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m-2 s-1) and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pff-max was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two of the three years. Pff normalized for light peaked at air temperatures of 5-8°C, suggesting that this is the optimal temperature range for Pff. The Pff-eco/Peco ratio varied from 13 to 24% over the snow-free period and reached a minimum in mid-summer when both air temperature and Peco were at their maximum. On an annual basis, Pff-eco accounted for 17

  5. Forest Floor Carbon Exchange of a Boreal Black Spruce Forest in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, O.; Margolis, H. A.; Coursolle, C.

    2009-06-01

    This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C) exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto) and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff) to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj) and Pff (Pff-eco) relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re) and photosynthesis (Peco), respectively, were also quantified. Shallow soil temperature explained 67-86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring. Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pffmax) saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m-2 s-1) and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pffmax was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two of the three years. Pff normalized for light peaked at air temperatures of 5-8°C, suggesting that this is the optimal temperature range for Pff. The Pff-eco/Peco ratio varied seasonally from 13 to 24% and reached a minimum in mid-summer when both air temperature and Peco were at their maximum. On an annual basis, Pff-eco accounted for 17-18% of Peco depending on the year and the

  6. Soil fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide in a boreal forest in southern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu; Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Chen, Huilin; Mammarella, Ivan; Vesala, Timo; Levula, Janne; Keskinen, Helmi; Seibt, Ulli

    2018-02-01

    Soil is a major contributor to the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon monoxide (CO). COS is a tracer with which to quantify terrestrial photosynthesis based on the coupled leaf uptake of COS and CO2, but such use requires separating soil COS flux, which is unrelated to photosynthesis, from ecosystem COS uptake. For CO, soil is a significant natural sink that influences the tropospheric CO budget. In the boreal forest, magnitudes and variabilities of soil COS and CO fluxes remain poorly understood. We measured hourly soil fluxes of COS, CO, and CO2 over the 2015 late growing season (July to November) in a Scots pine forest in Hyytiälä, Finland. The soil acted as a net sink of COS and CO, with average uptake rates around 3 pmol m-2 s-1 for COS and 1 nmol m-2 s-1 for CO. Soil respiration showed seasonal dynamics controlled by soil temperature, peaking at around 4 µmol m-2 s-1 in late August and September and dropping to 1-2 µmol m-2 s-1 in October. In contrast, seasonal variations of COS and CO fluxes were weak and mainly driven by soil moisture changes through diffusion limitation. COS and CO fluxes did not appear to respond to temperature variation, although they both correlated well with soil respiration in specific temperature bins. However, COS : CO2 and CO : CO2 flux ratios increased with temperature, suggesting possible shifts in active COS- and CO-consuming microbial groups. Our results show that soil COS and CO fluxes do not have strong variations over the late growing season in this boreal forest and can be represented with the fluxes during the photosynthetically most active period. Well-characterized and relatively invariant soil COS fluxes strengthen the case for using COS as a photosynthetic tracer in boreal forests.

  7. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB Pinho

    Full Text Available We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%, followed by Landi (9%, Cordilheira (6% and Carvoeiro (3% forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species than in dry (16 species forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5% and dry (70% forests, and were higher in the Landi (85% than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%. Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species

  8. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, J B; Marini, M A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro) in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes) in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará) had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%), followed by Landi (9%), Cordilheira (6%) and Carvoeiro (3%) forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species) than in dry (16 species) forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5%) and dry (70%) forests, and were higher in the Landi (85%) than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%). Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species of the

  9. Spectral Similarity and PRI Variations for a Boreal Forest Stand Using Multi-angular Airborne Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Markiet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The photochemical reflectance index (PRI is a proxy for light use efficiency (LUE, and is used in remote sensing to measure plant stress and photosynthetic downregulation in plant canopies. It is known to depend on local light conditions within a canopy indicating non-photosynthetic quenching of incident radiation. Additionally, when measured from a distance, canopy PRI depends on shadow fraction—the fraction of shaded foliage in the instantaneous field of view of the sensor—due to observation geometry. Our aim is to quantify the extent to which sunlit fraction alone can describe variations in PRI so that it would be possible to correct for its variation and identify other possible factors affecting the PRI–sunlit fraction relationship. We used a high spatial and spectral resolution Aisa Eagle airborne imaging spectrometer above a boreal Scots pine site in Finland (Hyytiälä forest research station, 61°50′N, 24°17′E, with the sensor looking in nadir and tilted (off-nadir directions. The spectral resolution of the data was 4.6 nm, and the spatial resolution was 0.6 m. We compared the PRI for three different scatter angles ( β = 19 ° , 55 ° and 76 °, defined as the angle between sensor and solar directions at the forest stand level, and observed a small (0.006 but statistically significant (p < 0.01 difference in stand PRI. We found that stand mean PRI was not a direct function of sunlit fraction. However, for each scatter angle separately, we found a clear non-linear relationship between PRI and sunlit fraction. The relationship was systematic and had a similar shape for all of the scatter angles. As the PRI–sunlit fraction curves for the different scatter angles were shifted with respect to each other, no universal curve could be found causing the observed independence of canopy PRI from the average sunlit fraction of each view direction. We found the shifts of the curves to be related to a leaf structural effect on canopy

  10. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, HM; Hernandes, FA; Pichorim, M

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fiftee...

  11. Relationships between spectral and bird species rarefaction curves in a brutian pine forest ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, İbrahim; Mert, Ahmet; Özkan, Ulaş Yunus; Aksan, Şengül; Ünal, Yasin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the relations betweenspectral and bird species rarefaction curves in a brutian pine forest ecosystemlocated in the Fethiye region, Turkey. Bird species were counted by fieldworkin 40 sample plots with 0.81 ha (90 x 90 m). The NDVITOA values of pixelsbelonging to each plot (pixel numbers are 36, 81 and 324 for Aster, SPOT andRapidEye, respectively) were calculated. Spectral and bird species rarefactioncurves were formed by means of EstimatesS software. The relat...

  12. Interspecific competition and the structure of bird guilds in boreal Europe: the importance of doing fieldwork in the right season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, L

    1987-12-01

    Bird studies have gained a central role in the debate on the importance of interspecific competition in nature. Thus, the negative results reported from a breeding bird community in a North American shrubsteppe area have created ripples throughout community ecology. However, the set of coexisting breeding birds might be an inappropriate operational definition of a bird community, because the intensity of interspecific competition can be expected to peak in autumn-winter. A review of North European data on wintering birds suggests that the case for the competition theory remains strong when bird communities are defined on the basis of winter coexistence. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Proceedings of a symposium on the reclamation and restoration of boreal peatland and forest ecosystems : towards a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Moran, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Nadeau, L. [Northern Alberta Inst. of Technology, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Rochefort, L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Short, P. [Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss Association, St. Albert, AB (Canada); Vitt, D.H. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Wieder, K. [Villanova Univ., Villanova, PA (United States)] (comps.)

    2010-07-01

    Disturbances in Canada's boreal forest occur in both upland forests and in peatlands. These disturbances originate from both anthropogenic and natural causes, particularly fire. Techniques for the restoration, as well as the reclamation of peatlands and forests impacted by agriculture, urban development, or oil and gas activities, have made significant advancement over the last decade and these techniques need to be incorporated into the regulation and management of peatland and forest ecosystems. This symposium addressed the issue of how this research is affected by climate change. The sessions were entitled: (1) reclaiming forest and forest soils impacted by oil and gas production, (2) influence of oil sands development on forest communities, (3) understanding the importance of peatland and forest carbon in the twenty-first century, (4) reclaiming wetlands on mined oil sands tailing, (5) disturbance in peatlands and its relevance to minimizing disturbance footprints and informing reclamation efforts, and (6) restoration and management of harvested peatlands. The symposium featured 37 presentations, of which 6 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Succession after fire: variation in \\delta13C of organic tissues and respired CO2 in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessenden, J. E.; Li, H.; Mack, M.; Schuur, T.; Warren, S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2001-12-01

    Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and leaf organic matter were measured in 5 neighboring forests of varying ages: 7, 14, 45, 140, and 160 years. These forests are composed primarily of black spruce (Picea Mariana) and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) with a shift in species dominance from aspen to spruce 50 years after fire disturbance. Research on the carbon isotope ratios of leaf material and CO2 was conducted to look for influences from species composition, forest age, and time after most recent burn. Samples of organic \\delta13C in whole leaf tissue were collected from the dominant species of each forest. Concurrent aboveground NPP measurements allowed us to estimate total ecosystem \\delta13C by providing a method for weighting \\delta13C of individual species and plant tissues. \\delta13CO2 and [CO2] were measured on canopy CO2 to determine the isotopic ratio of ecosystem respiration. The atmospheric results indicated that the \\delta13C of ecosystem respiration changes with successional stage. Specifically, the aspen dominating forests showed 13C depleted values relative to the spruce dominated forests. Organic results showed more 13C-enriched values with increased forest age and vegetation functional type. Specifically, oldest trees within the coniferous species had the most 13C-enriched values in leaf tissues. These results suggest that increases in the disturbance regime of northern boreal forests will lead to a decrease in the \\delta13C of ecosystem carbon with consequences for the atmospheric \\delta13C budget.

  15. Quantifying the detrimental impacts of land-use and management change on European forest bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S I Wade

    Full Text Available The ecological impacts of changing forest management practices in Europe are poorly understood despite European forests being highly managed. Furthermore, the effects of potential drivers of forest biodiversity decline are rarely considered in concert, thus limiting effective conservation or sustainable forest management. We present a trait-based framework that we use to assess the detrimental impact of multiple land-use and management changes in forests on bird populations across Europe. Major changes to forest habitats occurring in recent decades, and their impact on resource availability for birds were identified. Risk associated with these changes for 52 species of forest birds, defined as the proportion of each species' key resources detrimentally affected through changes in abundance and/or availability, was quantified and compared to their pan-European population growth rates between 1980 and 2009. Relationships between risk and population growth were found to be significantly negative, indicating that resource loss in European forests is an important driver of decline for both resident and migrant birds. Our results demonstrate that coarse quantification of resource use and ecological change can be valuable in understanding causes of biodiversity decline, and thus in informing conservation strategy and policy. Such an approach has good potential to be extended for predictive use in assessing the impact of possible future changes to forest management and to develop more precise indicators of forest health.

  16. Effects of silviculture on neotropical migratory birds in central and southeastern oak pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson; Frank R. Thompson; Richard N. Conner; Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1993-01-01

    Avian communities that are associated with forest habitat attributes are affected by silvicultural and other stand influences. Some species have specific habitat requirements, whereas others occupy a broad range of vegetative conditions. In general, bird species richness and density are positively related to stand foliage volume and diversity. Bird density and...

  17. Natural cavity characteristics and cavity bird abundance on West Virginia forested islands of the Ohio River

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Anderson; Karen A. Riesz

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife habitats connected with forested islands and their back channels (areas where commercial traffic is prohibited) on the Ohio River are valuable to diverse species. However, quantitative data on the importance of these areas to cavity-nesting birds are lacking. We compared cavity-nesting bird use and habitat between back and navigational channel sides of islands...

  18. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T; Tomlinson, Kyle W

    2016-02-23

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  19. Bird species diversity and nesting success in mature, clearcut and shelterwood forest in northern New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2000-01-01

    Bird species distribution and predation rates on natural and artificial nests were compared among unmanaged mature, shelterwood, and clearcut northern hardwoods forest to evaluate the effect of these practices on bird populations. Twenty-three of the 48 bird species detected during the study differed significantly in abundance among unmanaged mature forest,...

  20. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisermann, Knut; Schulz, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2000 and 2400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala). The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus), the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus), the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens), the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzi), and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus). Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Serensen similarity index 0.85), indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, approximately 27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia), and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring.

  1. Forest floor carbon exchange of a boreal black spruce forest in eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bergeron

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj and Pff (Pff-eco relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re and photosynthesis (Peco, respectively, were also quantified.

    Shallow (5 cm soil temperature explained 67–86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper (50 and 100 cm soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring.

    Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pff-max saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m−2 s−1 and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pff-max was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two

  2. Fire as an agent in redistributing fallout 137Cs in the Canadian boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliouris, G.; Svoboda, J.; Mierzynski, B.; Taylor, H.W.; Wein, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of fallout 137 Cs in the boreal forest and the effect of fire in redistributing 137 Cs were studied in the remote region of Wood Buffalo National Park, N.W.T., Canada. Results of a preliminary study of five burned (the fire occurred in 1981) and five unburned stands conducted in 1986 revealed that 137 Cs concentrations were higher in the surface soil of the burned stands than in the unburned ones. In 1989, a comprehensive study was conducted, in which one burned and one unburned white spruce stand were sampled in greater detail. The latter investigation also revealed a difference in the distribution of 137 Cs within the burned stand compared to the unburned one. Specifically, in the unburned stand, the highest 137 Cs concentration was identified in the epiphytic lichens and in the mosses, whereas in the burned stand, the highest concentration was measured in the surface organic soil. These results indicate that fire caused the mobilization of part of the 137 Cs bound to the above-ground matter and concentrated it in the ash layer of the burned surface soil. An additional ecologically important finding in our study was that significantly lower total 137 Cs load was observed in the burned stand compared to the unburned one. Hence, our data not only provide evidence that 137 Cs is being redistributed within the burned stand to the surface soil, but also that part of the 137 Cs is lost due to fire, presumably contaminating other ecosystems. Volatilization and fly-ash during the fire, and runoff (e.g. from snow melt) after the fire are the most likely mechanisms for the 137 Cs removal. These findings point to fire as an agent of 137 Cs secondary contamination for initially unaffected systems, as well as for those previously contaminated

  3. Characteristics of soil-to-plant transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roivainen, P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy generates large amounts of different types of radioactive wastes that can be accidentally released into the environment. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for the dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and is usually described by a concentration ratio (CR) between plant and soil concentrations in radioecological models. Our knowledge of the soil-to-plant transfer of many radionuclides is currently limited and concerns mainly agricultural species and temperate environments. The validity of radioecological modelling is affected by the accuracy of the assumptions and parameters used to describe soil-to-plant transfer. This study investigated the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements (cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)) relevant to radioactive waste at two boreal forest sites and assessed the factors affecting the CR values. May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) were selected as representatives of understory species, while rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) represented trees in this study. All the elements studied were found to accumulate in plant roots, indicating that separate CR values for root and aboveground plant parts are needed. The between-species variation in CR values was not clearly higher than the within-species variation, suggesting that the use of generic CR values for understory species and trees is justified. No linear relationship was found between soil and plant concentrations for the elements studied and a non-linear equation was found to be the best for describing the dependence of CR values on soil concentration. Thus, the commonly used assumption of a linear relationship between plant and soil concentrations may lead to underestimation of plant root uptake at low soil concentrations. Plant nutrients potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur were found to

  4. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; O'Neill, K. P.; Trumbore, S.E.; Veldhuis, H.; Stocks, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    We used input and decomposition data from 14C studies of soils to determine rates of vertical accumulation of moss combined with carbon storage inventories on a sequence of burns to model how carbon accumulates in soils and moss after a stand-killing fire. We used soil drainage - moss associations and soil drainage maps of the old black spruce (OBS) site at the BOREAS northern study area (NSA) to areally weight the contributions of each moderately well drained, feathermoss areas; poorly drained sphagnum - feathermoss areas; and very poorly drained brown moss areas to the carbon storage and flux at the OBS NSA site. On this very old (117 years) complex of black spruce, sphagnum bog veneer, and fen systems we conclude that these systems are likely sequestering 0.01-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-' at OBS-NSA today. Soil drainage in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba, controls carbon storage and flux by controlling moss input and decomposition rates and by controlling through fire the amount and quality of carbon left after burning. On poorly drained soils rich in sphagnum moss, net accumulation and long-term storage of carbon is higher than on better drained soils colonized by feathermosses. The carbon flux of these contrasting ecosystems is best characterized by soil drainage class and stand age, where stands recently burned are net sources of CO2, and maturing stands become increasingly stronger sinks of atmospheric CO2. This approach to measuring carbon storage and flux presents a method of scaling to larger areas using soil drainage, moss cover, and stand age information.

  5. Characteristics of soil-to-plant transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roivainen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy generates large amounts of different types of radioactive wastes that can be accidentally released into the environment. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for the dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and is usually described by a concentration ratio (CR) between plant and soil concentrations in radioecological models. Our knowledge of the soil-to-plant transfer of many radionuclides is currently limited and concerns mainly agricultural species and temperate environments. The validity of radioecological modelling is affected by the accuracy of the assumptions and parameters used to describe soil-to-plant transfer. This study investigated the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements (cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)) relevant to radioactive waste at two boreal forest sites and assessed the factors affecting the CR values. May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) were selected as representatives of understory species, while rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) represented trees in this study. All the elements studied were found to accumulate in plant roots, indicating that separate CR values for root and aboveground plant parts are needed. The between-species variation in CR values was not clearly higher than the within-species variation, suggesting that the use of generic CR values for understory species and trees is justified. No linear relationship was found between soil and plant concentrations for the elements studied and a non-linear equation was found to be the best for describing the dependence of CR values on soil concentration. Thus, the commonly used assumption of a linear relationship between plant and soil concentrations may lead to underestimation of plant root uptake at low soil concentrations. Plant nutrients potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur were found to

  6. Moss-cyanobacteria associations as biogenic sources of nitrogen in boreal forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eRousk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N is a major pathway for available N entering ecosystems. In N-limited boreal forests, a significant amount of N2 is fixed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses, contributing up to 50 % to the total N input. In this review, we synthesize reports on the drivers of N2 fixation in feather moss-cyanobacteria associations to gain a deeper understanding of their role for ecosystem-N-cycling. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is inhibited by N inputs and therefore, significant fixation occurs only in low N-deposition areas. While it has been shown that artificial N additions in the laboratory as well as in the field inhibit N2 fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations, the type, as well as the amounts of N that enters the system, affect N2 fixation differently. Another major driver of N2 fixation is the moisture status of the cyanobacteria-hosting moss, wherein moist conditions promote N2 fixation. Mosses experience large fluctuations in their hydrological status, undergoing significant natural drying and rewetting cycles over the course of only a few hours, especially in summer, which likely compromises the N input to the system via N2 fixation. Perhaps the most central question, however, that remains unanswered is the fate of the fixed N2 in mosses. The cyanobacteria are likely to leak N, but whether this N is transferred to the soil and if so, at which rates and timescales, is unknown. Despite our increasing understanding of the drivers of N2 fixation, the role moss-cyanobacteria associations play in ecosystem-N-cycling remains unresolved. Further, the relationship mosses and cyanobacteria share is unknown to date and warrants further investigation.

  7. Brown Carbon and Black Carbon in the Smoky Atmosphere during Boreal Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, G. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Pankratova, N. V.; Semoutnikova, E. G.; Vasiliev, A. V.; Gorchakova, I. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the variability of smoke aerosol absorbing ability with variations in the content of brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon (BC). Using monitoring data on radiative characteristics of smoke aerosol at AERONET stations and the spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained by the MODIS spectrometer ( Terra satellite), we have detected large-scale smokes during boreal forest fires in Russia and Canada (1995-2012). The spatial distribution (50°-70° N, 95°-125° W) and temporal variability (at AERONET station Fort McMurray) of AOD during the smoking of a part of Canada in July 2012 have been analyzed. AOD probability distributions for July 14-18, 2012, and an estimate of aerosol radiative forcing of smoke aerosol at the upper boundary of the atmosphere have been obtained. We have proposed a technique for the diagnostics of BrC and BC in smoke aerosol particles from the spectral dependence of the imaginary part of the refractive index. At a wavelength of 440 nm, the contributions of BrC and BC to the smokeaerosol absorbing abitity can be comparable in magnitude. In many cases, the absorption spectra of smoke aerosol can be adequately approximated by either power or exponential functions. The presence of BrC in smoke-aerosol particles highly extends the variety of observed absorption spectra in a smoky atmosphere and spectral dependences of single scattering albedo. In the spectral range of 440-1020 nm, the radiative characteristics of smoke aerosol are largely contributed by its fine mode.

  8. Nonlinearities, scale-dependence, and individualism of boreal forest trees to climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, J. M.; Mann, D. H.; Grant, T. A., III; Lloyd, A. H.; Hollingsworth, T. N.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the climate-growth relationships of trees are complicated by the nonlinearity and variability of these responses through space and time. Furthermore, trees growing at the same site may exhibit opposing growth responses to climate, a phenomenon termed growth divergence. To date the majority of dendrochronological studies in Interior Alaska have involved white spruce growing at treeline, even though black spruce is the most abundant tree species. Although changing climate-growth relationships have been observed in black spruce, there is little known about the multivariate responses of individual trees to temperature and precipitation and whether or not black spruce exhibits growth divergences similar to those documented for white spruce. To evaluate the occurrence of growth divergences in black spruce, we collected cores from trees growing on a steep, north-facing toposequence having a gradient in environmental parameters. Our overall goal was to assess how the climate-growth relationships of black spruce change over space and time. Specifically, we evaluated how topography influences the climate-growth relationships of black spruce and if the growth responses to climate are homogeneous. At the site-level most trees responded negatively to temperature and positively to precipitation, while at the tree-level black spruce exhibited heterogenous growth responses to climate that varied in both space (i.e., between sites) and time (i.e., seasonally and annually). There was a dominant response-type at each site, but there was also considerable variability in the proportion of trees exhibiting each response-type combination. Even in a climatically extreme setting like Alaska's boreal forest, tree responses to climate variability are spatially and temporally complex, as well as highly nonlinear.

  9. Observations of total RONO2 over the boreal forest: NOx sinks and HNO3 sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Browne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast with the textbook view of remote chemistry where HNO3 formation is the primary sink of nitrogen oxides, recent theoretical analyses show that formation of RONO2 (ΣANs from isoprene and other terpene precursors is the primary net chemical loss of nitrogen oxides over the remote continents where the concentration of nitrogen oxides is low. This then increases the prominence of questions concerning the chemical lifetime and ultimate fate of ΣANs. We present observations of nitrogen oxides and organic molecules collected over the Canadian boreal forest during the summer which show that ΣANs account for ~20% of total oxidized nitrogen and that their instantaneous production rate is larger than that of HNO3. This confirms the primary role of reactions producing ΣANs as a control over the lifetime of NOx (NOx = NO + NO2 in remote, continental environments. However, HNO3 is generally present in larger concentrations than ΣANs indicating that the atmospheric lifetime of ΣANs is shorter than the HNO3 lifetime. We investigate a range of proposed loss mechanisms that would explain the inferred lifetime of ΣANs finding that in combination with deposition, two processes are consistent with the observations: (1 rapid ozonolysis of isoprene nitrates where at least ~40% of the ozonolysis products release NOx from the carbon backbone and/or (2 hydrolysis of particulate organic nitrates with HNO3 as a product. Implications of these ideas for our understanding of NOx and NOy budget in remote and rural locations are discussed.

  10. Tethered balloon measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds at a Boreal forest site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs were performed at Hyytiälä, a Boreal forest site in Southern Finland as part of the OSOA (origin and formation of secondary organic aerosol project in August 2001. At this site, frequent formation of new particles has been observed and the role of biogenic VOCs in this process is still unclear. Tethered balloons served as platforms to collect VOC samples within the planetary boundary layer at heights up to 1.2 km above ground during daytime. Mean mixed layer concentrations of total monoterpenes varied between 10 and 170 pptv, with a-pinene, limonene and D3-carene as major compounds, isoprene was detected at levels of 2-35 pptv. A mixed layer gradient technique and a budget approach are applied to derive surface fluxes representative for areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometres. Effects of spatial heterogeneity in surface emissions are examined with a footprint analysis. Depending on the source area considered, mean afternoon emissions of the sum of terpenes range between 180 and 300 mg m-2 h-1 for the period of 2-12 August 2001. Surface fluxes close to Hyytiälä were higher than the regional average, and agree well with mean emissions predicted by a biogenic VOC emission model. Total rates of monoterpene oxidation were calculated with a photochemical model. The rates did not correlate with the occurrence of new particle formation, but the ozone pathway was of more importance on days with particle formation. Condensable vapour production from the oxidation of monoterpenes throughout the mixed layer can only account for a fraction of the increase in aerosol mass observed at the surface.

  11. Nitrogen Alters Fungal Communities in Boreal Forest Soil: Implications for Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, S. D.; Treseder, K. K.

    2005-12-01

    One potential effect of climate change in high latitude ecosystems is to increase soil nutrient availability. In particular, greater nitrogen availability could impact decomposer communities and lead to altered rates of soil carbon cycling. Since fungi are the primary decomposers in many high-latitude ecosystems, we used molecular techniques and field surveys to test whether fungal communities and abundances differed in response to nitrogen fertilization in a boreal forest ecosystem. We predicted that fungi that degrade recalcitrant carbon would decline under nitrogen fertilization, while fungi that degrade labile carbon would increase, leading to no net change in rates of soil carbon mineralization. The molecular data showed that basidiomycete fungi dominate the active fungal community in both fertilized and unfertilized soils. However, we found that fertilization reduced peak mushroom biomass by 79%, although most of the responsive fungi were ectomycorrhizal and therefore their capacity to degrade soil carbon is uncertain. Fertilization increased the activity of the cellulose-degrading enzyme beta-glucosidase by 78%, while protease activity declined by 39% and polyphenol oxidase, a lignin-degrading enzyme, did not respond. Rates of soil respiration did not change in response to fertilization. These results suggest that increased nitrogen availability does alter the composition of the fungal community, and its potential to degrade different carbon compounds. However, these differences do not affect the total flux of CO2 from the soil, even though the contribution to CO2 respiration from different carbon pools may vary with fertilization. We conclude that in the short term, increased nitrogen availability due to climate warming or nitrogen deposition is more likely to alter the turnover of individual carbon pools rather than total carbon fluxes from the soil. Future work should determine if changes in fungal community structure and associated differences in

  12. Implications of floristic and environmental variation for carbon cycle dynamics in boreal forest ecosystems of central Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zicheng; Apps, M.J.; Bhatti, J.S. [Canadan Forest Service, Edmonton (Canada). Northern Forestry Centre

    2002-06-01

    Species composition, detritus, and soil data from 97 boreal forest stands along a transect in central Canada were analysed using Correspondence Analysis to determine the dominant environmental/site variables that differentiate these forest stands. Picea mariana stands were densely clustered together on the understorey DCA plot, suggesting a consistent understorey species composition (feather mosses and Ericaceae), whereas Populus tremuloides stands had the most diverse understorey species composition (ca. 30 species, mostly shrubs and herbs). Pinus banksiana stands had several characteristic species of reindeer lichens (Cladina spp.), but saplings and Pinus seedlings were rare. Although climatic variables showed large variation along the transect, the CCA results indicated that site conditions are more important in determining species composition and differentiating the stand types. Forest floor characteristics (litter and humus layer, woody debris, and drainage) appear to be among the most important site variables. Stands of Picea had significantly higher average carbon (C) densities in the combined litter and humus layer (43,530 kg-C/ha) than either Populus (25,500 kg-C/ha) or Pinus (19,400 kg-C/ha). The thick surface organic layer in lowland Picea stands plays an important role in regulating soil temperature and moisture, and organic-matter decomposition, which in turn affect the ecosystem C-dynamics. During forest succession after a stand-replacing disturbance (e.g. fires), tree biomass and surface organic layer thickness increase in all stand types as forests recover; however, woody biomass detritus first decreases and then increases after ca. 80 yr. Soil C densities show slight decrease with ages in Populus stands, but increase in other stand types. These results indicate the complex C-transfer processes among different components (tree biomass, detritus, forest floor, and soil) of boreal ecosystems at various stages of succession.

  13. Polarimetric and Structural Properties of a Boreal Forest at P-Band and L-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldini, S.; Rocca, F.

    2010-12-01

    With this paper we investigate the structural and polarimetric of the boreal forest within the Krycklan river catchment, Northern Sweden, basing on multi-polarimetric and multi-baseline SAR surveys at P-Band and L-Band collected in the framework of the ESA campaign BioSAR 2008. The analysis has been carried out by applying the Algebraic Synthesis (AS) technique, recently introduced in literature, which provides a theoretical framework for the decomposition of the backscattered signal into ground-only and volume-only contributions, basing on both baseline and polarization diversity. The availability of multiple baselines allows the formation of a synthetic aperture not only along the azimuth direction but also in elevation. Accordingly, the backscattered echoes can be focused not only in the slant range, azimuth plane, but in the whole 3D space. This is the rationale of the SAR Tomography (T-SAR) concept, which has been widely considered in the literature of the last years. It follows that, as long as the penetration in the scattering volume is guaranteed, the vertical profile of the vegetation layer is retrieved by separating backscatter contributions along the vertical direction, which is the main reason for the exploitation of Tomographic techniques at longer wavelengths. Still, the capabilities of T-SAR are limited to imaging the global vertical structure of the electromagnetic scattering in a certain polarization. It then becomes important to develop methodologies for the investigation of the vertical structure of different Scattering Mechanisms (SMs), such as ground and volume scattering, in such a way as to derive information that can be delivered also outside the field of Radar processing. This is an issue that may become relevant at longer wavelengths, such as P-Band, where the presence of multiple scattering arising from the interaction with terrain could hinder the correct reconstruction of the forest structure. The availability of multiple polarizations

  14. Simple proxies for estimating the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kontkanen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation products of monoterpenes likely have a crucial role in the formation and growth of aerosol particles in boreal forests. However, the continuous measurements of monoterpene concentrations are usually not available on decadal timescales, and the direct measurements of the concentrations of monoterpene oxidation product have so far been scarce. In this study we developed proxies for the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. For deriving the proxies we used the monoterpene concentration measured with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS during 2006–2013. Our proxies for the monoterpene concentration take into account the temperature-controlled emissions from the forest ecosystem, the dilution caused by the mixing within the boundary layer and different oxidation processes. All the versions of our proxies captured the seasonal variation of the monoterpene concentration, the typical proxy-to-measurements ratios being between 0.8 and 1.3 in summer and between 0.6 and 2.6 in winter. In addition, the proxies were able to describe the diurnal variation of the monoterpene concentration rather well, especially in summer months. By utilizing one of the proxies, we calculated the concentration of oxidation products of monoterpenes by considering their production in the oxidation and their loss due to condensation on aerosol particles. The concentration of oxidation products was found to have a clear seasonal cycle, with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. The concentration of oxidation products was lowest in the morning or around noon and highest in the evening. In the future, our proxies for the monoterpene concentration and their oxidation products can be used, for example, in the analysis of new particle formation and growth in boreal environments.

  15. Measuring and Modeling the Effects of Alternate Post-Fire Successional Trajectories on Boreal Forest Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranty, M. M.; Goetz, S. J.; Mack, M. C.; Alexander, H. D.; Beck, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    High latitude ecosystems are experiencing amplified climate warming, and recent evidence suggests concurrent intensification of fire disturbance regimes. In central Alaskan boreal forests, severe burns consume more of the soil organic layer, resulting in increased establishment of deciduous seedlings and altered post-fire stand composition with increased deciduous dominance. Quantifying differences in ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics between forest successional trajectories in response to burn severity is essential for understanding potential changes in regional or global feedbacks between boreal forests and climate. We used the Biome BioGeochemical Cycling model (Biome-BGC) to quantify differences in C stocks and fluxes associated with alternate post-fire successional trajectories related to fire severity. A version of Biome-BGC that allows alternate competing vegetation types was calibrated against a series of aboveground biomass observations from chronosequences of stands with differing post-fire successional trajectories characterized by the proportion of deciduous biomass. The model was able to reproduce observed patterns of biomass accumulation after fire, with stands dominated by deciduous species sequestering more C at a faster rate than stands dominated by conifers. Modeled C fluxes suggest that stands dominated by deciduous species are a stronger sink of atmospheric C soon after disturbance than coniferous stands. These results agree with the few available C flux observations. We use a historic database in conjunction with a map of deciduous canopy cover to explore the consequences of ongoing and potential future changes in the fire regime on central Alaskan C balance.

  16. The positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing of increasing methane emissions from a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Kljun, NatasCha; Quinton, William L; Treat, Claire C; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. In boreal lowlands, thawing forested permafrost peat plateaus ('forest') lead to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ('wetland'). Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH 4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH 4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchange. Using nested wetland and landscape eddy covariance net CH 4 flux measurements in combination with flux footprint modeling, we find that landscape CH 4 emissions increase with increasing wetland-to-forest ratio. Landscape CH 4 emissions are most sensitive to this ratio during peak emission periods, when wetland soils are up to 10 °C warmer than forest soils. The cumulative growing season (May-October) wetland CH 4 emission of ~13 g CH 4  m -2 is the dominating contribution to the landscape CH 4 emission of ~7 g CH 4  m -2 . In contrast, forest contributions to landscape CH 4 emissions appear to be negligible. The rapid wetland expansion of 0.26 ± 0.05% yr -1 in this region causes an estimated growing season increase of 0.034 ± 0.007 g CH 4  m -2  yr -1 in landscape CH 4 emissions. A long-term net CO 2 uptake of >200 g CO 2  m -2  yr -1 is required to offset the positive radiative forcing of increasing CH 4 emissions until the end of the 21st century as indicated by an atmospheric CH 4 and CO 2 concentration model. However, long-term apparent carbon accumulation rates in similar boreal forest-wetland landscapes and eddy covariance landscape net CO 2 flux measurements suggest a long-term net CO 2 uptake between 49 and 157 g CO 2  m -2  yr -1 . Thus, thaw-induced CH 4 emission increases likely exert a positive net radiative greenhouse gas

  17. Understanding the Effect of Land Cover Classification on Model Estimates of Regional Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John; Kang, Sinkyu

    2003-01-01

    The original objectives of this proposed 3-year project were to: 1) quantify the respective contributions of land cover and disturbance (i.e., wild fire) to uncertainty associated with regional carbon source/sink estimates produced by a variety of boreal ecosystem models; 2) identify the model processes responsible for differences in simulated carbon source/sink patterns for the boreal forest; 3) validate model outputs using tower and field- based estimates of NEP and NPP; and 4) recommend/prioritize improvements to boreal ecosystem carbon models, which will better constrain regional source/sink estimates for atmospheric C02. These original objectives were subsequently distilled to fit within the constraints of a 1 -year study. This revised study involved a regional model intercomparison over the BOREAS study region involving Biome-BGC, and TEM (A.D. McGuire, UAF) ecosystem models. The major focus of these revised activities involved quantifying the sensitivity of regional model predictions associated with land cover classification uncertainties. We also evaluated the individual and combined effects of historical fire activity, historical atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and climate change on carbon and water flux simulations within the BOREAS study region.

  18. Functional Responses and Resilience of Boreal Forest Ecosystem after Reduction of Deer Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachand, Marianne; Pellerin, Stéphanie; Moretti, Marco; Aubin, Isabelle; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D.; Poulin, Monique

    2014-01-01

    The functional trait-based approach is increasingly used to predict responses of ecological communities to disturbances, but most studies target a single taxonomic group. Here, we assessed the resilience of a forest ecosystem to an overabundant herbivore population by assessing changes in 19 functional traits for plant, 13 traits for ground beetle and 16 traits for songbird communities after six years of controlled browsing on Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada). Our results indicated that plants were more responsive to 6 years of reduced browsing pressure than ground beetles and songbirds. However, co-inertia analysis revealed that ground beetle communities responded in a similar way than plant communities with stronger relationships between plant and ground beetle traits at reduced deer density, a pattern not detected between plant and songbird. High deer density favored plants species that reproduce vegetatively and with abiotic pollination and seed dispersal, traits implying little interaction with animal. On the other hand, traits found at reduced deer density mostly involved trophic interaction. For example, plants in this treatment had fleshy fruits and large seeds dispersed by birds or other animals whereas ground beetle species were carnivorous. Overall, our results suggest that plant communities recovered some functional components to overabundant herbivore populations, since most traits associated with undisturbed forests were reestablished after six years of deer reduction. The re-establishment of functional plant communities with traits involving trophic interaction induces changes in the ground-beetle trait community, but forest structure remains likely insufficiently heterogeneous to shift the songbird trait community within six years. PMID:24587362

  19. Functional responses and resilience of boreal forest ecosystem after reduction of deer density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Bachand

    Full Text Available The functional trait-based approach is increasingly used to predict responses of ecological communities to disturbances, but most studies target a single taxonomic group. Here, we assessed the resilience of a forest ecosystem to an overabundant herbivore population by assessing changes in 19 functional traits for plant, 13 traits for ground beetle and 16 traits for songbird communities after six years of controlled browsing on Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada. Our results indicated that plants were more responsive to 6 years of reduced browsing pressure than ground beetles and songbirds. However, co-inertia analysis revealed that ground beetle communities responded in a similar way than plant communities with stronger relationships between plant and ground beetle traits at reduced deer density, a pattern not detected between plant and songbird. High deer density favored plants species that reproduce vegetatively and with abiotic pollination and seed dispersal, traits implying little interaction with animal. On the other hand, traits found at reduced deer density mostly involved trophic interaction. For example, plants in this treatment had fleshy fruits and large seeds dispersed by birds or other animals whereas ground beetle species were carnivorous. Overall, our results suggest that plant communities recovered some functional components to overabundant herbivore populations, since most traits associated with undisturbed forests were reestablished after six years of deer reduction. The re-establishment of functional plant communities with traits involving trophic interaction induces changes in the ground-beetle trait community, but forest structure remains likely insufficiently heterogeneous to shift the songbird trait community within six years.

  20. Direct Measurements of Leaf Level CH4 and CO2 Exchange in a Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crill, P.; Lindroth, A.; Vestin, P.; Båth, A.

    2008-12-01

    Reports of aerobic CH4 sources from leaves and litter of a variety of forests and plant functional types have added a potential mystery to our understanding of CH4 dynamics especially if these sources contribute enough to have a significant impact on the global budget. We have made direct measurements of leaf level CH4 and CO2 exchange using a quartz branch cuvette in a boreal forest in Norunda, Sweden since August of this year. The cuvette was temperature controlled and was designed to close for 5 minutes every 30 minutes. Air was circulated to a Los Gatos CH4/CO2 infrared absorption laser spectrometer. Air and cuvette temperatures, PAR and UV radiation (Kipp and Zonen, CUV4; spectral range 300-380 nm) were measured at the branch chamber. The study was made in the Norunda 100 years old stand consisting of a mixture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) , Birch (Betula sp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The cuvette was moved between trees at roughly 5 day intervals. A null empty cuvette period was included in the rotation. The initial data show the expected CO2 uptake correlated with incident PAR and low rates of emission at night. However, there was no clear pattern of emissions detectable in the CH4. We estimate that we should be able to resolve a change of 0.5 ppbv CH4 min- 1 with our analytical setup. Both the daytime (1000-1600) and nighttime (2200-0400) averages were less than our detection. Even on very sunny days with high PAR and UV flux values, no consistent pattern was detectable. The lack of a distinct signal may be due to the fact that the past month has been very rainy, it is late in the growth season at these latitudes and sun angles are increasing quickly. The trees were at the northern edge of a clearing and we were also measuring mid height (2-3 m) leaves and branches of young trees. The branch cuvette design can also be optimized to improve its sensitivity.

  1. Remote Sensing of Light Use Efficiency in a Boreal Forest and Peatland in James Bay, Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cheryl

    The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is a remotely sensed vegetation index that detects a decrease in spectral reflectance at 531nm associated with xanthophyll cycle activity. PRI has been shown to track light use efficiency (LUE) in a number of plant species. PRI shows great promise in improving our ability to sense photosynthetic fluxes of CO2 remotely. However, it has not been tested in all environments, and its applicability is particularly uncertain for peatland environments dominated by mosses. This research investigates the ability of PRI to track LUE in a boreal forest and peatland, and examines the spectral signal associated with xanthophyll cycle activity in heterogeneous peatland plots. This research also investigates the relationship between PRI and leaf area index (LAI) over space and time in a peatland. We found most plots examined in the peatland site did not exhibit a spectral signal associated with xanthophyll cycle activity when exposed to a transition from dark conditions to full sunlight. This transition should lead to a de-epoxidation of xanthophylls in leaf tissues and a decrease in reflectance at 531nm. Plots that did show the decrease in reflectance at 531nm after this change in light conditions also displayed a decrease in PRI. This indicates that PRI effectively detects the 531nm signal as well as xanthophyll cycle activity and light stress in these plots. However, the variability in the strength of the spectral response to changing light conditions may confound the PRI signal in practice, and make it difficult to interpret results of airborne or satellite data. We also found PRI at the peatland site to be sensitive to and directly correlated with spatial variability in LAI, and negatively correlated with temporal variability in LAI. These characteristics may result in further difficulties applying PRI in peatlands. PRI and LUE were correlated at both the forest and peatland site, however at both sites the PRI signal saturated around

  2. Animal-habitat relationships in the Knysna Forest, South Africa: discrimination between forest types by birds and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, J H; Crowe, T M

    1987-06-01

    Effects of forest plant species composition and physiognomy on bird and invertebrate communities were investigated in three discrete, relatively undisturbed forest types along a dry-wet soil moisture gradient. Using discriminant function analysis, a 100% floristic and a 78% vegetation structural discrimination were obtained between the three forest types. However, the bird communities of these different forest types were very similar in species composition, and had much lower densities than those normally encountered in other, superficially similar forests. Although an 81% discrimination between forest types was attained through analysis of ground surface invertebrates, measures of litter and aerial invertebrate abundance were also of limited use as discriminators. Historical and biogeographic factors, as well as the low nutritional levels in the soil and vegetation may be the causes of low bird and invertebrate density and diversity. It is concluded that floristics and vegetation structure have, at best, a minor influence on bird community structure, and possibly also on invertebrate community structure in the Knysna Forest.

  3. Effects of drainage-basin geomorphology on insectivorous bird abundance in temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tomoya; Urabe, Jotaro; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2010-10-01

    Interfaces between terrestrial and stream ecosystems often enhance species diversity and population abundance of ecological communities beyond levels that would be expected separately from both the ecosystems. Nevertheless, no study has examined how stream configuration within a watershed influences the population of terrestrial predators at the drainage-basin scale. We examined the habitat and abundance relationships of forest insectivorous birds in eight drainage basins in a cool temperate forest of Japan during spring and summer. Each basin has different drainage-basin geomorphology, such as the density and frequency of stream channels. In spring, when terrestrial arthropod prey biomass is limited, insectivorous birds aggregated in habitats closer to streams, where emerging aquatic prey was abundant. Nevertheless, birds ceased to aggregate around streams in summer because terrestrial prey became plentiful. Watershed-scale analyses showed that drainage basins with longer stream channels per unit area sustained higher densities of insectivorous birds. Moreover, such effects of streams on birds continued from spring through summer, even though birds dispersed out of riparian areas in the summer. Although our data are from only a single year, our findings imply that physical modifications of stream channels may reduce populations of forest birds; thus, they emphasize the importance of landscape-based management approaches that consider both stream and forest ecosystems for watershed biodiversity conservation. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Photosynthesis and carbon isotope discrimination in boreal forest ecosystems: A comparison of functional characteristics in plants from three mature forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Brooks, J. Renee; Ehleringer, James R.

    1997-12-01

    In this paper we compare measurements of photosynthesis and carbon isotope discrimination characteristics among plants from three mature boreal forest types (Black spruce, Jack pine, and aspen) in order to help explain variation in ecosystem-level gas exchange processes. Measurements were made at the southern study area (SSA) and northern study area (NSA) of the boreal forest in central Canada as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). In both the NSA and the SSA there were significant differences in photosynthesis among the major tree species, with aspen having the highest CO2 assimilation rates and spruce the lowest. Within a species, photosynthetic rates in the SSA were approximately twice those measured in the NSA, and this was correlated with similar variations in stomatal conductance. Calculations of the ratio of leaf intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration (ci/ca) from leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) values indicated a relatively low degree of stomatal limitation of photosynthesis, despite the low absolute values of stomatal conductance in these boreal tree species. Within each ecosystem, leaf Δ values were strongly correlated with life-form groups (trees, shrubs, forbs, and mosses), and these differences are maintained between years. Although we observed significant variation in the 13C content of tree rings at the old Jack pine site in the NSA during the past decade (indicating interannual variation in the degree of stomatal limitation), changes in summer precipitation and temperature accounted for only 44% of the isotopic variance. We scaled leaf-level processes to the ecosystem level through analyses of well-mixed canopy air. On average, all three forest types had similar ecosystem-level Δ values (average value ± standard deviation, 19.1‰±0.5‰), calculated from measurements of change in the concentration and carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 during a diurnal cycle within a forest canopy. However, there were

  5. The influence of habitat structure on bird species composition in lowland malaysian rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Mohammad Saiful; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd

    2012-05-01

    Bird surveys were conducted in the Bukit Kepala Gajah limestone area in Lenggong, Perak from July 2010 to January 2011. The study area was divided into three zones: forest edge, forest intermediate and forest interior. A point-count distance sampling method was used in the bird surveys. The study recorded 7789 detections, representing 100 bird species belonging to 28 families. Pycnonotidae, Timaliidae and Nectariniidae were the dominant families overall and showed the highest number of observations recorded in the study area whereas Motacillidae showed the fewest observations. The bird species were grouped into three feeding guilds: insectivores, frugivores and others (omnivores, carnivores, nectarivores and granivores). The species richness of insectivorous birds differed significantly among the forest zones sampled (Kruskal-Wallis: α=0.05, H=10.979, d.f.=2, p=0.004), with more insectivorous birds occurring in the forest interior. No significant differences were found among the zones in the species richness of either the frugivore guild or the composite others guild.

  6. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  7. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesel, Jessica R.; Hockaday, William C.; Kolka, Randall K.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2015-06-01

    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition of postfire SOM. We sampled the forest floor layer (i.e., full organic horizon) and 0-10 cm mineral soil from stands dominated by coniferous (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) or deciduous (Populus tremuloides Michx.) species 1-2 months after the 2011 Pagami Creek wildfire in northern Minnesota. We used solid-state 13C NMR to characterize SOM composition across a gradient of fire severity in both forest cover types. SOM composition was affected by fire, even when no statistically significant losses of total C stocks were evident. The most pronounced differences in SOM composition between burned and unburned reference areas occurred in the forest floor for both cover types. Carbohydrate stocks in forest floor and mineral horizons decreased with severity level in both cover types, whereas pyrogenic C stocks increased with severity in the coniferous forest floor and decreased in only the highest severity level in the deciduous forest floor. Loss of carbohydrate and lignin pools contributed to a decreased SOM stability index and increased decomposition index. Our results suggest that increases in fire severity expected to occur under future climate scenarios may lead to changes in SOM composition and dynamics with consequences for postfire forest recovery and C uptake.

  8. The origin of soil organic matter controls its composition and bioreactivity across a mesic boreal forest latitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, L.; Philben, M. J.; Edwards, K. A.; Podrebarac, F. A.; Jamie, W.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Warmer climates have been associated with reduced soil organic matter (SOM) bioreactivity, lower respiration rates at a given temperature, which is typically attributed to the presence of more decomposed SOM. Cross site studies, however, indicate that ecosystem regime shifts associated with long-term climate warming can affect SOM properties through changes in vegetation and plant litter inputs to soils. The relative importance of these two controls, diagenesis and inputs, on SOM properties as ecosystems experience climate warming remains poorly understood. To address this, we characterized the elemental, chemical (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and total hydrolysable amino acids), and isotopic composition of plant litter and SOM across a well-constrained mesic boreal forest latitudinal transect in Atlantic Canada. Results across forest sites within each of three climate regions indicated that (1) climate history and diagenesis affect distinct parameters of SOM chemistry, (2) increases in SOM bioreactivity with latitude were associated with elevated proportions of carbohydrates relative to plant waxes and lignin, and (3) despite the common forest type across regions, differences in SOM chemistry by climate region were associated with chemically distinct litter inputs and not different degrees of diagenesis. Climate effects on vascular plant litter chemistry explained only part of the regional differences in SOM chemistry, most notably the higher protein content of SOM from warmer regions. Greater proportions of lignin and aliphatic compounds and smaller proportions of carbohydrates in warmer sites' soils were explained by the higher proportion of vascular plant relative to moss litter in the warmer forests. These results indicate that a climate induced decrease in the proportion of moss inputs will not only impact SOM chemistry but also increase the resistance of SOM to decomposition, thus significantly altering SOM cycling in these boreal forest soils.

  9. Patterns of forest use and endemism in resident bird communities of north-central Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Garcia; Deborah M. Finch; Gilberto Chavez. Leon

    1998-01-01

    We compared breeding avian communities among 11 habitat types in north-central Michoacan, Mexico, to determine patterns of forest use by endemic and nonendemic resident species. Point counts of birds and vegetation measurements were conducted at 124 sampling localities from May through July, in 1994 and 1995. Six native forest types sampled were pine, pine-oak, oak-...

  10. Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Moorman; Liessa T. Woen; John C. Kilgo; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Michael D. Ulyshen

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and...

  11. Breeding birds in riparian and upland dry forests of the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Lehmkuhl; E. Dorsey Burger; Emily K. Drew; John P. Lindsey; Maryellen Haggard; Kent Z. Woodruff

    2007-01-01

    We quantified breeding bird abundance, diversity, and indicator species in riparian and upland dry forests along six third- to fourth-order streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range, Washington, USA. Upland mesic forest on southerly aspects was dominated by open ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and dry Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  12. A brief survey of the birds in Kumbira Forest, Gabela, Angola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In January 2004 we conducted a rapid assessment of the avifauna of the Kumbira Forest, situated in the Gabela Important Bird Area (IBA) of the Angolan Escarpment. We recorded 112 species in the Kumbira Forest, four of them globally threatened, and another 46 species in the surrounding area. We report on the breeding ...

  13. Effects of sevin-4-oil, dimilin, and orthene on forest birds in northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle L. Richmond; Charles J. Henny; Randy L. Floyd; William R. Mannan; Deborah M. Finch; Lawrence R. DeWeese

    1979-01-01

    The possible harmful effect of insecticides on nontarget organisms should be a prominent concern in all attempts to control forest pests. Although all wildlife must be considered, birds are particularly vulnerable. The study reported here was part of the effort to find an environmentally safe method to control one of the major sources of insect damage to forest trees...

  14. Birds communities of fragmented forest within highly urbanized landscape in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Taib, F. S.; Rabiatul-Adawiyah, S.; Md-Nor, S.

    2014-09-01

    Urbanization is one form of forest modification for development purposes. It produces forest fragments scattered in the landscape with different intensity of disturbance. We want to determine the effect of forest fragmentation towards bird community in urbanized landscapes in Kuala Lumpur, namely Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (FR), Bukit Nenas FR and Bukit Sungei Puteh FR. We used mist-netting and direct observation method along established trails. These forests differ in size, vegetation composition and land use history. Results show that these forests show relatively low number of species compared to other secondary forest with only 39 bird species recorded. The largest fragment, Sg. Besi encompassed the highest species richness and abundance with 69% species but lower in diversity. Bukit Nenas, the next smallest fragment besides being the only remaining primary forest has the highest diversity index with 1.866. Bkt. Sg. Puteh the smallest fragment has the lowest species richness and diversity with Shanon diversity index of 1.332. The presence of introduced species such as Corvus splendens (House crow) in all study areas suggest high disturbance encountered by these forests. Nonetheless, these patches comprised of considerably high proportion of native species. In conclusion, different intensity of disturbance due to logging activities and urbanization surrounding the forest directly influenced bird species richness and diversity. These effects however can be compensated by maintaining habitat complexity including high vegetation composition and habitat structure at the landscape level.

  15. Direct and indirect climate change effects on carbon dioxide fluxes in a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Desai, Ankur R; Kljun, Natascha; Quinton, William L; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    In the sporadic permafrost zone of northwestern Canada, boreal forest carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fluxes will be altered directly by climate change through changing meteorological forcing and indirectly through changes in landscape functioning associated with thaw-induced collapse-scar bog ('wetland') expansion. However, their combined effect on landscape-scale net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE LAND ), resulting from changing gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), remains unknown. Here, we quantify indirect land cover change impacts on NEE LAND and direct climate change impacts on modeled temperature- and light-limited NEE LAND of a boreal forest-wetland landscape. Using nested eddy covariance flux towers, we find both GPP and ER to be larger at the landscape compared to the wetland level. However, annual NEE LAND (-20 g C m -2 ) and wetland NEE (-24 g C m -2 ) were similar, suggesting negligible wetland expansion effects on NEE LAND . In contrast, we find non-negligible direct climate change impacts when modeling NEE LAND using projected air temperature and incoming shortwave radiation. At the end of the 21st century, modeled GPP mainly increases in spring and fall due to reduced temperature limitation, but becomes more frequently light-limited in fall. In a warmer climate, ER increases year-round in the absence of moisture stress resulting in net CO 2 uptake increases in the shoulder seasons and decreases during the summer. Annually, landscape net CO 2 uptake is projected to decline by 25 ± 14 g C m -2 for a moderate and 103 ± 38 g C m -2 for a high warming scenario, potentially reversing recently observed positive net CO 2 uptake trends across the boreal biome. Thus, even without moisture stress, net CO 2 uptake of boreal forest-wetland landscapes may decline, and ultimately, these landscapes may turn into net CO 2 sources under continued anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. We conclude that NEE LAND changes are more likely to be

  16. Variation and balance of positive air ion concentrations in a boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hõrrak

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Air ions are characterized on the basis of measurements carried out in a boreal forest at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station, Finland, during the BIOFOR III campaign in spring 1999. The air ions were discriminated as small ions (charged molecular aggregates of the diameter of less than 2.5 nm, intermediate ions (charged aerosol particles of the diameter of 2.5–8 nm, and large ions (charged aerosol particles of the diameter of 8–20 nm. Statistical characteristics of the ion concentrations and the parameters of ion balance in the atmosphere are presented separately for the nucleation event days and non-event days. In the steady state, the ionization rate is balanced with the loss of small ions, which is expressed as the product of the small ion concentration and the ion sink rate. The widely known sinks of small ions are the recombination with small ions of opposite polarity and attachment to aerosol particles. The dependence of small ion concentration on the concentration of aerosol particles was investigated applying a model of the bipolar diffusion charging of particles by small ions. When the periods of relative humidity above 95% and wind speed less than 0.6 m s−1 were excluded, then the small ion concentration and the theoretically calculated small ion sink rate were closely negatively correlated (correlation coefficient −87%. However, an extra ion loss term of the same magnitude as the ion loss onto aerosol particles is needed for a quantitative explanation of the observations. This term is presumably due to the small ion deposition on coniferous forest. The hygroscopic growth correction of the measured aerosol particle size distributions was also found to be necessary for the proper estimation of the ion sink rate. In the case of nucleation burst events, the concentration of small positive ions followed the general balance equation, no extra ion loss in addition to the deposition on coniferous forest was detected, and the

  17. Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulet, France

    2000-01-01

    Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the

  18. Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulet, France

    2000-07-01

    Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the

  19. Carbon stock and carbon turnover in boreal and temperate forests - Integration of remote sensing data and global vegetation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Tito Rademacher, Tim; Santoro, Maurizio; Tum, Markus; Schmullius, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    Long-term vegetation dynamics are one of the key uncertainties of the carbon cycle. There are large differences in simulated vegetation carbon stocks and fluxes including productivity, respiration and carbon turnover between global vegetation models. Especially the implementation of climate-related mortality processes, for instance drought, fire, frost or insect effects, is often lacking or insufficient in current models and their importance at global scale is highly uncertain. These shortcomings have been due to the lack of spatially extensive information on vegetation carbon stocks, which cannot be provided by inventory data alone. Instead, we recently have been able to estimate northern boreal and temperate forest carbon stocks based on radar remote sensing data. Our spatially explicit product (0.01° resolution) shows strong agreement to inventory-based estimates at a regional scale and allows for a spatial evaluation of carbon stocks and dynamics simulated by global vegetation models. By combining this state-of-the-art biomass product and NPP datasets originating from remote sensing, we are able to study the relation between carbon turnover rate and a set of climate indices in northern boreal and temperate forests along spatial gradients. We observe an increasing turnover rate with colder winter temperatures and longer winters in boreal forests, suggesting frost damage and the trade-off between frost adaptation and growth being important mortality processes in this ecosystem. In contrast, turnover rate increases with climatic conditions favouring drought and insect outbreaks in temperate forests. Investigated global vegetation models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT, are able to reproduce observation-based spatial climate - turnover rate relationships only to a limited extent. While most of the models compare relatively well in terms of NPP, simulated

  20. Tree rings provide early warning signals of jack pine mortality across a moisture gradient in the southern boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamet, S. D.; Chun, K. P.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Barr, A. G.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2015-08-01

    Recent declines in productivity and tree survival have been widely observed in boreal forests. We used early warning signals (EWS) in tree ring data to anticipate premature mortality in jack pine (Pinus banksiana)—an extensive and dominant species occurring across the moisture-limited southern boreal forest in North America. We sampled tree rings from 113 living and 84 dead trees in three soil moisture regimes (subxeric, submesic, subhygric) in central Saskatchewan, Canada. We reconstructed annual increments of tree basal area to investigate (1) whether we could detect EWS related to mortality of individual trees, and (2) how water availability and tree growth history may explain the mortality warning signs. EWS were evident as punctuated changes in growth patterns prior to transition to an alternative state of reduced growth before dying. This transition was likely triggered by a combination of severe drought and insect outbreak. Higher moisture availability associated with a soil moisture gradient did not appear to reduce tree sensitivity to stress-induced mortality. Our results suggest tree rings offer considerable potential for detecting critical transitions in tree growth, which are linked to premature mortality.

  1. Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Knobelspiesse

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols play an important, but uncertain, role in the global climate. Much of this uncertainty is due to a lack of adequate aerosol measurements. While great strides have been made in observational capability in the previous years and decades, it has become increasingly apparent that this development must continue. Scanning polarimeters have been designed to help resolve this issue by making accurate, multi-spectral, multi-angle polarized observations. This work involves the use of the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP. The RSP was designed as the airborne prototype for the Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS, which was due to be launched as part of the (ultimately failed NASA Glory mission. Field observations with the RSP, however, have established that simultaneous retrievals of aerosol absorption and vertical distribution over bright land surfaces are quite uncertain. We test a merger of RSP and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL data with observations of boreal forest fire smoke, collected during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS. During ARCTAS, the RSP and HSRL instruments were mounted on the same aircraft, and validation data were provided by instruments on an aircraft flying a coordinated flight pattern. We found that the lidar data did indeed improve aerosol retrievals using an optimal estimation method, although not primarily because of the contraints imposed on the aerosol vertical distribution. The more useful piece of information from the HSRL was the total column aerosol optical depth, which was used to select the initial value (optimization starting point of the aerosol number concentration. When ground based sun photometer network climatologies of number concentration were used as an initial value, we found that roughly half of the retrievals had unrealistic sizes and imaginary indices, even though the retrieved spectral optical depths agreed within

  2. Mobility of radiocaesium in boreal forest ecosystems: Influence of precipitation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinnes, E. [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Gjelsvik, R.; Skuterud, L.; Thoerring, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Mobility and plant uptake of Cs in soils is generally limited by the presence of clay minerals in the soil. However, cations supplied by precipitation may substantially influence the mobility of radiocaesium in natural surface soil and subsequent transfer to food chains. The chemical composition of precipitation shows substantial variation among different areas in Norway for two main reasons. At sites close to the coast the atmospheric supply of marine cations and anions is many-fold greater than in regions shielded from marine influence by mountains. The southernmost part of the country has been, and still is, substantially affected by soil acidification due to long-range atmospheric transport of acidifying substances from areas elsewhere in Europe. This may explain a much higher greater uptake of {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl accident in moose in this region than elsewhere (Steinnes et al., 2009), in spite of the fact that some areas farther north received substantially greater fallout. Similarly a much greater transfer of {sup 137}Cs to natural birch forest vegetation is evident from the more acidified soils in the south than in comparable ecosystems elsewhere in the country (Thoerring et al., 2012). Repeated recordings of activity levels in natural surface soils showed faster leaching of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs relative to inland areas not only in the south but also in coastal areas farther north (Gjelsvik and Steinnes, 2013), indicating that the amounts of marine cations in precipitation also has an appreciable effect on the Cs leaching. The geographical leaching differences still became less prominent with time. Recent lysimeter experiments with undisturbed soil columns obtained from an area receiving high radiocaesium deposition from the Chernobyl accident, applying precipitation with ionic composition characteristic of the different regions mentioned above, did not change the current depth distribution of {sup 137}Cs. However, acidic precipitation increased

  3. Trophic position of soil nematodes in boreal forests as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Alexey; Tsurikov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-developed trophic classification of soil nematodes, their position in soil food webs is still little understood. Observed deviations from the typical feeding strategy indicate that a simplified trophic classification probably does not fully reflect actual trophic interactions. Furthermore, the extent and functional significance of nematodes as prey for other soil animals remains unknown. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is powerful tool for investigating the structure of soil food webs, but its application to the study of soil nematodes has been limited to only a few studies. We used stable isotope analysis to gain a better understanding of trophic links of several groups of soil nematodes in two boreal forests on albeluvisol. We investigated four taxonomic groups of nematodes: Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Plectidae and Tylenchidae (mostly from the genus Filenchus), that according to the conventional trophic classification represent predators, omnivores, bacterivores and root-fungal feeders, respectively. To assess the trophic position of nematodes, we used a comparison against a set of reference species including herbivorous, saprophagous and predatory macro-invertebrates, oribatid and mesostigmatid mites, and collembolans. Our results suggest that trophic position of the investigated groups of soil nematodes generally corresponds to the conventional classification. All nematodes were enriched in 13C relative to Picea abies roots and litter, and mycorrhizal fungal mycelium. Root-fungal feeders Tylenchidae had δ15N values similar to those of earthworms, enchytraeids and Entomobrya collembolans, but slightly lower δ13C values. Bacterivorous Plectidae were either equal or enriched in 15N compared with saprophagous macroinvertebrates and most mesofauna species. Omnivorous Dorylaimida and predatory Mononchida were further enriched in 15N and their isotopic signature was similar to that of predatory arthropods. These data confirm a clear separation of

  4. Se Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens From the Boreal Forest of Forthern Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, L.; Lhomme, J.; Carignan, J.

    2004-05-01

    The knowledge of Se concentration in environmental samples is important because this element may be both toxic and nutrient for live organisms. This study aims to characterise the Se concentration in lichen samples in order to document the variability of atmospheric fallout. Lichens are of particular interest because their epiphytic character makes them totally dependant of atmospheric nutrients, so that their chemical composition reflects that of atmospheric matter. Lichens hanging on tree branches were sampled in various location of the boreal forest of northern Québec. We developed a separation and pre-concentration technique for Se analysis of low mineral matrix samples by GFAAS. After mineralisation and addition of a Se-free mineral charge to the sample, total Se is reduced to Se IV and fixed onto a thiol cotton. The latter is dissolved and directly analysed by GFAAS. A limit of determination of 0.02 ppm in the solid sample and a precision (relative standard deviation) varying from 3 to 15% was found through the course of this study. Our results are very similar to the certified values of the reference materials analysed, suggesting a good accuracy of the method for organic materials. Some lichen samples were also analysed by INAA and the agreement between results obtained by both techniques is not always perfect. There is, however, no systematic bias between the methods. Some samples agree within analytical uncertainty (about 5%), whereas others differ by more than 20%. The most probable reason why such discrepancies are observed is because these lichen samples were not crushed and homogenised before analysis. Indeed, some duplicate samples analysed by INAA yielded results that differed by more than 20%, while other agreed within 2%. Considering these facts, the overall agreement between GFAAS and INAA is pretty much satisfactory. The Se concentrations measured in lichens vary from 1.2 to 0.3 ppm and decrease from the coast of Hudson Bay towards inland at

  5. Combined Retrievals of Boreal Forest Fire Aerosol Properties with a Polarimeter and Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobelspiesse, K.; Cairns, B.; Ottaviani, M.; Ferrare, R.; Haire, J.; Hostetler, C.; Obland, M.; Rogers, R.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Absorbing aerosols play an important, but uncertain, role in the global climate. Much of this uncertainty is due to a lack of adequate aerosol measurements. While great strides have been made in observational capability in the previous years and decades, it has become increasingly apparent that this development must continue. Scanning polarimeters have been designed to help resolve this issue by making accurate, multi-spectral, multi-angle polarized observations. This work involves the use of the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The RSP was designed as the airborne prototype for the Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS), which was due to be launched as part of the (ultimately failed) NASA Glory mission. Field observations with the RSP, however, have established that simultaneous retrievals of aerosol absorption and vertical distribution over bright land surfaces are quite uncertain. We test a merger of RSP and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) data with observations of boreal forest fire smoke, collected during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS). During ARCTAS, the RSP and HSRL instruments were mounted on the same aircraft, and validation data were provided by instruments on an aircraft flying a coordinated flight pattern. We found that the lidar data did indeed improve aerosol retrievals using an optimal estimation method, although not primarily because of the constraints imposed on the aerosol vertical distribution. The more useful piece of information from the HSRL was the total column aerosol optical depth, which was used to select the initial value (optimization starting point) of the aerosol number concentration. When ground based sun photometer network climatologies of number concentration were used as an initial value, we found that roughly half of the retrievals had unrealistic sizes and imaginary indices, even though the retrieved spectral optical depths agreed within uncertainties to

  6. Response of Bird Community to Various Plantation Forests in Gunung Walat, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronika Kaban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Different plantation forests possibly harbor different bird communities. This study was aimed to reveal responses of bird community to the different plantation (Schima wallichii, Agathis loranthifolia, Pinus merkusii, and mixed plantation, identify species shared in all plantation, and species confined to a particular plantation. The study site was plantation forests, using the point count method for 64 effective hours. There were 40 bird species (maximum prediction 52 in all forest plantations and each type had 26–31 species. Number of individuals, species density, and diversity index in Schima plantation were higher, followed by Agathis, Pinus, and mixed plantations. Mixed plantation could have harbored more species based on the prediction by Chao. Although there were some differences in tree species, tree sizes, and tree heights, the response of bird composition in all plantations was not differed (93–81% similarity probably because of the short distances among the forests, the abundance of food insects, and the same late-successional stages. There were 15 (37.5% widely distributed species in all forest types. Eight species were confined only to a specific forest type. Four species were considered true confined species, namely Javan sunbird (Schima forest, Grey-cheeked bulbul (in Pinus, Crescent-chested babbler (Agathis, and Mountain white-eye (Agathis.

  7. Radioactive caesium in Boreal forest landscapes - Dynamics and transport in food webs. Summary of research 1986-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Palo, T

    1998-12-01

    The need for - but also the paucity of - radioecological knowledge concerning the boreal forest became particularly apparent after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl in April 1986. As a consequence several new projects were initiated in the Nordic countries with particular focus on the behaviour of radioactivecaesium in terrestrial and aquatic systems characteristic for the Fenno-Scandinavian landscapes. Among these new projects a multi-disciplinary co-operation in Umeaa between scientists at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, and the Defence Research Establishment emerged. Initially this joint work focused mainly on descriptions of the dynamic changes of the content of radioactive caesium in soil-plant and animal communities in the county of Vaesterbotten. Most of the studies have been performed at the Vindeln experimental forest, 60 km NW of Umeaa. Plants of key interest were: bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), birch (Betula spp.), and pine (Pinus sylvestris), and among the animals: the moose (Alces alces) and a small rodent, the forest vole (Clethrionomus glareolus). Gradually over the past ten years the research has entered the stage where the specific causes of the caesium behaviour have been addressed - partly by the help of models developed for simulating forest ecosystems, partly by complementary field experiments. This paper reviews our main findings on this theme concerning the behaviour of radioactive caesium in boreal landscapes and significant pathways to man, as has become apparent from the radioecological co-operation dating from about ten years back. A list of the publications arising from these studies since 1986 is also presented in this report.

  8. Radioactive caesium in Boreal forest landscapes - Dynamics and transport in food webs. Summary of research 1986-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Palo, T.

    1998-12-01

    The need for - but also the paucity of - radioecological knowledge concerning the boreal forest became particularly apparent after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl in April 1986. As a consequence several new projects were initiated in the Nordic countries with particular focus on the behaviour of radioactive caesium in terrestrial and aquatic systems characteristic for the Fenno-Scandinavian landscapes. Among these new projects a multi-disciplinary co-operation in Umeaa between scientists at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, and the Defence Research Establishment emerged. Initially this joint work focused mainly on descriptions of the dynamic changes of the content of radioactive caesium in soil-plant and animal communities in the county of Vaesterbotten. Most of the studies have been performed at the Vindeln experimental forest, 60 km NW of Umeaa. Plants of key interest were: bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), birch (Betula spp.), and pine (Pinus sylvestris), and among the animals: the moose (Alces alces) and a small rodent, the forest vole (Clethrionomus glareolus). Gradually over the past ten years the research has entered the stage where the specific causes of the caesium behaviour have been addressed - partly by the help of models developed for simulating forest ecosystems, partly by complementary field experiments. This paper reviews our main findings on this theme concerning the behaviour of radioactive caesium in boreal landscapes and significant pathways to man, as has become apparent from the radioecological co-operation dating from about ten years back. A list of the publications arising from these studies since 1986 is also presented in this report

  9. Response of photosynthetic carbon gain to ecosystem retrogression of vascular plants and mosses in the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2012-07-01

    In the long-term absence of rejuvenating disturbances, forest succession frequently proceeds from a maximal biomass phase to a retrogressive phase characterized by reduced nutrient availability [notably nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] and net primary productivity. Few studies have considered how retrogression induces changes in ecophysiological responses associated with photosynthetic carbon (C) gain, and only for trees. We tested the hypothesis that retrogression would negatively impact photosynthetic C gain of four contrasting species, and that this impact would be greater for vascular plants (i.e., trees and shrubs) than for non-vascular plants (i.e., mosses). We used a 5,000-year-old chronosequence of forested islands in Sweden, where retrogression occurs in the long-term absence of lightning-ignited wildfires. Despite fundamental differences in plant form and ecological niche among species, vascular plants and mosses showed similar ecophysiological responses to retrogression. The most common effects of retrogression were reductions in photosynthesis and respiration per unit foliar N, increases in foliar N, δ(13)C and δ(15)N, and decreases in specific leaf areas. In contrast, photosynthesis per unit mass or area generally did not change along the chronosequence, but did vary many-fold between vascular plants and mosses. The consistent increases in foliar N without corresponding increases in mass- or area-based photosynthesis suggest that other factor(s), such as P co-limitation, light conditions or water availability, may co-regulate C gain in retrogressive boreal forests. Against our predictions, traits of mosses associated with C and N were generally highly responsive to retrogression, which has implications for how mosses influence ecosystem processes in boreal forests.

  10. Landscape-moderated bird nest predation in hedges and forest edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Martin; Schlinkert, Hella; Holzschuh, Andrea; Fischer, Christina; Scherber, Christoph; Trnka, Alfréd; Tscharntke, Teja; Batáry, Péter

    2012-11-01

    Landscape-scale agricultural intensification has caused severe declines in biodiversity. Hedges and forest remnants may mitigate biodiversity loss by enhancing landscape heterogeneity and providing habitat to a wide range of species, including birds. However, nest predation, the major cause of reproductive failure of birds, has been shown to be higher in forest edges than in forest interiors. Little is known about how spatial arrangement (configuration) of hedges affects the avian nest predation. We performed an experiment with artificial ground and elevated nests (resembling yellowhammer and whitethroat nests) baited with quail and plasticine eggs. Nests were placed in three habitat types with different degrees of isolation from forests: forest edges, hedges connected to forests and hedges isolated from forests. Nest predation was highest in forest edges, lowest in hedges connected to forests and intermediate in isolated hedges. In the early breeding season, we found similar nest predation on ground and elevated nests, but in the late breeding season nest predation was higher on ground nests than on elevated nests. Small mammals were the main predators of ground nests and appeared to be responsible for the increase in predation from early to late breeding season, whereas the elevated nests were mainly depredated by small birds and small mammals. High predation pressure at forest edges was probably caused by both forest and open-landscape predators. The influence of forest predators may be lower at hedges, leading to lower predation pressure than in forest edges. Higher predation pressure in isolated than connected hedges might be an effect of concentration of predators in these isolated habitats. We conclude that landscape configuration of hedges is important in nest predation, with connected hedges allowing higher survival than isolated hedges and forest edges.

  11. Identifying Priority Areas for Conservation: A Global Assessment for Forest-Dependent Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Graeme M.; Donald, Paul F.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000–2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from

  12. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Buchanan

    Full Text Available Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species, we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005 included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing

  13. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Graeme M; Donald, Paul F; Butchart, Stuart H M

    2011-01-01

    Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from

  14. Impacts of climate and insect defoliators on productivity and function of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) in Alaskan boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, M. A.; Walker, X. J.; Rogers, B. M.; Goetz, S. J.; Wagner, D.; Mack, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has increased tree mortality and growth decline in forested ecosystems worldwide. In response to warming and drying of the boreal forest, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) has experienced recent large-scale productivity declines. Although declines in productivity are thought to be primarily a result of moistures stress, infestation is another major driver of aspen decline and may interact strongly with climate. Throughout interior Alaska widespread and consistent foliar damage by the aspen epidermal leaf miner Phyllocnistis populiella has been observed concurrent with some of the warmest and driest growing seasons on record. Here we use tree ring measurements and remote sensing indices of vegetation productivity (NDVI) to study the influence of leaf miner and climate on aspen productivity and physiology in the Alaskan boreal forest, and assess if NDVI reflects variations in these ground-based measurements. We assessed ring width and tree ring stable carbon isotope (d13C) response of aspen to infestation and a climate moisture index (CMI) from 2004 - 2014. We found that when growth was negatively correlated to infestation, then it was no longer positively influenced by moisture availability during the growing season. Regardless of the radial growth response to leaf mining, tree ring d13C decreased with increasing infestation. We also found that NDVI was influenced by leaf mining and showed a positive correlation with tree ring d13C, which suggests that NDVI is reflective of changes in tree characteristics under leaf mining that influence tree ring d13C. This finding also reveals the prospect of using satellite data to monitor fluctuations in tree physiology during leaf miner infestation. Our results indicate that aspen productivity will be severely hindered during leaf miner infestation, and that infestation will inhibit the ability of aspen to respond to favorable climate conditions by increasing growth and potentially photosynthesis. This

  15. Concentrations and flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in boreal forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Mari; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) impact soil processes as VOCs transmit signals between roots and rhizosphere (Ditengou et al., 2015), VOCs can regulate microbial activity (Asensio et al., 2012), and VOCs can also promote root growth (Hung et al., 2012). Belowground concentrations of VOCs have not been measured in situ and for this reason, knowledge of how different soil organisms such as roots, rhizosphere and decomposers contribute to VOC production is limited. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify VOC fluxes and concentrations of different horizons from boreal forest soil. The VOC concentrations and fluxes were measured from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland from 21th of April to 2nd of December in 2016. VOC fluxes were measured using dynamic (flow-through) chambers from five soil collars placed on five different locations. VOC concentrations were also measured in each location from four different soil horizons with the measurement depth 1-107 cm. VOCs were collected from underground gas collectors into the Tenax-Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes using portable pumps ( 100 ml min-1). The VOC concentrations and fluxes of isoprene, 11 monoterpenes, 13 sesquiterpenes and different oxygenated VOCs were measured. Sample tubes were analyzed using thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Soil temperature and soil water content were continuously monitored for each soil horizon. Our preliminary results show that the primary source of VOCs is organic soil layer and the contribution of mineral soil to the VOC formation is minor. VOC fluxes and concentrations were dominated by monoterpenes such as α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, and Δ3-carene. Monoterpene concentration is almost 10-fold in organic soil compared to the deeper soil layers. However, the highest VOC fluxes on the soil surface were measured in October, whereas the monoterpene concentrations in organic soil were highest in July

  16. Root-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi shared by various boreal forest seedlings naturally regenerating after a fire in interior Alaska and correlation of different fungi with host growth responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Bent; Preston Kiekel; Rebecca Brenton; D.Lee. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The role of common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) in postfire boreal forest successional trajectories is unknown. We investigated this issue by sampling a 50-m by 40-m area of naturally regenerating black spruce (Picea mariana), trembling aspen, (Populus tremuloides), and paper birch (Betula papyrifera)...

  17. The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riitta Hyvönen; Göran I. Ågren; Sune Linder; Tryggve Persson; M. Francesca Cotrufo; Alf Ekblad; Michael Freeman; Achim Grelle; Ivan A. Janssens; Paul G. Jarvis; Seppo Kellomäki; Anders Lindroth; Denis Loustau; Tomas Lundmark; Richard J. Norby; Ram Oren; Kim Pilegaard; Michael G. Ryan; Bjarni D. Sigurdsson; Monika Strömgren; Marcel van Oijen; Göran Wallin

    2007-01-01

    Temperate and boreal forest ecosystems contain a large part of the carbon stored on land, in the form of both biomass and soil organic matter. Increasing atmospheric [CO2], increasing temperature, elevated nitrogen deposition and intensified management will change this C store. Well documented single-factor responses of net primary production are: higher photosynthetic...

  18. The ecology of snowshoe hares in northern boreal forests [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Hodges

    2000-01-01

    Snowshoe hares exhibit eight to 11 year population fluctuations across boreal North America, typically with an amplitude of 10 to 25 fold. These fluctuations are synchronous across the continent, with the most recent peak densities occurring in 1990 and 1991. The numeric cycle is driven by changes in survival and reproduction, with annual survival of adults...